WorldWideScience

Sample records for wake vortex warning

  1. Short term prediction of the horizontal wind vector within a wake vortex warning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frech, M.; Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Konopka, J. [Deutsche Flugsicherung (DFS) GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2000-07-14

    A wake vortex warning system (WVWS) has been developed for Frankfurt airport. This airport has two parallel runways which are separated by 518 m, a distance too short to operate them independently because wake vortices may be advected to the adjacent runway. The objective of the WVWS is to enable operation with reduced separation between two aircraft approaching the parallel runways at appropriate wind conditions. The WVWS applies a statistical persistence model to predict the crosswind within a 20 minute period. One of the main problems identified in the old WVWS are discontinuities between successive forecasts. These forecast breakdowns were not acceptable to airtraffic controllers. At least part of the problem was related to the fact that the forecast was solely based on the prediction of crosswind. A new method is developed on the basis of 523 days of sonic anemometer measurements at Frankfurt airport. It is demonstrated that the prediction of the horizontal wind vector avoids these difficulties and significantly improves the system's performance. (orig.)

  2. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  3. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl

    2010-01-01

    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  4. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  5. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  6. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  7. Free wake models for vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)

  8. Aircraft Vortex Wake Decay Near the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    A multi-faceted experimental and analytical research program was carried out to explore the details of aircraft wake vortex breakdown under conditions representative of those which prevail at low altitudes in the vicinity of airports. Three separate ...

  9. Wake Vortex Avoidance System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Knight, Howard K. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A wake vortex avoidance system includes a microphone array configured to detect low frequency sounds. A signal processor determines a geometric mean coherence based on the detected low frequency sounds. A display displays wake vortices based on the determined geometric mean coherence.

  10. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  11. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...

  12. Passive propulsion in vortex wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.

    A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.

  13. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  14. Cockpit-based Wake Vortex Visualization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To prevent aircraft accidents due to wake vortex hazards, FAA procedures specify the minimum separation required between different categories of aircraft. However, a...

  15. An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.

  16. Cylindrical vortex wake model: right cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Gaunaa, Mac

    2015-01-01

    The vortex system consisting of a bound vortex disk, a root vortex and a vortex cylinder as introduced by Joukowski in 1912 is further studied in this paper. This system can be used for simple modeling of rotors (e.g. wind turbines) with infinite number of blades and finite tip-speed ratios....... For each vortex element, the velocity components in all directions and in the entire domain are computed analytically in a novel approach. In particular, the velocity field from the vortex actuator disk is derived for the first time. The induction from the entire vortex system is studied and is seen...

  17. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  18. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  19. Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.

  20. Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2010-01-01

    Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where

  1. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk, E-mail: tomasz.kozlowski@pwr.wroc.pl, E-mail: henryk.kudela@pwr.wroc.pl [Department of Numerical Modelling of Flows, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish. (paper)

  2. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish.

  3. Transitions in the vortex wake behind the plunging profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate numerically the vortex wake formation behind the profile performing simple harmonic motion known in the literature as plunging. This research was inspired by the flapping motion which is appropriate for birds, insects and fishes. We assume the two dimensional model of flow. Depending on the parameters such as plunging amplitude, frequency and the Reynolds number, we demonstrate many different types of vortex street behind the profile. It is well known that the type of vortex wake determines the hydrodynamic forces acting on the profile. Dependences of the plunging amplitude, the Strouhal number and various topology vortices are established by constructing the phase transition diagram. The areas in the diagram related to the drag, thrust, and lift force generation are captured. We notice also the areas where the vorticity field is disordered. The disordered vorticity field does not allow maintenance of the periodic forces on the profile. An increase in the Reynolds number leads to the transition of the vortex wake behind the profile. The transition is caused by the phenomenon of boundary layer eruption. Further increase of the Reynolds number causes the vortex street related to the generation of the lift force to vanish. (paper)

  4. A Coupled Probabilistic Wake Vortex and Aircraft Response Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloudemans, Thijs; Van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco; Malissa, Joel; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Wake vortex spacing standards along with weather and runway occupancy time, restrict terminal area throughput and impose major constraints on the overall capacity and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). For more than two decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting research on characterizing wake vortex behavior in order to develop fast-time wake transport and decay prediction models. It is expected that the models can be used in the systems level design of advanced air traffic management (ATM) concepts that safely increase the capacity of the NAS. It is also envisioned that at a later stage of maturity, these models could potentially be used operationally, in groundbased spacing and scheduling systems as well as on the flight deck.

  5. Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Sensor technologies can make a significant impact on the detection of aircraft-generated vortices in an air space of interest, typically in the approach or departure corridor. Current state-of-the art sensor technologies do not provide three-dimensional measurements needed for an operational system or even for wake vortex modeling to advance the understanding of vortex behavior. Most wake vortex sensor systems used today have been developed only for research applications and lack the reliability needed for continuous operation. The main challenges for the development of an operational sensor system are reliability, all-weather operation, and spatial coverage. Such a sensor has been sought for a period of last forty years. Acoustic sensors were first proposed and tested by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) early in 1970s for tracking wake vortices but these acoustic sensors suffered from high levels of ambient noise. Over a period of the last fifteen years, there has been renewed interest in studying noise generated by aircraft wake vortices, both numerically and experimentally. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) was the first to propose the application of a phased microphone array for the investigation of the noise sources of wake vortices. The concept was first demonstrated at Berlins Airport Schoenefeld in 2000. A second test was conducted in Tarbes, France, in 2002, where phased microphone arrays were applied to study the wake vortex noise of an Airbus 340. Similarly, microphone phased arrays and other opto-acoustic microphones were evaluated in a field test at the Denver International Airport in 2003. For the Tarbes and Denver tests, the wake trajectories of phased microphone arrays and lidar were compared as these were installed side by side. Due to a built-in pressure equalization vent these microphones were not suitable for capturing acoustic noise below 20 Hz. Our group at NASA Langley Research Center developed and installed an

  6. Precessing vortex core in a swirling wake with heat release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, A.; Klimov, A.; Molevich, N.; Moralev, I.; Porfiriev, D.; Sugak, S.; Zavershinskii, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Precessing vortex core is left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. • The precession frequency grows with the heat-source power. • Growth of the heat-source power decreases vortex core oscillations. • The left-handed bending mode is the most unstable mode in the low-density wake. - Abstract: Numerical simulation of the non-stationary three-dimensional swirling flow is presented for an open tube with a paraxial heat source. In the considered type of swirling flows, it is shown that a precessing vortex core (PVC) appears. The obtained PVC is a left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. The influence of the heat release enhancement on parameters of PVC is investigated. Using various turbulence models (the Spalart–Allmaras, k–ω and SST models), it is shown that an increase in the heat-source power leads to an increase in the PVC frequency and to a decrease in the amplitude of PVC oscillations. Moreover, we conduct the linear stability analysis of the simplified flow model with paraxial heating (the Rankine vortex with the piecewise axial flow and density) and demonstrate that its results correspond to the results of numerical simulations rather well. In particular, we prove that the left-handed bending mode (m = +1) is the most unstable one in the low-density wake and its frequency increases with a decrease of density ratio that is similar to the behavior of precession frequency with an increase of heat-source power.

  7. Numerical Simulation of the Aircraft Wake Vortex Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Perry, R. Brad

    2013-01-01

    The near wake vortex flowfield from a NACA0012 half-wing was simulated using a fully unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver in three dimensions at a chord Reynolds number of 4.6 million and a Mach number of approximately 0.15. Several simulations were performed to examine the effect of boundary conditions, mesh resolution and turbulence scheme on the formation of wingtip vortex and its downstream propagation. The standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was compared with the Dacles-Mariani and Spalart-Shur corrections for rotation and curvature effects. The simulation results were evaluated using the data from experiment performed at NASA Ames' 32in x 48in low speed wind tunnel.

  8. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Songhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  9. The challenges of simulating wake vortex encounters and assessing separation criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, R. E.; Stuever, Robert A.; Vicroy, Dan D.

    1993-01-01

    During landings and take-offs, the longitudinal spacing between airplanes is in part determined by the safe separation required to avoid the trailing vortex wake of the preceding aircraft. Safe exploration of the feasibility of reducing longitudinal separation standards will require use of aircraft simulators. This paper discusses the approaches to vortex modeling, methods for modeling the aircraft/vortex interaction, some of the previous attempts of defining vortex hazard criteria, and current understanding of the development of vortex hazard criteria.

  10. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  11. Vortex wake investigation behind a wing-flap model with jet simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.L.M.; De Kat, R.

    2008-01-01

    To get a better insight in the effect of jets on vortex development and decay, stereo-PIV measurements were performed in a towing tank behind a flapped aircraft model. The experimental data set yields the wake vortex behavior in a range that extends from the vortex formation stage up to the

  12. A modified wake oscillator model for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhipeng; Zang Fenggang; Zhang Yixiong; Ye Xianhui

    2014-01-01

    Base on the classical wake oscillator model, a new modified wake oscillator model is proposed, for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube in uniform current. The comparison between the new wake oscillator model and experimental show that the present model can simulate the characteristics of vortex induced vibration of tube. Firstly, the research shows that the coupled fluid-structure dynamical system should be modeled by combined displacement and acceleration mode. Secondly, the empirical parameter in wake oscillator model depends on the material properties of the structure, instead of being a universal constant. Lastly, the results are compared between modified wake oscillator model and fluid-structure interaction numerical model. It shows the present, predicted results are compared to the fluid-structure interaction numerical data. The new modified wake oscillator model can predict the vortex induced heat exchanger tube vibration feasibly. (authors)

  13. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders; Bohr, Tomas

    2008-11-01

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von Kármán wake, reverse von Kármán wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We characterize the transition from the von Kármán wake (drag) to the reverse von Kármán wake (thrust) and discuss the results in relation to fish swimming. We visualize the time evolution of the vortex shedding in detail, identify the origins of the vortices comprising the wake, and propose a simple model to account for the transition from von Kármán like wakes to more exotic wake structures.

  14. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement...

  15. Simulation of Rotary-Wing Near-Wake Vortex Structures Using Navier-Stokes CFD Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David; Strawn, Roger; Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper will use high-resolution Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to model the near-wake vortex roll-up behind rotor blades. The locations and strengths of the trailing vortices will be determined from newly-developed visualization and analysis software tools applied to the CFD solutions. Computational results for rotor nearwake vortices will be used to study the near-wake vortex roll up for highly-twisted tiltrotor blades. These rotor blades typically have combinations of positive and negative spanwise loading and complex vortex wake interactions. Results of the computational studies will be compared to vortex-lattice wake models that are frequently used in rotorcraft comprehensive codes. Information from these comparisons will be used to improve the rotor wake models in the Tilt-Rotor Acoustic Code (TRAC) portion of NASA's Short Haul Civil Transport program (SHCT). Accurate modeling of the rotor wake is an important part of this program and crucial to the successful design of future civil tiltrotor aircraft. The rotor wake system plays an important role in blade-vortex interaction noise, a major problem for all rotorcraft including tiltrotors.

  16. Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan

    2014-02-06

    Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity.

  17. Evolution and breakdown of helical vortex wakes behind a wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, A; Jacono, D Lo; Sheridan, J; Blackburn, H M; Sherry, M

    2014-01-01

    The wake behind a three-bladed Glauert model rotor in a water channel was investigated. Planar particle image velocimetry was used to measure the velocity fields on the wake centre-line, with snapshots phase-locked to blade position of the rotor. Phase- locked averages of the velocity and vorticity fields are shown, with tip vortex interaction and entanglement of the helical filaments elucidated. Proper orthogonal decomposition and topology-based vortex identification are used to filter the PIV images for coherent structures and locate vortex cores. Application of these methods to the instantaneous data reveals unsteady behaviour of the helical filaments that is statistically quantifiable

  18. A free wake vortex lattice model for vertical axis wind turbines: Modeling, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanzhong; Schwarze, Holger; Vorpahl, Fabian; Strobel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s several research activities had been carried out on developing aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs). In order to design large VAWTs of MW scale, more accurate aerodynamic calculation is required to predict their aero-elastic behaviours. In this paper, a 3D free wake vortex lattice model for VAWTs is developed, verified and validated. Comparisons to the experimental results show that the 3D free wake vortex lattice model developed is capable of making an accurate prediction of the general performance and the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the blades. The comparison between momentum method and the vortex lattice model shows that free wake vortex models are needed for detailed loads calculation and for calculating highly loaded rotors

  19. Identification of vortex pairs in aircraft wakes from sectional velocity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, Carl F. V.; Konrath, Robert; Schröder, Andreas; Monnier, Jean-Claude

    2008-03-01

    The dynamics of multiple-vortex wake systems behind aircraft endangering air traffic can be assessed also from physical modelling. Large-scale laboratory investigations of multiple-vortex systems have been performed in a free-flight laboratory and in a water towing tank. Specialized PIV measurements provide time-resolved flow velocity fields normal to the wake axis. The applicability of various ∇ u-based vortex identification schemes to planar velocity data is addressed and demonstrated for unequal-strength co- and counter-rotating vortex pairs. Large vortices shed off the wing tips and flaps are identified employing a ∇ u-based criterion. Their cooperative mechanisms of generation and decay are evidenced from iso-surfaces of squared swirling strength and from further characteristic vortex parameters.

  20. Vortex dynamics in the wake of a pivoted cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations with elliptic trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Erik; Morton, Christopher; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2018-05-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations of a pivoted cylinder are investigated experimentally at a fixed Reynolds number of 3100, a mass ratio of 10.8, and a range of reduced velocities, 4.42 ≤ U^* ≤ 9.05. For these conditions, the cylinder traces elliptic trajectories, with the experimental conditions producing three out of four possible combinations of orbiting direction and primary axis alignment relative to the incoming flow. The study focuses on the quantitative analysis of wake topology and its relation to this type of structural response. Velocity fields were measured using time-resolved, two-component particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV). These results show that phase-averaged wake topology generally agrees with the Morse and Williamson (J Fluids Struct 25(4):697-712, 2009) shedding map for one-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibrations, with 2S, 2{P}o, and 2P shedding patterns observed within the range of reduced velocities studied here. Vortex tracking and vortex strength quantification are used to analyze the vortex shedding process and how it relates to cylinder response. In the case of 2S vortex shedding, vortices are shed when the cylinder is approaching the maximum transverse displacement and reaches the streamwise equilibrium. 2P vortices are shed approximately half a period earlier in the cylinder's elliptic trajectory. Leading vortices shed immediately after the peak in transverse oscillation and trailing vortices shed near the equilibrium of transverse oscillation. The orientation and direction of the cylinder's elliptic trajectory are shown to influence the timing of vortex shedding, inducing changes in the 2P wake topology.

  1. Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the in_nite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent

  2. Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.

  3. Estimates of the effectiveness of automatic control in alleviating wake vortex induced roll excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinling, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the effectiveness of a model following type control system in reducing the roll excursion due to a wake vortex encounter were obtained from single degree of freedom computations with inputs derived from the results of wind tunnel, flight, and simulation experiments. The analysis indicates that the control power commanded by the automatic system must be roughly equal to the vortex induced roll acceleration if effective limiting of the maximum bank angle is to be achieved.

  4. A review of recent wake vortex research for increasing airport capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, James N.; Holzäpfel, Frank

    2018-04-01

    This paper is a brief review of recent wake vortex research as it affects the operational problem of spacing aircraft to increase airport capacity and throughput. The paper addresses the questions of what do we know about wake vortices and what don't we know about wake vortices. The introduction of Heavy jets in the late 1960s stimulated the study of wake vortices for safety reasons and the use of pulsed lidars and the maturity of computational fluid dynamics in the last three decades have led to extensive data collection and analyses which are now resulting in the development and implementation of systems to safely decrease separations in the terminal environment. Although much has been learned about wake vortices and their behavior, there is still more to be learned about the phenomena of aircraft wake vortices.

  5. Numerical Study of a Long-Lived, Isolated Wake Vortex in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a case observed during the 1990 Idaho Falls Test program, in which a wake vortex having an unusually long lifetime was observed while in ground effect. A numerical simulation is performed with a Large Eddy Simulation model to understand the response of the environment in affecting this event. In the simulation, it was found that one of the vortices decayed quickly, with the remaining vortex persisting beyond the time-bound of typical vortex lifetimes. This unusual behavior was found to be related to the first and second vertical derivatives of the ambient crosswind.

  6. Comparison and validation of wake vortex characteristics collected at different airports by different scanning lidar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobois, Ludovic; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Cappellazzo, Valerio; Musson, Christian; Treve, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    Today, the demand for increasing airport capacity is high, in particular for increasing runway throughput from an ATM perspective. Runway capacity is often directly linked with the minima longitudinal separation between aircraft on approach phase or between aircraft on departure. The separation minima are based on surveillance capabilities and on wake turbulence (WT) in order to mitigate respectively collision risk and WT-induced accidents, therefore WT hazard becomes a major concern for ATM. For ten years, many research LIDAR systems have been used for better understanding wake vortices behaviors in the operational environment within large range of wind and turbulence conditions. All these studies[1][2] helped to design new concepts of wake separations between aircrafts thanks to the proven capabilities of LIDAR systems to assess the risks of wake vortex (WV) encounters through the circulation retrievals. The re-categorization project, called RECAT [8], has been launched by a joint EUROCONTROL - FAA initiative in order to renew and optimize the out-of-date currently applied ICAO regulations on distance separation. Nowadays, the first phase of regional RECAT projects, which consists in defining new distance separation matrices composed of six/seven static aircraft categories instead of three, entered the operational phase and is deployed in several airports in United States and Europe. In addition, other concepts like Time-Based Separation have also been studied and deployed in London Heathrow. The airports where these solutions have been deployed obtained significant benefits as increased runway throughput and improved resilience to disruptions. For implementing such new WT solutions at an airport, a local safety assessment before the implementation and a risk monitoring after are usually needed. Before implementation, it may be required to determine for the targeted airport the relative variations of risk of wake vortex encounters, given the local ATM rules, the

  7. Comparison and validation of wake vortex characteristics collected at different airports by different scanning lidar sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobois Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the demand for increasing airport capacity is high, in particular for increasing runway throughput from an ATM perspective. Runway capacity is often directly linked with the minima longitudinal separation between aircraft on approach phase or between aircraft on departure. The separation minima are based on surveillance capabilities and on wake turbulence (WT in order to mitigate respectively collision risk and WT-induced accidents, therefore WT hazard becomes a major concern for ATM. For ten years, many research LIDAR systems have been used for better understanding wake vortices behaviors in the operational environment within large range of wind and turbulence conditions. All these studies[1][2] helped to design new concepts of wake separations between aircrafts thanks to the proven capabilities of LIDAR systems to assess the risks of wake vortex (WV encounters through the circulation retrievals. The re-categorization project, called RECAT [8], has been launched by a joint EUROCONTROL – FAA initiative in order to renew and optimize the out-of-date currently applied ICAO regulations on distance separation. Nowadays, the first phase of regional RECAT projects, which consists in defining new distance separation matrices composed of six/seven static aircraft categories instead of three, entered the operational phase and is deployed in several airports in United States and Europe. In addition, other concepts like Time-Based Separation have also been studied and deployed in London Heathrow. The airports where these solutions have been deployed obtained significant benefits as increased runway throughput and improved resilience to disruptions. For implementing such new WT solutions at an airport, a local safety assessment before the implementation and a risk monitoring after are usually needed. Before implementation, it may be required to determine for the targeted airport the relative variations of risk of wake vortex encounters, given the

  8. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

    2013-12-22

    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds.

  9. Regimes of Vorticity in the Wake of a Rectangular Vortex Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the study of the secondary structures generated in the wake of a wall mounted rectangular vane, commonly referred to as a vortex generator. The study has been conducted by Stereoscopic PIV measurements in a wind tunnel and supplementary flow visualizations in a water channel...

  10. Vortex Formation in the Wake of Dark Matter Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G. A.; Pinheiro, M. J.

    Future spaceflight will require a new theory of propulsion; specifically one that does not require mass ejection. A new theory is proposed that uses the general view that closed currents pervade the entire universe and, in particular, there is a cosmic mechanism to expel matter to large astronomical distances involving vortex currents as seen with blazars and blackholes. At the terrestrial level, force producing vortices have been related to the motion of wings (e.g., birds, duck paddles, fish's tail). In this paper, vortex structures are shown to exist in the streamlines aft of a spaceship moving at high velocity in the vacuum. This is accomplished using the density excitation method per a modified Chameleon Cosmology model. This vortex structure is then shown to have similarities to spacetime models as Warp-Drive and wormholes, giving rise to the natural extension of Hawking and Unruh radiation, which provides the propulsive method for space travel where virtual electron-positron pairs, absorbed by the gravitational expansion forward of the spaceship emerge from an annular vortex field aft of the spaceship as real particles, in-like to propellant mass ejection in conventional rocket theory.

  11. Experimental Analysis of a Bubble Wake Influenced by a Vortex Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Rüttinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubble column reactors are ubiquitous in engineering processes. They are used in waste water treatment, as well as in the chemical, pharmaceutical, biological and food industry. Mass transfer and mixing, as well as biochemical or chemical reactions in such reactors are determined by the hydrodynamics of the bubbly flow. The hydrodynamics of bubbly flows is dominated by bubble wake interactions. Despite the fact that bubble wakes have been investigated intensively in the past, there is still a lack of knowledge about how mass transfer from bubbles is influenced by bubble wake interactions in detail. The scientific scope of this work is to answer the question how bubble wakes are influenced by external flow structures like a vortex street behind a cylinder. For this purpose, the flow field in the vicinity of a single bubble is investigated systematically with high spatial and temporal resolution. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements are conducted monitoring the flow structure in the equatorial plane of the single bubble. It is shown that the root mean square (RMS velocity profiles downstream the bubble are influenced significantly by the interaction of vortices. In the presence of a vortex street, the deceleration of the fluid behind the bubble is compensated earlier than in the absence of a vortex street. This happens due to momentum transfer by cross-mixing. Both effects indicate that the interaction of vortices enhances the cross-mixing close to the bubble. Time series of instantaneous velocity fields show the formation of an inner shear layer and coupled vortices. In conclusion, this study shows in detail how the bubble wake is influenced by a vortex street and gives deep insights into possible effects on mixing and mass transfer in bubbly flows.

  12. Vortex Shedding in the Wake Induced by a Real Elephant Seal Whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Jodi; Omilion, Alexis; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Choi, Woo-Rak; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2017-11-01

    Biomimicry has been adopted to create innovative solutions in a vast range of applications. One such application is the design of seal-whisker-inspired flow sensors for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In dark, cramped, and unstable terrain AUVs are not able to maneuver using visual and sonar-based navigation. Hence, it is critical to use underwater flow sensors to accurately detect minute disturbances in the surroundings. Certain seal whiskers exhibit a unique undulating three-dimensional morphology that can reduce vortex induced vibrations (VIVs) if the major axis of the whisker cross-section is aligned to the inflow. This allows the seal to precisely track prey fish upstream using solely their whiskers. The current study aims to understand the effect of a real seal whisker's morphology on the vortex shedding behavior. Despite extensive studies of wake induced by scaled whisker-like models, the vortex shedding in the wake of a real seal whisker is not well understood. A series of experiments are conducted with a high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) system in a water channel to examine the vortex shedding downstream from a smooth whisker and an undulating whisker at a Reynolds number of a few hundred. Results of the vortex shedding induced by real seal whiskers can provide insights on developing high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors for AUVs and other whisker-inspired structures.

  13. Traversing field of view and AR-PIV for mid-field wake vortex investigation in a towing tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, F.; van Wijk, C.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.

    2002-08-01

    Wake vortex flow experiments are performed in a water tank where a 1:48 scaled model of a large transport aircraft A340-300 is towed at the speed of 3 and 5 ms-1 with values of the angle of attack α={2°, 4°, 8°}. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a plane perpendicular to the towing direction describing the streamwise component of the wake vorticity. The instantaneous field of view (I-FOV) is traversed vertically with an underwater moving-camera device tracking the vortex core during the downward motion. An adaptive resolution (AR) image-processing technique is introduced that enhances the PIV interrogation in terms of spatial resolution and accuracy. The main objectives of the investigation are to demonstrate the applicability of PIV diagnostics in wake vortex research with towing-tank facilities. The specific implementation of the traversing field-of-view (T-FOV) technique and the AR image processing are driven by the need to characterize the vortex wake global properties as well as the vortex decay phenomenon in the mid- and far-field. Relevant aerodynamic information is obtained in the mid-field where the time evolution of the vortex structure (core radius and tangential velocity) and of the overall vortex wake (vortex trajectory, descent velocity, circulation) are discussed.

  14. Comparison of a Coupled Near and Far Wake Model With a Free Wake Vortex Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg; Riziotis, Vasilis; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2016-01-01

    to be updated during the computation. Further, the effect of simplifying the exponential function approximation of the near wake model to increase the computation speed is investigated in this work. A modification of the dynamic inflow weighting factors of the far wake model is presented that ensures good...... computations performed using a free wake panel code. The focus of the description of the aerodynamics model is on the numerical stability, the computation speed and the accuracy of 5 unsteady simulations. To stabilize the near wake model, it has to be iterated to convergence, using a relaxation factor that has...... and a BEM model is centered around the NREL 5 MW reference turbine. The response to pitch steps at different pitching speeds is compared. By means of prescribed vibration cases, the effect of the aerodynamic model on the predictions of the aerodynamic work is investigated. The validation shows that a BEM...

  15. Evaluation of Large-Scale Wing Vortex Wakes from Multi-Camera PIV Measurements in Free-Flight Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, Carl F. v.; Heider, André; Schröder, Andreas; Konrath, Robert; Agocs, Janos; Gilliot, Anne; Monnier, Jean-Claude

    Multiple-vortex systems of aircraft wakes have been investigated experimentally in a unique large-scale laboratory facility, the free-flight B20 catapult bench, ONERA Lille. 2D/2C PIV measurements have been performed in a translating reference frame, which provided time-resolved crossvelocity observations of the vortex systems in a Lagrangian frame normal to the wake axis. A PIV setup using a moving multiple-camera array and a variable double-frame time delay has been employed successfully. The large-scale quasi-2D structures of the wake-vortex system have been identified using the QW criterion based on the 2D velocity gradient tensor ∇H u, thus illustrating the temporal development of unequal-strength corotating vortex pairs in aircraft wakes for nondimensional times tU0/b≲45.

  16. Comparisons of Crosswind Velocity Profile Estimates Used in Fast-Time Wake Vortex Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruis, Mathew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Five methods for estimating crosswind profiles used in fast-time wake vortex prediction models are compared in this study. Previous investigations have shown that temporal and spatial variations in the crosswind vertical profile have a large impact on the transport and time evolution of the trailing vortex pair. The most important crosswind parameters are the magnitude of the crosswind and the gradient in the crosswind shear. It is known that pulsed and continuous wave lidar measurements can provide good estimates of the wind profile in the vicinity of airports. In this study comparisons are made between estimates of the crosswind profiles from a priori information on the trajectory of the vortex pair as well as crosswind profiles derived from different sensors and a regional numerical weather prediction model.

  17. Counter-rotating vortex pairs in the wake of a vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Vincent; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Despite the rising popularity of vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs, the wakes behind these machines is much less well understood than those behind horizontal axis wind turbines, or HAWTs. A thorough understanding of wakes is important as they can cause turbines in wind farms to produce less power than anticipated and increase the fatigue loading on turbines due to vibrations. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the wake behind a vertical axis wind turbine in atmospheric flow stereo-PIV is implemented in a boundary-layer wind tunnel to produce snapshots of the 3-component velocity field in the wake at various downstream positions. The boundaries of the wake are readily observed due to the high velocity gradients and turbulence present here. Two pairs of counter-rotating vortices similar to those in the wake of yawed HAWTs are also observed. An examination of the momentum fluxes behind the turbine demonstrates that the mean flow induced by these vortices entrains a large quantity of momentum from the unperturbed boundary layer flow above the wake. This effect proves to play an even more significant role than turbulence in reintroducing momentum into the wake. In order to comprehend why the VAWT produces these vortices we modify the double-multiple stream-tube model typically used to predict VAWT performance to incorporate crosswind forces. The similarity between VAWT and yawed HAWT wakes is found not to be coincidental as both cases feature rotors which exert a lateral thrust on the incoming wind which leads to the creation of counter-rotating vortex pairs.

  18. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  19. Experimental Study on Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations and Wake-Induced Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached on has been tested through vortex-induced vibrations (VIV and wake-induced vibrations (WIV by installing a big cylinder fixed upstream, in order to study the influence of the different flow-induced vibrations (FIV types. The VIV test shows that the output voltage increases with the increases of load resistance; an optimal load resistance exists for the maximum output power. The WIV test shows that the vibration of the small cylinder is controlled by the vortex frequency of the large one. There is an optimal gap of the cylinders that can obtain the maximum output voltage and power. For a same energy harvesting device, WIV has higher power generation capacity; then the piezoelectric output characteristics can be effectively improved.

  20. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  1. Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaal, J.B., de; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating oshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unied model that can represent both dynamic in ow and skewed in ow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a model...... presents a good intermediate solution between computationally efficient but simple momentum balance methods and computationally expensive but complete computational fluid dynamics models. The model introduced is shown to be capable of modelling typical steady and unsteady test cases with reasonable...

  2. Validation of a vortex ring wake model suited for aeroelastic simulations of floating wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaal, J B de; Moan, T; Hansen, M O L

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate aerodynamic loads on floating offshore wind turbines, advanced dynamic analysis tools are required. As a unified model that can represent both dynamic inflow and skewed inflow effects in it basic formulation, a wake model based on a vortex ring formulation is discussed. Such a model presents a good intermediate solution between computationally efficient but simple momentum balance methods and computationally expensive but complete computational fluid dynamics models. The model introduced is shown to be capable of modelling typical steady and unsteady test cases with reasonable accuracy

  3. A Prescribed-Wake Vortex Line Method for Aerodynamic Analysis and Optimization of Multi-Rotor Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Aaron; Sharma, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to extend the xed wake vortex lattice method (VLM), used to evaluate the performance of single-rotor wind turbines (SRWT), for use in analyzing dual-rotor wind turbines (DRWT). VLM models wind turbine blades as bound vortex laments with helical trailing vortices. Using the Biot-Savart law, it is possible to calculate the induction in the plane of rotation allowing for a computationally inexpensive, yet accurate, prediction of blade loading and power performance....

  4. Wake reconfiguration downstream of an inclined flexible cylinder at the onset of vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Remi; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Slender flexible cylinders immersed in flow are common in nature (e.g. plants and trees in wind) and in engineering applications, for example in the domain of offshore engineering, where risers and mooring lines are exposed to ocean currents. Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) naturally develop when the cylinder is placed at normal incidence but they also appear when the body is inclined in the current, including at large angles. In a previous work concerning a flexible cylinder inclined at 80 degrees, we found that the occurrence of VIV is associated with a profound alteration of the flow dynamics: the wake exhibits a slanted vortex shedding pattern in the absence of vibration, while the vortices are shed parallel to the body once the large-amplitude VIV regime is reached. The present study aims at bridging the gap between these two extreme configurations. On the basis of direct numerical simulations, we explore the intermediate states of the flow-structure system. We identify two dominant components of the flow: a high-frequency component that relates to the stationary body wake and a low-frequency component synchronized with body motion. We show that the scenario of flow reconfiguration is driven by the opposite trends of these two component contributions.

  5. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-02-07

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  6. Vortex particle-mesh simulations of vertical axis wind turbine flows: from the airfoil performance to the very far wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatelain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A vortex particle-mesh (VPM method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity–velocity formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters. The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.

  7. Vortex Particle-Mesh simulations of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows: from the blade aerodynamics to the very far wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Caprace, D.-G.; Marichal, Y.; Winckelmans, G.

    2016-09-01

    A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features.

  8. Vortex Particle-Mesh simulations of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows: from the blade aerodynamics to the very far wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, P; Duponcheel, M; Caprace, D-G; Winckelmans, G; Marichal, Y

    2016-01-01

    A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features. (paper)

  9. Investigation and Optimization of Blade Tip Winglets Using an Implicit Free Wake Vortex Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen; Crawford, Curran

    2014-06-01

    Novel outer-blade geometries such as tip winglets can increase the aerodynamic power that can be extracted from the wind by tailoring the relative position and strengths of trailed vorticity. This design space is explored using both parameter studies and gradient-based optimization, with the aerodynamic analysis carried out using LibAero, a free wake vortex-based code introduced in previous work. The starting design is the NREL 5MW reference turbine, which allows comparison of the aerodynamic simulation for the unmodified blade with other codes. The code uses a Prandtl-Weissinger lifting line model to represent the blade, and vortex filaments as the flow elements. A fast multipole method is implemented to accelerate the influence calculations and reduce the computational cost. This results in higher fidelity aerodynamic simulations that can capture the effects of novel geometries while maintaining sufficiently fast run-times (on the order of an hour) to allow the use of optimization. Gradients of the objective function with respect to design variables are calculated using the complex step method which is accurate and efficient. Since the vortex structure behind the rotor is being resolved in detail, insight is also gained into the mechanisms by which these new blade designs affect performance. It is found that adding winglets can increase the power extracted from the wind by around 2%, with a similar increase in thrust. It is also possible to create a winglet that slightly lowers the thrust while maintaining very similar power compared to the standard straight blade.

  10. Investigation and Optimization of Blade Tip Winglets Using an Implicit Free Wake Vortex Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, Stephen; Crawford, Curran

    2014-01-01

    Novel outer-blade geometries such as tip winglets can increase the aerodynamic power that can be extracted from the wind by tailoring the relative position and strengths of trailed vorticity. This design space is explored using both parameter studies and gradient-based optimization, with the aerodynamic analysis carried out using LibAero, a free wake vortex-based code introduced in previous work. The starting design is the NREL 5MW reference turbine, which allows comparison of the aerodynamic simulation for the unmodified blade with other codes. The code uses a Prandtl-Weissinger lifting line model to represent the blade, and vortex filaments as the flow elements. A fast multipole method is implemented to accelerate the influence calculations and reduce the computational cost. This results in higher fidelity aerodynamic simulations that can capture the effects of novel geometries while maintaining sufficiently fast run-times (on the order of an hour) to allow the use of optimization. Gradients of the objective function with respect to design variables are calculated using the complex step method which is accurate and efficient. Since the vortex structure behind the rotor is being resolved in detail, insight is also gained into the mechanisms by which these new blade designs affect performance. It is found that adding winglets can increase the power extracted from the wind by around 2%, with a similar increase in thrust. It is also possible to create a winglet that slightly lowers the thrust while maintaining very similar power compared to the standard straight blade

  11. Wakes behind wind turbines. Studies on tip vortex evolution and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odemark, Ylva

    2012-07-01

    The increased fatigue loads and decreased power output of a wind turbine placed in the wake of another turbine is a well-known problem when building new wind power farms. In order to better estimate the total power output of a wind power farm, knowledge about the development and stability of wind turbine wakes is crucial. In the present thesis, the wake behind a small-scale model turbine was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The velocity in the wake was measured with hot-wire anemometry, for different free stream velocities and tip speed ratios. To characterize the behaviour of the model turbine, the power output, thrust force and rotational frequency of the model were also measured. These results were then compared to calculations using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method. New turbine blades for the model was constructed using the same method, in order to get an estimate of the distribution of the lift and drag forces along the blades. This information is needed for comparisons with certain numerical simulations, which however remains to be performed.By placing the turbine at different heights in a turbulent boundary layer, the effects of forest turbulence on wind turbine outputs (power and thrust) could also be investigated.The evolution of the tip vortices shed from the turbine blades was studied by performing velocity measurements around the location of the tip vortex breakdown. The vortices' receptivity to disturbances was then studied by introducing a disturbance in the form of two pulsed jets, located in the rear part of the nacelle. In order to introduce a well-defined disturbance and perform phase-locked measurements, a new experimental setup was constructed and successfully tested for two different disturbance frequencies. The mean stream wise velocity and the stream wise turbulence intensity was found to scale well with the free stream velocity and the spreading of the wake was found to be proportional to the square root of the

  12. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von K´arm´an wake, reverse von K´arm´an wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We...

  13. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  14. Lift calculations based on accepted wake models for animal flight are inconsistent and sensitive to vortex dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eric; Quinn, Daniel B; Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-12-06

    There are three common methods for calculating the lift generated by a flying animal based on the measured airflow in the wake. However, these methods might not be accurate according to computational and robot-based studies of flapping wings. Here we test this hypothesis for the first time for a slowly flying Pacific parrotlet in still air using stereo particle image velocimetry recorded at 1000 Hz. The bird was trained to fly between two perches through a laser sheet wearing laser safety goggles. We found that the wingtip vortices generated during mid-downstroke advected down and broke up quickly, contradicting the frozen turbulence hypothesis typically assumed in animal flight experiments. The quasi-steady lift at mid-downstroke was estimated based on the velocity field by applying the widely used Kutta-Joukowski theorem, vortex ring model, and actuator disk model. The calculated lift was found to be sensitive to the applied model and its different parameters, including vortex span and distance between the bird and laser sheet-rendering these three accepted ways of calculating weight support inconsistent. The three models predict different aerodynamic force values mid-downstroke compared to independent direct measurements with an aerodynamic force platform that we had available for the same species flying over a similar distance. Whereas the lift predictions of the Kutta-Joukowski theorem and the vortex ring model stayed relatively constant despite vortex breakdown, their values were too low. In contrast, the actuator disk model predicted lift reasonably accurately before vortex breakdown, but predicted almost no lift during and after vortex breakdown. Some of these limitations might be better understood, and partially reconciled, if future animal flight studies report lift calculations based on all three quasi-steady lift models instead. This would also enable much needed meta studies of animal flight to derive bioinspired design principles for quasi-steady lift

  15. Shed vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics in symmetric/asymmetric turbulent flat plate wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-05-01

    The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations. Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large θ/DTE values (θ is the boundary layer momentum thickness toward the end of the plate and DTE is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study, the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTEs) resulting in θ/D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE) and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 × 106 and 10 000, respectively. Two cases are computed: one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and the other with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained are of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor of 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at the first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x/D) that occurs near the positive vortex cores. This behavior is observed for a few diameters in the near wake. This is counter to

  16. Lagrangian Visualization and Real-Time Identification of the Vortex Shedding Time in the Wake of a Circular Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Matthew P.

    The flow around a circular cylinder, a canonical bluff body, has been extensively studied in the literature to determine the mechanisms that cause the formation of vortices in the cylinder wake. Understanding of these mechanisms has led to myriad attempts to control the vortices either to mitigate the oscillating forces they cause, or to augment them in order to enhance mixing in the near-wake. While these flow control techniques have been effective at low Reynolds numbers, they generally lose effectiveness or require excessive power at Reynolds numbers commonly experienced in practical applications. For this reason, new methods for identifying the locations of vortices and their shedding time could increase the effectiveness of the control techniques. In the current work, two-dimensional, two-component velocity data was collected in the wake of a circular cylinder using a planar digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurement system at Reynolds numbers of 9,000 and 19,000. This experimental data, as well as two-dimensional simulation data at a Reynolds number of 150, and three-dimensional simulation data at a Reynolds number of 400, is used to calculate the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. The locations of Lagrangian saddles, identified as non-parallel intersections of positive and negative time FTLE ridges, are shown to indicate the timing of von Karman vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder. The Lagrangian saddle found upstream of a forming and subsequently shedding vortex is shown to clearly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex begins to shed. This provides a novel, objective method to determine the timing of vortex shedding. The saddles are impossible to track in real-time, however, since future flow field data is needed for the computation of the FTLE fields. In order to detect the Lagrangian saddle acceleration without direct access to the FTLE, the saddle dynamics are connected to measurable surface quantities

  17. An experimental study of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Clemons, Lucas; Igarashi, Hirofumi

    2011-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the evolution of the unsteady vortex structures in the wake of a root-fixed flapping wing with the wing size, stroke amplitude, and flapping frequency within the range of insect characteristics for the development of novel insect-sized nano-air-vehicles (NAVs). The experiments were conducted in a low-speed wing tunnel with a miniaturized piezoelectric wing (i.e., chord length, C = 12.7 mm) flapping at a frequency of 60 Hz (i.e., f = 60 Hz). The non-dimensional parameters of the flapping wing are chord Reynolds number of Re = 1,200, reduced frequency of k = 3.5, and non-dimensional flapping amplitude at wingtip h = A/C = 1.35. The corresponding Strouhal number (Str) is 0.33 , which is well within the optimal range of 0.2 flying insects and birds and swimming fishes for locomotion. A digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to achieve phased-locked and time-averaged flow field measurements to quantify the transient behavior of the wake vortices in relation to the positions of the flapping wing during the upstroke and down stroke flapping cycles. The characteristics of the wake vortex structures in the chordwise cross planes at different wingspan locations were compared quantitatively to elucidate underlying physics for a better understanding of the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight and to explore/optimize design paradigms for the development of novel insect-sized, flapping-wing-based NAVs.

  18. Wake vortex properties and thrust production of a harmonically-pitching flexible airfoil at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr

    2017-11-01

    Many of the natural flyers have deformable wing structures and exhibit complex kinematics in order to produce lift and thrust. Replicating all of these conditions in the laboratory (or in simulations) is extremely difficult, and drawing explicit connections to basic unsteady aerodynamics models and theories is even more complicated. Therefore, simplified wing structure and kinematics are typically used to facilitate drawing out these connections. In this work, measurements are conducted using a rigid and a chordwise-flexible NACA 0009 airfoils when harmonically pitched about the quarter chord point. Molecular tagging velocimetry is used to characterize the wake and estimate the thrust based on the momentum integral equation as function of the reduced frequency and the pitching amplitude. The results obtained using the two different airfoils are compared in order to examine the influence of structural flexibility. Consistent with the literature, chordwise flexibility is found to enhance thrust production and the circulation of the vortices shed into the wake, for a certain range of frequencies and amplitudes. Additional characterizations are undertaken of the wake vortex structure and its scaling. This work was supported by AFOSR Award Number FA9550-10-1-0342.

  19. Three-dimensional vortex-induced vibrations of supported pipes conveying fluid based on wake oscillator models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Jiang, T. L.; Dai, H. L.; Ni, Q.

    2018-05-01

    The present study develops a new three-dimensional nonlinear model for investigating vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible pipes conveying internal fluid flow. The unsteady hydrodynamic forces associated with the wake dynamics are modeled by two distributed van der Pol wake oscillators. In particular, the nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the pipe and the wake are derived, taking into account the coupling between the structure and the fluid. The nonlinear equations of motion for the coupled system are then discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. It is shown that the natural frequencies for in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the pipe may be different at high internal flow velocities beyond the threshold of buckling instability. The orientation angle of the postbuckling configuration is time-varying due to the disturbance of hydrodynamic forces, thus yielding sometimes unexpected results. For a buckled pipe with relatively low cross-flow velocity, interestingly, examining the nonlinear dynamics of the pipe indicates that the combined effects of the cross-flow-induced resonance of the in-plane first mode and the internal-flow-induced buckling on the IL and CF oscillation amplitudes may be significant. For higher cross-flow velocities, however, the effect of internal fluid flow on the nonlinear VIV responses of the pipe is not pronounced.

  20. Wake Vortex Tangential Velocity Adaptive Spectral (TVAS) algorithm for pulsed Lidar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    In 2008 the FAA tasked the Volpe Center with the development of a government owned processing package capable of performing wake detection, characterization and tracking. : The current paper presents the background, progress, and capabilities to date...

  1. The Development of a Plan for the Assessment, Improvement and Deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for Wake Vortex Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Boluriaan, Said

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the activities completed under a grant from the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a plan for the assessment, improvement, and deployment of a Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) for the detection of wake vortices. A brief review is provided of existing alternative instruments for wake vortex detection. This is followed by a review of previous implementations and assessment of a RASS. As a result of this review, it is concluded that the basic features of a RASS have several advantages over other commonly used wake vortex detection and measurement systems. Most important of these features are the good fidelity of the measurements and the potential for all weather operation. To realize the full potential of this remote sensing instrument, a plan for the development of a RASS designed specifically for wake vortex detection and measurement has been prepared. To keep costs to a minimum, this program would start with the development an inexpensive laboratory-scale version of a RASS system. The new instrument would be developed in several stages, each allowing for a critical assessment of the instrument s potential and limitations. The instrument, in its initial stages of development, would be tested in a controlled laboratory environment. A jet vortex simulator, a prototype version of which has already been fabricated, would be interrogated by the RASS system. The details of the laboratory vortex would be measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. In the early development stages, the scattered radar signal would be digitized and the signal post-processed to determine how extensively and accurately the RASS could measure properties of the wake vortex. If the initial tests prove to be successful, a real-time, digital signal processing system would be developed as a component of the RASS system. At each stage of the instrument development and testing, the implications of the scaling required for a full-scale instrument would be

  2. Simulating Virtual Terminal Area Weather Data Bases for Use in the Wake Vortex Avoidance System (Wake VAS) Prediction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2004-01-01

    During the research project, sounding datasets were generated for the region surrounding 9 major airports, including Dallas, TX, Boston, MA, New York, NY, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, Atlanta, GA, Miami, FL, San Francico, CA, and Los Angeles, CA. The numerical simulation of winter and summer environments during which no instrument flight rule impact was occurring at these 9 terminals was performed using the most contemporary version of the Terminal Area PBL Prediction System (TAPPS) model nested from 36 km to 6 km to 1 km horizontal resolution and very detailed vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. The soundings from the 1 km model were archived at 30 minute time intervals for a 24 hour period and the vertical dependent variables as well as derived quantities, i.e., 3-dimensional wind components, temperatures, pressures, mixing ratios, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rates were then interpolated to 5 m vertical resolution up to 1000 m elevation above ground level. After partial validation against field experiment datasets for Dallas as well as larger scale and much coarser resolution observations at the other 8 airports, these sounding datasets were sent to NASA for use in the Virtual Air Space and Modeling program. The application of these datasets being to determine representative airport weather environments to diagnose the response of simulated wake vortices to realistic atmospheric environments. These virtual datasets are based on large scale observed atmospheric initial conditions that are dynamically interpolated in space and time. The 1 km nested-grid simulated datasets providing a very coarse and highly smoothed representation of airport environment meteorological conditions. Details concerning the airport surface forcing are virtually absent from these simulated datasets although the observed background atmospheric processes have been compared to the simulated fields and the fields were found to accurately replicate the flows

  3. A Novel Wake Oscillator Model for Vortex-Induced Vibrations Prediction of A Cylinder Considering the Influence of Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi-feng; Xie, Wu-de; Xu, Wan-hai; Bai, Yu-chuan; Zhu, Hai-tao

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that the Reynolds number has a significant effect on the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of cylinders. In this paper, a novel in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) coupling VIV prediction model for circular cylinders has been proposed, in which the influence of the Reynolds number was comprehensively considered. The Strouhal number linked with the vortex shedding frequency was calculated through a function of the Reynolds number. The coefficient of the mean drag force was fitted as a new piecewise function of the Reynolds number, and its amplification resulted from the CF VIV was also taken into account. The oscillating drag and lift forces were modelled with classical van der Pol wake oscillators and their empirical parameters were determined based on the lock-in boundaries and the peak-amplitude formulas. A new peak-amplitude formula for the IL VIV was developed under the resonance condition with respect to the mass-damping ratio and the Reynolds number. When compared with the results from the experiments and some other prediction models, the present model could give good estimations on the vibration amplitudes and frequencies of the VIV both for elastically-mounted rigid and long flexible cylinders. The present model considering the influence of the Reynolds number could generally provide better results than that neglecting the effect of the Reynolds number.

  4. Runway Wake Vortex, Crosswind, and Visibility Detection with a Scintillometer at Schiphol Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinther, van D.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the performance and investigate the capability of a scintillometer to detect wake vortices, crosswind and visibility near an airport runway. An experiment is carried out at Schiphol airport (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), where an optical scintillometer is positioned alongside a runway. An

  5. Vortex Shedding Characteristics of the Wake of a Thin Flat Plate with a Circular Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a thin flat plate with a circular trailing edge are investigated with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Data obtained for two different Reynolds numbers (based on plate thickness, D) are the main focus of this study. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in both cases. An earlier investigation of one of the cases (Case F) showed shed vortices in the wake that were about 1.0 D to 4.0 D in spanwise length. Considerable variation in both the strength and frequency of these shed vortices was observed. One objective of the present investigation is to determine the important contributors to this variability in strength and frequency of shed vortices and their finite spanwise extent. Analysis of the data shows that streamwise vortices in the separating boundary layer play an important role in strengthening/weakening of the shed vortices and that high/low-speed streaks in the boundary layer are important contributors to variability in shedding frequency. Both these features of the boundary layer contribute to the finite extent of the vortices in the spanwise direction. The second plate DNS (Case G, with 40 percent of the plate thickness of Case F) shows that while shedding intensity is weaker than obtained in Case F, many of the wake features are similar to that of Case F. This is important in understanding the path to the wake of the thin plate with a sharp trailing edge where shedding is absent. Here we also test the efficacy of a functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers based on the boundary layer momentum thickness (Re (sub theta) and D (Re (sub D)); data for developing this behavioral model is from Cases F & G and five earlier DNSs of the flat plate wake.

  6. An Investigation of the Effects of Discrete Wing Tip Jets on Wake Vortex Roll Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    aerodynamic thrust of the winglet and the more efficient lift production of the main wing combine to give winglets a dramatic improvement in aerodynamic ...with winglets could possibly provide the needed flexibility. Ř’ . " % * .- *2,,~4 . ,.*.%~* CHAPT1ER III BACKGROUND: AERODYNAMIC JE7IS IN CROSS FLOW...outboard shift of the wing tip vortex indicated that discrete wing tip jets may be able to produce improved wing aerodynamics during cruise flight

  7. Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Segalini, Antonio; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ). The vortex model matched the numerical simulation of the turbine with constant blade circulation in terms of the near-wake structure and local forces along the blade. The results from the Tjæreborg turbine case showed some discrepancies between the two approaches, but overall, the agreement is qualitatively...... good, validating the analytical method for more general conditions. The present results show that a simple vortex code is able to provide an estimation of the flow around the wind turbine similar to the actuator-line approach but with a negligible computational effort. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley...

  8. Laboratory measurements of vortex- and wake-induced vibrations of a tandem arrangement of two flexible risers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huai-zeng; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Guo-sheng; Guo, Hai-yan; Li, Xiao-min

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic response of two flexible model risers in tandem arrangement immersed in a stepped current was analyzed. The risers, with an external diameter of 20 mm and a total length of 6200 mm, had an aspect ratio of 310. They were hinged to the support structure at the center-to-center distances away 3-12 times the external diameter. The top 1200 mm was exposed to a uniform current at a speed which was up to 0.9 m/s (the Reynolds number was 18000) and the rest in still water. The dynamic responses, which were obtained through the Fiber Bragg Grating strain gauges mounted on the surface, were analyzed by studying the cross-flow amplitudes and modal weights. The cross-flow vibration were observed up to the third mode, and the modal transformation from the second mode to the third mode was clearly observed. The experiment confirmed that the typical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) had occurred on the up-stream riser. But for the down-stream riser, the main excitation mechanism was wake-induced vibration (WIV). The modal transformation of WIV was more complex than that of VIV, which might be helpful for other researchers to study the interference effect.

  9. On the acoustic signature of tandem airfoils: The sound of an elastic airfoil in the wake of a vortex generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manela, A.

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.

  10. On the acoustic signature of tandem airfoils: The sound of an elastic airfoil in the wake of a vortex generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, A. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-07-15

    The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.

  11. Concerns over modeling and warning capabilities in wake of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-04-01

    Improved earthquake models, better tsunami modeling and warning capabilities, and a review of nuclear power plant safety are all greatly needed following the 11 March Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, according to scientists at the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held 3-8 April in Vienna, Austria. EGU quickly organized a morning session of oral presentations and an afternoon panel discussion less than 1 month after the earthquake and the tsunami and the resulting crisis at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant, which has now been identified as having reached the same level of severity as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Many of the scientists at the EGU sessions expressed concern about the inability to have anticipated the size of the earthquake and the resulting tsunami, which appears likely to have caused most of the fatalities and damage, including damage to the nuclear plant.

  12. Bubble collapsing behavior of vortex cavitation relative to erosion especially in the near wake behind a triangular cylinder; Cavitation kaishoku ni kanrensuru uzu cavity atsukai kyodo no kansatsu (tokuni, sankakuchu mawari no near-wake ni oite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Sugimoto, Y. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-25

    It is known that erosion of fluid machinery can be caused by collapes of a cavitation bubble under high speed flow conditions. To solve this cavitation erosion problem, we performed some experiments on the cavitation process from a subcavitation to a supercavitation stage with a measurement system combining a high-speed video camera and an impulsive pressure sensor. This study focuses in particular on a vortex cavitation bubble in the near wake of a triangular body at the partially cavitating stage which is well known as a highly erosive pattern. Erosion tests were conducted regarding the mechanism of highly impulsive force generation, and bubble collapsing behaviors were observed. The results show that three characteristic patterns of bubble collapse and erosion occur within the near-wake region. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, S; Bülk, M; Cheng, P W; Schön, L; Erbslöh, S; Boorsma, K; Grasso, F; Kühn, M

    2014-01-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK

  14. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.

  15. Contribution to the evaluation of vortex-induced vibrations analysis using 'wake oscillators' and 'vortex-tracking' models; Contribuicao a avaliacao dos modelos 'wake oscillator' e 'vortex tracking' para analise de vibracoes induzidas por vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Daniel L. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ellwanger, Gilberto B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Galgoul, Nelson S. [SUPORTE Consultoria e Projetos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Fatigue due to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is one of the major uncertainties today in the design of slender offshore structures, such as risers, pipelines, umbilicals, tendons and mooring lines, required for oil and gas production in deep waters. The absence of reliable tools for quantitative analyses of this phenomenon is a technological barrier, which is being faced by several research groups, generating tens of thesis and articles every year. This paper presents VIV results achieved by the author, using 'wake oscillator' and 'vortex tracking' models, when researching for his M. Sc. dissertation. Time domain analyses were performed using a commercial software. First results describe the response of the evaluated models for two degrees-of-freedom rigid cylinders, which were compared to values prescribed in recognized recommended practices. Afterwards, VIV analyses results for a steel catenary 10-inch diameter riser in three dimensional current profiles were compared to measured values. The considered riser, installed in 910 m water depth offshore Brazil, is possibly the only monitored SCR with no VIV suppression devices in the world today. The results were considered satisfactory, despite some discrepancies. The authors expect the presented results to contribute in further studies on these models. (author)

  16. Transformation of vortex structures in the wake of a sphere moving in the stratified fluid with decreasing of internal Froude number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushin, Pavel; Gushchin, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    The 3D separated, density stratified viscous fluid flows around a sphere are investigated by means of the direct numerical simulation (DNS) on the basis of the Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation on the supercomputers at the wide range of internal Froude (Fr) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. For DNS the Splitting on physical factors Method for Incompressible Fluid flows (SMIF) with the hybrid explicit finite difference scheme (second-order accuracy in space, minimum scheme viscosity and dispersion, monotonous) has been used. At Fr > 10 with increasing of Re we observed the flow regimes of the homogeneous viscous fluid (including the laminar-turbulent transition in the boundary layer on the sphere). With decreasing of Fr at Re < 500 the strong transformation of vortex structures in the sphere wake is demonstrated by means of the β – visualization. Thus the refined classification of the flow regimes around a sphere moving in the viscous stratified fluid is presented.

  17. Evaluation of the discrete vortex wake cross flow model using vector computers. Part 2: User's manual for DIVORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbaugh, F. D.; Vitz, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The users manual for the Discrete Vortex Cross flow Evaluator (DIVORCE) computer program is presented. DIVORCE was developed in FORTRAN 4 for the DCD 6600 and CDC 7600 machines. Optimal calls to a NASA vector subroutine package are provided for use with the CDC 7600.

  18. SPIV investigations of correlation between streamwise vorticity and velocity in the wake of a vortex generator in a boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2013-01-01

    The current work describes the experimental parametric study of streamwise vortices generated in a boundary layer by a rectangular vane (commonly named vortex generator) mounted perpendicularly to the wall and at an angle to the oncoming flow. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements ...

  19. Investigating chaotic wake dynamics past a flapping airfoil and the role of vortex interactions behind the chaotic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Chandan; Sarkar, Sunetra

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the complex vortex interactions in two-dimensional flow-field behind a symmetric NACA0012 airfoil undergoing a prescribed periodic pitching-plunging motion in low Reynolds number regime. The flow-field transitions from periodic to chaotic through a quasi-periodic route as the plunge amplitude is gradually increased. This study unravels the role of the complex interactions that take place among the main vortex structures in making the unsteady flow-field transition from periodicity to chaos. The leading-edge separation plays a key role in providing the very first trigger for aperiodicity. Subsequent mechanisms like shredding, merging, splitting, and collision of vortices in the near-field that propagate and sustain the disturbance have also been followed and presented. These fundamental mechanisms are seen to give rise to spontaneous and irregular formation of new vortex couples at arbitrary locations, which are the primary agencies for sustaining chaos in the flow-field. The interactions have been studied for each dynamical state to understand the course of transition in the flow-field. The qualitative changes observed in the flow-field are manifestation of changes in the underlying dynamical system. The overall dynamics are established in the present study by means of robust quantitative measures derived from classical and non-classical tools from the dynamical system theory. As the present analysis involves a high fidelity multi-unknown system, non-classical dynamical tools such as recurrence-based time series methods are seen to be very efficient. Moreover, their application is novel in the context of pitch-plunge flapping flight.

  20. Combining Unsteady Blade Pressure Measurements and a Free-Wake Vortex Model to Investigate the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Blade Loads in Yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Elgammi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different blade sections over multiple rotor rotations and three different yaw angles. Through the adopted approach it was possible to investigate how the rotor self-induced aerodynamic load fluctuations influence the unsteady variations in the blade angles of attack and induced velocities. The hysteresis loops for the normal and tangential load coefficients plotted against the angle of attack were plotted over multiple rotor revolutions. Although cycle-to-cycle variations in the angles of attack at the different blade radial locations and azimuth positions are found to be relatively small, the corresponding variations in the normal and tangential load coefficients may be significant. Following a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the load coefficients follow a normal distribution at the majority of blade azimuth angles and radial locations. The results of this study provide further insight on how existing engineering models for dynamic stall may be improved through

  1. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...... particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator....

  2. Final Results from A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Richard Stockton College of NJ and the FAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Joseph; Manson, J. Russell; King, David; Decicco, Nicolas; Prince, Alyssa; di Mercurio, Alexis; Rios, Manual

    2017-01-01

    Wake Vortex Turbulence is the turbulence generated by an aircraft in flight. This turbulence is created by vortices at the tips of the wing that may decay slowly and persist for several minutes after creation. These vortices and turbulence are hazardous to other aircraft in the vicinity. The strength, formation and lifetime of the turbulence and vortices are effected by many things including the weather. Here we present the final results of the pilot project to investigation of low level wind fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and an analysis of historical data. The findings from the historical data and the data simulations were used as inputs for the computational fluid dynamics model (OpenFoam) to show that the vortices could be simulated using OpenFoam. Presented here are the updated results from a research grant, ``A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Stockton University and the FAA''.

  3. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  4. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  5. Validation of four LES and a vortex model against stereo-PIV measurements in the near wake of an actuator disc and a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lignarolo, Lorenzo E.M.; Mehta, Dhruv; Stevens, Richard J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of a workshop organised by the Delft University of Technology in 2014, aiming at the comparison between different state-of-the-art numerical models for the simulation of wind turbine wakes. The chosen benchmark case is a wind tunnel measurement, where stereosco...

  6. Wake Conference 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. We would like to thank all those that assisted in the review process for these proceedings and we are also thankful for the help we have recieved from the editorial team at IOP Publishing during the process. Visby, Sweden May/June 2017 Andrew Barney, Stefan Ivanell, Maria Klemm and Jens Nørkær Sørensen (paper)

  7. Fundamental Characterization of Spanwise Loading and Trailed Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Wake characterization, vortex formation , vortex...Configuration The test was conducted in the 7 × 10-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center (operating in its hard - wall mode) for a range of wind speeds up

  8. Two NextGen Air Safety Tools: An ADS-B Equipped UAV and a Wake Turbulence Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Ward A.

    Two air safety tools are developed in the context of the FAA's NextGen program. The first tool addresses the alarming increase in the frequency of near-collisions between manned and unmanned aircraft by equipping a common hobby class UAV with an ADS-B transponder that broadcasts its position, speed, heading and unique identification number to all local air traffic. The second tool estimates and outputs the location of dangerous wake vortex corridors in real time based on the ADS-B data collected and processed using a custom software package developed for this project. The TRansponder based Position Information System (TRAPIS) consists of data packet decoders, an aircraft database, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the wake vortex extension application. Output from TRAPIS can be visualized in Google Earth and alleviates the problem of pilots being left to imagine where invisible wake vortex corridors are based solely on intuition or verbal warnings from ATC. The result of these two tools is the increased situational awareness, and hence safety, of human pilots in the National Airspace System (NAS).

  9. Examples of Applications of Vortex Methods to Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The current chapter presents wind-energy simulations obtained with the vortex code OmniVor (described in Chap. 44 ) and compared to BEM, CFD and measurements. The chapter begins by comparing rotor loads obtained with vortex methods, BEM and actuator-line simulations of wind turbines under uniform...... and yawed inflows. The second section compares wakes and flow fields obtained by actuator-disk simulations and a free-wake vortex code that uses vortex segments and vortex particles. The third section compares different implementations of viscous diffusion models and investigate their effects...

  10. Experimental Investigation of Vortex Shedding in High Reynolds Number Flow Over Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Choon

    2003-01-01

    .... Vortex shedding was determined to be a leading edge phenomenon as periodic shedding was only detected on the pressure side of the wake, The relationship between vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds...

  11. Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  12. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  13. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. Many people have been involved in producing the 2015 Wake Conference proceedings. The work by the more than 60 reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of the section editors: Christian Masson, ÉTS, Fernando Porté-Agel, EPFL, Gerard Schepers, ECN Wind Energy, Gijs Van Kuik, Delft University, Gunner Larsen, DTU Wind Energy, Jakob Mann, DTU Wind Energy, Javier Sanz Rodrigo, CENER, Johan Meyers, KU Leuven, Rebecca Barthelmie, Cornell University, Sandrine Aubrun-Sanches, Université d'Orléans and Thomas Leweke, IRPHE-CNRS. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive support from the editorial team at IOP Publishing, especially Sarah Toms, during the review process of these proceedings. Visby, Sweden, June 2015 Andrew Barney, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Stefan Ivanell Uppsala University - Campus Gotland

  14. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.; Vorobieff, P.

    1999-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Computational study of three-dimensional wake structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, R.; Shirayama, S.; Kamo, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional wake structure is studied by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are visualized by a three-dimensional color graphic system. It was found that a pair of vortex tubes separated from a body plays the most important role in the wake. Near the body vortex tubes are rather stable, however, they gradually become unsteady as they flow down

  16. Aircraft wake vortices : a state-of-the-art review of the United States R&D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    The report summarizes the current state-of-the-art understanding : of the aircraft wake vortex phenomenon and the results of the United : States program to minimize the restrictions caused by aircraft wake : vortices in the terminal environment. The ...

  17. A Survey of the Scattering Characteristics and Detection of Aircraft Wake Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianbing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft wake vortex is a pair of strong counter-rotating vortices and has attracted considerable attention in various fields including aviation safety and atmospheric physics. The characteristics and detection of wake vortex act as the basis for both behavior prediction as well as hazard assessment. This paper provides a short survey of the characteristics and detection researches. Initially, the wake vortex is classified as clear-air wake vortex (i.e., wake turbulence and contrail and precipitation wake vortex (i.e., under rainy, foggy or snowy condition. Subsequently, the dynamics and scattering are introduced, and the main verdicts are: the radar (radio detection and ranging scattering of wake vortex is relatively weak under clear air conditions, but the Lidar (Light detection and ranging scattering is appreciable owing to the presence of particles such as aerosols. Wake vortices under precipitation conditions and contrails possess relatively good radar reflectivity owing the strong scattering characteristics of precipitation droplets and ice crystals. Furthermore, we have introduced a joint detection scheme of Lidar and radar for wake vortex along with parameter-retrieval algorithms. Finally, we have presented our conclusions and intended future research.

  18. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  19. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  20. Evaluation of Aircraft Wing-Tip Vortex Using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Omer A.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2010-06-01

    The formation and development of a wing-tip vortex in a near and extended near filed were studied experimentally. Particle image velocimetry was used in a wind tunnel to measure the tip vortex velocity field and hence investigate the flow structure in a wake of aircraft half-wing model. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the main features of the lift generated vortices in order to find ways to alleviate hazardous wake vortex encounters for follower airplanes during start and approach such that the increase in airport capacity can be achieved. First the wake structure at successive downstream planes crosswise to the axis of the wake vortices was investigated by measuring parameters such as core radius, maximum tangential velocities, vorticities and circulation distributions. The effect of different angles of attack setting on vortex parameters was examined at one downstream location. In very early stages the vortex sheet evolution makes the tip vortex to move inward and to the suction side of the wing. While the core radius and circulation distributions hardly vary with the downstream distance, noticeable differences for the same vortex parameters at different angles of attack settings were observed. The center of the wing tip vortices scatter in a circle of radius nearly equal to 1% of the mean wing chord and wandering amplitudes shows no direct dependence on the vortex strength but linearly increase with the downstream distance.

  1. Wake simulation for wind turbines with a free, prescribed- and hybrid-wake method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, R.; Guidati, G.; Wagner, S. [Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Calculations of the radial distribution and the time history of the induction factors have been performed with a number of different wake models implemented in a vortex-lattice method for tip-speed ratios in the range 1-13. The new models lead to a significant reduction of the computational effort down to 3-27% compared to a free-wake model with errors less than 5%. (au)

  2. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Wake Prediction Models: User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing and testing fast-time wake transport and decay models to safely enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). The fast-time wake models are empirical algorithms used for real-time predictions of wake transport and decay based on aircraft parameters and ambient weather conditions. The aircraft dependent parameters include the initial vortex descent velocity and the vortex pair separation distance. The atmospheric initial conditions include vertical profiles of temperature or potential temperature, eddy dissipation rate, and crosswind. The current distribution includes the latest versions of the APA (3.4) and the TDP (2.1) models. This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and the model output. An example of a model run and a brief description of the Memphis 1995 Wake Vortex Dataset is also provided.

  3. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.

  4. Empirical modeling of single-wake advection and expansion using full-scale pulsed lidar-based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single...

  5. Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.

    2015-05-01

    Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.

  6. Vortex methods and vortex statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorin, A.J.

    1993-05-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (''blobs'') and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ''blob'' methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena

  7. Real-Time Simulation of Coaxial Rotor Configurations with Combined Finite State Dynamic Wake and VPM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jinggen; He, Chengjian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a first-principle based finite state dynamic rotor wake model that addresses the complex aerodynamic interference inherent to coaxial rotor configurations in support of advanced vertical lift aircraft simulation, design, and analysis. The high fidelity rotor dynamic wake solution combines an enhanced real-time finite state dynamic wake model (DYW) with a first-principle based viscous Vortex Particle Method (VPM). The finite state dynamic wake model provides a state-spa...

  8. The DLR project Wirbelschleppe. Detecting, characterizing, controlling, attenuating, understanding, and predicting aircraft wake vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    This collection of reports presents an excerpt of the investigations that were performed in the framework of the DLR Projekt Wirbelschleppe. A similar sample of reports was presented as part of three dedicated wake vortex sessions accomplished at the 1{sup st} European Air and Space Conference (CEAS 2007) and Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2007 in Berlin. The Projekt Wirbelschleppe was conducted in two phases in the time frame from 1999 to 2007 with the five contributing DLR Institutes: Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Institute of Flight Systems, Institute of Flight Guidance, Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics and the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics of the University of Technology Berlin. The project unified a multitude of different aspects and disciplines of wake vortex research which can be characterized by four main themes: - minimization of wake vortices by measures at the aircraft; - development and demonstration of a system for wake vortex prediction and observation; - airborne wake vortex detection and active control; - integration of systems into air traffic control. The Projekt Wirbelschleppe greatly benefited from the European projects AWIATOR, ATC-Wake, Credos, C-Wake, Eurowake, FAR-Wake, FLYSAFE, I-Wake, S-Wake, WakeNet, WakeNet2-Europe, WakeNet3-Europe, and Wavenc. DLR's wake vortex activities will be continued in the Projekt Wetter and Fliegen (2008-2011): Because the current compilation represents only a limited extract of the accomplished work, it is completed by a list of references emerging from the project. (orig.)

  9. Wake meandering of a model wind turbine operating in two different regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Campagnolo, Filippo; Maniaci, David; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2018-05-01

    The flow behind a model wind turbine under two different turbine operating regimes (region 2 for turbine operating at optimal condition with the maximum power coefficient and 1.4-deg pitch angle and region 3 for turbine operating at suboptimal condition with a lower power coefficient and 7-deg pitch angle) is investigated using wind tunnel experiments and numerical experiments using large-eddy simulation (LES) with actuator surface models for turbine blades and nacelle. Measurements from the model wind turbine experiment reveal that the power coefficient and turbine wake are affected by the operating regime. Simulations with and without a nacelle model are carried out for each operating condition to study the influence of the operating regime and nacelle on the formation of the hub vortex and wake meandering. Statistics and energy spectra of the simulated wakes are in good agreement with the measurements. For simulations with a nacelle model, the mean flow field is composed of an outer wake, caused by energy extraction by turbine blades, and an inner wake directly behind the nacelle, while for the simulations without a nacelle model, the central region of the wake is occupied by a jet. The simulations with the nacelle model reveal an unstable helical hub vortex expanding outward toward the outer wake, while the simulations without a nacelle model show a stable and columnar hub vortex. Because of the different interactions of the inner region of the wake with the outer region of the wake, a region with higher turbulence intensity is observed in the tip shear layer for the simulation with a nacelle model. The hub vortex for the turbine operating in region 3 remains in a tight helical spiral and intercepts the outer wake a few diameters further downstream than for the turbine operating in region 2. Wake meandering, a low-frequency large-scale motion of the wake, commences in the region of high turbulence intensity for all simulations with and without a nacelle model

  10. Analyzing complex wake-terrain interactions and its implications on wind-farm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fuchs, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Rotating wind turbine blades generate complex wakes involving vortices (helical tip-vortex, root-vortex etc.).These wakes are regions of high velocity deficits and high turbulence intensities and they tend to degrade the performance of down-stream turbines. Hence, a conservative inter-turbine distance of up-to 10 times turbine diameter (10D) is sometimes used in wind-farm layout (particularly in cases of flat terrain). This ensures that wake-effects will not reduce the overall wind-farm performance, but this leads to larger land footprint for establishing a wind-farm. In-case of complex-terrain, within a short distance (say 10D) itself, the nearby terrain can rise in altitude and be high enough to influence the wake dynamics. This wake-terrain interaction can happen either (a) indirectly, through an interaction of wake (both near tip vortex and far wake large-scale vortex) with terrain induced turbulence (especially, smaller eddies generated by small ridges within the terrain) or (b) directly, by obstructing the wake-region partially or fully in its flow-path. Hence, enhanced understanding of wake- development due to wake-terrain interaction will help in wind farm design. To this end the current study involves: (1) understanding the numerics for successful simulation of vortices, (2) understanding fundamental vortex-terrain interaction mechanism through studies devoted to interaction of a single vortex with different terrains, (3) relating influence of vortex-terrain interactions to performance of a wind-farm by studying a multi-turbine wind-farm layout under different terrains. The results on interaction of terrain and vortex has shown a much faster decay of vortex for complex terrain compared to a flatter-terrain. The potential reasons identified explaining the observation are (a) formation of secondary vortices in flow and its interaction with the primary vortex and (b) enhanced vorticity diffusion due to increased terrain-induced turbulence. The implications of

  11. Spatial perturbation of a wing-tip vortex using pulsed span-wise jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, A. L.; Smith, D. A. R.

    The separation distance required between transport aircraft to avoid wake vortices remains a limiting factor on airport capacity. The dissipation of the wake can be accelerated by perturbing co-operative instabilities between multiple pairs of vortices. This paper presents the results of a preliminary experimental investigation into the use of pulsed span-wise air jets in the wing tip to perturb a single tip vortex in the very near field. Velocity measurements were made using PIV and hot-wire anemometry. The results demonstrate that the vortex position can be modulated at frequencies up to 50 Hz and, as such, the method shows promise for forcing instability in multiple vortex wakes.

  12. Development of new tip-loss corrections based on vortex theory and vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Gaunaa, Mac

    2014-01-01

    A new analytical formulation of the tip-loss factor is established based on helical vortex lament solutions. The derived tip-loss factor can be applied to wind-turbines, propellers or other rotary wings. Similar numerical formulations are used to assess the influence of wake expansion on tip...

  13. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  14. Flow induced by a skewed vortex cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field induced by a skewed vortex cylinder of longitudinal and tangential vorticity is derived in this chapter by direct integration of the Biot– Savart law. The derivation steps are provided in details. The results of Castles and Durham for the skewed semi-infinite cylinder....... The content of this chapter is based on the publication of the author entitled "Cylindrical vortex wake model: skewed cylinder, application to yawed or tilted rotors" [1]. Results from this chapter are applied: in Chap. 21 to model a wind turbine (or rotor) in yaw, in Chap. 22 to derive a new yaw...

  15. Data Fusion to Estimate Vortex Location for Drag Reduction in Formation Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating the potential benefits of flying aircraft in the aerodynamic wake vortex emanating from a lead aircraft's wing tip. Analytic studies predict...

  16. NASA AVOSS Fast-Time Models for Aircraft Wake Prediction: User's Guide (APA3.8 and TDP2.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash'at N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Pruis, Matthew J.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's current distribution of fast-time wake vortex decay and transport models includes APA (Version 3.8) and TDP (Version 2.1). This User's Guide provides detailed information on the model inputs, file formats, and model outputs. A brief description of the Memphis 1995, Dallas/Fort Worth 1997, and the Denver 2003 wake vortex datasets is given along with the evaluation of models. A detailed bibliography is provided which includes publications on model development, wake field experiment descriptions, and applications of the fast-time wake vortex models.

  17. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e + e - linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures

  18. Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.

  19. A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

  20. Determination of Wind Turbine Near-Wake Length Based on Stability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sarmast, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equati......A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier...... of the study it is found that the amplification of specific waves (traveling structures) along the tip vortex spirals is responsible for triggering the instability leading to wake breakdown. The presence of unstable modes in the wake is related to the mutual inductance (vortex pairing) instability where...

  1. Study on wake structure characteristics of a slotted micro-ramp with large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiangrui; Chen, Yaohui; Dong, Gang; Liu, Yixin, E-mail: cyh873@163.com [National Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, a novel slotted ramp-type micro vortex generator (slotted micro-ramp) for flow separation control is simulated in the supersonic flow of Ma = 1.5, based on large eddy simulation combined with the finite volume method. The wake structure characteristics and control mechanisms of both slotted and standard micro-ramps are presented and discussed. The results show that the wake of standard micro-ramp includes a primary counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair, a train of vortex rings, and secondary vortices. The slotted micro-ramp has more complicated wake structures, which contain a confluent counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair and additional streamwise vortices, with the same rotation generated by slot and the vortex rings enveloping the vortex pair. The additional vortices generated by the slot of the micro-ramp can mix with the primary counter-rotating vortex pair, extend the life time, and strengthen the vortex intensity of primary vortex pair. Moreover, the slot can effectively alleviate, or even eliminate the backflow and decrease the profile drag induced by the standard micro-ramp, therefore improving the efficiency of separation control. (paper)

  2. Vortex Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials

  3. Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.

  4. Vortex-acoustic lock-on in bluff-body and backward-facing step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ship between the vortex roll-up sequence and the heat-release fluctuations under conditions of excitation of ... In both geometries, the total length of the duct can be varied with the use of extension ducts, ... This is the opposite of lock-on in the case of vortex-shedding in the wake-flow past vibrating .... Energy Combust. Sci.

  5. Vortex Induced Vibrations of Cylinders: Experiments in Reducing Drag Force and Amplitude of Motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, David E

    2007-01-01

    .... The second series of tests are the rigid cylinder, PIV experiments. These rests measure both the drag force on the cylinder and the oscillating component of the lift force, the latter of which is a good indication of vortex formation. The Chapter 3 tests also image the test section wake-providing helpful insight into the physical process of vortex formations.

  6. The near wake structure and the development of vorticity behind a model horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, P.; Wood, D. [The Univ. of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Callaghan (Australia)

    1997-08-01

    The wake of a two bladed model HAWT operating at zero yaw angle and in a steady flow in a wind tunnel was measured using hot wire probes. By phase locked averaging and moving the probe axially and radially the full three dimensional mean flow file was determined. All measurements were within two chord lengths of the blades and at tip speed ratios giving high turbine power output, a condition approaching runaway, and a stalled condition. For all tip speed ratios the wakes were significantly three dimensional. Large velocity variations were associated with vortex structures in the wakes, and irrotational fluctuations caused by the blade bound circulation. The vorticity clearly defined the hub and tip vortices that traced helical paths downstream, with the constant tip vortex pitch inversely proportional to tip speed ratio. Close to the blades the flow was complicated, though vortex roll-up was completed within one chord length. Considerable changes in wake structure occurred with tip speed ratio. At high power output the wake showed tip and hub vortices connected by a diffuse vortex sheet of mostly radial vorticity from the blade boundary layers; blade bound circulation was almost constant. The structure approaching runaway was similar though the hub vortex was not well defined and formed a vortex sheet around the hub which lifted away and diffused. The stalled condition was more complicated, with evidence of incomplete tip and hub vortex formation. The stream-wise velocity of the tip vortex core decreased with increasing tip speed ratio, but this was never aligned with local streamlines. The core of the tip vortex was not circular but more elliptical. A phase locked averaged angular momentum analysis was undertaken, the extra terms introduced through phase locked averaging were small. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison of selected datasets from the campaign showed good far wake agreements of mean wake expansion with Actuator Line CFD computations and simpler engineering models. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction...... for modeling the resulting double wake deficit is only relevant at high turbine thrust coefficients. For high wind speed and low thrust coefficient, linear summation should be primarily used. The first iteration of a new engineering model capable of modeling the overlapped wake deficit is formulated and its...... measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. A benchmark of several wake accumulation models is performed as a basis for the subsequent development of an engineering model for wake interaction.Finally, the validated numerical CFD model is used as part...

  8. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  9. Phenomena, dynamics and instabilities of vortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C H K; Asselin, D J; Leweke, T; Harris, D M

    2014-01-01

    Our motivation for studying the dynamics of vortex pairs stems initially from an interest in the trailing wake vortices from aircraft and the dynamics of longitudinal vortices close to a vehicle surface. However, our motivation also comes from the fact that vortex–vortex interactions and vortex–wall interactions are fundamental to many turbulent flows. The intent of the paper is to present an overview of some of our recent work concerning the formation and structure of counter-rotating vortex pairs. We are interested in the long-wave and short-wave three-dimensional instabilities that evolve for an isolated vortex pair, but also we would like to know how vortex pairs interact with a wall, including both two-dimensional interactions, and also the influence of the surface on the three-dimensional instabilities. The emphasis of this presentation is on physical mechanisms by which vortices interact with each other and with surfaces, principally from an experimental approach, but also coupled with analytical studies. (paper)

  10. Influence of Initial Vorticity Distribution on Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. In particular, the presence of negative vorticity in the inner core of a vortex filament (one example of which is examined in this paper) subsequent to "cutting" by a solid body has a profound influence on the vortex reconnection, leading to analog flow behavior similar to vortex breakdown phenomena described in the literature. Initial vorticity distributions (three specific examples which are examined) without an inner core of negative vorticity do not exhibit vortex breakdown and instead manifest diffusion-like properties while undergoing vortex reconnection. Though this work focuses on laminar vortical flow, this work is anticipated to provide valuable insight into rotary-wing aerodynamics as well as other types of vortical flow phenomena.

  11. Dynamics of vortices in complex wakes: Modeling, analysis, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat

    The thesis develops singly-periodic mathematical models for complex laminar wakes which are formed behind vortex-shedding bluff bodies. These wake structures exhibit a variety of patterns as the bodies oscillate or are in close proximity of one another. The most well-known formation comprises two counter-rotating vortices in each shedding cycle and is popularly known as the von Karman vortex street. Of the more complex configurations, as a specific example, this thesis investigates one of the most commonly occurring wake arrangements, which consists of two pairs of vortices in each shedding period. The paired vortices are, in general, counter-rotating and belong to a more general definition of the 2P mode, which involves periodic release of four vortices into the flow. The 2P arrangement can, primarily, be sub-classed into two types: one with a symmetric orientation of the two vortex pairs about the streamwise direction in a periodic domain and the other in which the two vortex pairs per period are placed in a staggered geometry about the wake centerline. The thesis explores the governing dynamics of such wakes and characterizes the corresponding relative vortex motion. In general, for both the symmetric as well as the staggered four vortex periodic arrangements, the thesis develops two-dimensional potential flow models (consisting of an integrable Hamiltonian system of point vortices) that consider spatially periodic arrays of four vortices with their strengths being +/-Gamma1 and +/-Gamma2. Vortex formations observed in the experiments inspire the assumed spatial symmetry. The models demonstrate a number of dynamic modes that are classified using a bifurcation analysis of the phase space topology, consisting of level curves of the Hamiltonian. Despite the vortex strengths in each pair being unequal in magnitude, some initial conditions lead to relative equilibrium when the vortex configuration moves with invariant size and shape. The scaled comparisons of the

  12. Characterization of forced response of density stratified reacting wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Samadhan A.; Sujith, Raman I.; Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a reacting wake depends primarily on the density ratio [i.e., ratio of unburnt gas density (ρu) to burnt gas density (ρb)] of the flow across the wake. The variation of the density ratio from high to low value, keeping ρ u / ρ b > 1 , transitions dynamical characteristics of the reacting wake from a linearly globally stable (or convectively unstable) to a globally unstable mode. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the effect of harmonic forcing on the deterministic and synchronization characteristics of reacting wakes. Using the recurrence quantification analysis of the forced wake response, we show that the deterministic behaviour of the reacting wake increases as the amplitude of forcing is increased. Furthermore, for different density ratios, we found that the synchronization of the top and bottom branches of the wake with the forcing signal is dependent on whether the mean frequency of the natural oscillations of the wake (fn) is lesser or greater than the frequency of external forcing (ff). We notice that the response of both branches (top and bottom) of the reacting wake to the external forcing is asymmetric and symmetric for the low and high density ratios, respectively. Furthermore, we characterize the phase-locking behaviour between the top and bottom branches of the wake for different values of density ratios. We observe that an increase in the density ratio results in a gradual decrease in the relative phase angle between the top and bottom branches of the wake, which leads to a change in the vortex shedding pattern from a sinuous (anti-phase) to a varicose (in-phase) mode of the oscillations.

  13. Vortex profiles and vortex interactions at the electroweak crossover

    OpenAIRE

    Chernodub, M. N.; Ilgenfritz, E. -M.; Schiller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Local correlations of Z-vortex operators with gauge and Higgs fields (lattice quantum vortex profiles) as well as vortex two-point functions are studied in the crossover region near a Higgs mass of 100 GeV within the 3D SU(2) Higgs model. The vortex profiles resemble certain features of the classical vortex solutions in the continuum. The vortex-vortex interactions are analogous to the interactions of Abrikosov vortices in a type-I superconductor.

  14. An Aeroelastic Perspective of Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Wake Formation and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Steven N.; Jaworski, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    The wake formation and wake stability of floating offshore wind turbines are investigated from an aeroelastic perspective. The aeroelastic model is composed of the Sebastian-Lackner free-vortex wake aerodynamic model coupled to the nonlinear Hodges-Dowell beam equations, which are extended to include the effects of blade profile asymmetry, higher-order torsional effects, and kinetic energy components associated with periodic rigid-body motions of floating platforms. Rigid-body platform motions are also assigned to the aerodynamic model as varying inflow conditions to emulate operational rotor-wake interactions. Careful attention is given to the wake formation within operational states where the ratio of inflow velocity to induced velocity is over 50%. These states are most susceptible to aerodynamic instabilities, and provide a range of states about which a wake stability analysis can be performed. In addition, the stability analysis used for the numerical framework is implemented into a standalone free-vortex wake aerodynamic model. Both aeroelastic and standalone aerodynamic results are compared to evaluate the level of impact that flexible blades have on the wake formation and wake stability.

  15. Yaw-modelling using a skewed vortex cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The cylindrical vortex wake model presented in Chap. 17 for the case of uniform inflow is extended in the current chapter to the case of yawed inflow. Generalities regarding yaw are presented in Sect. 6.1 and only the skewed cylindrical vortex model is presented in this chapter. The chapter starts...... with a literature review on the topic of yaw-models and vorticity-based methods. The description of the model follows. The novelty of the current model is that the assumption of infinite tip-speed ratio is relaxed. The bound vorticity is assumed to be identical to the case of uniform inflow but the vortex cylinder...... and the root vortex are skewed with respect to the normal of the rotor disk. Closed form formulae for the induced velocities are provided. They can only be evaluated analytically for a limited part of the domain. A numerical integration is required to obtain the velocity everywhere in the domain. The numerical...

  16. Wake modeling and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, howev...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...

  17. Wake modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Larsen, T.J.; Troldborg, N.

    2008-07-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the DWM model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. A computationally low cost model is developed for this purpose. Likewise, the character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by a simple semi-empirical model essentially based on an eddy viscosity philosophy. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the DWM approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power- and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. To establish an integrated modeling tool, the DWM methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjaereborg wind farm, have

  18. Compressible Vortex Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

    1999-11-01

    The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.

  19. Dynamic Loads and Wake Prediction for Large Wind Turbines Based on Free Wake Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jiufa; Wang Tongguang; Long Hui; Ke Shitang; Xu Bofeng

    2015-01-01

    With large scale wind turbines ,the issue of aerodynamic elastic response is even more significant on dy-namic behaviour of the system .Unsteady free vortex wake method is proposed to calculate the shape of wake and aerodynamic load .Considering the effect of aerodynamic load ,inertial load and gravity load ,the decoupling dy-namic equations are established by using finite element method in conjunction of the modal method and equations are solved numerically by Newmark approach .Finally ,the numerical simulation of a large scale wind turbine is performed through coupling the free vortex wake modelling with structural modelling .The results show that this coupling model can predict the flexible wind turbine dynamic characteristics effectively and efficiently .Under the influence of the gravitational force ,the dynamic response of flapwise direction contributes to the dynamic behavior of edgewise direction under the operational condition of steady wind speed .The difference in dynamic response be-tween the flexible and rigid wind turbines manifests when the aerodynamics/structure coupling effect is of signifi-cance in both wind turbine design and performance calculation .

  20. Wake characterization methods of a circulation control wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed Mohamed, Y.; Semaan, R.; Sattler, S.; Radespiel, R.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a three-pronged methodology to characterise the wake behind a circulation control wing. The study relies on time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements in a water tunnel for a range of blowing intensities. The first method is the well-known proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The second tool is a new implementation of the power spectrum. Finally, a modified Q-criterion vortex detection and quantification method is presented. The results show the complementary advantage of the three methods in analysing wake flows with varying conditions.

  1. Swimming performance and unique wake topology of the sea hare (Aplysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    The Aplysia, commonly referred to as the "sea hare," is a marine mollusc that swims using large-amplitude flapping of its wide, winglike parapodia. In this study, flow simulations with a relatively simple kinematical model are used to gain insights into the vortex dynamics, thrust generation, and energetics of locomotion for this animal. A unique vortex pattern characterized by three distinct trains of vortex ringlike structures is observed in the wake of this animal. These vortex rings are associated with a positive momentum flux in the wake that counteracts the drag generated by the body. Simulations indicate propulsive efficiencies of up to 24% and terminal swimming speeds of about 0.9 body length per cycle. Swimming speeds are found to increase with increasing parapodial flapping amplitude as well as wavelength of undulation.

  2. Unsteady wake of a rotating tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Jean-Eloi; Moxey, Dave; Xu, Hui; Sherwin, Spencer; Sherwin Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    For open wheel race-cars, such as IndyCar and Formula One, the wheels are responsible for 40% of the total drag. For road cars drag associated to the wheels and under-carriage can represent 60% of total drag at highway cruise speeds. Experimental observations have reported two or three pairs of counter rotating vortices, the relative importance of which still remains an open question, that interact to form a complex wake. Traditional RANS based methods are typically not well equipped to deal with such highly unsteady flows which motivates research into more physical, unsteady models. Leveraging a high-fidelity spectral/hp element based method a Large Eddy Simulation is performed to give further insight into unsteady characteristics of the wake. In particular the unsteady nature of both the jetting and top vortex pair is reported as well as the time and length scales associated with the vortex core trajectories. Correlation with experimentally obtained particle image velocimetry is presented. The authors acknowledge support from the United Kingdom Turbulence Consortium (UKTC) as well as from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for access to ARCHER UK National Supercomputing Service.

  3. Numerical Analysis of the Unsteady Propeller Performance in the Ship Wake Modified By Different Wake Improvement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugalski Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.

  4. 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects various contributions from the 5th International Conference on Jets, Wakes and Separated Flows (ICJWSF2015) that took place in Stockholm during June 2015. Researchers from all around the world presented their latest results concerning fundamental and applied aspects of fluid dynamics. With its general character, the conference embraced many aspects of fluid dynamics, such as shear flows, multiphase flows and vortex flows, for instance. The structure of the present book reflects the variety of topics treated within the conference i.e. Jets, Wakes, Separated flows, Vehicle aerodynamics, Wall-bounded and confined flows, Noise, Turbomachinery flows, Multiphase and reacting flows, Vortex dynamics, Energy-related flows and a section dedicated to Numerical analyses.

  5. A coupled CFD and wake model simulation of helicopter rotor in hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    The helicopter rotor wake plays a dominant role since it affects the flow field structure. It is very difficult to predict accurately of the flow-field. The numerical dissipation is so excessive that it eliminates the vortex structure. A hybrid method of CFD and prescribed wake model was constructed by applying the prescribed wake model as much as possible. The wake vortices were described as a single blade tip vortex in this study. The coupling model is used to simulate the flow field. Both non-lifting and lifting cases have been calculated with subcritical and supercritical tip Mach numbers. Surface pressure distributions are presented and compared with experimental data. The calculated results agree well with the experimental data.

  6. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, V L; Mikkelsen, R; Sørensen, J N; Naumov, I N; Kabardin, I

    2014-01-01

    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert's optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities. The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories

  7. Experimental investigation of the wake behind a model of wind turbine in a water flume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor; Kabardin, I.

    2014-01-01

    The flow behind the model of wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using Particle Image Velocimetry. The study carried out involves rotors of three bladed wind turbine designed using Glauert’s optimization. The transitional regime, generally characterized as in between...... the regime governed by stable organized vortical structures and the turbulent wake, develops from disturbances of the tip and root vorticies through vortex paring and further complex behaviour towards the fully turbulent wake. Our PIV measurements pay special attention to the onset of the instabilities....... The near wake characteristics (development of expansion, tip vortex position, deficit velocity and rotation in the wake) have been measured for different tip speed ratio to compare with main assumptions and conclusions of various rotor theories....

  8. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as

  9. Wake flow behaviour behind a smaller cylinder oscillating in the wake of an upstream stationary cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yangyang; Sun, Zhilin [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tan, Danielle S [Maritime Research Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu, Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, 266100 (China); Tan, Soon Keat, E-mail: yygao@zju.edu.cn [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    The flow patterns around a cylinder oscillating freely in the wake of a larger cylinder upstream were investigated using the particle image velocimetry technique. The upstream cylinder was fixed at both ends while the downstream smaller cylinder was held by springs such that it was free to oscillate in the transverse direction. The flow patterns, amplitudes of oscillation and vortex shedding frequencies were compared with those of a single cylinder. In the presence of the upstream cylinder, the three parameters characterizing the oscillation response of the smaller cylinder—amplitude of oscillation, vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds stresses—were greatly reduced. While their magnitude increased with gap ratio, these three parameters were still smaller than the corresponding magnitudes for a single oscillating cylinder. The peak values of turbulence statistics such as Reynolds shear stress and normal stress behind the oscillating downstream cylinder were similarly reduced, and increased with gap ratios. (paper)

  10. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  11. Next Generation Scanning LIDAR Systems for Optimizing Wake Turbulence Separation Minima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Thobois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been performed to better understand the behavior of wake vortices with regards to aircraft characteristics and weather conditionsover the pastten years. These studies have led to the development of the aircraft RECATegorization (RECAT programs in Europe and in USA. Its phase one focused on redefining distance separation matrix with six static aircraft wake turbulence categories instead of three with the current International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO regulations. In Europe, the RECAT-EU regulation is now entering under operational implementation atseveral key airports. As proven by several research projects in the past, LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR sensors are considered as the ground truth wake vortex measurements for assessing the safety impact of a new wake turbulence regulation at an airport in quantifying the risks given the local specificities. LIDAR’s can also be used to perform risk monitoring after the implementation. In this paper, the principle to measure wake vortices with scanning coherent Doppler LIDARs is described as well as its dedicated post-processing. Finally the use of WINDCUBELIDAR based solution for supporting the implementation of new wake turbulenceregulation is described along with satisfyingresults that have permitted the monitoring of the wake vortex encounter risk after the implementation of a new wake turbulence regulation.

  12. LES of an Advancing Helicopter Rotor, and Near to Far Wake Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Winckelmans, Grégoire

    2017-11-01

    Helicopter wake physics involve complex, unsteady vortical flows which have been only scarcely addressed in past studies. The present work focuses on LES of the wake flow behind an advancing rotor, to support the investigation of rotorcraft wake physics and decay mechanisms. A hybrid Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method is employed to simulate the wake of an articulated four-bladed rotor in trimmed conditions, at an advance ratio of 0.41. The simulation domain extends to 30 rotor diameters downstream. The coarse scale aerodynamics of the blades are accounted for through enhanced immersed lifting lines. The vorticity generation mechanisms, the roll-up of the near wake and the resulting established far wake are described (i) qualitatively in terms of vortex dynamics using rotor polar plots and 3D visualizations; (ii) quantitatively using classical integral diagnostics. The power spectra measured by velocity probes in the wake are also presented. The analysis shows that the wake reaches a fully turbulent equilibrium state at a distance of about 30 diameters downstream. This work is supported by the Belgian french community F.R.S.-FNRS.

  13. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  14. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  15. Numerical modelling of the Concorde wake during ZEBRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierens, K. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Numerical simulations of the Concorde contrail during the ZEBRE experiment have been performed. The main goal of the simulations is to reproduce the fast vanishing of the contrail which disappeared 20-30 s after exhaust. It is difficult to evaporate ice crystals during the jet and vortex phase of the aircraft wake, when the exhaust products are trapped in the vortex cores. The trapping also excludes spatial dispersion of the ice crystals as an explanation of the short contrail lifetime. The disappearance of the contrail within 20-30 s requires that a substantial part of the exhaust gases escapes from the region that is later on trapped in the vortex cores. (author) 10 refs.

  16. Numerical modelling of the Concorde wake during ZEBRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierens, K [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Numerical simulations of the Concorde contrail during the ZEBRE experiment have been performed. The main goal of the simulations is to reproduce the fast vanishing of the contrail which disappeared 20-30 s after exhaust. It is difficult to evaporate ice crystals during the jet and vortex phase of the aircraft wake, when the exhaust products are trapped in the vortex cores. The trapping also excludes spatial dispersion of the ice crystals as an explanation of the short contrail lifetime. The disappearance of the contrail within 20-30 s requires that a substantial part of the exhaust gases escapes from the region that is later on trapped in the vortex cores. (author) 10 refs.

  17. Aircraft dynamic loads generated in wake vortex encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Suñer Perucho, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The study illustrated in these pages was developed in the Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity Department of the Military Aircraft division of Airbus Defence and Space in Getafe, Madrid (Spain). That department is a multidisciplinary one involving several categories. Some of its competences are the analysis of impacts, acoustics and vibrations for the aircraft and all their systems. Also, the dynamic response of the aircraft to different events is part of the tasks for that department. It i...

  18. Effects of outer perturbances on dynamics of wake vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, N.A.; Belotserkovsky, A.S.; Turchak, L.I.

    2004-01-01

    One of the problems in aircraft flight safety is reduction of the risk related with aircraft encounter with wake vortices generated by other aircraft. An efficient approach to this problem is design of systems providing information on areas of potential danger of wake vortices to pilots in real time. The main components of such a system are a unit for calculations of wake vortices behind aircraft and a unit for calculations of areas of potential danger. A promising way to development of real time algorithms for calculation of wake vortices is the use of vortex methods in CFD based on the hypothesis of quasi-3D flow in the area of wake vorticity. The mathematical model developed by our team calculates positions and intensity of wake vortices past aircraft taking account of such effects as viscous dissipation of vortices, effects of ambient turbulence, wind shear, as well as viscous interaction between wake vortices and the underlying surface. The necessity of including the last factor could be stems from the fact that in the case where wake vortices are in close proximity of the rigid surface, the viscous interaction between the wake vortices and the surface boundary layer results in the boundary layer separation changing the overall intensity and dynamics of the wake vortices. To evaluate the boundaries of the danger areas the authors use an approach based on calculation of additional aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft encountering wake vortices by means of evaluation of the aircraft additional velocities and angular rates corresponding to distribution of disturbed velocities on the aircraft surface. These criteria could be based on local characteristics of the vorticity areas or on characteristics related to the perturbation effects on the aircraft. The latter characteristics include the actual aerodynamic roll moment, the maximum angular rate or the maximum roll of the aircraft under perturbations in the wake vortices. To estimate the accuracy

  19. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E.S.; Kashevarov, A.V.; Stasenko, A.L. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  20. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E S; Kashevarov, A V; Stasenko, A L [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  1. Determination of Wind Turbine Near-Wake Length Based on Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sarmast, Sasan; Ivanell, Stefan; Henningson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A numerical study on the wake behind a wind turbine is carried out focusing on determining the length of the near-wake based on the instability onset of the trailing tip vortices shed from the turbine blades. The numerical model is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the actuator line (ACL) method. The wake is perturbed by applying stochastic or harmonic excitations in the neighborhood of the tips of the blades. The flow field is then analyzed to obtain the stability properties of the tip vortices in the wake of the wind turbine. As a main outcome of the study it is found that the amplification of specific waves (traveling structures) along the tip vortex spirals is responsible for triggering the instability leading to wake breakdown. The presence of unstable modes in the wake is related to the mutual inductance (vortex pairing) instability where there is an out-of-phase displacement of successive helix turns. Furthermore, using the non-dimensional growth rate, it is found that the pairing instability has a universal growth rate equal to π/2. Using this relationship, and the assumption that breakdown to turbulence occurs once a vortex has experienced sufficient growth, we provide an analytical relationship between the turbulence intensity and the stable wake length. The analysis leads to a simple expression for determining the length of the near wake. This expression shows that the near wake length is inversely proportional to thrust, tip speed ratio and the logarithmic of the turbulence intensity

  2. Cryptanalysis of Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws...

  3. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Vortex diode jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  5. An Organic Vortex Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F

    2018-03-27

    Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.

  6. Wake effects in Alsvik wind park: Comparison between measurements and predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Mikael [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Rados, K.G.; Pothou, K.P. [National Technical Univ., Athen (Greece). Fluid section

    1996-12-01

    In this paper characteristic parameters in a wind turbine wake are studied. The data used are full-scale measurements from a wind farm in Sweden, Alsvik, and results from a numerical model calculated for the same site. The results are valid for neutral stratification. The model employs a particle-vortex approach at the rotor plane, a Navier-Stokes solver in the near wake and applies self preservation in the far wake. The parameters investigated are the relative velocity deficit at centre line and hub height, and the radial distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy. 6 refs, 9 figs

  7. Comparison between PIV measurements and computations of the near-wake of an actuator disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.

    2014-01-01

    on the turbulent structures in the shear layer at the borders of the wake through the analysis of the Reynolds stresses and by employing POD on two separate regions. The analysis shows that the actuator discs fail to capture the details of the complex flow behind a rotor, but that the experimental and numerical...... the complex flow structures correctly, which affects the downstream representation of the full wake behind a real rotor. The near wake region is characterised by the instability and breakdown of the tip-vortex helical system, which constitutes the onset of a stronger mixing process. The comparison focuses...

  8. Effect of incidence angle on the wake turbulence of a turbine rotor blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Il; Lee, Sang Woo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of incidence angle on the wake turbulent flow of a high-turning turbine rotor blade. For three incidence angles of -5, 0 and 5 degrees, energy spectra as well as profiles of mean velocity magnitude and turbulence intensity at mid-span are reported in the wake. Vortex shedding frequencies are obtained from the energy spectra. The result shows that as the incidence angle changes from -5 to 5 degrees, the suction-side wake tends to be widened and the deviation angle is increased. Strouhal numbers based on the shedding frequencies have a nearly constant value, regardless of the tested incidence angles

  9. Analysis of the Induction and Wake Evolution of an Offshore Floating Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lackner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The degrees-of-freedom associated with offshore floating wind turbines (OFWTs result in a more dynamic flow field. The resulting aerodynamic loads may be significantly influenced by these motions via perturbations in the evolving wake. This is of great interest in terms of OFWT design, placement and simulation. This study presents free vortex wake method (FVM simulations of the NREL 5-MW wind turbine of a variety of platforms, operating in a range of wind speeds synthesized platform motion time series. Motion-induced wake perturbations are observed to affect induction. Transitions between windmill and propeller states are also observed.

  10. A potential flow 2-D vortex panel model: Applications to vertical axis straight blade tidal turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.B.; Zhang, L.; Zeng, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    A potential flow 2-D vortex panel model (VPM2D) for unsteady hydrodynamics calculation of the vertical axis straight blade variable pitch turbine was given for tidal streams energy conversion. Numerical results of predicted instantaneous blade forces and wake flow of the rotor showed good agreement with the test data. The model was also compared with the previous classic free vortex model (V-DART) and vortex method combined with finite element analysis (FEVDTM). It showed that the present model was much better than the former, less complex than the latter and suitable for designing and optimization of the vertical axis straight blade turbine

  11. A vortex model for Darrieus turbine using finite element techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, Fernando L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Electrotecnia, Grupo ISEP, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Jacovkis, Pablo M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Dept. de Computacion and Inst. de Calculo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-09-01

    Since 1970 several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus turbine. We can identify two families of models: stream-tube and vortex. The former needs much less computation time but the latter is more accurate. The purpose of this paper is to show a new option for modelling the aerodynamic behaviour of Darrieus turbines. The idea is to combine a classic free vortex model with a finite element analysis of the flow in the surroundings of the blades. This avoids some of the remaining deficiencies in classic vortex models. The agreement between analysis and experiment when predicting instantaneous blade forces and near wake flow behind the rotor is better than the one obtained in previous models. (Author)

  12. Large-eddy simulation of shallow turbulent wakes behind a conical island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouro, Pablo; Wilson, Catherine A. M. E.; Evans, Paul; Angeloudis, Athanasios

    2017-12-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LESs) and experiments were employed to study the influence of water depth on the hydrodynamics in the wake of a conical island for emergent, shallow, and deeply submerged conditions. The Reynolds numbers based on the island's base diameter for these conditions range from 6500 to 8125. LES results from the two shallower conditions were validated against experimental measurements from an open channel flume and captured the characteristic flow structures around the cone, including the attached recirculation region, vortex shedding, and separated shear layers. The wake was impacted by the transition from emergent to shallow submerged flow conditions with more subtle changes in time-averaged velocity and instantaneous flow structures when the submergence increases further. Despite differences in the breakdown of the separated shear layers, vortex shedding, and the upward flow region on the leeward face (once the cone's apex is submerged), similar flow structures to cylinder flow were observed. These include an arch vortex tilted in the downstream direction and von Karman vortices in the far-wake. Spectra of velocity time series and the drag coefficient indicated that the vortex shedding was constrained by the overtopping flow layer, and thus the shedding frequency decreased as the cone's apex became submerged. Finally, the generalised flow structures in the wake of a submerged conical body are outlined.

  13. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...

  14. Three-dimensional wake dynamics of a blunt and divergent trailing edge airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gammal, M. [Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc. (RWDI), Guelph, ON (Canada); Hangan, H. [University of Western Ontario, Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, London, ON (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    The wake dynamics of an airfoil with a blunt and divergent trailing edge is investigated experimentally at relatively high Reynolds. The near wake topology is examined versus different levels of free stream turbulence FST and angles of attack, while the downstream wake evolution is characterized at various levels of FST. The FST is found to have a significant effect on the shapes of turbulence profiles and on the downstream location where the flow reaches its quasi-asymptotic behavior. Streamwise vortices (ribs) corresponding to spanwise variations of turbulence quantities are identified in the near wake region. Simultaneous multi-point hot-wire measurements indicate that their spatial arrangement is similar to Williamson's (Ann Rev Fluid Mech 29:477-539, 1996) mode B laminar wake flow topology. The results suggest that the statistical spanwise distribution of ribs is independent of FST effects and angle of attack as long as the vortex shedding Strouhal number remains approximately similar. (orig.)

  15. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...

  16. Vortex shedding from tandem cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Elhimer, Mehdi; Wang, Longjun; Jacono, David Lo; Wong, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted on the flow around tandem cylinders for ranges of diameter ratio d/ D = 0.25-1.0, spacing ratio L/ d = 5.5-20, and Reynolds number Re = 0.8 × 104-2.42 × 104, where d and D are the diameters of the upstream and downstream cylinders, respectively, L is the distance from the upstream cylinder center to the forward stagnation point of the downstream one. The focus is given on examining the effects of d/ D, L/ d and Re on Strouhal number St, flow structures and fluid forces measured using hotwire, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and load cell measurement techniques, respectively. Changes in d/ D and L/ d in the ranges examined lead to five flow regimes, namely lock-in, intermittent lock-in, no lock-in, subharmonic lock-in and shear-layer reattachment regimes. Time-mean drag coefficient ( C D) and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients ({C^'D} and {C^'L}) are more sensitive to L/ d than d/ D. The scenario is opposite for St where d/ D is more prominent than L/ d to change the St. The detailed facet of the dependence on d/ D and L/ d of C D, {C^'D}, {C^'L} and St is discussed based on shear-layer velocity, approaching velocity, vortex formation length, and wake width.

  17. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  18. SIMULATION OF SHIP GENERATED TURBULENT AND VORTICAL WAKE IMAGING BY SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Aiming; Zhu Minhui

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of ocean surface features is studied. The simulation of the turbulent and vortical features generated by a moving ship and SAR imaging of these wakes is carried out. The turbulent wake damping the ocean surface capillary waves may be partially responsible for the suppression of surface waves near the ship track. The vortex pair generating a change in the lateral flow field behind the ship may be partially responsible for an enhancement of the waves near the edges of the smooth area. These hydrodynamic phenomena as well as the changes of radar backscatter generated by turbulence and vortex are simulated.An SAR imaging model is then used on such ocean surface features to provide SAR images.Comparison of two ships' simulated SAR images shows that the wake features are different for various ship parameters.

  19. The singing vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.

    2015-01-01

    Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147

  20. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....

  1. Experimental observations of the three-dimensional wake structures and dynamics generated by a rigid, bioinspired pitching panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Justin T.; Kumar, Rajeev; Green, Melissa A.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of changing Strouhal number on the three-dimensional wake produced by a rigid, bioinspired trapezoidal pitching panel are analyzed through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry over a Strouhal number range of 0.17-0.56. The results show that for all cases, at least some section of the wake comprises an alternating series of interacting vortex rings. The behavior of the flows induced by these vortex rings is consistent with the wake phenomena of spanwise compression and transverse expansion. Increases in Strouhal number correspond to an increased rate of spanwise compression, a greater amount of transverse expansion, and the movement of the location of wake breakdown onset upstream.

  2. Analysis of Ground-Wind Vortex Sensing System Data from O'Hare International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    From July 1976 through September 1977, aircraft wake vortex data were collected on the approach to runways 14R, 27R, and 32L at O'Hare International Airport. The vortices from over 21,000 aircraft were tracked using the propeller anemometer Ground-Wi...

  3. Estimates of the initial vortex separation distance, bo, of commercial aircraft from pulsed lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    An aircraft in flight generates multiple wake vortices, the largest of which are a result of : the lift on the wings. These vortices rapidly roll up into a counter-rotating vortex pair : behind the aircraft. The initial separation between the centroi...

  4. Vortex methods to answer the need for improved understanding and modelling of tip-loss factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel; Dixon, Kristian; Gaunaa, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Standard blade element momentum (BEM) codes use Prandtl¿s tip-loss correction which relies on simplified vortex theory under the assumption of optimal operating condition and no wake expansion. The various tip-loss functions found in the literature are listed. A simple comparison between them shows...

  5. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of Chemistry on Blunt-Body Wake Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Hassan, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of a numerical study are presented for hypersonic low-density flow about a 70-deg blunt cone using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and Navier-Stokes calculations. Particular emphasis is given to the effects of chemistry on the near-wake structure and on the surface quantities and the comparison of the DSMC results with the Navier-Stokes calculations. The flow conditions simulated are those experienced by a space vehicle at an altitude of 85 km and a velocity of 7 km/s during Earth entry. A steady vortex forms in the near wake for these freestream conditions for both chemically reactive and nonreactive air gas models. The size (axial length) of the vortex for the reactive air calculations is 25% larger than that of the nonreactive air calculations. The forebody surface quantities are less sensitive to the chemistry than the base surface quantities. The presence of the afterbody has no effect on the forebody flow structure or the surface quantities. The comparisons of DSMC and Navier-Stokes calculations show good agreement for the wake structure and the forebody surface quantities.

  7. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcia, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves

  8. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  9. Diffusion in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs

  10. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part I: from the airfoil performance to the very far wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Duponcheel, Matthieu; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Marichal, Yves; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    A vortex particle-mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. Large-eddy simulation (LES) of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) flows is performed. The complex wake development is captured in detail and over up to 15 diameters downstream: from the blades to the near-wake coherent vortices and then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied with respect to the VAWT geometry and its operating point. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics and topological flow features, such as a recirculation region influenced by the tip speed ratio and the rotor geometry.

  12. Measurement of pressure fluctuation in gas-liquid two-phase vortex street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiqiang; Sang Wenhui; Zhang Hongjian

    2009-01-01

    The pressure fluctuation in the wake is an important parameter to characterize the shedding process of gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street. This paper investigated such pressure fluctuations in a horizontal pipe using air and water as the tested fluid media. The dynamic signal representing the pressure fluctuation was acquired by the duct-wall differential pressure method. Results show that in the wake of the gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street, the frequency of the pressure fluctuation is linear with the Reynolds number when the volume void fraction is within the range of 18%. Moreover, the mean amplitude of the pressure fluctuation decreases with the volume void fraction, and the mean amplitude is larger at higher water flowrates under the same volume void fraction. These findings contribute to an in-depth understanding of the gas-liquid two-phase Karman vortex street.

  13. A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.

  14. Wake effects on Middelgrund Windfarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Frandsen, S.; Vølund, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the data analysis of the Middelgrund Wind Farm online collected data with the purpose of calculating the wake effects and turbulence intensities within the wind farm when maximum wake effects are present. The data are compared to themost commonly used wake model PARK...... decreasing wind speed through the array when the wind iscoming from north. The turbulence intensity is enhanced up to 0.3 due to the wake effects. The analysis has shown that this enhancement is nearly independent of the number of turbines involved in the wake creation....

  15. Study on applicability of numerical simulation to evaluation of gas entrainment due to free surface vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    An onset condition of gas entrainment (GE) due to free surface vortex has been studied to establish a design of sodium-cooled fast reactor with a higher coolant velocity than conventional designs. Numerous investigations have been conducted experimentally and theoretically; however, the universal onset condition of the GE has not been determined yet due to the nonlinear characteristics of the GE. Recently, we have been studying numerical simulation methods as a promising method to evaluate GE, instead of the reliable but costly real-scale tests. In this paper, the applicability of the numerical simulation methods to the evaluation of the GE is discussed. For the purpose, a quasi-steady vortex in a cylindrical tank and a wake vortex (unsteady vortex) in a rectangular channel were numerically simulated using the volume-of-fluid type two-phase flow calculation method. The simulated velocity distributions and free surface shapes of the quasi-steady vortex showed good (not perfect, however) agreements with experimental results when a fine mesh subdivision and a high-order discretization scheme were employed. The unsteady behavior of the wake vortex was also simulated with high accuracy. Although the onset condition of the GE was slightly underestimated in the simulation results, the applicability of the numerical simulation methods to the GE evaluation was confirmed. (author)

  16. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  17. Mechanism of transient force augmentation varying with two distinct timescales for interacting vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhidong; Qin, Suyang; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of dual vortex ring flows is studied experimentally and numerically in a model system that consists of a piston-cylinder apparatus. The flows are generated by double identical strokes which have the velocity profile characterized by the sinusoidal function of half the period. By calculating the total wake impulse in two strokes in the experiments, it is found that the average propulsive force increases by 50% in the second stroke for the sufficiently small stroke length, compared with the first stroke. In the numerical simulations, two types of transient force augmentation are revealed, there being the transient force augmentation for the small stroke lengths and the absolute transient force augmentation for the large stroke lengths. The relative transient force augmentation increases to 78% for L/D = 1, while the absolute transient force augmentation for L/D = 4 is twice as much as that for L/D = 1. Further investigation demonstrates that the force augmentation is attributed to the interaction between vortex rings, which induces transport of vortex impulse and more evident fluid entrainment. The critical situation of vortex ring separation is defined and indicated, with vortex spacing falling in a narrow gap when the stroke lengths vary. A new model is proposed concerning the limiting process of impulse, further suggesting that apart from vortex formation timescale, vortex spacing should be interpreted as an independent timescale to reflect the dynamics of vortex interaction.

  18. Vorticity and vortex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, M-D

    2006-01-01

    The importance of vorticity and vortex dynamics has now been well rec- nized at both fundamental and applied levels of ?uid dynamics, as already anticipatedbyTruesdellhalfcenturyagowhenhewrotethe?rstmonograph onthesubject, The Kinematics of Vorticity(1954);andasalsoevidencedby the appearance of several books on this ?eld in 1990s. The present book is characterizedbythefollowingfeatures: 1. A basic physical guide throughout the book. The material is directed by a basic observation on the splitting and coupling of two fundamental processes in ?uid motion, i.e., shearing (unique to ?uid) and compre- ing/expanding.Thevorticityplaysakeyroleintheformer,andavortex isnothingbuta?uidbodywithhighconcentrationofvorticitycompared to its surrounding ?uid. Thus, the vorticity and vortex dynamics is - cordinglyde?nedasthetheoryofshearingprocessanditscouplingwith compressing/expandingprocess. 2. A description of the vortex evolution following its entire life.Thisbegins from the generation of vorticity to the formation of thi...

  19. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  20. Wake field acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs

  1. About the effects of an oscillating miniflap upon the wake on an airfoil, all immersed in turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delnero, J S; Marañón Di Leo, J; Colman, J; Camocardi, M; García Sainz, M; Muñoz, F

    2011-01-01

    The present research analyzes the asymmetry in the rolling up shear layers behind the blunt trailing edge of an airfoil 4412 with a miniflap acting as active flow control device and its wake organization. Experimental investigations relating the asymmetry of the vortex flow in the near wake region, able to distort the flow increasing the downwash of an airfoil, have been performed. All of these in a free upstream turbulent flow (1.8% intensity). We examine the near wake region characteristics of a wing model with a 4412 airfoil without and with a rotating miniflap located on the lower surface, near the trailing edge. The flow in the near wake, for 3 x-positions (along chord line) and 20 vertical points in each x-position, was explored, for three different rotating frequencies, in order to identify signs of asymmetry of the initial counter rotating vortex structures. Experimental evidence is presented showing that for typical lifting conditions the shear layer rollup process within the near wake is different for the upper and lower vortices: the shear layer separating from the pressure side of the airfoil begins its rollup immediately behind the trailing edge, creating a stronger vortex while the shear layer from the suction side begins its rollup more downstream creating a weaker vortex. The experimental data were processed by classical statistics methods. Aspects of a mechanism connecting the different evolution and pattern of these initial vortex structures with lift changes and wake alleviating processes, due to these miniflaps, will be studied in future works.

  2. About the effects of an oscillating miniflap upon the wake on an airfoil, all immersed in turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnero, J S; Maranon Di Leo, J; Colman, J; Camocardi, M; Garcia Sainz, M; Munoz, F, E-mail: delnero@ing.unlp.edu.ar [LaCLyFA, Departamento Aeronautica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-12-22

    The present research analyzes the asymmetry in the rolling up shear layers behind the blunt trailing edge of an airfoil 4412 with a miniflap acting as active flow control device and its wake organization. Experimental investigations relating the asymmetry of the vortex flow in the near wake region, able to distort the flow increasing the downwash of an airfoil, have been performed. All of these in a free upstream turbulent flow (1.8% intensity). We examine the near wake region characteristics of a wing model with a 4412 airfoil without and with a rotating miniflap located on the lower surface, near the trailing edge. The flow in the near wake, for 3 x-positions (along chord line) and 20 vertical points in each x-position, was explored, for three different rotating frequencies, in order to identify signs of asymmetry of the initial counter rotating vortex structures. Experimental evidence is presented showing that for typical lifting conditions the shear layer rollup process within the near wake is different for the upper and lower vortices: the shear layer separating from the pressure side of the airfoil begins its rollup immediately behind the trailing edge, creating a stronger vortex while the shear layer from the suction side begins its rollup more downstream creating a weaker vortex. The experimental data were processed by classical statistics methods. Aspects of a mechanism connecting the different evolution and pattern of these initial vortex structures with lift changes and wake alleviating processes, due to these miniflaps, will be studied in future works.

  3. Electric vortex in MHD flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low β flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion

  4. Intracavity vortex beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Aït-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring this OAM to matter and to be used in quantum information processing. We explore an extra-cavity and intra-cavity approach in LG0l mode generation respectively. The outputs of a Porro-prism resonator are represented by "petals" and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the "petal" fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes.

  5. Investigating wake patterns and propulsive frequencies of a flat plate under pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubogha Moubogha, Joseph; Astolfi, Jacques Andre

    Fundamental mechanisms of swimming are explored using a simple geometry device - flat plate - in pure-pitching motion in a hydrodynamic tunnel. The experiments are carried out at different Reynolds numbers based on the plate length c. Pitching motion is generated for reduced frequencies k between 0 and 2 and for an angular amplitude of 10 deg. Velocity fields are obtained in the wake of the plate using Particle Image Velocimetry and measurements of drag coefficients are estimated from mean velocity profiles. This study confirms the occurrence of a threshold oscillation frequency beyond which the plate enters a propulsive regime and the wake features organized structures. In this case an inversion of the typical Karman vortex street is observed. The evolution of mean transverse velocity profiles in the wake of the plate shows that the usual wake profile with velocity deficit - plate with drag - can be transformed into a jet - plate with thrust - above a certain reduced frequency. Phd Student Mechanical Engineering Departement.

  6. PIV measurements in the near wakes of hollow cylinders with holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Erhan; Ozkan, Gokturk M.; Akilli, Huseyin

    2017-05-01

    The wake flows behind fixed, hollow, rigid circular cylinders with two rows of holes connecting the front and rear stagnation lines were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for various combinations of three hole diameters, d = 0.1 D, 0.15 D, and 0.20 D, six hole-to-hole distances, l = 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, 6 d, and 7 d, and ten angles of incidence ( α), from 0° to 45° in steps of 5°, at a Reynolds number of Re = 6,900. Time-averaged velocity distributions, instantaneous and time-averaged vorticity patterns, time-averaged streamline topology, and hot spots of turbulent kinetic energy occurred through the interaction of shear layers from the models were presented to show how the wake flow was modified by the presence of the self-issuing jets with various momentums emanating from the downstream holes. In general, as hole diameter which is directly related to jet momentum increased, the values of time-averaged wake characteristics (length of time-averaged recirculation region, vortex formation length, length of shear layers, and gap between the shear layers) increased. Irrespective to d and l tested, the values of the vortex formation length of the models are greater than that of the cylinder without hole (reference model). That is, vortex formation process was shifted downstream by aid of jets. It was found that time-averaged wake characteristics were very sensitive to α. As α increased, the variation of these characteristics can be modeled by exponential decay functions. The effect of l on the three-dimensional vortex shedding patterns in the near wake of the models was also discussed.

  7. Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey

  8. Learning to classify wakes from local sensory information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalman, Mohamad; Colvert, Brendan; Kanso, Eva; Kanso Team

    2017-11-01

    Aquatic organisms exhibit remarkable abilities to sense local flow signals contained in their fluid environment and to surmise the origins of these flows. For example, fish can discern the information contained in various flow structures and utilize this information for obstacle avoidance and prey tracking. Flow structures created by flapping and swimming bodies are well characterized in the fluid dynamics literature; however, such characterization relies on classical methods that use an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. The reconstructed flows, or wakes, are then classified according to the unsteady vortex patterns. Here, we propose a new approach for wake identification: we classify the wakes resulting from a flapping airfoil by applying machine learning algorithms to local flow information. In particular, we simulate the wakes of an oscillating airfoil in an incoming flow, extract the downstream vorticity information, and train a classifier to learn the different flow structures and classify new ones. This data-driven approach provides a promising framework for underwater navigation and detection in application to autonomous bio-inspired vehicles.

  9. Training warning flags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Problems in accredited training programmes at US nuclear stations have resulted in several programmes having their accreditation status designated as probationary. A limited probationary period allows time for problem resolution before the programmes are again reviewed by the National Nuclear Accrediting Board. A careful study of these problems has resulted in the identification of several 'Training Warning Flags' that singularly, or in concert, may indicate or predict degraded training programme effectiveness. These training warning flags have been used by several US nuclear stations as a framework for self-assessments, as a reference in making changes to training programmes, and as a tool in considering student and management feedback on training activities. Further analysis and consideration of the training warning flags has developed precursors for each of the training warning flags. Although more subjective than the training warning flags, the precursors may represent early indicators of factors that may lead to or contribute to degraded training programme effectiveness. Used as evaluative tools, the training warning flags and the precursors may help identify areas for improvements in training programmes and help prioritize training programme improvement efforts. (author)

  10. Effect of instability of vortex streets behind circular cylinder on lock-in oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaya Kondo

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The effects of the instability of vortex streets formed in the wakes of a circular cylinder on lock-in oscillation was investigated using a splitter plate and a phase-estimation methodology. The lock-in oscillation at the reduced velocity of 2.5 ≤ Vr < ∼ 3.5 is a self excited oscillation with alternate vortices. The amplitude of the lock-in oscillation is changed with the reduced velocity, although the oscillation frequency and the external force frequency caused by vortices is insensitive to the reduced velocity. Author reported that the amplitude changed with the energy input, which changed with the relationship between the phase of the external force and the phase of the cylinder displacement. The report suggested that the timing of the vortices shedding would change with the reduced velocity. The reason of the timing change, however, has not been clarified yet. This paper presents an explanation of the timing change using the instability of the vortex streets formed in the wake. The distance with a next vortex in a vortex street behind a cylinder at the lock-in condition changes with reduced velocity. On the assumption that the distance between two vortex streets formed in a wake of the cylinder is a constant, only one reduced velocity satisfied the stable condition called 'Karman Vortex Street'. It means that two vortex streets formed at the lock-in condition would be instable essentially, and the vortices would interact each other to form the stable condition. The interaction among the vortices would affect not only for the shed vortices in the wake but also for the growing-up vortex on the cylinder surface. Therefore, the instability of the vortex streets would affect the timing of the vortices shedding. A flow-induced oscillation test using a circular cylinder with a splitter plate was performed to confirm such an instability. The splitter plate was installed in the far wake of the cylinder to terminate the interaction

  11. PIV and LDA measurements of the wake behind a wind turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, R. F.; Okulov, V. L.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2014-06-01

    In the present work we review the results of a series of measurements of the flow behind a model scale of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor carried out at the water flume at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert theory for tip speed ratio λ =5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CLdesign= 0.8. The measurements include dye visualization, Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry. The wake instability has been studied in the range λ =3 - 9 at different cross-sections from the very near wake up to 10 rotor diameters downstream from the rotor. The initial flume flow was subject to a very low turbulence level with a uniform velocity profile, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent vortex instability. Using PIV measurements and visualizations, special attention was paid to detect and categorize different types of wake instabilities and the development of the flow in the near and the far wake. In parallel to PIV, LDA measurements provided data for various rotor regimes, revealing the existence of three main regular frequencies governing the development of different processes and instabilities in the rotor wake. In the far wake a constant frequency corresponding to the Strouhal number was found for the long-scale instabilities. This Strouhal number is in good agreement with the well-known constant that usually characterizes the oscillation in wakes behind bluff bodies. From associated visualizations and reconstructions of the flow field, it was found that the dynamics of the far wake is associated with the precession (rotation) of a helical vortex core. The data indicate that Strouhal number of this precession is independent of the rotor angular speed.

  12. PIV and LDA measurements of the wake behind a wind turbine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, I V; Okulov, V L; Mikkelsen, R F; Sørensen, J N

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we review the results of a series of measurements of the flow behind a model scale of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor carried out at the water flume at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The rotor is three-bladed and designed using Glauert theory for tip speed ratio λ =5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, C Ldesign = 0.8. The measurements include dye visualization, Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry. The wake instability has been studied in the range λ =3 – 9 at different cross-sections from the very near wake up to 10 rotor diameters downstream from the rotor. The initial flume flow was subject to a very low turbulence level with a uniform velocity profile, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent vortex instability. Using PIV measurements and visualizations, special attention was paid to detect and categorize different types of wake instabilities and the development of the flow in the near and the far wake. In parallel to PIV, LDA measurements provided data for various rotor regimes, revealing the existence of three main regular frequencies governing the development of different processes and instabilities in the rotor wake. In the far wake a constant frequency corresponding to the Strouhal number was found for the long-scale instabilities. This Strouhal number is in good agreement with the well-known constant that usually characterizes the oscillation in wakes behind bluff bodies. From associated visualizations and reconstructions of the flow field, it was found that the dynamics of the far wake is associated with the precession (rotation) of a helical vortex core. The data indicate that Strouhal number of this precession is independent of the rotor angular speed

  13. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  14. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-01-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…

  15. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M., E-mail: ymjin@mtu.edu

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.

  16. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  17. 3D Lagrangian VPM : Simulations of the near-wake of an actuator disc and horizontal axis wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdowski, T.J.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Walther, J.

    2016-01-01

    The application of a 3-dimensional Lagrangian vortex particle method has been assessed for modelling the near-wake of an axisymmetrical actuator disc and 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with prescribed circulation from the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In COntrolled conditions) experiment. The

  18. 3D Lagrangian VPM: simulations of the near-wake of an actuator disc and horizontal axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdowski, T.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The application of a 3-dimensional Lagrangian vortex particle method has beenassessed for modelling the near-wake of an axisymmetrical actuator disc and 3-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine with prescribed circulation from the MEXICO (Model EXperiments InCOntrolled conditions) experiment...

  19. Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1994-05-01

    It is shown that an intense short laser pulse propagating through a semiconductor plasma will generated longitudinal Langmuir waves in its wake. The measurable wake field can be used as a diagnostic to study nonlinear optical phenomena. For narrow gap semiconductors (for examples InSb) with Kane-type dispersion relation, the system can simulate, at currently available laser powers, the physics underlying wake-field accelerators. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  20. Mind the gap - tip leakage vortex in axial turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, M; Farhat, M; Decaix, J; Münch-Alligné, C

    2014-01-01

    The tendency of designing large Kaplan turbines with a continuous increase of output power is bringing to the front the cavitation erosion issue. Due to the flow in the gap between the runner and the discharge ring, axial turbine blades may develop the so called tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavitation with negative consequences. Such vortices may interact strongly with the wake of guide vanes leading to their multiple collapses and rebounds. If the vortex trajectory remains close to the blade tip, these collapses may lead to severe erosion. One is still unable today to predict its occurrence and development in axial turbines with acceptable accuracy. Numerical flow simulations as well as the actual scale-up rules from small to large scales are unreliable. The present work addresses this problematic in a simplified case study representing TLV cavitation to better understand its sensitivity to the gap width. A Naca0009 hydrofoil is used as a generic blade in the test section of EPFL cavitation tunnel. A sliding mounting support allowing an adjustable gap between the blade tip and wall was manufactured. The vortex trajectory is visualized with a high speed camera and appropriate lighting. The three dimensional velocity field induced by the TLV is investigated using stereo particle image velocimetry. We have taken into account the vortex wandering in the image processing to obtain accurate measurements of the vortex properties. The measurements were performed in three planes located downstream of the hydrofoil for different values of the flow velocity, the incidence angle and the gap width. The results clearly reveal a strong influence of the gap width on both trajectory and intensity of the tip leakage vortex

  1. Mind the gap - tip leakage vortex in axial turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, M.; Decaix, J.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Farhat, M.

    2014-03-01

    The tendency of designing large Kaplan turbines with a continuous increase of output power is bringing to the front the cavitation erosion issue. Due to the flow in the gap between the runner and the discharge ring, axial turbine blades may develop the so called tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavitation with negative consequences. Such vortices may interact strongly with the wake of guide vanes leading to their multiple collapses and rebounds. If the vortex trajectory remains close to the blade tip, these collapses may lead to severe erosion. One is still unable today to predict its occurrence and development in axial turbines with acceptable accuracy. Numerical flow simulations as well as the actual scale-up rules from small to large scales are unreliable. The present work addresses this problematic in a simplified case study representing TLV cavitation to better understand its sensitivity to the gap width. A Naca0009 hydrofoil is used as a generic blade in the test section of EPFL cavitation tunnel. A sliding mounting support allowing an adjustable gap between the blade tip and wall was manufactured. The vortex trajectory is visualized with a high speed camera and appropriate lighting. The three dimensional velocity field induced by the TLV is investigated using stereo particle image velocimetry. We have taken into account the vortex wandering in the image processing to obtain accurate measurements of the vortex properties. The measurements were performed in three planes located downstream of the hydrofoil for different values of the flow velocity, the incidence angle and the gap width. The results clearly reveal a strong influence of the gap width on both trajectory and intensity of the tip leakage vortex.

  2. Electron-Cloud Wake Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    The electron cloud gives rise to coherent and incoherent single-bunch wake fields, both in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction, and to coherent coupled-bunch wakes. These wake fields can be computed using the simulation programs ECLOUD and HEADTAIL developed at CERN. We present the wake fields simulated for the LHC beam in the CERN SPS and at injection into the LHC in different magnetic field configurations (field-free region, dipole, and solenoid), where the magnetic field affects both the elec-tron motion during a bunch passage and the overall electron distribution in the beam pipe.

  3. PIV and LDA measurements of the wake behind a wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Okulov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    =5 with a constant design lift coefficient along the span, CLdesign= 0.8. The measurements include dye visualization, Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry. The wake instability has been studied in the range λ =3 – 9 at different cross-sections from the very near wake up to 10 rotor...... diameters downstream from the rotor. The initial flume flow was subject to a very low turbulence level with a uniform velocity profile, limiting the influence of external disturbances on the development of the inherent vortex instability. Using PIV measurements and visualizations, special attention was paid...

  4. Passive scalar transport mediated by laminar vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, R H; Rodríguez, G, E-mail: rohernan@ing.uchile.cl [LEAF-NL, Depto. Ingeniería Civil Mecánica, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 2777, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-04-15

    Numerical simulations were used to study the dynamics of a passive conserved scalar quantity entrained by a self-propelling viscous vortex ring. The transport and mixing process of the passive scalar variable were studied considering two initial scalar distributions: (i) The scalar substance was introduced into the ring during its formation, further focusing in the shedding into the wake of the ring; (ii) A disk-like scalar layer was placed in the ring’s path where the entrainment of the scalar substance into the ring bubble was studied as a function of the ring strength. In both cases, the scalar concentration inside the vortex bubble exhibits a steady decay with time. In the second case, it was shown that the entrained scalar mass grows with both the Reynolds number of the ring and the thickness of the scalar layer in the propagation direction. The ring can be viewed as a mechanism for scalar transportation along important distances. (paper)

  5. Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.

  6. Unsteady aerodynamics and vortex-sheet formation of a two-dimensional airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.

    2017-11-01

    Unsteady inviscid flow models of wings and airfoils have been developed to study the aerodynamics of natural and man-made flyers. Vortex methods have been extensively applied to reduce the dimensionality of these aerodynamic models, based on the proper estimation of the strength and distribution of the vortices in the wake. In such modeling approaches, one of the most fundamental questions is how the vortex sheets are generated and released from sharp edges. To determine the formation of the trailing-edge vortex sheet, the classical Kutta condition can be extended to unsteady situations by realizing that a flow cannot turn abruptly around a sharp edge. This condition can be readily applied to a flat plate or an airfoil with cusped trailing edge since the direction of the forming vortex sheet is known to be tangential to the trailing edge. However, for a finite-angle trailing edge, or in the case of flow separation away from a sharp corner, the direction of the forming vortex sheet is ambiguous. To remove any ad-hoc implementation, the unsteady Kutta condition, the conservation of circulation, as well as the conservation laws of mass and momentum are coupled to analytically solve for the angle, strength, and relative velocity of the trailing-edge vortex sheet. The two-dimensional aerodynamic model together with the proposed vortex-sheet formation condition is verified by comparing flow structures and force calculations with experimental results for airfoils in steady and unsteady background flows.

  7. Improvements in ECN Wake Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.

  8. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  9. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  10. Characterisation of the Interaction between Toroidal Vortex Structures and Flame Front Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E J; Hargrave, G K; Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Halliwell, N

    2006-01-01

    Experimental laser diagnostic data is presented for flame characterisation during interactions with toroidal vortices generated in the wake of an annular obstacle. A novel twin section combustion chamber has been utilised to allow the controlled formation of stable eddy structures into which a flame front can propagate. High speed laser sheet visualisation was employed to record the flow field and flame front temporal development and high-speed digital particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the velocity field of the unburnt mixture ahead of the flame front. Results provide characterisation of the toroidal vortex/flame front interaction for a range of vortex scales of and recirculation strengths

  11. Characterisation of the Interaction between Toroidal Vortex Structures and Flame Front Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, E J; Hargrave, G K; Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Halliwell, N [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Experimental laser diagnostic data is presented for flame characterisation during interactions with toroidal vortices generated in the wake of an annular obstacle. A novel twin section combustion chamber has been utilised to allow the controlled formation of stable eddy structures into which a flame front can propagate. High speed laser sheet visualisation was employed to record the flow field and flame front temporal development and high-speed digital particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the velocity field of the unburnt mixture ahead of the flame front. Results provide characterisation of the toroidal vortex/flame front interaction for a range of vortex scales of and recirculation strengths.

  12. Characterisation of the Interaction between Toroidal Vortex Structures and Flame Front Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. J.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Justham, T.; Halliwell, N.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental laser diagnostic data is presented for flame characterisation during interactions with toroidal vortices generated in the wake of an annular obstacle. A novel twin section combustion chamber has been utilised to allow the controlled formation of stable eddy structures into which a flame front can propagate. High speed laser sheet visualisation was employed to record the flow field and flame front temporal development and high-speed digital particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the velocity field of the unburnt mixture ahead of the flame front. Results provide characterisation of the toroidal vortex/flame front interaction for a range of vortex scales of and recirculation strengths.

  13. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  14. Soliton on thin vortex filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kimiaki; Mituhashi, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Y.H.

    1990-12-01

    Showing that one of the equations found by Wadati, Konno and Ichikawa is equivalent to the equation of motion of a thin vortex filament, we investigate solitons on the vortex filament. N vortex soliton solution is given in terms of the inverse scattering method. We examine two soliton collision processes on the filament. Our analysis provides the theoretical foundation of two soliton collision processes observed numerically by Aref and Flinchem. (author)

  15. Flow Past a Circular Cylinder with a Permeable Wake Splitter Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    still further, vortex formation does not occur within the region imaged in the photographs, and the wake boundaries show small-scale irregularity with...severed from the earth, spectral above a scene of im- mense yet circumscribed desolation filled with the voice of the waste and mournful water." William...34formation length" was not used there), or as being "marked by the sudden reduction of the low frequency irregularities always observed in the formation

  16. A regular Strouhal number for large-scale instability in the far wake of a rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The flow behind a model of a wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The study performed involves a three-bladed wind turbine rotor designed using the optimization technique of Glauert (Aerodynamic...... visualizations and a reconstruction of the flow field using LDA and PIV measurements it is found that the wake dynamics is associated with a precession (rotation) of the helical vortex core....

  17. Effect of longitudinal and transverse vibrations of an upstream square cylinder on vortex shedding behind two inline square cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Pratish P; Tiwari, Shaligram

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of unsteady wakes behind a stationary square cylinder and another upstream vibrating square cylinder have been investigated numerically with the help of a developed computational code. The effect of longitudinal as well as transverse vibrations of the upstream cylinder is studied on the coupled wake between the two cylinders, which is found to control the vortex shedding behavior behind the downstream stationary cylinder. Computations are carried out for a fixed value of Reynolds number (Re = 200) and three different values of excitation frequencies of the upstream cylinder, namely less than, equal to and greater than the natural frequency of vortex shedding corresponding to flow past a stationary square cylinder. The vortex shedding characteristics of the unsteady wakes behind the vibrating and stationary cylinders are found to differ significantly for longitudinal and transverse modes of vibration of the upstream cylinder. The wake of the downstream stationary cylinder is found to depict a synchronization behavior with the upstream cylinder vibration. The spacing between the two cylinders has been identified to be the key parameter influencing the synchronization phenomenon. The effect of cylinder spacing on the wake synchronization and the hydrodynamic forces has been examined. In addition, a comparison of the drag forces for flow past transversely vibrating square and circular cylinders for similar amplitudes and frequencies of cylinder vibration has been presented while employing the tested computational code.

  18. Impact of a wind turbine on turbulence: Un-freezing turbulence by means of a simple vortex particle approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Mercier, P.; Machefaux, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    by a bound vorticity lifting line while the turbine wake vorticity and the turbulence vorticity are projected onto vortex particles. In the present work the rotor blades are stiff leaving aero-elastic interactions for future work. Inflow turbulence is generated with the model of Mann and converted to vortex......? Is it acceptable to neglect the influence of the wake and the wind turbine on the turbulent inflow? Is there evidence to justify the extra cost of a method capable of including these effects correctly? To this end, a unified vorticity representation of the flow is used: the wind turbine model is represented......A vortex particle representation of turbulent fields is devised in order to address the following questions: Does a wind turbine affect the statistics of the incoming turbulence? Should this imply a change in the way turbulence boxes are used in wind turbine aero-elastic simulations...

  19. Hybrid vortex simulations of wind turbines using a three-dimensional viscous-inviscid panel method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos García, Néstor; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    adirect calculation, whereas the contribution from the large downstream wake is calculated using a mesh-based method. Thehybrid method is first validated in detail against the well-known MEXICO experiment, using the direct filament method asa comparison. The second part of the validation includes a study......A hybrid filament-mesh vortex method is proposed and validated to predict the aerodynamic performance of wind turbinerotors and to simulate the resulting wake. Its novelty consists of using a hybrid method to accurately simulate the wakedownstream of the wind turbine while reducing...

  20. On the unsteady wake dynamics behind a circular disk using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianzhi; Liu, Minghou; Gu, Hailin; Yao, Mengyun [Department of Thermal Science and Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wu, Guang, E-mail: mhliu@ustc.edu.cn [Technical Services Engineer, ANSYS, Inc (United States)

    2017-02-15

    In the present work, the wakes behind a circular disk at various transitional regimes are numerically explored using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The Reynolds numbers considered in this study (Re = 152, 170, 300 and 3000) cover four transitional states, i.e. the reflectional-symmetry-breaking (RSB) mode, the standing wave (SW) mode, a weakly chaotic state, and a higher-Reynolds-number state. Through analysis of the spatial POD modes at different wake states, it is found that a planar-symmetric vortex shedding mode characterized by the first mode pair is persistent in all the states. When the wake develops into a weakly chaotic state, a new vortex shedding mode characterized by the second mode pair begins to appear and completely forms at the higher-Reynolds-number state of Re = 3000, i.e. planar-symmetry-breaking vortex shedding mode. On the other hand, the coherent structure at Re = 3000 extracted from the first two POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the SW mode, while the coherent structure reconstructed from the first four POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the RSB mode. The present results indicate that the dynamics or flow instabilities observed at transitional RSB and SW modes are still preserved in a higher-Reynolds-number regime. (paper)

  1. A Free Wake Numerical Simulation for Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, Radian

    2010-11-01

    In the last four decades, several aerodynamic prediction models have been formulated for the Darrieus wind turbine performances and characteristics. We can identified two families: stream-tube and vortex. The paper presents a simplified numerical techniques for simulating vertical axis wind turbine flow, based on the lifting line theory and a free vortex wake model, including dynamic stall effects for predicting the performances of a 3-D vertical axis wind turbine. A vortex model is used in which the wake is composed of trailing stream-wise and shedding span-wise vortices, whose strengths are equal to the change in the bound vortex strength as required by the Helmholz and Kelvin theorems. Performance parameters are computed by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Jukowski theorem and a semi-empirical stall model. We tested the developed model with an adaptation of the earlier multiple stream-tube performance prediction model for the Darrieus turbines. Predictions by using our method are shown to compare favorably with existing experimental data and the outputs of other numerical models. The method can predict accurately the local and global performances of a vertical axis wind turbine, and can be used in the design and optimization of wind turbines for built environment applications.

  2. Heat transfer in a two-pass internally ribbed turbine blade coolant channel with cylindrical vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, R.; Chen, Y.; Nikitopoulos, D. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The effect of vortex generators on the mass (heat) transfer from the ribbed passage of a two pass turbine blade coolant channel is investigated with the intent of optimizing the vortex generator geometry so that significant enhancements in mass/heat transfer can be achieved. In the experimental configuration considered, ribs are mounted on two opposite walls; all four walls along each pass are active and have mass transfer from their surfaces but the ribs are non-participating. Mass transfer measurements, in the form of Sherwood number ratios, are made along the centerline and in selected inter-rib modules. Results are presented for Reynolds number in the range of 5,000 to 40,000, pitch to rib height ratios of 10.5 and 21, and vortex generator-rib spacing to rib height ratios of 0.55, and 1.5. Centerline and spanwise averaged Sherwood number ratios are presented along with contours of the Sherwood number ratios. Results indicate that the vortex generators induce substantial increases in the local mass transfer rates, particularly along the side walls, and modest increases in the average mass transfer rates. The vortex generators have the effect of making the inter-rib profiles along the ribbed walls more uniform. Along the side walls, horse-shoe vortices that characterize the vortex generator wake are associated with significant mass transfer enhancements. The wake effects and the levels of enhancement decrease somewhat with increasing Reynolds number and decreasing pitch.

  3. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    . We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than...

  4. The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.

    2014-01-01

    Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…

  5. Vortex lattices in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1995-01-01

    We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear

  6. Magnetic vortex filament flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those

  7. Effect of chord-to-diameter ratio on vertical-axis wind turbine wake development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Araya, Daniel B.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2017-12-01

    The wake structure of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is strongly dependent on the tip-speed ratio, λ, or the tangential speed of the turbine blade relative to the incoming wind speed. The geometry of a turbine can influence λ, but the precise relationship among VAWT geometric parameters and VAWT wake characteristics remains unknown. To investigate this relationship, we present the results of an experiment to characterize the wakes of three VAWTs that are geometrically similar except for the ratio of the turbine diameter ( D), to blade chord ( c), which was chosen to be D/c = 3, 6, and 9. For a fixed freestream Reynolds number based on the blade chord of Re_c = 1.6× 10^3, both two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) and single-component hot-wire anemometer measurements are taken at the horizontal mid-plane in the wake of each turbine. PIV measurements are ensemble averaged in time and phase averaged with each rotation of the turbine. Hot-wire measurement points are selected to coincide with the edge of the shear layer of each turbine wake, as deduced from the PIV data, which allows for an analysis of the frequency content of the wake due to vortex shedding by the turbine.

  8. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Separated and Vortex Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Goldstein

    2004-05-27

    This document summarizes the research performance done at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the University of Minnesota on heat transfer and energy separation in separated and vortex flow supported by DOE in the period September 1, 1998--August 31, 2003. Unsteady and complicated flow structures in separated or vortex flows are the main reason for a poor understanding of heat transfer under such conditions. The research from the University of Minnesota focused on the following important aspects of understanding such flows: (1) Heat/mass transfer from a circular cylinder; (2) study of energy separation and heat transfer in free jet flows and shear layers; and (3) study of energy separation on the surface and in the wake of a cylinder in crossflow. The current study used three different experimental setups to accomplish these goals. A wind tunnel and a liquid tunnel using water and mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, is used for the study of prandtl number effect with uniform heat flux from the circular cylinder. A high velocity air jet is used to study energy separation in free jets. A high speed wind tunnel, same as used for the first part, is utilized for energy separation effects on the surface and in the wake of the circular cylinder. The final outcome of this study is a substantial advancement in this research area.

  9. Structure of a swirling jet with vortex breakdown and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental investigation is performed in order to compare the time-averaged spatial structure of low- and high-swirl turbulent premixed lean flames by using the particle image velocimetry and spontaneous Raman scattering techniques. Distributions of the time-average velocity, density and concentration of the main components of the gas mixture are measured for turbulent premixed swirling propane/air flames at atmospheric pressure for the equivalence ratio Φ = 0.7 and Reynolds number Re = 5000 for low- and high-swirl reacting jets. For the low-swirl jet (S = 0.41), the local minimum of the axial mean velocity is observed within the jet center. The positive value of the mean axial velocity indicates the absence of a permanent recirculation zone, and no clear vortex breakdown could be determined from the average velocity field. For the high-swirl jet (S = 1.0), a pronounced vortex breakdown took place with a bubble-type central recirculation zone. In both cases, the flames are stabilized in the inner mixing layer of the jet around the central wake, containing hot combustion products. O2 and CO2 concentrations in the wake of the low-swirl jet are found to be approximately two times smaller and greater than those in the recirculation zone of the high-swirl jet, respectively.

  10. Decreasing vortex flux in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow

  11. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  12. Wake Characteristics of a Flapping Wing Optimized for both Aerial and Aquatic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Kotidis, Miranda; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Multiple aquatic bird species (including murres, puffins, and other auks) employ a single actuator to propel themselves in two different fluid media: both flying and swimming using primarily their flapping wings. This impressive design compromise could be adopted by engineered implementations of dual aerial/aquatic robotic platforms, as it offers an existence proof for favorable flow physics. We discuss one realization of a 3D flapping wing actuation system for use in both air and water. The wing oscillates by the root and employs an active in-line motion degree-of-freedom. An experiment-coupled optimization routine generates the wing trajectories, controlling the unsteady forces throughout each flapping cycle. We elucidate the wakes of these wing trajectories using dye visualization, correlating the wake vortex structures with simultaneous force measurements. After optimization, the wing generates the large force envelope necessary for propulsion in both fluid media, and furthermore, demonstrate improved control over the unsteady wake.

  13. Investigation on the wake evolution of contra-rotating propeller using RANS computation and SPIV measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wake characteristics of Contra-Rotating Propeller (CRP were investigated using numerical simulation and flow measurement. The numerical simulation was carried out with a commercial CFD code based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations solver, and the flow measurement was performed with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV system. The simulation results were validated through the comparison with the experiment results measured around the leading edge of rudder to investigate the effect of propeller operation under the conditions without propeller, with forward propeller alone, and with both forward and aft propellers. The evolution of CRP wake was analyzed through velocity and vorticity contours on three transverse planes and one longitudinal plane based on CFD results. The trajectories of propeller tip vortex core in the cases with and without aft propeller were also compared, and larger wake contraction with CRP was confirmed.

  14. Flows about a rotating circular cylinder by the discrete-vortex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takeyoshi; Tsutahara, Michihisa

    1987-01-01

    A numerical study has been conducted for flows past a rotating circular cylinder at high Reynolds numbers, using the discrete-vortex method. It is noted that the reverse Magnus effect is caused by the retreat of the separation point on the acceleration side. At high rotating speed, the nascent vortices of opposite directions are mixed faster, the wake becomes narrower, and predominating frequencies in the lift force disappear.

  15. Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake paramet...

  16. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  17. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  18. Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Charles H

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...

  19. Wake Shield Target Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed

  20. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  1. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  2. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  3. A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....

  4. Vortex-vortex interactions in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, T.; Santos, L.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the vortex dynamics and vortex-vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in toroidal traps. We show that this particular geometry strongly distorts the vortex dynamics. The numerically calculated vortex trajectories are well explained by an analytical calculation based on image method and conformal mapping. Finally, the dissipation effects are discussed.

  5. Superposition of vortex cylinders for steady and unsteady simulation of rotors of finite tip-speed ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Gaunaa, Mac

    2015-01-01

    coefficient obtained with this model for the constant circulation rotor is assessed and compared with that of existing solutions. Results from prescribed thrust distributions are compared with that of actuator disk simulations. Steady simulations are performed to compare with the BEM algorithm. The model......Joukowski introduced in 1912 a helical vortex model to represent the vorticity of a rotor and its wake. For an infinite number of blades but finite tip-speed ratio, the model consists of a vortex cylinder of longitudinal and tangential vorticity, a root vortex and a bound vortex disk...... is also applied to compute the velocity field in the entire domain and perform unsteady simulations. Results for an unsteady simulation corresponding to a pitch change of the rotor is used to compare the model with measurements and a BEM code with a dynamic inflow model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons...

  6. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  7. An immersed interface vortex particle-mesh solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Yves; Chatelain, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2014-11-01

    An immersed interface-enabled vortex particle-mesh (VPM) solver is presented for the simulation of 2-D incompressible viscous flows, in the framework of external aerodynamics. Considering the simulation of free vortical flows, such as wakes and jets, vortex particle-mesh methods already provide a valuable alternative to standard CFD methods, thanks to the interesting numerical properties arising from its Lagrangian nature. Yet, accounting for solid bodies remains challenging, despite the extensive research efforts that have been made for several decades. The present immersed interface approach aims at improving the consistency and the accuracy of one very common technique (based on Lighthill's model) for the enforcement of the no-slip condition at the wall in vortex methods. Targeting a sharp treatment of the wall calls for substantial modifications at all computational levels of the VPM solver. More specifically, the solution of the underlying Poisson equation, the computation of the diffusion term and the particle-mesh interpolation are adapted accordingly and the spatial accuracy is assessed. The immersed interface VPM solver is subsequently validated on the simulation of some challenging impulsively started flows, such as the flow past a cylinder and that past an airfoil. Research Fellow (PhD student) of the F.R.S.-FNRS of Belgium.

  8. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  9. Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.

    1995-01-01

    For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....

  10. Review of Vortex Methods for Simulation of Vortex Breakdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinski, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify current developments in the field of vortex breakdown modelling in order to initiate the development of a numerical model for the simulation of F/A-18 empennage buffet...

  11. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex 'nanoliquid'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E ZELDOV2, A SOIBEL3, F de la CRUZ4,CJ van der BEEK5,. M KONCZYKOWSKI5, T ... 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. 76100, Israel ..... heterogeneous nature of the vortex nanoliquid.

  12. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.

    1999-09-16

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.

  13. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  14. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: hermann.suderow@uam.es [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  15. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvis, J.A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  16. Vortex loops and Majoranas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry

  17. Vortex gas lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.

    1989-01-01

    A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.

  18. Vortex electronis and squids

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of vortices in high-Tc superconductors is a crucial subject for research on superconductive electronics, especially for superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs), it is also a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. Recent technological progress in methods for both direct and indirect observation of vortices, e.g. scanning SQUID, terahertz imaging, and microwave excitation, has led to new insights into vortex physics, the dynamic behavior of vortices in junctions and related questions of noise. This book presents the current status of research activity and provides new information on the applications of SQUIDs, including magnetocardiography, immunoassays, and laser-SQUID microscopes, all of which are close to being commercially available.

  19. Effect of perforation on flow past a conic cylinder at Re = 100: vortex-shedding pattern and force history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. M.; Zhong, X. F.; Wu, Y. X.

    2017-09-01

    The flow past a circular-section cylinder with a conic shroud perforated with four holes at the peak was simulated numerically at Re=100 , considering two factors, viz. the angle of attack and the diameter of the holes. The effects of the perforated conic shroud on the vortex shedding pattern in the near wake was mainly investigated, as well as the time history of the drag and lift forces. In the investigated parameter space, three flow regimes were generally identified, corresponding to weak, moderate, and strong disturbance effects. In regime I, the wake can mainly be described by alternately shedding Kármán or Kármán-like vortices. In regime II, the spanwise vortices are obviously disturbed along the span due to the appearance of additional vorticity components and their interactions with the spanwise vortices, but still shed in synchronization along the spanwise direction. In regime III, the typical Kármán vortices partially or totally disappear, and some new vortex shedding patterns appear, such as Ω -type, obliquely shedding, and crossed spanwise vortices with opposite sign. Corresponding to these complex vortex shedding patterns in the near wake, the fluid forces no longer oscillate regularly at a single vortex shedding frequency, but rather with a lower modulation frequency and multiple amplitudes. An overview of these flow regimes is presented.

  20. TR-PIV measurement of the wake behind a grooved cylinder at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying Zheng; Shi, Liu Liu; Yu, Jun

    2011-04-01

    A comparative study of the wakes behind cylinders with grooved and smooth surfaces was performed with a view to understand the wake characteristics associated with the adult Saguaro cacti. A low-speed recirculation water channel was established for the experiment; the Reynolds number, based on the free-stream velocity and cylinder diameter (D), was kept at ReD=1500. State-of-the-art time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) was employed to measure a total of 20 480 realizations of the wake field at a frame rate of 250 Hz, enabling a comprehensive view of the time- and phase-averaged wake pattern. In comparison to the wake behind the smooth cylinder, the length of the recirculation zone behind the grooved cylinder was extended by nearly 18.2%, yet the longitudinal velocity fluctuation intensity was considerably weakened. A global view of the peaked spectrum of the longitudinal velocity component revealed that the intermediate region for the grooved cylinder, which approximately corresponds to the transition region where the shear layer vortices interact, merge and shed before the formation of the Karman-like vortex street, was much wider than that for the smooth one. The unsteady events near St=0.3-0.4 were detected in the intermediate region behind the grooved cylinder, but no such events were found in the smooth cylinder system. Although the formation of the Karman-like vortex street was delayed by about 0.6D downstream for the grooved cylinder, no prominent difference in the vortex street region was found in the far wake for both cylinders. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method was used extensively to decompose the vector and swirling strength fields, which gave a close-up view of the vortices in the near wake. The first two POD modes of the swirling strength clarified the spatio-temporal characteristics of the shear layer vortices behind the grooved cylinder. The small-scale vortices superimposed on the shear layers behind the grooved cylinder

  1. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  2. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  3. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  4. Microwave warning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A device for warning a person carrying or wearing it of the presence of dangerous microwave radiation is fully powered by the radiations being detected. A very low-wattage gas-discharge lamp is energized by a broadly or a sharply tuned receiver circuit including dipole antennas or one antenna and a ''grounding'' casing element. The casing may be largely and uniformly transparent or have different areas gradedly light-transmissive to indicate varying radiation intensities. The casing can be made in the shape of a pocket watch, fountain pen, bracelet or finger ring, etc

  5. Three-dimensional vortex flow near the endwall of a short cylinder in crossflow: Stepped-diameter circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.B.; Sanitjai, S.; Ghosh, K.; Goldstein, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of geometry on the flow around a cylinder in crossflow is investigated in this study. Three different stepped-diameter circular cylinders (SDCC s) with varying step heights are used. Extensive flow visualization using the oil-lampblack and smoke-wire techniques and near wake velocity measurements using a hotwire anemometer reveal complex secondary flows on and around the SDCC. Six vortices are observed in the horseshoe vortex system near the cylinder–endwall junction and six additional vortices are found in the step-induced vortex system on the step surface. Based on these experimental results, new secondary flow models are proposed. The step-induced vortices separate from the step surface at both sides and move toward the endwall, washing down the sides of the top/bottom larger diameter cylinders and interact with the separated shear layer and horseshoe vortices. In this process, they modify the near wake flow significantly: they produce an increase in velocity near the endwall region (below the step) and a decrease in velocity near the mid-span region, even altering the oscillatory behavior of the wake. - Highlights: ► Extensive flow visualization for stepped-diameter circular cylinders in crossflow. ► Six vortices in the horseshoe vortex system near the base. ► Six additional step-induced vortices on the upstream symmetry plane of step surface. ► Power spectral analysis for u′ shows oscillatory nature of the wake.

  6. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system is...

  7. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  8. Finite Element Based Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics Model for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, Michael K; Crawford, Curran

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel aerodynamic model based on Lagrangian Vortex Dynamics (LVD) formulated using a Finite Element (FE) approach. The advantage of LVD is improved fidelity over Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) while being faster than Numerical Navier-Stokes Models (NNSM) in either primitive or velocity-vorticity formulations. The model improves on conventional LVD in three ways. First, the model is based on an error minimization formulation that can be solved with fast root finding algorithms. In addition to improving accuracy, this eliminates the intrinsic numerical instability of conventional relaxed wake simulations. The method has further advantages in optimization and aero-elastic simulations for two reasons. The root finding algorithm can solve the aerodynamic and structural equations simultaneously, avoiding Gauss-Seidel iteration for compatibility constraints. The second is that the formulation allows for an analytical definition for sensitivity calculations. The second improvement comes from a new discretization scheme based on an FE formulation and numerical quadrature that decouples the spatial, influencing and temporal meshes. The shape for each trailing filament uses basis functions (interpolating splines) that allow for both local polynomial order and element size refinement. A completely independent scheme distributes the influencing (vorticity) elements along the basis functions. This allows for concentrated elements in the near wake for accuracy and progressively less in the far-wake for efficiency. Finally the third improvement is the use of a far-wake model based on semi-infinite vortex cylinders where the radius and strength are related to the wake state. The error-based FE formulation allows the transition to the far wake to occur across a fixed plane

  9. Linearised CFD Models for Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Berg, Jacob; Nielsen, Morten

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in oshore wind farms taking wake eects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface....... Fuga is brie y described. The model is based on alinearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed{spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive...... use of look{up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived...

  10. Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.

    1991-05-01

    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  12. Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, P; Duponcheel, M; Buffin, S; Caprace, D-G; Winckelmans, G; Bricteux, L; Zeoli, S

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed. (paper)

  13. Investigation of the effect of inflow turbulence on vertical axis wind turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Zeoli, S.; Buffin, S.; Caprace, D.-G.; Winckelmans, G.; Bricteux, L.

    2017-05-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. In this paper, we perform large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines by means of a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation either from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm [1] or generated on the-fly using time-correlated synthetic velocity planes. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI and to the operating conditions is then assessed.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine wakes; Part II: effects of inflow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponcheel, Matthieu; Chatelain, Philippe; Caprace, Denis-Gabriel; Winckelmans, Gregoire

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamics of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) is inherently unsteady, which leads to vorticity shedding mechanisms due to both the lift distribution along the blade and its time evolution. Large-scale, fine-resolution Large Eddy Simulations of the flow past Vertical Axis Wind Turbines have been performed using a state-of-the-art Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method combined with immersed lifting lines. Inflow turbulence with a prescribed turbulence intensity (TI) is injected at the inlet of the simulation from a precomputed synthetic turbulence field obtained using the Mann algorithm. The wake of a standard, medium-solidity, H-shaped machine is simulated for several TI levels. The complex wake development is captured in details and over long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow and turbulence statistics are computed over more than 10 diameters downstream of the machine. The sensitivity of the wake topology and decay to the TI level is assessed.

  15. Flow Phenomena in the Very Near Wake of a Flat Plate with a Circular Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2014-01-01

    The very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge, exhibiting pronounced shedding of wake vortices, is investigated with data from a direct numerical simulation. The separating boundary layers are turbulent and statistically identical thus resulting in a wake that is symmetric in the mean. The focus here is on the instability of the detached shear layers, the evolution of rib-vortex induced localized regions of reverse flow that detach from the main body of reverse flow in the trailing edge region and convect downstream, and phaseaveraged velocity statistics in the very near wake. The detached shear layers are found to exhibit unstable behavior intermittently, including the development of shear layer vortices as in earlier cylinder flow investigations with laminar separating boundary layers. Only a small fraction of the separated turbulent boundary layers undergo this instability, and form the initial shed vortices. Pressure spectra within the shear layers show a broadband peak at a multiple of shedding frequency. Phase-averaged intensity and shear stress distributions of the randomly fluctuating component of velocity are compared with those obtained in the near wake. The distributions of the production terms in the transport equations for the turbulent stresses are also provided.

  16. Making Aircraft Vortices Visible to Radar by Spraying Water into the Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices pose a danger to following aircraft during take-off and landing. This necessitates spacing rules, based on aircraft type, to be enforced during approach in IFR (Instrument Flight Regulations) conditions; this can limit airport capacity. To help choose aircraft spacing based on the actual location and strength of the wake, it is proposed that wake vortices can be detected using conventional precipitation and cloud radars. This is enabled by spraying a small quantity water into the wake from near the wing. The vortex strength is revealed by the doppler velocity of the droplets. In the present work, droplet size distributions produced by nozzles used for aerial spraying are considered. Droplet trajectory and evaporation in the flow-field is numerically calculated for a heavy aircraft, followed by an evaluation of radar reflectivity at 6 nautical miles behind the aircraft. Small droplets evaporate away while larger droplets fall out of the wake. In the humid conditions that typically prevail during IFR, a sufficient number of droplets remain in the wake and give good signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). For conditions of average humidity, higher frequency radars combined with spectral processing gives good SNR.

  17. Imaging of artificially induced vortex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, Yanina; Menghini, M.; Cruz, F. de la

    2004-01-01

    The combination of engineered pinning potentials in superconducting crystals, the detection of the liquid-solid vortex transition and the observation of the vortex structure with single vortex sensitivity allow the microscopic analysis of the response of 3D elastic systems to the presence of these potentials. In this work we review recent results obtained by a combination of those techniques studying different vortex structure induced transformations. On the one hand, we have visualized the transformation, along the vortex direction, of a bulk vortex single crystal with hexagonal symmetry into another crystal with square symmetry induced by an engineered Fe-dot lattice deposited on a surface of the vortex single crystal. On the other hand, we found an infrequent first-order phase transition where a vortex liquid under the presence of a random correlated potential (columnar defects) transforms into a vortex solid with no change of topological order

  18. Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I

    2011-01-01

    We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex

  19. Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Lixia; Liu, Chunxiang; Li, Xing; Wang, Shuyun; Xu, Qing; Teng, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    In view of the limitations of vortex generators with polarization dependence at present, we propose a plasmonic vortex generator composed of rectangular holes etched in silver film, in which the optical vortex can be generated under arbitrary linearly polarized light illumination. Two sets of rectangular holes are arranged equidistantly on a circle and rotate in postulate directions. Theoretical analysis provides the design principle for the vortex generator, and numerical simulations give guidance on designating the vortex generator parameters. Experimental measurements verify the performance of the proposed vortex generator. Moreover, two alternative structures for the generation of a plasmonic vortex are also provided in this paper. The resulting perfect vortex, compact structure and flexible illumination conditions will lead to wide applications of this plasmonic vortex generator.

  20. Linearised CFD models for wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, Morten

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in offshore wind farms taking wake effects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface. Fuga is briefly described. The model is based on a linearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed-spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive use of look-up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived from generic look-up tables. Three different models, based on three different closures, are examined: 1) the 'simple closure' using an unperturbed eddy viscosity kucentre dotz. 2) the mixing length closure. 3) the E-epsilon closure. Model results are evaluated against offshore wind farm production data from Horns Rev I and the Nysted wind farm, and a comparison with direct wake measurements in an onshore turbine (Nibe B) is also made. A very satisfactory agreement with data is found for the simple closure. The exception is the near wake, just behind the rotor, where all three linearized models fail. The mixing length closure underestimates wake effects in all cases. The E-epsilon closure overestimates wake losses in the offshore farms while it predicts a too shallow and too wide the wake in the onshore case. The simple closure performs distinctly better than the other two. Wind speed data from the the Horns rev met masts are used to further validate Fuga results with the 'simple' closure. Finally, Roedsand 1 and 2 are used as an example to illustrate

  1. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not

  2. Downstream and soaring interfaces and vortices in 2-D stratified wakes and their impact on transport of contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Chashechkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of continuously stratified fluids past obstacles was studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The obstacles discussed here include a flat strip, aligned with the flow, inclined or transverse to the flow and a horizontal cylinder. In the flow pattern, transient and attached (lee internal waves, downstream wakes with submerged interfaces and vortices, soaring singular interfaces, soaring vortices and vortex systems are distinguished. New components of laminar flow past a horizontally towed strip are presented. Fine transverse streaky structures on the strip in the downstream wake were visualized. Soaring isolated interfaces, which are internal boundary layers forming inside the downstream attached wave field past bluff bodies were observed. With increasing of the body velocity a vortex pair was formed directly at the leading edge of this interface.

  3. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  4. Evolution of the bi-stable wake of a square-back automotive shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, Giancarlo; Passmore, Martin; Sardu, Costantino

    2018-01-01

    Square-back shapes are popular in the automotive market for their high level of practicality. These geometries, however, are usually characterised by high drag and their wake dynamics present aspects, such as the coexistence of a long-time bi-stable behaviour and short-time global fluctuating modes that are not fully understood. In the present paper, the unsteady behaviour of the wake of a generic square-back car geometry is characterised with an emphasis on identifying the causal relationship between the different dynamic modes in the wake. The study is experimental, consisting of balance, pressure, and stereoscopic PIV measurements. Applying wavelet and cross-wavelet transforms to the balance data, a quasi-steady correlation is demonstrated between the forces and bi-stable modes. This is investigated by applying proper orthogonal decomposition to the pressure and velocity data sets and a new structure is proposed for each bi-stable state, consisting of a hairpin vortex that originates from one of the two model's vertical trailing edges and bends towards the opposite side as it merges into a single streamwise vortex downstream. The wake pumping motion is also identified and for the first time linked with the motion of the bi-stable vortical structure in the streamwise direction, resulting in out-of-phase pressure variations between the two vertical halves of the model base. A phase-averaged low-order model is also proposed that provides a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of the switch between the bi-stable states. It is demonstrated that, during the switch, the wake becomes laterally symmetric and, at this point, the level of interaction between the recirculating structures and the base reaches a minimum, yielding, for this geometry, a 7% reduction of the base drag compared to the time-averaged result.

  5. Beating motion of a circular cylinder in vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Linwei; Chan, Eng-Soon; Wei, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, beating phenomenon of a circular cylinder in vortex-induced vibration is studied by numerical simulations in a systematic manner. The cylinder mass coefficients of 2 and 10 are considered, and the Reynolds number is 150. Two distinctive frequencies, namely cylinder oscillation and vortex shedding frequencies, are obtained from the harmonic analysis of the cylinder displacement. The result is consistent with that observed in laboratory experiments. It is found that the cylinder oscillation frequency changes with the natural frequency of the cylinder while the reduced velocity is varied. The added-mass coefficient of the cylinder in beating motion is therefore estimated. Meanwhile, the vortex shedding frequency does not change dramatically in the beating situations. In fact, it is very close to 0.2. Accordingly, the lift force coefficient has two main components associated with these two frequencies. Besides, higher harmonics of the cylinder oscillation frequency appear in the spectrum of the lift coefficient. Moreover, the vortex shedding timing is studied in the beating motion by examining the instantaneous flow fields in the wake, and two scenarios of the vortex formation are observed.

  6. Near-wake flow structure downwind of a wind turbine in a turbulent boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey D. [University of Minnesota, Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Porte-Agel, Fernando [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), ENAC-IIE-WIRE, Wind Engineering and Renewable Energy Laboratory (WIRE), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15

    Wind turbines operate in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer, where they are subjected to strong wind shear and relatively high turbulence levels. These incoming boundary layer flow characteristics are expected to affect the structure of wind turbine wakes. The near-wake region is characterized by a complex coupled vortex system (including helicoidal tip vortices), unsteadiness and strong turbulence heterogeneity. Limited information about the spatial distribution of turbulence in the near wake, the vortex behavior and their influence on the downwind development of the far wake hinders our capability to predict wind turbine power production and fatigue loads in wind farms. This calls for a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the 3D flow and coherent turbulence structures in the near wake. Systematic wind-tunnel experiments were designed and carried out to characterize the structure of the near-wake flow downwind of a model wind turbine placed in a neutral boundary layer flow. A horizontal-axis, three-blade wind turbine model, with a rotor diameter of 13 cm and the hub height at 10.5 cm, occupied the lowest one-third of the boundary layer. High-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure velocities in multiple vertical stream-wise planes (x-z) and vertical span-wise planes (y-z). In particular, we identified localized regions of strong vorticity and swirling strength, which are the signature of helicoidal tip vortices. These vortices are most pronounced at the top-tip level and persist up to a distance of two to three rotor diameters downwind. The measurements also reveal strong flow rotation and a highly non-axisymmetric distribution of the mean flow and turbulence structure in the near wake. The results provide new insight into the physical mechanisms that govern the development of the near wake of a wind turbine immersed in a neutral boundary layer. They also serve as important data for the development and

  7. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, A.D.; Mazzi, B.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Water, van de W.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are

  8. Effects of superhydrophobic surface on the propeller wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongseok; Lee, Jungjin; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the change in propeller wake when the superhydrophobic surface is applied on the propeller blade. The propeller rotates in a quiescent water tank, facing its bottom, with a rotational Reynolds number of 96000. To measure the three-dimensional flow fields, we use stereo PIV and a water prism is installed at the camera-side tank wall. Two cameras are tilted 30 degrees from the normal axis of the tank wall, satisfying schiempflug condition. Superhydrophobic surface is made by coating hydrophobic nanoparticles on the propeller blade. Measurements are done on two vertical planes (at the center of propeller hub and the blade tip), and are ensemble averaged being classified by blade phase of 0 and 90 degrees. Velocity fluctuation, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity are evaluated. With superhydrophobic surface, it is found that the turbulence level is significantly (20 - 30 %) reduced with a small penalty (less than 5%) in the streamwise momentum (i.e., thrust) generation. This is because the cone shaped propeller wake gets narrower and organized vortex structures are broken with the superhydrophobic surfaces. More detailed flow analysis will be given. Supported by NRF (NRF-2016R1C1B2012775, NRF-2016M2B2A9A02945068) programs of Korea government.

  9. Comparative jet wake structure and swimming performance of salps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P

    2010-09-01

    Salps are barrel-shaped marine invertebrates that swim by jet propulsion. Morphological variations among species and life-cycle stages are accompanied by differences in swimming mode. The goal of this investigation was to compare propulsive jet wakes and swimming performance variables among morphologically distinct salp species (Pegea confoederata, Weelia (Salpa) cylindrica, Cyclosalpa sp.) and relate swimming patterns to ecological function. Using a combination of in situ dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, we describe properties of the jet wake and swimming performance variables including thrust, drag and propulsive efficiency. Locomotion by all species investigated was achieved via vortex ring propulsion. The slow-swimming P. confoederata produced the highest weight-specific thrust (T=53 N kg(-1)) and swam with the highest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=55%). The fast-swimming W. cylindrica had the most streamlined body shape but produced an intermediate weight-specific thrust (T=30 N kg(-1)) and swam with an intermediate whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=52%). Weak swimming performance variables in the slow-swimming C. affinis, including the lowest weight-specific thrust (T=25 N kg(-1)) and lowest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=47%), may be compensated by low energetic requirements. Swimming performance variables are considered in the context of ecological roles and evolutionary relationships.

  10. Aeroelastic impact of above-rated wave-induced structural motions on the near-wake stability of a floating offshore wind turbine rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Steven; Jaworski, Justin

    2017-11-01

    The impact of above-rated wave-induced motions on the stability of floating offshore wind turbine near-wakes is studied numerically. The rotor near-wake is generated using a lifting-line free vortex wake method, which is strongly coupled to a finite element solver for kinematically nonlinear blade deformations. A synthetic time series of relatively high-amplitude/high-frequency representative of above-rated conditions of the NREL 5MW referece wind turbine is imposed on the rotor structure. To evaluate the impact of these above-rated conditions, a linear stability analysis is first performed on the near wake generated by a fixed-tower wind turbine configuration at above-rated inflow conditions. The platform motion is then introduced via synthetic time series, and a stability analysis is performed on the wake generated by the floating offshore wind turbine at the same above-rated inflow conditions. The stability trends (disturbance modes versus the divergence rate of vortex structures) of the two analyses are compared to identify the impact that above-rated wave-induced structural motions have on the stability of the floating offshore wind turbine wake.

  11. Prediction of multi-wake problems using an improved Jensen wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The improved analytical wake model named as 2D_k Jensen model (which was proposed to overcome some shortcomes in the classical Jensen wake model) is applied and validated in this work for wind turbine multi-wake predictions. Different from the original Jensen model, this newly developed 2D_k Jensen...... model uses a cosine shape instead of the top-hat shape for the velocity deficit in the wake, and the wake decay rate as a variable that is related to the ambient turbulence as well as the rotor generated turbulence. Coupled with four different multi-wake combination models, the 2D_k Jensen model...... is assessed through (1) simulating two wakes interaction under full wake and partial wake conditions and (2) predicting the power production in the Horns Rev wind farm for different wake sectors around two different wind directions. Through comparisons with field measurements, results from Large Eddy...

  12. Green functions of vortex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1981-01-01

    We study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarly for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail. (orig.)

  13. Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J

    2009-01-01

    The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)

  14. Backreaction of excitations on a vortex

    OpenAIRE

    Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1996-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their backreaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate backreaction of Proca type excitations on a straightlinear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose exact Ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the backreaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found ...

  15. Vortex dynamics in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Krane, B.; Pecseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Low frequency dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in strongly magnetized plasmas have been studied. It was found that perturbations in density and potential can be very localized, indicating the applicability of an approximate description based on a finite number of vortices. A model based on a few isolated vortical structures is discussed, with particular attention to vortex collapse, where three vortices merge together within a finite time, or to the converse process, i.e. a vortex explosion. Details of these particular types of vortex dynamics depend on the actual model used for describing the electrons, the presence of a Debye shielding in particular. A ''boomerang''-type of evolution was found, where three shielded vortices expand initially, just as their unshielded counterparts, but eventually the expansion is arrested, and they start converging to collapse ultimately. The study is extended by a numerical simulation where the point model is relaxed to a continuous, but localized, vorticity distribution with finite size vortices. (orig.)

  16. Non-Abelian vortex lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam

    2018-04-01

    We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.

  17. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

  18. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  19. A note on integral vortex strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-28 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : circulation * unsteady Taylor vortex * vortex intensity * vortex strength * vorticity * vorticity decomposition Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  20. Low-frequency variations in the wake of a circular cylinder at Re = 3900

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Rodríguez, Ivette; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos D; Oliva, Assensi; Borrell, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Flow around cylindrical structures is of relevance for many practical applications. Knowledge of flow-related unsteady loading of such structures is crucial for hydro - and aerodynamic control and design. In order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this kind of flow, a DNS have been performed at Re D = 3900 (Re D = U ref D/ν). The instantaneous velocity signals of probes located in the separated shear-layer and in the vortex formation region exhibit the presence of low-frequency variations. The statistical analysis of these signals suggest that low-frequency variations in the vortex formation length, suction base pressure and intermittencies in the shear layer are closely related. It is shown that these variations are the responsible of the large scattering of data obtained in different experimental and numerical results, as well as the U-shape and V-shape stream-wise velocity profiles observed in the very near wake of the cylinder.

  1. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  2. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  3. Effects of rear cavities on the wake behind an accelerating D-shaped bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite-Díez, M.; Jiménez-González, J. I.; Gutiérrez-Montes, C.; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the transient development of the wake induced by a constant acceleration of a D-shaped bluff body, starting from rest and reaching a permanent regime of Reynolds number Re = 2000, under different values of acceleration and implementing three distinct rear geometrical configurations. Thus, alongside the classical blunt base, two control passive devices, namely, a straight cavity and an optimized, curved cavity, recently designed using adjoint optimization techniques, have also been used to assess their performance in transient flow conditions. Particle image velocimetry measurements were performed in a towing tank to characterize the near wake development in the early transient stages. It has been observed that the flow first develops symmetric shear layers with primary eddies attracted toward the base of the body due to the flow suction generated by the accelerated motion. Eventually, the interaction between the upper and lower shear layers provokes the destabilization of the flow and the symmetry breaking of the wake, finally giving rise to an alternate transitional vortex shedding regime. The transition between these phases is sped-up when the optimized cavity is used, reaching earlier the permanent flow conditions. In particular, the use of the optimized geometry has been shown to limit the growth of the primary eddies, decreasing both the recirculation and vortex formation length and providing with a more regularized, more organized vortex shedding. In addition, numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the distribution of forces induced by the addition of rear cavities. In general, the aforementioned smoother and faster transition related to the use of optimized cavity translates into a lower averaged value of the drag coefficient, together with less energetic force fluctuations, regardless of the acceleration value.

  4. Numerical Investigation of the Tip Vortex of a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Double-Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. In this study, the number of blades is two and the airfoil is a NACA0021 with chord length of c = 0.265 m. To capture the tip vortex characteristics, the velocity fields are investigated by the Q-criterion iso-surface (Q = 100 with shear-stress transport (SST k-ω turbulence model at different tip speed ratios (TSRs. Then, mean velocity, velocity deficit and torque coefficient acting on the blade in the different spanwise positions are compared. The wind velocities obtained by CFD simulations are also compared with the experimental data from wind tunnel experiments. As a result, we can state that the wind velocity curves calculated by CFD simulations are consistent with Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV measurements. The distribution of the vortex structure along the spanwise direction is more complex at a lower TSR and the tip vortex has a longer dissipation distance at a high TSR. In addition, the mean wind velocity shows a large value near the blade tip and a small value near the blade due to the vortex effect.

  5. Onset of chaos in helical vortex breakdown at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, S.; Avellan, F.; Gallaire, F.

    2018-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a swirling wake flow stemming from a Graboswksi-Berger vortex [Grabowski and Berger, J. Fluid Mech. 75, 525 (1976), 10.1017/S0022112076000360] in a semi-infinite domain is addressed at low Reynolds numbers for a fixed swirl number S =1.095 , defined as the ratio between the characteristic tangential velocity and the centerline axial velocity. In this system, only pure hydrodynamic instabilities develop and interact through the quadratic nonlinearities of the Navier-Stokes equations. Such interactions lead to the onset of chaos at a Reynolds value of Re=220 . This chaotic state is reached by following a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario, which is initiated by a Hopf bifurcation (the spiral vortex breakdown) as the Reynolds number increases. At larger Reynolds value, a frequency synchronization regime appears followed by a chaotic state again. This scenario is corroborated by nonlinear time series analyses. Stability analysis around the time-average flow and temporal-azimuthal Fourier decomposition of the nonlinear flow distributions both identify successfully the developing vortices and provide deeper insight into the development of the flow patterns leading to this route to chaos. Three single-helical vortices are involved: the primary spiral associated with the spiral vortex breakdown, a downstream spiral, and a near-wake spiral. As the Reynolds number increases, the frequencies of these vortices become closer, increasing their interactions by nonlinearity to eventually generate a strong chaotic axisymmetric oscillation.

  6. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  7. Persepsi Perokok Aktif Terhadap Label Pictorial Health Warning pada Masyarakat Desa Rumah Kabanjahe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Adi Putra Sitepu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of this study by the Government Regulation No. 109 of 2012 on the inclusion of images and text health warnings / pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs. The norm of this aims to reduce the negative health effects, protect productive age population and increasing public awareness of the dangers of smoking. Against the background of the norm of the government, the study was intended to determine the perception of active smokers the pictorial health warning labels on packs of cigarettes there. In this study, the method used is descriptive method with qualitative data. Data collected through library research informant interviews, and documentation. The results showed that smokers know their pictorial health warning labels on packs of cigarettes and smokers can understand the meaning of their label. Knowledge smokers against pictorial health warning label does not make the smokers to quit smoking, they continue to smoke because of their experience does not suffer due to take up smoking, and the effects felt far different from what was stated on the packaging that has been made. Thus we can say the perception of smokers tend to deny the existence of the warning label.

  8. Ventilation of an hydrofoil wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Roger; Lee, Seung Jae; Monson, Garrett

    2013-11-01

    Ventilation physics plays a role in a variety of important engineering applications. For example, hydroturbine ventilation is used for control of vibration and cavitation erosion and more recently for improving the dissolved oxygen content of the flow through the turbine. The latter technology has been the focus of an ongoing study involving the ventilation of an hydrofoil wake to determine the velocity and size distribution of bubbles in a bubbly wake. This was carried out by utilizing particle shadow velocimetry (PSV). This technique is a non-scattering approach that relies on direct in-line volume illumination by a pulsed source such as a light-emitting diode (LED). The data are compared with previous studies of ventilated flow. The theoretical results of Hinze suggest that a scaling relationship is possible that can lead to developing appropriate design parameters for a ventilation system. Sponsored by ONR and DOE.

  9. Vortex configuration and vortex-vortex interaction in nano-structured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru; Niwa, Yuhei; Suematsu, Hisataka; Ishida, Takekazu

    2012-01-01

    We study the vortex structures and quasi-particle structures in nano-structured superconductors. We used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation and the finite element method and obtained stable magnetic flux structures and the quasi-particle states. We found the vortex configurations are affected by the interference of the quasi-particle bound states around the vortices. In order to clarify the interference between the quasi-particle wave-functions around two vortices we have developed a numerical method using the elliptic coordinates and the Mathieu functions. We apply this method to two singly quantized vortex state in a conventional s-wave superconductor and a pair of half-quantum vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor.

  10. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    During the 1998 marine biological survey, a total of 122 species of reef fish, 41 species of corals, 39 species of other macroinvertebrates , and 19...The lagoon supports a large population of fish and the surrounding reefs host a diverse assemblage of reef fish. Nearshore fish important for food...found at Wake Island. The Federally threatened Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was observed multiple times in the near shore ocean and lagoon

  11. Mechanism of transition to turbulence in a circular cylinder wake in a channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molochnikov Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition to turbulence in the circular cylinder wake has been studied experimentally and numerically at growing Reynolds number. Good agreement of calculation results with the flow visualization and measurements of instantaneous vector fields of velocity and vorticity has been demonstrated. The growing Reynolds number is shown to make large-scale vortex generation onset move upstream. It also triggers the transition to 3D flow pattern in the cylinder wake. This process is accompanied by non-monotonous behavior of the profiles of velocity and its turbulent fluctuations at equal distances from the cylinder. Non-monotonous behavior of the cylinder drag has been revealed for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 120 to 300.

  12. A temporal PIV study of flame/obstacle generated vortex interactions within a semi-confined combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Hargrave, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data obtained using a new multiple-camera digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique are presented for the interaction between a propagating flame and the turbulent recirculating velocity field generated during flame-solid obstacle interaction. The interaction between the gas movement and the obstacle creates turbulence by vortex shedding and local wake recirculations. The presence of turbulence in a flammable gas mixture can wrinkle a flame front, increasing the flame surface area and enhancing the burning rate. To investigate propagating flame/turbulence interaction, a novel multiple-camera digital PIV technique was used to provide high spatial and temporal characterization of the phenomenon for the turbulent flow field in the wake of three sequential obstacles. The technique allowed the quantification of the local flame speed and local flow velocity. Due to the accelerating nature of the explosion flow field, the wake flows develop 'transient' turbulent fields. Multiple-camera PIV provides data to define the spatial and temporal variation of both the velocity field ahead of the propagating flame and the flame front to aid the understanding of flame-vortex interaction. Experimentally obtained values for flame displacement speed and flame stretch are presented for increasing vortex complexity.

  13. The interaction of counter-rotating strained vortex pairs with a third vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Keith; Ooi, Andrew; Chong, M S; Ruetten, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The vortex dynamics caused by the interaction of counter-rotating Burgers vortex pairs with a third Burgers vortex in a straining flow is investigated numerically. These interactions blend vortex merging and cancellation effects, and the aim is to investigate how the third vortex might influence the evolution of the vortex pair. Many different choices of initial conditions for the pair and third vortex exist, so attention is restricted to a class of initial conditions in which the vortex pair initially moves in the general direction of vortex 3, and the distance from vortex 3 to the line of free propagation of the vortex pair is the 'offset' parameter δ. A series of calculations with 0≤δ≤4 reveals three types of intermediate-time vortex dynamics that are called merging, swapping and switching. The evolution of the vortex core separation and core vorticity level diagnostics are used to determine the points of transition from merging to swapping and switching. In the longer term, vortex merging, cancellation and straining reduces the three vortices to a single vortex. Other diagnostics of interest are also monitored, including the spatial distributions of the rate of viscous dissipation and terms contributing to the vorticity transport equation. During the merging phase for the case with δ=0, double-peak and double-trough structures are observed in the dissipation-rate contours. In addition, the diffusion of vorticity dominates the vortex-stretching effect near vortex 1 during its absorbtion by vortex 3. Finally, the dynamics of the three vortices are also examined by computing a co-rotating angular velocity and stream function. A series of peaks in the co-rotating angular velocity is found to be associated with the conservation of angular momentum and interactions with a 'ghost' vortex in the co-rotating stream function.

  14. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob

    2016-11-01

    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface. This patterning is an important natural flow control mechanism that is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. The increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test this theory, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) captured images of the LEV generated by the plate when towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. Codes written in MatLab were used to automatically track and determine the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding provided by NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 and CBET 1628600.

  15. Measurement on the cavitating vortex shedding behind rectangular obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, F; Hos, C; Pandula, Z; Kullmann, L

    2010-01-01

    Measurement results on the cavitating vortex shedding behind sharp-edged rectangular bodies are presented, intended to provide benchmark cases for the validation of unsteady cavitation models of CFD codes. Rectangular bodies of increasing aspect ratio (1, 2, 3 and 4) were used with a constant 25mm height (12.5% blockage ratio). The water velocity in the 0.2x0.05m test section of the channel was varied between 1 and 12 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number in the range of (0.4-3.5)x105. Pressure signals were measured at several locations, notably in the wake. Dominant frequencies and Strouhal numbers are reported from cavitation-free flow (classic von Karman vortex shedding) up to supercavitation as a function of the free-stream Reynolds number. The results are in good agreement with the literature in case of the square cylinder. We experienced a slight increase of the dominant Strouhal number with increasing aspect ratio. This result is somewhat inconsistent with the literature, in which a fall of the Strouhal number can be observed at side ratio 2. This may be the consequence of the different ranges of Reynolds numbers. It was also found that between the inception of cavitation and the formation of supercavitation the Strouhal number is not affected by cavitation.

  16. Measurement on the cavitating vortex shedding behind rectangular obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, F; Hos, C; Pandula, Z; Kullmann, L, E-mail: hegedusf@hds.bme.h [Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Muegyetem rkp. 1, Budapest 1111 (Hungary)

    2010-08-15

    Measurement results on the cavitating vortex shedding behind sharp-edged rectangular bodies are presented, intended to provide benchmark cases for the validation of unsteady cavitation models of CFD codes. Rectangular bodies of increasing aspect ratio (1, 2, 3 and 4) were used with a constant 25mm height (12.5% blockage ratio). The water velocity in the 0.2x0.05m test section of the channel was varied between 1 and 12 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number in the range of (0.4-3.5)x105. Pressure signals were measured at several locations, notably in the wake. Dominant frequencies and Strouhal numbers are reported from cavitation-free flow (classic von Karman vortex shedding) up to supercavitation as a function of the free-stream Reynolds number. The results are in good agreement with the literature in case of the square cylinder. We experienced a slight increase of the dominant Strouhal number with increasing aspect ratio. This result is somewhat inconsistent with the literature, in which a fall of the Strouhal number can be observed at side ratio 2. This may be the consequence of the different ranges of Reynolds numbers. It was also found that between the inception of cavitation and the formation of supercavitation the Strouhal number is not affected by cavitation.

  17. Three-dimensional vortex flow near the endwall of a short cylinder in crossflow: Uniform-diameter circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.B.; Sanitjai, S.; Ghosh, K.; Goldstein, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Flow characteristics, around a short uniform-diameter circular cylinder in crossflow, are investigated experimentally. Extensive flow visualization using oil-lampblack and smoke-wire methods have been performed. Near-wake velocity measurements have been performed using a hotwire anemometer. Complex secondary flows are observed on and around the cylinder in crossflow. Multiple vortices are observed in the horseshoe vortex system near the cylinder–endwall junction. Based on this flow visualization and local mass transfer measurement results, a six-vortex secondary flow model has been proposed. - Highlights: ► Flow visualizations and velocity measurements for a short circular cylinder. ► Six vortices in the horseshoe vortex system upstream of the base of the cylinder. ► Cross-stream turbulence intensity profiles show a similarity in their shape.

  18. Some exact Bradlow vortex solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-05-08

    We consider the Bradlow equation for vortices which was recently found by Manton and find a two-parameter class of analytic solutions in closed form on nontrivial geometries with non-constant curvature. The general solution to our class of metrics is given by a hypergeometric function and the area of the vortex domain by the Gaussian hypergeometric function.

  19. 150 Years of vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    An IUTAM symposium with the title of this paper was held on October 12-16, 2008, in Lyngby and Copenhagen, Denmark, to mark the sesquicentennial of publication of Helmholtz's seminal paper on vortex dynamics. This volume contains the proceedings of the Symposium. The present paper provides...

  20. Anatomy of a Bathtub Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole...

  1. Vortex dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of vortical structures in magnetized plasmas with nonuniform density is investigated numerically. In particular the dynamics of monopolar vortices is considered and the results are discussed in terms of the conservation of potential vorticity. It is found that individual vortex...

  2. Three-dimensional transition after wake deflection behind a flapping foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Caulfield, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    We report the inherently three-dimensional linear instabilities of a propulsive wake, produced by a flapping foil, mimicking the caudal fin of a fish or the wing of a flying animal. For the base flow, three sequential wake patterns appear as we increase the flapping amplitude: Bénard-von Kármán (BvK) vortex streets; reverse BvK vortex streets; and deflected wakes. Imposing a three-dimensional spanwise periodic perturbation, we find that the resulting Floquet multiplier |μ | indicates an unstable "short wavelength" mode at wave number β =30 , or wavelength λ =0.21 (nondimensionalized by the chord length) at sufficiently high flow Reynolds number Re=U c /ν ≃600 , where U is the upstream flow velocity, c is the chord length, and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Another, "long wavelength" mode at β =6 (λ =1.05 ) becomes critical at somewhat higher Reynolds number, although we do not expect that this mode would be observed physically because its growth rate is always less than the short wavelength mode, at least for the parameters we have considered. The long wavelength mode has certain similarities with the so-called mode A in the drag wake of a fixed bluff body, while the short wavelength mode appears to have a period of the order of twice that of the base flow, in that its structure seems to repeat approximately only every second cycle of the base flow. Whether it is appropriate to classify this mode as a truly subharmonic mode or as a quasiperiodic mode is still an open question however, worthy of a detailed parametric study with various flapping amplitudes and frequencies.

  3. A vortex dynamics perspective on stratospheric sudden warmings

    OpenAIRE

    Matthewman, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    A vortex dynamics approach is used to study the underlying mechanisms leading to polar vortex breakdown during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). Observational data are used in chapter 2 to construct climatologies of the Arctic polar vortex structure during vortex-splitting and vortex-displacement SSWs occurring between 1958 and 2002. During vortex-splitting SSWs, polar vortex breakdown is shown to be typically independent of height (barotropic), whereas breakdown during vor...

  4. Functional anatomy of the sleep-wakefulness cycle: wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando; de Andrés, Isabel; Garzón, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is a necessary, diverse, periodic, and an active condition circadian and homeostatically regulated and precisely meshed with waking time into the sleep-wakefulness cycle (SWC). Photic retinal stimulation modulates the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts as the pacemaker for SWC rhythmicity. Both the light period and social cues adjust the internal clock, making the SWC a circadian, 24-h period in the adult human. Bioelectrical and behavioral parameters characterize the different phases of the SWC. For a long time, lesions and electrical stimulation of brain structures, as well as connection studies, were the main methods used to decipher the foundations of the functional anatomy of the SWC. That is why the first section of this review presents these early historical studies to then discuss the current state of our knowledge based on our understanding of the functional anatomy of the structures underlying the SWC. Supported by this description, we then present a detailed review and update of the structures involved in the phase of wakefulness (W), including their morphological, functional, and chemical characteristics, as well as their anatomical connections. The structures for W generation are known as the "ascending reticular activating system", and they keep and maintain the "thalamo-cerebral cortex unit" awake. This system originates from the neuronal groups located within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which use known neurotransmitters and whose neurons are more active during W than during the other SWC states. Thus, synergies among several of these neurotransmitters are necessary to generate the cortical and thalamic activation that is characteristic of the W state, with all the plastic qualities and nuances present in its different behavioral circumstances. Each one of the neurotransmitters exerts powerful influences on the information and cognitive processes as well as attentional, emotional, motivational, behavioral, and arousal

  5. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  6. Analogies between oscillation and rotation of bodies induced or influenced by vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugt, H. J.

    Vortex-induced or vortex-influenced rotation and oscillation of bodies in a parallel flow are discussed. A steady flow occurs if the body axis is parallel to the flow or if the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the flow. Flows around an oscillating body are quasi-steady only if the Strougal number is much smaller than unity. The connection between rotation and oscillation is demonstrated in terms of the autorotation of a Lanchester propeller, and conditions for stable autorotation are defined. The Riabouchinsky curve is shown to be typical of forces and torques on bodies with vortical wakes, including situations with fixed body axes perpendicular to the flow. A differential equation is formulated for rotational and oscillating bodies that shed vortices by extending the pendulum equation to include vortical effects expressed as a fifth-order polynomial.

  7. Verification of the SLC wake potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Weiland, T.

    1983-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole wake potentials is essential for SLC. These wake potentials were previously computed by the modal method. The time domain code TBCI allows independent verification of these results. This comparison shows that the two methods agree to within 10% for bunch lengths down to 1 mm. TBCI results also indicate that rounding the irises gives at least a 10% reduction in the wake potentials

  8. Longitudinal and transverse wake potentials in SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Wilson, P.

    1980-01-01

    In a machine with short bunches of high peak currents, such as the SLAC collider, one needs to know the longitudinal wake potential, for the higher mode losses, and the transverse wake potential, since, for bunches passing slightly off axis, the induced transverse forces will tend to cause beam break up. The longitudinal and transverse wakes of the SLAC structure presented here, were calculated by computer using the modal method, and including an analytic extension for higher modes. (Auth.)

  9. Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.

  10. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available simple decay process to restore equilibrium. More complicated dynamics are involved, which requires deeper investigations. REFERENCES [1] Nye, J. F. and Berry, M. V., ?Dislocations in wave trains,? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165?190 (1974). [2] Dennis..., J., Zambrini, R., Dennis, M., and Vasnetsov, M., ?Angular momentum of optical vortex arrays,? Opt. Express 14, 938?949 (2006). [27] Berry, M. V., ?Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent gaussian random waves,? J. Phys...

  11. Coupled wake boundary layer model of windfarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    We present a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a windfarm. The model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake expansion/superposition approach with a top-down model for the overall windfarm boundary layer structure. Wake models capture the effect of turbine positioning, while the top-down approach represents the interaction between the windturbine wakes and the atmospheric boundary layer. Each portion of the CWBL model requires specification of a parameter that is unknown a-priori. The wake model requires the wake expansion rate, whereas the top-down model requires the effective spanwise turbine spacing within which the model's momentum balance is relevant. The wake expansion rate is obtained by matching the mean velocity at the turbine from both approaches, while the effective spanwise turbine spacing is determined from the wake model. Coupling of the constitutive components of the CWBL model is achieved by iterating these parameters until convergence is reached. We show that the CWBL model predictions compare more favorably with large eddy simulation results than those made with either the wake or top-down model in isolation and that the model can be applied successfully to the Horns Rev and Nysted windfarms. The `Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by NWO, and NSF Grant #1243482.

  12. Multi-stage wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Wei.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs

  13. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  14. Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.

  15. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  16. Using a cylindrical vortex model to assess the induction zone infront of aligned and yawed rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    2015-01-01

    . The mean relative error is estimated in the induction zone and foundto be below 0.4% for the aligned flows tested and below 1.3% for the yawed test cases. Thecomputational time required by the analytical model is in the order of thousands of timesless than the one required by the actuator disk simulation.......Analytical formulae for the velocity field induced by a cylindrical vortex wake model areapplied to assess the induction zone in front of aligned and yawed rotors. The results arecompared to actuator disk (AD) simulations for different operating conditions, includingfinite tip-speed ratios...

  17. Vortex lattice modelling of winglets on wind turbine blades. 3. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doessing, M.

    2007-08-15

    The power production of wind turbines can be increased by the use of winglets without increasing the swept area. This makes them suitable for sites with restrictions in rotor diameter and in wind farms. The present project aims at understanding how winglets influences the flow and the aerodynamic forces on wind turbine blades. A free wake vortex lattice code and a fast design algorithm for a horizontal axis wind turbine under steady conditions has been developed. 2 winglet designs are treated in detail. (au)

  18. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  19. Some observations of tip-vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, R. E. A.; Arakeri, V. H.; Higuchi, H.

    1991-08-01

    Cavitation has been observed in the trailing vortex system of an elliptic platform hydrofoil. A complex dependence on Reynolds number and gas content is noted at inception. Some of the observations can be related to tension effects associated with the lack of sufficiently large-sized nuclei. Inception measurements are compared with estimates of pressure in the vortex obtained from LDV measurements of velocity within the vortex. It is concluded that a complete correlation is not possible without knowledge of the fluctuating levels of pressure in tip-vortex flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory flows. When cavitation is fully developed, the observed tip-vortex trajectory shows a surprising lack of dependence on any of the physical parameters varied, such as angle of attack, Reynolds number, cavitation number, and dissolved gas content.

  20. The Influence of Waves on the Near-Wake of an Axial-Flow Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Flow field results are presented for the near-wake of an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine in the presence of surface gravity waves. The turbine is a 1/25 scale, 0.8 m diameter, two bladed turbine based on the U.S. Department of Energy's Reference Model 1 tidal current turbine. Measurements were obtained in the large towing tank facility at the U.S. Naval Academy with the turbine towed at a constant carriage speed and a tip speed ratio selected to provide maximum power. The turbine has been shown to be nearly scale independent for these conditions. Velocity measurements were obtained using an in-house designed and manufactured, submersible, planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) system at streamwise distances of up to two diameters downstream of the rotor plane. Phase averaged results for steady and unsteady conditions are presented for comparison showing further expansion of the wake in the presence of waves as compared to the quiescent case. The impact of waves on turbine tip vortex characteristics is also examined showing variation in core radius, swirl velocity, and circulation with wave phase. Some aspects of the highly coherent wake observed in the steady case are recognized in the unsteady wake, however, the unsteady velocities imposed by the waves, particularly the vertical velocity component, appears to convect tip vortices into the wake, potentially enhancing energy transport and accelerating the re-energization process.

  1. Experimental study of surface pattern effects on the propulsive performance and wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Justin; Kumar, Rajeev; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    Force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the propulsive performance and wake structure of rigid, bio-inspired trapezoidal pitching panels. In the literature, it has been demonstrated that quantities such as thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency are affected by changes in the surface characteristics of a pitching panel or foil. More specifically, the variation of surface pattern produces significant changes in wake structure and dynamics, especially in the distribution of vorticity in the wake. Force measurements and PIV data were collected for multiple surface patterns chosen to mimic fish surface morphology over a Strouhal number range of 0.17 to 0.56. Performance quantities are compared with the three-dimensional vortex wake structure for both the patterned and smooth panels to determine the nature and magnitude of surface pattern effects in terms of thrust produced, drag reduced, and wake vortices reshaped and reorganized. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0418.

  2. ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by...

  4. Quantum Kinematics of Bosonic Vortex Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, G.A.; Owczarek, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Poisson structure for vortex filaments (loops and arcs) in 2D ideal incompressible fluid is analyzed in detail. Canonical coordinates and momenta on coadjoint orbits of the area-preserving diffeomorphism group, associated with such vortices, are found. The quantum space of states in the simplest case of ''bosonic'' vortex loops is built within a geometric quantization approach to the description of a quantum fluid. Fock-like structure and non-local creation and annihilation operators of quantum vortex filaments are introduced

  5. Distributed amplifier using Josephson vortex flow transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, D.P.; Beyer, J.B.; Nordman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A wide-band traveling wave amplifier using vortex flow transistors is proposed. A vortex flow transistor is a long Josephson junction used as a current controlled voltage source. The dual nature of this device to the field effect transistor is exploited. A circuit model of this device is proposed and a distributed amplifier utilizing 50 vortex flow transistors is predicted to have useful gain to 100 GHz

  6. Exotic wakes of flapping fins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis

    We present, in 8 chapters, experiments on and numerical simulations of bodies flapping in a fluid. Focus is predominantly on a rigid foil, a model fish, that performs prescribed pitching oscillations where the foil rotates around its leading edge. In a flowing soap film is measured, with unpreced......We present, in 8 chapters, experiments on and numerical simulations of bodies flapping in a fluid. Focus is predominantly on a rigid foil, a model fish, that performs prescribed pitching oscillations where the foil rotates around its leading edge. In a flowing soap film is measured......-speed and the strength ratio of the vortices formed at the foil’s leading and trailing edge. The simulated vortex particles and measured thickness variations in the soap film show similar behaviour which indicates that the soap film provides a good approximation the flow of a two-dimensional incompressible and Newtonian...

  7. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  8. Wake field in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Berezhiani, V.I.

    1993-03-01

    We study the creation of wake field in cold electron positron plasma by electron bunches. In the resulting plasma inhomogeneity we study the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse. In is found that wake fields can change the frequency of the radiation substantially. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  9. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...

  10. The sleep-wake-cycle: basic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E

    1989-11-01

    The physiologic characteristics of the sleep-wake states have been well defined and some of the chemical and neuron systems that participate in the cyclic generation and maintenance of these states have been identified. The actual dynamic process by which these systems interact to generate the basic sleep-wake cycle, however, remains a mystery.

  11. The bathtub vortex in a rotating container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.

    2006-01-01

    We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...... expansion approximation of the central vortex core and reduce the model to a single first-order equation. We solve the equation numerically and find that the axial velocity depends linearly on height whereas the azimuthal velocity is almost independent of height. We discuss the model of the bathtub vortex...

  12. Leapfrogging of multiple coaxial viscous vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Lou, J.; Lim, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    A recent theoretical study [Borisov, Kilin, and Mamaev, “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging, choreographies and the stability problem,” Regular Chaotic Dyn. 18, 33 (2013); Borisov et al., “The dynamics of vortex rings: Leapfrogging in an ideal and viscous fluid,” Fluid Dyn. Res. 46, 031415 (2014)] shows that when three coaxial vortex rings travel in the same direction in an incompressible ideal fluid, each of the vortex rings alternately slips through (or leapfrogs) the other two ahead. Here, we use a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate viscous vortex rings with an identical initial circulation, radius, and separation distance with the aim of studying how viscous effect influences the outcomes of the leapfrogging process. For the case of two identical vortex rings, our computation shows that leapfrogging can be achieved only under certain favorable conditions, which depend on Reynolds number, vortex core size, and initial separation distance between the two rings. For the case of three coaxial vortex rings, the result differs from the inviscid model and shows that the second vortex ring always slips through the leading ring first, followed by the third ring slipping through the other two ahead. A simple physical model is proposed to explain the observed behavior

  13. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  14. Vortex Ring Dynamics in Radially Confined Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley; Niebel, Casandra; Jung, Sunghwan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2010-11-01

    Vortex ring dynamics have been studied extensively in semi-infinite quiescent volumes. However, very little is known about vortex-ring formation in wall-bounded domains where vortex wall interaction will affect both the vortex ring pinch-off and propagation velocity. This study addresses this limitation and studies vortex formation in radially confined domains to analyze the affect of vortex-ring wall interaction on the formation and propagation of the vortex ring. Vortex rings were produced using a pneumatically driven piston cylinder arrangement and were ejected into a long cylindrical tube which defined the confined downstream domain. A range of confinement domains were studied with varying confinement diameters Velocity field measurements were performed using planar Time Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (TRDPIV) and were processed using an in-house developed cross-correlation PIV algorithm. The experimental analysis was used to facilitate the development of a theoretical model to predict the variations in vortex ring circulation over time within confined domains.

  15. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  16. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul

    Wind turbine wakes can cause 10-20% annual energy losses in wind farms, and wake turbulence can decrease the lifetime of wind turbine blades. One way of estimating these effects is the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate wind turbines wakes in the atmospheric boundary layer. Since...... this flow is in the high Reynolds number regime, it is mainly dictated by turbulence. As a result, the turbulence modeling in CFD dominates the wake characteristics, especially in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). The present work is dedicated to study and develop RANS-based turbulence models...... verified with a grid dependency study. With respect to the standard k-ε EVM, the k-ε- fp EVM compares better with measurements of the velocity deficit, especially in the near wake, which translates to improved power deficits of the first wind turbines in a row. When the CFD metholody is applied to a large...

  17. Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, J.W.; Schepers, J.G. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the wind speed ratio, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

  18. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214...

  20. Wake development behind paired wings with tip and root trailing vortices: consequences for animal flight force estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Jan T; Henningsson, Per; Thomas, Adrian L R; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments on flapping flight in animals have shown that a variety of unrelated species shed a wake behind left and right wings consisting of both tip and root vortices. Here we present an investigation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of the behaviour and interaction of trailing vortices shed by paired, fixed wings that simplify and mimic the wake of a flying animal with a non-lifting body. We measured flow velocities at five positions downstream of two adjacent NACA 0012 aerofoils and systematically varied aspect ratio, the gap between the wings (corresponding to the width of a non-lifting body), angle of attack, and the Reynolds number. The range of aspect ratios and Reynolds number where chosen to be relevant to natural fliers and swimmers, and insect flight in particular. We show that the wake behind the paired wings deformed as a consequence of the induced flow distribution such that the wingtip vortices convected downwards while the root vortices twist around each other. Vortex interaction and wake deformation became more pronounced further downstream of the wing, so the positioning of PIV measurement planes in experiments on flying animals has an important effect on subsequent force estimates due to rotating induced flow vectors. Wake deformation was most severe behind wings with lower aspect ratios and when the distance between the wings was small, suggesting that animals that match this description constitute high-risk groups in terms of measurement error. Our results, therefore, have significant implications for experimental design where wake measurements are used to estimate forces generated in animal flight. In particular, the downstream distance of the measurement plane should be minimised, notwithstanding the animal welfare constraints when measuring the wake behind flying animals.

  1. Wake development behind paired wings with tip and root trailing vortices: consequences for animal flight force estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Horstmann

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on flapping flight in animals have shown that a variety of unrelated species shed a wake behind left and right wings consisting of both tip and root vortices. Here we present an investigation using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV of the behaviour and interaction of trailing vortices shed by paired, fixed wings that simplify and mimic the wake of a flying animal with a non-lifting body. We measured flow velocities at five positions downstream of two adjacent NACA 0012 aerofoils and systematically varied aspect ratio, the gap between the wings (corresponding to the width of a non-lifting body, angle of attack, and the Reynolds number. The range of aspect ratios and Reynolds number where chosen to be relevant to natural fliers and swimmers, and insect flight in particular. We show that the wake behind the paired wings deformed as a consequence of the induced flow distribution such that the wingtip vortices convected downwards while the root vortices twist around each other. Vortex interaction and wake deformation became more pronounced further downstream of the wing, so the positioning of PIV measurement planes in experiments on flying animals has an important effect on subsequent force estimates due to rotating induced flow vectors. Wake deformation was most severe behind wings with lower aspect ratios and when the distance between the wings was small, suggesting that animals that match this description constitute high-risk groups in terms of measurement error. Our results, therefore, have significant implications for experimental design where wake measurements are used to estimate forces generated in animal flight. In particular, the downstream distance of the measurement plane should be minimised, notwithstanding the animal welfare constraints when measuring the wake behind flying animals.

  2. Effect of High Porosity Screen on the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The change in flow characteristics downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder surrounded by a permeable cylinder (outer cylinder made of a high porosity screen was investigated in shallow water using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique. The diameter of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder and the water height were kept constant during the experiments as d = 50 mm, D = 100 mm and hw = 50 mm, respectively. The depth-averaged free stream velocity was also kept constant as U = 180 mm/s which corresponded to a Reynolds number of Red = 9000 based on the inner cylinder diameter. It was shown that the outer permeable cylinder had a substantialeffect on the vortex formation and consequent vortex shedding downstream of the circular cylinder, especially in the near wake. The time averaged vorticity layers, streamlines and velocity vector field depict that the location of the interaction of vortices considerably changed by the presence of the outer cylinder. Turbulent statistics clearly demonstrated that in comparison to the natural cylinder, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses decreased remarkably downstream of the inner cylinder. Moreover, spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations showed that the vortex shedding frequency significantly reduced compared to the natural cylinder case.

  3. Vortex interactions in a two side-by-side cylinder near-wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.J.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The flow behind two side-by-side circular cylinders is experimentally investigated based on laser-illuminated flow-visualization, particle image velocimetry and hot-wire measurements. The flow is classified as three regimes: single street (the cylinder center-to-center spacing T/d 2.0). Special attention is given to the regime of 1.2 2.0, the flow structure change from the anti-phase to in-phase mode starts with a phase shift between gap vortices. The dynamical role of gap bleeding between cylinders for L/d < 1.2 is also examined

  4. Characterizing cycle-to-cycle variations of the shedding cycle in the turbulent wake of a normal flat plate using generalized phase averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzi, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic vortex shedding in the turbulent wake of a thin-flat plate placed normal to a uniform stream at Reynolds number of 6700 is investigated based on Particle Image Velocimetry experiments. The wake structure and vortex formation are characterized using a generalized phase average (GPA), a refinement of the triple decomposition of Reynolds and Hussain (1970) incorporating elements of mean-field theory (Stuart, 1958). The resulting analysis highlights the importance of cycle-to-cycle variations in characterizing vortex formation, wake topology and the residual turbulent Reynolds Stresses. For example, it is shown that during high-amplitude cycles vorticity is strongly concentrated within the well-organized shed vortices, whereas during low-amplitude cycles the shed vortices are highly distorted resulting in significant modulation of the shedding frequency. It is found that high-amplitude cycles contribute more to the coherent Reynolds stress field while the low-amplitude cycles contribute to the residual stress field. It is further shown that traditional phase-averaging techniques lead to an over-estimation of the residual stress field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  5. The structure of Karman vortex streets in the atmospheric boundary layer derived from large eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, Rieke; Raasch, Siegfried; Etling, Dieter [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie

    2012-06-15

    Karman vortex streets generated in the wake of an idealized island are studied using large eddy simulation (LES). Simulations were carried out under conditions of a dry convective boundary layer, capped by an inversion below the island top. These conditions are more realistic compared to previous studies in which mesoscale models with a uniform stable stratification were used. Several properties of the vortex streets like the shedding period of the vortices and the distances between cyclonic and anti-cyclonic vortices were determined for various values of Froude number and surface heat flux. The main focus of the study was to identify the azimuthally averaged structure of fully developed single vortices, which is presented here for the first time. For this purpose a tracking mechanism was developed which allows to detect and to follow vortices automatically. Because the capping inversion is located below the obstacle top, the vortices extend throughout the whole depth of the mixed layer and their features are almost constant with height. They have a nearly upright vertical axis with a warm core, which is feeded by a convergent near-surface inflow of warm air. The vortex core is dominated by a continuous updraft in the order of 10 cm s{sup -1}, which is associated with a divergent outflow of air at the vortex' top. This flow divergence creates an additional increase in temperature due to a locally sinking inversion, which is probably responsible for the cloud-free eye of many observed vortices. An increase in the surface heat flux is causing a faster decay of the vortices due to stronger boundary layer turbulence. Other vortex features derived from the simulations are very similar to those from previous studies. (orig.)

  6. A numerical study of viscous vortex rings using a spectral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanaway, S. K.; Cantwell, B. J.; Spalart, Philippe R.

    1988-01-01

    Viscous, axisymmetric vortex rings are investigated numerically by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a spectral method designed for this type of flow. The results presented are axisymmetric, but the method is developed to be naturally extended to three dimensions. The spectral method relies on divergence-free basis functions. The basis functions are formed in spherical coordinates using Vector Spherical Harmonics in the angular directions, and Jacobi polynomials together with a mapping in the radial direction. Simulations are performed of a single ring over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re approximately equal gamma/nu), 0.001 less than or equal to 1000, and of two interacting rings. At large times, regardless of the early history of the vortex ring, it is observed that the flow approaches a Stokes solution that depends only on the total hydrodynamic impulse, which is conserved for all time. At small times, from an infinitely thin ring, the propagation speeds of vortex rings of varying Re are computed and comparisons are made with the asymptotic theory by Saffman. The results are in agreement with the theory; furthermore, the error is found to be smaller than Saffman's own estimate by a factor square root ((nu x t)/R squared) (at least for Re=0). The error also decreases with increasing Re at fixed core-to-ring radius ratio, and appears to be independent of Re as Re approaches infinity). Following a single ring, with Re=500, the vorticity contours indicate shedding of vorticity into the wake and a settling of an initially circular core to a more elliptical shape, similar to Norbury's steady inviscid vortices. Finally, we consider the case of leapfrogging vortex rings with Re=1000. The results show severe straining of the inner vortex core in the first pass and merging of the two cores during the second pass.

  7. Spectral function calculation of angle wakes, wake moments, and misalignment wakes for the SLAC Damped Detuned Structures (DDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.; Kroll, N.M.

    1997-05-01

    Transverse wake functions so far reported for the SLAC DDS have been limited to those caused by uniform offset of the drive beam in a straight perfectly aligned structure. The complete description of the betatron oscillations of wake coupled bunches requires an array of wake functions, referred to as moments. Modifications of these arrays induced by structure misalignments are also of interest. In this paper we express the array elements in terms of a spectral function array. Examples are given based upon DDS1

  8. Rotor design optimization using a free wake analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Chua, Kiat

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this effort was to develop a comprehensive performance optimization capability for tiltrotor and helicopter blades. The analysis incorporates the validated EHPIC (Evaluation of Hover Performance using Influence Coefficients) model of helicopter rotor aerodynamics within a general linear/quadratic programming algorithm that allows optimization using a variety of objective functions involving the performance. The resulting computer code, EHPIC/HERO (HElicopter Rotor Optimization), improves upon several features of the previous EHPIC performance model and allows optimization utilizing a wide spectrum of design variables, including twist, chord, anhedral, and sweep. The new analysis supports optimization of a variety of objective functions, including weighted measures of rotor thrust, power, and propulsive efficiency. The fundamental strength of the approach is that an efficient search for improved versions of the baseline design can be carried out while retaining the demonstrated accuracy inherent in the EHPIC free wake/vortex lattice performance analysis. Sample problems are described that demonstrate the success of this approach for several representative rotor configurations in hover and axial flight. Features that were introduced to convert earlier demonstration versions of this analysis into a generally applicable tool for researchers and designers is also discussed.

  9. Vortex capturing vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannetti, L; Gallizio, F; Ottino, G

    2007-01-01

    An analytical-numerical study is presented for an innovative lift vertical axis turbine whose blades are designed with vortex trapping cavities that act as passive flow control devices. The unsteady flow field past one-bladed and two-bladed turbines is described by a combined analytical and numerical method based on conformal mapping and on a blob vortex method

  10. An investigation of the vortex method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.

  11. Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...

  12. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of ion phase space vortexes in the ion two stream region behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are observed in a laboratory experiment. A detailed analysis demonstrates that the evolution of such vortexes is associated with ion-ion beam instabilities and a nonlinear equation for ...

  13. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  14. Alcohol warnings in TV beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Domenech, M M

    1995-05-01

    Mandated warnings are among the few steps Congress has taken to influence the use of legal substances such as alcohol. The usefulness of such warnings in discouraging abuse of alcohol is, however, controversial. This study examines the impact of televised warnings on probable antecedents of belief change not examined in previous research: confidence in beliefs about beer risks or benefits, and cognitive responses to the advertisements. The present study (N = 75 male and female college students) tests four of the warnings recommended in Senate Bill 674 (1993--the "Thurmond bill") edited into randomly sampled television beer advertisements, using a between-subjects treatment-and-control experimental design. The four advertisements or advertisement/warning pairs were counterbalanced and analyzed as a repeated measures factor. The study indicated, as hypothesized, that subjects exposed to warnings tended to have less confidence in their generally skeptical assessments of beer risks--a likely precursor to belief change in resistant populations. Repeated exposure to the advertisements alone also appeared to lead to increased confidence in generally positive assessments of beer benefits, whereas repeated exposure to warnings led to decreased confidence in such assessments. Repeated exposure to warnings also may have primed negative reactions to subsequent beer advertisements. These results suggest mechanisms by which alcohol warnings may over time influence beliefs. Measures used here may serve as useful criterion variables in future studies on warnings. Further attention to optimizing warning content and presentation is recommended.

  15. Panel method for the wake effects on the aerodynamics of vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Udit; Rempfer, Dietmar

    2011-11-01

    A formulation based on the panel method is implemented for studying the unsteady aerodynamics of straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbines. A combination of source and vortex distributions is used to represent an airfoil in Darrieus type motion. Our approach represents a low-cost computational technique that takes into account the dynamic changes in angle of attack of the blade during a cycle. A time-stepping mechanism is introduced for the wake convection, and its effects on the aerodynamic forces on the blade are discussed. The focus of the study is to describe the effect of the trailing wakes on the upstream flow conditions and coefficient of performance of the turbines. Results show a decrease in Cp until the wake structure develops and assumes a quasi-steady behavior. A comparison with other models such as single and multiple streamtubes is discussed, and optimization of the blade pitch angle is performed to increase the instantaneous torque and hence the power output from the turbine.

  16. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wen Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes seems less affected by the typhoon Soulik, because the shortest distance of typhoon Soulik is 250 km away from Green Island and wind speed near Green Island is small. Moreover, Kuroshio currents increase when flow is in the same direction as the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon, and vice versa. This finding is in favorable agreement with the TOROS (Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System observed data. Simulations of Kuroshio and Holland’s typhoon model successfully reproduces the downstream recirculation and vortex street. Numerical results reveal that the slow moving typhoon has a more significant impact on the Kuroshio and downstream Green Island wakes than the fast moving typhoon does. The rightward bias phenomenon is evident—Kuroshio currents increase (decrease in the right (left of the moving typhoon’s track, due to the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon.

  17. Unsteady flow challenges tracking performance at vortex shedding frequencies without disrupting lift mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Megan; Sponberg, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Birds, insects, and many animals use unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to achieve stable hovering flight. Natural environments are often characterized by unsteady flows causing animals to dynamically respond to perturbations while performing complex tasks, such as foraging. Little is known about how unsteady flow around an animal interacts with already unsteady flow in the environment or how this impacts performance. We study how the environment impacts maneuverability to reveal any coupling between body dynamics and aerodynamics for hawkmoths, Manduca sexta,tracking a 3D-printed robotic flower in a wind tunnel. We also observe the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a known lift-generating mechanism for insect flight with smoke visualization. Moths in still and unsteady air exhibit near perfect tracking at low frequencies, but tracking in the flower wake results in larger overshoot at mid-range. Smoke visualization of the flower wake shows that the dominant vortex shedding corresponds to the same frequency band as the increased overshoot. Despite the large effect on flight dynamics, the LEV remains bound to the wing and thorax throughout the wingstroke. In general, unsteady wind seems to decrease maneuverability, but LEV stability seems decoupled from changes in flight dynamics.

  18. Effect of slip on vortex dynamics and forcing of a superhydrophobic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, Pranesh; Daniello, Robert; Ferrer, Nangelie; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have been shown to produce significant drag reduction for both laminar and turbulent flows of water through large and small-scale channels. In this presentation, a series of experiments will be presented which investigate the effect of superhydrophobic-induced slip on the vortex dynamics in the wake of a cylinder and the change in the drag and lift forces thereof. In these experiments, circular cylinders are coated with a series of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated from PDMS with well-defined micron-sized patterns of surface roughness. Using force measurements and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), we will show that these surfaces have a noticeable effect on the drag/lift and vortex dynamics of cylinders. When compared to a smooth, no-slip cylinder, we will show that the lift/drag and the amount of raw vorticity that is shed in the wake of the superhydrophobic cylinder decreases. In addition, we will show that the forcing is sensitive to changes of feature spacing, size and orientation.

  19. Transient dynamics of the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil using fluidic vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siauw, W.L. [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Bonnet, J.-P., E-mail: Jean-Paul.Bonnet@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Tensi, J., E-mail: Jean.Tensi@lea.univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Cordier, L., E-mail: Laurent.Cordier@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Noack, B.R., E-mail: Bernd.Noack@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Cattafesta, L., E-mail: cattafes@ufl.ed [Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion (FCAAP), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The unsteady activation or deactivation of fluidic vortex generators on a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied to understand the transient dynamics of flow separation control. The Reynolds number is high enough and the boundary layer is tripped, so the boundary layer is fully turbulent prior to separation. Conditional PIV of the airfoil wake is obtained phase-locked to the actuator trigger signal, allowing reconstruction of the transient processes. When the actuators are impulsively turned on, the velocity field in the near wake exhibit a complex transient behavior associated with the formation and shedding of a starting vortex. When actuation is stopped, a more gradual process of the separation dynamics is found. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature in comparable configurations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of phase-locked velocity fields reveals low-dimensional transient dynamics for the attachment and separation processes, with 98% of the fluctuation energy captured by the first four modes. The behavior is quantitatively well captured by a four-dimensional dynamical system with the corresponding mode amplitudes. Analysis of the first temporal POD modes accurately determines typical time scales for attachment and separation processes to be respectively t{sup +}=10 and 20 in conventional non-dimensional values. This study adds to experimental investigations of this scale with essential insight for the targeted closed-loop control.

  20. Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Leesburg, VA, Apr. 25-27, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caflisch, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on the mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: mathematical analysis of vortex dynamics, improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows, the relation between thin vortex layer and vortex sheets, computations of broadband instabilities in a class of closed-streamline flows, vortex-sheet dynamics and hyperfunction theory, free surface vortex method with weak viscous effects, iterative method for computing steady vortex flow systems, invariant measures for the two-dimensional Euler flow, similarity flows containing two-branched vortex sheets, strain-induced vortex stripping, convergence of the vortex method for vortex sheets, boundary conditions and deterministic vortex methods for the Navier-Stokes equations, vorticity creation boundary conditions, vortex dynamics of stratified flows, vortex breakdown, numerical studies of vortex reconnection, vortex lattices in theory and practice, dynamics of vortex structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer, and energy of a vortex lattice configuration

  1. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L.

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arodź, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component.

  3. High Magnetic Field Vortex Microscopy by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, V. F.; Sigmund, E. E.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P.; Moulton, W. G.

    2001-03-01

    At low temperatures the ^17O NMR spectrum of HTS exhibits a characteristic vortex lattice line shape. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation rate, T_1-1, across the vortex spectrum represent a probe of low-energy quasiparticle excitations as a function of distance from the vortex core. We report ^17O(2,3) T_1-1 measurements of YBa_2Cu_3O7 at low temperatures in magnetic fields up to 37 T. We find that the rate increases on approaching the vortex core. In the vortex core region at 37 T we observe an additional increase in the relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the rate will also be discussed. Work at Northwestern University is supported by the NSF (DMR 91-20000) through the Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity.

  4. Wind Turbine Wake in Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan Mikael

    to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-ε turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply......) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-ε model’s issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake...

  5. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    , modeling, and predicting this complex and interdependent system is therefore critical to understanding and modeling wind farm power losses due to wakes, and to optimizing wind farm layout. This paper quantifies the impact of these variables on the power loss due to wakes using data from the large offshore......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...

  6. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  7. Combustion heat release effects on asymmetric vortex shedding from bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Caleb Nathaniel

    2011-07-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of oscillatory combustion processes due to vortex shedding from bluff body flame holders. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of combustion process heat release upon the Benard-von Karman (BVK) instability in reacting bluff body wakes. For this purpose, spatial and temporal heat release distributions in bluff body-stabilized combustion of liquid Jet-A fuel with high-temperature, vitiated air were characterized over a wide range of operating conditions. Two methods of fuel injection were investigated. In the first method, referred to as close-coupled fuel injection, the fuel was supplied via discrete liquid jets injected perpendicular to the cross-flowing air stream just upstream of the bluff body trailing edge, thereby limiting fuel and air mixing prior to burning. The fuel was introduced well upstream (˜0.5 m) of the bluff body in the second fuel injection mode, resulting in a well-evaporated and mixed reactants stream. The resulting BVK heat release dynamics were compared between these fuel injection modes in order to investigate their dependence upon the spatial distributions of fuel-air ratio and heat release in the reacting wake. When close-coupled fuel injection was used, the BVK heat release dynamics increased in amplitude with increasing global equivalence ratio, reaching a maximum just before globally rich blow out of the combustion process occurred. This was due to a decrease in fuel entrainment into the near-wake as the fuel spray penetrated further into the cross-flow, which reduced the local heat release and equivalence ratio (indicated by CH* and C2*/CH* chemiluminescence, respectively). As a result, the density gradient across the near-wake reaction zone decreased, resulting in less damping of vorticity due to dilatation. In addition, unburned reactants were entrained into the recirculation zone due to the injection of discrete liquid fuel jets in close proximity to the wake. This

  8. Roughness Effects on the Formation of a Leading Edge Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Cassidy; Lang, Amy; Wahidi, Redha; Wilroy, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Microscopic scales cover the wings of Monarch butterflies, creating a patterned surface that acts as a natural energy capture mechanism. This patterning is thought to delay the growth of the leading edge vortex (LEV) produced by the flapping motion of a wing. Increased skin friction caused by the scales leads to a weaker LEV being shed into the butterfly's wake, lessening drag and increasing flight efficiency. To test how this roughness effects LEV formation, a plate of random roughness was designed in SolidWorks and printed on the Objet 30 Pro 3D printer. A 2x3x5 cubic foot tow tank was used to test the rough plate at Reynold's numbers of 1500, 3000, and 6000 (velocities of 8, 16, and 32 mm/s) at an angle of attack of 45 degrees. Images were captured of the LEV generated when the plate was towed upwards through the particle-seeded flow. These images were used to determine the XY velocity of the particles using a technique called Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Codes written in MATLAB were used to track and measure the strength of the LEV. Circulation values for the randomly-rough plate were then compared to the same values generated in a previous experiment that used a smooth plate and a grooved plate to determine the effect of the patterning on vortex development. Funding for this research project was provided by the National Science Foundation under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program (REU Supplement CBET 1628600 under CBET 1335848).

  9. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pinzón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization.  Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.

  10. Model-based observer and feedback control design for a rigid Joukowski foil in a Kármán vortex street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Brian A; Paley, Derek A

    2018-03-14

    Obstacles and swimming fish in flow create a wake with an alternating left/right vortex pattern known as a Kármán vortex street and reverse Kármán vortex street, respectively. An energy-efficient fish behavior resembling slaloming through the vortex street is called Kármán gaiting. This paper describes the use of a bioinspired array of pressure sensors on a Joukowski foil to estimate and control flow-relative position in a Kármán vortex street using potential flow theory, recursive Bayesian filtering, and trajectory-tracking feedback control. The Joukowski foil is fixed in downstream position in a flowing water channel and free to move on air bearings in the cross-stream direction by controlling its angle of attack to generate lift. Inspired by the lateral-line neuromasts found in fish, the sensing and control scheme is validated using off-the-shelf pressure sensors in an experimental testbed that includes a flapping device to create vortices. We derive a potential flow model that describes the flow over a Joukowski foil in a Kármán vortex street and identify an optimal path through a Kármán vortex street using empirical observability. The optimally observable trajectory is one that passes through each vortex in the street. The estimated vorticity and location of the Kármán vortex street are used in a closed-loop control to track either the optimally observable path or the energetically efficient gait exhibited by fish. Results from the closed-loop control experiments in the flow tank show that the artificial lateral line in conjunction with a potential flow model and Bayesian estimator allow the robot to perform fish-like slaloming behavior in a Kármán vortex street. This work is a precursor to an autonomous robotic fish sensing the wake of another fish and/or performing pursuit and schooling behavior.

  11. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  12. Clashing of risers due to vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissier, D. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Marseille (ESIM), 13 - Marseille (France)]|[Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Scolan, Y.M. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Marseille (ESIM), 13 - Marseille (France); Fontaine, E. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    Phenomena such as Vortex Induced Vibrations can potentially damage offshore risers, especially in ar ay configurations. Due to wake interferences, amplification of VIV is observed leading to large displacements which are no more self limited to one di meter as in the case of VIV. In this context, clash ng becomes also an issue. In order to study this problems, Institut Francais du Petrole is developing a Computational Fluid Dynamics code, DeepFlow, devoted to the simulation of two-dimensional flows around risers. The extension to three-dimensional configurations follows from a strip theory for the fluid flow, coupled to a structural model for flexible pipes (DeepLines). The numerical method (Etienne s 1999) developed in DeepFlow allows to solve the two-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations through a mixed representation (Eulerian and Lagrangian) of the flow properties: vorticity and turbulence. The Eulerian method is necessary in the close vicinity of the bodies in order to capture the boundary layer effects with accuracy, whereas the Lagrangian representation, based on a grid-less method is suitable for the flow in the wake. In the present pa-per, this approach is applied to study the flow around two freely moving cylinders. For this test case, there are some numerical results (Sagatum et al, 2002), however instabilities have been experimentally identified (Paidoussis et al, 1998; Zdravkovich, 1985, 2003). The approach has also been improved to solve accurately the interstitial flow when the bodies are very close to each other. Results from a Chimera approach are presented. (authors)

  13. Wind and Wake Sensing with UAV Formation Flight: System Development and Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Trenton Jameson

    Wind turbulence including atmospheric turbulence and wake turbulence have been widely investigated; however, only recently it become possible to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a validation tool for research in this area. Wind can be a major contributing factor of adverse weather for aircraft. More importantly, it is an even greater risk towards UAVs because of their small size and weight. Being able to estimate wind fields and gusts can potentially provide substantial benefits for both unmanned and manned aviation. Possible applications include gust suppression for improving handling qualities, a better warning system for high wind encounters, and enhanced control for small UAVs during flight. On the other hand, the existence of wind can be advantageous since it can lead to fuel savings and longer duration flights through dynamic soaring or thermal soaring. Wakes are an effect of the lift distribution across an aircraft's wing or tail. Wakes can cause substantial disturbances when multiple aircraft are moving through the same airspace. In fact, the perils from an aircraft flying through the wake of another aircraft is a leading cause of the delay between takeoff times at airports. Similar to wind, though, wakes can be useful for energy harvesting and increasing an aircraft's endurance when flying in formation which can be a great advantage to UAVs because they are often limited in flight time due to small payload capacity. Formation flight can most often be seen in manned aircraft but can be adopted for use with unmanned systems. Autonomous flight is needed for flying in the "sweet spot" of the generated wakes for energy harvesting as well as for thermal soaring during long duration flights. For the research presented here formation flight was implemented for the study of wake sensing and gust alleviation. The major contributions of this research are in the areas of a novel technique to estimate wind using an Unscented Kalman filter and experimental wake

  14. Analysis of turbulent wake behind a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the classical analytical model for estimation of the rate of wake expansion and the decay of wake velocity deficit in the far wake region behind a wind turbine. The relations for a fully turbulent axisymmetric far wake were derived by applying the mass and mome...

  15. On the wake of a Darrieus turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Base, T. E.; Phillips, P.; Robertson, G.; Nowak, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and experimental measurements on the aerodynamic decay of a wake from high performance vertical axis wind turbine are discussed. In the initial experimental study, the wake downstream of a model Darrieus rotor, 28 cm diameter and a height of 45.5 cm, was measured in a Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel. The wind turbine was run at the design tip speed ratio of 5.5. It was found that the wake decayed at a slower rate with distance downstream of the turbine, than a wake from a screen with similar troposkein shape and drag force characteristics as the Darrieus rotor. The initial wind tunnel results indicated that the vertical axis wind turbines should be spaced at least forty diameters apart to avoid mutual power depreciation greater than ten per cent.

  16. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  17. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  18. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  19. THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D.; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the discovery of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep in the late 1950s, identification of the neural circuitry underlying wakefulness, sleep onset and the alternation between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep has been an active area of investigation. Synchronization and desynchronization of cortical activity as detected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is due to a corticothalamocortical loop, intrinsic cortical oscillators, monoaminergic and cholinergic afferent input to the thalamus, and the basal forebrain cholinergic input directly to the cortex. The monoaminergic and cholinergic systems are largely wake-promoting; the brainstem cholinergic nuclei are also involved in REM sleep regulation. These wake-promoting systems receive excitatory input from the hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin system. Sleep-promoting nuclei are GABAergic in nature and found in the preoptic area, brainstem and lateral hypothalamus. Although the pons is critical for the expression of REM sleep, recent research has suggested that melanin-concentrating hormone/GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus "gate" REM sleep. The temporal distribution of sleep and wakefulness is due to interaction between the circadian system and the sleep homeostatic system. Although the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei contain the circadian pacemaker, the neural circuitry underlying the sleep homeostat is less clear. Prolonged wakefulness results in the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, possibly from glial sources, which is an important feedback molecule for the sleep homeostatic system. Cortical neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) neurons may also play a role in propagating slow waves through the cortex in NREM sleep. Several neuropeptides and other neurochemicals likely play important roles in sleep/wake control. Although the control of sleep and wakefulness seemingly involves multiple redundant systems, each of these systems provides a vulnerability that can result in sleep/wake dysfunction that may

  20. Experimental investigation of main rotor wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experimental results of rotor wake in hover mode are presented. The experiments were carried out with a rotor rig model in the T-1K wind tunnel in Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute. The rotor consisted of four identical blades. The Q-criterion was used to identify tip vortices for a 2D case. The results were then compared with two different wake models.

  1. Particle Entrainment in Spherical-Cap Wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Norbert G W; Delfos, Rene; Ooms, Gijs; Westerweel, Jerry, E-mail: n.g.w.warncke@tudelft.nl [Laboratory for Aero- and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2011-12-22

    In this work we study the preferential concentration of small particles in the turbulent wake behind a spherical-cap object. We present a model predicting the mean particle concentration in the near-wake as a function of the characteristic Stokes number of the problem, the turbulence level and the Froude number. We compare the model with our experimental results on this flow, measured in a vertical water tunnel.

  2. Wake field in matched kicker magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent transverse instability observed in KEK booster proton synchrotron has been reported previously. This instability is induced by the interaction of the beam with kicker magnet for the fast beam extraction. To understand the mechanism completely, it is necessary to know the wake field in detail. Here, the wake field or induced current in the kicker magnet which is terminated with matched resistance is considered

  3. On the self-induced motion of a helical vortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.; Wood, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity field in the immediate vicinity of a curved vortex comprises a circulation around the vortex, a component due to the vortex curvature, and a ‘remainder’ due to the more distant parts of the vortex. The first two components are relatively well understood but the remainder is known only

  4. The observation of a triangular vortex in a rotating fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A dye visualization study of a triangular vortex in a rotating fluid is presented. The emergence and subsequent break-up of the vortex structure are described. Soon after the generation of the triangular vortex it becomes unstable: two satellite vortices merge and pair with the core vortex into an

  5. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

  6. Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanierschot, M.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is investigated experimentally by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, analysis of the instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) vortical structures shows the existence of a vortex core along the central axis which breaks up into a double helix downstream. The winding sense of this double helix is opposite to the swirl direction (m =-2 ) and it is wrapped around a central vortex breakdown bubble. This structure is quite different from double helix breakdown found in laminar flows where the helix is formed in the wake of the bubble and not upstream. The double helix precesses around the central axis of the jet with a precessing frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27.

  7. Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  8. Stochastic Wake Modelling Based on POD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bastine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, large eddy simulation data is analysed to investigate a new stochastic modeling approach for the wake of a wind turbine. The data is generated by the large eddy simulation (LES model PALM combined with an actuator disk with rotation representing the turbine. After applying a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, three different stochastic models for the weighting coefficients of the POD modes are deduced resulting in three different wake models. Their performance is investigated mainly on the basis of aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in the wake. Three different load cases and their statistical characteristics are compared for the original LES, truncated PODs and the stochastic wake models including different numbers of POD modes. It is shown that approximately six POD modes are enough to capture the load dynamics on large temporal scales. Modeling the weighting coefficients as independent stochastic processes leads to similar load characteristics as in the case of the truncated POD. To complete this simplified wake description, we show evidence that the small-scale dynamics can be captured by adding to our model a homogeneous turbulent field. In this way, we present a procedure to derive stochastic wake models from costly computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations or elaborated experimental investigations. These numerically efficient models provide the added value of possible long-term studies. Depending on the aspects of interest, different minimalized models may be obtained.

  9. VIRTUAL REALITY IN WAKING AND DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  10. Generalized impedances and wakes in asymmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; Wagner, A.; Zotter, B.

    1998-01-01

    In rotationally structures, the dominant m = 0 longitudinal impedance does not depend on the offsets of either the leading or the trailing particles, while the dominant m = 1 transverse impedance is proportional to the offset of the leading particles, while it is still independent of the offsets of the trailing ones. This behavior is no longer true in rotationally non-symmetric structures, where in general all impedances depend on the offsets of both the leading and the trailing particles. The same behavior is shown by wake functions and wake potentials. The concept of generalized impedances or generalized wake functions must be used to calculate the effect of leading particles on trailing ones with different offsets, each described by two transverse coordinates. This dependence of wake potentials on four additional parameters (two for each offset) would make their use very cumbersome. Fortunately, it was found that the transverse wake potentials can be separated into superpositions of dipolar components, which are proportional to the offset of the leading bunch, and quadrupolar components, which are proportional to the offset of the trailing particles. Higher multipole components are much smaller, and can be neglected for most structures without rotational symmetry. In this report, the authors derive analytical expressions for these multipolar components, which permits estimates of the size of the neglected terms. In particular, when structures have one or two transverse symmetry planes, the expressions simplify and explain the behavior of wake potentials which had been computed for rotationally non-symmetric structures

  11. Vortex Ring Interaction with a Heated Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Krueger, Paul S.

    2008-11-01

    Previous examinations of vortex rings impinging on porous screens has shown the reformation of the vortex ring with a lower velocity after passing through the screen, the creation of secondary vortices, and mixing. A heated screen could, in principle, alter the vortex-screen interaction by changing the local liquid viscosity and density. In the present investigation, a mechanical piston-cylinder vortex ring generator was used to create vortex rings in an aqueous sucrose solution. The rings impinged on a screen of horizontal wires that were heated using electrical current. The flow was visualized with food color and video imaging. Tests with and without heat were conducted at a piston stroke-to-jet diameter ratio of 4 and a jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1000. The vortex rings slowed after passing through the screen, but in tests with heat, they maintained a higher fraction of their before-screen velocity due to reduction in fluid viscosity near the wires. In addition, small ``fingers'' that developed on the front of the vortex rings as they passed through the screen exhibited positive buoyancy effects in the heated case.

  12. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  13. Phase diagram of a lattice of pancake vortex molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Crisan, A.; Shivagan, D.D.; Iyo, A.; Shirage, P.M.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Terada, N.

    2009-01-01

    On a superconducting bi-layer with thickness much smaller than the penetration depth, λ, a vortex molecule might form. A vortex molecule is composed of two fractional vortices and a soliton wall. The soliton wall can be regarded as a Josephson vortex missing magnetic flux (degenerate Josephson vortex) due to an incomplete shielding. The magnetic energy carried by fractional vortices is less than in the conventional vortex. This energy gain can pay a cost to form a degenerate Josephson vortex. The phase diagram of the vortex molecule is rich because of its rotational freedom.

  14. Vortex dynamics in superconducting Corbino disk at zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Y.; Ohta, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the radial current driven vortex dynamics in the Corbino disk sample at zero field, by using a logarithmically interacting point vortex model involving effect of temperature, random pinning centers, and disk wall confinement force. We also take into account both the current induced vortex pair nucleation and the vortex pair annihilation processes in the model. Simulation results demonstrate that the vortex motion induced voltage exhibits almost periodic pulse behavior in time, observed experimentally, for a certain range of the model parameters. Such an anomalous behavior is thought to originate from large fluctuations of the vortex number due to the collective dynamics of this vortex system

  15. New scanning technique for the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir

    2012-04-01

    In the optical vortex microscopy the focused Gaussian beam with optical vortex scans a sample. An optical vortex can be introduced into a laser beam with the use of a special optical element--a vortex lens. When moving the vortex lens, the optical vortex changes its position inside the spot formed by a focused laser beam. This effect can be used as a new precise scanning technique. In this paper, we study the optical vortex behavior at the sample plane. We also estimate if the new scanning technique results in observable effects that could be used for a phase object detection.

  16. Aspects of the influence of an oscillating mini-flap upon the near wake of an airfoil NACA 4412

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delnero, J S; Di Leo, J Maranon; Colman, J; Garcia Sainz, M; Munoz, F; Herouard, N; Camocardi, M E, E-mail: delnero@ing.unlp.edu.ar [LaCLyFA, Departamento Aeronautica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 116 entre 47 y 48, CP 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    A NACA 4412 airfoil was tested, in a boundary layer wind tunnel, with the aim to study the effect of a Gurney mini-flap, as an active and passive flow control device submitted to a turbulent flow field. The main objective was the experimental determination of flow pattern characteristics downstream the airfoil in the near wake. The untwisted wing model used for the experiments had 80 cm wingspan and 50 cm chord, with airfoil NACA 4412. The mini-flap was located on the lower surface at a distance, from the trailing edge, of 8%c (c airfoil chord). The Reynolds number, based upon the wing chord and the mean free stream velocity was 326,000 and 489,000. The turbulence intensity was 1.8%. The model was located into the wind tunnel between two panels, in order to assure a close approximation to two-dimensional flow over the model. As an active control device a rotating mini-flaps, geared by an electromechanical system (which rotate to a 30{sup 0}) was constructed. The wake pattern and pressure values near the trailing edge were measured. The results obtained, for this mechanism, show us that the oscillating mini-flap change the wake flow pattern, alleviating the near wake turbulence and enhancing the vortex pair near the trailing edge at the mini-flap level and below that level, magnifying the effect described first by Liebeck. That effect grows with the oscillating frequency. Additionally, the wake alleviation probably affects also the far wake. All of these facts suggest us to continue with the experiments, trying to measure the pressure distribution around the airfoil in all the cases, obtaining the lift and drag characteristics.

  17. Implications of Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence on the Near-Wake Structure of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bhaganagar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence structure in the wake behind a full-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine under the influence of real-time atmospheric inflow conditions has been investigated using actuator-line-model based large-eddy-simulations. Precursor atmospheric boundary layer (ABL simulations have been performed to obtain mean and turbulence states of the atmosphere under stable stratification subjected to two different cooling rates. Wind turbine simulations have revealed that, in addition to wind shear and ABL turbulence, height-varying wind angle and low-level jets are ABL metrics that influence the structure of the turbine wake. Increasing stability results in shallower boundary layers with stronger wind shear, steeper vertical wind angle gradients, lower turbulence, and suppressed vertical motions. A turbulent mixing layer forms downstream of the wind turbines, the strength and size of which decreases with increasing stability. Height dependent wind angle and turbulence are the ABL metrics influencing the lateral wake expansion. Further, ABL metrics strongly impact the evolution of tip and root vortices formed behind the rotor. Two factors play an important role in wake meandering: tip vortex merging due to the mutual inductance form of instability and the corresponding instability of the turbulent mixing layer.

  18. Experimental study of the wake characteristics of a two-blade horizontal axis wind turbine by time-resolved PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG LiRu; CEN KeFa; XING JiangKuan; WANG JianWen; YUAN RenYu; DONG XueQing; MA JianLong; LUO Kun; QIU KunZan; NI MingJiang

    2017-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments of the wake characteristics of a two-blade wind turbine,in the downstream region of 0<x/R< 10,have been carried out.With the help of the time resolved particle image velocimetry (TRPIV),flow properties such as the vortex structure,average velocity,fluctuations velocities and Reynolds stresses are obtained at different tip speed ratios (TSR).It is found that the wind turbine wake flow can be divided into velocity deficit region,velocity remained region and velocity increased region,with generally higher velocity deficit compared with a three-blade wind turbine wake.Once a blade rotates to the reference 0° plane,the tip vortices generate,shed and move downstream with the intensity gradually decreased.The leapfrogging phenomenon of tip vortices caused by the force interaction of adjacent vortices is found and more apparent in the far wake region.The axial fluctuation velocity is larger than radial fluctuation velocity at the blade root region,and the turbulent kinetic energy shares the similar trend as the axial fluctuation velocity.The axial normalized Reynolds normal stress is much larger than the radial normalized Reynolds normal stress and Reynolds shear stress at the blade root region.As the TSR increases,the radial location where the peak axial normalized Reynolds normal stress u u / U2 and axial fluctuation velocity appear descends in the radial direction.

  19. Structures of single vortex and vortex lattice in a d-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Ren, Y.; Ting, C.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of a single vortex and vortex lattice in a superconductor with d x 2 -y 2 symmetry are studied self-consistently employing a recently developed Ginzburg-Landau theory. Near a single vortex, we found that an s-wave component of the order parameter is always induced, and it causes the local magnetic-field distribution and the d-wave order parameter to have a fourfold anisotropy. It is shown that there is a strong correlation between the structure of a single vortex and the shape of the vortex lattice. Our numerical calculation indicates that the structure of the vortex lattice is always oblique except for temperatures very close to T c where it becomes triangular. The possible connection of the result with experiment is also discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. CFD Wake Modelling with a BEM Wind Turbine Sub-Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hallanger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of wind farms using computational fluid dynamics (CFD resolving the flow field around each wind turbine's blades on a moving computational grid is still too costly and time consuming in terms of computational capacity and effort. One strategy is to use sub-models for the wind turbines, and sub-grid models for turbulence production and dissipation to model the turbulent viscosity accurately enough to handle interaction of wakes in wind farms. A wind turbine sub-model, based on the Blade Momentum Theory, see Hansen (2008, has been implemented in an in-house CFD code, see Hallanger et al. (2002. The tangential and normal reaction forces from the wind turbine blades are distributed on the control volumes (CVs at the wind turbine rotor location as sources in the conservation equations of momentum. The classical k-epsilon turbulence model of Launder and Spalding (1972 is implemented with sub-grid turbulence (SGT model, see Sha and Launder (1979 and Sand and Salvesen (1994. Steady state CFD simulations were compared with flow and turbulence measurements in the wake of a model scale wind turbine, see Krogstad and Eriksen (2011. The simulated results compared best with experiments when stalling (boundary layer separation on the wind turbine blades did not occur. The SGT model did improve turbulence level in the wake but seems to smear the wake flow structure. It should be noted that the simulations are carried out steady state not including flow oscillations caused by vortex shedding from tower and blades as they were in the experiments. Further improvement of the simulated velocity defect and turbulence level seems to rely on better parameter estimation to the SGT model, improvements to the SGT model, and possibly transient- instead of steady state simulations.

  1. RANS computations of tip vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaix, Jean; Balarac, Guillaume; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed; Münch, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    The present study is related to the development of the tip vortex cavitation in Kaplan turbines. The investigation is carried out on a simplified test case consisting of a NACA0009 blade with a gap between the blade tip and the side wall. Computations with and without cavitation are performed using a R ANS modelling and a transport equation for the liquid volume fraction. Compared with experimental data, the R ANS computations turn out to be able to capture accurately the development of the tip vortex. The simulations have also highlighted the influence of cavitation on the tip vortex trajectory.

  2. Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.

  3. Vortex dynamics in ferromagnetic/superconducting bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplak, M.Z.; Adamus, Z. [Polish Acad Sci, Inst Phys, PL-02668 Warsaw, (Poland); Konczykowski, M. [CEA, DSM, DRECAM, Lab Solides Irradies, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS-UMR 7642, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Zhu, L.Y.; Chien, C.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys and Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The dependence of vortex dynamics on the geometry of magnetic domain pattern is studied in the superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, in which niobium is a superconductor, and Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy serves as a ferromagnetic layer. Magnetic domain patterns with different density of domains per surface area and different domain size, w, are obtained for Co/Pt with different thickness of Pt. The dense patterns of domains with the size comparable to the magnetic penetration depth (w {>=} {lambda}) produce large vortex pinning and smooth vortex penetration, while less dense patterns with larger domains (w {>=}{>=} {lambda}) enhance pinning less effectively and result in flux jumps during flux motion. (authors)

  4. Interaction of a Boundary Layer with a Turbulent Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piomelli, Ugo

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to study the transition mechanisms on a flat-plate boundary layer interacting with the wake of a bluff body. This is a simplified configuration presented and designed to exemplify the phenomena that occur in multi-element airfoils, in which the wake of an upstream element impinges on a downstream one. Some experimental data is available for this configuration at various Reynolds numbers. The first task carried out was the implementation and validation of the immersed-boundary method. This was achieved by performing calculations of the flow over a cylinder at low and moderate Reynolds numbers. The low-Reynolds number results are discussed, which is enclosed as Appendix A. The high-Reynolds number results are presented in a paper in preparation for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. We performed calculations of the wake-boundary-layer interaction at two Reynolds numbers, Re approximately equal to 385 and 1155. The first case is discussed and a comparison of the two calculations is reported. The simulations indicate that at the lower Reynolds number the boundary layer is buffeted by the unsteady Karman vortex street shed by the cylinder. This is shown: long streaky structures appear in the boundary layer in correspondence of the three-dimensionalities in the rollers. The fluctuations, however, cannot be self-sustained due to the low Reynolds-number, and the flow does not reach a turbulent state within the computational domain. In contrast, in the higher Reynolds-number case, boundary-layer fluctuations persist after the wake has decayed (due, in part, to the higher values of the local Reynolds number Re achieved in this case); some evidence could be observed that a self-sustaining turbulence generation cycle was beginning to be established. A third simulation was subsequently carried out at a higher Reynolds number, Re=3900. This calculation gave results similar to those of the Re=l155 case. Turbulence was established at fairly low

  5. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  6. Vortex formation and instability in the left ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung Bao; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Coffey, Dane; Keefe, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    We study the formation of the mitral vortex ring during early diastolic filling in a patient-specific left ventricle (LV) using direct numerical simulation. The geometry of the left ventricle is reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data of a healthy human subject. The left ventricular kinematics is modeled via a cell-based activation methodology, which is inspired by cardiac electro-physiology and yields physiologic LV wall motion. In the fluid dynamics videos, we describe in detail the three-dimensional structure of the mitral vortex ring, which is formed during early diastolic filling. The ring starts to deform as it propagates toward the apex of the heart and becomes inclined. The trailing secondary vortex tubes are formed as the result of interaction between the vortex ring and the LV wall. These vortex tubes wrap around the circumference and begin to interact with and destabilize the mitral vortex ring. At the end of diastole, the vortex ring impinges on the LV wall and the large-scale intraventricular flow rotates in clockwise direction. We show for the first time that the mitral vortex ring evolution is dominated by a number of vortex-vortex and vortex-wall interactions, including lateral straining and deformation of vortex ring, the interaction of two vortex tubes with unequal strengths, helicity polarization of vortex tubes and twisting instabilities of the vortex cores.

  7. Moving vortex matter with coexisting vortices and anti-vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Gilson

    2009-01-01

    Moving vortex matter, driven by transport currents independent of time, in which vortices and anti-vortices coexist is investigated theoretically in thin superconducting films with nanostructured defects. A simple London model is proposed for the vortex dynamics in films with periodic arrays of nanomagnets or cylindrical holes (antidots). Common to these films is that vortex anti-vortex pairs may be created in the vicinity of the defects by relatively small transport currents, because it adds to the current generated by the defects - the nanomagnets screening current, or the antidots backflow current - and may exceed locally the critical value for vortex anti-vortex pair creation. The model assumes that vortex matter dynamics is governed by Langevin equations, modified to account for creation and annihilation of vortex anti-vortex pairs. For pair creation, it is assumed that whenever the total current at some location exceeds a critical value, equal to that needed to separate a vortex from an anti-vortex by a vortex core diameter, a pair is created instantaneously around this location. Pair annihilation occurs by vortex anti-vortex collisions. The model is applied to films at zero external magnetic field and low temperatures. It is found that several moving vortex matter steady-states with equal numbers of vortices and anti-vortices are possible.

  8. Development of a High-Performance Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger with Vortex Generators for a Vending Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masamichi; Saito, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Sadanari; Murata, Akira

    The effect of delta-wing-vortex generators (combination of a delta wing and a delta winglet pair) on the heat transfer performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers for vending machines has been investegated. Flow visualizations, numerical simulations and heat transfer experiments were conducted to find an optimum geometrical shape and arrangement of the vortex generators. Maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the combination of (a) the delta wing with the apex angle of 86 degrees and (b) the delta winglet pair with the inline angle of 45 degrees. In relatively low Reynolds number range, about 40 % increase in heat transfer coefficient was attained with the above mentioned combination of the vortex generators compared to the ordinary heat exchangers with plain fins. It was revealed that the heat transfer enhancement was attributed to (1) the longitudinal vortexes generated by the delta wing and (2) the reduction of wake area behind the tube. It was also found that an increase in the apex angle of the delta wing brought about heat transfer enhancement, and the scale as well as the streggth of the induced longitudinal vortices played an important role in the heat transfer performance.

  9. Coupling of a 3-D vortex particle-mesh method with a finite volume near-wall solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Y.; Lonfils, T.; Duponcheel, M.; Chatelain, P.; Winckelmans, G.

    2011-11-01

    This coupling aims at improving the computational efficiency of high Reynolds number bluff body flow simulations by using two complementary methods and exploiting their respective advantages in distinct parts of the domain. Vortex particle methods are particularly well suited for free vortical flows such as wakes or jets (the computational domain -with non zero vorticity- is then compact and dispersion errors are negligible). Finite volume methods, however, can handle boundary layers much more easily due to anisotropic mesh refinement. In the present approach, the vortex method is used in the whole domain (overlapping domain technique) but its solution is highly underresolved in the vicinity of the wall. It thus has to be corrected by the near-wall finite volume solution at each time step. Conversely, the vortex method provides the outer boundary conditions for the near-wall solver. A parallel multi-resolution vortex particle-mesh approach is used here along with an Immersed Boundary method in order to take the walls into account. The near-wall flow is solved by OpenFOAM® using the PISO algorithm. We validate the methodology on the flow past a sphere at a moderate Reynolds number. F.R.S. - FNRS Research Fellow.

  10. Volumetric flow imaging reveals the importance of vortex ring formation in squid swimming tail-first and arms-first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S; Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Williams, Sheila; Thompson, Joseph T

    2016-02-01

    Squids use a pulsed jet and fin movements to swim both arms-first (forward) and tail-first (backward). Given the complexity of the squid multi-propulsor system, 3D velocimetry techniques are required for the comprehensive study of wake dynamics. Defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry, a volumetric velocimetry technique, and high-speed videography were used to study arms-first and tail-first swimming of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis over a broad range of speeds [0-10 dorsal mantle lengths (DML) s(-1)] in a swim tunnel. Although there was considerable complexity in the wakes of these multi-propulsor swimmers, 3D vortex rings and their derivatives were prominent reoccurring features during both tail-first and arms-first swimming, with the greatest jet and fin flow complexity occurring at intermediate speeds (1.5-3.0 DML s(-1)). The jet generally produced the majority of thrust during rectilinear swimming, increasing in relative importance with speed, and the fins provided no thrust at speeds >4.5 DML s(-1). For both swimming orientations, the fins sometimes acted as stabilizers, producing negative thrust (drag), and consistently provided lift at low/intermediate speeds (swimming orientation, and η for swimming sequences with clear isolated jet vortex rings was significantly greater (η=78.6±7.6%, mean±s.d.) than that for swimming sequences with clear elongated regions of concentrated jet vorticity (η=67.9±19.2%). This study reveals the complexity of 3D vortex wake flows produced by nekton with hydrodynamically distinct propulsors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-08-29

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  12. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  13. On plasma flows along vortex lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma flows are discussed and various intrinsic relations along the vortex lines and their principal normals and binormals are obtained. The effects of rotations on Bernoulli surfaces are also studied. (M.K.V.)

  14. Vortex sorter for Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Graeme; Veitch, John; Courtial, Johannes; Oehberg, Patrik

    2004-01-01

    We have designed interferometers that sort Bose-Einstein condensates into their vortex components. The Bose-Einstein condensates in the two arms of the interferometer are rotated with respect to each other through fixed angles; different vortex components then exit the interferometer in different directions. The method we use to rotate the Bose-Einstein condensates involves asymmetric phase imprinting and is itself new. We have modeled rotation through fixed angles and sorting into vortex components with even and odd values of the topological charge of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a number of states (pure or superposition vortex states for different values of the scattering length). Our scheme may have applications for quantum information processing

  15. Vortex structure and characterization of quasiperiodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dana, Itzhack; Chernov, Vladislav E

    2002-01-01

    Quasiperiodic functions (QPFs) are characterized by their full vortex structure in one unit cell. This characterization is much finer and more sensitive than the topological one given by the total vorticity per unit cell (the 'Chern index'). It is shown that QPFs with an arbitrarily prescribed vortex structure exist by constructing explicitly such a 'standard' QPF. Two QPFs with the same vortex structure are equivalent, in the sense that their ratio is a function which is strictly periodic, nonvanishing and at least continuous. A general QPF can then be approximately reconstructed from its vortex structure on the basis of the standard QPF and the equivalence concept. As another application of this concept, a simple method is proposed for calculating the quasiperiodic eigenvectors of periodic matrices. Possible applications to the quantum-chaos problem on a phase-space torus are briefly discussed

  16. A Retrospective on Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Michael; Swinney, Harry

    2009-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video of the Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow state of Taylor-Couette flow with the outer cylinder fixed is presented. This state precedes the transition to turbulence, which is more gradual than that for other fluid systems.

  17. Superconducting coherence in a vortex line liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Teitel, S.

    1995-01-01

    We carry out simulations of the anisotropic uniformly frustrated 3d XY model, as a model for vortex line fluctuations in high T c superconductors. We compute the phase diagram as a function of temperature and anisotropy, for a fixed applied magnetic field B. We find two distinct phase transitions. Upon heating, there is first a lower T c perpendicular where the vortex line lattice melts and super-conducting coherence perpendicular to the applied magnetic field vanishes. At a higher T cz , within the vortex line liquid, superconducting coherence parallel to the applied magnetic field vanishes. For finite anisotropy, both T c perpendicular and T cz lie well below the crossover from the vortex line liquid to the normal state

  18. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  19. Towards a string formulation of vortex dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsebeth Schroeder; Ola Toernkvist

    1998-01-01

    We derive an exact equation of motion for a non-relativistic vortex in two- and three-dimensional models with a complex field. The velocity is given in terms of gradients of the complex field at the vortex position. We discuss the problem of reducing the field dynamics to a closed dynamical system with non-locally interacting strings as the fundamental degrees of freedom

  20. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  1. Superconductivity and vortex properties in various multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koorevaar, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis three qualitatively different type of superconducting multilayers are studied. We discuss the vortex lattice structure in Nb/NbZr multilayers, a system where both type of constituting layers are superconducting. At certain temperatures and for parallel fields close to H c2parallel , the Nb/NbZr system has a strongly modulated order parameter, and in this aspect resembles the high-Tc materials. By lowering the field the modulation decreases, having important consequences for the vortex lattice structure. By studying the transport critical currents we show that in the case of strong modulation the vortex lattice has a kinked structure, but at weaker modulations the vortices are straight, and the change in modulation actually results in a vortex lattice transition. Our study confirms the picture of the existence of kinked vortex lattices, but it is rather surprising that these kinked structures can exist in a system which in itself is not at all that anisotropic. It indicates the relevance of other parameters governing the vortex lattice structure. (orig.)

  2. Aperiodicity Correction for Rotor Tip Vortex Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Manikandan; Paetzel, Ryan; Bhagwat, Mahendra J.

    2011-01-01

    The initial roll-up of a tip vortex trailing from a model-scale, hovering rotor was measured using particle image velocimetry. The unique feature of the measurements was that a microscope was attached to the camera to allow much higher spatial resolution than hitherto possible. This also posed some unique challenges. In particular, the existing methodologies to correct for aperiodicity in the tip vortex locations could not be easily extended to the present measurements. The difficulty stemmed from the inability to accurately determine the vortex center, which is a prerequisite for the correction procedure. A new method is proposed for determining the vortex center, as well as the vortex core properties, using a least-squares fit approach. This approach has the obvious advantage that the properties are derived from not just a few points near the vortex core, but from a much larger area of flow measurements. Results clearly demonstrate the advantage in the form of reduced variation in the estimated core properties, and also the self-consistent results obtained using three different aperiodicity correction methods.

  3. Targeted energy transfer in laminar vortex-induced vibration of a sprung cylinder with a nonlinear dissipative rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-07-01

    We computationally investigate the dynamics of a linearly-sprung circular cylinder immersed in an incompressible flow and undergoing transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV), to which is attached a rotational nonlinear energy sink (NES) consisting of a mass that freely rotates at constant radius about the cylinder axis, and whose motion is restrained by a rotational linear viscous damper. The inertial coupling between the rotational motion of the attached mass and the rectilinear motion of the cylinder is ;essentially nonlinear;, which, in conjunction with dissipation, allows for one-way, nearly irreversible targeted energy transfer (TET) from the oscillating cylinder to the nonlinear dissipative attachment. At the intermediate Reynolds number Re = 100, the NES-equipped sprung cylinder undergoes repetitive cycles of slowly decaying oscillations punctuated by intervals of chaotic instabilities. During the slowly decaying portion of each cycle, the dynamics of the cylinder is regular and, for large enough values of the ratio ε of the NES mass to the total mass (i.e., NES mass plus cylinder mass), can lead to significant vortex street elongation with partial stabilization of the wake. As ε approaches zero, no such vortex elongation is observed and the wake patterns appear similar to that for a sprung cylinder with no NES. We apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to the velocity flow field during a slowly decaying portion of the solution and show that, in situations where vortex elongation occurs, the NES, though not in direct contact with the surrounding fluid, has a drastic effect on the underlying flow structures, imparting significant and continuous passive redistribution of energy among POD modes. We construct a POD-based reduced-order model for the lift coefficient to characterize energy transactions between the fluid and the cylinder throughout the slowly decaying cycle. We introduce a quantitative signed measure of the work done by the fluid on the

  4. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pictorial warnings and their ability to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youth in Egypt. Through semi-structured in-depth interviews with a sample of cigarette smokers, the research argues that various social, cultural, and economic factors constrain the effectiveness of pictorial warnings. A key finding is that ...

  5. Radiation warning system in Slovenia (ROSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arh, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing that a radiological accident may have a widespread effect, the Slovenian government has decided to establish an early warning system. The aim of it is to detect any incident (domestic or foreign) involving radioactivity as fast as possible, to initiate appropriate measures, and to give immediate warning to the population

  6. Motivation to quit smoking and acceptability of shocking warnings on cigarette packages in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layoun N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelly Layoun,1,2 Pascal Salameh,2,3 Mirna Waked,4 Z Aoun Bacha,5 Rony M Zeenny,6 Eric El Hitti,4 Isabelle Godin,1 Michèle Dramaix1 1Research Center in Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Doctoral School of Sciences and Technologies, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Clinical and Epidemiological Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Pulmonology, St George Hospital University Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Pharmacy Practice Department, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Introduction: Health warnings on tobacco packages have been considered an essential pillar in filling the gap of knowledge and communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. Our primary objective was to report the perception of smokers on the textual health warnings already appearing on tobacco packages in Lebanon versus shocking pictures about the health-related smoking consequences and to evaluate their impact on smoking behaviors and motivation. Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study was undertaken between 2013 and 2015 in five hospitals in Lebanon. Participants answered a questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. Only-text warning versus shocking pictures was shown to the smokers during the interview. Results: Exactly 66% of the participants reported that they thought shocking pictorial warnings would hypothetically be more effective tools to reduce/quit tobacco consumption compared to only textual warnings. Also, 31.9% of the smokers who were motivated to stop smoking reported that they actually had stopped smoking for at least 1 month secondary to

  7. Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangouei J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.

  8. Wind Wake Watcher v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-03

    This software enables the user to produce Google Earth visualizations of turbine wake effects for wind farms. The visualizations are based on computations of statistical quantities that vary with wind direction and help quantify the effects on power production of upwind turbines on turbines in their wakes. The results of the software are plot images and kml files that can be loaded into Google Earth. The statistics computed are described in greater detail in the paper: S. Martin, C. H. Westergaard, and J. White (2016), Visualizing Wind Farm Wakes Using SCADA Data, in Wither Turbulence and Big Data in the 21st Century? Eds. A. Pollard, L. Castillo, L. Danaila, and M. Glauser. Springer, pgs. 231-254.

  9. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  10. Propeller and inflow vortex interaction : vortex response and impact on the propeller performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Zhou, T; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic operating conditions of a propeller can include complex situations where vorticity from sources upstream can enter the propeller plane. In general, when the vorticity enters in a concentrated form of a vortex, the interaction between the vortex and blade is referred to as

  11. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics : first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, M.F.M.; Meleshko, V.V.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration ("N-vortex polygons"). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N

  12. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P -E

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  13. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  14. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. MODELLING OF TURBULENT WAKE FOR TWO WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina S. Kryuchkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of several large wind farms (The Ulyanovsk region, the Republic of Adygea, the Kaliningrad region, the North of the Russian Federation is planned on the territory of the Russian Federation in 2018–2020. The tasks, connected with the design of new wind farms, are currently important. One of the possible direction in the design is connected with mathematical modeling. Large eddy method (eddy-resolving simulation, developed within the Computational Fluid Dynamics, allows to reproduce unsteady structure of the flow in details and define various integrated characteristics for wind turbines. The mathematical model included the main equations of continuity and momentum equations for incompressible viscous flow. The large-scale vortex structures were calculated by means of integration the filtered equations. The calculation was carried out using lagrangian dynamic Smagorinsky’s model to define turbulent subgrid viscosity. The parallelepiped-shaped numerical domain and 3 different unstructured meshes (with 2,4,8 million cells were used for numerical simulation.The geometrical parameters of wind turbine were set proceeding to open sources for BlindTest 2–4 project from Internet. All physical values were defined at the center of computational cell. The approximation of items in the equations was performed with the second order of accuracy for time and space. The equations for coupling of velocity, pressure were solved by means of iterative algorithm PIMPLE. The total quantity of the calculated physical values at each time step was equal 18. So, the resources of a high performance computer were required. As a result of flow simulation in the wake for two three-bladed wind turbines the average and instantaneous values of velocity, pressure, subgrid kinetic energy, turbulent viscosity, components of stress tensor were calculated. The received results qualitatively matching the known results of experiment and numerical simulation testify

  16. Cluster-based Reduced-order Modelling of Flow in the Wake of a Seal-vibrissa-shaped Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng; Li, Qiliang; Yang, Zhigang; Xia, Chao; Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center Team

    2017-11-01

    The flow around a seal-vibrissa-shaped cylinder is numerically calculated using large eddy simulation (LES) at the Reynolds number of 20000, along with a smooth and a twisted cylinder for comparison. The mean drag coefficient of the seal-vibrissa-shaped cylinder is lower than that of the smooth and twisted cylinders, respectively. The fluctuating lift coefficient of the seal-vibrissa-shaped cylinder shows a substantial decrease compared with the smooth cylinder. The seal-vibrissa-shaped surface leads to more stable wake, longer vortex formation length, higher base pressure and three-dimensional separation. In addition, cluster-based reduced-order modelling (CROM) is performed to analyze phase-dependent variations of the wake flow, which discloses the complex unsteady behavior in different cross sections. Meanwhile, two flow regimes, anti-phased and in-phase-dominated vortex shedding, generated by the twisted cylinder and the seal-vibrissa-shaped cylinder are distinguished and extracted, their interrelationship are evaluated, and the question how forces are affected is answered. Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB1200503-04) and the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Technical Service Platform (16DZ2290400).

  17. Wake Field of the e-Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, Samuel A

    2001-01-01

    The wake field of the cloud is derived analytically taking into account the finite size of the cloud and nonlinearity of the electron motion. The analytic expression for the effective transverse wake field caused by the electron cloud in a positron storage ring is derived. The derivation includes the frequency spread in the cloud, which is the main effect of the nonlinearity of electron motion in the cloud. This approach allows calculation of the Q-factor and study the tune spread in a bunch

  18. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    The circadian system regulates the timing and expression of nearly all biological processes, most notably, the sleep-wake cycle, and disruption of this system can result in adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) consist of 5 disorders that are due primarily to pathology of the circadian clock or to a misalignment of the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythm with the environment. This article outlines the nature of these disorders, the association of many of these disorders with psychiatric illness, and available treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The bestial feminine in Finnegans Wake

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Female characters frequently appear as animals in the unstable universe of James Joyce’s a Finnegans Wake. What Kimberly Devlin terms “the male tendency to reduce women to the level of the beast” is manifest in Finnegans Wake on a large scale. From the hen pecking at a dung heap which we suppose is a manifestation of matriarch Anna Livia Plurabelle, to the often lascivious pig imagery (reminiscent of Bloom’s experience with brothel-keeper Bella in the “Circe” episode of Ulysses) associated wi...

  20. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P R; Wright, A N

    1989-06-08

    The decametric radio emissions from Jupiter are known to be influenced by the Galilean satellite Io. It is believed that the structure in these emissions is associated with the Alfven-wave wake downstream of Io. However, recent studies have shown that the structure of the wake cannot be as simple as originally thought. Here we present preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io, and find that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emissions reveal fine, medium-and large-scale structure. The simulation we present here can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models. (author).