Sample records for wake vortex warning

  1. Short term prediction of the horizontal wind vector within a wake vortex warning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frech, M.; Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Konopka, J. [Deutsche Flugsicherung (DFS) GmbH, Langen (Germany)


    A wake vortex warning system (WVWS) has been developed for Frankfurt airport. This airport has two parallel runways which are separated by 518 m, a distance too short to operate them independently because wake vortices may be advected to the adjacent runway. The objective of the WVWS is to enable operation with reduced separation between two aircraft approaching the parallel runways at appropriate wind conditions. The WVWS applies a statistical persistence model to predict the crosswind within a 20 minute period. One of the main problems identified in the old WVWS are discontinuities between successive forecasts. These forecast breakdowns were not acceptable to airtraffic controllers. At least part of the problem was related to the fact that the forecast was solely based on the prediction of crosswind. A new method is developed on the basis of 523 days of sonic anemometer measurements at Frankfurt airport. It is demonstrated that the prediction of the horizontal wind vector avoids these difficulties and significantly improves the system's performance. (orig.)

  2. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere


    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank


    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  3. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl


    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  4. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don


    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  5. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.


    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  6. Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear (United States)

    Wold, Gregory R.


    In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

  7. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.


    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  8. Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a...

  9. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)


    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  10. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)


    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  11. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.


    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  12. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas


    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  13. Vortex structure in the Venus plasma wake (United States)

    Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Lundin, R. N. A.


    Measurements conducted with the ASPERA-4 instrument of the Venus Express spacecraft in orbit around Venus show velocity distributions of the H+ ions that describe a large scale vortex flow structure in the Venus wake (Lundin et al., GRL, 40, 1273, 2013). Such structure is in agreement with that reported from the early Pioneer Venus Orbiter plasma data (Pérez-de-Tejada et al., INTECH, ISBN 978-953-51-0880-1, p. 317, 2012) and suggests that the solar wind around the Venus ionosphere is forced back into the planet from the wake. Measurements also show that a vortex circulation flow rather than local magnetic forces is responsible for the deviated direction of motion of the solar wind in the Venus wake.

  14. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald


    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  15. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft (United States)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.


    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  16. Cylindrical vortex wake model: right cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Gaunaa, Mac


    The vortex system consisting of a bound vortex disk, a root vortex and a vortex cylinder as introduced by Joukowski in 1912 is further studied in this paper. This system can be used for simple modeling of rotors (e.g. wind turbines) with infinite number of blades and finite tip-speed ratios. For ...

  17. Implementation of vortex wake control using SMA-actuated devices (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Batcho, P. F.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.; Carpenter, Bernie F.


    Mitigation of the undesirable effects of trailing vortex wakes has been a long-standing priority for both reduction of submarine wake signature and alleviation of aircraft vortex wake hazard. A recent study established the feasibility of using relatively weak, secondary vortices with carefully selected unsteady amplitude and phasing to accelerate the breakup of the primary vortex system of a lifting surface, a technique denoted `vortex leveraging'. This paper will summarize progress on the development of SMA-actuated devices for implementing vortex leveraging for hydrodynamic applications. The methods being applied to the hydrodynamic design of these deformable Smart Vortex Leveraging Tabs (SVLTs) will be described, and the results of a preliminary assessment of SVLT performance in achieving wake breakup will be presented. Also, previous work on the design and testing of deformable control surfaces actuated via embedded SMA agonist wires will be reviewed and the design process being employed in the present applications will be discussed. Finally, the plans for near-term computational and experimental work to validate the use of SMA-driven devices for the wake mitigation task will be briefly outlined.

  18. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.


    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  19. Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.


    One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.

  20. Instability Analysis of Vortex Systems in Lifting-Body Wakes


    Tendero Ventanas, Juan Ángel


    The present work deals with vortical flow instabilities, in particular with those that appear in the wake left by aircraft, wind turbines or any other body surrounded by fluid, generating a force perpendicular to the flow, namely lift. The case of the aircraft wake destruction caused by the growth of vortex instabilities is of great importance, as the selection of safe distances between aircraft is in most of the cases very conservative due to the lack of knowledge of the phenomena involved i...

  1. Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.


    Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where

  2. Topology of vortex creation in the cylinder wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Bisgaard, Anders Villefrance


    We analyze the topology of the two-dimensional flow around a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers in the regime where the vortex wake is created. A normal form for the stream function close to the cylinder is presented and used to predict the streamline pattern both in the steady...... and the periodic regime, where two different vortex shedding scenarios are identified. The theoretical predictions are verified numerically. For the vorticity, a very different topology occurs with infinite nested sequences of iso-curves moving downstream. General equations of motion for critical points...

  3. Formation of vortex wakes at flow separation from plate (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Govorova, A. I.


    The plane nonlinear initial boundary value problem about the separated flow past a plate set in motion at a constant velocity from the state of rest has been considered. Results of a numerical experiment which have allowed us to trace in detail the vortex-wake formation process behind a vertical plate are reported. It is shown that, after the beginning of the plate motion, several stable vortical structures, including a Karman street, form in succession behind the plate. It is found that, on the emergence of the Karman street, there occurs a sharp and substantial growth of vortex-wake intensity and hydrodynamic drag force with a pulsating time behavior. A conclusion about the origination, in this regime, of self-sustained oscillations of the liquid in the vicinity of the plate is drawn.

  4. Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.


    Sensor technologies can make a significant impact on the detection of aircraft-generated vortices in an air space of interest, typically in the approach or departure corridor. Current state-of-the art sensor technologies do not provide three-dimensional measurements needed for an operational system or even for wake vortex modeling to advance the understanding of vortex behavior. Most wake vortex sensor systems used today have been developed only for research applications and lack the reliability needed for continuous operation. The main challenges for the development of an operational sensor system are reliability, all-weather operation, and spatial coverage. Such a sensor has been sought for a period of last forty years. Acoustic sensors were first proposed and tested by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) early in 1970s for tracking wake vortices but these acoustic sensors suffered from high levels of ambient noise. Over a period of the last fifteen years, there has been renewed interest in studying noise generated by aircraft wake vortices, both numerically and experimentally. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) was the first to propose the application of a phased microphone array for the investigation of the noise sources of wake vortices. The concept was first demonstrated at Berlins Airport Schoenefeld in 2000. A second test was conducted in Tarbes, France, in 2002, where phased microphone arrays were applied to study the wake vortex noise of an Airbus 340. Similarly, microphone phased arrays and other opto-acoustic microphones were evaluated in a field test at the Denver International Airport in 2003. For the Tarbes and Denver tests, the wake trajectories of phased microphone arrays and lidar were compared as these were installed side by side. Due to a built-in pressure equalization vent these microphones were not suitable for capturing acoustic noise below 20 Hz. Our group at NASA Langley Research Center developed and installed an

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Aircraft Wake Vortex Flowfield (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Perry, R. Brad


    The near wake vortex flowfield from a NACA0012 half-wing was simulated using a fully unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver in three dimensions at a chord Reynolds number of 4.6 million and a Mach number of approximately 0.15. Several simulations were performed to examine the effect of boundary conditions, mesh resolution and turbulence scheme on the formation of wingtip vortex and its downstream propagation. The standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was compared with the Dacles-Mariani and Spalart-Shur corrections for rotation and curvature effects. The simulation results were evaluated using the data from experiment performed at NASA Ames' 32in x 48in low speed wind tunnel.

  6. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Songhua


    Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  7. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.


    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  8. On the peculiar structure of a helical wake vortex behind an inclined prolate spheroid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Fengjian; Andersson, Helge I.; Gallardo, José P.


    -axisymmetric wake behind an inclined 6:1 prolate spheroid at Reynolds number 3000 based on the minor axis. The gradual development of the complex helical vortex structure has been described in detail all the way from its inception at the spheroid and into the far wake. We observed a complex vortex composition...

  9. Multimodel Ensemble Methods for Prediction of Wake-Vortex Transport and Decay Originating NASA (United States)

    Korner, Stephan; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Holzapfel, Frank; VanValkenburg, Randal L.


    Several multimodel ensemble methods are selected and further developed to improve the deterministic and probabilistic prediction skills of individual wake-vortex transport and decay models. The different multimodel ensemble methods are introduced, and their suitability for wake applications is demonstrated. The selected methods include direct ensemble averaging, Bayesian model averaging, and Monte Carlo simulation. The different methodologies are evaluated employing data from wake-vortex field measurement campaigns conducted in the United States and Germany.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Every year new aircraft emerge in civil aviation (HA. The wide-body A-380 aircraft with a take-off weight of up to 560 t has come to operation recently. The wake vortex behind such plane poses a real threat for other planes. Such wake is especially dangerous during weak cross wind at take off and landing.Vortex wake behind the A 380 plane characteristics research using the developed copmuting software has been executed in this article. Design-software complex includes two mathematical models: the mathematical model of the close Wake vortex and the mathematical model of the distant Wake vortex. These mathematical models are based on the vortex method. A mathematical model of the close Wake vortex is based on the analytical-experimental approach. At cruising flight regimes it is a four vortex sys- tem Wake vortex, and at takeoff and landing regimes it is - six-or eight-vortex system. A mathematical model of the far Wake vortex is based on the exact solution of the Helmholtz equations. This allows taking into account the vortex diffusion and dissipation over time. The influence of the axial velocity in the mathematical model of the distant Wake vortex is given by placing it in the center of the vortex flow. Its intensity is found from the experimental data. Calculated fields are per-turbed velocities for the A-380 aircraft.Fields of the indignant speeds at a light cross wind of 0.5 m/s ÷ 1.5 m/s in varioustime points are presented. The moments at which there is a wing vortex lag of the A-380 plane over very center are runwayare shown. Calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of the MC-21-400 plane in the vortex trace of the A-380 plane is executed. It is shown when the MC-21-400 plane gets in to the center of a wings vortex, the arising moments of the roll are not parried.

  11. An Optical Wake Vortex Detection System for Super-Density Airport Operation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OSI proposes to develop a wake vortex detection system including a group of double-ended and single-ended optical scintillometers properly deployed in the airfield...

  12. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  13. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement...

  14. A comparison of airborne wake vortex detection measurements with values predicted from potential theory (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.


    An analysis of flight measurements made near a wake vortex was conducted to explore the feasibility of providing a pilot with useful wake avoidance information. The measurements were made with relatively low cost flow and motion sensors on a light airplane flying near the wake vortex of a turboprop airplane weighing approximately 90000 lbs. Algorithms were developed which removed the response of the airplane to control inputs from the total airplane response and produced parameters which were due solely to the flow field of the vortex. These parameters were compared with values predicted by potential theory. The results indicated that the presence of the vortex could be detected by a combination of parameters derived from the simple sensors. However, the location and strength of the vortex cannot be determined without additional and more accurate sensors.

  15. An experimental investigation of bending wave instability modes in a generic four-vortex wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babie, Brian M.; Nelson, Robert C. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)


    An experimental study of a planar wake consisting of four vortices that simulate the trailing vortex wakes generated by transport airplanes in either takeoff or landing configurations is presented. The objective of this study was to examine naturally occurring wake instabilities. Specifically, the focus of the study was centered on bending wave instabilities of which the Crow instability represents a particular case. A unique method of generating a four-vortex wake was developed for this study. The four-vortex wake generating device permitted direct variation of the spacing between vortices as well as control over the vortex circulation strength. Two quantitative flow visualization experiments were instrumental in identifying wake configurations that were conducive to the rapid growth of bending wave modes and in the identification of the long-wavelength mode. Detailed experiments were also conducted to examine the flow structure in the near-field or roll-up region using a four sensor, hot-wire probe that could measure all three velocity components in the wake simultaneously. The results of both the flow visualization and hot-wire experiments indicate that the long-wavelength mode and the first short-wavelength mode likely dominate the far-field wake physics and may potentially be utilized in a wake control strategy.

  16. Hub vortex instability and wake dynamics in axial flow wind turbines (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Howard, Kevin; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    The near wake region of an axial flow wind turbine has two distinct shear layers: an outer tip vortex shear layer, which rotates in the same direction as the rotor, and an inner counter-rotating hub vortex shear layer. Recent simulations (Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014)), corroborated with experiments (Chamorro et al., J. Fluid Mech. 716, 658 (2013)), showed that the hub vortex can undergo spiral vortex breakdown immediately downstream of the turbine. The precessing hub vortex core intercepts and interacts with the tip vortex shear layer causing the large-scale wake meandering motions in the far wake to intensify. These results were obtained for an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine in a turbulent open channel flow. Here we integrate high-resolution LES with experiments to show that a hub vortex instability also occurs in the near wake of a wind turbine in a wind tunnel. We show that the interactions of the hub vortex with the outer flow have significant effects on the wake meandering amplitude and frequency. Our results reinforce the conclusions of Kang et al. (2014) that the hub vortex must be included in wake models to simulate wake interactions at the power plant scale and optimize turbine siting for realistic terrain and wind conditions. This work was supported by DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), the NSF (IIP-1318201), the IREE early career award (UMN) and NSF CAREER: Geophysical Flow Control (CBET-1351303). Computational resources were provided by MSI.

  17. Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight. (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan


    Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity.

  18. Wake-vortex structure from lift and torque induced on a following wing (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.


    A procedure based on vortex lattice theory to interpret the lift and torque measured on a following model in a wind tunnel is developed to retrieve the velocity distribution in the vortex wake that caused the induced forces. It is concluded that the retrieval procedure has a potential for reliably determining the structure of vortex wakes that trail from the wings of subsonic transport aircraft. Tests using idealized theoretical models show that the procedure is highly reliable and accurate. However, certain difficulties are found in the retrieval procedure when applied to actual data measured with following wings of various sizes in a wind tunnel.

  19. Test results for an SMA-actuated vortex wake control system (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.


    This paper describes recent test result obtained on a prototype SMA-actuated foil that serves as a key element in a vortex wake control scheme for lifting surfaces. Previous papers have described the theoretical basis and feasibility studies for this scheme - which is based on a novel wake control known as vortex leveraging - as well as prior work on device design, test planning, and fabrication. The critical item in the realization of this scheme is a Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT), a device designed to provide perturbations in the vortex system downstream of lifting surfaces at frequencies and amplitudes carefully selected to accelerate overall wake breakup. The paper summarizes the background of the effort, but focuses on the detail design and fabrication techniques used in the construction of a prototype SVLT and the results of water tunnel tests of a near full-scale prototype device.

  20. A free wake vortex lattice model for vertical axis wind turbines: Modeling, verification and validation (United States)

    Meng, Fanzhong; Schwarze, Holger; Vorpahl, Fabian; Strobel, Michael


    Since the 1970s several research activities had been carried out on developing aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). In order to design large VAWTs of MW scale, more accurate aerodynamic calculation is required to predict their aero-elastic behaviours. In this paper, a 3D free wake vortex lattice model for VAWTs is developed, verified and validated. Comparisons to the experimental results show that the 3D free wake vortex lattice model developed is capable of making an accurate prediction of the general performance and the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the blades. The comparison between momentum method and the vortex lattice model shows that free wake vortex models are needed for detailed loads calculation and for calculating highly loaded rotors.

  1. Separation of Lift-Generated Vortex Wakes Into Two Diverging Parts (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Brown, Anthony P.


    As part of an ongoing study of the spreading rate of lift-generated vortex wakes, the present investigation considers possible reasons as to why segments of lift-generated wakes sometimes depart from the main part of the wake to move rapidly in either an upward or downward direction. It is assumed that deficiencies or enhancements of the lift carry over across the fuselage-shrouded wing are the driving mechanism for departures of wake-segments. The computations presented first indicate that upwardly departing wake segments that were observed and photographed could have been produced by a deficiency in lift carryover across the fuselage-shrouded part of the wing. Computations made of idealized vortex wakes indicate that upward departure of a wake segment requires a centerline reduction in the span loading of 70% or more, whether the engines are at idle or robust thrust. Similarly, it was found that downward departure of wake segments is produced when the lift over the center part of the wing is enhanced. However, it was also found that downward departures do not occur without the presence of robust engine-exhaust streams (i.e., engines must NOT be at idle). In those cases, downward departures of a wake segment occurs when the centerline value of the loading is enhanced by any amount between about 10% to 100%. Observations of condensation trails indicate that downward departure of wake segments is rare. Upward departures of wake segments appears to be more common but still rare. A study to determine the part of the aircraft that causes wake departures has not been carried out. However, even though departures of wake segments rarely occur, some aircraft do regularly shed these wake structures. If aircraft safety is to be assured to a high degree of reliability, and a solution for eliminating them is not implemented, existing guidelines for the avoidance of vortex wakes [1,3] may need to be broadened to include possible increases in wake sizes caused by vertical

  2. Application of Wind Tunnel Free-Flight Technique for Wake Vortex Encounters (United States)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Stuever, Robert A.; Buttrill, Catherine W.


    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel to assess the free-flight test technique as a tool in research on wake vortex encounters. A typical 17.5-percent scale business-class jet airplane model was flown behind a stationary wing mounted in the forward portion of the wind tunnel test section. The span ratio (model span-generating wingspan) was 0.75. The wing angle of attack could be adjusted to produce a vortex of desired strength. The test airplane model was successfully flown in the vortex and through the vortex for a range of vortex strengths. Data obtained included the model airplane body axis accelerations, angular rates, attitudes, and control positions as a function of vortex strength and relative position. Pilot comments and video records were also recorded during the vortex encounters.

  3. Measurements in Vortex Wakes Shed by Conventional and Modified Subsonic Aircraft (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.


    A theoretical and experimental program is underway at NASA Ames Research Center to first obtain a better understanding of the hazard posed by the vortex wakes of subsonic transports, and then to develop methods on how to modify the wake-generating aircraft in order to make the vortices less hazardous. This paper summarizes results obtained in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center on the characteristics of the vortex wakes that trail from 0.03 scale models of a B-747 and of a DC-10. Measurements are first described that were taken in the wakes with a hot-film anemometer probe, and with wings that range in size from 0.2 to 1.0 times the span of the wake generating models at downstream distances of 81 ft and 162 ft. behind the wake-generating model; i.e., at scale distances of 0.5 and 1.0 mile. The data are then used to evaluate the accuracy of a vortex-lattice method for prediction of the loads induced on following wings by vortex wakes.

  4. Design, fabrication, and test planning for an SMA-actuated vortex wake control system (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Batcho, P. F.; Bilanin, Alan J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.


    This paper describes ongoing design and fabrication work on a vortex wake control system for submarines that employs SMA-actuated devices. Previous work has described the theoretical basis and feasibility studies for this system, which is based on a novel wake control scheme known as vortex leveraging. The critical item in the realization of this system is a Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT), whose design and fabrication is the principal focus of this work. This paper outlines the background of the effort and the design principles involved, but will chiefly deal with three closely interrelated topics; the hydrodynamic design requirements and control surface layout for the vortex leveraging system; the detail design and fabrication techniques being used in the construction of a prototype SVLT; and the test planning and experiment design process currently underway for test of both the overall vortex leveraging concept and SVLT device itself.

  5. Multiple vortex structures in the wake of a rectangular winglet in ground effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery L.


    by their presence. These data should serve as inspiration in the process of generating longitudinal vortices for enhancement of heat and mass transfer in industrial devices since the multiple vortex regimes can help improve the conditions for these exchanges. Further, these results point to a weakness in existing...... study varying the winglet height (constant aspect ratio) and angle has shown, contrary to the common classical single tip-vortex conception, that the wake generally consists of a complex system of multiple vortex structures. The primary vortex has previously been discovered to contain a direct coupling...

  6. Regimes of Vorticity in the Wake of a Rectangular Vortex Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    This paper concerns the study of the secondary structures generated in the wake of a wall mounted rectangular vane, commonly referred to as a vortex generator. The study has been conducted by Stereoscopic PIV measurements in a wind tunnel and supplementary flow visualizations in a water channel....... The results show that the vane produces not only the anticipated primary vortex, but at least five vortex structures. Further, the vorticity map can be subject to various regimes, showing a dependency on the circulation of the primary vortex and the height of its center above the wall....

  7. Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G.J.W.


    In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the in_nite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent

  8. Multiple vortex structures in the wake of a rectangular winglet in ground effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery L.


    between the axial and the rotational flow. In the current work, even the longitudinal secondary structures detected from measured streamwise vorticity display similar behavior. A regime map depicting the observed stable far wake states of the multiple vortices as a function of winglet height and angle...... inviscid models not accounting for the possibility of multiple vortical structures in the wake. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....... study varying the winglet height (constant aspect ratio) and angle has shown, contrary to the common classical single tip-vortex conception, that the wake generally consists of a complex system of multiple vortex structures. The primary vortex has previously been discovered to contain a direct coupling...

  9. Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi


    In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.

  10. Aircraft Wake Vortex Evolution and Decay in Idealized and Real Environments: Methodologies, Benefits and Limitations (United States)

    HolzäPfel, F.; Hofbauer, T.; Gerz, T.; Schumann, U.

    After a brief introduction of the governing equations and numerical approaches that are used to simulate wake vortices in the atmosphere associated implications and restrictions are discussed. The complex interaction of turbulence and rotation in the vortex core region is not resolved appropriately and is controlled by the subgrid scale model. A local Richard-son number correction for strong streamline curvature effects is proposed that accounts for stabilizing effects of coherent rotation and reduces vortex core growth rates. Real case simulations demonstrate that LES is capable to reproduce complex wake vortex behaviour as the spectacular rebound observed at London Heathrow Int'l Airport. Various idealized cases with stably stratified, turbulent and sheared environments are used to reveal the mechanisms thatcontrol vortex decay.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhelannikov


    Full Text Available With cash-developed software system, were carried out research on the impact velocity crosswinds on the position of vortex wake at takeoff and landing of aircraft of various classes. Identify the threat, in terms of "hovering" of wing vortex over the center of the runway, crosswind speed. During takeoff and landing aircraft, these vortices can be a danger to other aircraft.

  12. Measurement of Vortex Strength and Core Diameter in the Wake of a Hovering Rotor (United States)

    Wadcock, Alan J.


    Detailed hot wire measurements have been acquired in the tip vortex of a three-bladed model tilt rotor in hover. Testing was conducted at a rotor tip speed of 752 ft/sec, a Reynolds number (based on blade tip chord) of 1.77 x 10(exp 6), for thrust coefficients up to 0.0160. A figure shows the hot wire mounted above the inverted rotor at the Outside Aerodynamic Rotor Facility (OARF) at NASA Ames Research Center. Strobed shadowgraph flow visualization was used to define the vortex trajectory as an aid in hot wire positioning. Considerable variations in tip vortex structure with time were observed, even from the same blade, under essentially uniform test conditions. The only velocity signatures analyzed were those corresponding to passage of the probe directly through the center of the vortex. These time histories were ensemble averaged after compensating for jitter in the vortex arrival time at the probe, thereby retaining the core structure with minimal smearing. An example of a mean velocity signature, after ensemble averaging, is shown. The mean velocity signature was analyzed under the assumption of constant (unknown) translation speed of the vortex filament past the fixed probe. The translation speed of the vortex is deduced and the vortex strength and core diameter inferred. The results were highly unexpected. The indicated vortex strength is seen to decrease rapidly after first blade passage. In addition, the core radius is seen to decrease with increasing wake age, not increase as might be expected from simple diffusion.

  13. Wake Vortex Lidar Monte Carlo Simulation and Visualization Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) sensors have been successfully demonstrated and implemented capabilities to detect and measure wake vortices in and around the...

  14. In Situ Wake Vortex Encounter Detection and Reporting System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wake vortices are a critical constraint to aircraft separation and therefore airportal throughput, which is already at or near capacity at many major airports in the...

  15. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). (United States)

    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R


    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds.

  16. Kármán vortex and turbulent wake generation by wind park piles (United States)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.


    Observational evidence of turbulent wakes behind wind parks' piles motivated a series of numerical experiments, aiming to identify the dynamic regimes associated with wakes' generation in tidal basins. We demonstrate that the obstacles such as piles of wind parks give rise to vortices similar to the known Kármán vortices which affect substantially the turbulent kinetic energy. The latter can be considered as the agent enhancing sediment remobilization from the ocean bottom, thus making wakes well visible in satellite data. The temporal and spatial variability of studied processes is analyzed under stationary and nonstationary conditions. The dependence of a vortex generation and evolution upon the environmental conditions is also studied, which demonstrates a large variety of appearances of turbulent wakes. The comparison between simulations using a suspended sediment model and satellite images demonstrated that the model is capable to realistically simulate sediment wakes observed in remote sensing data.

  17. Numerical Prediction of Tip Vortex Cavitation for Marine Propellers in Non-uniform Wake (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Fang; Li, Dan


    Tip vortex cavitation is the first type of cavitation to take place around most marine propellers. But the numerical prediction of tip vortex cavitation is one of the challenges for propeller wake because of turbulence dissipation during the numerical simulation. Several parameters of computational mesh and numerical algorithm are tested by mean of the predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation to validate a developed method. The predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation is on the increase about 0.4 propeller diameters using the developed numerical method. The predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation by RNG k - ɛ model is about 3 times of that by SST k - ω model. Therefore, based on the validation of the present approach, the cavitating flows generated by two rotating propellers under a non-uniform inflow are calculated further. The distributions of axial velocity, total pressure and vapor volume fraction in the transversal planes across tip vortex region are shown to be useful in analyzing the feature of the cavitating flow. The strongest kernel of tip vortex cavitation is not at the position most close to blade tip but slightly far away from the region. During the growth of tip vortex cavitation extension, it appears short and thick, and then it becomes long and thin. The pressure fluctuations at the positions inside tip vortex region also validates the conclusion. A key finding of the study is that the grids constructed especially for tip vortex flows by using separated computational domain is capable of decreasing the turbulence dissipation and correctly capturing the feature of propeller tip vortex cavitation under uniform and non-uniform inflows. The turbulence model and advanced grids is important to predict tip vortex cavitation.

  18. Vortex Formation in the Wake of Dark Matter Propulsion (United States)

    Robertson, G. A.; Pinheiro, M. J.

    Future spaceflight will require a new theory of propulsion; specifically one that does not require mass ejection. A new theory is proposed that uses the general view that closed currents pervade the entire universe and, in particular, there is a cosmic mechanism to expel matter to large astronomical distances involving vortex currents as seen with blazars and blackholes. At the terrestrial level, force producing vortices have been related to the motion of wings (e.g., birds, duck paddles, fish's tail). In this paper, vortex structures are shown to exist in the streamlines aft of a spaceship moving at high velocity in the vacuum. This is accomplished using the density excitation method per a modified Chameleon Cosmology model. This vortex structure is then shown to have similarities to spacetime models as Warp-Drive and wormholes, giving rise to the natural extension of Hawking and Unruh radiation, which provides the propulsive method for space travel where virtual electron-positron pairs, absorbed by the gravitational expansion forward of the spaceship emerge from an annular vortex field aft of the spaceship as real particles, in-like to propellant mass ejection in conventional rocket theory.

  19. Comparison of a Coupled Near and Far Wake Model With a Free Wake Vortex Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg; Riziotis, Vasilis; Aagaard Madsen, Helge


    model can be improved by adding near wake trailed vorticity computation. For all prescribed vibration cases with high aerodynamic damping, results similar to those obtained by 15 the free wake model can be achieved in a small fraction of computation time with the proposed model. In the cases with low...... computations performed using a free wake panel code. The focus of the description of the aerodynamics model is on the numerical stability, the computation speed and the accuracy of 5 unsteady simulations. To stabilize the near wake model, it has to be iterated to convergence, using a relaxation factor that has...... induction modeling at slow time scales. Finally, the unsteady airfoil aerodynamics model is extended to provide the unsteady bound circulation for the near wake model and to improve 10 the modeling of the unsteady behavior of cambered airfoils. The model comparison with results from a free wake panel code...

  20. Traversing field of view and AR-PIV for mid-field wake vortex investigation in a towing tank (United States)

    Scarano, F.; van Wijk, C.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.


    Wake vortex flow experiments are performed in a water tank where a 1:48 scaled model of a large transport aircraft A340-300 is towed at the speed of 3 and 5 ms-1 with values of the angle of attack α={2°, 4°, 8°}. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a plane perpendicular to the towing direction describing the streamwise component of the wake vorticity. The instantaneous field of view (I-FOV) is traversed vertically with an underwater moving-camera device tracking the vortex core during the downward motion. An adaptive resolution (AR) image-processing technique is introduced that enhances the PIV interrogation in terms of spatial resolution and accuracy. The main objectives of the investigation are to demonstrate the applicability of PIV diagnostics in wake vortex research with towing-tank facilities. The specific implementation of the traversing field-of-view (T-FOV) technique and the AR image processing are driven by the need to characterize the vortex wake global properties as well as the vortex decay phenomenon in the mid- and far-field. Relevant aerodynamic information is obtained in the mid-field where the time evolution of the vortex structure (core radius and tangential velocity) and of the overall vortex wake (vortex trajectory, descent velocity, circulation) are discussed.

  1. Vortex Shedding in the Wake Induced by a Real Elephant Seal Whisker (United States)

    Turk, Jodi; Omilion, Alexis; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Choi, Woo-Rak; Lee, Sang-Joon


    Biomimicry has been adopted to create innovative solutions in a vast range of applications. One such application is the design of seal-whisker-inspired flow sensors for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In dark, cramped, and unstable terrain AUVs are not able to maneuver using visual and sonar-based navigation. Hence, it is critical to use underwater flow sensors to accurately detect minute disturbances in the surroundings. Certain seal whiskers exhibit a unique undulating three-dimensional morphology that can reduce vortex induced vibrations (VIVs) if the major axis of the whisker cross-section is aligned to the inflow. This allows the seal to precisely track prey fish upstream using solely their whiskers. The current study aims to understand the effect of a real seal whisker's morphology on the vortex shedding behavior. Despite extensive studies of wake induced by scaled whisker-like models, the vortex shedding in the wake of a real seal whisker is not well understood. A series of experiments are conducted with a high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) system in a water channel to examine the vortex shedding downstream from a smooth whisker and an undulating whisker at a Reynolds number of a few hundred. Results of the vortex shedding induced by real seal whiskers can provide insights on developing high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors for AUVs and other whisker-inspired structures.

  2. N-S Simulations of Crow-Type Instabilities in Vortex Wake (United States)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.


    Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes simulations of the Crow instability of wake vortices are conducted using large-eddy simulations without background turbulence. Sinusoidal displacement has been specified as the initial perturbation for the vortex system. The results have shown that the minimum Crow instability wavelength is about one vortex spacing shorter than predicted by Crow's linear stability theory. The planar- standing-wave-angle value and the amplitude indifference behavior agree with Crow's analysis. Simulations with periodicity in the axial direction have indicated minor influence of axial flow on the Crow instability.

  3. On the development of a wake vortex in inviscid flow (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, O. M.; Belotserkovskaya, M. S.; Denisenko, V. V.; Eriklintsev, I. V.; Kozlov, S. A.; Oparina, E. I.; Troshkin, O. V.; Fortova, S. V.


    The evolution of an initial perturbation in an axisymmetric subsonic normal inviscid gas flow through a pipe is directly simulated. The basic (unperturbed) flow has a zero radial velocity component, while its axial velocity component (along the axis of symmetry) increases or decreases linearly with the radius. The perturbation is specified as a swirl (rotation about the axis) with a positive or negative velocity vanishing on the central axis and the lateral surface. Irrespective of its direction, the swirl gives rise to a steady-state vortex carried by the flow. It shape is spherical (contiguous to the rotation axis) or circular (sliding along the impermeable lateral surface).

  4. Counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wake of a vertical axis wind turbine (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    Despite the rising popularity of vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs, the wakes behind these machines is much less well understood than those behind horizontal axis wind turbines, or HAWTs. A thorough understanding of wakes is important as they can cause turbines in wind farms to produce less power than anticipated and increase the fatigue loading on turbines due to vibrations. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the wake behind a vertical axis wind turbine in atmospheric flow stereo-PIV is implemented in a boundary-layer wind tunnel to produce snapshots of the 3-component velocity field in the wake at various downstream positions. The boundaries of the wake are readily observed due to the high velocity gradients and turbulence present here. Two pairs of counter-rotating vortices similar to those in the wake of yawed HAWTs are also observed. An examination of the momentum fluxes behind the turbine demonstrates that the mean flow induced by these vortices entrains a large quantity of momentum from the unperturbed boundary layer flow above the wake. This effect proves to play an even more significant role than turbulence in reintroducing momentum into the wake. In order to comprehend why the VAWT produces these vortices we modify the double-multiple stream-tube model typically used to predict VAWT performance to incorporate crosswind forces. The similarity between VAWT and yawed HAWT wakes is found not to be coincidental as both cases feature rotors which exert a lateral thrust on the incoming wind which leads to the creation of counter-rotating vortex pairs.

  5. Modeling von Karman vortex shedding in cylinder wake to examine energetic coherent motions on hydrokinetic turbines (United States)

    Neary, V. S.; Gunawan, B.; Chamorro, L. P.; Stekovic, S.; Hill, C.


    Numerous investigators have examined vortex-shedding in the wake of cylinders. This is a classical flow problem that has many engineering applications, including pronounced flow disturbance, turbulence generation, and sediment scour in the wakes of in stream structures, e.g. bridge piers and towers for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It is also important to understand the contribution of large coherent motions on the unsteady loading and performance of hydrokinetic turbines. Unsteady vortex shedding is caused by flow separation and detachment within the near-wall region along the cylinder surface. Our aim is to examine the unsteady flow field and von Karman vortex shedding resulting from unsteady turbulent flow around an emergent cylinder mounted perpendicular to a fixed surface by conducting physical and numerical modeling experiments. The numerical simulation emulates an open-channel flow experiment at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, where instantaneous velocity was measured using three synchronized acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs). The open-channel flume is 80 m long, and 2.75 m wide. The flow depth is 1.15 m. The cylinder diameter is 0.116 m. The flow is turbulent, with a cylinder Reynolds number equal to 5.44E4. We use the commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+, to generate the computational mesh that models the flow geometry around the cylinder, and to numerically solve the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. The generated mesh is fine enough (> 2 million elements) to resolve the coherent structures of vortex shedding. The Frost high-performance cluster (an ORNL supercomputer) is used to run the simulation. The results show how a validated CFD model can be used to design the layout and spacing of synchronized ADV point measurements to characterize essential features of the Karman shedding in the cylinder wake. A similar approach can be used to design field ADV arrays for measuring more complex

  6. Wake Sensor Evaluation Program and Results of JFK-1 Wake Vortex Sensor Intercomparisons (United States)

    Barker, Ben C., Jr.; Burnham, David C.; Rudis, Robert P.


    The overall approach should be to: (1) Seek simplest, sufficiently robust, integrated ground based sensor systems (wakes and weather) for AVOSS; (2) Expand all sensor performance cross-comparisons and data mergings in on-going field deployments; and (3) Achieve maximal cost effectiveness through hardware/info sharing. An effective team is in place to accomplish the above tasks.

  7. Coherent vortex structures in the wake of a stationary disk and of a disk excited to vibration (United States)

    Scholz, Dietmar


    Coherent votex structures were studied by comparing the large scale coherent flow structure in the wake of a rigid vertical circular disk with the turbulent structures behind the externally driven disk. The periodic vortex structures in these wakes can be decomposed via cross-correlation measurements with hot wires and microphones, particularly by using representations of coherences, phase relations, and azimuthal modes. In the very near wake, coherent periodic pressure oscillations due to pulsing of the recirculation bubble are superimposed onto pressure fluctations of the naturally occurring helical vortex structures which dominate in the entire flow region outside the recirculation bubble.

  8. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen


    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  9. Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines (United States)

    de Vaal, J. B.; Hansen, M. O. L.; Moan, T.


    In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating offshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unified model that can represent both dynamic inflow and skewed inflow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a model presents a good intermediate solution between computationally efficient but simple momentum balance methods and computationally expensive but complete computational fluid dynamics models. The model introduced is shown to be capable of modelling typical steady and unsteady test cases with reasonable accuracy.

  10. SPIV investigations of correlation between streamwise vorticity and velocity in the wake of a vortex generator in a boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    vortex generated by the interaction between the tip vortex and the wall. Depending on the height and angle of the vane, some structures are enhanced and others are suppressed. Comparing the corresponding vorticity and velocity fields, a strong correlation between the two is found. Stream-wise vorticity...... have been conducted in cross-planes to obtain a full picture of the wake for each measured case. It is observed that this seemingly simple configuration produces a complicated vortex system consisting of 4 vortices: the tip vortex, a horseshoe vortex system consisting of two sleeves and a secondary...... induced velocity with the observed strong correlation found is not at all evident. This has previously been shown to be true for the primary (tip) vortex, but not for the remaining secondary structures....

  11. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T.; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders


    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a ‘feathered upstroke’ during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called ‘normal hovering’ as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body–tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as

  12. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers. (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders


    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  13. Turbulent wake vortex system at equilibrium, and its interaction with a ground at ReΓ = 2.0105 (United States)

    Winckelmans, Gregoire; Thiry, Olivier; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Bricteux, Laurent; de Visscher, Ivan


    A turbulent two-vortex system (T-2VS) at statistical equilibrium is first obtained. This is done by putting two vortices with analytical circulation distribution in a weak homogeneous isotropic turbulence field (obtained by LES), and then further running the LES. The system goes unstable and a turbulent equilibrium is obtained after some transient. This is believed to be representative of the state reached by the wake behind a real aircraft, when it is fully rolled up. The T-2VS is also characterized (vortex circulation profile, turbulence, etc.), which provides useful information to support further modeling and theory. Next, that T-2VS wake is put in near ground proximity, and a wall-resolved LES at ReΓ = Γ / ν = 2.0105 is carried out: this is ten times larger than the published works on wake vortices interacting with a ground. As the T-2VS comes down, it goes in ground effects (IGE), and then strongly interacts with the ground and rebounds. The physics of the interaction with the ground are analyzed (also relatively to previous works where the 2VS was made of 2D analytical vortices with white noise added), and diagnostics are obtained: vortex rebound and trajectory, vortex global circulation decay, state of the vortices long after rebound (also an equilibrium).

  14. Optimal streaks in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body and their influence on vortex shedding (United States)

    Marant, Mathieu; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Grégory


    We compute the optimal perturbations of azimuthal wavenumber m THAT maximize the spatial energy growth in the wake of a blunt-based axisymmetric bluff body. Optimal perturbations with m ≠ 0 lead to the amplification of streamwise streaks in the wake. When forced with finite amplitude m ≠ 1, optimal perturbations have a stabilizing effect on large-scale unsteady vortex shedding in the wake. We show that m ≥ 2 modes, which are forced with zero mass flux, can significantly reduce the amplitude of the unsteady lift force exerted on the body. When combined with low levels of base bleed, these perturbations can completely suppress the unsteadiness in the wake with reduced levels of mass injection in the flow.

  15. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee


    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  16. The vortex wake of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla L.) measured using high-speed digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). (United States)

    Johansson, L C; Hedenström, A


    Reconstructing the vortex wake of freely flying birds is challenging, but in the past few years, direct measurements of the wake circulation have become available for a number of species. Streamwise circulation has been measured at different positions along the span of the birds, but no measurements have been performed in the transverse plane. Recent findings from studies of bat wakes have pointed to the importance of transverse plane data for reconstructing the wake topology because important structures may be missed otherwise. We present results of high-speed DPIV measurements in the transverse plane behind freely flying blackcaps. We found novel wake structures previously not shown in birds, including wing root vortices of opposite as well as the same sign as the wing tip vortices. This suggests a more complex wake structure in birds than previously assumed and calls for more detailed studies of the flow over the wings and body, respectively. Based on measurements on birds with and without a tail we also tested hypotheses regarding the function of the tail during steady flight. We were unable to detect any differences in the wake pattern between birds with and without a tail. We conclude that the birds do not use their tail to exploit vortices shed at the wing root during the downstroke. Neither did we find support for the hypothesis that the tail should reduce the drag of the bird. The function of the tail during steady flight thus remains unclear and calls for further investigation in future studies.

  17. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von K´arm´an wake, reverse von K´arm´an wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We...

  18. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)


    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  19. A state-space free-vortex hybrid wake model for helicopter rotors (United States)

    Wasileski, Bryan J.

    This paper presents the development of a new hybrid wake model merging two distinctly different modeling approaches into a single, more comprehensive solution. The objective of the work was to leverage the strengths of each individual wake model creating a more flexible and extensible solution that could be used across the entire flight envelope of a helicopter. The results of the work indicate that the two wakes models can be successfully merged. The results also show that hybrid wake provides a mechanism by which finite-state wake imparts a level of stability on the free wake solution allowing the free wake to provide consistent, repeatable results from hover through high speed forward flight. While the new hybrid wake includes the geometric distortion needed for predicting the off-axis control response, the new model, as configured in this work, shows no sign of improvement in this area.

  20. Shed Vortex Structure and Phase-Averaged Velocity Statistics in Symmetric/Asymmetric Turbulent Flat Plate Wakes (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan


    The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations (DNS). Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large theta divided by D (sub TE) values (theta is the boundary layer momentum thickness towards the end of the plate and D (sub TE) is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTE) resulting in theta divided by D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE), and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 x 10 (sup 6) and 10,000, respectively. Two cases are computed; one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and, a second with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained is of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x divided by D) that occurs nears the positive vortex cores. This behavior is

  1. Lagrangian Visualization and Real-Time Identification of the Vortex Shedding Time in the Wake of a Circular Cylinder (United States)

    Rockwood, Matthew P.

    The flow around a circular cylinder, a canonical bluff body, has been extensively studied in the literature to determine the mechanisms that cause the formation of vortices in the cylinder wake. Understanding of these mechanisms has led to myriad attempts to control the vortices either to mitigate the oscillating forces they cause, or to augment them in order to enhance mixing in the near-wake. While these flow control techniques have been effective at low Reynolds numbers, they generally lose effectiveness or require excessive power at Reynolds numbers commonly experienced in practical applications. For this reason, new methods for identifying the locations of vortices and their shedding time could increase the effectiveness of the control techniques. In the current work, two-dimensional, two-component velocity data was collected in the wake of a circular cylinder using a planar digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurement system at Reynolds numbers of 9,000 and 19,000. This experimental data, as well as two-dimensional simulation data at a Reynolds number of 150, and three-dimensional simulation data at a Reynolds number of 400, is used to calculate the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. The locations of Lagrangian saddles, identified as non-parallel intersections of positive and negative time FTLE ridges, are shown to indicate the timing of von Karman vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder. The Lagrangian saddle found upstream of a forming and subsequently shedding vortex is shown to clearly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex begins to shed. This provides a novel, objective method to determine the timing of vortex shedding. The saddles are impossible to track in real-time, however, since future flow field data is needed for the computation of the FTLE fields. In order to detect the Lagrangian saddle acceleration without direct access to the FTLE, the saddle dynamics are connected to measurable surface quantities

  2. An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi


    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.

  3. Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator (United States)

    Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.


    The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

  4. Wake Vortex Tangential Velocity Adaptive Spectral (TVAS) algorithm for pulsed Lidar systems. (United States)


    In 2008 the FAA tasked the Volpe Center with the development of a government owned processing package capable of performing wake detection, characterization and tracking. : The current paper presents the background, progress, and capabilities to date...

  5. Time-resolved vortex wake of a common swift flying over a range of flight speeds (United States)

    Henningsson, P.; Muijres, F. T.; Hedenström, A.


    The wake of a freely flying common swift (Apus apus L.) is examined in a wind tunnel at three different flight speeds, 5.7, 7.7 and 9.9 m s−1. The wake of the bird is visualized using high-speed stereo digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Wake images are recorded in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the airflow. The wake of a swift has been studied previously using DPIV and recording wake images in the longitudinal plane, parallel to the airflow. The high-speed DPIV system allows for time-resolved wake sampling and the result shows features that were not discovered in the previous study, but there was approximately a 40 per cent vertical force deficit. As the earlier study also revealed, a pair of wingtip vortices are trailing behind the wingtips, but in addition, a pair of tail vortices and a pair of ‘wing root vortices’ are found that appear to originate from the wing/body junction. The existence of wing root vortices suggests that the two wings are not acting as a single wing, but are to some extent aerodynamically detached from each other. It is proposed that this is due to the body disrupting the lift distribution over the wing by generating less lift than the wings. PMID:21131333

  6. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang


    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows

  7. Cylindrical vortex wake model: skewed cylinder, application to yawed or tilted rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Gaunaa, Mac


    shape and a finite tip-speed ratio. The investigation remains within the context of inviscid potential flow theory. The model is derived for horizontal-axis rotors in general, but results are presented for wind-turbine applications. For each vortex element, the velocity components in all directions...

  8. Wake vortex acoustic characteristics and SOCRATES sensor performance : final report January 2003 to December 2006. (United States)


    This report provides an evaluation of the current state of the SOCRATES sensor and its readiness for use as an operational sensor for active monitoring of aircraft wake turbulence. SOCRATES is a laser opto-acoustic array designed to passively detect ...

  9. Runway Wake Vortex, Crosswind, and Visibility Detection with a Scintillometer at Schiphol Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van D.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    We evaluate the performance and investigate the capability of a scintillometer to detect wake vortices, crosswind and visibility near an airport runway. An experiment is carried out at Schiphol airport (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), where an optical scintillometer is positioned alongside a runway. An

  10. Vortex-wake interactions of a flapping foil that models animal swimming and flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muijres, F.T.; Donker-Duyvis, F.J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    The fluid dynamics of many swimming and flying animals involves the generation and shedding of vortices into the wake. Here we studied the dynamics of similar vortices shed by a simple two-dimensional flapping foil in a soap-film tunnel. The flapping foil models an animal wing, fin or tail in

  11. A Lagrangian approach to vortex identification in swimming and flying animal wakes. (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John


    The fluid wakes of swimming and flying animals are generally time-dependent. The Eulerian velocity field, which can be measured by existing DPIV measurement techniques, does not directly indicate the flow geometry in this type of unsteady flows. In this study, a Lagrangian approach is developed to determine the Lagrangian Coherent Structures, which are physical boundaries separating flow regions with distinct dynamics, including vortices. The determination of morphology and kinematics of vortices is necessary in estimating time-dependent locomotive forces (Dabiri, J. Exp. Bio., 2006). It also provides information in studying fluid transport in animal swimming and flying. The application of the method is demonstrated by studying the wake of a bluegill sunfish pectoral fin and that of a free-swimming jellyfish.

  12. Numerical analysis of the tip and root vortex position in the wake of a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanell, S [Royal Institute of Technology/Gotland University, Stockholm/Visby (Sweden); Soerensen, J N [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Mikkelsen, R [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Henningson, D [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The stability of tip and root vortices are studied numerically in order to analyse the basic mechanism behind the break down of tip and root vortices. The simulations are performed using the CFD program {sup E}llipSys3D{sup .} In the computations the so-called Actuator Line Method is used, where the blades are represented by lines of body forces representing the loading. The forces on the lines are implemented using tabulated aerodynamic aerofoil data. In this way, computer resources are used more efficiently since the number of mesh points locally around the blade is decreased, and they are instead concentrated in the wake behind the blades. We here present results of computed flow fields and evaluate the flow behaviour in the wake. In particular we compare the position of the root vortices as to the azimuthal position of the tip votices.

  13. Fast-swimming hydromedusae exploit velar kinematics to form an optimal vortex wake. (United States)

    Dabiri, John O; Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H


    Fast-swimming hydromedusan jellyfish possess a characteristic funnel-shaped velum at the exit of their oral cavity that interacts with the pulsed jets of water ejected during swimming motions. It has been previously assumed that the velum primarily serves to augment swimming thrust by constricting the ejected flow in order to produce higher jet velocities. This paper presents high-speed video and dye-flow visualizations of free-swimming Nemopsis bachei hydromedusae, which instead indicate that the time-dependent velar kinematics observed during the swimming cycle primarily serve to optimize vortices formed by the ejected water rather than to affect the speed of the ejected flow. Optimal vortex formation is favorable in fast-swimming jellyfish because, unlike the jet funnelling mechanism, it allows for the minimization of energy costs while maximizing thrust forces. However, the vortex ;formation number' corresponding to optimality in N. bachei is substantially greater than the value of 4 found in previous engineering studies of pulsed jets from rigid tubes. The increased optimal vortex formation number is attributable to the transient velar kinematics exhibited by the animals. A recently developed model for instantaneous forces generated during swimming motions is implemented to demonstrate that transient velar kinematics are required in order to achieve the measured swimming trajectories. The presence of velar structures in fast-swimming jellyfish and the occurrence of similar jet-regulating mechanisms in other jet-propelled swimmers (e.g. the funnel of squid) appear to be a primary factor contributing to success of fast-swimming jetters, despite their primitive body plans.

  14. A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight in a wind tunnel over its entire natural range of flight speeds. (United States)

    Spedding, G R; Rosén, M; Hedenström, A


    In view of the complexity of the wing-beat kinematics and geometry, an important class of theoretical models for analysis and prediction of bird flight performance entirely, or almost entirely, ignores the action of the wing itself and considers only the resulting motions in the air behind the bird. These motions can also be complicated, but some success has previously been recorded in detecting and measuring relatively simple wake structures that can sometimes account for required quantities used to estimate aerodynamic power consumption. To date, all bird wakes, measured or presumed, seem to fall into one of two classes: the closed-loop, discrete vortex model at low flight speeds, and the constant-circulation, continuous vortex model at moderate to high speeds. Here, novel and accurate quantitative measurements of velocity fields in vertical planes aligned with the freestream are used to investigate the wake structure of a thrush nightingale over its entire range of natural flight speeds. At most flight speeds, the wake cannot be categorised as one of the two standard types, but has an intermediate structure, with approximations to the closed-loop and constant-circulation models at the extremes. A careful accounting for all vortical structures revealed with the high-resolution technique permits resolution of the previously unexplained wake momentum paradox. All the measured wake structures have sufficient momentum to provide weight support over the wingbeat. A simple model is formulated and explained that mimics the correct, measured balance of forces in the downstroke- and upstroke-generated wake over the entire range of flight speeds. Pending further work on different bird species, this might form the basis for a generalisable flight model.

  15. Knuckleball and Flying Disk: Boundary Layer Transitions, Separations and Vortex Wakes in Sports Aerodynamics (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro; Goto, Yuichiro; Hiramoto, Riho


    In spite of their popularity, flow structures over common baseball and flying disks have not been studied in detail. A slowly rotating baseball is subject to erratic flight paths, and is known as a knuckleball. In the present experiment, the characteristic of force acting on a baseball was obtained and the velocity vector field near the surface of the ball and the wake were measured with the DPIV technique. The seam triggered the boundary layer transition or caused the boundary layer separation itself. The laminar/turbulent boundary layer separations were identified with specific ball orientations. Corresponding three-dimensional wake pattern and the side force result in unpredictable trajectories. In the second part of the talk, flow physics regarding a spin-stabilized flying disk is addressed. The roll-up of trailing vortices was visualized in detail and their vorticity field was measured with the DPIV. The vortical flow over the disk produced flow reattachment at a very high angle of attack. The boundary layer at low angles of attack was affected by the surface motion with asymmetric boundary layer transitions as evidenced by the flow visualization and the hot wire survey. The flow separation and attachment on the underside cavity were also affected by the rotation.

  16. On the acoustic signature of tandem airfoils: The sound of an elastic airfoil in the wake of a vortex generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, A. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.

  17. Concerns over modeling and warning capabilities in wake of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    Improved earthquake models, better tsunami modeling and warning capabilities, and a review of nuclear power plant safety are all greatly needed following the 11 March Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, according to scientists at the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held 3-8 April in Vienna, Austria. EGU quickly organized a morning session of oral presentations and an afternoon panel discussion less than 1 month after the earthquake and the tsunami and the resulting crisis at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant, which has now been identified as having reached the same level of severity as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Many of the scientists at the EGU sessions expressed concern about the inability to have anticipated the size of the earthquake and the resulting tsunami, which appears likely to have caused most of the fatalities and damage, including damage to the nuclear plant.

  18. Validation of four LES and a vortex model against stereo-PIV measurements in the near wake of an actuator disc and a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lignarolo, Lorenzo E.M.; Mehta, Dhruv; Stevens, Richard J.A.M.


    In this paper we report the results of a workshop organised by the Delft University of Technology in 2014, aiming at the comparison between different state-of-the-art numerical models for the simulation of wind turbine wakes. The chosen benchmark case is a wind tunnel measurement, where...... of an actuator disc, a case that is highly relevant for full wind farm applications. The comparison has shown that, despite its extreme simplicity, the vortex model is capable of reproducing the wake expansion and the centre line velocity with very high accuracy. Also all tested LES models are able to predict...... stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry was employed to obtain the velocity field and turbulence statistics in the near wake of a two-bladed wind turbine model and of a porous disc, which mimics the numerical actuator used in the simulations. Researchers have been invited to simulate the experimental case...

  19. Study of vortex generator influence on the flow in the wake of high-lift system wing (United States)

    Bragin, N. N.; Ryabov, D. I.; Skomorokhov, S. I.; Slitinskaya, A. Yu.


    Passive vortex generators (VG) are known as one of the ways to improve the flow of the wings and other surfaces in the presence of flow separation. In particular, the VG are installed on the wings and nacelles of many foreign airplanes, including the most recent ones (for example, Boeing 787, Airbus A-350). The principle of the passive VG effects on flow is to transfer the kinetic energy of the external flow separation region by the vortices system arising from the flow VG themselves. For example, by increasing the angle of attack of the wing separation it is highly three-dimensional picture of the flow and sufficiently sensitive to external influences. Thus separated flow can be controlled when using the VG destroy large separation vortices. The VG effectiveness depends on many parameters. This is primarily the relative position of the second harmonic and the separation region on the wing and their size and position relative to each other, the orientation of the second harmonic relative to the local flow direction of the external flow, etc. Obviously, the VG effect will depend essentially on the intensity ratio of the second harmonic vortexes and nature of flow separation in the separation area. In the presence of intense flow separation the effect of conventional VG may be reduced or not occur at all. Until recently, investigations and selection of position of conventional VG were made only experimentally. Currently, the possibilities of calculation methods allow estimating the VG effect on the flow in the separation area. However, due to the phenomenon complexity the accuracy of these calculations is low. The experimental data are required to validate the computational methods, including information not only about the total impact, but also about the flow structure in the separation area. To obtain such information is the subject of this paper. In the test model of high-lift devices swept wing with modern supercritical profile the parametric studies were

  20. Estimating the angle of attack from blade pressure measurements on the NREL Phase VI rotor using a free wake vortex model: axial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tonio [Delft Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Malta Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Msida (Malta); Kuik, Gijs van; Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)


    Blade element momentum (BEM) methods are still the most common methods used for predicting the aerodynamic loads during the aeroelastic design of wind turbine blades. However, their accuracy is limited by the availability of reliable aerofoil data. Owing to the 3D nature of the flow over wind turbine blades, the aerofoil characteristics will vary considerably from the 2D aerofoil characteristics, especially at the inboard sections of the blades. Detailed surface pressure measurements on the blade surfaces may be used to derive more realistic aerofoil data. However, in doing so, knowledge of the angle of attack distributions is required. This study presents a method in which a free wake vortex model is used to derive such distributions for the NREL Phase VI wind turbine under different operating conditions. The derived free wake geometry solutions are plotted together with the corresponding wake circulation distribution. These plots provide better insight into how circulation formed at the blades is eventually diffused into the wake. The free wake model is described and its numerical behaviour is examined. (Author)

  1. Vortex-induced vibration for an isolated circular cylinder under the wake interference of an oscillating airfoil: Part II. Single degree of freedom (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Ji, L. C.; Hu, X.


    The vortex-induced vibration behind an isolated cylinder under the wake interference of an oscillating airfoil at different oscillating frequencies and amplitudes have been studied numerically. Our previous research [11] mainly focused on the two degree of freedom vibration problem, several types of the phase portraits of the displacement have been newly found, including the "half -8″ and "cone-net" types as reduced velocity increases. At present, we have continued the research to the single degree of freedom vibration, the corresponding results had been found that under the wake of the free steady flow, as the reduced velocity increases, the phase portraits displacements of the single degree of freedom vibrating cylinder will begin to rotate counterclockwise from the first and third quadrants to the second and fourth quadrants in a Cartesian coordinate system. Under the wake of the oscillating airfoil, the single bending curve and the single closed orbit (double "8-shape" like) of the displacements are newly found in the drag and thrust producing cases respectively. Except this, the two triplets of vortices have also been newly found in the pair and single plus pair wakes at each cycle. The vorticity dynamics behind the vibrating cylinder together with the corresponding force variations have also been obtained computationally and analyzed in details.

  2. Contribution to the evaluation of vortex-induced vibrations analysis using 'wake oscillators' and 'vortex-tracking' models; Contribuicao a avaliacao dos modelos 'wake oscillator' e 'vortex tracking' para analise de vibracoes induzidas por vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel L. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ellwanger, Gilberto B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Galgoul, Nelson S. [SUPORTE Consultoria e Projetos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Fatigue due to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is one of the major uncertainties today in the design of slender offshore structures, such as risers, pipelines, umbilicals, tendons and mooring lines, required for oil and gas production in deep waters. The absence of reliable tools for quantitative analyses of this phenomenon is a technological barrier, which is being faced by several research groups, generating tens of thesis and articles every year. This paper presents VIV results achieved by the author, using 'wake oscillator' and 'vortex tracking' models, when researching for his M. Sc. dissertation. Time domain analyses were performed using a commercial software. First results describe the response of the evaluated models for two degrees-of-freedom rigid cylinders, which were compared to values prescribed in recognized recommended practices. Afterwards, VIV analyses results for a steel catenary 10-inch diameter riser in three dimensional current profiles were compared to measured values. The considered riser, installed in 910 m water depth offshore Brazil, is possibly the only monitored SCR with no VIV suppression devices in the world today. The results were considered satisfactory, despite some discrepancies. The authors expect the presented results to contribute in further studies on these models. (author)

  3. A three dimensional unsteady iterative panel method with vortex particle wakes and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings (United States)

    Dhruv, Akash; Blower, Christopher; Wickenheiser, Adam M.


    The ability of UAVs to operate in complex and hostile environments makes them useful in military and civil operations concerning surveillance and reconnaissance. However, limitations in size of UAVs and communication delays prohibit their operation close to the ground and in cluttered environments, which increase risks associated with turbulence and wind gusts that cause trajectory deviations and potential loss of the vehicle. In the last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to solve these issues by developing innovative flow control methods that offer better stability, controllability, and maneuverability. This paper presents an aerodynamic load solver for bio-inspired wings that consist of an array of feather-like flaps installed across the upper and lower surfaces in both the chord- and span-wise directions, mimicking the feathers of an avian wing. Each flap has the ability to rotate into both the wing body and the inbound airflow, generating complex flap configurations unobtainable by traditional wings that offer improved aerodynamic stability against gusting flows and turbulence. The solver discussed is an unsteady three-dimensional iterative doublet panel method with vortex particle wakes. This panel method models the wake-body interactions between multiple flaps effectively without the need to define specific wake geometries, thereby eliminating the need to manually model the wake for each configuration. To incorporate viscous flow characteristics, an iterative boundary layer theory is employed, modeling laminar, transitional and turbulent regions over the wing's surfaces, in addition to flow separation and reattachment locations. This technique enables the boundary layer to influence the wake strength and geometry both within the wing and aft of the trailing edge. The results obtained from this solver are validated using experimental data from a low-speed suction wind tunnel operating at Reynolds Number 300,000. This method

  4. Developments and Validations of Fully Coupled CFD and Practical Vortex Transport Method for High-Fidelity Wake Modeling in Fixed and Rotary Wing Applications (United States)

    Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat


    A novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework using a conventional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (BANS) solver to resolve the near-body flow field and a Particle-based Vorticity Transport Method (PVTM) to predict the evolution of the far field wake is developed, refined, and evaluated for fixed and rotary wing cases. For the rotary wing case, the RANS/PVTM modules are loosely coupled to a Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) module that provides blade motion and vehicle trim information. The PVTM module is refined by the addition of vortex diffusion, stretching, and reorientation models as well as an efficient memory model. Results from the coupled framework are compared with several experimental data sets (a fixed-wing wind tunnel test and a rotary-wing hover test).

  5. The effect of single-horn glaze ice on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine (United States)

    Jin, Zhe-Yan; Dong, Qiao-Tian; Yang, Zhi-Gang


    The present study experimentally investigated the effect of a simulated single-horn glaze ice accreted on rotor blades on the vortex structures in the wake of a horizontal axis wind turbine by using the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) technique. During the experiments, four horizontal axis wind turbine models were tested, and both "free-run" and "phase-locked" Stereo-PIV measurements were carried out. Based on the "free-run" measurements, it was found that because of the simulated single-horn glaze ice, the shape, vorticity, and trajectory of tip vortices were changed significantly, and less kinetic energy of the airflow could be harvested by the wind turbine. In addition, the "phase-locked" results indicated that the presence of simulated single-horn glaze ice resulted in a dramatic reduction of the vorticity peak of the tip vortices. Moreover, as the length of the glaze ice increased, both root and tip vortex gaps were found to increase accordingly.

  6. Vortex dynamics and scalar transport in the wake of a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    The air ventilation system in wide-body aircraft cabins provides passengers with a healthy breathing environment. In recent years, the increase in global air traffic has amplified contamination risks by airborne flu-like diseases and terrorist threats involving the onboard release of noxious materials. In particular, passengers moving through a ventilated cabin may transport infectious pathogens in their wake. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the wake produced by a bluff body driven through a steady recirculating flow. Data were obtained in a water facility using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. Ventilation attenuated the downward convection of counter-rotating vortices produced near the free-end corners of the body and decoupled the downwash mechanism from forward entrainment, creating stagnant contaminant regions.

  7. Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina). (United States)

    Wolf, Marta; Johansson, L Christoffer; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders


    To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats.

  8. Study of vortex dislocation in the wake of a flat plate with finite thickness; Yugen atsusa heiban koryu ni okeru uzu ten'i kozo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, S.; Maekawa, H. [University of Electronic-Communication, Tokyo (Japan)


    Wake structures of a flat plate with finite thickness are studied using the rake of X-wires techniques. Parallel and oblique shedding modes in the wake flow are investigated. These modes depend on the flat plate end conditions. In the present paper, we demonstrate that manipulation of the end conditions yields a vortex dislocation that appears periodically at the same location. Vortex linkup dynamics phenomena in the dislocations are observed with smoke-wire flow visualization. Flow patterns of dislocation are analyzed by mean of the pseudo-flow visualization of the rake data. The linkup structure due to a misfit of two oblique shedding vortices appears periodically in the flow patterns. Evolutions of the power spectra of velocity fluctuations explain the generation of large-scale turbulent structure downstream due to the growth of a low-frequency mode and the cascade process of low/high frequency components. (author)

  9. Vortex dynamics and elliptical structure wake interaction in the proximity of wall using 2-D RANS simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar H. S.


    Full Text Available The 2-D numerical study is performed to analyses the flow characteristic behind the elliptical structure placed near the wall for three different gap ratios as 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0. Computational domain and model is initially validated with the unbounded flow over a cylinder without considering wall effect for Reynolds number of 3900. For flow over the cylinder with near wall, computational domain is modelled as Blasius profile is the input to the area of interest. At different gap ratios the effect of boundary layer on vortex shedding is studied with Reynolds number of 1440. By applying different turbulent model for analysis, study the variation in the results and suggest the suitable model for the present type of study. It has been observed that the wall effect is predominant in case of the gap ratio of 0.25 as compared to other gap ratios.

  10. Combining Unsteady Blade Pressure Measurements and a Free-Wake Vortex Model to Investigate the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Blade Loads in Yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Elgammi


    Full Text Available Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different blade sections over multiple rotor rotations and three different yaw angles. Through the adopted approach it was possible to investigate how the rotor self-induced aerodynamic load fluctuations influence the unsteady variations in the blade angles of attack and induced velocities. The hysteresis loops for the normal and tangential load coefficients plotted against the angle of attack were plotted over multiple rotor revolutions. Although cycle-to-cycle variations in the angles of attack at the different blade radial locations and azimuth positions are found to be relatively small, the corresponding variations in the normal and tangential load coefficients may be significant. Following a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the load coefficients follow a normal distribution at the majority of blade azimuth angles and radial locations. The results of this study provide further insight on how existing engineering models for dynamic stall may be improved through

  11. Effect of fixed separation points on wake oscillation and surface character in suppression of the Karman vortex street due to positive buoyancy from a cylinder; Hakuriten kotei buttai kara no seifuryoku ni yoru karman uzuretsu no hokai shometsu deno koryu shindo to hyomen tokusei no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, K.; Nakajima, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Egneineering; Fujimoto, K. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    To elucidate an effect of fixed separation points on the wake oscillation and surface character in the suppression of the Karman vortex street due to positive buoyancy, a wake with positive buoyancy from a heated elliptic cylinder submerged in an upward air mainstream is calculated by numerical analysis. Numerical results agree well with the previous result for the isothermal wake, and show that separation points are exactly fixed with time and do not move by buoyancy. The critical Richardson number Ri{sub c} is much larger than that in a circular cylinder wake. This means that the wake vorticity is larger and harder to disappear than that in the circular cylinder wake. With an increase of the Richardson number, the local Nusselt number and wall shear stress vary with time between separation points, and the mean Nusselt number decreases near Ri{sub c}, which dose not occur in a circular cylinder wake. (author)

  12. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.


    particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator.......A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...

  13. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    lateral velocities, and thus inspired by the basic assumption behind the Dynamic Wake Meandering model.Secondly, the impact of the atmospheric stability on wind turbine wake deficit is studied experimentally and numerically. The measurements collected from the previous pulsed lidar campaign was reused...... wind are adapted to the thermal stratification using a newly developed spectral tensor, which includes buoyancy effects. Discrepancies are discussed as basis for future model development and improvement. Moreover, the impact of atmospheric stability and terrain on large/small scale wake flow...... and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Additionally, a new empirical model for single wake expansion is proposed based on an initial wake expansion in the pressure driven flow regime and a spatial gradient computed from the large scale...

  14. Vortex Wakes of Conventional Aircraft (United States)


    Jordan [15] have independently shown the surpris- ingly simple result that the relationship between r and y is r = y(y) - y (1.26) This result, diminished downstream, upstream of the critical condition (say, for the (m,n) mode), the flow is supercritical and downstream subcritical . The...waves is directed downstream. Subcritical vortices necessarily have upstream propagation of information. However, the critical state and the terms

  15. Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Segalini, Antonio; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming


    good, validating the analytical method for more general conditions. The present results show that a simple vortex code is able to provide an estimation of the flow around the wind turbine similar to the actuator-line approach but with a negligible computational effort. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley......The flow around an isolated horizontal-axis wind turbine is estimated by means of a new vortex code based on the Biot–Savart law with constant circulation along the blades. The results have been compared with numerical simulations where the wind turbine blades are replaced with actuator lines. Two...... different wind turbines have been simulated: one with constant circulation along the blades, to replicate the vortex method approximations, and the other with a realistic circulation distribution, to compare the outcomes of the vortex model with real operative wind-turbine conditions (Tjæreborg wind turbine...

  16. Computation of Rotorcraft Wake Geometry using NURBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoydonck, W.R.M.


    This thesis contains the results of research in the area of rotorcraft aerodynamics with a focus on method development related to the vortical wake generated by rotor blades. It is applied to a vortex tube representation of the wake (using a single NURBS surface) and a simplified filament wake model


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aubakirov


    Full Text Available A technique of calculation of aircraft condensation trails (contrails and wake vortices interaction is described. The technique is based on a suitable for real-time applications mathematical model of far wake utilizes the method of discrete vortices. The technique is supplemented by account of the influence of axial velocities in the vortex nucleus on contrail and wake vortex location. Results of calculations of contrails and wake vortices interaction for Il-76 and B-747 aircraft are presented.

  18. On the vortex ring state (United States)

    Green, Richard; Gillies, E.; Giuni, M.; Hislop, J.; Savas, Omer


    The investigation considers the vortex ring state, a phenomenon normally associated with the collapse of a trailing, helical vortex wake into a unstable vortex ring, and is a problem encountered when a helicopter rotor descends into its own wake. A series of wind tunnel and towing tank experiments on rotor systems have been performed, and a comparison is then made with the behaviour of a specially designed open core, annular jet system that generates a mean flow velocity profile similar to that observed below a rotor. In experimentally simulated descents the jet system forms flow patterns that are topologically similar to the vortex ring state of a rotor system. Furthermore the dynamic behaviour of the flow shares many of the important characteristics of the rotor flow. This result suggests that the phenomenon of the vortex ring state of a rotor wake is decoupled from the detailed vortex dynamics of the helical vortex filaments themselves. The presentation will describe the principle behind the investigation, the details of the annular jet system and the results gained using PIV and flow visualisation of the wake and jet systems.

  19. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.


    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  20. Dynamic Optimization for Vortex Shedding Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonis Ioannis


    Full Text Available Flows around structures exhibiting vortex shedding induce vibrations that can potentially damage the structure. A way to avoid it is to suppress vortex shedding by controlling the wake. Wake control of laminar flow behind a rotating cylinder is formulated herein as a dynamic optimization problem. Angular cylinder speed is the manipulated variable that is adjusted to suppress vortex shedding by minimizing lift coefficient variation. The optimal angular speed is assumed to be periodic like wake formation. The control problem is solved for different time horizons tH. The impact of tH to control is evaluated and the need for feedback is assessed.

  1. Wake Studies of Ornithopters (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo


    This paper details experiments using a mechanical ornithopter flying in a low speed wind tunnel. Experiments were conducted for a Strouhal number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 2300, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization was used to develop quantitative and qualitative information about the nature of the wake. The data shows that the wake is made of a series of discrete vortex rings. The impulse of these rings has been estimated with PIV data and the results correlate well with the lift required to sustain the ornithopter in flight.

  2. Vortex Shedding From a Flexible Hydrofoil

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Matthieu


    Video of vortex shedding in the wake of a Naca0009 hydrofoil made of polyoxymethylene type C (POM C). This video was submitted as part of the Gallery of Fluid Motion 2011 which is showcase of fluid dynamics videos.

  3. Two NextGen Air Safety Tools: An ADS-B Equipped UAV and a Wake Turbulence Estimator (United States)

    Handley, Ward A.

    Two air safety tools are developed in the context of the FAA's NextGen program. The first tool addresses the alarming increase in the frequency of near-collisions between manned and unmanned aircraft by equipping a common hobby class UAV with an ADS-B transponder that broadcasts its position, speed, heading and unique identification number to all local air traffic. The second tool estimates and outputs the location of dangerous wake vortex corridors in real time based on the ADS-B data collected and processed using a custom software package developed for this project. The TRansponder based Position Information System (TRAPIS) consists of data packet decoders, an aircraft database, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the wake vortex extension application. Output from TRAPIS can be visualized in Google Earth and alleviates the problem of pilots being left to imagine where invisible wake vortex corridors are based solely on intuition or verbal warnings from ATC. The result of these two tools is the increased situational awareness, and hence safety, of human pilots in the National Airspace System (NAS).

  4. Relative equilibria of vortex arrays (United States)

    Stremler, Mark


    Experiments with vibrating and oscillating cylinders have demonstrated that exotic vortex patterns can emerge in laminar wake flows. These wakes arise when more than two vortices are generated per shedding cycle. The Karman vortex street has proven to be a useful model for investigating the standard wake flow with two vortices per period; this utility suggests that it will be instructive to investigate other singly-periodic point vortex configurations that move without change of shape or size. The existence and structure of such relative equilibria of vortex arrays will be presented. Motivation for investigating these equilibria, all of which appear to be unstable, comes from the observation that the dynamics of a system slows down in the vicinity of unstable equilibria. Thus, states close to these equilibria can remain for a relatively long time, as illustrated by recent experiments in strongly magnetized electron plasma. The investigation of the relative equilibria of vortex arrays can thus provide a `road-map' for states that may be observable in laminar wake experiments.

  5. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent jet and a vortex sheet interaction: particle formation and evolution in the near field of an aircraft wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paoli


    Full Text Available Aircraft are prolific sources of particles (soot, liquid aerosols and contrails that can impact cloudiness and affect the Earth's radiative budget balance. In order to study the formation and evolution of these particles, a numerical approach has been developed combining large-eddy simulation (LES and a detailed microphysical model. Generally very detailed microphysical models are run along a single average trajectory, without any temperature fluctuation. However, this approach may lead to significant differences in particle properties and particle size distribution as it oversimplifies dynamical and mixing processes compared to multidimensional descriptions of aircraft wakes. This may affect the initialisation of meso-scale models, such as, for example, the formation of cloud condensation nuclei from persistent contrails, and heterogeneous chemical reactions. In this paper, we present the results of detailed microphysical processes calculations applied to a large number of fluid parcels trajectories, generated by a LES two-phase flow solver.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BUTOESCU


    Full Text Available A vortex model of a helicopter rotor is presented. Each blade of the rotor has three degrees of freedom: flapping, lagging and feathering. The motions after each degree of freedom are also known for all blades. The blade is modelled as a thin vortex surface. The wakes are free fluid surfaces. A system of five equations are obtained: the first one is the integral equation of the lifting surface (rotor, the next three describe the wakes motion, and the last one relates the vortex strength on the wakes and the variation of vorticity on the rotor. A numerical solution of this system is presented. To avoid the singularities that can occur due to the complexity of vortex system, a desingularized model of the vortex core was adopted. A Mathcad worksheet containing the method has been written.The original contribution of the work. The calculation method of the motion of the wakes free vortex system, the development of the vortex cores in time and a new method to approximate the aerodynamic influence of remoted wake regions.

  7. Wake characteristics of a model ornithopter (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harlow, Jacob; Allen, James; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo


    This paper details unsteady wake measurements from a model Ornithopther flying in a wind tunnel at representative flight conditions. Testing over a range of Strouhal number, 0.1-0.3, shows that the unsteady wake is composed of coherent vortical structures that resemble vortex rings. A single ring is formed in the wake of each wing during one wing beat. Momentum balance from velocity field measurements are reconciled with unsteady lift and drag measurements from a drag balance.

  8. A quantitative comparison of bird and bat wakes


    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; Hedenström, Anders


    Qualitative comparison of bird and bat wakes has demonstrated significant differences in the structure of the far wake. Birds have been found to have a unified vortex wake of the two wings, while bats have a more complex wake with gradients in the circulation along the wingspan, and with each wing generating its own vortex structure. Here, we compare quantitative measures of the circulation in the far wake of three bird and one bat species. We find that bats have a significantly stronger norm...

  9. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015 (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan


    at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. Many people have been involved in producing the 2015 Wake Conference proceedings. The work by the more than 60 reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of the section editors: Christian Masson, ÉTS, Fernando Porté-Agel, EPFL, Gerard Schepers, ECN Wind Energy, Gijs Van Kuik, Delft University, Gunner Larsen, DTU Wind Energy, Jakob Mann, DTU Wind Energy, Javier Sanz Rodrigo, CENER, Johan Meyers, KU Leuven, Rebecca Barthelmie, Cornell University, Sandrine Aubrun-Sanches, Université d'Orléans and Thomas Leweke, IRPHE-CNRS. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive support from the editorial team at IOP Publishing, especially Sarah Toms, during the review process of these proceedings. Visby, Sweden, June 2015 Andrew Barney, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Stefan Ivanell Uppsala University - Campus Gotland

  10. Aircraft wake vortices in the atmosphere (United States)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Hofbauer, Thomas; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Frech, Michael

    The studies summarized here were motivated by the need to gain information (i) about the impact of aircraft emissions upon the atmosphere and the climate and (ii) about optimized separation distances between aircraft landing at an airport for possibly increasing its capacity. To this end, large-eddy simulations have been performed to learn about the behaviour of vortex wakes shed by cruising aircraft in the free atmosphere and in the atmospheric boundary layer close to the ground. Some results are best illustrated in animated form and may be found under

  11. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. (United States)

    Vorobieff, P; Ecke, R E


    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag.

  12. Topology of Vortex-Wing Interaction (United States)

    McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald


    Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex from the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to depend on the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine streamline topology in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying both the spanwise and vertical locations of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the number and locations of critical points of the flow topology, and involve bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the tip vortex from the follower wing. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex. AFOSR.

  13. A Survey of the Scattering Characteristics and Detection of Aircraft Wake Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianbing


    Full Text Available Aircraft wake vortex is a pair of strong counter-rotating vortices and has attracted considerable attention in various fields including aviation safety and atmospheric physics. The characteristics and detection of wake vortex act as the basis for both behavior prediction as well as hazard assessment. This paper provides a short survey of the characteristics and detection researches. Initially, the wake vortex is classified as clear-air wake vortex (i.e., wake turbulence and contrail and precipitation wake vortex (i.e., under rainy, foggy or snowy condition. Subsequently, the dynamics and scattering are introduced, and the main verdicts are: the radar (radio detection and ranging scattering of wake vortex is relatively weak under clear air conditions, but the Lidar (Light detection and ranging scattering is appreciable owing to the presence of particles such as aerosols. Wake vortices under precipitation conditions and contrails possess relatively good radar reflectivity owing the strong scattering characteristics of precipitation droplets and ice crystals. Furthermore, we have introduced a joint detection scheme of Lidar and radar for wake vortex along with parameter-retrieval algorithms. Finally, we have presented our conclusions and intended future research.

  14. A quantitative comparison of bird and bat wakes. (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; Hedenström, Anders


    Qualitative comparison of bird and bat wakes has demonstrated significant differences in the structure of the far wake. Birds have been found to have a unified vortex wake of the two wings, while bats have a more complex wake with gradients in the circulation along the wingspan, and with each wing generating its own vortex structure. Here, we compare quantitative measures of the circulation in the far wake of three bird and one bat species. We find that bats have a significantly stronger normalized circulation of the start vortex than birds. We also find differences in how the circulation develops during the wingbeat as demonstrated by the ratio of the circulation of the dominant start vortex and the total circulation of the same sense. Birds show a more prominent change with changing flight speed and a relatively weaker start vortex at minimum power speed than bats. We also find that bats have a higher normalized wake loading based on the start vortex, indicating higher relative induced drag and therefore less efficient lift generation than birds. Our results thus indicate fundamental differences in the aerodynamics of bird and bat flight that will further our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate flight.

  15. Vortex Bursting Over a Unit Area Aspect Ratio Delta Wing Using Vortex Paneling Methods (United States)


    Fiaures * Figure Page 1. Two-Dimensional Vortex Panel ... ....... 9 1 2. Vortex Panel Modeling of a NACA0012 Airfoil .......................... 14 3 3...Therefore, each node has a single vortex strength I (G).I I 7 109 5 4 I Figure 2. Vortex Panel Modeling of a NACA0012 Airfoil I 14I The no penetration...34 ." Figure 4. Enhanced Two-Dimensional Wake Splitting 2.4 Results The airfoil investigated was a NACA0012 airfoil. The following equation was used to

  16. Drift due to viscous vortex rings (United States)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc


    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  17. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  18. Recent developments in rotor wake modeling for helicopter noise prediction (United States)

    Poling, D.; Dadone, L.; Althoff, S.


    A preliminary test/theory correlation evaluation is conducted for wake measurement test results obtained by LDV for a B360 helicopter rotor, at conditions critical to the understanding of wake-rollup and blade-vortex interaction phenomena. The LDV data were complemented by acoustic, blade pressure, rotor performance, and blade/control load measurements.

  19. Analysis of the Aerodynamic Performance of Counter-Rotating Propeller by Means of Vortex Lattice Method


    Saito, Shigeru; Mizobuchi, Yasuhiro; 齊藤 茂; 溝渕, 泰寛


    Aerodynamic performance of a counter-rotating propeller has been calculated by means of Vortex Lattice Method. The new wake system of the each rotor was constructed using a prescribed wake model by Kocurek-Berkowitz-Harris, which is well known as an empirical wake system of helicopter rotor with low aspect ratio blade. The votex filaments including a blade tip vortex were treated as vortex tube with the finite vortex core in order to avoid the numerical divergence in the calculation. The calc...

  20. Wake Turbulence (United States)


    THIS IS A SAFETY NOTICE. The guidance contained herein supersedes : the guidance provided in the current edition of Order 7110.65, Air Traffic Control, relating to selected wake turbulence separations and aircraft weight classifications. This Notice ...

  1. Wake simulation for wind turbines with a free, prescribed- and hybrid-wake method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, R.; Guidati, G.; Wagner, S. [Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Calculations of the radial distribution and the time history of the induction factors have been performed with a number of different wake models implemented in a vortex-lattice method for tip-speed ratios in the range 1-13. The new models lead to a significant reduction of the computational effort down to 3-27% compared to a free-wake model with errors less than 5%. (au)

  2. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Wake Prediction Models: User's Guide (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The atmospheric initial conditions include vertical profiles of temperature or potential temperature, eddy dissipation rate, and crosswind. The current distribution includes the latest versions of the APA (3.4) and the TDP (2.1) models. This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and the model output. An example of a model run and a brief description of the Memphis 1995 Wake Vortex Dataset is also provided.

  3. Wake-Induced Aerodynamics on a Trailing Aircraft (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J.; Kelly, Michael J.


    NASA conducted flight tests to measure the exhaust products from alternative fuels using a DC-8 transport aircraft and a Falcon business jet. An independent analysis of the maximum vortex-induced loads on the Falcon in the DC-8 wake was conducted for pre-flight safety analysis and to define safe trail distances for the flight tests. Static and dynamic vortex-induced aerodynamic loads on the Falcon were predicted at a matrix of locations aft of the DC-8 under flight-test conditions, and the maximum loads were compared with design limit loads to assess aircraft safety. Trajectory simulations for the Falcon during close encounters with the DC-8 wake were made to study the vortex-induced loads during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex. A parametric study of flight traverses through the trailing vortex was conducted to assess Falcon flight behavior and motion characteristics.

  4. An Experimental Study on the Effects ofWinglets on the Wake and Performance of a ModelWind Turbine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Nicolas; Hamed, Ali; Chamorro, Leonardo


    .... The winglets did not significantly change the tip-vortex strength, but higher levels of turbulence in the far wake decreased the tip-vortex strength. Because of the increased mean shear in the wingletted turbine’s wake, the Reynolds stresses were higher, potentially leading to a higher energy flux downstream.

  5. On the characteristics of the wake meandering of a marine hydrokinetic turbine (United States)

    Kang, S.


    Recently Kang et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, submitted) showed that the hub vortex breakdown occurring downstream of a hydrokinetic turbine plays an important role in enhancing wake meandering. In this study the hub vortex breakdown and wake meandering phenomena are further examined using large-eddy simulation (Kang et al., Advances in Water Resources, 2012). Specifically, the effect of the incoming turbulence, the presence of hub and nacelle geometries, and the tip speed ratio of the rotor on the wake meandering and the hub vortex breakdown are examined.

  6. Analyzing complex wake-terrain interactions and its implications on wind-farm performance. (United States)

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fuchs, Franz


    Rotating wind turbine blades generate complex wakes involving vortices (helical tip-vortex, root-vortex etc.).These wakes are regions of high velocity deficits and high turbulence intensities and they tend to degrade the performance of down-stream turbines. Hence, a conservative inter-turbine distance of up-to 10 times turbine diameter (10D) is sometimes used in wind-farm layout (particularly in cases of flat terrain). This ensures that wake-effects will not reduce the overall wind-farm performance, but this leads to larger land footprint for establishing a wind-farm. In-case of complex-terrain, within a short distance (say 10D) itself, the nearby terrain can rise in altitude and be high enough to influence the wake dynamics. This wake-terrain interaction can happen either (a) indirectly, through an interaction of wake (both near tip vortex and far wake large-scale vortex) with terrain induced turbulence (especially, smaller eddies generated by small ridges within the terrain) or (b) directly, by obstructing the wake-region partially or fully in its flow-path. Hence, enhanced understanding of wake- development due to wake-terrain interaction will help in wind farm design. To this end the current study involves: (1) understanding the numerics for successful simulation of vortices, (2) understanding fundamental vortex-terrain interaction mechanism through studies devoted to interaction of a single vortex with different terrains, (3) relating influence of vortex-terrain interactions to performance of a wind-farm by studying a multi-turbine wind-farm layout under different terrains. The results on interaction of terrain and vortex has shown a much faster decay of vortex for complex terrain compared to a flatter-terrain. The potential reasons identified explaining the observation are (a) formation of secondary vortices in flow and its interaction with the primary vortex and (b) enhanced vorticity diffusion due to increased terrain-induced turbulence. The implications of

  7. Development of new tip-loss corrections based on vortex theory and vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Gaunaa, Mac


    A new analytical formulation of the tip-loss factor is established based on helical vortex lament solutions. The derived tip-loss factor can be applied to wind-turbines, propellers or other rotary wings. Similar numerical formulations are used to assess the influence of wake expansion on tip...

  8. The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirao K.


    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.

  9. Numerical investigation of vortex shedding and vortex-induced vibration for flexible riser models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Shou Chen


    Full Text Available The numerical study about the vortex-induced vibration and vortex shedding in the wake has been presented. Prior to the numerical simulation of flexible riser systems concerning engineering conditions, efficiency validating of the proposed FSI solution method have been performed. The comparison between numerical simulation and published experimental data shows that the CFD method designed for FSI solution could give acceptable result for the VIV prediction of flexible riser/pipe system. As meaningful study on VIV and vortex shedding mode with the focus on flexible riser model systems, two kinds of typical simulation cases have been carried out. One was related to the simulation of vortex visualization in the wake for a riser model subject to forced oscillation, and another was related to the simulation of fluid-structure interaction between the pipes of coupled multi-assembled riser system. The result from forced oscillation simulation shows that the vortex-induced vibration with high response frequency but small instantaneous vibration amplitude contributes to vortex conformation as much as the forced oscillation with large normalized amplitude does, when the frequency of forced oscillation was relatively high. In the multi-assembled riser systems, it has been found that the external current velocity and the distance between two pipes are the critical factors to determine the vibration state and the steady vibration state emerging in quad-pipe system may be destroyed more easily than dual-pipe system.

  10. Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction (United States)

    Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.


    Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of

  11. Yaw-modelling using a skewed vortex cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre


    The cylindrical vortex wake model presented in Chap. 17 for the case of uniform inflow is extended in the current chapter to the case of yawed inflow. Generalities regarding yaw are presented in Sect. 6.1 and only the skewed cylindrical vortex model is presented in this chapter. The chapter starts...... and the root vortex are skewed with respect to the normal of the rotor disk. Closed form formulae for the induced velocities are provided. They can only be evaluated analytically for a limited part of the domain. A numerical integration is required to obtain the velocity everywhere in the domain. The numerical...... titled “Cylindrical vortex wake model: skewed cylinder, application to yawed or tilted rotors� (Branlard, Gaunaa, Wind Energy, 2015, [1]). Details on the mathematical derivations used in this chapter are provided in Chap. 38. Results from this chapter are applied in Chap. 22 to derive a new yaw...

  12. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Models for Aircraft Wake Prediction: User's Guide (APA3.8 and TDP2.1) (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew J.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.


    NASA's current distribution of fast-time wake vortex decay and transport models includes APA (Version 3.8) and TDP (Version 2.1). This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and model outputs. A brief description of the Memphis 1995, Dallas/Fort Worth 1997, and the Denver 2003 wake vortex datasets is given along with the evaluation of models. A detailed bibliography is provided which includes publications on model development, wake field experiment descriptions, and applications of the fast-time wake vortex models.

  13. Stabilization of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder using harmonic forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamoun, George Chaouki; Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten


    We explore whether vortex flows in the wake of a fixed circular cylinder can be stabilized using harmonic forcing. We use Fo¨ppl's point vortex model augmented with a harmonic point source-sink mechanism which preserves conservation of mass and leaves the system Hamiltonian. We discover a region...

  14. Effect of nacelle on wake meandering in a laboratory scale wind turbine using LES (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Wake meandering, large scale motion in the wind turbine wakes, has considerable effects on the velocity deficit and turbulence intensity in the turbine wake from the laboratory scale to utility scale wind turbines. In the dynamic wake meandering model, the wake meandering is assumed to be caused by large-scale atmospheric turbulence. On the other hand, Kang et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2014) demonstrated that the nacelle geometry has a significant effect on the wake meandering of a hydrokinetic turbine, through the interaction of the inner wake of the nacelle vortex with the outer wake of the tip vortices. In this work, the significance of the nacelle on the wake meandering of a miniature wind turbine previously used in experiments (Howard et al., Phys. Fluid, 2015) is demonstrated with large eddy simulations (LES) using immersed boundary method with fine enough grids to resolve the turbine geometric characteristics. The three dimensionality of the wake meandering is analyzed in detail through turbulent spectra and meander reconstruction. The computed flow fields exhibit wake dynamics similar to those observed in the wind tunnel experiments and are analyzed to shed new light into the role of the energetic nacelle vortex on wake meandering. This work was supported by Department of Energy DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), and Sandia National Laboratories. Computational resources were provided by Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Minnesota Supercomputing.

  15. Empirical modeling of single-wake advection and expansion using full-scale pulsed lidar-based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels


    and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison shows good agreement between the measured average expansion and the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) large eddy simulation–actuator line computations. Frandsen’s expansion model seems to predict the wake expansion......In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single...

  16. Wake meandering statistics of a model wind turbine: Insights gained by large eddy simulations (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Wind tunnel measurements in the wake of an axial flow miniature wind turbine provide evidence of large-scale motions characteristic of wake meandering [Howard et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 075103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4923334]. A numerical investigation of the wake, using immersed boundary large eddy simulations able to account for all geometrical details of the model wind turbine, is presented here to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of the wake and the mechanisms controlling near and far wake instabilities. Similar to the findings of Kang et al. [Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.82], an energetic coherent helical hub vortex is found to form behind the turbine nacelle, which expands radially outward downstream of the turbine and ultimately interacts with the turbine tip shear layer. Starting from the wake meandering filtering used by Howard et al., a three-dimensional spatiotemporal filtering process is developed to reconstruct a three-dimensional meandering profile in the wake of the turbine. The counterwinding hub vortex undergoes a spiral vortex breakdown and the rotational component of the hub vortex persists downstream, contributing to the rotational direction of the wake meandering. Statistical characteristics of the wake meandering profile, along with triple decomposition of the flow field separating the coherent and incoherent turbulent fluctuations, are used to delineate the near and far wake flow structures and their interactions. In the near wake, the nacelle leads to mostly incoherent turbulence, while in the far wake, turbulent coherent structures, especially the azimuthal velocity component, dominate the flow field.

  17. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán shedding and deflected vortex shedding) are observed over this parameter range. The vorticity decreases substantially over a distance of two chord-lengths. The velocity profile indicates a jet-like flow downstream of the airfoil. It is shown that the jet-like flow downstream of the ...

  18. An Analytical Model of Wake Deflection Due to Shear Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Sant, T.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The main motivation behind this work is to create a purely analytical engineering model for wind turbine wake upward deflection due to shear flow, by developing a closed form solution of the velocity field due to an oblique vortex ring. The effectiveness of the model is evaluated by comparing the

  19. Coupled particle dispersion by three-dimensional vortex structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troutt, T.R.; Chung, J.N.; Crowe, C.T.


    The primary objective of this research program is to obtain understanding concerning the role of three-dimensional vortex structures in the dispersion of particles and droplets in free shear flows. This research program builds on previous studies which focused on the nature of particle dispersion in large scale quasi two-dimensional vortex structures. This investigation employs time dependent experimental and numerical techniques to provide information concerning the particulate dispersion produced by three dimensional vortex structures in free shear layers. The free shear flows investigated include modified plane mixing layers, and modified plane wakes. The modifications to these flows involve slight perturbations to the initiation boundary conditions such that three-dimensional vortex structures are rapidly generated by the experimental and numerical flow fields. Recent results support the importance of these vortex structures in the particle dispersion process.

  20. Flow visualization of the wake of a transport aircraft model with lateral-control oscillations (United States)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.


    An exploratory flow visualization study conducted in the Langley Vortex Research Facility to investigate the effectiveness of lateral control surface oscillations as a potential method for wake vortex attenuation on a 0.03 scale model of a wide body jet transport aircraft is described. Effects of both asymmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move as with normal lateral control inputs) and symmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move in phase) are presented. The asymmetric case simulated a flight maneuver which was previously investigated on the transport aircraft during NASA/FAA flight tests and which resulted in substantial wake vortex attenuation. Effects on the model wake vortex systems were observed by propelling the model through a two dimensional smoke screen perpendicular to the model flight path. Results are presented as photographic time histories of the wake characteristics recorded with high speed still cameras. Effects of oscillation on the wake roll up are described in some detail, and the amount of vortex attenuation observed is discussed in comparative terms. Findings were consistent with flight test results in that only a small amount of rotation was observed in the wake for the asymmetric case. A possible aerodynamic mechanism contributing to this attenuation is suggested.

  1. Warning Signs After Birth (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please ... infection Postpartum bleeding Postpartum depression (PPD) What warning signs should you look for? Call your provider if ...

  2. Numerical Analysis of Tip Cavitation on Marine Propeller with Wake Alignment Using a Simple Surface Panel Method “SQCM” (United States)

    Kanemaru, T.; Ando, J.


    This paper presents the calculation method of tip cavitation with wake alignment. Tip cavitation consists of tip vortex cavitation and tip super cavitation which means the undeveloped and local super cavitation around blade tip. The feature of this study is that the method applies the wake alignment model in order to express the realistic phenomena of tip cavitation and predict the pressure fluctuation more accurately. In the present method, the wake sheet is deformed according to the induced velocity vector on the vortex lines. The singularity of the potential vortex can be removed by using the Rankine Vortex model. This paper shows the calculated results regarding cavitation pattern, pressure fluctuation etc. comparing with published experimental data and calculated results without wake alignment.

  3. The near wake structure and the development of vorticity behind a model horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, P.; Wood, D. [The Univ. of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Callaghan (Australia)


    The wake of a two bladed model HAWT operating at zero yaw angle and in a steady flow in a wind tunnel was measured using hot wire probes. By phase locked averaging and moving the probe axially and radially the full three dimensional mean flow file was determined. All measurements were within two chord lengths of the blades and at tip speed ratios giving high turbine power output, a condition approaching runaway, and a stalled condition. For all tip speed ratios the wakes were significantly three dimensional. Large velocity variations were associated with vortex structures in the wakes, and irrotational fluctuations caused by the blade bound circulation. The vorticity clearly defined the hub and tip vortices that traced helical paths downstream, with the constant tip vortex pitch inversely proportional to tip speed ratio. Close to the blades the flow was complicated, though vortex roll-up was completed within one chord length. Considerable changes in wake structure occurred with tip speed ratio. At high power output the wake showed tip and hub vortices connected by a diffuse vortex sheet of mostly radial vorticity from the blade boundary layers; blade bound circulation was almost constant. The structure approaching runaway was similar though the hub vortex was not well defined and formed a vortex sheet around the hub which lifted away and diffused. The stalled condition was more complicated, with evidence of incomplete tip and hub vortex formation. The stream-wise velocity of the tip vortex core decreased with increasing tip speed ratio, but this was never aligned with local streamlines. The core of the tip vortex was not circular but more elliptical. A phase locked averaged angular momentum analysis was undertaken, the extra terms introduced through phase locked averaging were small. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Characterizing cylinder and hydrofoil wake dynamics (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Morten; Seim, Bjarte G.; Arndt, Roger E. A.


    A number of high speed PIV measurements of wakes trailing a NACA 0015, c=0.081m, and a cylinder D= 0.0127m, in the speed range 2 through 9 m/s have been made in the high speed water tunnel at SAFL- UMN. The cylinder vortex shedding follows closely St=0.2, while that off the hydrofoil is more irregular. Although the hydrofoil shows a more irregular nature a measure for both shedding frequencies and vortex strength of is of great interest also for drag analysis. The direct approach mapping individual structures, e.g. vorticity based analysis, can be obscured by the quality of the measurements made, hence other methods to reveal frequency and strength are in demand. A study were the mapping of time variation of the main flow direction impulse flux integrated over the wake at, minimum two, downstream positions has been made. A cross-correlation analysis of the impulse flux can reveal structure transport speeds, the frequency spectrum will reflect the shedding frequency, while the temporal variation represents the strength. For the hydrofoil it's shown that a significant cross- correlation is present. In terms of spectra even the more structured shedding from cylinders are hard to capture, and finally the vortex strength found using the cited algorithm seems somewhat unreliable. A thorough comparison between the suggested measure and traditional measures is given.

  5. Towards physics-based operational modeling of the unsteady wind turbine response to atmospheric and wake-induced turbulence (United States)

    Marichal, Y.; De Visscher, I.; Chatelain, P.; Winckelmans, G.


    The objective of the present work is to develop a tool able to predict, in a computationally affordable way, the unsteady wind turbine power production and loads as well as its wake dynamics, as a function of the turbine dynamics and incoming wind conditions. Based on the lessons learned from a previous study about the characterization of the unsteady wake dynamics, the framework for an operational wake model is presented. The approach relies on an underlying vorticity-based skeleton consisting of different components, such as a regularized Vortex Sheet Tube (VST) and Vortex Dipole Line (VDL). Physically based evolution equations, accounting for the various flow phenomena occurring in the wake (such as advection, turbulent diffusion/core spreading, source/sink terms, etc.), are then derived. Once calibrated, the wake model is shown to be in good agreement with results of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) obtained using an Immersed Lifting Line-enabled Vortex Particle-Mesh method.

  6. An experimental investigation of vortex stability, tip shapes, compressibility, and noise for hovering model rotors (United States)

    Tangler, J. L.; Wohlfeld, R. M.; Miley, S. J.


    Schlieren methods of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry for velocity measurements were used to investigate the wakes generated by hovering model propellers and rotors. The research program was directed toward investigating (1) the stability of the tip vortex, (2) the effects produced by various tip shapes on performance and tip vortex characteristics, and (3) the shock formation and noise characteristics associated with various tip shapes. A free-wake analysis was also conducted for comparison with the vortex stability experimental results. Schlieren photographs showing wake asymmetry, interaction, and instability are presented along with a discussion of the effects produced by the number of blades, collective pitch, and tip speed. Two hot-wire anemometer techniques, used to measure the maximum circumferential velocity in the tip vortex, are discussed.

  7. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke


    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  8. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.


    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions...

  9. A full potential rotor analysis with wake influence using an inner-outer domain technique (United States)

    Egolf, T. A.; Sparks, S. P.


    A three-dimensional, quasi-steady, full potential flow solver was adapted to include realistic rotor wake influence for the aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors. The method uses an inner/outer domain technique to accommodate wake effects. Nonlinear flow is computed in the inner domain using a finite difference solution method. The wake is modeled using prescribed wake techniques to allow for the inclusion of realistic wake geometries. Portions of the wake passing inside the inner domain are treated using an embedded vortex technique. The procedure couples the wake influence with the inner domain solution in a consistent and efficient solution process. Correlation with measured lifting transonic data in hover and forward flight is shown which demonstrates the merits of the approach.

  10. Wake structure and hydrodynamic performance of flapping foils mimicking fish fin kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Liu


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are used to investigate the wake structure and hydrodynamic performance of bionic flapping foils. The study is motivated by the quest to understand the fluid dynamics of fish fins and use it in the underwater propulsion. The simulations employ an immersed boundary method that makes it possible to simulate flows with complex moving boundaries on fixed Cartesian grids. A detailed analysis of the vortex topology shows that the wake of flapping foils is dominated by two sets of complex shaped vortex rings that convect at oblique angles to the wake centerline. The wake of these flapping foils is characterized by two oblique jets. Simulations are also used to examine the wake vortex and hydrodynamic performance over a range of Strouhal numbers and maximum pitch angles and the connection between the foil kinematics, vortex dynamics and force production is discussed. The results show that the variety law of the hydrodynamic performance with kinematic parameters strongly depends on the flow dynamics underlying the force production, including the orientation, interconnection and dissipation rate of the vortex rings.

  11. Automatic Tip Vortex Core Profiling for Numerical Flow Simulations of Rotorcraft in Hover (United States)

    Kao, David L.; Chaderjian, Neal M.


    An automated approach is presented that extracts visual and quantitative data from vortex cores produced by Navier-Stokes simulations of rotorcraft in hover mode. This approach extracts contiguous rotor tip vortex-core trajectories, cross-flow velocity profiles, and vortex-core diameter variation with wake age (azimuth angle). This automated approach is faster and more accurate than a conventional manual approach. Moreover, this new approach allows for an efficient way to quantitatively compare vortex-core profiles from different flow simulations, e.g., grid resolution studies, and validate computed results with experimental data

  12. Application of engineering models to predict wake deflection due to a tilted wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac

    such a mechanism introduces control complications due to changing wind directions. Deflecting the wake in the vertical direction using tilt, on the other hand, overcomes this challenge. In this paper, the feasibility of steering wake is explored in a simple uniform inflow case. This is done by trying to model...... the wake deflection as a function of the yaw/tilt angle and the rotor thrust, initially using the momentum and vortex theories. Thereafter, a relatively more promising empirical model based on a set of actuator disc CFD computations is proposed. Finally, comments are made on the feasibility of wake control...

  13. Application of engineering models to predict wake deflection due to a tilted wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac


    such a mechanism introduces control complications due to changing wind directions. Deflecting the wake in the vertical direction using tilt, on the other hand, overcomes this challenge. In this paper, the feasibility of steering wake is explored in a simple uniform inflow case. This is done by trying to model...... the wake deflection as a function of the yaw/tilt angle and the rotor thrust, initially using the momentum and vortex theories. Thereafter, a relatively more promising empirical model based on a set of actuator disc CFD computations is proposed. Finally, comments are made on the feasibility of wake control...

  14. Dynamics of vortices in complex wakes: Modeling, analysis, and experiments (United States)

    Basu, Saikat

    The thesis develops singly-periodic mathematical models for complex laminar wakes which are formed behind vortex-shedding bluff bodies. These wake structures exhibit a variety of patterns as the bodies oscillate or are in close proximity of one another. The most well-known formation comprises two counter-rotating vortices in each shedding cycle and is popularly known as the von Karman vortex street. Of the more complex configurations, as a specific example, this thesis investigates one of the most commonly occurring wake arrangements, which consists of two pairs of vortices in each shedding period. The paired vortices are, in general, counter-rotating and belong to a more general definition of the 2P mode, which involves periodic release of four vortices into the flow. The 2P arrangement can, primarily, be sub-classed into two types: one with a symmetric orientation of the two vortex pairs about the streamwise direction in a periodic domain and the other in which the two vortex pairs per period are placed in a staggered geometry about the wake centerline. The thesis explores the governing dynamics of such wakes and characterizes the corresponding relative vortex motion. In general, for both the symmetric as well as the staggered four vortex periodic arrangements, the thesis develops two-dimensional potential flow models (consisting of an integrable Hamiltonian system of point vortices) that consider spatially periodic arrays of four vortices with their strengths being +/-Gamma1 and +/-Gamma2. Vortex formations observed in the experiments inspire the assumed spatial symmetry. The models demonstrate a number of dynamic modes that are classified using a bifurcation analysis of the phase space topology, consisting of level curves of the Hamiltonian. Despite the vortex strengths in each pair being unequal in magnitude, some initial conditions lead to relative equilibrium when the vortex configuration moves with invariant size and shape. The scaled comparisons of the

  15. Evidence of Vortex Jamming in Abrikosov Vortex Flux Flow Regime


    Karapetrov, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Mihajlović, G; Pearson, J. E.; Iavarone, M.; Novosad, V.; Bader, S. D.


    We report on dynamics of non-local Abrikosov vortex flow in mesoscopic superconducting Nb channels. Magnetic field dependence of the non-local voltage induced by the flux flow shows that vortices form ordered vortex chains. Voltage asymmetry (rectification) with respect to the direction of vortex flow is evidence that vortex jamming strongly moderates vortex dynamics in mesoscopic geometries. The findings can be applied to superconducting devices exploiting vortex dynamics and vortex manipula...

  16. Vortex profiles and vortex interactions at the electroweak crossover


    Chernodub, M.N.; Ilgenfritz, E. -M.; Schiller, A.


    Local correlations of Z-vortex operators with gauge and Higgs fields (lattice quantum vortex profiles) as well as vortex two-point functions are studied in the crossover region near a Higgs mass of 100 GeV within the 3D SU(2) Higgs model. The vortex profiles resemble certain features of the classical vortex solutions in the continuum. The vortex-vortex interactions are analogous to the interactions of Abrikosov vortices in a type-I superconductor.

  17. Volumetric visualization of the near- and far-field wake in flapping wings. (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Cheng, Bo; Barbera, Giovanni; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan


    The flapping wings of flying animals create complex vortex wake structure; understanding its spatial and temporal distribution is fundamental to animal flight theory. In this study, we applied the volumetric 3-component velocimetry to capture both the near- and far-field flow generated by a pair of mechanical flapping wings. For the first time, the complete three-dimensional wake structure and its evolution throughout a wing stroke were quantified and presented experimentally. The general vortex wake structure maintains a quite consistent form: vortex rings in the near field and two shear layers in the far field. Vortex rings shed periodically from the wings and are linked to each other in successive strokes. In the far field, the shed vortex rings evolve into two parallel shear layers with dominant vorticity convected from tip and root vortices. The shear layers are nearly stationary in space compared to the periodic vortex rings shed in the near field. In addition, downwash passes through the centers of the vortex rings and extends downward between the two shear layers.

  18. On the formation modes in vortex interaction for multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings (United States)

    Qin, Suyang; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Yang


    Interaction among multiple vortices is of particular importance to biological locomotion. It plays an essential role in the force and energy capture. This study examines the motion and dynamics of multiple co-axial co-rotating vortex rings. The vortex rings, which have the same formation time, are successively generated in a piston-cylinder apparatus by accurately controlling the interval time. The flow fields are visualized by the finite-time Lyapunov exponent and then repelling Lagrangian coherent structures (r-LCSs) are determined. Two types of vortex interactions ("strong" and "weak") are defined by investigating the r-LCSs: a strong interaction is indicated by connected r-LCSs showing a channel for fluid transport (termed as a "flux window"); a weak interaction is indicated by disconnected r-LCSs between the vortex rings. For strong interaction, leapfrogging and merger of vortex rings can happen in the later stage of the evolution process; however, the rings are separated for weak interaction. Two distinct formation modes, the formation enhancement mode (FEM) and formation restraint mode (FRM), refer to the effect of one or multiple vortex ring(s) on the initial circulation of the subsequently formed vortex ring. In the FEM, the circulation of a vortex ring is larger than that of an isolated (without interaction) vortex ring. On the other hand, the situation is opposite in the FRM. A dimensionless number reflecting the interaction mechanism, "structure stretching number" S*, is proposed, which evaluates the induced effect of the wake vortices on the formation of a vortex ring. A limiting S* (SL*=(2 ±0.4 ) ×1 0-4) is the bifurcation point of the two formation modes. The augmentation of circulation reaches up to 10% for the FEM when S*SL*), the circulation decreases for at most 20%. The newly defined formation modes and number could shed light on the understanding of the dynamics of multiple vortex ring flows.

  19. Warning systems and public warning response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.


    This background paper reviews current knowledge on warning systems and human response to warnings. It expands on an earlier paper prepared for a workshop on the Second Assessment on Natural Hazards, held in Estes Park, Colorado in July 1992. Although it has a North American perspective, many of the lessons learned are universally applicable. The paper addresses warning systems in terms of dissemination and does not cover physical science issues associated with prediction and forecast. Finally, it covers hazards with relatively short lead times -- 48 hours or less. It does not address topics such as long-term forecasts of earthquakes or volcanic eruptions or early famine warning systems.

  20. Determination of wind-turbine-wake centerline for the analysis of the wake-meandering phenomenon (United States)

    Coudou, Nicolas; Chatelain, Philippe; van Beeck, Jeroen; Bricteux, Laurent


    The oscillatory motion of wind turbine wakes, also known as wake meandering, is crucial in wind farms as it increases unsteady loading, in particular yawing moments, on downstream turbines. The study of this phenomenon requires, as a first step, the determination of the position of the wake. Therefore, the aim of this work is to compare different techniques to detect the wake centerline based on the velocity/momentum deficit inside the wake or on the estimation of azimuthal vorticity centroids. These techniques are applied to the data obtained from Large-Eddy simulations of the NREL 5-MW wind turbine. The computations were performed with a vortex-particle mesh code with the wind turbine rotor modeled by means of immersed lifting lines. This study constitutes a first step towards the understanding of meandering mechanisms and its accurate operational modeling. Nicolas Coudou is funded by the ``Fonds pour la Formation - la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture'' (FRIA), Belgium.

  1. An Aeroelastic Perspective of Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Formation and Instability (United States)

    Rodriguez, Steven N.; Jaworski, Justin W.


    The wake formation and wake stability of floating offshore wind turbines are investigated from an aeroelastic perspective. The aeroelastic model is composed of the Sebastian-Lackner free-vortex wake aerodynamic model coupled to the nonlinear Hodges-Dowell beam equations, which are extended to include the effects of blade profile asymmetry, higher-order torsional effects, and kinetic energy components associated with periodic rigid-body motions of floating platforms. Rigid-body platform motions are also assigned to the aerodynamic model as varying inflow conditions to emulate operational rotor-wake interactions. Careful attention is given to the wake formation within operational states where the ratio of inflow velocity to induced velocity is over 50%. These states are most susceptible to aerodynamic instabilities, and provide a range of states about which a wake stability analysis can be performed. In addition, the stability analysis used for the numerical framework is implemented into a standalone free-vortex wake aerodynamic model. Both aeroelastic and standalone aerodynamic results are compared to evaluate the level of impact that flexible blades have on the wake formation and wake stability.

  2. Wake modeling and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, howev...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...

  3. Wake Expansion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre


    Different models of wake expansion are presented in this chapter: the 1D momentum theory model, the cylinder analog model and Theodorsen’s model. Far wake models such as the ones from Frandsen or Rathmann or only briefly mentioned. The different models are compared to each other. Results from thi...... this chapter are used in Chap. 16 to link near-wake and far-wake parameters and in Chap. 20 to study the influence of expansion on tip-losses....

  4. Vortex Formation Behind an Inclined 2-Dimensional Thin Flat Plate (United States)

    Mohebi, Meraj; Wood, David H.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.


    Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry was used to measure the turbulent wake of a 2D flat plate inclined relative to a uniform stream as a heuristic model for airfoils and wind turbine blades at high incidence. Phase Averaging was performed to study the vortex dynamics and relate these to the force characteristics. Below 90°, immediately behind the plate, rounder and more organized trailing edge vortices form which possess higher circulation and are associated with higher Reynolds stresses than the counter-rotating, weaker and elongated leading edge vortices. The quasi-periodically shed vortices on the sides of the wake decay in strength at different rates to reach a circulation ratio of -1 within a distance less than 5 chords downstream of the plate for all angles. This equalization of vortex strength is related to an increase in turbulence diffusion, due to mostly-incoherent 3-dimensionality which progressively increases as the inclination angle is reduced, and convective transfer of vorticity between counter-rotating vortices. The wake experiences a sudden change in vortex formation mechanism at around 40°. At this angle, the frequency analysis on the signals of a pair of micro-pressure transducers in the wake also shows a discontinuity in the trends. This work was supported by NSERC Discovery grants to R. J. Martinuzzi and D. H. Wood.

  5. Gender and Early Warning


    Schmeidl, Susanne


    This paper argues that the introduction of gender into early warning will lead to more practical, realistic and usable early warning approaches, especially if early warning is understood as a flexible system that is sensitive to the diverse situations or on the ground necessitating customised solution. A gender-sensitive approach can enhance early warning models in their basic assumption (what we consider as important or not and the questions we are asking), in their modelling (incorporating ...

  6. Numerical Analysis of the Unsteady Propeller Performance in the Ship Wake Modified By Different Wake Improvement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugalski Tomasz


    Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.

  7. Unsteady wake of a rotating tire (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Xu, Hui; Sherwin, Spencer; Sherwin Lab Team


    For open wheel race-cars, such as IndyCar and Formula One, the wheels are responsible for 40% of the total drag. For road cars drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 60% of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two or three pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative importance of which still remains an open question, that interact to form a complex wake. Traditional RANS based methods are typically not well equipped to deal with such highly unsteady flows which motivates research into more physical, unsteady models. Leveraging a high-fidelity spectral/hp element based method a Large Eddy Simulation is performed to give further insight into unsteady characteristics of the wake. In particular the unsteady nature of both the jetting and top vortex pair is reported as well as the time and length scales associated with the vortex core trajectories. Correlation with experimentally obtained particle image velocimetry is presented. The authors acknowledge support from the United Kingdom Turbulence Consortium (UKTC) as well as from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for access to ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Kalugin


    Full Text Available The paper shows possibility of implementing the open source CFD software package OpenFOAM for calculation of unsteady vortex flows in researching of flow past cylinder with plate. Flow structure and aerodynamic characteristics have been obtained, and evaluation of the perturbations caused by the vortex shedding from the surface of cylinder has been conducted. Method of flow control in the region of the near wake has been proposed.

  9. 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server


    This volume collects various contributions from the 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows (ICJWSF2015) that took place in Stockholm during June 2015. Researchers from all around the world presented their latest results concerning fundamental and applied aspects of fluid dynamics. With its general character, the conference embraced many aspects of fluid dynamics, such as shear flows, multiphase flows and vortex flows, for instance. The structure of the present book reflects the variety of topics treated within the conference i.e. Jets, Wakes, Separated flows, Vehicle aerodynamics, Wall-bounded and confined flows, Noise, Turbomachinery flows, Multiphase and reacting flows, Vortex dynamics, Energy-related flows and a section dedicated to Numerical analyses.

  10. Hydrodynamic Vortex on Surfaces (United States)

    Ragazzo, Clodoaldo Grotta; de Barros Viglioni, Humberto Henrique


    The equations of motion for a system of point vortices on an oriented Riemannian surface of finite topological type are presented. The equations are obtained from a Green's function on the surface. The uniqueness of the Green's function is established under hydrodynamic conditions at the surface's boundaries and ends. The hydrodynamic force on a point vortex is computed using a new weak formulation of Euler's equation adapted to the point vortex context. An analogy between the hydrodynamic force on a massive point vortex and the electromagnetic force on a massive electric charge is presented as well as the equations of motion for massive vortices. Any noncompact Riemann surface admits a unique Riemannian metric such that a single vortex in the surface does not move ("Steady Vortex Metric"). Some examples of surfaces with steady vortex metric isometrically embedded in R^3 are presented.

  11. Linear instability in the wake of an elliptic wing (United States)

    He, Wei; Tendero, Juan Ángel; Paredes, Pedro; Theofilis, Vassilis


    Linear global instability analysis has been performed in the wake of a low aspect ratio three-dimensional wing of elliptic cross section, constructed with appropriately scaled Eppler E387 airfoils. The flow field over the airfoil and in its wake has been computed by full three-dimensional direct numerical simulation at a chord Reynolds number of Rec=1750 and two angles of attack, {AoA}=0° and 5°. Point-vortex methods have been employed to predict the inviscid counterpart of this flow. The spatial BiGlobal eigenvalue problem governing linear small-amplitude perturbations superposed upon the viscous three-dimensional wake has been solved at several axial locations, and results were used to initialize linear PSE-3D analyses without any simplifying assumptions regarding the form of the trailing vortex system, other than weak dependence of all flow quantities on the axial spatial direction. Two classes of linearly unstable perturbations were identified, namely stronger-amplified symmetric modes and weaker-amplified antisymmetric disturbances, both peaking at the vortex sheet which connects the trailing vortices. The amplitude functions of both classes of modes were documented, and their characteristics were compared with those delivered by local linear stability analysis in the wake near the symmetry plane and in the vicinity of the vortex core. While all linear instability analysis approaches employed have delivered qualitatively consistent predictions, only PSE-3D is free from assumptions regarding the underlying base flow and should thus be employed to obtain quantitative information on amplification rates and amplitude functions in this class of configurations.

  12. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)


    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as

  13. Streamlining Tsunami Messages (e.g., Warnings) of the US National Tsunami Warning Center, Palmer, Alaska (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.; Johnston, D. M.


    Spurred in part by world-wide interest in improving warning messaging for and response to tsunamis in the wake of several catastrophic tsunamis since 2004 and growing interest at the US National Weather Service (NWS) to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program, the NWS Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii have made great progress toward enhancing tsunami messages. These include numerous products, among them being Tsunami Warnings, Tsunami Advisories and Tsunami Watches. Beginning in 2010 we have worked with US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Warning Coordination and Mitigation and Education Subcommittee members; Tsunami Program administrators; and NWS Weather Forecast Officers to conduct a series of focus group meetings with stakeholders in coastal areas of Alaska, American Samoa, California, Hawaii, North Carolina, Oregon, US Virgin Islands and Washington to understand end-user perceptions of existing messages and their existing needs in message products. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a Tsunami Warning Message Metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order, Formatting, and Receiver Characteristics. A sample message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met, whether the message is a full length or short message. Incrementally, this work contributed to revisions in the format, content and style of message products issued by the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC). Since that time, interest in short warning messages has continued to increase and in May 2016 the NTWC began efforts to revise message products to take advantage of recent NWS policy changes allowing use of mixed-case text

  14. Numerical modelling of the Concorde wake during ZEBRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierens, K. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere


    Numerical simulations of the Concorde contrail during the ZEBRE experiment have been performed. The main goal of the simulations is to reproduce the fast vanishing of the contrail which disappeared 20-30 s after exhaust. It is difficult to evaporate ice crystals during the jet and vortex phase of the aircraft wake, when the exhaust products are trapped in the vortex cores. The trapping also excludes spatial dispersion of the ice crystals as an explanation of the short contrail lifetime. The disappearance of the contrail within 20-30 s requires that a substantial part of the exhaust gases escapes from the region that is later on trapped in the vortex cores. (author) 10 refs.

  15. Low-Cost LIDAR for Wake Vortex Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has been tasked with supporting the development of key technologies to facilitate the evolution of the National Airspace System to NextGen, the Next Generation...

  16. Numerical Investigation on Vortex Shedding from a Hydrofoil with a Beveled Trailing Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jae Lee


    study, we numerically investigated vortex shedding from various beveled trailing edges at a Reynolds number of 106. We then compared the numerical results with the experimental data, which show good agreement. We also conducted numerical simulations of wakes behind the hydrofoil at rest in periodically varying flows. Results reveal that vortex shedding is affected by the periodicity of a free-stream flow, as well as the trailing-edge shape.

  17. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig


    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. Cryptanalysis of Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian


    Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws...

  19. Visualization of the wake behind a sliding bubble (United States)

    O'Reilly Meehan, R.; Grennan, K.; Davis, I.; Nolan, K.; Murray, D. B.


    In this work, Schlieren measurements are presented for the wake of an air bubble sliding under a heated, inclined surface in quiescent water to provide new insights into the intricate sliding bubble wake structure and the associated convective cooling process. This is a two-phase flow configuration that is pertinent to thermal management solutions, where the fundamental flow physics have yet to be fully described. In this work, we present an experimental apparatus that enables high-quality Schlieren images for different bubble sizes and measurement planes. By combining these visualizations with an advanced bubble tracking technique, we can simultaneously quantify the symbiotic relationship that exists between the sliding bubble dynamics and its associated wake. An unstable, dynamic wake structure is revealed, consisting of multiple hairpin-shaped vortex structures interacting within the macroscopic area affected by the bubble. As vorticity is generated in the near wake, the bubble shape is observed to recoil and rebound. This also occurs normal to the surface and is particularly noticeable for larger bubble sizes, with a periodic ejection of material from the near wake corresponding to significant shape changes. These findings, along with their implications from a thermal management perspective, provide information on the rich dynamics of this natural flow that cannot be obtained using alternate experimental techniques.

  20. Numerical investigation of wake structures of slow-flying bats (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei


    Recently, some unique features of wake structure in bat flight have been revealed by experiments. It is found that the flow structure of bat flight is more complex than that of bird. A conceptual wake model of bat flight has been "rebuilt" using 2D DPIV images, but there is some risk of missing the details regarding dynamics of 3D vortex structures. Detailed flow information is still needed to understand the unsteady flow in bat flying. In this work, we perform 3D simulation of bat flying at the Reynolds number of 1000 (based on upstream flow and mean chord length) using the immersed boundary method. The geometry and wing-beat kinematics of bat are taken from the work of Watts et al (2001). The topology and evolution of the wake structures are described. The variation of topology in wake structures with the flapping Strouhal number is investigated. Moreover, the link between the generation of high lift and leading edge vortex is also studied.

  1. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E.S.; Kashevarov, A.V.; Stasenko, A.L. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)


    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  2. The role of wing kinematics of freely flying birds downstream the wake of flapping wings (United States)

    Krishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Gurka, Roi


    Avian aerodynamics has been a topic of research for centuries. Avian flight features such as flapping, morphing and maneuvering make bird aerodynamics a complex system to study, analyze and understand. Aerodynamic performance of the flapping wings can be quantified by measuring the vortex structures present in the downstream wake. Still, the direct correlation between the flapping wing kinematics and the evolution of wake features need to be established. In this present study, near wake of three bird species (western sandpiper, European starling and American robin) have been measured experimentally. Long duration, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry technique has been used to capture the wake properties. Simultaneously, the bird kinematics have been captured using high speed camera. Wake structures are reconstructed from the collected PIV images for long chord distances downstream. Wake vorticities and circulation are expressed in the wake composites. Comparison of the wake features of the three birds shows similarities and some key differences are also found. Wing tip motions of the birds are extracted for four continuous wing beat cycle to analyze the wing kinematics. Kinematic parameters of all the three birds are compared to each other and similar trends exhibited by all the birds have been observed. A correlation between the wake evolutions with the wing motion is presented. It was found that the wings' motion generates unique flow patterns at the near wake, especially at the transition phases. At these locations, a drastic change in the circulation was observed.

  3. Parallel discrete vortex methods for viscous flow simulation (United States)

    Takeda, Kenji

    In this thesis a parallel discrete vortex method is developed in order to investigate the long-time behaviour of bluff body wakes. The method is based on inviscid theory, and its extension to include viscous effects is a far from trivial problem. In this work four grid-free viscous models are directly compared to assess their accuracy and efficiency. The random walk, diffusion velocity, corrected core-spreading and vorticity redistribution methods are compared for simulating unbounded fluid flows, and for flows past an impulsively started cylinder at Reynolds numbers between 550 and 9500. The code uses a common core, so that the only free parameters are those directly related to the viscous models. The vorticity redistribution method encompasses all of the advantages of a purely Lagrangian method and incorporates a dynamic regridding scheme to maintain accurate discretisation of the vorticity field. This is used to simulate long-time flow past an impulsively started cylinder for Reynolds numbers 100, 150 and 1000. The code is fully parallel and achieves good speedup on both commodity and proprietary supercomputer systems. At Reynolds numbers below 150 the breakdown of the primary vortex street has been simulated. Results reveal a merging process, causing relaxation to a parallel shear flow. This itself sheds vortices, creating a secondary wake of increased wavelength. At Reynolds number 1000 the cylinder wake becomes chaotic, forming distinct vortex couples. These couples self-convect and can travel upstream. This has a destabilising effect on the vortex street, inducing merging, formation of tripolar and quadrupolar structures and, ultimately, spontaneous ejection of vortex couples upstream of the initial disturbance.

  4. HARP PRIA- Wake (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off of Wake Atoll in 2010. It has been recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time frames for information).

  5. Wake effects in Alsvik wind park: Comparison between measurements and predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Mikael [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Rados, K.G.; Pothou, K.P. [National Technical Univ., Athen (Greece). Fluid section


    In this paper characteristic parameters in a wind turbine wake are studied. The data used are full-scale measurements from a wind farm in Sweden, Alsvik, and results from a numerical model calculated for the same site. The results are valid for neutral stratification. The model employs a particle-vortex approach at the rotor plane, a Navier-Stokes solver in the near wake and applies self preservation in the far wake. The parameters investigated are the relative velocity deficit at centre line and hub height, and the radial distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy. 6 refs, 9 figs

  6. Analysis of the Induction and Wake Evolution of an Offshore Floating Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lackner


    Full Text Available The degrees-of-freedom associated with offshore floating wind turbines (OFWTs result in a more dynamic flow field. The resulting aerodynamic loads may be significantly influenced by these motions via perturbations in the evolving wake. This is of great interest in terms of OFWT design, placement and simulation. This study presents free vortex wake method (FVM simulations of the NREL 5-MW wind turbine of a variety of platforms, operating in a range of wind speeds synthesized platform motion time series. Motion-induced wake perturbations are observed to affect induction. Transitions between windmill and propeller states are also observed.

  7. Numerical Study of Wind Turbine Wake Modeling Based on a Actuator Surface Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Huai-yang; Xu, Chang; Han, Xing Xing


    In the Actuator Surface Model (ALM), the turbine blades are represented by porous surfaces of velocity and pressure discontinuities to model the action of lifting surfaces on the flow. The numerical simulation is implemented on FLUENT platform combined with N-S equations. This model is improved...... and far wake of a Nibe A wind turbine, which combines wake velocity, turbulent intensity and vortex structure. Results show that ASM has better prediction accuracy and verify it's feasibility on numerical simulation of wind turbine wake....

  8. Strongly Stratified Turbulence Wakes and Mixing Produced by Fractal Wakes (United States)

    Dimitrieva, Natalia; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Chashechkin, Yuli; Fraunie, Philippe; Velascos, David


    -stationary dynamicss and structure of stratified fluid flows around a wedge were also studied based of the fundamental equations set using numerical modeling. Due to breaking of naturally existing background diffusion flux of stratifying agent by an impermeable surface of the wedge a complex multi-level vortex system of compensatory fluid motions is formed around the obstacle. The flow is characterized by a wide range of values of internal scales that are absent in a homogeneous liquid. Numerical solution of the fundamental system with the boundary conditions is constructed using a solver such as stratifiedFoam developed within the frame of the open source computational package OpenFOAM using the finite volume method. The computations were performed in parallel using computing resources of the Scientific Research Supercomputer Complex of MSU (SRCC MSU) and the technological platform UniHUB. The evolution of the flow pattern of the wedge by stratified flow has been demonstrated. The complex structure of the fields of physical quantities and their gradients has been shown. Observed in experiment are multiple flow components, including upstream disturbances, internal waves and the downstream wake with submerged transient vortices well reproduced. Structural elements of flow differ in size and laws of variation in space and time. Rich fine flow structure visualized in vicinity and far from the obstacle. The global efficiency of the mixing process is measured and compared with previous estimates of mixing efficiency.

  9. A vortex model for Darrieus turbine using finite element techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, Fernando L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Electrotecnia, Grupo ISEP, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jacovkis, Pablo M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Computacion and Inst. de Calculo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Since 1970 several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus turbine. We can identify two families of models: stream-tube and vortex. The former needs much less computation time but the latter is more accurate. The purpose of this paper is to show a new option for modelling the aerodynamic behaviour of Darrieus turbines. The idea is to combine a classic free vortex model with a finite element analysis of the flow in the surroundings of the blades. This avoids some of the remaining deficiencies in classic vortex models. The agreement between analysis and experiment when predicting instantaneous blade forces and near wake flow behind the rotor is better than the one obtained in previous models. (Author)

  10. Reconstruction of three-dimensional coherent structures in turbulent wakes using planar measurements (United States)

    Yarusevych, Serhiy; Morton, Chris


    The present study is focused on reconstructing the dynamics of dominant three-dimensional coherent structures in turbulent wakes of complex cylindrical geometries using time-resolved, planar Particle-Image-Velocimetry data. As a test case, the turbulent wake of a low aspect ratio dual step cylinder model is considered. The model consists of a large diameter cylinder (D) of low aspect ratio (L / D) attached to the mid-span of a small diameter cylinder (d) . Experiments are performed in a water flume facility for ReD = 2100, D / d = 2, and L / D = 1. The investigated model produces cellular vortex shedding, with distinct variations in the average shedding frequency along the span of the model, and the associated complex vortex interactions. Time-resolved velocity measurements are acquired simultaneously in two mutually orthogonal planes at multiple planes along the span of the model. The technique involves conditional averaging of the planar results to produce three-dimensional reconstructions of wake topology for a given planar alignment of the dominant spanwise vortex filaments. This is achieved by identifying velocity fields matching a given flow-based template. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique can successfully reconstruct the dominant wake vortex interactions and can be extended to other flows where traditional phase-averaging approaches are not applicable. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for funding of this work.

  11. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...

  12. Wake Influence on Dynamic Load Characteristics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Minu; Lee, Soogab; Kim, Taeseong


    dynamic wake method, and unsteady vortex lattice method. The Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Hywind model is chosen for offshore floating wind-turbine simulation. Results show that the blade-element momentum theory underestimates the rotor torque and speed. Moreover, although responses...

  13. Velocity field and coherent structures in the near wake of a utility-scale wind turbine (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Dasari, Teja; Wu, Yue; Liu, Yun


    Super-large-scale particle image velocity (SLPIV) and the associated flow visualization technique using natural snowfall have been shown as an effective tool to probe turbulent velocity field and coherent structures around utility-scale wind turbines (Hong et al. Nature Comm. 2014). Here we present a follow-up study using the data collected during multiple deployments from 2014 to 2016 around the 2.5 MW turbine at EOLOS field station. The data include SLPIV measurements in the near wake of the turbine in a field of view of 120 m (height) x 60 m (width), and the visualization of tip vortex behavior near the bottom blade tip over a broad range of turbine operational conditions. SLPIV results indicate a highly intermittent flow field in the near wake, consisting of both intense wake expansion and contraction events. Such intermittent states of the near wake are shown to be influenced by both the incoming wind conditions and the turbine operation. The visualization of tip vortex behavior demonstrates the presence of the state of consistent vortex formation as well as various types of disturbed vortex states. The occurrence of these states is statistically analyzed and is shown to be correlated with turbine operational and response parameters under different field conditions. National Science Foundation Fluid Dynamics Program.

  14. Vortex dominated flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Lu; Knio, Omar M


    Addressed to both graduate students and researchers this monograph provides in-depth analyses of vortex dominated flows via matched and multiscale asymptotics, and it demonstrates how insight gained through these analyses can be exploited in the construction of robust, efficient, and accurate numerical techniques. The dynamics of slender vortex filaments is discussed in detail, including fundamental derivations, compressible core structure, weakly non-linear limit regimes, and associated numerical methods. Similarly, the volume covers asymptotic analysis and computational techniques for weakly compressible flows involving vortex generated sound and thermoacoustics.

  15. Identification of secondary instabilities in the near wake of a blunt trailing edge profiled body (United States)

    Cruikshank, Ross; Zhao, Wenyi; Lavoie, Philippe


    Aerodynamic research into blunt trailing edge (BTE) airfoils is driven by their structural and aerodynamic advantages over sharp trailing edge airfoils. However, the wake of BTE airfoils is dominated by a vortex street, which causes increased drag. One method to reduce the spanwise coherence of the vortex street is to generate streamwise vorticity in the wake. Recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of this control method can be improved by forcing at the same wavelength as a secondary instability (SI) of the vortex street, present at Reynolds numbers (based on airfoil thickness, d) above 470. The objective of the present study was to investigate the variation of the SI wavelength at 2000 effect of forcing on the wake topology. The velocity field in the wake of a BTE profiled model was measured using particle image velocimetry, and proper orthogonal decomposition was applied as a filter for measurement noise. It was found that, for a laminar boundary layer, the SI wavelength decreased as Red increased. Following boundary layer transition to turbulence, the SI wavelength was insensitive to Red . This study will also examine the effect of forcing at different wavelengths on the dominant spanwise wavelength of the wake velocity field. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  16. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre


    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...... is dedicated to vortex rings. Source rings are only briefly mentioned....

  17. The singing vortex. (United States)

    Arndt, R; Pennings, P; Bosschers, J; van Terwisga, T


    Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures.

  18. Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies (United States)

    Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

  19. Estimates of the initial vortex separation distance, bo, of commercial aircraft from pulsed lidar data (United States)


    An aircraft in flight generates multiple wake vortices, the largest of which are a result of : the lift on the wings. These vortices rapidly roll up into a counter-rotating vortex pair : behind the aircraft. The initial separation between the centroi...

  20. The turbulent decay of trailing vortex pairs in stably stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Baumann, R.


    The decay of trailing vortex pairs in thermally stably stratified environments is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. Results of in-situ measurements in the wakes of different aircraft are used to find appropriate intitializations for the simulation of wake turbulence in the quiescent atmosphere. Furthermore, cases with weak atmospheric turbulence are investigated. It is shown that the early development of the vortices is not affected by turbulence and develops almost identically as in 2D simulations. In a quiescent atmosphere the subsequent vortex decay is controlled by the interaction of short-wave disturbances, owing to the aircraft induced turbulence, and baroclinic vorticity, owing to stable stratification. As a consequence, vertical vorticity streaks between the vortices are induced which are substantially intensified by vortex stretching and finally lead to rapid turbulent wake-vortex decay. When in addition also atmospheric turbulence is present, the long-wave instability is dominantly promoted. For very strong stratification (Fr < 1) it is observed that wake vortices may rebound but lose most of their strength before reaching the flight level. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the predictive capabilities of Greene's approximate model. (orig.)

  1. Vortex-induced vibration of a slender single-span cylinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikou, N.


    The goal of this paper is to study the vortex-induced vibration of slender cylindrical structures. For this purpose, a 2D model that calculates the coupled cross-flow and in-line vibrations of a flexible single span beam is developed. A wake oscillator known to match well with free vibration

  2. Vortex methods to answer the need for improved understanding and modelling of tip-loss factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Dixon, Kristian; Gaunaa, Mac


    Standard blade element momentum (BEM) codes use Prandtl¿s tip-loss correction which relies on simplified vortex theory under the assumption of optimal operating condition and no wake expansion. The various tip-loss functions found in the literature are listed. A simple comparison between them sho...

  3. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Bingöl, Ferhat

    , concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power– and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct...... and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. Implementation of the methodology with aeroelastic codes is straight forward...

  4. An Experimental Study on the Effects ofWinglets on the Wake and Performance of a ModelWind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tobin


    Full Text Available Wind tunnel experiments were performed to investigate the effects of downstream-facing winglets on the wake dynamics, power and thrust of a model wind turbine. Two similar turbines with and without winglets were operated under the same conditions. Results show an increase in the power and thrust coefficients of 8.2% and 15.0% for the wingletted case. A simple theoretical treatment of a two-turbine system suggests a possible positive tradeoff between increasing power and thrust coefficients at a wind farm scale. The higher thrust coefficient created a region of enhanced mean shear and turbulence in the outer portion of the wake. The winglets did not significantly change the tip-vortex strength, but higher levels of turbulence in the far wake decreased the tip-vortex strength. Because of the increased mean shear in the wingletted turbine’s wake, the Reynolds stresses were higher, potentially leading to a higher energy flux downstream.

  5. Proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of vortex shedding behind a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Sharul Sham


    Full Text Available Turbulence studies were made in the wake of a rotating circular cylinder in a uniform free stream with the objective of describing the patterns of the vortex shedding up to suppression of the periodic vortex street at high velocity ratios, λ. The results obtained in the present study establish that shedding of Kármán vortices in a rotating circular cylinder-generated wake is modified by rotation of the cylinder. Alternate vortex shedding is highly visible when λ < 2.0 although the strength of the separated shear layers differ due to the rotation of the cylinder. The spectral density in the wakes indicate significant changes at λ = 2.0. The results indicate that the rotation of the cylinder causes significant disruption in the structure of the flow. Alternate vortex shedding is weak, distorted and close to being suppressed at λ = 2.0. It is clear that flow asymmetries will weaken vortex shedding, and when the asymmetries are significant enough, total suppression of a periodic street occurs. Particular attention was paid to the decomposition of the flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD. By analyzing this decomposition with the help of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV data, it was found that large scales contribute to the coherent motion. Vorticity structures in the modes become increasingly irregular with downstream distance, suggesting turbulent interactions are occurring at the more downstream locations, especially when the cylinder rotates.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of a laminar vortex ring (United States)

    James, S.; Madnia, C. K.


    Results are presented of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a viscous, laminar ring. The effects of different generator configurations and velocity programs on the formation and post-formation characteristics of the ring are studied. It is shown that during the formation phase of the ring, total circulation and impulse in the flowfield are approximately the same for the ``nozzle'' and ``orifice'' generators. It is also found that throughout this period the slug flow model under-predicts the total circulation in the flow. During the formation phase, the simulation results for the time evolution of total circulation and location of the vortex spiral center are in agreement with the experimental findings of Didden [J. Appl. Mech. Phys. (ZAMP) 30, 101 (1979)]. The results of the flow visualization studies show that during the post-formation phase a vortex bubble is formed. As the bubble propels itself forward a wake is formed in the rear of the bubble. The impulse and vorticity from the bubble are continuously shed into this wake. It is found that the total value of the circulation in the flow varies as (t1*)-0.33 which is consistent with Maxworthy's [J. Fluid Mech. 81, 465 (1977)] prediction of the decay of circulation for a vortex ring. The transport of a passive Shvab-Zeldovich scalar variable is used to study the mixing and to obtain the maximum product formation in a chemical reaction of the type A+B→Products in a vortex ring. It is found that as the bubble containing the fuel propels itself forward, the outside oxidizer flow is entrained into it and reacts to form a product. Some of this product then is de-entrained into the wake of the bubble.

  7. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.


    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake...

  9. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick


    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...

  10. Early warning scores. (United States)


    A free app available from the Apple App Store is aimed at supporting health professionals in Wales to use the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). The tool helps staff identify patients who are developing serious illness.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part I: from the airfoil performance to the very far wake (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Marichal, Yves; Winckelmans, Gregoire


    A vortex particle-mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES) of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied with respect to the VAWT geometry and its operating point. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.

  12. Low-Reynolds-number flow around a wall-mounted square cylinder: Flow structures and onset of vortex shedding (United States)

    Rastan, M. R.; Sohankar, A.; Alam, Md. Mahbub


    A direct numerical simulation is applied to investigate three-dimensional unsteady flow characteristics around a finite wall-mounted square cylinder with an aspect ratio of 7 at a Reynolds number (Re) of 40-250. Determination of Re for the onset of vortex shedding and Re influence on the wake structure and integral parameters are the major objectives of the current research. The results show that the vortex shedding inception occurs within the range of 75 topology and integral parameters. As such, the wake flow changes from a dipole to a quadrupole type, when the flow changes from steady to unsteady. A transition flow commences at Re = 150-200, where the wake instabilities are intensified with increasing Re, and the force signal oscillation alters from a sinusoidal to a chaotic type. Finally, the wake flow becomes turbulent at Re > 200.

  13. Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R


    Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.

  14. Vortex tube optimization theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, Jeffery [Cambridge Univ., Magdalene Coll., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bejan, Adrian [Duke Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Durham, NC (United States)


    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimisation can be undertaken. Two such optimisations are needed: the first shows that at any given cut or fraction of the cold stream, the best refrigerative load, allowing for the temperature lift, is nearly half the maximum loading that would result in no lift. The second optimisation shows that the optimum cut is an equal division of the vortex streams between hot and cold. Bounds are obtainable within this theory for the performance of the system for a given gas and pressure ratio. (Author)

  15. Vorticity and vortex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, M-D


    The importance of vorticity and vortex dynamics has now been well rec- nized at both fundamental and applied levels of ?uid dynamics, as already anticipatedbyTruesdellhalfcenturyagowhenhewrotethe?rstmonograph onthesubject, The Kinematics of Vorticity(1954);andasalsoevidencedby the appearance of several books on this ?eld in 1990s. The present book is characterizedbythefollowingfeatures: 1. A basic physical guide throughout the book. The material is directed by a basic observation on the splitting and coupling of two fundamental processes in ?uid motion, i.e., shearing (unique to ?uid) and compre- ing/expanding.Thevorticityplaysakeyroleintheformer,andavortex isnothingbuta?uidbodywithhighconcentrationofvorticitycompared to its surrounding ?uid. Thus, the vorticity and vortex dynamics is - cordinglyde?nedasthetheoryofshearingprocessanditscouplingwith compressing/expandingprocess. 2. A description of the vortex evolution following its entire life.Thisbegins from the generation of vorticity to the formation of thi...

  16. Quantum vortex reconnections (United States)

    Zuccher, S.; Caliari, M.; Baggaley, A. W.; Barenghi, C. F.


    We study reconnections of quantum vortices by numerically solving the governing Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that the minimum distance between vortices scales differently with time before and after the vortex reconnection. We also compute vortex reconnections using the Biot-Savart law for vortex filaments of infinitesimal thickness, and find that, in this model, reconnections are time symmetric. We argue that the likely cause of the difference between the Gross-Pitaevskii model and the Biot-Savart model is the intense rarefaction wave which is radiated away from a Gross-Pitaeveskii reconnection. Finally we compare our results to experimental observations in superfluid helium and discuss the different length scales probed by the two models and by experiments.

  17. About the effects of an oscillating miniflap upon the wake on an airfoil, all immersed in turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnero, J S; Maranon Di Leo, J; Colman, J; Camocardi, M; Garcia Sainz, M; Munoz, F, E-mail: [LaCLyFA, Departamento Aeronautica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)


    The present research analyzes the asymmetry in the rolling up shear layers behind the blunt trailing edge of an airfoil 4412 with a miniflap acting as active flow control device and its wake organization. Experimental investigations relating the asymmetry of the vortex flow in the near wake region, able to distort the flow increasing the downwash of an airfoil, have been performed. All of these in a free upstream turbulent flow (1.8% intensity). We examine the near wake region characteristics of a wing model with a 4412 airfoil without and with a rotating miniflap located on the lower surface, near the trailing edge. The flow in the near wake, for 3 x-positions (along chord line) and 20 vertical points in each x-position, was explored, for three different rotating frequencies, in order to identify signs of asymmetry of the initial counter rotating vortex structures. Experimental evidence is presented showing that for typical lifting conditions the shear layer rollup process within the near wake is different for the upper and lower vortices: the shear layer separating from the pressure side of the airfoil begins its rollup immediately behind the trailing edge, creating a stronger vortex while the shear layer from the suction side begins its rollup more downstream creating a weaker vortex. The experimental data were processed by classical statistics methods. Aspects of a mechanism connecting the different evolution and pattern of these initial vortex structures with lift changes and wake alleviating processes, due to these miniflaps, will be studied in future works.

  18. A wake-based correlate of swimming performance in seven jellyfish species (United States)

    Dabiri, John; Colin, Sean; Katija, Kakani; Costello, John


    Animal-fluid interactions have been hypothesized as a principal selective pressure on the evolution of aquatic and aerial animals. However, attempts to discover the fluid dynamic mechanisms that dictate the fitness of an animal---or even to quantify `fitness'---have been limited by an inability to measure the fluid interactions of freely moving animals (i.e., in the absence of tethers or artificial water/wind currents) in comparative studies of multiple species with similar evolutionary histories. We used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurements to calculate wake kinetic energy, drag, and swimming speed of the seven co-occurring species of free-swimming jellyfish. Using this new data, we demonstrate that the swimming and foraging behavior are related to a robust fluid dynamic threshold between two distinct configurations of the wake vortices. The transition between the two wake vortex configurations is known as optimal vortex formation, because it maximizes the fluid dynamic thrust generated for a given energy input (Krueger and Gharib, Phys. Fluids 2003). By comparing the observed wake structures created by each jellyfish species with the optimal vortex configuration, we are able to predict their relative swimming efficiencies and proficiencies and to deduce their corresponding ecological niches.

  19. Stability of helical tip vortices in a rotor far wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    , corresponding to Rankine, Gaussian and Scully vortices, at radial extents ranging from the core radius of a tip vortex to several rotor radii. The analysis shows that the stability of tip vortices largely depends on the radial extent of the hub vorticity as well as on the type of vorticity distribution. As part......As a means of analysing the stability of the wake behind a multi-bladed rotor the stability of a multiplicity of helical vortices embedded in an assigned flow field is addressed. In the model the tip vortices in the far wake are approximated by infinitely long helical vortices with constant pitch...... and radius. The work is a further development of a model developed in Okulov (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 521, p. 319) in which the linear stability of N equally azimuthally spaced helical vortices was considered. In the present work the analysis is extended to include an assigned vorticity field due to root...

  20. Wing Kinematics and Wake Velocity Characteristics of Bat Flight (United States)

    Swartz, Sharon


    Bats demonstrate unequalled flight characteristics and are capable of highly efficient flight as well as extreme maneuverability at high speeds. They have morphological properties that are unique in the animal world including jointed wings skeletons, elastic wing membranes and very complex wing motions. We report on a series of experiments on bats flying in a flight cage along both a straight path and through a 90-degree turn. Measurements of their kinematic wing motion (using high speed photography) and wake velocity structures (using stereo PIV) are reported. The live animal measurements are also interpreted with the help of a series of companion wind tunnel experiments using model structures that mimic some key features of bat flight mechanics. The results reveal a complex vortex wake structure which is compared and contrasted to that found in bird and insect flight.

  1. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  2. Early warning scores: a health warning. (United States)

    Challen, Kirsty; Roland, Damian


    Early warning scores are frequently used in UK adult emergency departments (EDs) and are gaining traction in paediatric emergency care. Like many innovations with inherent face validity, they have great appeal to clinicians, managers and commissioners. However, it is important to ensure unintended consequences and balancing measures are mitigated. We review the background to their development and introduction in the ED, the evidence for their usefulness, their limitations in our field and areas for further research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  3. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX


    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  4. Improving propulsive efficiency through passive mechanisms using a Starling vortex generator (United States)

    Whittlesey, Robert; Dabiri, John


    Ruiz et al. (2011) demonstrated that pulsed propulsion with vortex rings, much like those seen in the wake of jellyfish and squid, can greatly enhance the overall efficiency of submersible vehicles. The objective of the present research is to achieve pulsed propulsion passively using a Starling vortex generator which consists of a collapsible tube within an airtight box. Recent work has shown that a Starling vortex generator is able to generate vortex rings, which indicates enhanced propulsion, while requiring less energy to generate pulsatility than the system by Ruiz et al. (2011). Current work is focused on conducting an experimental parameter study to determine an empirical scaling law suitable for design purposes, with the aim to integrate the device into a full-scale unmanned undersea vehicle. Support is greatly appreciated from ONR Awards N000140810918 and N000141010137.

  5. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations (United States)

    Shakerin, Said


    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

  6. Dynamics of Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.


    This thesis describes the mechanisms with which tip vortex cavitation is responsible for broadband pressure fluctuations on ship propellers. Hypotheses for these are described in detail by Bosschers (2009). Validation is provided by three main cavitation-tunnel experiments, one on a model propeller

  7. Studying the wake contraction of the flow-field of a rotor in hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotov Filip


    flow-field of a rotor in hover and the net static thrust that is produced. The flow-field is induced by a series of vortex rings, modelling the near wake of the hovering rotor and a single semi-infinite vortex cylinder, accounting for the velocity deficit in the far wake. All three models are based on the vortex theory and differ in the choice of the numerical scheme for the estimation of the exact position of the vortex rings, emitted at the tips of the blades of the rotor. Thus, the numerical models perform a real-time simulation of the propagation of the vortex rings in the downwash. The first model uses an Euler-predictor scheme, while the second and third models use respectively first and second order predictor-corrector schemes. The aim of the study is to assess the rapidity and accuracy of each algorithm. For that purpose, the numerical results are compared with the experimental data, obtained from a wind tunnel test of the model rotor. The best results in terms of computational speed and accuracy are obtained with the use of Adams-Bashforth predictor-corrector scheme of second order.

  8. Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen


    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey

  9. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis


    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  10. Absolute/convective instabilities and spatial growth in a vortex pair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, D.; Cossu, C.; Jacquin, L. [ONERA, Chatillon (France)


    Airplane trailing vortices have a destabilizing effect on ensuing aircrafts. Security spacings, related to the trailing vortices ''lifetime'' are actually enforced between take-offs and landings. This spacing limits the maximum take-off and landing frequency in saturated airports. A number of studies have been devoted to the understanding of vortex wake dynamics, usually modeled by a pair of counter-rotating vortices. Two types of vortex pair three-dimensional instabilities have been identified in the past: a long-wave instability (of the order of the spacing b between the two vortices) and a short-wave instability have been first considered respectively by Crow and by Moore and Saffman and Tsai and Widnall. These two mechanisms, which are thought to participate in the vortex wake dissipation, have been observed in recent experiments. One possible technique to accelerate the dissipation of aircraft wakes is to force these instabilities by on-board control devices. Until now only temporal vortex pair instability analyses are available. If one wants to force these instabilities, however, it would be more appropriate to analyze their spatial stability in the airplane reference frame. As the spatial analysis makes sense only when the instabilities are convective, an absolute/convective stability analysis is required. The results presented consist of the absolute/convective and spatial stability analyses of both long- and short-wave instabilities. (orig.)

  11. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)


    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  12. Unsteady aerodynamics and vortex-sheet formation of a two-dimensional airfoil (United States)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.


    Unsteady inviscid flow models of wings and airfoils have been developed to study the aerodynamics of natural and man-made flyers. Vortex methods have been extensively applied to reduce the dimensionality of these aerodynamic models, based on the proper estimation of the strength and distribution of the vortices in the wake. In such modeling approaches, one of the most fundamental questions is how the vortex sheets are generated and released from sharp edges. To determine the formation of the trailing-edge vortex sheet, the classical Kutta condition can be extended to unsteady situations by realizing that a flow cannot turn abruptly around a sharp edge. This condition can be readily applied to a flat plate or an airfoil with cusped trailing edge since the direction of the forming vortex sheet is known to be tangential to the trailing edge. However, for a finite-angle trailing edge, or in the case of flow separation away from a sharp corner, the direction of the forming vortex sheet is ambiguous. To remove any ad-hoc implementation, the unsteady Kutta condition, the conservation of circulation, as well as the conservation laws of mass and momentum are coupled to analytically solve for the angle, strength, and relative velocity of the trailing-edge vortex sheet. The two-dimensional aerodynamic model together with the proposed vortex-sheet formation condition is verified by comparing flow structures and force calculations with experimental results for airfoils in steady and unsteady background flows.

  13. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor; Kabardin, I.


    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert’s optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between...... the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities...

  14. PIV and LDA measurements of the wake behind a wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Okulov, Valery


    =5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CLdesign= 0.8. The measurements include dye visualization, Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry. The wake instability has been studied in the range λ =3 – 9 at different cross-sections from the very near wake up to 10 rotor...... diameters downstream from the rotor. The initial flume flow was subject to a very low turbulence level with a uniform velocity profile, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent vortex instability. Using PIV measurements and visualizations, special attention was paid...

  15. Analysis of Axial Flow Ventilation Fans by Vortex - Method. (United States)

    Hardin, Richard Anthony

    A steady vortex-lattice method is used to solve the lifting surface equation for an axial flow fan. The type of fan studied is designed for industrial and ventilation applications and in thermofluid systems such as cooling towers. The fan blades are thin cambered surfaces manufactured from metal sheets. The numerical approach is inviscid and results in a boundary value problem with viscous effects partially accounted for by application of drag coefficient data. A non-linear wake alignment procedure is used to account for the effects of vorticity shedding in the wake and variation in wake geometry with operating conditions. The wake alignment procedure is semi-free with wake input parameters required for accurate use of the technique. A study of the wake parameters was conducted and gave trends in the variation of their values with flow rate. At "free-air" conditions, flow visualization estimates of these parameters were found to agree with those from the computations. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted fan performance with and without a surrounding duct. The comparison of the results were especially good at the "free-air" condition using wake parameters determined from flow visualization and an inlet velocity profile measured using hot-wire anemometry. To enable better understanding of basic flow phenomena and to provide data for verification of numerical analyses, a method for measuring unsteady surface pressure on a rotating axial-flow fan blade was devised. Unsteadiness of pressure on the blade surfaces is due to the effects of upstream fan motor supports and other installation features. A pressure transducer and signal amplification circuit were mounted on a circuit board at the rotating hub with signals taken off the rotating shaft through copper disk-mercury slip rings. The pressure difference across the blade was determined and the data were corrected for time lag and distortion caused by the length of tubing. The pressure difference

  16. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields (United States)

    Roux, Filippus S.


    Stochastic vortex fields are found in laser speckle, in scintillated beams propagating through a turbulent atmosphere, in images of holograms produced by Iterative Fourier Transform methods and in the beams produced by certain diffractive optical elements, to name but a few. Apart from the vortex fields found in laser speckle, the properties and dynamics of stochastic vortex fields are largely unexplored. Stochastic vortex fields with non-equilibrium initial conditions exhibit a surprisingly rich phenomenology in their subsequent evolution during free-space propagation. Currently there does not exist a general theory that can predict this behavior and only limited progress has thus far been made in its understanding. Curves of the evolution of optical vortex distributions during free-space propagation that are obtained from numerical simulations, will be presented. A variety of different stochastic vortex fields are used as input to these simulations, including vortex fields that are homogeneous in their vortex distributions, as well as inhomogeneous vortex fields where, for example, the topological charge densities vary sinusoidally along one or two dimensions. Some aspects of the dynamics of stochastic vortex fields have been uncovered with the aid of these numerical simulations. For example, the numerical results demonstrate that stochastic vortex fields contain both diffusion and drift motions that are driven by local and global variations in amplitude and phase. The mechanisms for these will be explained. The results also provide evidence that global variations in amplitude and phase are caused by variations in the vortex distributions, giving rise to feedback mechanisms and nonlinear behavior.

  17. Segmented trapped vortex cavity (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)


    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  18. Improvements in ECN Wake Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.

  19. Rotating Wheel Wake (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Xu, Hui; Moxey, Dave; Sherwin, Spencer


    For open wheel race-cars, such as Formula One, or IndyCar, the wheels are responsible for 40 % of the total drag. For road cars, drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 20 - 60 % of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two, three or more pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative strength of which still remains an open question. The near wake of an unsteady rotating wheel. The numerical investigation by means of direct numerical simulation at ReD =400-1000 is presented here to further the understanding of bifurcations the flow undergoes as the Reynolds number is increased. Direct numerical simulation is performed using Nektar++, the results of which are compared to those of Pirozzoli et al. (2012). Both proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, as well as spectral analysis are leveraged to gain unprecedented insight into the bifurcations and subsequent topological differences of the wake as the Reynolds number is increased.

  20. Superconducting Vortex with Antiferromagnetic Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arovas, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Berlinsky, A.J.; Kallin, C.; Zhang, S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    We show that a superconducting vortex in underdoped high T{sub c} superconductors could have an antiferromagnetic core. This type of vortex configuration arises as a topological solution in the recently constructed SO(5) nonlinear {sigma} model and in Landau-Ginzburg theory with competing antiferromagnetic and superconducting order parameters. Experimental detection of this type of vortex by muon spin resonance and neutron scattering is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  2. Relationship between the free shear layer, the wingtip vortex and aerodynamic efficiency (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Sidaard

    The overarching objective of this experimental investigation is to explore the relationship between the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing and its turbulent wake (both the free shear layer and the wingtip vortex). Recent evidence of unique turbulent signatures in the free shear layer of a turbulent generator provided the motivation behind this research. The balance of induced drag and the parasite drag was hypothesized to be mirrored in the properties of the wingtip vortex and the free shear layer respectively expanding from classical theoretical descriptions. Experimental investigations were focused on the wake of wings to understand this balance in the parasite and the induced drag and to explore the use of the properties in the turbulent wake to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. Because of the highly complex nature of the wake, the research is broken down into several individual sub-studies which explore a) the relationship between the aerodynamic efficiency and the free shear layer, b) the relationship between the aerodynamic efficiency and the wingtip vortex, and c) the relationship between the free shear layer and the wingtip vortex and their correlation to the aerodynamic efficiency. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the velocity in the wake of an SD 7003 wall-to-wall model and an AR 4 flat plate with and without a spanwise boundary layer trip in the Horizontal Free Surface Water Tunnel (HFWT) at the Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) and in the Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the University of Dayton (UD-LSWT). The results from experimental investigations were Reynolds decomposed to study the mean and fluctuating quantities in the wake of the wing. The initial prediction of these quantities in the wake of SD 7003 wall-to-wall model and AR 4 flat plate were made using the existing momentum deficit and Reynolds stress models (which are derived from simplified Navier-Stokes equations). Even though the momentum deficit model yielded a

  3. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)


    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  4. Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets (United States)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Kartuzova, Olga


    Motivation - Higher loading on Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoils: Reduce airfoil count, weight, cost. Increase efficiency, and Limited by suction side separation. Growing understanding of transition, separation, wake effects: Improved models. Take advantage of wakes. Higher lift airfoils in use. Further loading increases may require flow control: Passive: trips, dimples, etc. Active: plasma actuators, vortex generator jets (VGJs). Can increased loading offset higher losses on high lift airfoils. Objectives: Advance knowledge of boundary layer separation and transition under LPT conditions. Demonstrate, improve understanding of separation control with pulsed VGJs. Produce detailed experimental data base. Test and develop computational models.

  5. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex 'nanoliquid'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 66; Issue 1. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex ... By sweeping the applied magnetic field, the number of vortices in the nanodroplets is varied continuously from a few to several hundred. Upon cooling, the caged nanodroplets freeze into ordered ...

  6. Vortex-Surface Interactions: Vortex Dynamics and Instabilities (United States)


    Crow instability (see for example Leweke & Williamson, 2012). (b) Short-wave cooperative elliptic instability (Leweke & Williamson 1998). (c...vortex generators. Of interest in such studies would be the formation of secondary vorticity from the surface, the downstream vortex trajectories , and

  7. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, R.; Chen, Y.; Nikitopoulos, D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others


    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  8. The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon (United States)

    Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.


    Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…

  9. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan


    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  10. Design and analysis of small wind turbine blades with wakes similar to those of industrial scale turbines (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Arash; Naughton, Jonathan


    A new design approach has been developed for wind turbine blades to be used in wind tunnel experiments that study wind turbine wakes. The approach allows wakes of small scale (2 m diameter) wind turbine rotors to simulate the important physics of wakes generated by a "parent" industrial scale wind turbine rotor despite the difference in size. The design approach forces the normalized normal and tangential force distributions of the small scale wind turbine blades to match those of the "parent" industrial scale wind turbine blades. The wake arises from the interaction between the flow and the blade, which imparts a momentum deficit and rotation to the flow due to the forces created by the blade on the flow. In addition, the wake dynamics and stability are affected by the load distribution across the blade. Thus, it is expected that matching normalized force distributions should result in similar wake structure. To independently assess the blades designed using this approach, the "parent" industrial scale and small scale wind turbine rotors are modeled using a free vortex wake method to study the generation and evolution of the two wakes. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award # DE-SC0012671.

  11. GPU Based Fast Free-Wake Calculations For Multiple Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Rotors (United States)

    Türkal, M.; Novikov, Y.; Üşenmez, S.; Sezer-Uzol, N.; Uzol, O.


    Unsteady free-wake solutions of wind turbine flow fields involve computationally intensive interaction calculations, which generally limit the total amount of simulation time or the number of turbines that can be simulated by the method. This problem, however, can be addressed easily using high-level of parallelization. Especially when exploited with a GPU, a Graphics Processing Unit, this property can provide a significant computational speed-up, rendering the most intensive engineering problems realizable in hours of computation time. This paper presents the results of the simulation of the flow field for the NREL Phase VI turbine using a GPU-based in-house free-wake panel method code. Computational parallelism involved in the free-wake methodology is exploited using a GPU, allowing thousands of similar operations to be performed simultaneously. The results are compared to experimental data as well as to those obtained by running a corresponding CPU-based code. Results show that the GPU based code is capable of producing wake and load predictions similar to the CPU- based code and in a substantially reduced amount of time. This capability could allow free- wake based analysis to be used in the possible design and optimization studies of wind farms as well as prediction of multiple turbine flow fields and the investigation of the effects of using different vortex core models, core expansion and stretching models on the turbine rotor interaction problems in multiple turbine wake flow fields.

  12. Wake structure of an oscillating cylinder in a flowing soap film (United States)

    Stremler, Mark; Yang, Wenchao


    When a circular cylinder oscillates with respect to a uniform background flow, a variety of wake patterns can be observed in which multiple vortices are generated during each shedding cycle. Thorough investigations of the possible wake patterns behind a cylinder undergoing forced oscillations have been conducted by C.H.K. Williamson using two-dimensional characterization of a three-dimensional flow. Attempts to reproduce the structural bifurcations using two-dimensional computational models have been only moderately successful. A flowing soap film, an experimental system with quasi-two-dimensional flow, provides an alternative method for investigating the role of system dimensionality in the structure and dynamics of complex vortex wakes. Wake patterns are observed directly through interference fringes caused by thickness variations in the soap film. Such systems have been used for decades to visualize wake structure, but they have not previously been used to conduct an analog of Williamson's work. We will discuss the results of an ongoing parametric study of the wake structure produced by a circular cylinder undergoing forced oscillations transverse to the background flow in an inclined soap film system.

  13. Effect of chord-to-diameter ratio on vertical-axis wind turbine wake development (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Araya, Daniel B.; Leftwich, Megan C.


    The wake structure of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is strongly dependent on the tip-speed ratio, λ, or the tangential speed of the turbine blade relative to the incoming wind speed. The geometry of a turbine can influence λ, but the precise relationship among VAWT geometric parameters and VAWT wake characteristics remains unknown. To investigate this relationship, we present the results of an experiment to characterize the wakes of three VAWTs that are geometrically similar except for the ratio of the turbine diameter ( D), to blade chord ( c), which was chosen to be D/c = 3, 6, and 9. For a fixed freestream Reynolds number based on the blade chord of Re_c = 1.6× 10^3, both two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) and single-component hot-wire anemometer measurements are taken at the horizontal mid-plane in the wake of each turbine. PIV measurements are ensemble averaged in time and phase averaged with each rotation of the turbine. Hot-wire measurement points are selected to coincide with the edge of the shear layer of each turbine wake, as deduced from the PIV data, which allows for an analysis of the frequency content of the wake due to vortex shedding by the turbine.

  14. Wake Characteristics of a Flapping Wing Optimized for both Aerial and Aquatic Flight (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Kotidis, Miranda; Triantafyllou, Michael


    Multiple aquatic bird species (including murres, puffins, and other auks) employ a single actuator to propel themselves in two different fluid media: both flying and swimming using primarily their flapping wings. This impressive design compromise could be adopted by engineered implementations of dual aerial/aquatic robotic platforms, as it offers an existence proof for favorable flow physics. We discuss one realization of a 3D flapping wing actuation system for use in both air and water. The wing oscillates by the root and employs an active in-line motion degree-of-freedom. An experiment-coupled optimization routine generates the wing trajectories, controlling the unsteady forces throughout each flapping cycle. We elucidate the wakes of these wing trajectories using dye visualization, correlating the wake vortex structures with simultaneous force measurements. After optimization, the wing generates the large force envelope necessary for propulsion in both fluid media, and furthermore, demonstrate improved control over the unsteady wake.

  15. Investigation on the wake evolution of contra-rotating propeller using RANS computation and SPIV measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik


    Full Text Available The wake characteristics of Contra-Rotating Propeller (CRP were investigated using numerical simulation and flow measurement. The numerical simulation was carried out with a commercial CFD code based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations solver, and the flow measurement was performed with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV system. The simulation results were validated through the comparison with the experiment results measured around the leading edge of rudder to investigate the effect of propeller operation under the conditions without propeller, with forward propeller alone, and with both forward and aft propellers. The evolution of CRP wake was analyzed through velocity and vorticity contours on three transverse planes and one longitudinal plane based on CFD results. The trajectories of propeller tip vortex core in the cases with and without aft propeller were also compared, and larger wake contraction with CRP was confirmed.

  16. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.


    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  17. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.


    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  18. Vortex-vortex interactions in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates


    Schulte, T.; Santos, L.; Sanpera, A.; M. Lewenstein


    We analyze the vortex dynamics and vortex-vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in toroidal traps. We show that this particular geometry strongly distorts the vortex dynamics. The numerically calculated vortex trajectories are well explained by an analytical calculation based on image method and conformal mapping. Finally, the dissipation effects are discussed.

  19. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment (United States)


    and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered

  20. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome (United States)

    ... total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses its normal circadian cycle. People with changing ... least 3 abnormal sleep-wake episodes during a 24-hour period to be diagnosed with this problem. The ...

  1. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H


    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  2. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system is...

  3. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev


    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  4. Experimental investigation of vortex properties in a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Longmire, Ellen K.; Marusic, Ivan


    Dual-plane particle image velocimetry experiments were performed in a turbulent boundary layer with Reτ=1160 to obtain all components of the velocity gradient tensor. Wall-normal locations in the logarithmic and wake region were examined. The availability of the complete gradient tensor facilitates improved identification of vortex cores and determination of their orientation and size. Inclination angles of vortex cores were computed using statistical tools such as two-point correlations and joint probability density functions. Also, a vortex identification technique was employed to identify individual cores and to compute inclination angles directly from instantaneous fields. The results reveal broad distributions of inclination angles at both locations. The results are consistent with the presence of many hairpin vortices which are most frequently inclined downstream at an angle of 45∘ with the wall. According to the probability density functions, a relatively small percentage of cores are inclined upstream. The number density of forward leaning cores decreases from the logarithmic to the outer region while the number density of backward-leaning cores remains relatively constant. These trends, together with the correlation statistics, suggest that the backward-leaning cores are part of smaller, weaker structures that have been distorted and convected by larger, predominantly forward-leaning eddies associated with the local shear.

  5. An immersed interface vortex particle-mesh solver (United States)

    Marichal, Yves; Chatelain, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire


    An immersed interface-enabled vortex particle-mesh (VPM) solver is presented for the simulation of 2-D incompressible viscous flows, in the framework of external aerodynamics. Considering the simulation of free vortical flows, such as wakes and jets, vortex particle-mesh methods already provide a valuable alternative to standard CFD methods, thanks to the interesting numerical properties arising from its Lagrangian nature. Yet, accounting for solid bodies remains challenging, despite the extensive research efforts that have been made for several decades. The present immersed interface approach aims at improving the consistency and the accuracy of one very common technique (based on Lighthill's model) for the enforcement of the no-slip condition at the wall in vortex methods. Targeting a sharp treatment of the wall calls for substantial modifications at all computational levels of the VPM solver. More specifically, the solution of the underlying Poisson equation, the computation of the diffusion term and the particle-mesh interpolation are adapted accordingly and the spatial accuracy is assessed. The immersed interface VPM solver is subsequently validated on the simulation of some challenging impulsively started flows, such as the flow past a cylinder and that past an airfoil. Research Fellow (PhD student) of the F.R.S.-FNRS of Belgium.

  6. Analysis of Hypersonic Vehicle Wakes (United States)


    research . The data is being included for the sake of completion. Figure 93 and Figure 94 depict the concentration of Diatomic Oxygen on the surface...reactions occurring in the wake region will enable an advancement of tracking hypersonic bodies. This research examined the wake region behind a...Acknowledgments I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my research advisor, Dr. Robert Greendyke, for his guidance and support throughout

  7. Large-eddy simulation of vortex streets and dispersion behind high-rise buildings (United States)

    Han, Beom-Soon; Park, Seung-Bu; Baik, Jong-Jin


    Understanding flow and dispersion in densely built-up urban areas is one of the important problems in the field of urban fluid mechanics. Nowadays, sophisticated numerical models and high-resolution urban morphology data enable us to study detailed flow structures in real urban areas. Simulations with high-resolution urban morphology data show very complex flow structures in several studies. Here, we examine turbulent flow patterns and associated pollutant dispersion near and, particularly, behind high-rise buildings using the parallelized large-eddy simulation model (PALM) and high-resolution urban morphology data. The study area selected is a highly built-up area of Seoul, South Korea. It is shown that turbulent wakes are produced behind high-rise buildings and vortex streets appear in the places where turbulent wakes occur. The vortex street seems to be related to strong updrafts and ejections that appear downwind of high-rise buildings. The vortex street is found to affect pollutant dispersion. Various factors that influence the evolution and structure of vortex streets will be presented and discussed along with involved dispersion mechanisms.

  8. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho [Mechanical Systems Engineering, Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Maeda 7-15-4-1, Teine-ku, Sapporo 006-855 (Japan)], E-mail:


    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  9. Callosal warning syndrome. (United States)

    Nandhagopal, Ramachandiran; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Johnston, William James; Jacob, P C; Arunodaya, G R


    To report the clinical and imaging findings in a patient with an initial fluctuating disconnection syndrome due to corpus callosal ischemia that ultimately culminated in infarction with persistent symptoms. A 40-year-old, hypertensive, right-handed man presented with transient, stereotyped symptoms of corpus callosal disconnection (intermanual conflict, apraxia, dysgraphia and construction difficulties in his left hand). Serial magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated the ischemic nature of the initial fluctuating symptoms and later showed callosal infarction when the symptoms were persistent. Magnetic resonance angiogram did not reveal significant stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid or proximal portion of anterior cerebral arteries. Patient received standard treatment for ischemic stroke and at follow-up 1 month later, had mild left hand apraxia, dysgraphia and construction difficulties. The case highlights the unusual occurrence of crescendo transient ischemic attacks culminating in infarction in the location of corpus callosum. We have termed this novel stroke syndrome as 'callosal warning syndrome' as the temporal profile was quite indistinguishable from that of relatively well-known stroke warning syndromes in the location of internal capsule and pontine tegmentum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.


    For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....

  11. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery


    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvin......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  12. Holographic Vortex Coronagraph (United States)

    Palacios, David


    A holographic vortex coronagraph (HVC) has been proposed as an improvement over conventional coronagraphs for use in high-contrast astronomical imaging for detecting planets, dust disks, and other broadband light scatterers in the vicinities of stars other than the Sun. Because such light scatterers are so faint relative to their parent stars, in order to be able to detect them, it is necessary to effect ultra-high-contrast (typically by a factor of the order of 1010) suppression of broadband light from the stars. Unfortunately, the performances of conventional coronagraphs are limited by low throughput, dispersion, and difficulty of satisfying challenging manufacturing requirements. The HVC concept offers the potential to overcome these limitations.

  13. Vortex electronis and squids

    CERN Document Server


    Understanding the nature of vortices in high-Tc superconductors is a crucial subject for research on superconductive electronics, especially for superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs), it is also a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. Recent technological progress in methods for both direct and indirect observation of vortices, e.g. scanning SQUID, terahertz imaging, and microwave excitation, has led to new insights into vortex physics, the dynamic behavior of vortices in junctions and related questions of noise. This book presents the current status of research activity and provides new information on the applications of SQUIDs, including magnetocardiography, immunoassays, and laser-SQUID microscopes, all of which are close to being commercially available.

  14. Photospheric magnetic vortex structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shelyag


    Full Text Available Using direct numerical magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD simulations, we demonstrate the evidence of two physically different types of vortex motions in the solar photosphere. Baroclinic motions of plasma in non-magnetic granules are the primary source of vorticity in granular regions of the solar photosphere, however, there is a significantly more efficient mechanism of vorticity production in strongly magnetised intergranular lanes. These swirly motions of plasma in intergranular magnetic field concentrations could be responsible for the generation of different types of MHD wave modes, for example, kink, sausage and torsional Alfvén waves. These waves could transport a relevant amount of energy from the lower solar atmosphere and contribute to coronal plasma heating.

  15. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  16. Large-eddy simulation of contrail evolution in the vortex phase and its interaction with atmospheric turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Picot


    Full Text Available In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. In this paper, fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The initial flow field is composed of the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail descent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex breakup dominates over background turbulence until the end of the vortex regime and controls the mixing with ambient air. This results in mean microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. However, the background humidity and temperature have a first-order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent studies.

  17. Particle-vortex symmetric liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Mulligan, Michael


    We introduce an effective theory with manifest particle-vortex symmetry for disordered thin films undergoing a magnetic field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition. The theory may enable one to access both the critical properties of the strong-disorder limit, which has recently been confirmed [Breznay et al., PNAS 113, 280 (2016)] to exhibit particle-vortex symmetric electrical response, and the metallic phase discovered earlier [Mason and Kapitulnik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5341 (1999)] in less disordered samples. Within the effective theory, the Cooper-pair and field-induced vortex degrees of freedom are simultaneously incorporated into an electrically-neutral Dirac fermion minimally coupled to an (emergent) Chern-Simons gauge field. A derivation of the theory follows upon mapping the superconductor-insulator transition to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition and the subsequent use of Son's particle-hole symmetric composite Fermi liquid. Remarkably, particle-vortex symmetric response does not requir...

  18. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  19. TR-PIV measurement of the wake behind a grooved cylinder at low Reynolds number (United States)

    Liu, Ying Zheng; Shi, Liu Liu; Yu, Jun


    A comparative study of the wakes behind cylinders with grooved and smooth surfaces was performed with a view to understand the wake characteristics associated with the adult Saguaro cacti. A low-speed recirculation water channel was established for the experiment; the Reynolds number, based on the free-stream velocity and cylinder diameter (D), was kept at ReD=1500. State-of-the-art time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) was employed to measure a total of 20 480 realizations of the wake field at a frame rate of 250 Hz, enabling a comprehensive view of the time- and phase-averaged wake pattern. In comparison to the wake behind the smooth cylinder, the length of the recirculation zone behind the grooved cylinder was extended by nearly 18.2%, yet the longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensity was considerably weakened. A global view of the peaked spectrum of the longitudinal velocity component revealed that the intermediate region for the grooved cylinder, which approximately corresponds to the transition region where the shear layer vortices interact, merge and shed before the formation of the Karman-like vortex street, was much wider than that for the smooth one. The unsteady events near St=0.3-0.4 were detected in the intermediate region behind the grooved cylinder, but no such events were found in the smooth cylinder system. Although the formation of the Karman-like vortex street was delayed by about 0.6D downstream for the grooved cylinder, no prominent difference in the vortex street region was found in the far wake for both cylinders. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method was used extensively to decompose the vector and swirling strength fields, which gave a close-up view of the vortices in the near wake. The first two POD modes of the swirling strength clarified the spatio-temporal characteristics of the shear layer vortices behind the grooved cylinder. The small-scale vortices superimposed on the shear layers behind the grooved cylinder

  20. Vortex Models for Data Assimilation


    Darakananda, Darwin


    Inviscid vortex models have been used for decades to investigate unsteady aerodynamics. However, real-time use of these models has been hindered by the tradeoff between increasing a model's dynamical capability and reducing its dimensionality. In this work, we present two different solutions to this problem. First, we develop a hybrid model where vortex sheets represent shear layers that separate from the wing and point vortices represent the rolled-up cores of these shear layers and the o...

  1. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization (United States)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.


    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not

  2. Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.


    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Making Aircraft Vortices Visible to Radar by Spraying Water into the Wake (United States)

    Shariff, Karim


    Aircraft trailing vortices pose a danger to following aircraft during take-off and landing. This necessitates spacing rules, based on aircraft type, to be enforced during approach in IFR (Instrument Flight Regulations) conditions; this can limit airport capacity. To help choose aircraft spacing based on the actual location and strength of the wake, it is proposed that wake vortices can be detected using conventional precipitation and cloud radars. This is enabled by spraying a small quantity water into the wake from near the wing. The vortex strength is revealed by the doppler velocity of the droplets. In the present work, droplet size distributions produced by nozzles used for aerial spraying are considered. Droplet trajectory and evaporation in the flow-field is numerically calculated for a heavy aircraft, followed by an evaluation of radar reflectivity at 6 nautical miles behind the aircraft. Small droplets evaporate away while larger droplets fall out of the wake. In the humid conditions that typically prevail during IFR, a sufficient number of droplets remain in the wake and give good signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). For conditions of average humidity, higher frequency radars combined with spectral processing gives good SNR.

  4. Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes (United States)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Zeoli, S.; Buffin, S.; Caprace, D.-G.; Winckelmans, G.; Bricteux, L.


    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed.

  5. Three-dimensional flow visualization in the wake of a miniature axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine (United States)

    Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, R. E. A.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Three-dimensional 3-component velocity measurements were made in the near wake region of a miniature 3-blade axial-flow turbine within a turbulent boundary layer. The model turbine was placed in an open channel flow and operated under subcritical conditions (Fr = 0.13). The spatial distribution of the basic flow statistics was obtained at various locations to render insights into the spatial features of the wake. Instantaneous and phase-averaged vortical structures were analyzed to get insights about their dynamics. The results showed a wake expansion proportional to the one-third power of the streamwise distance, within the first rotor diameter. Wake rotation was clearly identified up to a distance of roughly three rotor diameters. In particular, relatively high tangential velocity was observed near the wake core, but it was found to be nearly negligible at the turbine tip radius. In contrast, the radial velocity showed the opposite distribution, with higher radial velocity near the turbine tip and, due to symmetry, negligible at the rotor axis. Larger turbulence intensity was found above the hub height and near the turbine tip. Strong coherent tip vortices, visualized in terms of the instantaneous vorticity and the λ 2 criterion, were observed within the first rotor diameter downstream of the turbine. These structures, influenced by the velocity gradient in the boundary layer, appeared to loose their stability at distances greater than two rotor diameters. Hub vortices were also identified. Measurements did not exhibit significant tip-hub vortex interaction within the first rotor diameter.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence (United States)

    Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire


    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.

  7. Looming auditory collision warnings for driving. (United States)

    Gray, Rob


    A driving simulator was used to compare the effectiveness of increasing intensity (looming) auditory warning signals with other types of auditory warnings. Auditory warnings have been shown to speed driver reaction time in rear-end collision situations; however, it is not clear which type of signal is the most effective. Although verbal and symbolic (e.g., a car horn) warnings have faster response times than abstract warnings, they often lead to more response errors. Participants (N=20) experienced four nonlooming auditory warnings (constant intensity, pulsed, ramped, and car horn), three looming auditory warnings ("veridical," "early," and "late"), and a no-warning condition. In 80% of the trials, warnings were activated when a critical response was required, and in 20% of the trials, the warnings were false alarms. For the early (late) looming warnings, the rate of change of intensity signaled a time to collision (TTC) that was shorter (longer) than the actual TTC. Veridical looming and car horn warnings had significantly faster brake reaction times (BRT) compared with the other nonlooming warnings (by 80 to 160 ms). However, the number of braking responses in false alarm conditions was significantly greater for the car horn. BRT increased significantly and systematically as the TTC signaled by the looming warning was changed from early to veridical to late. Looming auditory warnings produce the best combination of response speed and accuracy. The results indicate that looming auditory warnings can be used to effectively warn a driver about an impending collision.

  8. Downstream and soaring interfaces and vortices in 2-D stratified wakes and their impact on transport of contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Chashechkin


    Full Text Available The flow of continuously stratified fluids past obstacles was studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The obstacles discussed here include a flat strip, aligned with the flow, inclined or transverse to the flow and a horizontal cylinder. In the flow pattern, transient and attached (lee internal waves, downstream wakes with submerged interfaces and vortices, soaring singular interfaces, soaring vortices and vortex systems are distinguished. New components of laminar flow past a horizontally towed strip are presented. Fine transverse streaky structures on the strip in the downstream wake were visualized. Soaring isolated interfaces, which are internal boundary layers forming inside the downstream attached wave field past bluff bodies were observed. With increasing of the body velocity a vortex pair was formed directly at the leading edge of this interface.

  9. Unsteady Aerodynamics and Vortex-sheet Formation of A Two-dimensional Airfoil

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Xi


    Unsteady inviscid flow models of wings and airfoils have been developed to study the aerodynamics of natural and man-made flyers. Vortex methods have been extensively applied to reduce the dimensionality of these aerodynamic models, based on the proper estimation of the strength and distribution of the vortices in the wake. In such modeling approaches, one of the most fundamental questions is how the vortex sheets are generated and released from sharp edges. To determine the formation of the trailing-edge vortex sheet, the classical Kutta condition can be extended to unsteady situations by realizing that a flow cannot turn abruptly around a sharp edge. This condition can be readily applied to a flat plate or an airfoil with cusped trailing edge since the direction of the forming vortex sheet is known to be tangential to the trailing edge. However, for a finite-angle trailing edge, or in the case of flow separation away from a sharp corner, the direction of the forming vortex sheet is ambiguous. To remove any ...

  10. Why is the Karman vortex street so stable to the pairing instability? (United States)

    Arratia, Cristobal; Mowlavi, Saviz; Gallaire, Francois


    An infinite double row of staggered point vortices was proposed by von Karman as a simplified model for the alternating vortex street forming in the wake of blunt bodies. This model, however, was found to be always unstable except against infinitesimal disturbances when the aspect ratio of the vortex street has a precise value, a puzzling result in clear contradiction with experience. Several authors including Saffman, Kida and Jimenez studied extensions to Karman's point vortex model, but it turned out that instability for all but a specific value of the parameters is generic in these inviscid models (Jimenez, JFM 1987). Here, we revisit this classical problem from a spatio-temporal instability perspective, which is required for taking into account the propagation speed of the vortex street. We show that the instability of the point vortex model is convective for a large range of parameters, and comparison of the model with different physically relevant cases will be shown. We also consider the absolute/convective nature of the pairing instability in a single row of inviscid point vortices. In both cases we study the effect of confining walls which can be taken into account as an infinite series of image vortices.

  11. Linearised CFD models for wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, Morten


    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in offshore wind farms taking wake effects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface. Fuga is briefly described. The model is based on a linearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed-spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive use of look-up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived from generic look-up tables. Three different models, based on three different closures, are examined: 1) the 'simple closure' using an unperturbed eddy viscosity kucentre dotz. 2) the mixing length closure. 3) the E-epsilon closure. Model results are evaluated against offshore wind farm production data from Horns Rev I and the Nysted wind farm, and a comparison with direct wake measurements in an onshore turbine (Nibe B) is also made. A very satisfactory agreement with data is found for the simple closure. The exception is the near wake, just behind the rotor, where all three linearized models fail. The mixing length closure underestimates wake effects in all cases. The E-epsilon closure overestimates wake losses in the offshore farms while it predicts a too shallow and too wide the wake in the onshore case. The simple closure performs distinctly better than the other two. Wind speed data from the the Horns rev met masts are used to further validate Fuga results with the 'simple' closure. Finally, Roedsand 1 and 2 are used as an example to illustrate

  12. Evolution of the bi-stable wake of a square-back automotive shape (United States)

    Pavia, Giancarlo; Passmore, Martin; Sardu, Costantino


    Square-back shapes are popular in the automotive market for their high level of practicality. These geometries, however, are usually characterised by high drag and their wake dynamics present aspects, such as the coexistence of a long-time bi-stable behaviour and short-time global fluctuating modes that are not fully understood. In the present paper, the unsteady behaviour of the wake of a generic square-back car geometry is characterised with an emphasis on identifying the causal relationship between the different dynamic modes in the wake. The study is experimental, consisting of balance, pressure, and stereoscopic PIV measurements. Applying wavelet and cross-wavelet transforms to the balance data, a quasi-steady correlation is demonstrated between the forces and bi-stable modes. This is investigated by applying proper orthogonal decomposition to the pressure and velocity data sets and a new structure is proposed for each bi-stable state, consisting of a hairpin vortex that originates from one of the two model's vertical trailing edges and bends towards the opposite side as it merges into a single streamwise vortex downstream. The wake pumping motion is also identified and for the first time linked with the motion of the bi-stable vortical structure in the streamwise direction, resulting in out-of-phase pressure variations between the two vertical halves of the model base. A phase-averaged low-order model is also proposed that provides a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of the switch between the bi-stable states. It is demonstrated that, during the switch, the wake becomes laterally symmetric and, at this point, the level of interaction between the recirculating structures and the base reaches a minimum, yielding, for this geometry, a 7% reduction of the base drag compared to the time-averaged result.

  13. The decay of wake vortices in the convective boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Frech, M.; Doernbrack, A.


    The decay of three wake vortex pairs of B-747 aircraft in a convectively driven atmospheric boundary layer is investigated by means of large-eddy simulations (LES). This situation is considered as being hazardous as the updraft velocities of a thermal may compensate the induced descent speed of the vortex pair resulting in vortices stalled in the flight path. The LES results, however, illustrate that (i) the primary rectilinear vortices are rapidly deformed on the scale of the alternating updraft and downdraft regions; (ii) parts of the vortices stay on flight level but are quickly eroded by the enhanced turbulence of an updraft; (iii) longest living sections of the vortices are found in regions of relatively calm downdraft flow which augments their descent. Strip theory calculations are used to illustrate the temporal and spatial development of lift and rolling moments experienced by a following medium weight class B-737 aircraft. Characteristics of the respective distributions are analysed. Initially, the maximum rolling moments slightly exceed the available roll control of the B-737. After 60 seconds the probability of rolling moments exceeding 50% of the roll control, a value which is considered as a threshold for acceptable rolling moments, has decreased to 1% of its initial probability. (orig.)

  14. Near-wake flow structure downwind of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D.; Porté-Agel, Fernando


    Wind turbines operate in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer, where they are subjected to strong wind shear and relatively high turbulence levels. These incoming boundary layer flow characteristics are expected to affect the structure of wind turbine wakes. The near-wake region is characterized by a complex coupled vortex system (including helicoidal tip vortices), unsteadiness and strong turbulence heterogeneity. Limited information about the spatial distribution of turbulence in the near wake, the vortex behavior and their influence on the downwind development of the far wake hinders our capability to predict wind turbine power production and fatigue loads in wind farms. This calls for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the 3D flow and coherent turbulence structures in the near wake. Systematic wind-tunnel experiments were designed and carried out to characterize the structure of the near-wake flow downwind of a model wind turbine placed in a neutral boundary layer flow. A horizontal-axis, three-blade wind turbine model, with a rotor diameter of 13 cm and the hub height at 10.5 cm, occupied the lowest one-third of the boundary layer. High-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure velocities in multiple vertical stream-wise planes ( x- z) and vertical span-wise planes ( y- z). In particular, we identified localized regions of strong vorticity and swirling strength, which are the signature of helicoidal tip vortices. These vortices are most pronounced at the top-tip level and persist up to a distance of two to three rotor diameters downwind. The measurements also reveal strong flow rotation and a highly non-axisymmetric distribution of the mean flow and turbulence structure in the near wake. The results provide new insight into the physical mechanisms that govern the development of the near wake of a wind turbine immersed in a neutral boundary layer. They also serve as important data for the development and

  15. The turbulence structure of the wake of a thin flat plate at post-stall angles of attack (United States)

    Mohebi, Meraj; Wood, David H.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.


    The influence of post-stall angles of attack, α, on the turbulent flow characteristics behind a thin high aspect ratio flat plate was investigated experimentally. Time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry was used in an open-section wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 6600. The mean field was determined along with the wake topology, force coefficients, vortex shedding frequency, and the terms in the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy k. Coherent and incoherent contributions to the Reynolds stress and k-transport terms were estimated. Over the measured range of 20° ≤ α ≤ 90°, quasi-periodic vortex shedding is observed and it is shown that most of the fluctuation energy contribution in the wake arises from coherent fluctuations associated with vortex shedding. As the angle of attack is reduced from 90°, the length of the recirculation region and the drag decrease, while the shedding frequency increases monotonically. In contrast, mean lift and k are maximized at α ≈ 40°, suggesting a relationship between the bound vortex circulation and the levels of k. Structural differences in the mean strain field, wake topology, relative contributions to the k-production terms, and significant differences in the incoherent field suggest changes in the wake dynamics for α > 40° and 20° ≤ α ≤ 40°. For α > 40°, coherent contributions to the fluctuation field result in a large region close to the plate exhibiting small levels of negative mean production and generally low levels of advection, despite very high levels of production just downstream of the recirculation region.

  16. Anesthesia Awareness (Waking Up) During Surgery (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Anesthesia Awareness (Waking Up) During Surgery Explore this page: ... do you reduce the risk of anesthesia awareness? Anesthesia Awareness (Waking Up) During Surgery If you’re ...

  17. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin


    .... Floods of this type are often characterised by fast flowing deep water and a high debris content which - combined with the short lead time available for warnings - add to the risk to people and property...

  18. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin


    ... and levees.The volume discusses the increasing use of meteorological observation and forecasting techniques to extend the lead time available for warning, combined with hydrological models for the river response...

  19. Control of sleep and wakefulness. (United States)

    Brown, Ritchie E; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W


    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making.

  20. Linearised CFD Models for Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Berg, Jacob; Nielsen, Morten

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in oshore wind farms taking wake eects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interfa...

  1. Aeroelastic impact of above-rated wave-induced structural motions on the near-wake stability of a floating offshore wind turbine rotor (United States)

    Rodriguez, Steven; Jaworski, Justin


    The impact of above-rated wave-induced motions on the stability of floating offshore wind turbine near-wakes is studied numerically. The rotor near-wake is generated using a lifting-line free vortex wake method, which is strongly coupled to a finite element solver for kinematically nonlinear blade deformations. A synthetic time series of relatively high-amplitude/high-frequency representative of above-rated conditions of the NREL 5MW referece wind turbine is imposed on the rotor structure. To evaluate the impact of these above-rated conditions, a linear stability analysis is first performed on the near wake generated by a fixed-tower wind turbine configuration at above-rated inflow conditions. The platform motion is then introduced via synthetic time series, and a stability analysis is performed on the wake generated by the floating offshore wind turbine at the same above-rated inflow conditions. The stability trends (disturbance modes versus the divergence rate of vortex structures) of the two analyses are compared to identify the impact that above-rated wave-induced structural motions have on the stability of the floating offshore wind turbine wake.

  2. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.


    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT).

  3. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.


    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

  4. Wake bursting: A computational and experimental investigation for application to high-lift multielement airfoil design (United States)

    Pomeroy, Brent William

    environments and the weaknesses of computational solvers. Results for a three-element airfoil, consisting of a main element and a double-slotted flap, were determined using various experimental methods. Experimental results included aerodynamic polars, flow visualization, and wake surveys with both split-film and 7-hole probes. The split-film probe yielded two-dimensional unsteady velocity measurements while the 7-hole probe was use to capture time-averaged velocity vector, static pressure, and total pressure. The burst-wake region consisted of increased turbulence intensities and extremely-high turbulence production when compared to the flow outside of the wake. An increase in wake thickness with increasing downstream distance was captured from each probe, and the relationship between the wake thickness and freestream conditions was established. Low Reynolds numbers and increased angle of attack yielded the thickest wakes of all tested freestream conditions. In addition, flaps with extremely small gap sizes also yielded increased wake bursting than the large-gap airfoils. In general, minimal differences in the burst-wake flowfield were observed for small- or large-overhang simulations, and the results are found in the experiment. Three novel criterion are proposed such that burst-wake flowfields can be readily compared to other flowfields. These thresholds are applied to determine the existence of wake bursting, the spatial point at which the wake bursts, and the severity of the wake bursting. Two-dimensional computational results were captured for low-order and higher-order methods including both a panel code and a RANS program. In general, the RANS solver indicated larger and thicker wakes than the wakes predicted by the panel code or captured in the wake surveys. This result of larger and thicker wakes was found to be independent of the selected turbulence model. Further investigation suggested a large vortex resulted from the junction between the airfoil and the wind

  5. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  6. Numerical Investigation of the Tip Vortex of a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Double-Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhao Yang


    Full Text Available Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. In this study, the number of blades is two and the airfoil is a NACA0021 with chord length of c = 0.265 m. To capture the tip vortex characteristics, the velocity fields are investigated by the Q-criterion iso-surface (Q = 100 with shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model at different tip speed ratios (TSRs. Then, mean velocity, velocity deficit and torque coefficient acting on the blade in the different spanwise positions are compared. The wind velocities obtained by CFD simulations are also compared with the experimental data from wind tunnel experiments. As a result, we can state that the wind velocity curves calculated by CFD simulations are consistent with Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV measurements. The distribution of the vortex structure along the spanwise direction is more complex at a lower TSR and the tip vortex has a longer dissipation distance at a high TSR. In addition, the mean wind velocity shows a large value near the blade tip and a small value near the blade due to the vortex effect.

  7. Simulation of Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines in Unsteady Flow using Vortex Particle Method (United States)

    Sale, Danny; Aliseda, Alberto


    A vortex particle method has been developed to study the performance and wake characteristics of Marine Hydrokinetic turbines. The goals are to understand mean flow and turbulent eddy effects on wake evolution, and the unsteady loading on the rotor and support structures. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian method involving both vortex particle and spatial mesh discretizations. Particle strengths are modified by vortex stretching, diffusion, and body forces; these terms in the vorticity transport equation involve differential operators and are computed more efficiently on a Cartesian mesh using finite differences. High-order and moment-conserving interpolations allow the particles and mesh to exchange field quantities and particle strengths. An immersed boundary method which introduces a penalization term in the vorticity transport equations provides an efficient way to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition on solid boundaries. To provide further computational speedup, we investigate the use of multicore processors and graphics processing units using the OpenMP and OpenCL interfaces within the Parallel Particle-Mesh Library.

  8. Vortex configuration and vortex-vortex interaction in nano-structured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masaru, E-mail: [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); CREST, JST, 5 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Niwa, Yuhei [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); CREST, JST, 5 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Suematsu, Hisataka [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2, Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); CREST, JST, 5 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1, Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); CREST, JST, 5 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)


    We study the vortex structures and quasi-particle structures in nano-structured superconductors. We used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation and the finite element method and obtained stable magnetic flux structures and the quasi-particle states. We found the vortex configurations are affected by the interference of the quasi-particle bound states around the vortices. In order to clarify the interference between the quasi-particle wave-functions around two vortices we have developed a numerical method using the elliptic coordinates and the Mathieu functions. We apply this method to two singly quantized vortex state in a conventional s-wave superconductor and a pair of half-quantum vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor.

  9. Response of airfoil near-wake to external forcing; Yoku kinbo goryu no gairan ni taisuru oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, M.; Seno, T.; Nishioka, M.


    The response of an airfoil wake to acoustic forcing is investigated experimentally. The experiments are performed on the NACA0012 airfoil at a main stream velocity of 4km/s and a chord-Reynolds number 2.3times10{sup 4}. The response to external forcing is found to vary significantly with the elevation angle {alpha}. At an elevation angle {alpha}=10deg where exfoliation and reattachment occur on the wing plane, excited vortices govern the downstream wake over a wide range of frequencies. On the other hand, at a large elevation angle {alpha}=16deg after stalling, excited vortices govern the downstream wake only in a limited frequency range similar to lock-on phenomena in the case of cylindrical wake. However, generation of vortex street with predominant single frequency is suppressed when the magnitude of exfoliated bubbles is suppressed by strong turbulence excitation unlike the lock-on phenomena in the cylindrical Karman vortex street. Thus, the generation of absolute instability region and global mode is suppressed and the flow field is governed by advection instability. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  10. A stochastic wind turbine wake model based on new metrics for wake characterization: A stochastic wind turbine wake model based on new metrics for wake characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa, Paula [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Barthelmie, Rebecca J. [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Wang, Hui [Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Upson Hall Ithaca 14850 New York USA; Churchfield, Matthew J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden 80401 Colorado USA


    Understanding the detailed dynamics of wind turbine wakes is critical to predicting the performance and maximizing the efficiency of wind farms. This knowledge requires atmospheric data at a high spatial and temporal resolution, which are not easily obtained from direct measurements. Therefore, research is often based on numerical models, which vary in fidelity and computational cost. The simplest models produce axisymmetric wakes and are only valid beyond the near wake. Higher-fidelity results can be obtained by solving the filtered Navier-Stokes equations at a resolution that is sufficient to resolve the relevant turbulence scales. This work addresses the gap between these two extremes by proposing a stochastic model that produces an unsteady asymmetric wake. The model is developed based on a large-eddy simulation (LES) of an offshore wind farm. Because there are several ways of characterizing wakes, the first part of this work explores different approaches to defining global wake characteristics. From these, a model is developed that captures essential features of a LES-generated wake at a small fraction of the cost. The synthetic wake successfully reproduces the mean characteristics of the original LES wake, including its area and stretching patterns, and statistics of the mean azimuthal radius. The mean and standard deviation of the wake width and height are also reproduced. This preliminary study focuses on reproducing the wake shape, while future work will incorporate velocity deficit and meandering, as well as different stability scenarios.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah


    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  12. Vortex Shedding and Depinning of Wind-Forced Liquid Drops (United States)

    Simon, Roger; White, Edward


    Water drops adhere to solid substrates but can depin when wind forcing exceeds the adhesion force provided by surface tension. Schmucker and White (2012.DFD.M4.6) measured critical wind forcing limits for high-Reynolds-number airflow forcing and found a critical constant Weber number, Wecrit = 8.0 , for a range of drop Bond numbers. This work seeks to identify what behavior is associated with Wecrit = 8.0 and why wind-forced drops depin when they do. One hypothesis suggests that, at high Reynolds numbers, drops depin when their interface natural frequency matches the frequency of air vortex shedding in the separated drop wake. We investigate whether a resonance between vortex shedding and drop interface oscillations is involved with depinning. We measure the shedding frequencies behind solid protuberances of the same size as typical drops and, separately, water-drop interface frequencies. We compare our measured values under different flow conditions to establish whether shedding and interface resonance are related to depinning. 1Supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant CBET-1605947.

  13. Acoustic Radiation by 3D Vortex Rings in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor V. Shugaev


    Full Text Available Acoustic radiation emitted by three-dimensional (3D vortex rings in air has been investigated on the basis of the unsteady Navier–Stokes equations. Power series expansions of the unknown functions with respect to the initial vorticity which is supposed to be small are used. In such a manner the system of the Navier–Stokes equations is reduced to a parabolic system with constant coefficients at high derivatives. The initial value problem is as follows. The vorticity is defined inside a toroid at t = 0. Other gas parameters are assumed to be constant throughout the whole space at t = 0. The solution is expressed by multiple integrals which are evaluated with the aid of the Korobov grids. Density oscillations are analyzed. The results show that the frequency band depends on the initial size of the vortex ring and its helicity. The presented data may be applied to the study of a flow in a wake region behind an aerodynamic body.

  14. Experiment of Waves on a Vortex filament


    渡辺, 慎介; 舟久保, 悠子; Shinsuke, WATANABE; Yuko, FUNAKUBO; 横浜国大工; Department of Physics Yokohama National University; Department of Energy Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University


    Experiment of waves on a vortex filament is reported. A vertical vortex filament is generated by an axial flow of water in a cylindrical tank with a small hole in the center of the bottom. The motion of a vortex filament is controlled by a solid disk inserted from the top of water tank. When the disk is flapped sinusoidally around a horizontal axis, a vortex filament tends to contact perpendicularly with a disk, and begins to move on the disk. The motion brings about perturbations on a vortex...

  15. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings


    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew


    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar rough...

  16. Thermal inhomogeneities in vortex tubes (United States)

    Lemesh, N. I.; Senchuk, L. A.

    An experimental study of the effect of the temperature of the inlet gas on the temperature difference between the hot and cold streams discharged from a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is described. The experimental results are presented in graphical form. It is that the temperature difference increases with the temperature of the entering gas.

  17. Vortex dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.


    The dynamics of vortical structures in magnetized plasmas with nonuniform density is investigated numerically. In particular the dynamics of monopolar vortices is considered and the results are discussed in terms of the conservation of potential vorticity. It is found that individual vortex...

  18. 150 Years of vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan


    An IUTAM symposium with the title of this paper was held on October 12-16, 2008, in Lyngby and Copenhagen, Denmark, to mark the sesquicentennial of publication of Helmholtz's seminal paper on vortex dynamics. This volume contains the proceedings of the Symposium. The present paper provides...

  19. Anatomy of a Bathtub Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne


    We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole. Sur...

  20. Estimation of wake propagation behind the rotors of wind-powered generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Okulov, Valery


    The objectives of this work are to develop the experimental model of wake behind the wind-power generator rotor to estimate its propagation distance and the impact on the average and pulsation characteristics of incident flow with the possibility of further use of these data in the calculation...... models of wind and climate changes in the regions and to determine the optimal operation of wind turbines. For experimental modeling, the laboratory model of wind-powered generator with a horizontal axis was used that operated as wind turbine in optimal mode. The kinematic characteristics of flow...... in the experimental research in order to define the degree of self-damping of perturbations generated by oneself wind-powered generator. The obtained experimental data for the wake dynamics behind the model of wind-powered generator allowed ascertaining its impact on slowing down of incident vortex flow...

  1. Chaos in body-vortex interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan


    The model of body–vortex interactions, where the fluid flow is planar, ideal and unbounded, and the vortex is a point vortex, is studied. The body may have a constant circulation around it. The governing equations for the general case of a freely moving body of arbitrary shape and mass density...... and an arbitrary number of point vortices are presented. The case of a body and a single vortex is then investigated numerically in detail. In this paper, the body is a homogeneous, elliptical cylinder. For large body–vortex separations, the system behaves much like a vortex pair regardless of body shape. The case...... of a circle is integrable. As the body is made slightly elliptic, a chaotic region grows from an unstable relative equilibrium of the circle-vortex case. The case of a cylindrical body of any shape moving in fluid otherwise at rest is also integrable. A second transition to chaos arises from the limit between...

  2. Axisymmetric contour dynamics for buoyant vortex rings (United States)

    Chang, Ching; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan


    Vortex rings are important in many fluid flows in engineering and environmental applications. A family of steady propagating vortex rings including thin-core rings and Hill's spherical vortex was obtained by Norbury (1973). However, the dynamics of vortex rings in the presence of buoyancy has not been investigated yet in detail. When the core of a ring is thin, we may formulate reduced equations using momentum balance for vortex filaments, but that is not the case for ``fat'' rings. In our study, we use contour dynamics to study the time evolution of axisymmetric vortex rings when the density of the fluid inside the ring differs from that of the ambient. Axisymmetry leads to an almost-conserved material variable when the Boussinesq approximation is made. A set of integro-differential equations is solved numerically for these buoyant vortex rings. The same physical settings are also used to run a DNS code and compare to the results from contour dynamics.

  3. Vortex-Induced Vibration Suppression of a Circular Cylinder with Vortex Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-bo Tao


    Full Text Available The vortex-induced vibration is one of the most important factors to make the engineering failure in wind engineering. This paper focuses on the suppression method of vortex-induced vibration that occurs on a circular cylinder fitted with vortex generators, based on the wind tunnel experiment. The effect of the vortex generators is presented with comparisons including the bare cylinder. The experimental results reveal that the vortex generators can efficiently suppress vortex-induced vibration of the circular cylinder. Vortex generator control can make the boundary layer profile fuller and hence more resistant to separation. The selections of skew angles and the angular position have a significant influence on the vortex generator control effect. By correlation analysis, it can be concluded that the vortex generators can inhibit the communication between the two shear layers and produce streamwise vortices to generate a disturbance in the spanwise direction.

  4. Health warnings on tobacco products - worldwide, 2007. (United States)


    Many countries require that tobacco product packaging includes health warnings about the risks associated with tobacco use. Health warnings on tobacco product packages are effective in highlighting the perception of health risk, supporting the intention to quit tobacco use, discouraging the intention to begin tobacco use, and increasing cessation rates. Prominent displays of health warnings increase their effectiveness; larger warnings, with pictures, are more likely to be noticed, better communicate health risks, provoke greater emotional response, and further motivate tobacco users to quit. This report assesses the current status of tobacco packaging health warning requirements worldwide. Governments could further discourage tobacco use by requiring prominent health warnings on tobacco packaging.

  5. Exploring vortex enhancement and manipulation mechanisms in jellyfish that contributes to energetically efficient propulsion. (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P


    The ability of animals to propel themselves efficiently through a fluid medium is ecologically advantageous. Flexible components that influence vortex interactions are widespread among animal propulsors. However the mechanisms by which vortices are enhanced and appropriately positioned for thrust generation are still poorly understood. Here, we describe how kinematic propulsor movements of a jellyfish can enhance and reposition a vortex ring that allows the recapture of wake energy for secondary thrust generation and efficient locomotion. We use high-speed video and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to resolve kinematics simultaneously with fluid structures. These results provide new insight into how animals can manipulate fluid structures to reduce metabolic energy demands of swimming muscles and may have implications in bio-inspired design.

  6. Visualization and flow surveys of the leading edge vortex structure on delta wing planforms (United States)

    Payne, F. M.; Ng, T. T.; Nelson, R. C.; Schiff, L. B.


    In the present experimental investigation of thin delta wing vortex breakdown, for the cases of sweep angles of 70, 75, 80, and 85 deg, and smoke flow visualization/laser light sheet technique is used to obtain cross sectional views of the leading edge vortices as they break down. A combination of lateral and longitudinal cross sectional views furnishes data on the three-dimensional character of the vortex before, during, and after breakdown. Velocity measurements conducted with a laser Doppler anemometer on the 70 deg sweep delta, at 30 deg angle-of-attack, indicate that when breakdown occurs the core flow is transformed from a jet-like to a wake-like flow.

  7. Exploratory wind-tunnel investigation of the effect of the main rotor wake on tail rotor noise. [langley anechoic noise facility (United States)

    Pegg, R. J.; Shidler, P. A.


    Approaches to minimizing the noise generated by the interaction of the tail rotor blades with the wake of the main rotor considered include repositioning of the tail rotor with respect to the main rotor, changes in the rotational direction of the tail rotor, and modification of the main rotor tip vortex. A variable geometry model was built which had the capability of varying tail rotor position relative to the main rotor as well as direction of tail rotor rotation. Acoustic data taken from the model in the Langley anechoic noise facility indicates interaction effects due to both main rotor shed vortex and the main rotor turbulence.

  8. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS


    Full Text Available can to some extent be associated with the orbital angular momentum in the beam.3?5 Various aspects of optical vortices, such as their trajectories6?19 and morphology16, 20?22 have also been studied. However, these studies largely dealt with a small... are caused by variations in the vortex distributions, giving rise to feedback mechanisms and nonlinear behavior. Keywords: Infinitesimal propagation equation, entangle photons, atmospheric turbulence, orbital angular mo- mentum, decoherence 1...

  9. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  10. Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrissey, Wayne A


    ...) to develop a regional tsunami detection and warning network that would guard coastal populations around the Indian Ocean. Those efforts would coincide with the United States goal of upgrading and expanding its tsunami detection and early warning network.

  11. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display (United States)

    ... Contact Us SPC Feedback NWS Watch, Warning, Advisory Display NWS Warnings and Advisories on this map become ... below): A new browser window will open to display these text products. Convective/Tropical Weather Flooding Winter ...

  12. Evolution of Rotor Wake in Swirling Flow (United States)

    El-Haldidi, Basman; Atassi, Hafiz; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary


    A theory is presented for modeling the evolution of rotor wakes as a function of axial distance in swirling mean flows. The theory, which extends an earlier work to include arbitrary radial distributions of mean swirl, indicates that swirl can significantly alter the wake structure of the rotor especially at large downstream distances (i.e., for moderate to large rotor-stator spacings). Using measured wakes of a representative scale model fan stage to define the mean swirl and initial wake perturbations, the theory is used to predict the subsequent evolution of the wakes. The results indicate the sensitivity of the wake evolution to the initial profile and the need to have complete and consistent initial definition of both velocity and pressure perturbations.

  13. Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics (United States)

    Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.


    The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.

  14. Vortex lattice modelling of winglets on wind turbine blades. 3. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doessing, M.


    The power production of wind turbines can be increased by the use of winglets without increasing the swept area. This makes them suitable for sites with restrictions in rotor diameter and in wind farms. The present project aims at understanding how winglets influences the flow and the aerodynamic forces on wind turbine blades. A free wake vortex lattice code and a fast design algorithm for a horizontal axis wind turbine under steady conditions has been developed. 2 winglet designs are treated in detail. (au)

  15. Using a cylindrical vortex model to assess the induction zone infront of aligned and yawed rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul


    Analytical formulae for the velocity field induced by a cylindrical vortex wake model areapplied to assess the induction zone in front of aligned and yawed rotors. The results arecompared to actuator disk (AD) simulations for different operating conditions, includingfinite tip-speed ratios....... The mean relative error is estimated in the induction zone and foundto be below 0.4% for the aligned flows tested and below 1.3% for the yawed test cases. Thecomputational time required by the analytical model is in the order of thousands of timesless than the one required by the actuator disk simulation....

  16. 49 CFR 193.2917 - Warning signs. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning signs. 193.2917 Section 193.2917...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2917 Warning signs. (a) Warning signs must be conspicuously placed along each protective enclosure at intervals so that at least one sign is recognizable at night from a...

  17. Special vortex in relativistic hydrodynamics (United States)

    Chupakhin, A. P.; Yanchenko, A. A.


    An exact solution of the Euler equations governing the flow of a compressible fluid in relativistic hydrodynamics is found and studied. It is a relativistic analogue of the Ovsyannikov vortex (special vortex) investigated earlier for classical gas dynamics. Solutions are partially invariant of Defect 1 and Rank 2 with respect to the rotation group. A theorem on the representation of the factor-system in the form of a union of a non-invariant subsystem for the function determining the deviation of the velocity vector from the meridian, and invariant subsystem for determination of thermodynamic parameters, the Lorentz factor and the radial velocity component is proved. Compatibility conditions for the overdetermined non-invariant subsystem are obtained. A stationary solution of this type is studied in detail. It is proved that its invariant subsystem reduces to an implicit differential equation. For this equation, the manifold of branching of solutions is investigated, and a set of singular points is found.

  18. Sleep Pharmacogenetics: Personalized Sleep-Wake Therapy. (United States)

    Holst, Sebastian C; Valomon, Amandine; Landolt, Hans-Peter


    Research spanning (genetically engineered) animal models, healthy volunteers, and sleep-disordered patients has identified the neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, hypocretin, melatonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, γ-amino-butyric acid, and adenosine as important players in the regulation and maintenance of sleep-wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and the sleep-wake continuum. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems leads to sleep-wake disorders. Most currently available pharmacological treatments are symptomatic rather than causal, and their beneficial and adverse effects are often variable and in part genetically determined. To evaluate opportunities for evidence-based personalized medicine with present and future sleep-wake therapeutics, we review here the impact of known genetic variants affecting exposure of and sensitivity to drugs targeting the neurochemistry of sleep-wake regulation and the pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances. Many functional polymorphisms modify drug response phenotypes relevant for sleep. To corroborate the importance of these and newly identified variants for personalized sleep-wake therapy, human sleep pharmacogenetics should be complemented with pharmacogenomic investigations, research about sleep-wake-dependent pharmacological actions, and studies in mice lacking specific genes. These strategies, together with future knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms affecting sleep-wake physiology and treatment outcomes, may lead to potent and safe novel therapies for the increasing number of sleep-disordered patients (e.g., in aged populations).

  19. Revolutionary Wake Hazard Assessment Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continuum Dynamics, Inc. (CDI) has developed a Multiple Aircraft Simulation Tool (MAST) that revolutionizes the ability to predict and assess wake interactions...

  20. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles


    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  1. Anisotropy in turbulence profiles of stratified wakes (United States)

    Spedding, G. R.


    At sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number (Re⩾4.5×103) and internal Froude number (F⩾4), initially turbulent bluff body wakes evolve in the presence of a stable background density gradient with wake-averaged mean and turbulence length and velocity scales that are independent of Re and F for at least two orders of magnitude extension in both parameters. The way in which the initially three-dimensional motions transition to the characteristic (and Re- and F-independent) late wakes (where vertical velocities, w≪u,v) is both of great practical interest, and complex, hence somewhat unclear. Here, digital particle imaging velocimetry type measurements on towed-sphere wakes are described, so that the development of anisotropy can be measured by the time development of turbulence profiles in horizontal and vertical centerplanes. The observed anisotropies can be associated with energy transfer to internal wave modes, and suppression of other vertical displacements, that contrasts with sphere wakes at similar Re in a homogeneous fluid. Maximum Reynolds stresses occur at the boundary of a sinuous undulation of the wake, which increases in amplitude up to Nt≈60 (N is the buoyancy frequency that characterizes the strength of the stratification). Although an intrinsic wake profile instability cannot be excluded, the observed wake element spacings can be accounted for by known spiral and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the near wake.

  2. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Menke, Robert


    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large...... downstream distances (more than 5 diameters) from the wake generating turbine, the wake changes according to local atmospheric conditions e.g. vertical wind speed. In very complex terrain the wake effects are often “overruled” by distortion effects due to the terrain complexity or topology....

  3. Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters (United States)

    Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.

    The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.

  4. Wake measurements for code validations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose


    As part of the EU-TOPFARM project a large number of datasets have been identified for verification of wind farm climate models, aeroelastic load and production models of turbines subjected to three dimensional dynamic wake wind field and the aeroelastic production modeling of a whole wind farm de...... developed in the project. This report identifies a number of measurement datasets which is available for model validations in the EU-TOPFARM project. The datasets are presented with a very short summary of the test setup and a principle site layout illustration....

  5. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback (United States)

    Mak, J.; Griffiths, S. D.; Hughes, D. W.


    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses—and thus the degree of disruption—that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter M , a ratio between the Alfvén speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number Rm ). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when M2Rm =O (1 ) . To test our prediction, we analyze direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flows with an initially weak background magnetic field. Using the Okubo-Weiss vortex coherence criterion, we introduce a vortex disruption measure, and show that it is consistent with our predicted scaling, for vortices generated by instabilities of both a shear layer and a jet.

  6. Vortex Molecules in Bose-Einstein Condensates (United States)

    Nitta, Muneto; Eto, Minoru; Cipriani, Mattia


    Stable vortex dimers are known to exist in coherently coupled two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We construct stable vortex trimers in three component BECs and find that the shape can be controlled by changing the internal coherent (Rabi) couplings. Stable vortex N-omers are also constructed in coherently coupled N-component BECs. We classify all possible N-omers in terms of the mathematical graph theory. Next, we study effects of the Rabi coupling in vortex lattices in two-component BECs. We find how the vortex lattices without the Rabi coupling known before are connected to the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices with increasing the Rabi coupling. In this process, vortex dimers change their partners in various ways at large couplings. We then find that the Abrikosov lattices are robust in three-component BECs.

  7. Spin wave mediated magnetic vortex core reversal (United States)

    Stoll, Hermann


    The magnetic vortex is the simplest, non-trivial ground state configuration of micron and sub-micron sized soft magnetic thin film platelets and therefore an interesting subject for the study of micro magnetism. Essential progress in the understanding of nonlinear vortex dynamics was achieved when low-field core toggling was discovered by excitation of the gyrotropic eigenmode at sub-GHz frequencies. At frequencies more than an order of magnitude higher vortex state structures possess spin wave eigenmodes arising from the magneto-static interaction. We demonstrated, experimentally and by micromagnetic simulations, that the unidirectional vortex core reversal process also occurs when azimuthal spin wave modes are excited in the multi-GHz frequency range. This finding highlights the importance of spin wave - vortex interaction and boosts vortex core reversal to much higher frequencies, which may offer new routes for GHz spintronics applications.

  8. Vortex dynamics in nonrelativistic Abelian Higgs model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kozhevnikov


    Full Text Available The dynamics of the gauge vortex with arbitrary form of a contour is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic Abelian Higgs model, including the possibility of the gauge field interaction with the fermion asymmetric background. The equations for the time derivatives of the curvature and the torsion of the vortex contour generalizing the Betchov–Da Rios equations in hydrodynamics, are obtained. They are applied to study the conservation of helicity of the gauge field forming the vortex, twist, and writhe numbers of the vortex contour. It is shown that the conservation of helicity is broken when both terms in the equation of the vortex motion are present, the first due to the exchange of excitations of the phase and modulus of the scalar field and the second one due to the coupling of the gauge field forming the vortex, with the fermion asymmetric background.

  9. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope. (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz


    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  10. ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use. (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus


    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Emergency Warning Systems for Disaster Reduction (United States)

    Sorensen, J. H.


    Emergency warning systems are the last line of defense for reducing losses from natural hazards. Well-designed systems enable populations-at-risk in impending disasters to take appropriate protective actions. There have been a limited number of research efforts designed to quantify the performance of various types of warning systems and these have been primarily technology-specific. This paper describes the result of research on developing models of warning systems based of the 3 stages of warning: deciding to issue a warning, disseminating the warning to the population-at-risk and initiating a protective action. The warning issuance stage is the time between emergency warning officials being notified of the existence of a threat and reaching a decision to activate the warning system. The warning dissemination stage is the time between that decision and individuals receiving the first warning. The protective action stage is the time between receiving the warning and initiating a protective action. A fourth stage consisting of implementing the protective action is not discussed in this paper. The basic method used in developing models of each stage of the warning process was to first review previous modeling research. Second, assemble historic data on the timing of the warning process. This included point data as well as cumulative distributions. Third, develop a modeling approach to specify a diffusion equation. Fourth, compare the empirical data to the results of the simulation. The attached figure depicts a comparision between simulated warning diffusion and empirical data For each stage, best and worst case curves are develop. Several moderate or average curves are also developed. Factors associated with identifying which curves would be appropriate for a large range of potential event scenarios are identified and discussed. Potential application to lose of life modeling and hazard mitigation strategies are also discussed.

  12. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow


    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich


    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity ω in an axial background shear of magnitude Ω by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector Ω and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lat...

  13. Optical Vortex Solitons in Parametric Wave Mixing


    Alexander, Tristram J.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Buryak, Alexander V.; Sammut, Rowland A.


    We analyze two-component spatial optical vortex solitons supported by parametric wave mixing processes in a nonlinear bulk medium. We study two distinct cases of such localised waves, namely, parametric vortex solitons due to phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an optical medium with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinear response, and vortex solitons in the presence of third-harmonic generation in a cubic medium. We find, analytically and numerically, the structure of two-component ...

  14. Force production and flow structure of the leading edge vortex on flapping wings at high and low Reynolds numbers. (United States)

    Birch, James M; Dickson, William B; Dickinson, Michael H


    The elevated aerodynamic performance of insects has been attributed in part to the generation and maintenance of a stable region of vorticity known as the leading edge vortex (LEV). One explanation for the stability of the LEV is that spiraling axial flow within the vortex core drains energy into the tip vortex, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex analogous to the flow structure generated by delta wing aircraft. However, whereas spiral flow is a conspicuous feature of flapping wings at Reynolds numbers (Re) of 5000, similar experiments at Re=100 failed to identify a comparable structure. We used a dynamically scaled robot to investigate both the forces and the flows created by a wing undergoing identical motion at Re of approximately 120 and approximately 1400. In both cases, motion at constant angular velocity and fixed angle of attack generated a stable LEV with no evidence of shedding. At Re=1400, flow visualization indicated an intense narrow region of spanwise flow within the core of the LEV, a feature conspicuously absent at Re=120. The results suggest that the transport of vorticity from the leading edge to the wake that permits prolonged vortex attachment takes different forms at different Re.

  15. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.


    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  16. Vortex molecules in Bose-Einstein condensates


    Nitta, Muneto; Eto, Minoru; Cipriani, Mattia


    Stable vortex dimers are known to exist in coherently coupled two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We construct stable vortex trimers in three component BECs and find that the shape can be controlled by changing the internal coherent (Rabi) couplings. Stable vortex N-omers are also constructed in coherently coupled N-component BECs. We classify all possible N-omers in terms of the mathematical graph theory. Next, we study effects of the Rabi coupling in vortex lattices in two-compo...

  17. Spin transport in tilted electron vortex beams


    Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree


    In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted Electron vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of electron we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of electron vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter con...

  18. Unified Aeroacoustics Analysis for High Speed Turboprop Aerodynamics and Noise. Volume 1; Development of Theory for Blade Loading, Wakes, and Noise (United States)

    Hanson, D. B.


    A unified theory for the aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops are presented. Aerodynamic topics include calculation of performance, blade load distribution, and non-uniform wake flow fields. Blade loading can be steady or unsteady due to fixed distortion, counter-rotating wakes, or blade vibration. The aerodynamic theory is based on the pressure potential method and is therefore basically linear. However, nonlinear effects associated with finite axial induction and blade vortex flow are included via approximate methods. Acoustic topics include radiation of noise caused by blade thickness, steady loading (including vortex lift), and unsteady loading. Shielding of the fuselage by its boundary layer and the wing are treated in separate analyses that are compatible but not integrated with the aeroacoustic theory for rotating blades.

  19. A numerical study of atmospheric Kàrmàn vortex shedding from Jeju Island (United States)

    Ito, J.; Niino, H.


    Kàrmàn vortex shading universally occurs when a uniform flow pasts a bluff body. Similar vortex shading occurs when an atmospheric flow hits an isolated mountain, and can be seen in satellite images when the vortices are accompanied by clouds. While previous idealized numerical studies have focused on the mechanism of the atmospheric Kàrmàn vortex shading, there has been no simulation for a real case. In this study, a meso-scale non-hydrostatic model developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) is used to reproduce the observed Kàrmàn vortex shedding, where initial and boundary conditions are given by the meso-scale objective analysis data of the JMA. The cases investigated here occurred on 16 and 20 February 2013 when satellite images clearly capture Kàrmàn vortex shading behind the Jeju Island over the East China sea. The size of simulation's domain is about 800 km by 1200 km in the horizontal direction, and the Jeju Island locates the center of the domain. The horizontal gird interval is 2 km. The cloud microphysics including the ice phase is considered. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced realistic Kàrmàn vortex shading which accompany characteristic clouds in the wake of the Jeju Island (see Figure; shading show mixing ratio of cloud water). The size of the vortices and there intervals appear to be comparable to those observed by the satellite. The winter monsoon flows out from Eurasia continent over the Yellow sea, which is 10 K warmer than the atmosphere, obtain much sensible and latent heat flux, and then a convective boundary layer is developed. Necessary conditions to form lee vortices proposed in previous studies are indeed satisfied: (1) the height of the convective boundary layer is lower than that of the mountain, and (2) the Froude number above the convective boundary layer is less than 0.4. The environment around the region in the wintertime is favorable for forming Kàrmàn vortex shading. The pressure depressions

  20. Rolling with the flow: bumblebees flying in unsteady wakes. (United States)

    Ravi, Sridhar; Crall, James D; Fisher, Alex; Combes, Stacey A


    Our understanding of how variable wind in natural environments affects flying insects is limited because most studies of insect flight are conducted in either smooth flow or still air conditions. Here, we investigate the effects of structured, unsteady flow (the von Karman vortex street behind a cylinder) on the flight performance of bumblebees (Bombus impatiens). Bumblebees are 'all-weather' foragers and thus frequently experience variable aerial conditions, ranging from fully mixed, turbulent flow to unsteady, structured vortices near objects such as branches and stems. We examined how bumblebee flight performance differs in unsteady versus smooth flow, as well as how the orientation of unsteady flow structures affects their flight performance, by filming bumblebees flying in a wind tunnel under various flow conditions. The three-dimensional flight trajectories and orientations of bumblebees were quantified in each of three flow conditions: (1) smooth flow, (2) the unsteady wake of a vertical cylinder (inducing strong lateral disturbances) and (3) the unsteady wake of a horizontal cylinder (inducing strong vertical disturbances). In both unsteady conditions, bumblebees attenuated the disturbances induced by the wind quite effectively, but still experienced significant translational and rotational fluctuations as compared with flight in smooth flow. Bees appeared to be most sensitive to disturbance along the lateral axis, displaying large lateral accelerations, translations and rolling motions in response to both unsteady flow conditions, regardless of orientation. Bees also displayed the greatest agility around the roll axis, initiating voluntary casting maneuvers and correcting for lateral disturbances mainly through roll in all flow conditions. Both unsteady flow conditions reduced the upstream flight speed of bees, suggesting an increased cost of flight in unsteady flow, with potential implications for foraging patterns and colony energetics in natural

  1. Severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings in Europe (United States)

    Rauhala, Jenni; Schultz, David M.

    This study summarizes the current severe thunderstorm warning and forecast operations in different European National Hydro-Meteorological Services (NHMSs), and, in doing so, suggests ways for countries developing their own warning service to learn from experiences in other countries, as well as from the warning operations in the United States of America, the longest-lived severe thunderstorm warning operations in the world. This study is based on a questionnaire sent to 39 European NHMSs of which thirty-three (85%) responded. Currently, many European NHMSs are actively developing their severe thunderstorm forecast process and warning services with 26 (79%) of respondent countries issuing severe thunderstorm warnings and 8 (24%) issuing tornado warnings. Both warning criteria and methodologies used in the warning process vary from country to country. Lead-times range from 30 min to 96 h, indicating a range of different warning philosophies for each country. Major challenges toward improving the warning operations include obtaining observations of severe weather for real-time forecasting and post-event verification, educating forecasters, and having access to state-of-the-art forecaster workstations. An additional challenge is in communicating anticipated or ongoing severe thunderstorms, both internationally between NHMSs and nationally with media and emergency authorities.

  2. Characterization and estimation of three-dimensional structure in unforced and forced blunt trailing edge wake flows (United States)

    Clark, Heather

    Blunt trailing edge airfoils offer structural and aerodynamic advantages in modern wind turbine and aircraft applications. However, penalties are introduced concurrently by vortex shedding at separation. In particular, the adverse effects of increased drag and unsteady loading motivate the development of a control strategy for the blunt trailing edge wake. Closed-loop control is pursued for its potentially greater effectiveness and efficiency, relative to open-loop forcing. Toward this aim, the thesis addresses the need for estimation of the state from limited measurements. The wake of a blunt trailing edge body is investigated experimentally through simultaneous measurements of velocity and the spanwise distribution of fluctuating surface pressure. Passive forcing is implemented with an array of vortex generators that are arranged according to the characteristic wavelength of the dominant small-scale instability. The guiding considerations for the analysis and discussion are physical characterization and the development of estimation strategies based on surface pressure. Joint examination of the measured variables through reduced-order modelling, wavelet analysis, and conditional averaging yields insight regarding the unsteady, three-dimensional nature of the flow. The investigation of forcing is focused upon the influence of the perturbation on the surface pressure and the performance of estimation models in the modified wake. It is found that low-frequency amplitude modulation of the pressure results from variation of both the magnitude of velocity fluctuations and the vortex formation length. The forcing regularizes the shedding in time and space, as evidenced by the attenuated modulation and enhanced spanwise coherence of the amplitude and phase. Examination of this behaviour confirms the connection between amplitude modulation and vortex dislocations in bluff body wakes. Several properties of the estimation approaches hold in general. It is shown that the

  3. Exotic wakes of flapping fins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis

    We present, in 8 chapters, experiments on and numerical simulations of bodies flapping in a fluid. Focus is predominantly on a rigid foil, a model fish, that performs prescribed pitching oscillations where the foil rotates around its leading edge. In a flowing soap film is measured, with unpreced......We present, in 8 chapters, experiments on and numerical simulations of bodies flapping in a fluid. Focus is predominantly on a rigid foil, a model fish, that performs prescribed pitching oscillations where the foil rotates around its leading edge. In a flowing soap film is measured......-speed and the strength ratio of the vortices formed at the foil’s leading and trailing edge. The simulated vortex particles and measured thickness variations in the soap film show similar behaviour which indicates that the soap film provides a good approximation the flow of a two-dimensional incompressible and Newtonian...

  4. Wake development behind paired wings with tip and root trailing vortices: consequences for animal flight force estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Horstmann

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on flapping flight in animals have shown that a variety of unrelated species shed a wake behind left and right wings consisting of both tip and root vortices. Here we present an investigation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV of the behaviour and interaction of trailing vortices shed by paired, fixed wings that simplify and mimic the wake of a flying animal with a non-lifting body. We measured flow velocities at five positions downstream of two adjacent NACA 0012 aerofoils and systematically varied aspect ratio, the gap between the wings (corresponding to the width of a non-lifting body, angle of attack, and the Reynolds number. The range of aspect ratios and Reynolds number where chosen to be relevant to natural fliers and swimmers, and insect flight in particular. We show that the wake behind the paired wings deformed as a consequence of the induced flow distribution such that the wingtip vortices convected downwards while the root vortices twist around each other. Vortex interaction and wake deformation became more pronounced further downstream of the wing, so the positioning of PIV measurement planes in experiments on flying animals has an important effect on subsequent force estimates due to rotating induced flow vectors. Wake deformation was most severe behind wings with lower aspect ratios and when the distance between the wings was small, suggesting that animals that match this description constitute high-risk groups in terms of measurement error. Our results, therefore, have significant implications for experimental design where wake measurements are used to estimate forces generated in animal flight. In particular, the downstream distance of the measurement plane should be minimised, notwithstanding the animal welfare constraints when measuring the wake behind flying animals.

  5. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars (United States)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, J.


    Because the horizontal homogeneity assumption is violated in wakes flows, lidars face difficulties when reconstructing wind fields. Further, small-scale turbulence which is prevalent in wake flows causes Doppler spectrum widths to be broader than in the free stream. In this study the Doppler peak variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level.

  6. Simulation and Analysis of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    Modern wind turbines are often clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream located turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed...... flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction leads to a decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. The turbulence created from wind turbine wakes is mainly due to the presence of the distinct tip and root vortices......, which eventually break down and forms small-scale turbulent structures. If a wind turbine is located in a wake consisting of tip and root vortices, the fatigue loading is more severe than in the case where the tip vortices have already broken down by instability mechanisms. Therefore, understanding...

  7. Vortex diffusion and vortex-line hysteresis in radial quantum turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saluto, L., E-mail: [DEIM, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Jou, D., E-mail: [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Mongiovi, M.S., E-mail: [DEIM, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)


    We study the influence of vortex diffusion on the evolution of inhomogeneous quantized vortex tangles. A simple hydrodynamical model to describe inhomogeneous counterflow superfluid turbulence is used. As an illustration, we obtain solutions for these effects in radial counterflow of helium II between two concentric cylinders at different temperatures. The vortex diffusion from the inner hotter cylinder to the outer colder cylinder increases the vortex length density everywhere as compared with the non-diffusive situation. The possibility of hysteresis in the vortex line density under cyclical variations of the heat flow is explored.

  8. An Investigation of the Effects of Discrete Wing Tip Jets on Wake Vortex Roll Up. (United States)


    and Operating Problems, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP 270, Hampton, Virginia, May, 1971. 5. Smith, Harriet J. "A Flight Test...December, 1980, pp. 861-866. 39. Flechner, Stuart G., Peter F. Jacobs , and Richard T. Whitcomb. "A High Subsonic Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation Of

  9. Fast-swimming hydromedusae exploit velar kinematics to form an optimal vortex wake


    Dabiri, John O.; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.


    Fast-swimming hydromedusan jellyfish possess a characteristic funnel-shaped velum at the exit of their oral cavity that interacts with the pulsed jets of water ejected during swimming motions. It has been previously assumed that the velum primarily serves to augment swimming thrust by constricting the ejected flow in order to produce higher jet velocities. This paper presents high-speed video and dye-flow visualizations of free-swimming Nemopsis bachei hydromedusae, which instead indicate tha...

  10. An Optical Wake Vortex Detection System for Super-Density Airport Operation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Feasibility study including analysis and experiment performed in Phase I indicated that several singled-ended optical scintillometer and retro-reflector pairs...

  11. Algorithm Development for a Coherent Fiber Lidar as a Wake Vortex Monitoring Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capacity of coherent Lidar systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in...

  12. Low-Cost Lidar for Wake-Vortex and Other Hazard Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has been tasked with supporting the development of key technologies to facilitate the evolution of the National Airspace System to NextGen, the Next Generation...

  13. Modeling of vortex dynamics in the wake of a marine propeller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muscari, R.; Di Mascio, A.; Verzicco, Roberto


    The flow past a rotating marine propeller is analyzed with the aim of establishing limits and capabilities and, hence, the field of applicability of different turbulence modeling approaches for this class of problems. To this purpose the eddy viscosity model of Spalart and Allmaras (1994) [1] and

  14. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) systems have proven their value in the remote measurement of spatially resolved atmospheric wind velocities in a number of...

  15. Low-Cost Lidar for Wake-Vortex and Other Hazard Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The evolution of the National Airspace System via the Next Generation Air Transportation System program depends on enabling new operational concepts to increase...

  16. Vortex dynamics in thin elliptic ferromagnetic nanodisks (United States)

    Wysin, G. M.


    Vortex gyrotropic motion in thin ferromagnetic nanodisks of elliptical shape is described here for a pure vortex state and for a situation with thermal fluctuations. The system is analyzed using numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations, including the demagnetization field calculated with a Green's function approach for thin film problems. At finite temperature the thermalized dynamics is found using a second order Heun algorithm for a magnetic Langevin equation based on the LLG equations. The vortex state is stable only within a limited range of ellipticity, outside of which a quasi-single-domain becomes the preferred minimum energy state. A vortex is found to move in an elliptical potential, whose force constants along the principal axes are determined numerically. The eccentricity of vortex motion is directly related to the force constants. Elliptical vortex motion is produced spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. The vortex position and velocity distributions in thermal equilibrium are Boltzmann distributions. The results show that vortex motion in elliptical disks can be described by a Thiele equation.

  17. Flow field measurement around vortex cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.; Westerweel, J.; Van Terwisga, T.J.C.


    Models for the center frequency of cavitating-vortex induced pressure-fluctuations, in a flow around propellers, require knowledge of the vortex strength and vapor cavity size. For this purpose, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were taken downstream of a fixed half-wing

  18. The modelling of symmetric airfoil vortex generators (United States)

    Reichert, B. A.; Wendt, B. J.


    An experimental study is conducted to determine the dependence of vortex generator geometry and impinging flow conditions on shed vortex circulation and crossplane peak vorticity for one type of vortex generator. The vortex generator is a symmetric airfoil having a NACA 0012 cross-sectional profile. The geometry and flow parameters varied include angle-of-attack alfa, chordlength c, span h, and Mach number M. The vortex generators are mounted either in isolation or in a symmetric counter-rotating array configuration on the inside surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio is delta/R = 0. 17. Circulation and peak vorticity data are derived from crossplane velocity measurements conducted at or about 1 chord downstream of the vortex generator trailing edge. Shed vortex circulation is observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. With these parameters held constant, circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio AR. Shed vortex peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to M, alfa, and h/delta. Unlike circulation, however, peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at AR approx. 2.0 before falling off.

  19. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.


    for their initial evolution is derived. The results are supported by a numerical particle simulation. Also the possibility of vortex excitation by ion bursts and coalescence of two vortexes are demonstrated. The effects of finite ion temperature, particle trapping and charge exchange collisions are discussed...

  20. Intra-cavity vortex beam generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring...

  1. The bathtub vortex in a rotating container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.


    We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...

  2. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C


    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  3. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings. (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew


    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from -.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than older drivers (26%), p < .001. Conversely, older drivers were still accelerating (38%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than younger to middle aged drivers (23%) at the time FCW was activated, p < .009. There were no differences in the proportion of activations when drivers were coasting at the time FCW was activated, p = .240. Furthermore, large individual differences in basic visual, motor, and cognitive function predicted the tendency to brake prior to FCW activation. Those who tended to be better functioning in each of these domains were more likely to be already braking prior to FCW activation at the fixed threshold of TTC=4. These findings suggest optimal timing for advisory alerts for forward events may need to be larger than TTC=4.

  4. Forward Collision Warning: Clues to Optimal Timing of Advisory Warnings (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Marini, Robert; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew


    We examined the effectiveness of a heads-up Forward Collision Warning (FCW) system in 39 younger to middle aged drivers (25-50, mean = 35 years) and 37 older drivers (66-87, mean = 77 years). The warnings were implemented in a fixed based, immersive, 180 degree forward field of view simulator. The FCW included a visual advisory component consisting of a red horizontal bar which flashed in the center screen of the simulator that was triggered at time-to-collision (TTC) 4 seconds. The bar roughly overlapped the rear bumper of the lead vehicle, just below the driver's line-of-sight. A sustained auditory tone (~80 dB) was activated at TTC=2 to alert the driver to an imminent collision. Hence, the warning system differed from the industry standard in significant ways. 95% Confidence intervals for the safety gains ranged from −.03 to .19 seconds in terms of average correction time across several activations. Older and younger adults did not differ in terms of safety gains. Closer inspection of data revealed that younger to middle aged drivers were already braking (42%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than older drivers (26%), p < .001. Conversely, older drivers were still accelerating (38%) on a larger proportion of FCW activations than younger to middle aged drivers (23%) at the time FCW was activated, p < .009. There were no differences in the proportion of activations when drivers were coasting at the time FCW was activated, p = .240. Furthermore, large individual differences in basic visual, motor, and cognitive function predicted the tendency to brake prior to FCW activation. Those who tended to be better functioning in each of these domains were more likely to be already braking prior to FCW activation at the fixed threshold of TTC=4. These findings suggest optimal timing for advisory alerts for forward events may need to be larger than TTC=4. PMID:27648455

  5. Transient dynamics of the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil using fluidic vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siauw, W.L. [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Bonnet, J.-P., E-mail: Jean-Paul.Bonnet@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Tensi, J., E-mail: Jean.Tensi@lea.univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Cordier, L., E-mail: Laurent.Cordier@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Noack, B.R., E-mail: Bernd.Noack@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Cattafesta, L., E-mail: cattafes@ufl.ed [Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion (FCAAP), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    The unsteady activation or deactivation of fluidic vortex generators on a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied to understand the transient dynamics of flow separation control. The Reynolds number is high enough and the boundary layer is tripped, so the boundary layer is fully turbulent prior to separation. Conditional PIV of the airfoil wake is obtained phase-locked to the actuator trigger signal, allowing reconstruction of the transient processes. When the actuators are impulsively turned on, the velocity field in the near wake exhibit a complex transient behavior associated with the formation and shedding of a starting vortex. When actuation is stopped, a more gradual process of the separation dynamics is found. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature in comparable configurations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of phase-locked velocity fields reveals low-dimensional transient dynamics for the attachment and separation processes, with 98% of the fluctuation energy captured by the first four modes. The behavior is quantitatively well captured by a four-dimensional dynamical system with the corresponding mode amplitudes. Analysis of the first temporal POD modes accurately determines typical time scales for attachment and separation processes to be respectively t{sup +}=10 and 20 in conventional non-dimensional values. This study adds to experimental investigations of this scale with essential insight for the targeted closed-loop control.

  6. Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs and the impact on women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Bittencourt


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the association between the pictorial graphic health warnings on cigarette packs and their impact on intention to quit smoking among women. METHODS : Population-based cross-sectional study among 265 women daily smokers in the State of Paraná in 2010. The sample size was calculated using cluster sampling. Participants were asked whether they had seen any pictorial graphic health warnings in the past 30 days, whether these warnings made them think about quitting, and intensity of these thoughts. The data was analyzed using logistic regression and the independent variables included age, educational attainment, whether they had children, whether they had attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months, age of smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked per day, their town of residence, and how soon after waking do they smoke their first cigarette. RESULTS : Participants (91.7% reported seeing the pictorial graphic health warnings in the past 30 days. Women with elementary education or below and women with some/complete high school education were more likely to think about quitting smoking after seeing the pictorial graphic health warningsthan women with higher education (OR = 4.85; p = 0.0028 and OR = 2.91; p = 0.05, respectively. Women who attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months were more likely to think about quitting than women who had not (OR = 2.49; p = 0.001. Quit attempts within the last 12 months were associated with intensity of these thoughts (OR = 2.2; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS : Results show an association between pictorial graphic health warnings and intent to quit smoking among women with warnings having a greater impact among women with less education and who had attempted to quit smoking within the past year. Tobacco control strategies should be implemented across all groups of women regardless of their educational attainment.

  7. Combustion heat release effects on asymmetric vortex shedding from bluff bodies (United States)

    Cross, Caleb Nathaniel


    This thesis describes an investigation of oscillatory combustion processes due to vortex shedding from bluff body flame holders. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of combustion process heat release upon the Benard-von Karman (BVK) instability in reacting bluff body wakes. For this purpose, spatial and temporal heat release distributions in bluff body-stabilized combustion of liquid Jet-A fuel with high-temperature, vitiated air were characterized over a wide range of operating conditions. Two methods of fuel injection were investigated. In the first method, referred to as close-coupled fuel injection, the fuel was supplied via discrete liquid jets injected perpendicular to the cross-flowing air stream just upstream of the bluff body trailing edge, thereby limiting fuel and air mixing prior to burning. The fuel was introduced well upstream (˜0.5 m) of the bluff body in the second fuel injection mode, resulting in a well-evaporated and mixed reactants stream. The resulting BVK heat release dynamics were compared between these fuel injection modes in order to investigate their dependence upon the spatial distributions of fuel-air ratio and heat release in the reacting wake. When close-coupled fuel injection was used, the BVK heat release dynamics increased in amplitude with increasing global equivalence ratio, reaching a maximum just before globally rich blow out of the combustion process occurred. This was due to a decrease in fuel entrainment into the near-wake as the fuel spray penetrated further into the cross-flow, which reduced the local heat release and equivalence ratio (indicated by CH* and C2*/CH* chemiluminescence, respectively). As a result, the density gradient across the near-wake reaction zone decreased, resulting in less damping of vorticity due to dilatation. In addition, unburned reactants were entrained into the recirculation zone due to the injection of discrete liquid fuel jets in close proximity to the wake. This

  8. Forced convection in the wakes of impacting and sliding bubbles (United States)

    O'Reilly Meehan, R.; Williams, N. P.; Donnelly, B.; Persoons, T.; Nolan, K.; Murray, D. B.


    Both vapour and gas bubbles are known to significantly increase heat transfer rates between a heated surface and the surrounding fluid, even with no phase change. The cooling structures observed are highly temporal, intricate and complex, with a full description of the surface cooling phenomena not yet available. The current study uses high speed infrared thermography to measure the surface temperature and determine the convective heat flux enhancement associated with the interaction of a single air bubble with a heated, inclined surface. This process can be discretised into the initial impact, in which enhancement levels in excess of 20 times natural convection are observed, and the subsequent sliding behaviour, with more moderate maximum enhancement levels of 8 times natural convection. In both cases, localised regions of suppressed heat transfer are also observed due to the recirculation of warm fluid displaced from the thermal boundary layer with the surface. The cooling patterns observed herein are consistent with the interaction between an undulating wake containing multiple hairpin vortex loops and the thermal boundary layer that exists under the surface, with the initial nature of this enhancement and suppression dependent on the particular point on its rising path at which the bubble impacts the surface.

  9. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob


    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface that acts as a natural energy capture mechanism. This patterning is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. Increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test how this roughness effects LEV formation, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Images were captured of the LEV generated when the plate was towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. These images were used to determine the XY velocity of the particles using a technique called Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Codes written in MATLAB were used to track and measure the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding for this research project was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (REU Supplement CBET 1628600 under CBET 1335848).

  10. Polynomial Apodizers for Centrally Obscured Vortex Coronagraphs (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Pueyo, Laurent; Mazoyer, Johan; N'Diaye, Mamadou


    Several coronagraph designs have been proposed over the last two decades to directly image exoplanets. Among these designs, vector vortex coronagraphs provide theoretically perfect starlight cancellation along with small inner working angles when deployed on telescopes with unobstructed pupils. However, current and planned space missions and ground-based extremely large telescopes present complex pupil geometries, including large central obscurations caused by secondary mirrors, which prevent vortex coronagraphs from rejecting on-axis sources entirely. Recent solutions combining the vortex phase mask with a ring-apodized pupil have been proposed to circumvent this issue, but provide a limited throughput for vortex charges > 2. We present pupil plane apodizations for charge 2, 4, and 6 vector vortex coronagraphs that compensate for pupil geometries with circularly symmetric central obstructions caused by on-axis secondary mirrors. These apodizations are derived analytically and allow vortex coronagraphs to retain theoretically perfect nulling in the presence of obstructed pupils. For a charge 4 vortex, we design polynomial apodization functions assuming a grayscale apodizing filter that represent a substantial gain in throughput over the ring-apodized vortex coronagraph design, while for a charge 6 vortex, we design polynomial apodized vortex coronagraphs that have ≳ 70 % total energy throughput for the entire range of central obscuration sizes studied. We propose methods for optimizing apodizations produced with either grayscale apodizing filters or shaped mirrors. We conclude by demonstrating how this design may be combined with apodizations numerically optimized for struts and primary mirror segment gaps to design terrestrial exoplanet imagers for complex pupils.

  11. Status of wake and array loss research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.L.


    In recent years, many projects have evaluated wind turbine wake effects and resultant array losses in both Europe and the United States. This paper examines the status of current knowledge about wake effects and array losses and suggests future research. Single-turbine wake characteristics have been studied extensively and are generally described well by existing theoretical models. Field measurements of wake effects in wind turbine arrays are largely limited to small arrays, with 2 to 4 rows of turbines. Few data have been published on wake effects within large arrays. Measurements of wake deficits downwind of large arrays that deficits are substantially larger and extend farther downwind than expected. Although array design models have been developed, these models have been tested and verified using only limited data from a few rows of wind turbines in complex terrain, whereas some of the largest arrays have more than 40 rows of wind turbines. Planned cooperative efforts with the wind industry will obtain existing data relevant to analyzing energy deficits within large arrays and identifying data sets for potential use in array model verification efforts. Future research being considered include a cooperative research experiment to obtain more definitive data on wake deficits and turbulence within and downwind of large arrays. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Navier-Stokes Simulation of UH-60A Rotor/Wake Interaction Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (United States)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.


    High-resolution simulations of rotor/vortex-wake interaction for a UH60-A rotor under BVI and dynamic stallconditions were carried out with the OVERFLOW Navier-Stokes code.a. The normal force and pitching moment variation with azimuth angle were in good overall agreementwith flight-test data, similar to other CFD results reported in the literature.b. The wake-grid resolution did not have a significant effect on the rotor-blade airloads. This surprisingresult indicates that a wake grid spacing of (Delta)S=10% ctip is sufficient for engineering airloads predictionfor hover and forward flight. This assumes high-resolution body grids, high-order spatial accuracy, anda hybrid RANS/DDES turbulence model.c. Three-dimensional dynamic stall was found to occur due the presence of blade-tip vortices passing overa rotor blade on the retreating side. This changed the local airfoil angle of attack, causing stall, unlikethe 2D perspective of pure pitch oscillation of the local airfoil section.

  13. Wake structure and wingbeat kinematics of a house-martin Delichon urbica. (United States)

    Rosén, M; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A


    The wingbeat kinematics and wake structure of a trained house martin in free, steady flight in a wind tunnel have been studied over a range of flight speeds, and compared and contrasted with similar measurements for a thrush nightingale and a pair of robins. The house martin has a higher aspect ratio (more slender) wing, and is a more obviously agile and aerobatic flyer, catching insects on the wing. The wingbeat is notable for the presence at higher flight speeds of a characteristic pause in the upstroke. The essential characteristics of the wing motions can be reconstructed with a simple two-frequency model derived from Fourier analysis. At slow speeds, the distribution of wake vorticity is more simple than for the other previously measured birds, and the upstroke does not contribute to weight support. The upstroke becomes gradually more significant as the flight speed increases, and although the vortex wake shows a signature of the pause phase, the global circulation measurements are otherwise in good agreement with surprisingly simple aerodynamic models, and with predictions across the different species, implying quite similar aerodynamic performance of the wing sections. The local Reynolds numbers of the wing sections are sufficiently low that the well-known instabilities of attached laminar flows over lifting surfaces, which are known to occur at two to three times this value, may not develop.

  14. Panel method for the wake effects on the aerodynamics of vertical-axis wind turbines (United States)

    Goyal, Udit; Rempfer, Dietmar


    A formulation based on the panel method is implemented for studying the unsteady aerodynamics of straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbines. A combination of source and vortex distributions is used to represent an airfoil in Darrieus type motion. Our approach represents a low-cost computational technique that takes into account the dynamic changes in angle of attack of the blade during a cycle. A time-stepping mechanism is introduced for the wake convection, and its effects on the aerodynamic forces on the blade are discussed. The focus of the study is to describe the effect of the trailing wakes on the upstream flow conditions and coefficient of performance of the turbines. Results show a decrease in Cp until the wake structure develops and assumes a quasi-steady behavior. A comparison with other models such as single and multiple streamtubes is discussed, and optimization of the blade pitch angle is performed to increase the instantaneous torque and hence the power output from the turbine.

  15. Terahertz circular Airy vortex beams. (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Liu, Jinsong; Niu, Liting; Wei, Xuli; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang


    Vortex beams have received considerable research interests both in optical and millimeter-wave domain since its potential to be utilized in the wireless communications and novel imaging systems. Many well-known optical beams have been demonstrated to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams and high-order Bessel beams. Recently, the radially symmetric Airy beams that exhibit an abruptly autofocusing feature are also demonstrated to be capable of carrying OAM in the optical domain. However, due to the lack of efficient devices to manipulate terahertz (THz) beams, it could be a challenge to demonstrate the radially symmetric Airy beams in the THz domain. Here we demonstrate the THz circular Airy vortex beams (CAVBs) with a 0.3-THz continuous wave through 3D printing technology. Assisted by the rapidly 3D-printed phase plates, individual OAM states with topological charge l ranging from l = 0 to l = 3 and a multiplexed OAM state are successfully imposed into the radially symmetric Airy beams. We both numerically and experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of the generated THz CAVBs, and the simulations agree well with the observations.

  16. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pinzón


    Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization.  Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.

  17. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide


    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  18. Wake fields and instabilities in linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L


    A charged particle beam travelling across perfectly conducting structures whose boundaries do not have constant cross section, such as an RF cavity or bellows, generates longitudinal and transverse wake fields. We discuss in this lecture the general features of wake fields, and show a few simple examples in cylindrical geometry: perfectly conducting pipe and the resonant modes of an RF cavity. We then study the effect of wake fields on the dynamics of a beam in a linac, such as beam break-up instabilities and how to cure them.

  19. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob


    Because the horizontal homogeneity assumption is violated in wakes flows, lidars face difficulties when reconstructing wind fields. Further, small-scale turbulence which is prevalent in wake flows causes Doppler spectrum widths to be broader than in the free stream. In this study the Doppler peak...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  20. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning


    Ghoneim, Youssef A.


    This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC). The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates b...

  1. A wake-based correlate of swimming performance and foraging behavior in seven co-occurring jellyfish species. (United States)

    Dabiri, J O; Colin, S P; Katija, K; Costello, J H


    It is generally accepted that animal-fluid interactions have shaped the evolution of animals that swim and fly. However, the functional ecological advantages associated with those adaptations are currently difficult to predict on the basis of measurements of the animal-fluid interactions. We report the identification of a robust, fluid dynamic correlate of distinct ecological functions in seven jellyfish species that represent a broad range of morphologies and foraging modes. Since the comparative study is based on properties of the vortex wake--specifically, a fluid dynamical concept called optimal vortex formation--and not on details of animal morphology or phylogeny, we propose that higher organisms can also be understood in terms of these fluid dynamic organizing principles. This enables a quantitative, physically based understanding of how alterations in the fluid dynamics of aquatic and aerial animals throughout their evolution can result in distinct ecological functions.

  2. Fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings (United States)

    Dabiri, John O.; Gharib, Morteza


    Of particular importance to the development of models for isolated vortex ring dynamics in a real fluid is knowledge of ambient fluid entrainment by the ring. This time-dependent process dictates changes in the volume of fluid that must share impulse delivered by the vortex ring generator. Therefore fluid entrainment is also of immediate significance to the unsteady forces that arise due to the presence of vortex rings in starting flows. Applications ranging from industrial and transportation, to animal locomotion and cardiac flows, are currently being investigated to understand the dynamical role of the observed vortex ring structures. Despite this growing interest, fully empirical measurements of fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings have remained elusive. The primary difficulties arise in defining the unsteady boundary of the ring, as well as an inability to maintain the vortex ring in the test section sufficiently long to facilitate measurements. We present a new technique for entrainment measurement that utilizes a coaxial counter-flow to retard translation of vortex rings generated from a piston cylinder apparatus, so that their growth due to fluid entrainment can be observed. Instantaneous streamlines of the flow are used to determine the unsteady vortex ring boundary and compute ambient fluid entrainment. Measurements indicate that the entrainment process does not promote self-similar vortex ring growth, but instead consists of a rapid convection-based entrainment phase during ring formation, followed by a slower diffusive mechanism that entrains ambient fluid into the isolated vortex ring. Entrained fluid typically constitutes 30% to 40% of the total volume of fluid carried with the vortex ring. Various counter-flow protocols were used to substantially manipulate the diffusive entrainment process, producing rings with entrained fluid fractions up to 65%. Measurements of vortex ring growth rate and vorticity distribution during diffusive entrainment

  3. When elderly people give warning of suicide. (United States)

    Kjølseth, Ildri; Ekeberg, Øivind


    The study has a dual objective: (1) to investigate the extent to which, and how and to whom, elderly people gave warning (according to the definition of the term given by the American Association of Suicidology) prior to suicide; (2) to investigate how these warnings were perceived by the recipients of them, and what reactions the recipients had to the warnings. This is a psychological autopsy study based on qualitative interviews. Sixty-three informants were interviewed about 23 suicides by individuals aged over 65 in Norway. The informants comprised relatives, general practitioners (GPs) and home-based care nurses. In general, the analysis of the interviews follows the systematic text condensation method. The interviews contained four main themes regarding reactions to the warnings: "not taken seriously," "helplessness," "exhaustion," and "acceptance." A total of 14 of the 23 elderly people gave warning before the suicides occurred. The warnings were given to relatives (11), home-based care nurses (5), and GPs (2). Even though more than half of the elderly people had given warning (most frequently to relatives) before the suicide, the warnings did not initiate preventive measures. Together with passive attitudes, the lack of recognition of both the risk of suicide and the opportunities for treatment prevented possible measures being implemented. The paper discusses the grounds for the reactions as well as how suicide warnings given by elderly people can be taken seriously.

  4. Simulation and Prediction of Wakes and Wake Interaction in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl

    coupled with the flow solver. The numerical simulations include the study of the far wake behind a single turbine, three idealised cases of infinitely long rows of turbines and finally three infinite wind farm scenarios with different spacings. The flow characteristics between the turbines, turbine...... the basis for two proposed dynamic wake models of the turbulent wake deep inside large wind farms. The first model is based on a direct reconstruction using POD, while the other model (REDOMO) is based on an additional reduction by only including the most dominant frequencies. The flow fields derived from......The highly turbulent wake and the wake interaction of merging wakes between multiple wind turbines are modelled using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in a general Navier-Stokes solver. The Actuator Line (AL) technique is employed to model the wind turbines, and the aeroelastic computations are fully...

  5. Numerical study on the vortex motion patterns around a rotating circular cylinder and their critical characters (United States)

    Ling, Guo-Ping; Shih, Tsi-Min


    A hybrid finite difference and vortex method (HFDV), based on the domain decomposition method (DDM), is used for calculating the flow around a rotating circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re=1000, 200 and the angular-to-rectilinear speed ratio (0.5, 3.25) respectively. A fully implicit third-order eccentric finite difference scheme is adopted in the finite difference method, and the deduced large broad band sparse matrix equations are solved by a highly efficient modified incomplete LU decomposition conjugate gradient method (MILU-CG). The long-time, fully developed features about the variations of the vortex patterns in the wake, as well as the drag and lift forces on the cylinder, are given. The calculated streamline contours are in good agreement with the experimentally visualized flow pictures. The existence of the critical state is confirmed again, and the single side shed vortex pattern at the critical state is shown for the first time. Also, the optimized lift-to-drag force ratio is obtained near the critical state. Copyright

  6. Vortex propagation around a wall-mounted obstacle in pulsatile flow (United States)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.


    Wall-mounted obstacles are prevalent in nature and engineering applications. Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. Despite their prevalence, studies of wall-mounted obstacles have been restricted to steady (constant velocity) freestream flow. In biological and geophysical applications, pulsatile flow is much more common, yet effects of pulsatility on the wake of a wall-mounted obstacle remain to be extensively studied. This study aims to characterize the complex physics produced in this unsteady, separated flow. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel with a set of rotating vanes, which produce the pulsatile inflow waveform. Instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) results acquired around a hemispherical obstacle are presented and compared. A mechanism based on self-induced vortex propagation, analogous to that in vortex rings, is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of coherent structures. Predictions of the propagation velocity based on analytical expressions for vortex rings in a viscous fluid are compared to the experimentally measured propagation velocity. Effects of the unsteady boundary layer on the observed physics are explored. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  7. Phase diagram of a lattice of pancake vortex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y., E-mail: y.tanaka@aist.go.j [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Crisan, A. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Shivagan, D.D.; Iyo, A.; Shirage, P.M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda (Japan); Terada, N. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan)


    On a superconducting bi-layer with thickness much smaller than the penetration depth, lambda, a vortex molecule might form. A vortex molecule is composed of two fractional vortices and a soliton wall. The soliton wall can be regarded as a Josephson vortex missing magnetic flux (degenerate Josephson vortex) due to an incomplete shielding. The magnetic energy carried by fractional vortices is less than in the conventional vortex. This energy gain can pay a cost to form a degenerate Josephson vortex. The phase diagram of the vortex molecule is rich because of its rotational freedom.

  8. New scanning technique for the optical vortex microscope. (United States)

    Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir


    In the optical vortex microscopy the focused Gaussian beam with optical vortex scans a sample. An optical vortex can be introduced into a laser beam with the use of a special optical element--a vortex lens. When moving the vortex lens, the optical vortex changes its position inside the spot formed by a focused laser beam. This effect can be used as a new precise scanning technique. In this paper, we study the optical vortex behavior at the sample plane. We also estimate if the new scanning technique results in observable effects that could be used for a phase object detection.

  9. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia


    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at:

  10. Wind Turbine Wake in Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rethore, Pierre-Elouan

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order...... to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-ε turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply......) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-ε model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake...

  11. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul

    Wind turbine wakes can cause 10-20% annual energy losses in wind farms, and wake turbulence can decrease the lifetime of wind turbine blades. One way of estimating these effects is the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate wind turbines wakes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Since...... wind farm, the simulated results cannot be compared directly with wind farm measurements that have a high uncertainty in the measured reference wind direction. When this uncertainty is used to post-process the CFD results, a fairer comparison with measurements is achieved....... this flow is in the high Reynolds number regime, it is mainly dictated by turbulence. As a result, the turbulence modeling in CFD dominates the wake characteristics, especially in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). The present work is dedicated to study and develop RANS-based turbulence models...

  12. Wake dynamics in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mare, Martin Tobias

    Wind turbines within offshore wind farms spend considerable time operating in the wake of neighboring wind turbines. An important contribution to the loads on a wake-affected wind turbine is the slow movement of the wake from the upstream wind turbine across the rotor of the wake-affected wind...... to be uniquely determined by the friction velocity, the shear and the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, all of them physical properties of the flow. If local equilibrium between the turbulent kinetic energy produced by shear and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipated as heat is assumed, then, for neutral...... components of the cross-spectra at known shear, is proposed. Future work could also include investigating if a Rapid Distortion formulation that also includes a term for buoyancy effects is needed in order to make accurate predictions for non-neutral atmospheric stratification....

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  14. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2005 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in October...

  15. Secure Wake-Up Scheme for WBANs (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Wei; Ameen, Moshaddique Al; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    Network life time and hence device life time is one of the fundamental metrics in wireless body area networks (WBAN). To prolong it, especially those of implanted sensors, each node must conserve its energy as much as possible. While a variety of wake-up/sleep mechanisms have been proposed, the wake-up radio potentially serves as a vehicle to introduce vulnerabilities and attacks to WBAN, eventually resulting in its malfunctions. In this paper, we propose a novel secure wake-up scheme, in which a wake-up authentication code (WAC) is employed to ensure that a BAN Node (BN) is woken up by the correct BAN Network Controller (BNC) rather than unintended users or malicious attackers. The scheme is thus particularly implemented by a two-radio architecture. We show that our scheme provides higher security while consuming less energy than the existing schemes.

  16. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine (United States)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.


    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  17. Phase diagrams of vortex matter with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions in layered superconductors. (United States)

    Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor


    It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.

  18. On the Use of Vortex-Fitting in the Numerical Simulation of Blade-Vortex Interaction (United States)

    Srinivasan, G. R.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)


    The usefulness of vortex-fitting in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to preserve the vortex strength and structure while convecting in a uniform free stream is demonstrated through the numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions. The fundamental premise of the formulation is the velocity and pressure field of the interacting vortex are unaltered either in the presence of an airfoil or a rotor blade or by the resulting nonlinear interactional flowfield. Although, the governing Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are nonlinear and independent solutions cannot be superposed, the interactional flowfield can be accurately captured by adding and subtracting the flowfield of the convecting vortex at each instant. The aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of two- and three-dimensional blade-vortex interactions have been calculated in Refs. 1-6 using this concept. Some of the results from these publications and similar other published material will be summarized in this paper.

  19. Acoustooptic operation of optical vortex beams (United States)

    Martynyuk-Lototska, Iryna; Vasylkiv, Yurii; Dudok, Taras; Skab, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav


    Using acoustooptic (AO) cells based on TeO2 crystal and silica glass, we have experimentally shown for the first time that the intensity profile and the phase structure of the vortex beam are preserved under AO Bragg diffraction. As a result, the vortex beam can be deflected due to AO diffraction, whereas the acoustooptically operated vortex beams can be efficiently used in such novel branches of optical technology as optical trapping and controlled addressing of the beams with different orbital angular momentums.

  20. All-electrical magnetic vortex array sensing (United States)

    Tannous, C.; Gieraltowski, J.


    Vortex sensing magnetometers based on arrays of soft magnetic dots are good candidates for high-resolution and accurate spatial magnetic-field estimation. When the arrays are laid out along different spatial directions they can perform tensor gradiometry allowing the measurement of field components and their spatial derivatives as a function of orientation. Detection is based on using spin-polarized currents to counteract vortex displacements or to excite vortex oscillation modes triggered by magnetic-field application. Sensor linearization, field detection range and conditions to obtain large sensitivity electronic compatibility and scalability are discussed.

  1. Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder (United States)

    Foeppl, L.


    Vortex motion behind a circular cylinder moving through water is discussed. It is shown that a pair of vortices form behind a moving cylinder and that their centers will move along a predictable curve. This curve represents an equilibrium condition which, however, is subject to perturbation. The stability of the vortex pair is investigated. Movement of the vortex pair away from the cylinder is calculated as an explanation of the resistance of the cylinder. Finally, the principles elaborated are applied to the flow around a flat plate.

  2. Experimental study of mitigation of a spiral vortex breakdown at high Reynolds number under an adverse pressure gradient (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Gandhi, Bhupendra K.; Cervantes, Michel J.


    The flow in the off-design operation of a Francis turbine may lead to the formation of spiral vortex breakdowns in the draft tube, a diffuser installed after the runner. The spiral vortex breakdown, also named a vortex rope, may induce several low-frequency fluctuations leading to structural vibrations and a reduction in the overall efficiency of the turbine. In the present study, synchronized particle image velocimetry, pressure, and turbine flow parameter (Q, H, α, and T) measurements have been carried out in the draft tube cone of a high head model Francis turbine. The transient operating condition from the part load to the best efficiency point was selected to investigate the mitigation of the vortex rope in the draft tube cone. The experiments were performed 20 times to assess the significance of the results. A precession frequency of 1.61 Hz [i.e., 0.29 times the runner rotational frequency (Rheingans frequency)] is observed in the draft tube cone. The frequency is captured in both pressure and velocity data with its harmonics. The accelerating flow condition at the center of the cone with a guide vane opening is observed to diminish the spiral form of the vortex breakdown in the quasi-stagnant region. This further mitigates the stagnant part of the cone with a highly dominated axial flow condition of the turbine at the best efficiency point. The disappearance of the stagnant region is the most important state in the present case, which mitigates the spiral vortex breakdown of the cone at high Reynolds numbers. In contrast to a typical transition, a new type of transition from wake to jet is observed during the mitigation of the breakdown. The obtained 2D instantaneous velocity fields demonstrate the disappearance region of shear layers and stagnation in the cone. The results also demonstrate the existence of high axial velocity gradients in an elbow draft tube cone.

  3. Aspects of the influence of an oscillating mini-flap upon the near wake of an airfoil NACA 4412 (United States)

    Delnero, J. S.; Marañón Di Leo, J.; Colman, J.; García Sainz, M.; Muñoz, F.; Hérouard, N.; Camocardi, M. E.


    A NACA 4412 airfoil was tested, in a boundary layer wind tunnel, with the aim to study the effect of a Gurney mini-flap, as an active and passive flow control device submitted to a turbulent flow field. The main objective was the experimental determination of flow pattern characteristics downstream the airfoil in the near wake. The untwisted wing model used for the experiments had 80cm wingspan and 50cm chord, with airfoil NACA 4412. The mini-flap was located on the lower surface at a distance, from the trailing edge, of 8%c (c airfoil chord). The Reynolds number, based upon the wing chord and the mean free stream velocity was 326,000 and 489,000. The turbulence intensity was 1.8%. The model was located into the wind tunnel between two panels, in order to assure a close approximation to two-dimensional flow over the model. As an active control device a rotating mini-flaps, geared by an electromechanical system (which rotate to a 30°) was constructed. The wake pattern and pressure values near the trailing edge were measured. The results obtained, for this mechanism, show us that the oscillating mini-flap change the wake flow pattern, alleviating the near wake turbulence and enhancing the vortex pair near the trailing edge at the mini-flap level and below that level, magnifying the effect described first by Liebeck [1]. That effect grows with the oscillating frequency. Additionally, the wake alleviation probably affects also the far wake. All of these facts suggest us to continue with the experiments, trying to measure the pressure distribution around the airfoil in all the cases, obtaining the lift and drag characteristics.

  4. Electron vortex beams in a magnetic field and spin filter


    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul


    We investigate the propagation of electron vortex beams in a magnetic field. It is pointed out that when electron vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum propagate in a magnetic field, the Berry curvature associated with the scalar electron moving in a cyclic path around the vortex line is modified from that in free space. This alters the spin-orbit interaction, which affects the propagation of nonparaxial beams. The electron vortex beams with tilted vortex lead to spin Hall effect in ...

  5. Secondary vortex formation in ring vortices in free jets (United States)

    Schneider, E. M.


    Secondary vortex formation is examined as a basic component of the turbulent condition of vortex and laminar currents. Dyed fluid ring vortices are used to investigate formation moving against an object and in an unobstructed environment. Part of the vortex structure of jets can be explained by means of secondary vortices, and the sound spectrum both of a single turbulent vortex and of jets is influenced by secondary vortex formation.

  6. Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.


    Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  7. Suppression of wake's instabilities by optimal streaks (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory


    Wakes can sustain large transient energy growth. Optimal perturbations are computed for the cases of parallel, weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes. Streaks are found to be the optimal amplified structures produced by the non normal energy amplification. The level of energy increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations except in the circular cylinder wake where the optimal is reached for λz ~ 6 D . In parallel wakes these streaks are shown to suppress the absolute instability. Furthermore the global instability of the weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes can be completely annihilate with moderate streaks amplitudes. The comparison of these spanwise periodic (3D) optimal perturbations with the spanwise uniform (2D) control showed that the energy required to stabilize the wake is always smaller for the 3D control. Moreover the sensitivity of the global mode growth rate is discovered to be quadratic for 3D perturbations while being linear for 2D ones meaning that usual first order sensitivity analysis is unable to predict their larger efficiency.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson


    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  9. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies (United States)

    Quick, Julian; Annoni, Jennifer; King, Ryan; Dykes, Katherine; Fleming, Paul; Ning, Andrew


    Wind turbines in a wind power plant experience significant power losses because of aerodynamic interactions between turbines. One control strategy to reduce these losses is known as “wake steering,” in which upstream turbines are yawed to direct wakes away from downstream turbines. Previous wake steering research has assumed perfect information, however, there can be significant uncertainty in many aspects of the problem, including wind inflow and various turbine measurements. Uncertainty has significant implications for performance of wake steering strategies. Consequently, the authors formulate and solve an optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problem for finding optimal wake steering strategies in the presence of yaw angle uncertainty. The OUU wake steering strategy is demonstrated on a two-turbine test case and on the utility-scale, offshore Princess Amalia Wind Farm. When we accounted for yaw angle uncertainty in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm case, inflow-direction-specific OUU solutions produced between 0% and 1.4% more power than the deterministically optimized steering strategies, resulting in an overall annual average improvement of 0.2%. More importantly, the deterministic optimization is expected to perform worse and with more downside risk than the OUU result when realistic uncertainty is taken into account. Additionally, the OUU solution produces fewer extreme yaw situations than the deterministic solution.

  10. Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W


    In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses --- and thus the degree of disruption --- that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter $M$, a ratio between the Alfv\\'en speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number $\\mbox{Rm}$). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when $M^{2}\\mbox{Rm} = O(1)$. To test our prediction, we analyse direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flo...

  11. CFD Wake Modelling with a BEM Wind Turbine Sub-Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hallanger


    Full Text Available Modelling of wind farms using computational fluid dynamics (CFD resolving the flow field around each wind turbine's blades on a moving computational grid is still too costly and time consuming in terms of computational capacity and effort. One strategy is to use sub-models for the wind turbines, and sub-grid models for turbulence production and dissipation to model the turbulent viscosity accurately enough to handle interaction of wakes in wind farms. A wind turbine sub-model, based on the Blade Momentum Theory, see Hansen (2008, has been implemented in an in-house CFD code, see Hallanger et al. (2002. The tangential and normal reaction forces from the wind turbine blades are distributed on the control volumes (CVs at the wind turbine rotor location as sources in the conservation equations of momentum. The classical k-epsilon turbulence model of Launder and Spalding (1972 is implemented with sub-grid turbulence (SGT model, see Sha and Launder (1979 and Sand and Salvesen (1994. Steady state CFD simulations were compared with flow and turbulence measurements in the wake of a model scale wind turbine, see Krogstad and Eriksen (2011. The simulated results compared best with experiments when stalling (boundary layer separation on the wind turbine blades did not occur. The SGT model did improve turbulence level in the wake but seems to smear the wake flow structure. It should be noted that the simulations are carried out steady state not including flow oscillations caused by vortex shedding from tower and blades as they were in the experiments. Further improvement of the simulated velocity defect and turbulence level seems to rely on better parameter estimation to the SGT model, improvements to the SGT model, and possibly transient- instead of steady state simulations.

  12. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest (United States)


  13. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign. (United States)


    ... (2) Facing outboard towards the water so that the sign may be seen from the water. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each warning sign must have the following words: (1) Warning. (2) Dangerous Cargo. (3) No Visitors. (4) No Smoking. (5) No Open Lights. (c) Each letter in the words on the...

  14. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Placing pictorial warning messages of potential health hazards of tobacco smoking on cigarette packets is mandatory by law in Egypt. Photos of victims of heavy tobacco smoking are placed on the front and back covers of cigarette packets in an attempt to warn both users and would be users of the health risks associated ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4101 - Warning signs. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs. 56.4101 Section 56.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4101 - Warning signs. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Warning signs. 57.4101 Section 57.4101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4101 Warning signs. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and...

  17. Development of a High-Performance Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger with Vortex Generators for a Vending Machine (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masamichi; Saito, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Sadanari; Murata, Akira

    The effect of delta-wing-vortex generators (combination of a delta wing and a delta winglet pair) on the heat transfer performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers for vending machines has been investegated. Flow visualizations, numerical simulations and heat transfer experiments were conducted to find an optimum geometrical shape and arrangement of the vortex generators. Maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the combination of (a) the delta wing with the apex angle of 86 degrees and (b) the delta winglet pair with the inline angle of 45 degrees. In relatively low Reynolds number range, about 40 % increase in heat transfer coefficient was attained with the above mentioned combination of the vortex generators compared to the ordinary heat exchangers with plain fins. It was revealed that the heat transfer enhancement was attributed to (1) the longitudinal vortexes generated by the delta wing and (2) the reduction of wake area behind the tube. It was also found that an increase in the apex angle of the delta wing brought about heat transfer enhancement, and the scale as well as the streggth of the induced longitudinal vortices played an important role in the heat transfer performance.

  18. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N


    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  19. Volumetric flow imaging reveals the importance of vortex ring formation in squid swimming tail-first and arms-first. (United States)

    Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S; Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Williams, Sheila; Thompson, Joseph T


    Squids use a pulsed jet and fin movements to swim both arms-first (forward) and tail-first (backward). Given the complexity of the squid multi-propulsor system, 3D velocimetry techniques are required for the comprehensive study of wake dynamics. Defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry, a volumetric velocimetry technique, and high-speed videography were used to study arms-first and tail-first swimming of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis over a broad range of speeds [0-10 dorsal mantle lengths (DML) s(-1)] in a swim tunnel. Although there was considerable complexity in the wakes of these multi-propulsor swimmers, 3D vortex rings and their derivatives were prominent reoccurring features during both tail-first and arms-first swimming, with the greatest jet and fin flow complexity occurring at intermediate speeds (1.5-3.0 DML s(-1)). The jet generally produced the majority of thrust during rectilinear swimming, increasing in relative importance with speed, and the fins provided no thrust at speeds >4.5 DML s(-1). For both swimming orientations, the fins sometimes acted as stabilizers, producing negative thrust (drag), and consistently provided lift at low/intermediate speeds (swimming orientation, and η for swimming sequences with clear isolated jet vortex rings was significantly greater (η=78.6±7.6%, mean±s.d.) than that for swimming sequences with clear elongated regions of concentrated jet vorticity (η=67.9±19.2%). This study reveals the complexity of 3D vortex wake flows produced by nekton with hydrodynamically distinct propulsors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available For single-rotor helicopters there are special flight modes, when tail rotor (TR is under significant inductive influ- ence of vortical wake of main rotor (MR. Inductive influence of vortical wake of MR can provoke essential changes in flowing of TR and its aerodynamic characteristics comparing to isolated rotor. In this case increase of tail rotor pitch, nec- essary for helicopter controlling, is possible.The article contains computational modelling of TR work with vortical wake of MR at the example of MIL Mi-171 helicopter. The modelling has been made on the base of non-linear blade (free wake vortical model of rotor, pro- duced at Helicopter Design Department of MAI.Helicopter hovering modes with crosswind of various intensity Vz was considered. Thrust-time relationship forisolated TR and TR with vortical wake of MR for equal flight modes was obtained. Flow around the rotors was analyzed, its vortical wake was considered.The results make it possible to clarify the peculiarities of TR work on considered modes and MR influence on its work. It was found out that vortical wake of MR has a more significant impact on TR work with crosswind on the right, when TR falls into vortex ring state mode. Inductive influence of vortical wake of MR leads to vortexring state mode for TR on lower speeds (Vz :: 5 m/s than in case of isolated work of TR (Vz :: 12,5 m/s. In that case,the required tail rotor pitch has increased by 13% for Vz = 5 m/s. The results of modelling and flight tests led to good agreement.

  1. Quenching processes in flame-vortex interactions (United States)

    Zingale, M.; Niemeyer, J. C.; Timmes, F. X.; Dursi, L. J.; Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Lamb, D. Q.; MacNeice, P.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Rosner, R.; Truran, J. W.; Tufo, H. M.


    We show direct numerical simulations of flame-vortex interactions in order to understand quenching of thermonuclear flames. The key question is-can a thermonuclear flame be quenched? If not, the deflagration-detonation transition mechanisms that demand a finely tuned preconditioned region in the interior of a white dwarf are unlikely to work. In these simulations, we pass a steady-state laminar flame through a vortex pair. The vortex pair represents the most severe strain the flame front will encounter inside the white dwarf. We perform a parameter study, varying the speed and size of the vortex pair, in order to understand the quenching process. No quenching is observed in any of the calculations performed to date. .

  2. Vortex structure and characterization of quasiperiodic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, I


    Quasiperiodic functions (QPFs) are characterized by their full vortex structure in one unit cell. This characterization is much finer and more sensitive than the topological one given by the total vorticity per unit cell (the 'Chern index'). It is shown that QPFs with an arbitrarily prescribed vortex structure exist by constructing explicitly such a 'standard' QPF. Two QPFs with the same vortex structure are equivalent, in the sense that their ratio is a function which is strictly periodic, nonvanishing and at least continuous. A general QPF can then be approximately reconstructed from its vortex structure on the basis of the standard QPF and the equivalence concept. As another application of this concept, a simple method is proposed for calculating the quasiperiodic eigenvectors of periodic matrices. Possible applications to the quantum-chaos problem on a phase-space torus are briefly discussed.

  3. Development of gas pressure vortex regulator (United States)

    Uss, A. Yu.; Chernyshyov, A. V.; Krylov, V. I.


    The present paper describes the applications of vortex regulators and the current state of the issue on the use and development of such devices. A patent review has been carried out. Automatic control systems using a vortex regulator are considered. Based on the analysis and preliminary numerical calculation of gas flow in the working cavity of the regulator, a new design of a vortex gas pressure regulator has been developed. An experimental sample of the device was made using additive technologies and a number of tests were carried out. The results of experimental studies confirmed the adequacy of the created mathematical model. Based on further numerical studies a new design of a vortex regulator with a distributed feed of the process control flow as well as with the regulated swirl of the supply and control process flows has been developed.

  4. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  5. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  6. Numerical simulations of trailing vortex bursting (United States)

    Beran, Philip S.


    Solutions of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations for the axisymmetric bursting of a laminar trailing vortex are computed with Newton's method and the pseudo-arc length continuation method for wide ranges of vortex strength and Reynolds number. The results indicate that a trailing vortex can undergo a transition from a state in which the core slowly diffuses to a state marked by large amplitude, spatial oscillations of core radius and core axial velocity. At the transition point the core grows rapidly in size. This event is interpreted as vortex bursting. The results also suggest that when the maximum core swirl velocity is sufficiently large the centerline axial flow downstream of transition will be reversed.

  7. Polynomial Apodizers for Centrally Obscured Vortex Coronagraphs


    Fogarty, Kevin; Pueyo, Laurent; Mazoyer, Johan; N'Diaye, Mamadou


    Several coronagraph designs have been proposed over the last two decades to directly image exoplanets. Among these designs, the vector vortex coronagraphs provide theoretically perfect starlight cancellation along with small inner working angles when deployed on telescopes with unobstructed pupils. However, current and planned space missions and ground-based extremely large telescopes present complex pupil geometries, including secondary mirror central obscurations, that prevent vortex corona...

  8. Spatiotemporal complexity of the aortic sinus vortex (United States)

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad


    The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calcific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus vortex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High-resolution time-resolved (2 kHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in timescales as revealed using time bin-averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small timescale vortices and a large timescale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatiotemporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200 Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and timescales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.

  9. Experiments in the wind turbine far wake for the evaluation of an analytical wake model (United States)

    García, Luis; Vatn, Mari; Mühle, Franz; Sætran, Lars


    Nowadays, not only the size of single wind turbines but also the size of wind farms is increasing. Understanding the interaction between the turbines and especially the wakes formed behind them are getting more important to further improve such wind turbine arrays. Consequently, new issues in wind energy research arise. An experimental wind tunnel study was conducted, in order to analyze and understand the far wake of a wind turbine. The experimental results were used to test if an analytical wake model derived by H. Schilichting for blunt bodies can be used to describe the velocity and width development in the far wake of wind turbines. The results of the evaluation show that the wake of a wind turbine agrees fairly well with the model according to Schlichting. The velocity deficit as well as the width in the wake behind the turbine, are found to deviate with around only 2% from the results obtained applying the analytical model. Thus, it can be concluded that the analytical wake model by Schlichting is well suited to estimate the velocity deficit and the width in the far wake of a wind turbine.

  10. Aperiodicity Correction for Rotor Tip Vortex Measurements (United States)

    Ramasamy, Manikandan; Paetzel, Ryan; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.


    The initial roll-up of a tip vortex trailing from a model-scale, hovering rotor was measured using particle image velocimetry. The unique feature of the measurements was that a microscope was attached to the camera to allow much higher spatial resolution than hitherto possible. This also posed some unique challenges. In particular, the existing methodologies to correct for aperiodicity in the tip vortex locations could not be easily extended to the present measurements. The difficulty stemmed from the inability to accurately determine the vortex center, which is a prerequisite for the correction procedure. A new method is proposed for determining the vortex center, as well as the vortex core properties, using a least-squares fit approach. This approach has the obvious advantage that the properties are derived from not just a few points near the vortex core, but from a much larger area of flow measurements. Results clearly demonstrate the advantage in the form of reduced variation in the estimated core properties, and also the self-consistent results obtained using three different aperiodicity correction methods.

  11. Counterexamples to Moffatt's statements on vortex knots. (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg


    One of the well-known problems of hydrodynamics is studied: the problem of classification of vortex knots for ideal fluid flows. In the literature there are known Moffatt statements that all torus knots K_{m,n} for all rational numbers m/n (0vortex knots for each one of the considered axisymmetric fluid flows. We prove that actually such a uniformity does not exist because it does not correspond to the facts. Namely, we derive a complete classification of all vortex knots realized for the fluid flows studied by Moffatt and demonstrate that the real structure of vortex knots is much more rich because the sets of mutually nonisotopic vortex knots realized for different axisymmetric fluid flows are all different. An exact formula for the limit of the hydrodynamic safety factor q_{h} at a vortex axis is derived for arbitrary axisymmetric fluid equilibria. Another exact formula is obtained for the limit of the magnetohydrodynamics safety factor q at a magnetic axis for the general axisymmetric plasma equilibria.

  12. Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.; Henningson, Dan S.; Ivanell, Stefan; Sarmast, Sasan; Andersen, Søren J.


    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake. PMID:25583862

  13. Numerical computations of wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanell, Stefan S.A.


    Numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations are performed to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of wakes generated by wind turbines. The simulations are performed by combining the in-house developed computer code EllipSys3D with the actuator line and disc methodologies. In the actuator line and disc methods the blades are represented by a line or a disc on which body forces representing the loading are introduced. The body forces are determined by computing local angles of attack and using tabulated aerofoil coefficients. The advantage of using the actuator disc technique is that it is not necessary to resolve blade boundary layers. Instead the computational resources are devoted to simulating the dynamics of the flow structures. In the present study both the actuator line and disc methods are used. Between approximately six to fourteen million mesh points are used to resolve the wake structure in a range from a single turbine wake to wake interaction in a farm containing 80 turbines. These 80 turbines are however represented by 20 actuator discs due to periodicity because of numerical limitations. In step one of this project the objective was to find a numerical method suitable to study both the flow structures in the wake behind a single wind turbine and to simulate complicated interaction between a number of turbines. The study resulted in an increased comprehension of basic flow features in the wake, but more importantly in the use of a numerical method very suitable for the upcoming purpose. The second objective of the project was to study the basic mechanisms controlling the length of the wake to obtain better understanding of the stability properties of wakes generated by wind turbine rotors. The numerical model was based on large eddy simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line method to generate the wake and the tip vortices. To determine critical frequencies the flow is disturbed by inserting a harmonic

  14. Study of secondary-flow patterns in an annular cascade of turbine nozzle blades with vortex design (United States)

    Rohlik, Harold E; Allen, Hubert W; Herzig, Howard Z


    In order to increase understanding of the origin of losses in a turbine, the secondary-flow components in the boundary layers and the blade wakes of an annular cascade of turbine nozzle blades (vortex design) was investigated. A detailed study was made of the total-pressure contours and, particularly, of the inner-wall loss cores downstream of the blades. The inner-wall loss core associated with a blade of the turbine-nozzle cascade is largely the accumulation of low-momentum fluids originating elsewhere in the cascade. This accumulation is effected by a secondary-flow mechanism which acts to transport the low-momentum fluids across the channels on the walls and radially in the blade wakes and boundary layers. The patterns of secondary flow were determined by use of hydrogen sulfide traces, paint, flow fences, and total pressure surveys. At one flow condition investigated, the radial transport of low-momentum fluid in the blade wake and on the suction surface near the trailing edge accounted for 65 percent of the loss core; 30 percent resulted from flow in the thickened boundary layer on the suction surface and 35 percent from flow in the blade wake.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.


    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  16. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  17. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.


    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  18. Tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex generation in fiber and its application in frequency-doubled vortex (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Wei, Keyan; Wang, Heng; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Huang, Ligang; Mei, Ting; Zhao, Jianlin


    We present a method for tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex pulse generation by using an acoustically-induced fiber grating (AIFG). The AIFG-driven mode conversion characteristic was activated via a shear-mode piezoelectric transducer that excels in excitation efficiency of acoustic flexural wave and mechanical stability. The linearly-polarized ±1-order picosecond vortex pulse was experimentally generated via AIFG with a uniform coupling efficiency of ∼98.4% from the fundamental mode to the ±1-order vortex mode within the wavelength range 1540 nm ∼ 1560 nm. The topological charge and the linearly-polarized characteristic of the picosecond vortex pulse were verified by examination of the off-axial interference and the polarization angle-dependent intensity, respectively. Furthermore, the picosecond vortex pulse with wavelength tunability was input to a nonlinear BBO crystal to generate a frequency-doubled ±2-order vortex in the wavelength range 770 nm ∼ 780 nm. This technology provides a convenient apparatus for generating a picosecond vortex pulse and the frequency-doubled vortex with wavelength tunability.

  19. The Stability Region for Feedback Control of the Wake Behind Twin Oscillating Cylinders (United States)

    Borggaard, Jeff; Gugercin, Serkan; Zietsman, Lizette


    Linear feedback control has the ability to stabilize vortex shedding behind twin cylinders where cylinder rotation is the actuation mechanism. Complete elimination of the wake is only possible for certain Reynolds numbers and cylinder spacing. This is related to the presence of asymmetric unstable modes in the linearized system. We investigate this region of parameter space using a number of closed-loop simulations that bound this region. We then consider the practical issue of designing feedback controls based on limited state measurements by building a nonlinear compensator using linear robust control theory with and incorporating the nonlinear terms in the compensator (e.g., using the extended Kalman filter). Interpolatory model reduction methods are applied to the large discretized, linearized Navier-Stokes system and used for computing the control laws and compensators. Preliminary closed-loop simulations of a three-dimensional version of this problem will also be presented. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  20. Sculptured 3D twister superlattices embedded with tunable vortex spirals. (United States)

    Xavier, Jolly; Vyas, Sunil; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam; Denz, Cornelia; Joseph, Joby


    We present diverse reconfigurable complex 3D twister vortex superlattice structures in a large area embedded with tunable vortex spirals as well as dark rings, threaded by vortex helices. We demonstrate these tunable complex chiral vortex superlattices by the superposition of relatively phase engineered plane waves. The generated complex 3D twister lattice vortex structures are computationally as well as experimentally analyzed using various tools to verify the presence of phase singularities. Our observation indicates the application-specific flexibility of our approach to tailor the transverse superlattice spatial irradiance profile of these longitudinally whirling vortex-cluster units and dark rings.

  1. Effects of surface anisotropy on magnetic vortex core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylypovskyi, Oleksandr V., E-mail: [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine)


    The vortex core shape in the three dimensional Heisenberg magnet is essentially influenced by a surface anisotropy. We predict that depending of the surface anisotropy type there appears barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex core along the magnet thickness. Our theoretical study is well confirmed by spin–lattice simulations. - Highlights: • The shape of magnetic vortex core is essentially influenced by SA (surface anisotropy). • We predict barrel- or pillow-shaped deformation of the vortex depending on SA. • The variational approach fully describes the vortex core deformation. • We performed spin–lattice simulations to detect SA influence on the vortex core.

  2. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.


    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  3. Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangouei J.


    Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.

  4. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.


    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  5. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.


    is high, wake losses are proportionally larger and decrease to be virtually undetectable at wind speeds above rated wind speeds. Wind direction is also critical. Not only does it determine the effective spacing between turbines but also the wind speed distribution is primarily determined by synoptic......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...... forcing and typically has a predominant direction from which wind speeds tend to be higher (from southwest for much of the central United States and northern Europe). Two other interlinked variables, turbulence intensity (TI), and atmospheric stability also dictate wake losses. Quantifying, understanding...

  6. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels


    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...... and it is shown that the turbines are subject to rather severe yaw moments, even in situations where the mean wind is oriented along the row. This observation is indicative of large scale dynamics of the wakes....... with the 3D Navier Stokes solver EllipSys3D and a LES turbulence model. Simple models, based on applying body forces in the computational domain, are developed for imposing sheared and turbulent infow and their validity is discussed. A few computations on stand alone turbines are compared to measurements...

  7. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole


    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  8. Intraventricular vortex properties in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Pérez-David, Esther; González-Mansilla, Ana; Santa-Marta, Cristina; Barrio, Alicia; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Del Álamo, Juan C


    Vortices may have a role in optimizing the mechanical efficiency and blood mixing of the left ventricle (LV). We aimed to characterize the size, position, circulation, and kinetic energy (KE) of LV main vortex cores in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and analyze their physiological correlates. We used digital processing of color-Doppler images to study flow evolution in 61 patients with NIDCM and 61 age-matched control subjects. Vortex features showed a characteristic biphasic temporal course during diastole. Because late filling contributed significantly to flow entrainment, vortex KE reached its maximum at the time of the peak A wave, storing 26 ± 20% of total KE delivered by inflow (range: 1-74%). Patients with NIDCM showed larger and stronger vortices than control subjects (circulation: 0.008 ± 0.007 vs. 0.006 ± 0.005 m(2)/s, respectively, P = 0.02; KE: 7 ± 8 vs. 5 ± 5 mJ/m, P = 0.04), even when corrected for LV size. This helped confining the filling jet in the dilated ventricle. The vortex Reynolds number was also higher in the NIDCM group. By multivariate analysis, vortex KE was related to the KE generated by inflow and to chamber short-axis diameter. In 21 patients studied head to head, Doppler measurements of circulation and KE closely correlated with phase-contract magnetic resonance values (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82 and 0.76, respectively). Thus, the biphasic nature of filling determines normal vortex physiology. Vortex formation is exaggerated in patients with NIDCM due to chamber remodeling, and enlarged vortices are helpful for ameliorating convective pressure losses and facilitating transport. These findings can be accurately studied using ultrasound.

  9. Falling, flapping, flying, swimming,...: High-Re fluid-solid interactions with vortex shedding (United States)

    Michelin, Sebastien Honore Roland

    The coupling between the motion of a solid body and the dynamics of the surrounding flow is essential to the understanding of a large number of engineering and physical problems, from the stability of a slender structure exposed to the wind to the locomotion of insects, birds and fishes. Because of the strong coupling on a moving boundary of the equations for the solid and fluid, the simulation of such problems is computationally challenging and expensive. This justifies the development of simplified models for the fluid-solid interactions to study their physical properties and behavior. This dissertation proposes a reduced-order model for the interaction of a sharp-edged solid body with a strongly unsteady high Reynolds number flow. In such a case, viscous forces in the fluid are often negligible compared to the fluid inertia or the pressure forces, and the thin boundary layers separate from the solid at the edges, leading to the shedding of large and persistent vortices in the solid's wake. A general two-dimensional framework is presented based on complex potential flow theory. The formation of the solid's vortical wake is accounted for by the shedding of point vortices with unsteady intensity from the solid's sharp edges, and the fluid-solid problem is reformulated exclusively as a solid-vortex interaction problem. In the case of a rigid solid body, the coupled problem is shown to reduce to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. This model is used to study the effect of vortex shedding on the stability of falling objects. The solid-vortex model is then generalized to study the fluttering instability and non-linear flapping dynamics of flexible plates or flags. The uttering instability and resulting flapping motion result from the competing effects of the fluid forcing and of the solid's flexural rigidity and inertia. Finally, the solid-vortex model is applied to the study of the fundamental effect of bending rigidity on the flapping performance of

  10. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.


    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  11. Wind tunnel study of the wind turbine interaction with a boundary-layer flow: Upwind region, turbine performance, and wake region (United States)

    Bastankhah, M.; Porté-Agel, F.


    Comprehensive wind tunnel experiments were carried out to study the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a wind turbine operating under different tip-speed ratios and yaw angles. Force and power measurements were performed to characterize the variation of thrust force (both magnitude and direction) and generated power of the wind turbine under different operating conditions. Moreover, flow measurements, collected using high-resolution particle-image velocimetry as well as hot-wire anemometry, were employed to systematically study the flow in the upwind, near-wake, and far-wake regions. These measurements provide new insights into the effect of turbine operating conditions on flow characteristics in these regions. For the upwind region, the results show a strong lateral asymmetry under yawed conditions. For the near-wake region, the evolution of tip and root vortices was studied with the use of both instantaneous and phase-averaged vorticity fields. The results suggest that the vortex breakdown position cannot be determined based on phase-averaged statistics, particularly for tip vortices under turbulent inflow conditions. Moreover, the measurements in the near-wake region indicate a complex velocity distribution with a speed-up region in the wake center, especially for higher tip-speed ratios. In order to elucidate the meandering tendency of far wakes, particular focus was placed on studying the characteristics of large turbulent structures in the boundary layer and their interaction with wind turbines. Although these structures are elongated in the streamwise direction, their cross sections are found to have a size comparable to the rotor area, so that they can be affected by the presence of the turbine. In addition, the study of spatial coherence in turbine wakes reveals that any statistics based on streamwise velocity fluctuations cannot provide reliable information about the size of large turbulent structures in turbine wakes due to the effect of wake

  12. Anisotropy of turbulence in wind turbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Elvira, Rafael [Comision Nacional de Energia (Spain); Crespo, Antonio; Migoya, Emilio; Manuel, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Julio [Departamento de Mecanica, ETSII, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    This work is mainly dedicated to the study of non-isotropic characteristics of turbulence in wind turbine wakes, specifically the shear layer of the near wake. A calculation method based on an explicit algebraic model for the components of the turbulent stress tensor is proposed, and the results are found to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results. Analytical expressions for the estimation of an upper limit of the global turbulence kinetic energy, k, and the individual contributions of each diagonal term in the turbulent stress tensor are proposed. Their predictions are compared with experimental results.

  13. Local experience-dependent changes in the wake EEG after prolonged wakefulness. (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Sui; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady; Ghilardi, M Felice; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio


    Prolonged wakefulness leads to a progressive increase in sleep pressure, reflected in a global increase in slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). A global increase in wake theta activity (5-9 Hz) also occurs. Recently, it was shown that prolonged wakefulness in rodents leads to signs of "local sleep" in an otherwise awake brain, accompanied by a slow/theta wave (2-6 Hz) in the local EEG that occurs at different times in different cortical areas. Compelling evidence in animals and humans also indicates that sleep is locally regulated by the amount of experience-dependent plasticity. Here, we asked whether the extended practice of tasks that involve specific brain circuits results in increased occurrence of local intermittent theta waves in the human EEG, above and beyond the global EEG changes previously described. Participants recorded with high-density EEG completed 2 experiments during which they stayed awake ≥ 24 h practicing a language task (audiobook listening [AB]) or a visuomotor task (driving simulator [DS]). Sleep laboratory. 16 healthy participants (7 females). Two extended wake periods. Both conditions resulted in global increases in resting wake EEG theta power at the end of 24 h of wake, accompanied by increased sleepiness. Moreover, wake theta power as well as the occurrence and amplitude of theta waves showed regional, task-dependent changes, increasing more over left frontal derivations in AB, and over posterior parietal regions in DS. These local changes in wake theta power correlated with similar local changes in sleep low frequencies including SWA. Extended experience-dependent plasticity of specific circuits results in a local increase of the wake theta EEG power in those regions, followed by more intense sleep, as reflected by SWA, over the same areas.

  14. On the application of the Jensen wake model using a turbulence-dependent wake decay coefficient: the Sexbierum case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; van der Laan, Paul


    and partly accounts for the uncertainty in the wind direction assuming that the same follows a Gaussian distribution. Simulations of the single and double wake measurements at the Sexbierum onshore wind farm are performed using a fast engineering wind farm wake model based on the Jensen wake model...... with the suggested post-processing. We show that the wake decay coefficient of the Jensen wake model must be decreased from the commonly used onshore value of 0.075 to 0.038, when applied to the Sexbierum cases, as wake decay is related to the height, roughness and atmospheric stability and, thus, to turbulence...

  15. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.


    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  16. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus). (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders


    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  17. 76 FR 36627 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements (United States)


    ... strokes and heart disease'' 6. ``WARNING: Smoking during pregnancy can harm your baby'' 7. ``WARNING... during pregnancy can harm your baby'' 7. ``WARNING: Smoking can kill you'' 8. ``WARNING: Tobacco smoke... Cigarette Labels 3. Ongoing Costs of Equal and Random Display 4. Market Testing Costs Associated With...

  18. What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? (United States)

    ... Cardiovascular Conditions What Are the Warning Signs of Stroke? Brain tissue affected by blockage Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in ... over 55 years old have more chance of stroke, and the risk gets greater as you get ...

  19. Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children (United States)

    ... However, vision problems such as a lazy eye (amblyopia) may have no warning signs, and your child ... of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual ...

  20. 33 CFR 127.113 - Warning signs. (United States)


    ... shore and the water; and (3) Have the following text: Warning Dangerous Cargo No Visitors No Smoking No Open Lights (b) Each letter in the words on the sign must be— (1) Block style; (2) Black on a white...