International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.
1986-02-01
In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered
Wake fields and wake field acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.
1984-12-01
In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e + e - linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures
Collinear wake field acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.
1985-04-01
In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs
Wake field acceleration experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, J.D.
1988-01-01
Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs
Multi-stage wake-field accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gai, Wei.
1989-01-01
In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs
DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirshfield, Jay L.
2013-11-06
Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.
Two-Channel Dielectric Wake Field Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirshfield, Jay L.
2012-01-01
Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at ∼30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio (∼12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.
Experimental studies of plasma wake-field acceleration and focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Ho, C.; Argonne National Lab., IL
1989-01-01
More than four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These large amplitude plasma wake-fields are of interest in the laboratory, both for the wealth of basic nonlinear plasma wave phenomena which can be studied, as well as for the applications of acceleration of focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders. Plasma wake-field waves are also of importance in nature, due to their possible role in direct cosmic ray acceleration. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory, in which many interesting beam and plasma phenomena have been observed. Emphasis is given to discussion of the nonlinear aspects of the PWFA beam-plasma interaction. 29 refs., 13 figs
Accelerating field step-up transformer in wake-field accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chojnacki, E.; Gai, W.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.
1991-01-01
In the wake-field scheme of particle acceleration, a short, intense drive bunch of electrons passes through a slow-wave structure, leaving behind high rf power in its wake field. The axial accelerating electric field associated with the rf can be quite large, > 100 MeV/m, and is used to accelerate a much less intense ''witness'' beam to eventual energies > 1 TeV. The rf power is deposited predominantly in the fundamental mode of the structure, which, for dielectric-lined waveguide as used at Argonne, is the TM 01 mode. In all likelihood on the field amplitude will be limited only by rf breakdown of the dielectric material, the limit of which is currently unknown in the short time duration, high frequency regime of wake-field acceleration operation. To obtain such strong electric fields with given wake-field rf power, the dimensions of the dielectric-lined waveguide have to be fairly small, OD of the order of a cm and ID of a few mm, and this gives rise to the generation of strong deflection modes with beam misalignment. While a scheme exists to damp such deflection modes on a bunch-to-bunch time scale, head-tail beam deflection could still be a problem and BNS damping as well as FODO focusing are incomplete cures. Presented here are details of a scheme by which the rf power is generated by in a large-diameter wake-field tube, where deflection mode generation by the intense drive beam is tolerable, and then fed into a small-diameter acceleration tube where the less intense witness beam is accelerated by the greatly enhanced axial electric field. The witness beam generates little deflection-mode power itself, even in the small acceleration tube, thus a final high-quality, high-energy electron beam is produced
Wake-field studies on photonic band gap accelerator cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, D.; Kroll, N.; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, M/S 26, P.O. Box 4349, Stanford, California; Smith, D.R.; Schultz, S.
1997-01-01
We have studied the wake-field of several metal Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cavities which consist of either a square or a hexagonal array of metal cylinders, bounded on top and bottom by conducting or superconducting sheets, surrounded by placing microwave absorber at the periphery or by replacing outer rows of metal cylinders with lossy dielectric ones, or by metallic walls. A removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. While both monopole and dipole wake-fields have been studied, we confine our attention here mainly to the dipole case. The dipole wake-field is produced by modes in the propagation bands which tend to fill the entire cavity more or less uniformly and are thus easy to damp selectively. MAFIA time domain simulation of the transverse wake-field has been compared with that of a cylindrical pill-box comparison cavity. Even without damping the wake-field of the metal PBG cavity is substantially smaller than that of the pill-box cavity and may be further reduced by increasing the size of the lattice. By introducing lossy material at the periphery we have been able to produce Q factors for the dipole modes in the 40 to 120 range without significantly degrading the accelerating mode. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, A.G.
1986-01-01
This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized
COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.
2013-04-30
Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.
Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect
Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi
2007-12-01
Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.
Longitudinal wake field for an electron beam accelerated through a ultra-high field gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.
2006-12-15
Electron accelerators with higher and higher longitudinal field gradients are desirable, as they allow for the production of high energy beams by means of compact and cheap setups. The new laser-plasma acceleration technique appears to constitute the more promising breakthrough in this direction, delivering unprecedent field gradients up to TV/m. In this article we give a quantitative description of the impact of longitudinal wake fields on the electron beam. Our paper is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the longitudinal field. Our conclusions are valid when the acceleration distance is much smaller than the the overtaking length, that is the length that electrons travel as a light signal from the tail of the bunch overtakes the head of the bunch. This condition is well verified for laser-plasma devices. We calculate a closed expression for the impedance and the wake function that may be evaluated numerically. It is shown that the rate of energy loss in the bunch due to radiative interaction is equal to the energy emitted through coherent radiation in the far-zone. Furthermore, an expression is found for the asymptotic limit of a large distance of the electron beam from the accelerator compared with the overtaking length. Such expression allows us to calculate analytical solutions for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of Table-Top Free-Electron Lasers in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (TT-VUV FEL) and X-ray range (TT-XFEL), respectively based on 100 MeV and 1 GeV laser-plasma accelerator drivers. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that the effects of the time-dependent energy change induced by the longitudinal wake pose a serious threat to the operation of these devices. (orig.)
Femtosecond planar electron beam source for micron-scale dielectric wake field accelerator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. C. Marshall
2001-12-01
Full Text Available A new accelerator, LACARA (laser-driven cyclotron autoresonance accelerator, under construction at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is to be powered by a 1 TW CO_{2} laser beam and a 50 MeV injected electron pulse. LACARA will produce inside a 2 m, 6 T solenoid a 100 MeV gyrating electron bunch, with ∼3% energy spread, approximately 1 psec in length with particles advancing in phase at the laser frequency, executing one cycle each 35 fsec. A beamstop with a small off axis channel will transmit a short beam pulse every optical cycle, thereby producing a train of about 30, 3.5 fsec long, 1–3 pC microbunches for each laser pulse. We describe here a novel accelerator, a micron-scale dielectric wake field accelerator driven by a 500 MeV LACARA-type injector that takes the output train of microbunches and transforms them into a near-rectangular cross section having a narrow dimension of ∼10 μm and height of ∼150 μm using a magnetic quadrupole; these bunches may be injected into a planar dielectric-lined waveguide (slightly larger than the bunch where cumulative buildup of wake fields can lead to an accelerating gradient >1 GV/m. This proposed vacuum-based wake field structure is physically rigid and capable of microfabrication accuracy, factors important in staging a large number of accelerator modules. Furthermore, the accelerating gradients it promises are comparable with those for plasma accelerators. A LACARA unit for preparing suitable bunches at 500 MeV is described. Physics issues are discussed, including bunch spreading and transport, bunch shaping, coherent diffraction radiation from the aperture, dielectric breakdown, and bunch stability in the rectangular wake field structure.
2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration
2014-01-01
A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014. This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/
Ultra fast imaging of a laser wake field accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saevert, Alexander; Schnell, Michael; Nicolai, Maria; Reuter, Maria; Schwab, Matthew B.; Moeller, Max [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Mangles, Stuart P.D.; Cole, Jason M.; Poder, Kristjan; Najmudin, Zulfikar [The John Adams Institute Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Jaeckel, Oliver; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Spielmann, Christian; Kaluza, Malte C. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Jena (Germany)
2014-07-01
Ultra intense laser pulses are known to excite plasma waves with a relativistic phase velocity. By harnessing these waves it is possible to generate quasi-monoenergetic, ultra-short electron pulses with kinetic energies from 0.1 to 2 GeV by guiding the laser pulse over several Rayleigh lengths. To further improve the stability of these particle pulses and ultimately to be able to tailor the energy spectrum toward their suitability for various applications, the physics underlying the different acceleration scenarios need to be understood as completely as possible. To be able to resolve the acceleration process diagnostics well-suited for this plasma environment need to be designed and realized. By using sub-10 fs probe pulses we were able to freeze the transient accelerating structure in the plasma. We will present the first results of an experiment which was carried out with the 30 TW JETi Laser and a few cycle probe pulse at the Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics Jena. The resulting snapshots show unprecedented details from the laser plasma interaction and allow a direct comparison to computer simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirshfield, Jay L.
2006-01-01
A new accelerator LACARA is under construction at ATF, Brookhaven National Laboratory. LACARA is to be powered by a 1 TW CO2 laser, and will utilize a 6-T 2-m long solenoidal magnetic field. For a 50 MeV injected electron bunch, LACARA is expected to produce a 100 MeV 1 ps gyrating beam with ∼ 3% energy spread. Beam electrons advance in phase at the laser frequency, executing one cycle each 35 fs. A beam stop with a small off-axis channel will transmit a short beam pulse every optical cycle, thereby producing a train of about 30, 3.5 fs, 1-3 pC microbunches for each laser pulse. One application for this train of microbunches obtained from a LACARA-type device involves focusing a portion of the beam using a magnetic quadrupole into a rectangular cross-section having a narrow dimension of a few microns and a height of a few hundred microns. These microbunches may be injected into a planar dielectric-lined waveguide where cumulative buildup of wake fields can lead to an accelerating gradient > 1 GV/m. This proposed vacuum-based wake field structure is mechanically rigid and capable of accurate microfabrication, factors important in staging a large number of accelerator modules. Furthermore, the accelerating gradients it promises are comparable with those for plasma accelerators. A LACARA unit for preparing suitable bunches at 500 MeV is described. Physics issues are discussed including bunch spreading and transport, bunch shaping, aperture radiation, dielectric breakdown, and bunch stability in the rectangular wake field structure. In appendices to this report, three supporting documents are attached. These include a set of drawings that show the layout of the beam line and optical line for LACARA at ATF-BNL; and two reprints of recent articles published in PRST-AB. The first article describes measurements of the coherent superposition of wake fields that arise from a periodic train of bunches, with supporting analysis. The second article presents theory that
Wake field of electron beam accelerated in a RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'
Salah, W
1999-01-01
Wake field effects driven by a coasting relativistic charged particle beam have been studied for various cavity geometries. In the particular case of a cylindrical 'pill-box' cavity, an analytical expression of the (E, B)(x, t) map has been obtained as a development on the complete base cavity normal modes. We extend this method to the case of an accelerated beam, which leaves the downstream face of the cavity with a thermal velocity, and becomes relativistic in a few cm. This situation is very different from the classical wake of an ultrarelativistic beam for two reasons: (a) in the case of an ultrarelativistic beam, the field directly generated by beam particles in their wake can be neglected, and the so-called wake field is the electromagnetic linear response of the cavity to the exciting signal which is the beam. For a transrelativistic beam, the direct field must be taken into account and added to cavity response, which is no longer linear, except for low-intensity beam; (b) causality prevents any beam's...
A Concept of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Linear Collider (PWFA-LC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seryi, Andrei; Hogan, Mark; Pei, Shilun; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tenenbaum, Peter; Katsouleas, Tom; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric
2009-01-01
Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration (PWFA) has demonstrated acceleration gradients above 50 GeV/m. Simulations have shown drive/witness bunch configurations that yield small energy spreads in the accelerated witness bunch and high energy transfer efficiency from the drive bunch to the witness bunch, ranging from 30% for a Gaussian drive bunch to 95% for a shaped longitudinal profile. These results open the opportunity for a linear collider that could be compact, efficient and more cost effective that the present microwave technologies. A concept of a PWFA-based Linear Collider (PWFA-LC) has been developed and is described in this paper. The drive beam generation and distribution, requirements on the plasma cells, and optimization of the interaction region parameters are described in detail. The R and D steps needed for further development of the concept are also outlined.
Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.
1994-05-01
It is shown that an intense short laser pulse propagating through a semiconductor plasma will generated longitudinal Langmuir waves in its wake. The measurable wake field can be used as a diagnostic to study nonlinear optical phenomena. For narrow gap semiconductors (for examples InSb) with Kane-type dispersion relation, the system can simulate, at currently available laser powers, the physics underlying wake-field accelerators. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig
HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirshfield, Jay L
2012-04-12
The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P's approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in
Self-guiding of high-intensity laser pulses for laser wake field acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umstader, D.; Liu, X.
1992-01-01
A means of self-guiding an ultrashort and high-intensity laser pulse is demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. Its relevance to the laser wake field accelerator concept is discussed. Self-focusing and multiple foci formation are observed when a high peak power (P>100 GW), 1 μm, subpicosecond laser is focused onto various gases (air or hydrogen). It appears to result from the combined effects of self-focusing by the gas, and de-focusing both by diffraction and the plasma formed in the central high-intensity region. Quasi-stationary computer simulations show the same multiple foci behavior as the experiments. The results suggest much larger nonlinear electronic susceptibilities of a gas near or undergoing ionization in the high field of the laser pulse. Although self-guiding of a laser beam by this mechanism appears to significantly extend its high-intensity focal region, small-scale self-focusing due to beam non-uniformity is currently a limitation
The wake field acceleration using a cavity of elliptical cross section, part 1: WELL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Yongho.
1983-11-01
A computer code WELL is developed for the calculation of the wake fields in a cavity of elliptical cross section. The method is basically an extention of that of BCI to the 3-dimensional computation, i.e., Maxwell's equations are solved in the time domain with boundary conditions. Open boundary conditions are used so as to simulate infinitely long beam pipes. Good agreements within a few percents are shown between the results of the computation by WELL and BCI in a cylindrically symmetrical structure. An example of computation in an elliptical structure gives a reasonable result and points out that the deflection of particles by the transverse wake field is severe. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.
1985-01-01
The possibility of the use of longitudinal field excited in a plasma by electron bunches to accelerate charged particles is investigated. It is shown that the highets value of accelerating fields proportional to the square root of factor of electrons in the bunch is achieved in the case when bunch particle density approaches a limit equal to the half of the the plasma electron equilibrium density
Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.
1991-05-01
Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish
Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang
2008-11-01
We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedman, M.
1989-01-01
This final Progress Report addresses DOE-sponsored research on the development of future high-gradient particle accelerators. The experimental and the theoretical research, which lasted three years, investigated the Two Beam Accelerator (TBA). This high-voltage-gradient accelerator was powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam (MIREB) of power >10 10 watts. This research was conceived after a series of successful experiments performed at NRL generating and using MIREBs. This work showed that an RF structure could be built which was directly powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam. This structure was then used to accelerate a second electron beam. At the end of the three year project the proof-of-principle accelerator demonstrated the generation of a high current beam of electrons with energy >60 MeV. Scaling laws needed to design practical devices for future applications were also derived
Rumolo, Giovanni
2002-01-01
The electron cloud gives rise to coherent and incoherent single-bunch wake fields, both in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction, and to coherent coupled-bunch wakes. These wake fields can be computed using the simulation programs ECLOUD and HEADTAIL developed at CERN. We present the wake fields simulated for the LHC beam in the CERN SPS and at injection into the LHC in different magnetic field configurations (field-free region, dipole, and solenoid), where the magnetic field affects both the elec-tron motion during a bunch passage and the overall electron distribution in the beam pipe.
On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator
Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.
1996-01-01
The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, Cs.; Faure, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W.P.
2003-01-01
In typical chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems, scanning the grating separation in the optical compressor causes the well know generation of linear chirp of frequency vs. time in a laser pulse, as well as a modification of all the higher order phase terms. By setting the compressor angle slightly different from the optimum value to generate the shortest pulse, a typical scan around this value will produce significant changes to the pulse shape. Such pulse shape changes can lead to significant differences in the interaction with plasmas such as used in laser wake-field accelerators. Strong electron yield dependence on laser pulse shape in laser plasma wake-field electron acceleration experiments have been observed in the L'OASIS Lab of LBNL [1]. These experiments show the importance of pulse skewness parameter, S, defined here on the basis of the ratio of the ''head-width-half-max'' (HWHM) and the ''tail-width-halfmax'' (TWHM), respectively
Fast particle tracking with wake fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.
2012-01-15
Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)
CAS course on Plasma Wake Acceleration
CERN Accelerator School
2015-01-01
The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Plasma Wake Acceleration, held at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, from 23 to 29 November 2014. Following a number of introductory lectures on laser and plasma physics, as well as an overview of conventional accelerators and their limitations, the course covered a large number of aspects of plasma wake acceleration schemes: the creation of plasma by high power lasers or particle beams, a description of the plasma creation process through simulations and the characteristics of the accelerated particle beams, including results of the latest achievements. Lectures on beam diagnostics, the applications of plasma accelerated beams, and topical seminars completed the programme. The course was very successful, with 109 students of 26 nationalities attending; most participants coming from European counties, but also from the US, Israel, India, South Korea, Russia and Ukraine. Feedback from the participants was...
Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)
2011-07-01
For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.
Salah, W
2000-01-01
The wake field generated in the cylindrical cavity of an RF photoinjector, by a strongly accelerated electron beam, has been analytically calculated (Salah, Dolique, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 27) under the assumption that the perturbation of the field map by the exit hole is negligible as long as the ratio: exit hole radius/cavity radius is lower than approximately 1/3. Shown experimentally in the different context of a long accelerating structure formed by a sequence of bored pill-box cavity (Figuera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 (1988) 2144; Kim et al., J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 4942), this often-quoted result must be checked for the wake field map excited in a photo injector cavity. Further, in the latter case, the empirical rule in question can be broken more easily because, due to causality, the cavity radius to be considered is not the physical radius but that of the part of the anode wall around the exit hole reached by the beam electromagnetic influence. We present an analytical treatment of th...
Axial electric wake field inside the induction gap exited by the intense electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Kaizhi; Zhang Huang; Long Jidong; Yang Guojun; He Xiaozhong; Wang Huacen
2008-01-01
While an intense electron beam passes through the accelerating gaps of a linear induction accelerator, a strong wake field will be excited. In this paper a relatively simple model is established based on the interaction between the transverse magnetic wake field and the electron beam, and the numerical calculation in succession generates a magnetic wake field distribution along the accelerator and along the beam pulse as well. The axial electric wake field is derived based on the relation between field components of a resonant mode. According to some principles in existence, the influence of this field on the high voltage properties of the induction gap is analyzed. The Dragon-I accelerator is taken as an example, and its maximum electric wake field is about 17 kV/cm, which means the effect of the wake field is noticeable. (authors)
Wake field in electron-positron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avinash, K.; Berezhiani, V.I.
1993-03-01
We study the creation of wake field in cold electron positron plasma by electron bunches. In the resulting plasma inhomogeneity we study the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse. In is found that wake fields can change the frequency of the radiation substantially. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig
Goloviznin, V. V.; van Amersfoort, P. W.
1995-01-01
The self-modulational instability of a relatively long laser pulse with a power close to or less than the critical power for relativistic self-focusing in plasma is considered. Strong wake-field excitation occurs as the result of a correlated transverse and longitudinal evolution of the pulse. The
Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyata, K.
1987-01-01
A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity
Wake field in matched kicker magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyahara, Y.
1979-01-01
Coherent transverse instability observed in KEK booster proton synchrotron has been reported previously. This instability is induced by the interaction of the beam with kicker magnet for the fast beam extraction. To understand the mechanism completely, it is necessary to know the wake field in detail. Here, the wake field or induced current in the kicker magnet which is terminated with matched resistance is considered
The resonant wake field transformer (RWT)-collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiland, T.; Holtkamp, N.; Schuett, P.; Wanzenberg, R.
1990-01-01
Future e + e - Linear Colliders with center of mass energies of 2 TeV need average accelerating gradients of 100 MeV/m to be built within a length of 20 km. The gradients required by colliders at this energy range can be economically provided by resonant Wake Field Transformers. At the Wake Field Experiment at DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) a 20 cm long transformer section was investigated and the most recent results are presented. The second part gives a short overview of the present status of research concerning the proposed next stage of a multibunch driver linac with superconducting cavities and long Wake Field Transformer sections. (author) 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab
Longitudinal- and transverse-wake-field effects in dielectric structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosing, M.; Gai, W.
1990-01-01
A dielectric-loaded circular waveguide structure is a potential high-gradient linear wake-field accelerator. A complete solution is given for the longitudinal electric and magnetic fields excited by a δ function and a Gaussian charge distribution moving parallel to the guide axis. The fields are then given in the limit of particle velocity equal to the speed of light. Example calculations are given for a structure with inner radius of 2 mm, outer radius of 5 mm, dielectric constant of 3, and total charge of 100 nC. Peak wake fields in excess of 200 MV/m are found. Azimuthal modes 0 and 1 are investigated for the particular interest of acceleration and deflection problems
Salah, W
2000-01-01
It appears that the ease of the parameter chosen for 'ELSA' photo injector, the influence of the exit aperture, in terms of beam quality, is slight concerning the transverse emittance: (DELTA epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r /epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub = = r)(z)approx 3% at maximum, and negligible concerning the axial emittance. To complete this paper, we recall the results previously obtained concerning the wake field of a closed or open cavity for a beam approaching the anode . They had quantitatively specified the expected deep asymmetry between the conducting walls regarding their contribution to the total wake field, besides the space-charge contribution. (Given that the radial walls have no time to contribute, these conducting walls are the cathode and the anode.) Thus, concerning the effects on whole-beam emittances, the correction (DELTA epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, Samuel A
2001-01-01
The wake field of the cloud is derived analytically taking into account the finite size of the cloud and nonlinearity of the electron motion. The analytic expression for the effective transverse wake field caused by the electron cloud in a positron storage ring is derived. The derivation includes the frequency spread in the cloud, which is the main effect of the nonlinearity of electron motion in the cloud. This approach allows calculation of the Q-factor and study the tune spread in a bunch
Analysis of a high brightness photo electron beam with self field and wake field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsa, Z.
1991-01-01
High brightness sources are the basic ingredients in the new accelerator developments such as Free-Electron Laser experiments. The effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, e.g. R.F., Space charge and Wake fields can be detrimental to the beam and the experiments. We present and discuss the formulation used, some simulation and results for the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness beam that illustrates effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g. due to self field of the bunch), and the wake field (e.g. arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernow, R.C.
1995-07-01
Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail
Conformal FDTD modeling of 3-D wake fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurgens, T.G.; Harfoush, F.A.
1991-01-01
Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here the authors describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non-cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements so as to conform to the interface. These improvements to the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall monitors
On the estimation of the wake potential for an ultrarelativistic charge in an accelerating structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novokhatskij, A.V.
1988-01-01
The method to derive the analytic estimations for wake fields of an ultrarelativistic charge in an accelerating structure, that are valid in the range of distances smalller or compared to the effective structure dimensions. The method is based on the approximate space-time domain integrating of the maxwell equations in the Kirchhoff formulation. the method is demonstrated on the examples of obtaining the wake potentials for energy loss of a bunch traversing a scraper, a cavity or periodic iris-loaded structure. Likewise formulae are derived for Green functions that describe transverse force action of wake fields. Simple formulae for the total energy loss evaluation of a bunch with the Gaussian charge density distribution are derived as well. The derived estimations are compared with the computer results and predictions of other models
Calculation of longitudinal and transverse wake-field effects in dielectric structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gai, W.
1989-01-01
The electro-magnetic radiation of a charged particle passing through a dielectric structure has many applications to accelerator physics. Recently a new acceleration scheme, called the dielectric wake field accelerator, has been proposed. It also can be used as a pick up system for a storage ring because of its slow wave characteristics. In order to study these effects in detail, in this paper we will calculate the wake field effects produced in a dielectric structure by a charged particle. 8 refs., 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luce, J.S.
1978-01-01
A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a ν/γ of approx. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam
Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.
2016-01-01
production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental......This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal....
Longitudinal wake field corrections in circular machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symon, K.R.
1996-01-01
In computations of longitudinal particle motions in accelerators and storage rings, the fields produced by the interactions of the beam with the cavity in which it circulates are usually calculated by multiplying Fourier components of the beam current by the appropriate impedances. This procedure neglects the slow variation with time of the Fourier coefficients and of the beam revolution frequency. When there are cavity elements with decay times that are comparable with or larger than the time during which changes in the beam parameters occur, these changes can not be neglected. Corrections for this effect have been worked out in terms of the response functions of elements in the ring. The result is expressed as a correction to the impedance which depends on the way in which the beam parameters are changing. A method is presented for correcting a numerical simulation by keeping track of the steady state and transient terms in the response of a cavity
Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Fleming
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.
TE/TM alternating direction scheme for wake field calculation in 3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zagorodnov, Igor [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: zagor@temf.de; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2006-03-01
In the future, accelerators with very short bunches will be used. It demands developing new numerical approaches for long-time calculation of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of relativistic bunches. The conventional FDTD scheme, used in MAFIA, ABCI and other wake and PIC codes, suffers from numerical grid dispersion and staircase approximation problem. As an effective cure of the dispersion problem, a numerical scheme without dispersion in longitudinal direction can be used as it was shown by Novokhatski et al. [Transition dynamics of the wake fields of ultrashort bunches, TESLA Report 2000-03, DESY, 2000] and Zagorodnov et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 191 (2003) 525]. In this paper, a new economical conservative scheme for short-range wake field calculation in 3D is presented. As numerical examples show, the new scheme is much more accurate on long-time scale than the conventional FDTD approach.
Field measurements in the wake of a model wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; Doostalab, Ali; Novoa, Santiago; Castillo, Luciano; Bilbao, Argenis; Sheng, Jian; Giesselmann, Michael; Westergaard, Carsten; Hussain, Fazle; Ren, Beibei; Glauser, Mark
2014-01-01
As a first step to study the dynamics of a wind farm' we experimentally explored the flow field behind a single wind turbine of diameter 1.17 m at a hub height of 6.25 m. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm characterizes the atmospheric conditions and its influence on the wake evolution. A vertical rake of sonic anemometers is clustered around the hub height on a second tower' 6D downstream of the turbine. We present preliminary observations from a 1- hour block of data recorded in near-neutral atmospheric conditions. The ratio of the standard deviation of power to the inflow velocity is greater than three' revealing adverse effects of inflow turbulence on the power and load fluctuations. Furthermore' the wake defect and Reynolds stress and its gradient are pronounced at 6D. The flux of energy due to Reynolds stresses is similar to that reported in wind tunnel studies. The swirl and mixing produces a constant temperature wake which results in a density jump across the wake interface. Further field measurements will explore the dynamics of a model wind farm' including the effects of atmospheric variability
Wake-field generation by the ponderomotive memory effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, U.; Schamel, H.
1997-01-01
An analytical and numerical investigation of the plasma response to an imposed high frequency wave packet with a slow explicit time-dependent envelope is presented. An underlying picture of ponderomotive effects is developed, which shows that the explicit time dependence forces us to treat the problem kinetically, and furthermore, that a wake field is generated by the ponderomotive memory effect. The latter supplements the well-known ponderomotive force and fake heating effect. Several perturbation schemes are compared showing that the influence of resonant particles, treated by the method of characteristics, has to be taken into account for Langmuir wave packets with kλ d ≥0.2, where k is the wave number and λ d the Debye length. A self-consistent Vlasov simulation shows the disappearance of the density depression in the case of immobile ions, whereas the wake-field pattern survives self-consistency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Fourier spectral simulations for wake fields in conducting cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Min, M.; Chin, Y.-H.; Fischer, P.F.; Chae, Y.-Chul; Kim, K.-J.
2007-01-01
We investigate Fourier spectral time-domain simulations applied to wake field calculations in two-dimensional cylindrical structures. The scheme involves second-order explicit leap-frogging in time and Fourier spectral approximation in space, which is obtained from simply replacing the spatial differentiation operator of the YEE scheme by the Fourier differentiation operator on nonstaggered grids. This is a first step toward investigating high-order computational techniques with the Fourier spectral method, which is relatively simple to implement.
Modulation of continuous electron beams in plasma wake-fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.B.
1988-01-01
In this paper we discuss the interaction of a continuous electron beam with wake-field generated plasma waves. Using a one-dimensional two fluid model, a fully nonlinear analytical description of the interaction is obtained. The phenomena of continuous beam modulation and wave period shortening are discussed. The relationship between these effects and the two-stream instability is also examined. 12 refs., 1 fig
Longitudinal effects of near-uniform beam-wall wake fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggiero, A.G.; Talmann, R.
1979-01-01
Several theories have been developed in the past to explain longitudinal instabilities of individual bunches in particle accelerators and storage rings. But they are less than satisfactory because in one way or another they rely on some mathematical approximation of doubtful physical meaning. Here, the basic physical model is simplified in order to help to understand a little better the physics involved. Initially, the motion of two particles executing phase oscillations in the same bunch under the influence of the wake field generated by the other is investigated. This motion is stable and bounded even for the case of a slowly varying wake field. But the distortions of the trajectories can, nevertheless, be significant and can be interpreted as bunch lengthening and widening. These models generalized to an N particle model. If the wake field is constant, the equations are simple enough that it is possible to solve exactly for the intensity-limited, self-consistent, longitudinal particle distribution. It is not necessary to solve, or even introduce, the Vlasov equation. These models exhibit effects like dipole and quadrupole oscillations and bunch lengthening, in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, but no attempt has been made at quantitative comparison with observation
TBCI and URMEL - New computer codes for wake field and cavity mode calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiland, T.
1983-01-01
Wake force computation is important for any study of instabilities in high current accelerators and storage rings. These forces are generated by intense bunches of charged particles passing cylindrically symmetric structures on or off axis. The adequate method for computing such forces is the time domain approach. The computer Code TBCI computes for relativistic as well as for nonrelativistic bunches of arbitrary shape longitudinal and transverse wake forces up to the octupole component. TBCI is not limited to cavity-like objects and thus applicable to bellows, beam pipes with varying cross sections and any other nonresonant structures. For the accelerating cavities one also needs to know the resonant modes and frequencies for the study of instabilities and mode couplers. The complementary code named URMEL computes these fields for any azimuthal dependence of the fields in ascending order. The mathematical procedure being used is very safe and does not miss modes. Both codes together represent a unique tool for accelerator design and are easy to use
Ion-wake Field inside a Glass Box
Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.
2016-01-01
The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures, as well as their size and shape. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box and its vertical and horizontal ex...
Modal analysis of wake fields and its application to elliptical pill-box cavity with finite aperture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S.H.; Chen, K.W.; Yang, J.S.
1990-01-01
The potential of the wake-field produced by a bunch of relativistic charged particles passing through a pill-box cavity is expressed by using Floquet's theorem, and an obvious requirement that the energy gain over all acceleration cavity of many pill boxes must be proportional to the number of pill boxes, based on the previous modal approach (BWW theory). It is found that the wake-field is consisted of two classes of modes: the longitudinal modes which are independent of the aperture and the pill-box gap, the hybrid (pill-box) modes which are dependent of the pill-box gap. The wake field is predominated by the fundamental longitudinal mode whose wavelength is on the order of the effective diameter of the cavity, and its magnitude is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the cavity for practical cavities with small apertures. Both longitudinal and transverse wake fields due to the longitudinal modes in an elliptical pill box cavity are expressed analytically in a closed series form by solving exactly the longitudinal eigenmode equation in the elliptical cylindrical coordinates in terms of Mathieu functions. It is found that both longitudinal and transverse wake fields whose amplitudes per driving charge are greater than 100 MV/m/μC can be generated in an elliptical cavity
High-Field Accelerator Magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rijk, G de
2014-01-01
In this lecture an overview is given of the present technology for high field accelerator magnets. We indicate how to get high fields and what are the most important parameters. The available conductors and their limitations are presented followed by the most relevant types of coils and support structures. We conclude by showing a number of recent examples of development magnets which are either pure R&D objects or models for the LHC luminosity upgrade
Effects of rear cavities on the wake behind an accelerating D-shaped bluff body
Lorite-Díez, M.; Jiménez-González, J. I.; Gutiérrez-Montes, C.; Martínez-Bazán, C.
2018-04-01
We investigate experimentally and numerically the transient development of the wake induced by a constant acceleration of a D-shaped bluff body, starting from rest and reaching a permanent regime of Reynolds number Re = 2000, under different values of acceleration and implementing three distinct rear geometrical configurations. Thus, alongside the classical blunt base, two control passive devices, namely, a straight cavity and an optimized, curved cavity, recently designed using adjoint optimization techniques, have also been used to assess their performance in transient flow conditions. Particle image velocimetry measurements were performed in a towing tank to characterize the near wake development in the early transient stages. It has been observed that the flow first develops symmetric shear layers with primary eddies attracted toward the base of the body due to the flow suction generated by the accelerated motion. Eventually, the interaction between the upper and lower shear layers provokes the destabilization of the flow and the symmetry breaking of the wake, finally giving rise to an alternate transitional vortex shedding regime. The transition between these phases is sped-up when the optimized cavity is used, reaching earlier the permanent flow conditions. In particular, the use of the optimized geometry has been shown to limit the growth of the primary eddies, decreasing both the recirculation and vortex formation length and providing with a more regularized, more organized vortex shedding. In addition, numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the distribution of forces induced by the addition of rear cavities. In general, the aforementioned smoother and faster transition related to the use of optimized cavity translates into a lower averaged value of the drag coefficient, together with less energetic force fluctuations, regardless of the acceleration value.
Extended definitions of wake fields and their influence on beam dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Danilov
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Based on experience gained from present machines, a new generation of accelerators with high intensities and low losses is being designed. For example, the design for the Spallation Neutron Source storage ring specifies fractional beam losses of the order of 10^{-4}, so that even small instabilities or resonances can lead to the violation of this number. The purpose of this paper is to show that there exist potentially important beam fields, missing from standard analyses, that can lead either to instabilities or to large deviations of instability thresholds from their conventional values. Some of these fields and related effects, e.g., “fast damping,” were discovered earlier and are presented here in more standard form as an extension of the wake field's definition. In addition, nonrelativistic collective phenomena are analyzed. It is shown that the nonrelativistic case could be significantly different from the relativistic case.
Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.
1982-01-01
A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.
CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus
2013-01-01
Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...
Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data
Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.
2015-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.
Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.
1999-01-01
Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated
Semi-analytical fluid study of the laser wake field excitation in the strong intensity regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jovanović, D., E-mail: djovanov@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Fedele, R., E-mail: renato.fedele@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Belić, M., E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Texas A & M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); De Nicola, S., E-mail: sergio.denicola@spin.cnr.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S' Angelo, Napoli (Italy)
2016-09-01
We present an analytical and numerical study of the interaction of a multi-petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma. The study has been performed in the ultrarelativistic regime of electron jitter velocities, in which the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled from the pulse region. The calculations are applied to a laser wake field acceleration scheme with specifications that may be available in the next generation of Ti:Sa lasers and with the use of recently developed pulse compression techniques. A set of novel nonlinear equations is derived using a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the electromagnetic wave and with the spatial bending of its wave front. They describe, on an equal footing, both the strong and the moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and to the edges of the pulse.
A non-linear theory for the bubble regime of plasma wake fields in tailored plasma channels
Thomas, Johannes
2016-01-01
We introduce a first full analytical bubble and blow-out model for a radially inhomogeneous plasma in a quasi-static approximation. For both cases we calculate the accelerating and the focusing fields. In our model we also assume a thin electron layer that surrounds the wake field and calculate the field configuration within. Our theory holds for arbitrary radial density profiles and reduces to known models in the limit of a homogeneous plasma. From a previous study of hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime we know that pancake-like laser pulses lead to highest electron energies [Pukhov et al, PRL 113, 245003 (2014)]. As it was shown, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths by varying the plasma density profile inside a deep channel. Now we show why the radial fields in the vacuum part of a channel become defocussing.
Evidence of circular Rydberg states in beam-foil experiments: Role of the surface wake field
Sharma, Gaurav; Puri, Nitin K.; Kumar, Pravin; Nandi, T.
2017-12-01
We have employed the concept of the surface wake field to model the formation of the circular Rydberg states in the beam-foil experiments. The experimental studies of atomic excitation processes show the formation of circular Rydberg states either in the bulk of the foil or at the exit surface, and the mechanism is explained by several controversial theories. The present model is based on the interesting fact that the charge state fraction as well as the surface wake field depend on the foil thickness and it resolves a long-standing discrepancy on the mechanism of the formation of circular Rydberg states. The influence of exit layers is twofold. Initially, the high angular momentum Rydberg states are produced in the last layers of the foil by the Stark switching due to the bulk wake field and finally, they are transferred to the circular Rydberg states as a single multiphoton process due to the influence of the surface wake field.
Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.
2015-01-01
Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…
Linear accelerators for TeV colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.
1985-05-01
This paper summarizes four tutorial lectures on linear electron accelerators: Electron Linacs for TeV Colliders, Emittance and Damping Rings, Wake Fields: Basic Concepts, and Wake Field Effects in Linacs
Self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam in plasma wake field excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhter, T.; Fedele, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Nicola, S. De [CNR-SPIN and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Tanjia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Jovanović, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Mannan, A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)
2016-09-01
The self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam is provided within the context of the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The self-consistent description of the beam dynamics is provided by coupling the Vlasov equation with a Poisson-type equation relating the plasma wake potential to the beam density. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are discussed thereby.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsa, Z.
1991-01-01
Laser driven photoelectron guns are of interest for use in new methods of accelerations, future development of Linear Colliders and new experiments such as Free Electron laser (IFEL). Such guns are potential source of low emittance-high current and short bunch length electron beams, where the emitted electrons are accelerated quickly to a relativistic energy by a strong rf, electric field in the cavity. We present a brief overview of the beam dynamic studies, e.g. emittance for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ATF high brightness photocathode radio frequency gun (now in operation), and show the effects of the rf, Space Charge, and Wake fields on the photoelectrons. 4 refs., 7 figs
Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6
Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus
1996-01-01
Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys
Indirect methods for wake potential integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagorodnov, I.
2006-05-01
The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)
The study of field and density cavity in the near wake region of a space vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Qing; Wang Jing; Hu Taoping
2011-01-01
Under the static limit,using the method of Fourier transformation, the non-steady, nonlinear interactions between plasma and field in the near wake region of a space vehicle are investigated. Numerical calculations are performed and the results show that there are the formation of the electromagnetic soliton and density caviton in the near wake region of the space vehicle, which can be detected due to the collapse of electric field. Therefore, we can trace out the space vehicle by means of observing the structure and intensity of the density caviton and electromagnetic soliton although the space vehicle may be have a disguised characteristic. (authors)
High Accelerating Field Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities
Orr, R. S.; Saito, K.; Furuta, F.; Saeki, T.; Inoue, H.; Morozumi, Y.; Higo, T.; Higashi, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Kazakov, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Ueno, K.; Sato, M.
2008-06-01
We have conducted a study of a series of single cell superconducting RF cavities at KEK. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the maximum accelerating field attainable. All of these cavities are of the ICHIRO shape, based on the Low Loss shape. Our results indicate that accelerating fields as high as the theoretical maximum of 50MV/m are attainable.
Traversing field of view and AR-PIV for mid-field wake vortex investigation in a towing tank
Scarano, F.; van Wijk, C.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.
2002-08-01
Wake vortex flow experiments are performed in a water tank where a 1:48 scaled model of a large transport aircraft A340-300 is towed at the speed of 3 and 5 ms-1 with values of the angle of attack α={2°, 4°, 8°}. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a plane perpendicular to the towing direction describing the streamwise component of the wake vorticity. The instantaneous field of view (I-FOV) is traversed vertically with an underwater moving-camera device tracking the vortex core during the downward motion. An adaptive resolution (AR) image-processing technique is introduced that enhances the PIV interrogation in terms of spatial resolution and accuracy. The main objectives of the investigation are to demonstrate the applicability of PIV diagnostics in wake vortex research with towing-tank facilities. The specific implementation of the traversing field-of-view (T-FOV) technique and the AR image processing are driven by the need to characterize the vortex wake global properties as well as the vortex decay phenomenon in the mid- and far-field. Relevant aerodynamic information is obtained in the mid-field where the time evolution of the vortex structure (core radius and tangential velocity) and of the overall vortex wake (vortex trajectory, descent velocity, circulation) are discussed.
Final Report: Experimental Investigation of Nonlinear Plasma Wake-Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenzweig, J.
1997-01-01
We discuss the exploration of the newly proposed blowout regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator and advanced photoinjector technology for linear collider applications. The plasma wakefield experiment at ANL produced several ground-breaking results in the physics of the blowout regime. The photoinjector R and D effort produced breakthroughs in theoretical, computational, and experimental methods in high brightness beam physics. Results have been published
Surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for wake field calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovskii, V.G.
2006-01-01
The problem of the surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for calculations of wake fields, generated by bunches of charged particles moving axially inside a metallic vacuum chambers, is solved. The case of specular electron reflection at the superconductor surface is considered. The expression for the surface impedance of superconductors suitable for numerical computation is derived [ru
Investigation on wind turbine wakes: wind tunnel tests and field experiments with LIDARs
Iungo, Giacomo; Wu, Ting; Cöeffé, Juliette; Porté-Agel, Fernando; WIRE Team
2011-11-01
An investigation on the interaction between atmospheric boundary layer flow and wind turbines is carried out with wind tunnel and LIDAR measurements. The former were carried out using hot-wire anemometry and multi-hole pressure probes in the wake of a three-bladed miniature wind turbine. The wind turbine wake is characterized by a strong velocity defect in the proximity of the rotor, and its recovery is found to depend on the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles). Field experiments were performed using three wind LIDARs. Bi-dimensional scans are performed in order to analyse the wake wind field with different atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements with two or three LIDARs allow the reconstruction of multi-component velocity fields. Both LIDAR and wind tunnel measurements highlight an increased turbulence level at the wake boundary for heights comparable to the top-tip of the blades; this flow feature can produce dangerous fatigue loads on following wind turbines.
Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.
2013-01-01
We study wakes and gap opening by low mass planets in gaseous protoplanetary disks threaded by net vertical magnetic fields which drive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence through the magnetorotational instabilty (MRI), using three dimensional simulations in the unstratified local shearing box approximation. The wakes, which are excited by the planets, are damped by shocks similar to the wake damping in inviscid hydrodynamic (HD) disks. Angular momentum deposition by shock damping opens ga...
Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.
2006-01-01
In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done
Numerical simulation and experimental research on wake field of ships under off-design conditions
Guo, Chun-yu; Wu, Tie-cheng; Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jie
2016-10-01
Different operating conditions (e.g. design and off-design) may lead to a significant difference in the hydrodynamics performance of a ship, especially in the total resistance and wake field of ships. This work investigated the hydrodynamic performance of the well-known KRISO 3600 TEU Container Ship (KCS) under three different operating conditions by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The comparison results show that the use of PIV to measure a ship's nominal wake field is an important method which has the advantages of being contactless and highly accurate. Acceptable agreements between the results obtained by the two different methods are achieved. Results indicate that the total resistances of the KCS model under two off-design conditions are 23.88% and 13.92% larger than that under the designed condition, respectively.
High-field dipoles for future accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wipf, S.L.
1984-09-01
This report presents the concept for building superconducting accelerator dipoles with record high fields. Economic considerations favor the highest possible current density in the windings. Further discussion indicates that there is an optimal range of pinning strength for a superconducting material and that it is not likely for multifilamentary conductors to ever equal the potential performance of tape conductors. A dipole design with a tape-wound, inner high-field winding is suggested. Methods are detailed to avoid degradation caused by flux jumps and to overcome problems with the dipole ends. Concerns for force support structure and field precision are also addressed. An R and D program leading to a prototype 11-T dipole is outlined. Past and future importance of superconductivity to high-energy physics is evident from a short historical survey. Successful dipoles in the 10- to 20-T range will allow interesting options for upgrading present largest accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sessler, A.M.
1986-05-01
A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes
Advanced concepts for acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keefe, D.
1986-07-01
Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations
Development of neutron calibration field using accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2003-03-01
A brief summary is given on the fast neutron calibration fields for 1) 8 keV to 15 MeV range, and 2) 30-80 MeV range. The field for 8 keV to 15 MeV range was developed at the Fast Neutron Laboratory (FNL) at Tohoku University using a 4.5 MV pulsed Dynamitron accelerator and neutron production reactions, {sup 45}Sc(p, n), {sup 7}Li(p, n), {sup 3}H(p, n), D(d, n) and T(d, n). The latter 30-80 MeV fields are setup at TIARA of Takasaki Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and at Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University using a 90 MeV AVF cyclotron and the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction. These fields have been applied for various calibration of neutron spectrometers and dosimeters, and for irradiation purposes. (author)
Linear accelerator accelerating module to suppress back-acceleration of field-emitted particles
Benson, Stephen V.; Marhauser, Frank; Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.
2017-12-05
A method for the suppression of upstream-directed field emission in RF accelerators. The method is not restricted to a certain number of cavity cells, but requires similar operating field levels in all cavities to efficiently annihilate the once accumulated energy. Such a field balance is desirable to minimize dynamic RF losses, but not necessarily achievable in reality depending on individual cavity performance, such as early Q.sub.0-drop or quench field. The method enables a significant energy reduction for upstream-directed electrons within a relatively short distance. As a result of the suppression of upstream-directed field emission, electrons will impact surfaces at rather low energies leading to reduction of dark current and less issues with heating and damage of accelerator components as well as radiation levels including neutron generation and thus radio-activation.
Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF) upgrade plan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gai, W.; Ho, C.; Konecny, R.
1989-01-01
We have successfully demonstrated the principles of wake-field acceleration using structures (cavity, dielectric) and plasmas as wake-field devices using the AATF at Argonne National Laboratory. Due to the limited driver electron pulse intensity and relative long pulse length, only modest accelerating gradients were observed. In order to study the wake field effects in much greater detail and demonstrate the feasibility of wake-field accelerator for high energy physics, we are considering construction of a laser photocathode injector on the existing 20 MeV Chem-Linac to produce very intense and short electron pulses. 10 refs., 5 figs
Jovanović, Dušan; Fedele, Renato; De Nicola, Sergio; Akhter, Tamina; Belić, Milivoj
2017-12-01
A self-consistent nonlinear hydrodynamic theory is presented of the propagation of a long and thin relativistic electron beam, for a typical plasma wake field acceleration configuration in an unmagnetized and overdense plasma. The random component of the trajectories of the beam particles as well as of their velocity spread is modelled by an anisotropic temperature, allowing the beam dynamics to be approximated as a 3D adiabatic expansion/compression. It is shown that even in the absence of the nonlinear plasma wake force, the localisation of the beam in the transverse direction can be achieved owing to the nonlinearity associated with the adiabatic compression/rarefaction and a coherent stationary state is constructed. Numerical calculations reveal the possibility of the beam focussing and defocussing, but the lifetime of the beam can be significantly extended by the appropriate adjustments, so that transverse oscillations are observed, similar to those predicted within the thermal wave and Vlasov kinetic models.
Velocity field in the wake of a hydropower farm equipped with Achard turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Georgescu, A-M; Cosoiu, C I; Alboiu, N; Hamzu, Al; Georgescu, S C
2010-01-01
The study consists of experimental and numerical investigations related to the water flow in the wake of a hydropower farm, equipped with three Achard turbines. The Achard turbine is a French concept of vertical axis cross-flow marine current turbine, with three vertical delta-blades, which operates irrespective of the water flow direction. A farm model built at 1:5 scale has been tested in a water channel. The Achard turbines run in stabilized current, so the flow can be assumed to be almost unchanged in horizontal planes along the vertical z-axis, thus allowing 2D numerical modelling, for different farm configurations: the computational domain is a cross-section of all turbines at a certain z-level. The two-dimensional numerical model of that farm has been used to depict the velocity field in the wake of the farm, with COMSOL Multiphysics and FLUENT software, to compute numerically the overall farm efficiency. The validation of the numerical models with experimental results is performed via the measurement of velocity distribution, by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry, in the wake of the middle turbine within the farm. Three basic configurations were studied experimentally and numerically, namely: with all turbines aligned on a row across the upstream flow direction; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing downstream; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing upstream. As long as the numerical flow in the wake fits the experiments, the numerical results for the power coefficient (turbine efficiency) are trustworthy. The farm configuration with all turbines aligned on a same row leads to lower values of the experimental velocities than the numerical ones, while the farm configurations where the turbines are in isosceles triangular arrangement, pointing downstream or upstream, present a better match between numerical and experimental data.
On the Possibility of Accelerating Positron on an Electron Wake at SABER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ischebeck, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Wang, X.
2008-01-01
A new approach for positron acceleration in non-linear plasma wakefields driven by electron beams is presented. Positrons can be produced by colliding an electron beam with a thin foil target embedded in the plasma. Integration of positron production and acceleration in one stage is realized by a single relativistic, intense electron beam. Simulations with the parameters of the proposed SABER facility [1] at SLAC suggest that this concept could be tested there
Modulational instability for an induced field in the far-wake region of a space vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Jingjing; Deng Qian; Qu Wen
2012-01-01
The behavior of the induced field and the generation of density cavitons in the far-wake region (|k 0 | → 0) of a space vehicle can be described by a set of nonlinear coupling equations. Modulational instability of the induced field is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear equations. The results show that the induced field is modulationally unstable and will collapse into spatial localized structures; meanwhile, density cavitons will be generated. The characteristic scale and the maximum growth rate of the induced field depend not only on the angle between the amplitude of pump waves E 0 and the perturbation wave vector k, but also on the energy density of pump waves |E 0 | 2 . (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ng, K.Y.
1986-09-01
The behavior of the longitudinal impedance of the SSC shielded bellow at low frequencies depends very much on the length of the wake field used in the Fourier transformation. We show analytically and numerically that, regardless of the difference, single-bunch effects are independent of the actual shape of the impedance when the length of the wake used is bigger than the bunch length
Pulsar Emission Geometry and Accelerating Field Strength
DeCesar, Megan E.; Harding, Alice K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Parent, Damien
2012-01-01
The high-quality Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray pulsars have opened a new window to understanding the generation mechanisms of high-energy emission from these systems, The high statistics allow for careful modeling of the light curve features as well as for phase resolved spectral modeling. We modeled the LAT light curves of the Vela and CTA I pulsars with simulated high-energy light curves generated from geometrical representations of the outer gap and slot gap emission models. within the vacuum retarded dipole and force-free fields. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood method was used to explore the phase space of the magnetic inclination angle, viewing angle. maximum emission radius, and gap width. We also used the measured spectral cutoff energies to estimate the accelerating parallel electric field dependence on radius. under the assumptions that the high-energy emission is dominated by curvature radiation and the geometry (radius of emission and minimum radius of curvature of the magnetic field lines) is determined by the best fitting light curves for each model. We find that light curves from the vacuum field more closely match the observed light curves and multiwavelength constraints, and that the calculated parallel electric field can place additional constraints on the emission geometry
Acceleration of superparamagnetic particles with magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stange, R., E-mail: Robert.stange@tu-dresden.de; Lenk, F.; Bley, T.; Boschke, E.
2017-04-01
High magnetic capture efficiency in the context of Biomagnetic Separation (BMS) using superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) requires efficient mixing and high relative velocities between cellular and other targets and SMPs. For this purpose, batch processes or microfluidic systems are commonly used. Here, we analyze the characteristics of an in-house developed batch process experimental setup, the Electromagnetic Sample Mixer (ESM) described earlier. This device uses three electromagnets to increase the relative velocity between SMPs and targets. We carry out simulations of the magnetic field in the ESM and in a simpler paradigmatic setup, and thus were able to calculate the force field acting on the SMPs and to simulate their relative velocities and fluid dynamics due to SMP movement. In this way we were able to show that alternate charging of the magnets induces a double circular stream of SMPs in the ESM, resulting in high relative velocities of SMPs to the targets. Consequently, due to the conservation of momentum, the fluid experiences an acceleration induced by the SMPs. We validated our simulations by microscopic observation of the SMPs in the magnetic field, using a homemade apparatus designed to accommodate a long working-distance lens. By comparing the results of modeling this paradigmatic setup with the experimental observations, we determined that the velocities of the SMPs corresponded to the results of our simulations. - Highlights: • Investigation of a batch process setup for complex forming at Biomagnetic Separation. • Simulation of fluid flow characteristics in this Electro Magnetic Samplemixer. • Simulation of relative velocities between magnetic particles and fluid in the setup. • Simulation of fluid flow induced by the acceleration of magnet particles. • Validation of magnetic fields and flow characteristics in paradigmatic setups. • Reached relative velocity is higher than the sedimentation velocity of the particles • Alternating
Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice.
Jessberger, Jakob; Zhong, Weiwei; Brankačk, Jurij; Draguhn, Andreas
2016-01-01
It is well established that local field potentials (LFP) in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB) follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR) in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG) and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC). During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.
Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakob Jessberger
2016-01-01
Full Text Available It is well established that local field potentials (LFP in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC. During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.
Fast wake measurements with LiDAR at Risø test field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bingöl, Ferhat; Trujillo, J.J.; Mann, Jakob
2008-01-01
. Downstream wind speed can be quantified spatially in one and two dimensions. Data analysis allows us to identify the wake transversal position, thus enabling us to quantify the wake meandering as well as the instantaneous wake expansion expressed in a meandering frame of reference. The experimental results...
Field bus technology in accelerator control systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Shuming
1999-01-01
Since eighties to now, the computer technology, network communication and ULSI technology have been developing rapidly. The level of control for industries and scientific experiments has been upgraded accordingly, so as to meet the increasing requirements for automation. The control systems become more complicated; the devices in control systems become more and more intelligent. However the cost of DCS (Distributed Control System) is quite expensive and the period of system integration is very long. More than ten measurement results for two methods defined in the world, in order to get inter operability of intelligent devices and reduce the costs. The author presents the development trend of fieldbuses briefly and describes the main performances of CAN, LONWORKS, WOLDFIP and PROFIBUS which are mainly used in the world today. The author proposes that the field bus technology will be introduced into the accelerator control systems in the country
The plasma wake field excitation: Recent developments from thermal to quantum regime
Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; de Nicola, Sergio; Jovanović, Dušan; Jovanović
2013-12-01
To describe the transverse nonlinear and collective self-consistent interaction of a long relativistic electron or positron beam with an unmagnetized plasma, a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations were proposed by Fedele and Shukla in 1992 (Fedele, R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992a Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045). They were obtained within the quantum-like description provided by the thermal wave model and the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The pair of equations comprises a 2D Schrödinger-like equation for a complex wave function (whose squared modulus is proportional to beam density) and a Poisson-like equation for the plasma wake potential. The dispersion coefficient of the Schrödinger-like equation is proportional to the beam thermal emittance. More recently, Fedele-Shukla equations have been further applied to magnetized plasmas, and solutions were found in the form of nonlinear vortex states and ring solitons. They have been also applied to plasma focusing problems and extended from thermal to quantum regimes. We present here a review of the original approach, and subsequent developments.
Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery
Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey
2014-05-01
1. Introduction Numerous large-scale offshore wind farms have been built in European waters and play an important role in providing renewable energy. Therefore, knowledge of behavior of wakes, induced by large wind turbines and their impact on wind power output is important. The spatial variation of offshore wind turbine wake is very complex, depending on wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stability. In this study we demonstrate the application of X-band TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data with high spatial resolution for studies on wind turbine wakes in the near and far field of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea. Two cases which different weather conditions and different wake pattern as observed in the TS-X image are presented. 2. Methods The space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique sensor that provides two-dimensional information on the ocean surface. Due to their high resolution, daylight and weather independency and global coverage, SARs are particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal applications. SAR images reveal wind variations on small scales and thus represent a valuable means in detailed wind-field analysis. The general principle of imaging turbine wakes is that the reduced wind speed downstream of offshore wind farms modulates the sea surface roughness, which in turn changes the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS, denoted by σ0) in the SAR image and makes the wake visible. In this study we present two cases at the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus to investigate turbine-induced wakes and the retrieved sea surface wind field. Using the wind streaks, visible in the TS-X image and the shadow behind the offshore wind farm, induced by turbine wake, the sea surface wind direction is derived and subsequently the sea surface wind speed is calculated using the latest generation of wind field algorithm XMOD2. 3. Case study alpha ventus Alpha Ventus is located approximately 45 km from the
Ablation acceleration of macroparticle in spiral magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1981-05-01
The rocket motion of macroparticles heated by energetic pulses in a spiral magnetic field was studied. The purpose of the present work is to study the ablation acceleration of a macroparticle in a spiral magnetic field with the help of the law of conservation of angular momentum. The basic equation of motion of ablatively accelerated projectile in a spiral magnetic field was derived. Any rocket which is ejecting fully ionized plasma in an intense magnetic field with rotational transform is able to have spin by the law of conservation of momentum. The effect of spiral magnetic field on macroparticle acceleration is discussed. The necessary mass ratio increase exponentially with respect to the field parameter. The spiral field should be employed with care to have only to stabilize the position of macroparticles. As conclusion, it can be said that the ablation acceleration of the projectile in a spiral field can give the accelerated body spin quite easily. (Kato, T.)
Linear accelerator use in the nuclear field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecomte, J.-C.
Radiography of internal conformity is performed on weldments and thick castings using linear accelerators. The basic principles relating to linear accelerators are outlined and their advantages over Co 60 sources described. Linear accelerator operation related requirements are presented as well as the use of this apparatus as a method for volumetric inspection, during fabrication of French Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS). Finally the resources needed to use this technique as an inspection method is dealt with [fr
Space charge and wake field analysis for a high brightness electron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsa, Z.
1991-01-01
We present a brief overview of the formalism used, and some simulation results for transverse and longitudinal motion of a bunch of particles moving through a cavity (e.g., the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness photocathode gun), including effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g., arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch). 3 refs., 12 figs
Nonponderomotive electron acceleration in ultrashort surface-plasmon fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Racz, Peter; Dombi, Peter [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Konkoly-Thege M. ut 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)
2011-12-15
We investigate the nonponderomotive nature of ultrafast plasmonic electron acceleration in strongly decaying electromagnetic fields generated by few-cycle and single-cycle femtosecond laser pulses. We clearly identify the conditions contributing to nonponderomotive acceleration and establish fundamental scaling laws and carrier-envelope phase effects. These all-optically accelerated compact, femtosecond electron sources can be utilized in contemporary ultrafast methods.
CORONAL IMPLOSION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN THE WAKE OF A FILAMENT ERUPTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Rui; Wang Haimin
2009-01-01
We study the evolution of a group of TRACE 195 A coronal loops overlying a reverse S-shaped filament on 2001 June 15. These loops were initially pushed upward with the filament ascending and kinking slowly, but as soon as the filament rose explosively, they began to contract at a speed of ∼100 km s -1 , and sustained for at least 12 minutes, presumably due to the reduced magnetic pressure underneath with the filament escaping. Despite the contraction following the expansion, the loops of interest remained largely intact during the filament eruption, rather than formed via reconnection. These contracting loops naturally formed a shrinking trap, in which hot electrons of several keV, in an order of magnitude estimation, can be accelerated to nonthermal energies. A single hard X-ray (HXR) burst, with no corresponding rise in GOES soft X-ray (SXR) flux, was recorded by the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) on board Yohkoh, when the contracting loops expectedly approached the post-flare arcade originating from the filament eruption. HXT images reveal a coronal source distinctly above the top of the SXR arcade by ∼15''. The injecting electron population for the coronal source (thin target) is hardening by ∼1.5 powers relative to the footpoint emission (thick target), which is consistent with electron trapping in the weak diffusion limit. Although we cannot rule out additional reconnection, observational evidence suggests that the shrinking coronal trap may play a significant role in the observed nonthermal HXR emission during the flare decay phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naughton, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herges, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-10-01
This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.
Wind field re-construction of 3D Wake measurements from a turbine-installed scanning lidar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, Tommy; Astrup, Poul
High-resolution wake flow measurements obtained from a turbine-mounted scanning lidar have been obtained from 1D to 5D behind a V27 test turbine. The measured line-of-sight projected wind speeds have, in connection with a fast CFD wind field reconstruction model, been used to generate 3D wind fie...
Plasma cluster acceleration by means of external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kracik, J.; Maloch, J.; Sobra, K.
1975-01-01
The electromagnetic shock tubes are used not only for shock wave creation and study but also for pulse plasma acceleration. By applying the rail acceleration the external magnetic field perpendicular to the plasma cluster velocity can be increased. In the present work is theoretically and experimentally confirmed the external magnetic field influence on the plasma cluster acceleration when the 'snow plough' model is used. (Auth.)
Phase-of-flight method for setting the accelerating fields in the ion linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvortsov, S.V.; Lomize, L.G.
1983-01-01
For setting amplitudes and phases of accelerating fields in multiresonator ion accelerators presently Δt-procedure is used. The determination and setting of two unknown parameters of RF-field (amplitude and phase) in n-resonator is made according to the two increments of particle time-of-flight, measured experimentally: according to the change of the particle time-of-flight Δt 1 in the n-resonator, during the field switching in the resonator, and according to the change of Δt 2 of the time-of-flight in (n+1) resonator without RF-field with the switching of accelerating field in the n-resonator. When approaching the accelerator exit the particle energy increases, relative energy increment decreases and the accuracy of setting decreases. To enchance the accuracy of accelerating fields setting in a linear ion accelerator a phase-of-flight method is developed, in which for the setting of accelerating fields the measured time-of-flight increment Δt only in one resonator is used (the one in which the change of amplitude and phase is performed). Results of simulation of point bunch motion in the IYaI AN USSR linear accelerator are presented
Darian, D.; Marholm, S.; Paulsson, J. J. P.; Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Mortensen, M.; Miloch, W. J.
2017-09-01
The charging of a sounding rocket in subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with external magnetic field is studied with numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A weakly magnetized plasma regime is considered that corresponds to the ionospheric F2 layer, with electrons being strongly magnetized, while the magnetization of ions is weak. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field orientation influences the floating potential of the rocket and that with increasing angle between the rocket axis and the magnetic field direction the rocket potential becomes less negative. External magnetic field gives rise to asymmetric wake downstream of the rocket. The simulated wake in the potential and density may extend as far as 30 electron Debye lengths; thus, it is important to account for these plasma perturbations when analyzing in situ measurements. A qualitative agreement between simulation results and the actual measurements with a sounding rocket is also shown.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.
2014-12-01
The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.
Joshi, C.
2012-12-01
The first Advanced Acceleration of Particles-AAC-Workshop (actually named Laser Acceleration of Particles Workshop) was held at Los Alamos in January 1982. The workshop lasted a week and divided all the acceleration techniques into four categories: near field, far field, media, and vacuum. Basic theorems of particle acceleration were postulated (later proven) and specific experiments based on the four categories were formulated. This landmark workshop led to the formation of the advanced accelerator R&D program in the HEP office of the DOE that supports advanced accelerator research to this day. Two major new user facilities at Argonne and Brookhaven and several more directed experimental efforts were built to explore the advanced particle acceleration schemes. It is not an exaggeration to say that the intellectual breadth and excitement provided by the many groups who entered this new field provided the needed vitality to then recently formed APS Division of Beams and the new online journal Physical Review Special Topics-Accelerators and Beams. On this 30th anniversary of the AAC Workshops, it is worthwhile to look back at the legacy of the first Workshop at Los Alamos and the fine groundwork it laid for the field of advanced accelerator concepts that continues to flourish to this day.
Liu, H. T.; Buck, J. W.; Germain, A. C.; Hinchee, M. E.; Solt, T. S.; Leroy, G. M.; Srnsky, R. A.
1988-09-01
The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind wind farm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. From the field measurements, we derived the velocity and power/energy deficits under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. A method to estimate the energy deficit was developed based on the measured power deficit and the wind speed distributions. This method may be adopted for other turbine types and sites. Recommendations are made for optimizing wind farm design and operations, as well as for wind energy management.
Analysis of the wake field effects in the PEP-II storage rings with extremely high currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novokhatski, A., E-mail: novo@slac.stanford.edu; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.
2014-01-21
We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high-current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves, shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; and beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.
Electrostatic field distributions in the Harwell Tandem accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Read, P.M.
1981-11-01
The electrostatic field distributions in the Harwell Tandem accelerator have been precisely calculated using the electrostatics program FINALE. The results indicate that the accelerator which presently has an upper voltage limit of 6.5 MV has the potential to operate at 8 MV. Such an upgrade could be achieved by a modification to the high voltage terminal. Replacement of the existing accelerator tubes with accelerator tubes capable of a gradient of 1.8 MV/m would also be required. The existing stack may also require replacement. The terminal modification itself would reduce the terminal to tank breakdown frequency. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC
2012-07-23
In this note, preliminary analysis on linac ocsillation data in FACET linac LI05-09 plus LI11-19 is presented. Several quadrupoles are identified to possibly have different strength, compared with their designed strength in the MAD optics model. The beam energy loss due to longitudinal wake fields in the S-band linac is also analytically calculated, also by LITRACK numerical simulations.
Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Brooks
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.
Report of the Working Group on Far Field Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha-Mei Tang
1992-01-01
This report describes the accomplishments of the Working Group on Far Field Accelerators. In addition to hearing presentations of current research, the group produced designs for ''100 MeV'' demonstration accelerators, ''1 GeV'' conceptual accelerators and a small electron beam source. Two of the ''100 MeV'' designs, an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) and an Inverse Cerenkov Accelerator (ICA), use the CO 2 laser and the 50 MeV linac at the Advanced Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), requiring only modest changes in the current experimental setups. By upgrading the laser, an ICA design demonstrated 1 GeV acceleration in a gas cell about 50 cm in length. For high average power accelerators, examples based on the IFEL concept were also produced utilizing accelerators driven by high average power FELs. The Working Group also designed a small electron beam source based on the inverse electron cyclotron resonance concept. Accelerators based on the IFEL and ICA may be the first to achieve ''100 MeV'' and ''1 GeV'' energy gain demonstration with high accelerating gradients
The analytical solution of wake-fields in an elliptical pillbox cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.S.; Chen, K.W.
1991-01-01
The wake potential of a bunch of relativistic charged particles traversing an elliptical pillbox cavity is derived analytically in the limit of vanishing aperture. It is found that the resonant modes of an elliptical cavity can be expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. Calculation results are presented and compared with numerical ones. (author) 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Shocks
Nishikawa, Ken-IchiI.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (m) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation in Relativistic Shocks
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.
Tomo-PIV measurements of the flow field in the wake of a sphere
Eshbal, Lior; David, Tom; Rinsky, Vladislav; van Hout, Rene; Greenblatt, David
2017-11-01
A sphere can be considered as a prototypical 3D bluff body. In order to improve our understanding of its 3D wake flow, a combination of time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tomographic PIV (tomo-PIV) was implemented. Experiments were performed in a closed-loop water channel facility and sphere Reynolds numbers ReD = UD/ ν = 400, 800, 1200 and 2000, where U is the free-stream velocity, ν the kinematic viscosity and D the sphere diameter. The measurement volume (Height x Length x Width, 5 x 5 x 1.5 D3) comprised the sphere and the downstream wake. Tomo-PIV snap-shots were correlated with the time-resolved PIV such that the 3D temporal evolution of the shed vortices became clear. At ReD = 400, this procedure revealed shed hairpin vortices having a vertical plane of symmetry in agreement with many dye visualization studies. However, the measurements also revealed weaker induced hairpins resulting from the interaction of the near-wake flow and the surrounding free stream. These induced vortices were not visible in previous dye and smoke visualizations and have only been observed in simulations. Data processing of the data at higher ReD is currently ongoing. Israel Science Foundation Grant No. 1596/14.
Simulations and experiments on external electron injection for laser wakefield acceleration
Dijk, van W.
2010-01-01
Laser wake field acceleration is a technique that can be used to accelerate electrons using electric fields that are several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional accelerators. With these higher fields, it is possible to drastically reduce the length of accelerator needed
Evaluating secular acceleration in geomagnetic field model GRIMM-3
Lesur, V.; Wardinski, I.
2012-12-01
Secular acceleration of the magnetic field is the rate of change of its secular variation. One of the main results of studying magnetic data collected by the German survey satellite CHAMP was the mapping of field acceleration and its evolution in time. Questions remain about the accuracy of the modeled acceleration and the effect of the applied regularization processes. We have evaluated to what extent the regularization affects the temporal variability of the Gauss coefficients. We also obtained results of temporal variability of the Gauss coefficients where alternative approaches to the usual smoothing norms have been applied for regularization. Except for the dipole term, the secular acceleration of the Gauss coefficients is fairly well described up to spherical harmonic degree 5 or 6. There is no clear evidence from observatory data that the spectrum of this acceleration is underestimated at the Earth surface. Assuming a resistive mantle, the observed acceleration supports a characteristic time scale for the secular variation of the order of 11 years.
Magnetic field, reconnection, and particle acceleration in extragalactic jets
Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.
1992-01-01
Extra-galactic radio jets are investigated theoretically taking into account that the jet magnetic field is dragged out from the central rotating source by the jet flow. Thus, magnetohydrodynamic models of jets are considered with zero net poloidal current and flux, and consequently a predominantly toroidal magnetic field. The magnetic field naturally has a cylindrical neutral layer. Collisionless reconnection of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the neutral layer acts to generate a non-axisymmetric radial magnetic field. In turn, axial shear-stretching of reconnected toroidal field gives rise to a significant axial magnetic field if the flow energy-density is larger than the energy-density of the magnetic field. This can lead to jets with an apparent longitudinal magnetic field as observed in the Fanaroff-Riley class II jets. In the opposite limit, where the field energy-density is large, the field remains mainly toroidal as observed in Fanaroff-Riley class I jets. Driven collisionless reconnection at neutral layers may lead to acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies in the weak electrostatic field of the neutral layer. A simple model is discussed for particle acceleration at neutral layers in electron/positron and electron/proton plasmas.
The Auroral Field-aligned Acceleration - Cluster Results
Vaivads, A.; Cluster Auroral Team
The four Cluster satellites cross the auroral field lines at altitudes well above most of acceleration region. Thus, the orbit is appropriate for studies of the generator side of this region. We consider the energy transport towards the acceleration region and different mechanisms for generating the potential drop. Using data from Cluster we can also for the first time study the dynamics of the generator on a minute scale. We present data from a few auroral field crossings where Cluster are in conjunction with DMSP satellites. We use electric and magnetic field data to estimate electrostatic po- tential along the satellite orbit, Poynting flux as well as the presence of plasma waves. These we can compare with data from particle and wave instruments on Cluster and on low latitude satellites to try to make a consistent picture of the acceleration region formation in these cases. Preliminary results show close agreement both between in- tegrated potential values at Cluster and electron peak energies at DMSP as well as close agreement between the integrated Poynting flux values at Cluster and the elec- tron energy flux at DMSP. At the end we draw a parallels between auroral electron acceleration and electron acceleration at the magnetopause.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.
2017-01-01
The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.
Finite difference time domain modelling of particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurgens, T.G.; Harfoush, F.A.
1989-03-01
Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modelling has been successfully applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems for many years. Here the method is extended to incorporate the modelling of wake fields in particle accelerators. Algorithmic comparisons are made to existing wake field codes, such as MAFIA T3. 9 refs., 7 figs
Chameleon field and the late time acceleration of the Universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chameleon field and the late time acceleration of the Universe. NARAYAN BANERJEE1,∗, SUDIPTA DAS2 and KOYEL GANGULY3. 1IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, P.O. BCKV Main Office, District Nadia 741 252,. India. 2Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019, India.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.
1996-06-06
The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where `m`is the free mass and `q` the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.
1996-01-01
The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where 'm'is the free mass and 'q' the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Atomic excitation and acceleration in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, H; Eichmann, U
2016-01-01
Atomic excitation in the tunneling regime of a strong-field laser–matter interaction has been recently observed. It is conveniently explained by the concept of frustrated tunneling ionization (FTI), which naturally evolves from the well-established tunneling picture followed by classical dynamics of the electron in the combined laser field and Coulomb field of the ionic core. Important predictions of the FTI model such as the n distribution of Rydberg states after strong-field excitation and the dependence on the laser polarization have been confirmed in experiments. The model also establishes a sound basis to understand strong-field acceleration of neutral atoms in strong laser fields. The experimental observation has become possible recently and initiated a variety of experiments such as atomic acceleration in an intense standing wave and the survival of Rydberg states in strong laser fields. Furthermore, the experimental investigations on strong-field dissociation of molecules, where neutral excited fragments after the Coulomb explosion of simple molecules have been observed, can be explained. In this review, we introduce the subject and give an overview over relevant experiments supplemented by new results. (paper)
Evidence for Field-parallel Electron Acceleration in Solar Flares
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haerendel, G. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)
2017-10-01
It is proposed that the coincidence of higher brightness and upward electric current observed by Janvier et al. during a flare indicates electron acceleration by field-parallel potential drops sustained by extremely strong field-aligned currents of the order of 10{sup 4} A m{sup −2}. A consequence of this is the concentration of the currents in sheets with widths of the order of 1 m. The high current density suggests that the field-parallel potential drops are maintained by current-driven anomalous resistivity. The origin of these currents remains a strong challenge for theorists.
Dynamic wake meandering modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)
2007-06-15
well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. Implementation of the methodology with aeroelastic codes is straight forward and performed simply by replacing traditional turbulence input files with wind field files containing the combined effect of atmospheric turbulence and wake meandering. (au)
DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei
2017-04-01
The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
The 52 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2017 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland, Sweden. The Wake Conference series began in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 the conference took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it went back to where it started, Visby, and this time it once again takes place at Uppsala University’s Gotland campus, May 30 th - June 1 st . Modern wind turbines are today clustered in large farms with a total production capacity reaching those of a nuclear power plant. When placed in a wind farm, the turbines will be fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. This wake interaction results in a decreased power production, caused by the lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of wind farms. The increased importance and interest in the field of wake and wind farm aerodynamics can be seen in the increased number of scientific articles on the subject. For example, on the Web of Science citation index, the number citations on the topic ‘wind turbine wakes’ increased from about 50 in 2006 to more than 3800 in 2016. This citation growth essentially shows that the growth in the global production of electrical energy has become a scientific problem to be solved by scientists and engineers. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global climate change, the wind industry’s growth must continue. A part of making this growth possible will require research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. This conference is aimed at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and
The concept of coupling impedance in the self-consistent plasma wake field excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedele, R.; Akhter, T.; De Nicola, S.; Migliorati, M.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Palumbo, L.
2016-01-01
Within the framework of the Vlasov–Maxwell system of equations, we describe the self-consistent interaction of a relativistic charged-particle beam with the surroundings while propagating through a plasma-based acceleration device. This is done in terms of the concept of coupling (longitudinal) impedance in full analogy with the conventional accelerators. It is shown that also here the coupling impedance is a very useful tool for the Nyquist-type stability analysis. Examples of specific physical situations are finally illustrated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, T. G.; Astrup, Poul
2017-01-01
University of Denmark. The purpose of the SpinnerLidar measurements at SWIFT is to measure the response of a V27 turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. Although our fast scanning SpinnerLidar is able to measure the line-of-sight projected wind speed at up to 400 points per......-Stokes CFD code “Lincom Cyclop-buster model,”3 the corresponding 3D wind vector field (u, v, w) can be reconstructed under constraints for conservation of mass and momentum. The resulting model calculated line-of-sight projections of the 3D wind velocity vectors will become consistent with the line...
Calculation of accelerating electric fields in the CO2 injector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baron, E.
1999-01-01
The accelerating structure in the injecting cyclotron for O.A.E. can be divided, if one takes the inflector exit as departure point, into the following two regions: 1. the relatively complex central zone comprising three accelerating gaps which is flanked by vertical pillars destined to increase the transit time factor and, at the same time, to reduce the influence of electric field vertical components; 2. the so-called 'large radius' subsequent zone where the gaps are no longer radially delimited. To study the behavior of the individual trajectories in these fields, the equations of motion must be integrated step by step (for instance by Runge-Kutta method) what implies the knowledge of field (or at least of potential) in every point. This is the method for the calculation of potential contour maps which is presented here; the potentials are static, and a sinusoidal time variation is subsequently applied to perform dynamical calculations. The paper has the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Potential and large radius field components; 2.1. Calculation of median plane potential; 2.2. Calculation of the off-median-plane potential and field; 3. Potential in the central region; 4. Further Developments
Electrodeless plasma acceleration system using rotating magnetic field method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Furukawa
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We have proposed Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF acceleration method as one of electrodeless plasma accelerations. In our experimental scheme, plasma generated by an rf (radio frequency antenna, is accelerated by RMF antennas, which consist of two-pair, opposed, facing coils, and these antennas are outside of a discharge tube. Therefore, there is no wear of electrodes, degrading the propulsion performance. Here, we will introduce our RMF acceleration system developed, including the experimental device, e.g., external antennas, a tapered quartz tube, a vacuum chamber, external magnets, and a pumping system. In addition, we can change RMF operation parameters (RMF applied current IRMF and RMF current phase difference ϕ, focusing on RMF current frequency fRMF by adjusting matching conditions of RMF, and investigate the dependencies on plasma parameters (electron density ne and ion velocity vi; e.g., higher increases of ne and vi (∼360 % and 55 %, respectively than previous experimental results were obtained by decreasing fRMF from 5 MHz to 0.7 MHz, whose RMF penetration condition was better according to Milroy’s expression. Moreover, time-varying component of RMF has been measured directly to survey the penetration condition experimentally.
Wind turbine wake interactions at field scale: An LES study of the SWiFT facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Xiaolei; Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Barone, Matthew
2014-01-01
The University of Minnesota Virtual Wind Simulator (VWiS) code is employed to simulate turbine/atmosphere interactions in the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility developed by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, TX, USA. The facility presently consists of three turbines and the simulations consider the case of wind blowing from South such that two turbines are in the free stream and the third turbine in the direct wake of one upstream turbine with separation of 5 rotor diameters. Large-eddy simulation (LES) on two successively finer grids is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid refinement. It is found that the details of the break-up of the tip vortices into small-scale turbulence structures can only be resolved on the finer grid. It is also shown that the power coefficient C P of the downwind turbine predicted on the coarse grid is somewhat higher than that obtained on the fine mesh. On the other hand, the rms (root-mean-square) of the C P fluctuations are nearly the same on both grids, although more small-scale turbulence structures are resolved upwind of the downwind turbine on the finer grid
The role of magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in auroral acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, L.P.; Faelthammar, C.G.
1990-01-01
Electric field measurements on the Swedish satellite Viking have confirmed and extended earlier observations on S3-3 and provided further evidence of the role of dc electric fields in auroral acceleration processes. On auroral magnetic field lines the electric field is strongly fluctuating both transverse and parallel to the magnetic field. The significance of these fluctuations for the auroral acceleration process is discussed. A definition of dc electric fields is given in terms of their effects on charged particles. Fluctuations below several hertz are experienced as dc by typical auroral electrons if the acceleration length is a few thousand kilometers. For ions the same is true below about 0.1 Hz. The magnetic-field-aligned (as well as the transverse) component of the electric field fluctuations has a maximum below 1 Hz, in a frequency range that appears as dc to the electrons but not to the ions. This allows it to cause a selective acceleration, which may be important in explaining some of the observed characteristics of auroral particle distributions. The electric field observations on Viking support the conclusion that magnetic-field-aligned potential drops play an important role in auroral acceleration, in good agreement with particle observations boht on Viking and on the DE satellites. They also show that a large part, or even all, of the accelerating potential drop may be accounted for by numerous weak (about a volt) electric double layers, in agreement with earlier observations on the S3-3 satellite and with an early theoretical suggestion by L. Block
Numerical analysis of flow fields generated by accelerating flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurylo, J.
1977-12-01
Presented here is a numerical technique for the analysis of non-steady flow fields generated by accelerating flames in gaseous media. Of particular interest in the study is the evaluation of the non-steady effects on the flow field and the possible transition of the combustion process to detonation caused by an abrupt change in the burning speed of an initially steady flame propagating in an unconfined combustible gas mixture. Optically recorded observations of accelerating flames established that the flow field can be considered to consist of non-steady flow fields associated with an assembly of interacting shock waves, contact discontinuities, deflagration and detonation fronts. In the analysis, these flow fields are treated as spatially one-dimensional, the influence of transport phenomena is considered to be negligible, and unburned and burned substances are assumed to behave as perfect gases with constant, but different, specific heats. The basis of the numerical technique is an explicit, two step, second order accurate, finite difference scheme employed to integrate the flow field equations expressed in divergence form. The burning speed, governing the motion of the deflagration, is expressed in the form of a power law dependence on pressure and temperature immediately ahead of its front. The steady wave solution is obtained by the vector polar interaction technique, that is, by determining the point of intersection between the loci of end states in the plane of the two interaction invariants, pressure and particle velocity. The technique is illustrated by a numerical example in which a steady flame experiences an abrupt change in its burning speed. Solutions correspond either to the eventual reestablishment of a steady state flow field commensurate with the burning speed or to the transition to detonation. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental observations.
Dirac vacuum: Acceleration and external-field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauregui, R.; Torres, M.; Hacyan, S.
1991-01-01
The quantization of the massive spin-1/2 field in Rindler coordinates is considered, including the effects of a background magnetic field. We calculate the expectation values of conserved quantities such as the stress-energy tensor, current density, and spin distribution, as detected by an accelerated observer. The ratio of the energy and particle densities is given by a Fermi-Dirac distribution, but the spectrum of these quantities takes in general a complicated form that cannot be simply interpreted as a thermal spectrum. For the free-particle case the spectrum of the energy-stress tensor has a Fermi-Dirac form only in the massless limit. In the presence of the magnetic field the Dirac vacuum is magnetized and exhibits plasmalike properties
Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities
Czarski, T
2010-01-01
A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...
Accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations with GPU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoming Shi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A new package for accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations was developed by using GPU based on the semi-implicit Fourier method. The package can solve a variety of equilibrium equations with different inhomogeneity including long-range elastic, magnetostatic, and electrostatic interactions. Through using specific algorithm in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method was integrated in GPU package. The Allen-Cahn equation, Cahn-Hilliard equation, and phase-field model with long-range interaction were solved based on the algorithm running on GPU respectively to test the performance of the package. From the comparison of the calculation results between the solver executed in single CPU and the one on GPU, it was found that the speed on GPU is enormously elevated to 50 times faster. The present study therefore contributes to the acceleration of large-scale phase-field simulations and provides guidance for experiments to design large-scale functional devices.
Wakefield Damping in a Pair of X-Band Accelerators for Linear Colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, R.M.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Wang, J.W.; Li, Z.; SLAC
2006-01-01
We consider means to damp the wake-field left behind ultra-relativistic charges. In particular, we focus on a pair of travelling wave accelerators operating at an X-band frequency of 11.424 GHz. In order to maximize the efficiency of acceleration, in the context of a linear collider, multiple bunches of charged particles are accelerated within a given pulse of the electromagnetic field. The wake-field left behind successive bunches, if left unchecked, can seriously disturb the progress of trailing bunches and can lead to an appreciable dilution in the emittance of the beam. We report on a method to minimize the influence of the wake-field on trailing bunches. This method entails detuning the characteristic mode frequencies which make-up the electromagnetic field, damping the wake-field, and interleaving the frequencies of adjacent accelerating structures. Theoretical predictions of the wake-field and modes, based on a circuit model, are compared with experimental measurements of the wake-field conducted within the ASSET facility at SLAC. Very good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment and this allows us to have some confidence in designing the damping of wake-fields in a future linear collider consisting of several thousand of these accelerating structures
Acceleration Kinematics in Cricketers: Implications for Performance in the Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Lockie Robert
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Cricket fielding often involves maximal acceleration to retrieve the ball. There has been no analysis of acceleration specific to cricketers, or for players who field primarily in the infield (closer to the pitch or outfield (closer to the boundary. This study analyzed the first two steps of a 10-m sprint in experienced cricketers. Eighteen males (age = 24.06 ± 4.87 years; height = 1.81 ± 0.06 m; mass = 79.67 ± 10.37 kg were defined as primarily infielders (n = 10 or outfielders (n = 8. Timing lights recorded 0-5 and 0-10 m time. Motion capture measured first and second step kinematics, including: step length; step frequency; contact time; shoulder motion; lead and rear arm elbow angle; drive leg hip and knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion; swing leg hip and knee flexion, and ankle dorsi flexion. A one-way analysis of variance (p < 0.05 determined between-group differences. Data was pooled for a Pearson’s correlation analysis (p < 0.05 to analyze kinematic relationships. There were no differences in sprint times, and few variables differentiated infielders and outfielders. Left shoulder range of motion related to second step length (r = 0.471. First step hip flexion correlated with both step lengths (r = 0.570-0.598, and frequencies (r = -0.504--0.606. First step knee flexion related to both step lengths (r = 0.528-0.682, and first step frequency (r = -0.669. First step ankle plantar flexion correlated with second step length (r = -0.692 and frequency (r = 0.726. Greater joint motion ranges related to longer steps. Cricketers display similar sprint kinematics regardless of fielding position, likely because players may field in the infield or outfield depending on match situation. Due to relationships with shoulder and leg motion, and the importance and trainability of step length, cricketers should target this variable to enhance acceleration.
Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John
2016-09-01
DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.
Measurement of the magnetic field coefficients of particle accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, J.; Ganetis, G.; Hogue, R.; Rogers, E.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.
1989-01-01
An important aspect in the development of magnets to be used in particle accelerators is the measurement of the magnetic field in the beam aperture. In general it is necessary to measure the harmonic multipoles in the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets for a series of stationary currents (plateaus). This is the case for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) which will be ramped to high field over a long period (/approximately/1000 sec.) and then remain on the flat top for the duration of the particle collision phase. In contrast to this mode of operation, the Booster ring being constructed for the Brookhaven AGS, will have a fast ramp rate of approximately 10 Hz. The multipole fields for these Booster magnets must therefore be determined ''on the ramp.'' In this way the effect of eddy currents will be taken into account. The measurement system which we will describe in this paper is an outgrowth of that used for the SSC dipoles. It has the capability of measuring the field multipoles on both a plateau or during a fast ramp. In addition, the same basic coil assembly is used to obtain the magnetic multipoles in dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.
2017-02-01
The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.
Probing plasma wakefields using electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator
Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Guo, B.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C.-H.; Li, F.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Chu, H.-H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.; Joshi, C.
2018-04-01
We show experimental results of probing the electric field structure of plasma wakes by using femtosecond relativistic electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. Snapshots of laser-driven linear wakes in plasmas with different densities and density gradients are captured. The spatiotemporal evolution of the wake in a plasma density up-ramp is recorded. Two parallel wakes driven by a laser with a main spot and sidelobes are identified in the experiment and reproduced in simulations. The capability of this new method for capturing the electron- and positron-driven wakes is also shown via 3D particle-in-cell simulations.
Measurement of Wake fields in Plasma by a Probing Electron Beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.
2006-01-01
The device for measuring intensity of wakefield, excited in plasma by a sequence of bunches of relativistic electrons is presented. Field amplitude is determined by measuring deflection of a probing electron beam (10 keV, 50 μA, of 1 mm diameter), which is injected perpendicularly to a direction of bunches movement. Results of measurement of focusing radial wakefield excited in plasma of density 5 x 10 11 cm - 3 by a sequence of needle electron bunches (each bunch of length 10 mm, diameter 1.5 mm, energy 14 MeV, 2 x 10 9 electrons in bunch, number of bunches 1500) are given. The measured radial wakefield strength was 2.5 kV/cm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourier, Georges
1971-01-01
A gaseous plasma excited by a powerful microwave source (up to 300 kW) was studied theoretically and experimentally. The large amplitude electric field excites, in a constant inhomogeneous magnetic field, a plasma near to the electron cyclotron resonance. These particles are accelerated to energies of between 100 and 10000 eV and subsequently drift to the regions of lower magnetic field. The ions are accelerated by the resulting electrostatic forces. Ion and electron currents of some tens of milli-amperes to a few amperes are obtained. The energy of the electrons is limited by their relativistic mass; a three-dimensional of space charge model is set up to describe the particle flow. (author) [fr
Computer programs in accelerator physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keil, E.
1984-01-01
Three areas of accelerator physics are discussed in which computer programs have been applied with much success: i) single-particle beam dynamics in circular machines, i.e. the design and matching of machine lattices; ii) computations of electromagnetic fields in RF cavities and similar objects, useful for the design of RF cavities and for the calculation of wake fields; iii) simulation of betatron and synchrotron oscillations in a machine with non-linear elements, e.g. sextupoles, and of bunch lengthening due to longitudinal wake fields. (orig.)
Siemann, Robert
1998-04-01
Current particle accelerators rely on conventional or superconducting radio frequency cavities to accelerate beams of protons or electrons for nuclear and particle research and for medical and materials science studies. New methods for achieving larger accelerating gradients have been proposed and are being studied. These include the use of high power lasers, laser driven plasmas, wake fields generated by intense low energy beams, and millimeter wavelength EM structures. The studies to date, and the prospects for practical applications of these new ideas will be discussed.
Prediction of multi-wake problems using an improved Jensen wake model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
2017-01-01
The improved analytical wake model named as 2D_k Jensen model (which was proposed to overcome some shortcomes in the classical Jensen wake model) is applied and validated in this work for wind turbine multi-wake predictions. Different from the original Jensen model, this newly developed 2D_k Jensen...... model uses a cosine shape instead of the top-hat shape for the velocity deficit in the wake, and the wake decay rate as a variable that is related to the ambient turbulence as well as the rotor generated turbulence. Coupled with four different multi-wake combination models, the 2D_k Jensen model...... is assessed through (1) simulating two wakes interaction under full wake and partial wake conditions and (2) predicting the power production in the Horns Rev wind farm for different wake sectors around two different wind directions. Through comparisons with field measurements, results from Large Eddy...
Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan
2015-06-01
at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. Many people have been involved in producing the 2015 Wake Conference proceedings. The work by the more than 60 reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of the section editors: Christian Masson, ÉTS, Fernando Porté-Agel, EPFL, Gerard Schepers, ECN Wind Energy, Gijs Van Kuik, Delft University, Gunner Larsen, DTU Wind Energy, Jakob Mann, DTU Wind Energy, Javier Sanz Rodrigo, CENER, Johan Meyers, KU Leuven, Rebecca Barthelmie, Cornell University, Sandrine Aubrun-Sanches, Université d'Orléans and Thomas Leweke, IRPHE-CNRS. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive support from the editorial team at IOP Publishing, especially Sarah Toms, during the review process of these proceedings. Visby, Sweden, June 2015 Andrew Barney, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Stefan Ivanell Uppsala University - Campus Gotland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kol'tsov, A.V.; Serov, A.V.
1992-01-01
Setting the acceleration regime in a microtron with the resonator in which the third accelerating field harmonic is excited by accelerated clusters is considered. It is shown that excitation of the accelerating field third harmonic in the microtron resonator (E 011 mode) causes a 1.5 time increase of the range of field intensity values under which resonance particle acceleration is possible. Under moderate energies and accelerated currents (10-15 MeV, 50-80 mA) this leads to a reduction of requirements to the stability of power coming to the resonator and cathode temperature. Under accelerated currents of > 100 mA the third harmonic complicates the microtron transition to acceleration regime. The microtron transfers to stable autooscillation regime, but the current achieved in a single short pulse is increased. By varying the value of the resonator quality factor on the third harmonic one can change the current pulse duration and autooscillation period
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luca Zaggia
Full Text Available An investigation based on in-situ surveys combined with remote sensing and GIS analysis revealed fast shoreline retreat on the side of a major waterway, the Malamocco Marghera Channel, in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Monthly and long-term regression rates caused by ship wakes in a reclaimed industrial area were considered. The short-term analysis, based on field surveys carried out between April 2014 and January 2015, revealed that the speed of shoreline regression was insignificantly dependent on the distance from the navigation channel, but was not constant through time. Periods of high water levels due to tidal forcing or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on the morpho-stratigraphy and the vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. A GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of 3-4 m/yr in the period between 1974 and 2015. Digitization of historical maps and bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 enabled the construction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period 1968-2015 (1.19×106 m3. The results show that in the presence of heavy ship traffic, ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins. The analysis enables a better understanding of how shallow-water systems react to the human activities in the post-industrial period. An adequate evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial for the development of future scenarios and for the sustainable management port traffic worldwide.
Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfé, Giorgia; Scarpa, Gian Marco; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Parnell, Kevin Ellis; Rapaglia, John Paul; Gionta, Maria; Soomere, Tarmo
2017-01-01
An investigation based on in-situ surveys combined with remote sensing and GIS analysis revealed fast shoreline retreat on the side of a major waterway, the Malamocco Marghera Channel, in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Monthly and long-term regression rates caused by ship wakes in a reclaimed industrial area were considered. The short-term analysis, based on field surveys carried out between April 2014 and January 2015, revealed that the speed of shoreline regression was insignificantly dependent on the distance from the navigation channel, but was not constant through time. Periods of high water levels due to tidal forcing or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on the morpho-stratigraphy and the vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. A GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of 3-4 m/yr in the period between 1974 and 2015. Digitization of historical maps and bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 enabled the construction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period 1968-2015 (1.19×106 m3). The results show that in the presence of heavy ship traffic, ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins. The analysis enables a better understanding of how shallow-water systems react to the human activities in the post-industrial period. An adequate evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial for the development of future scenarios and for the sustainable management port traffic worldwide.
Study on the effects of ion motion on laser-induced plasma wakes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Suyun; Yu Wei; Yuan Xiao; Xu Han; Cao, L. H.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T.
2012-01-01
A 2D analytical model is presented for the generation of plasma wakes (or bubbles) with an ultra-intense laser pulse by taking into account the response of plasma ions. It is shown that the effect of ion motion becomes significant at the laser intensity exceeding 10 21 W/cm 2 and plasma background density below 10 19 cm −3 . In this regime, ion motion tends to suppress the electrostatic field induced by charge separation and makes the electron acceleration less effective. As a result, the assumption of immobile ions overestimates the efficiency of laser wake-field acceleration of electrons. Based on the analytical model, the dynamics of plasma ions in laser-induced wake field is investigated. It is found that only one bubble appears as the plasmas background density exceeds the resonant density and the deposited laser energy is concentrated into the bubble, resulting in the generation of an ion bunch with extremely high energy density.
Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parsa, Z.
1991-01-01
This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palumbo, L.
1989-01-01
In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented
Plasma-based and novel accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugihara, Ryo; Nishida, Yasushi
1992-05-01
This publication is a collection of papers presented at Workshop on Plasma-Based and Novel Accelerators held at National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, on December 19-20, 1991. Plasma-based accelerators are attracting considerable attention in these days a new, exciting field of plasma applications. The study gives rise to and spurs study of other unique accelerators like laser-based accelerators. The talks in the Workshop encompassed beat-wave accelerator (BWA), plasma wake field accelerator (PWFA), V p x B accelerator, laser-based accelerators and some novel methods of acceleration. They also covered the topics such as FEL, cluster acceleration and plasma lens. Small scale experiments as those in universities have exhibited brilliant results while larger scale experiments like BWA in Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, and PWFA in KEK start showing significant results as well. (J.P.N.)
Improvements in ECN Wake Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2013-08-15
Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.
Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles
2016-01-01
We describe a generalization of the coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model for wind farms that can be used to evaluate the performance of wind farms under arbitrary wind inflow directions, whereas the original CWBL model (Stevens et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 7, 023115 (2015))
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)
1997-12-31
A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.
The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, Xiangliang, E-mail: kongx@sdu.edu.cn; Chen, Yao, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan, E-mail: guofan.ustc@gmail.com [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2016-03-25
We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field at the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.
Microwave measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in accelerating fields of disk-loaded waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loew, G.A.; Deruyter, H.; Defa, W.
1983-03-01
This paper presents microwave measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in the accelerating fields of the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide. These field asymmetries lead to rf phase-dependent beam steering which can be detrimental to operation of linear accelerators in general and of the SLAC Linear Collider in particular
Microwave measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in accelerating fields of disk-loaded waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loew, G.A.; Defa, Wang; Deruyter, H.
1983-01-01
This paper presents microwave measurements of azymuthal asymmetries in the accelerating fields of the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide. These field asymmetries lead to RF phase-dependent beam steering which can be detrimental to operation of linear accelerators in general and of the SLAC Linear Collider in particular
High Field Studies for CLIC Accelerating Structures Development
Profatilova, I
2017-01-01
Compact Linear Collider RF structures need to be able to achieve the very high average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. One of the main challenges in reaching such high accelerating gradients is to avoid vacuum electrical breakdown within CLIC accelerating structures. Accelerating structure tests are carried out in the klystron-based test stands known as the XBoxes. In order to investigate vacuum breakdown phenomena and its statistical characteristics in a simpler system and get results in a faster way, pulsed dc systems have been developed at CERN. To acquire sufficient breakdown data in a reasonable period of time, high repetition rate pulse generators are used in the systems for breakdown studies, so-called pulsed dc system. This paper describes the pulsed dc systems and the two high repetition rate circuits, which produce high-voltage pulses for it, available at CERN.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shu, Q.S.; Hartung, W.; Leibovich, A.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on field emission, which is an obstacle to reaching the higher fields called for in future applications of superconducting radio frequency cavities to particle accelerators. The authors used heat treatment up to 1500 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace, along with processing of cavities and temperature mapping, to suppress field emission and analyze emitter properties. In 27 tests of 1-cell 1500 MHz fired accelerating cavities, on the average the accelerating field E acc increased to 24 MV/m (H pk = 1250 Oe) from 13 MV/m with chemical treatment alone; the highest E acc reached was 30.5 MV/m
A soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) using a two-beam elliptical pill-box wake-field cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S.H.; Chen, K.W.
1988-01-01
Stimulated bremsstrahlung in an undulating electric field in the lasing beam direction (electric wiggler) was shown to be possible from the quantum- mechanical viewpoint. Herein, this possibility is scrutinized from the viewpoint of classical electrodynamics. It is found that if stimulated bremsstrahlung in a transverse undulating magnetic field (magnetic wiggler) occurs, stimulated bremsstrahlung in the electric wiggler must also occur. We further show that a free electron laser (FEL) using a magnetic wiggler to provide a catalyzer field for stimulated bremsstrahlung cannot serve as a practical FEL operating in the soft x-ray region from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. On the other hand, the authors demonstrate that the FEL using a traveling wake field in a two-beam elliptical pill-box cavity is well suited as a source of coherent radiation in the soft x-ray region
Self focusing in a spatially modulated electrostatic field particle accelerator
Russman, F.; Marini, S.; Peter, E.; de Oliveira, G. I.; Rizzato, F. B.
2018-02-01
In the present analysis, we study the action of a three-dimensional (3D) modulated electrostatic wave over a charged particle. Meanwhile, the particle's velocity is smaller than the phase-velocity of the carrier, and the particle could be reflected by the potential or could pass through the potential with no significant change in the longitudinal velocity—and its dynamics could be described by a ponderomotive approximation. Otherwise, the particle is trapped by the potential and it is accelerated towards the speed of light, independently of the initial particle's phase—in this case, the ponderomotive approximation is no longer valid. During the acceleration process, numerical simulations show the particle is focused, simultaneously. These results suggest the accelerator proposed here is promising.
Experimental study on the critical heat flux in a varying acceleration field, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Yokomura, Takeyoshi; Otsuji, Tomoo; Ikawa, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Akira.
1988-12-01
It is very important for the thermohydraulic design and for the safety assesement of marine reactors, to understand the effect of varying acceleration induced by ship motion on critical heart flux. The purpose of this joint study is to examine quantitatively the influence of varying acceleration on the behavior of bubbles. In the experiment, FREON-113 was used as working fluid. This report describes some experimental results; measurements of void fraction and bubble velocity near the heat transfer surface, measurement of bubble size under stationary acceleration field and observation of bubble behavior under varying acceleration field. (author)
Electron acceleration by longitudinal electric field of a gaussian laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Satoshi; Sugihara, Ryo; Shimoda, Koichi.
1991-11-01
It is shown that the longitudinal electric field of a transverse magnetic mode of a Gaussian laser beam accelerates an electron to an ultra-relativistic energy. The electron is captured and accelerated in a length of the order of the Rayleigh range. The ultimate energy increment of the electron with a single laser beam is given by the product of transverse field intensity and the beam waist, and can be of the order of 100MeV. This fact implies that a multi-stage acceleration enables TeV-order-acceleration in a length of a few kilometers with the present state of the art. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)
2015-07-01
Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.
Parallel electric fields accelerating ions and electrons in the same direction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hultqvist, B; Lundin, R.
1988-01-01
In this contribution the authors present Viking observations of electrons and positive ions which move upward along the magnetic field lines with energies of the same order of magnitude. The authors propose that both ions and electrons are accelerated by an electric field which has low-frequency temporal variations such that the ions experience and average electrostatic potential drop along the magnetic field lines whereas the upward streaming electrons are accelerated in periods of downward pointing electric field which is quasi-static for the electrons and forces them to beam out of the field region before the field changes direction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zherebtsov, S.; Znakovskaya, I.; Wirth, A.; Herrwerth, O.; Suessmann, F.; Ahmad, I.; Trushin, S.; Fennel, Th.; Plenge, J.; Antonsson, E.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The interaction of nanostructured materials with few-cycle laser light has attracted significant attention lately. This interest is driven by both the quest for fundamental insight into the real-time dynamics of many-electron systems and a wide range of far-reaching applications, such as, e.g. ultrafast computation and information storage on the nanoscale and the generation of XUV frequency combs. We investigated the above-threshold electron emission from isolated SiO 2 nanoparticles in waveform controlled few-cycle laser fields at intensities close to the tunneling regime. The enhancement of the electron acceleration from the silica nanoparticles was explored as a function of the particle size (ranging from 50 to 147 nm) and the laser peak intensity (1 - 4x10 13 W/cm 2 ). Obtained cut-off values in the kinetic energy spectra are displayed in Fig. 1. The cut-off values show a linear dependence with intensity within the studied intensity range, with the average cut-off energy being 53 U P , indicated by the black line. Quasi-classical simulations of the emission process reveal that electron rescattering in the locally enhanced near-field of the particle is responsible for the large energy gain. The observed near-field enhancement offers promising new routes for pushing the limits of strong-field phenomena relying on electron rescattering, such as, high-harmonic generation and molecular imaging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savane, Y. Sy; Diaby, I.; Faza Barry, M.; Lomonossov, V.
2002-11-01
We study the acceleration of charged particles by the variable magnetic field. The study is based on the determination of spectrum of accelerated particles and the spectrum of hydro magnetic turbulence. We plan the self-consistent system of equation and we also find out the solution of the system for the spectrum of particles and hydro magnetic turbulence with the conditions of effective acceleration in the cosmic space of solar system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Sun Baogen; Li Weimin; Liu Jinying; He Duohui
2003-01-01
The phase II upgrading project of Hefei 800 MeV electron storage ring is being done, and the important component of the project, the RF cavity, will be finished soon. The old RF cavity with many disadvantages will be replaced by the new one. To estimate the effect of RF cavity coupling impedance to storing bunch intensity fully, the wake potential and the broad band couple impedance of RF cavity were calculated with MAFIA program. And the calculation results were compared between new and old cavity, it is found that the impedance of the new is bigger than that of the old
A new collective-field acceleration mechanism using a powerful laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willis, W.J.
1975-01-01
Performance estimates for a linear accelerator for positive ions are presented. Focusing and acceleration is performed by means of a local, strong modulation of a relativistic electron beam using the electromagnetic field of a laser. For high-power laser beams of 1010 watts per square wavelength, the accelerating field strength can be several GV/m, assuming free electrons. Various interaction mechanisms of the laser beam with the electron beam are briefly discussed, notably inverse bremsstrahlung and interaction with the self-magnetic field of the electron beam. Finally, coherent effects and the injection of ions are dealt with. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, X.; Gan, W.; Liu, S. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Büchner, J.; Bárta, M., E-mail: zhou@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: buechner@mps.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2016-08-20
We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics. Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.
Superconductor Requirements and Characterization for High Field Accelerator Magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barzi, E.; Zlobin, A. V.
2015-05-01
The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics (HEP) endorses a continued world leadership role in superconducting magnet technology for future Energy Frontier Programs. This includes 10 to 15 T Nb_{3}Sn accelerator magnets for LHC upgrades and a future 100 TeV scale pp collider, and as ultimate goal that of developing magnet technologies above 20 T based on both High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) for accelerator magnets. To achieve these objectives, a sound conductor development and characterization program is needed and is herein described. This program is intended to be conducted in close collaboration with U.S. and International labs, Universities and Industry.
Particle acceleration in the plasma fields near comet Halley
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somogyi, A.J.; Erdoes, G.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.
1990-01-01
Spacecraft VEGA-1 approached Halley comet to distances less than 10 million km in March 1986. It was equipped with devices capable to detect and measure the energies of charged particles (higher than 50 keV). After a survey of acceleration mechanisms the properties of the 50-800 keV charged particle fluxes observed in various regions around Halley comet are reported. In particular, the regions outside the cometary bow shock, the region between the bow shock and the cometopause, and inside the latter, especially in the magnetic pile-up region are considered. Possible mechanisms responsible for the accelerations of the particle fluxes described are discussed. (author) 73 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs
Particle accelerators: the next big step
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, J.
1982-01-01
Ideas which are currently under discussion for increasing the present energy range of particle accelerators but which are also economical in resources and do not demand elaborate techniques, are examined. Among the possible methods reviewed are the use of laser beams, the electron ring concept, and the use of wake fields left by electrons in storage rings. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachdev, R.N.; Swarup, G.; Rajan, K.K.; Joseph, L.
1996-01-01
Pulsed radiofrequency microwave radiation (RFMR) fields occur during the use of high power microwaves in plasma heating in fusion research, plasma and solid state diagnostics, particle accelerators and colliders, pump sources in lasers, material processing as well as in high power radars. This paper describes the experimental work done at Trombay for measurement of pulsed RFMR fields in the working area of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator with the use of a meter calibrated in continuous field and interprets the observed fields in the light of existing protection criteria for pulsed RFMR fields. (author)
Wake-up effects in Si-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Dayu; Xu, Jin; Li, Qing; Guan, Yan; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Müller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schröder, Uwe
2013-01-01
Hafnium oxide based ferroelectric thin films have shown potential as a promising alternative material for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports the switching stability of a Si-doped HfO 2 film under bipolar pulsed-field operation. High field cycling causes a “wake-up” in virgin “pinched” polarization hysteresis loops, demonstrated by an enhancement in remanent polarization and a shift of negative coercive voltage. The rate of wake-up is accelerated by either reducing the frequency or increasing the amplitude of the cycling field. We suggest de-pinning of domains due to reduction of the defect concentration at bottom electrode interface as origin of the wake-up
Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers
Danby, Gordon T.; Jackson, John W.
1991-01-01
A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.
A variable-field permanent-magnet dipole for accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Barlow, D.B.; Meyer, R.
1992-01-01
A new concept for a variable-field permanent-magnet dipole has been developed and fabricated at Los Alamos. The application requires an extremely uniform dipole field in the magnet aperture and precision variability over a large operating range. An iron-core permanent- magnet design using a shunt that was specially shaped to vary the field in a precise and reproducible fashion with shunt position. The key to this design is in the shape of the shunt. The field as a function of shunt position is very linear from 90% of the maximum field to 20% of the minimum field. The shaped shunt also results in a small maximum magnetic force attracting the shunt to the yoke allowing a simple mechanical design. Calculated and measured results agree well for the magnet
High field superconducting magnets for accelerators and particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Jackson, J.
1975-01-01
Experience in designing precision superconducting magnets for fields up to 60 kG is described. Realizable construction tolerances and their impact on field accuracy are discussed. For dipole fields up to 60 kG or more, rectangular coil window frame type magnets are compared with circular or elliptical coil designs. In all cases, the same superconductor current density versus maximum field performance is assumed. The comparison will include field quality and correction required as a function of aperture size, stored energy, ampere turns required, and overall magnet size. In quadrupole design the impact of the allowed superconductor current density being roughly inversely proportional to peak field is severe. For gradients up to one Tesla/cm or greater, similar comparisons for different types of quadrupole construction are made. (U.S.)
Patient dosimetry improvements in longitudinal field MRI linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oborn, B.M.; Metcalfe, P.E.; Butson, M.J.; Keall, P.
2010-01-01
Full text: Many studies exist of the often undesirable dosimetry changes in transverse field MRI-Linacs. Currently there are plans by different groups around the world to develop longitudinal MRT-Linac systems as dosimetry is potentially superior to transverse field sy tems. The objective of this study is to investigate via Monte Carlo simulations, the potential dosimetry improvements expected in lo gitudinal MRI-Linac designs over transverse field designs for advanced image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been performed of the dosimetry from a Varian 2100c 6 MV photon beam in lo gitudinal magnetic field typical of expected MRI-Linac designs. A 30 x 30 x 20 cm' phantom has been simulated in magnetic fields between 0 and 3 T. Beam profiles and skin dose calculations have been performed and compared with transverse field systems. Results The longitudinal magnetic field acts to reduce lateral dose spread in all locations within a patient. As well as this, the electron return effcct is absent. This equates to reductions in penumbral widths and reductions in skin dose. When compared with transverse field systems the dosimetry is superior. This will also allow for further reductions in trcatment margins as compared to transverse field MRI Linac designs.
Design and fabrication of a Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) 180 keV negative ion accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matuk, C.A.; Anderson, O.A.; Owren, H.M.; Paterson, J.A.; Purgalis, P.
1985-11-01
The 180 keV Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) negative ion accelerator described is the final component of a negative ion based neutral beam acceleration system which is being developed as proof-of-principle demonstration of a radiation hardened neutral beamline. The 180 keV beamline consists of: a surface conversion negative ion source, a 80 keV pre-accelerator, a TFF pumping, matching, and transport section, and the 180 keV TFF accelerator presented. This beamline is expected to provide 1 A of H - at 180 keV. In the design of the accelerator, particular importance was given to the rigidity of the accelerator electrode mounting structures and to the electrical isolation of the electrodes along with their related cooling lines. An optical alignment scheme was developed to assemble and to insure precision alignment of the electrodes
Linear fixed-field multipass arcs for recirculating linear accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Morozov
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Recirculating linear accelerators (RLA’s provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dogbone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of 2. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dogbone RLA.
Electrostatic fields and charged particle acceleration in laser produced plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hora, H.
1983-01-01
Some new aspects pioneered recently by Alfven in the theory of cosmic plasmas, indicate the possibility of a new treatment of the action of electrostatic double layers in the periphery of an expanding laser produced plasma. The thermally produced electrostatic double layer which has been re-derived for a homogeneous plasma shows that a strong upshift of ion energies is possible, in agreement with experiments. The number of accelerated ions is many orders of magnitude smaller than observed at keV and MeV energies. The nonlinear force acceleration could explain the number and energy of the observed fast ions. It is shown, however, that electrostatic double layers can be generated which should produce super-fast ions. A derivation of the spread double layers in the case of inhomogeneous plasmas is presented. It is concluded that the hydrodynamically expected multi GeV heavy ions for 10 TW laser pulses should produce super-fast ions up to the TeV range. Further conclusions are drawn from the electrostatically measured upshifted (by 300 keV) DT fusion alphas from laser compressed plasma. An analysis of alpha spectra attempts to distinguish between different models of the stopping power in the plasmas. The analysis preliminarily arrives at a preference for the collective model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, A.H.; Cohen, S.A.
2001-01-01
The trajectories of individual electrons are studied numerically in a 3D, prolate, FRC [field-reversed configuration] equilibrium magnetic geometry with added small-amplitude, slowly rotating, odd-parity magnetic fields (RMFos). RMFos cause electron heating by toroidal acceleration near the O-point line and by field-parallel acceleration away from it, both followed by scattering from magnetic-field inhomogeneities. Electrons accelerated along the O-point line move antiparallel to the FRC's current and attain average toroidal angular speeds near that of the RMFo, independent of the sense of RMFo rotation. A conserved transformed Hamiltonian, dependent on electron energy and RMFo sense, controls electron flux-surface coordinate
Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostyukov, I.Yu.; Shvets, G.; Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.
2001-01-01
The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made
Electric field simulation and measurement of a pulse line ion accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Xiaokang; Zhang Zimin; Cao Shuchun; Zhao Hongwei; Zhao Quantang; Liu Ming; Jing Yi; Wang Bo; Shen Xiaoli
2012-01-01
An oil dielectric helical pulse line to demonstrate the principles of a Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) has been designed and fabricated. The simulation of the axial electric field of an accelerator with CST code has been completed and the simulation results show complete agreement with the theoretical calculations. To fully understand the real value of the electric field excited from the helical line in PLIA, an optical electric integrated electric field measurement system was adopted. The measurement result shows that the real magnitude of axial electric field is smaller than that calculated, probably due to the actual pitch of the resister column which is much less than that of helix. (authors)
High field accelerator magnet R&D in Europe
Devred, Arnaud; Bottura, L; Chorowski, M; Fabbricatore, P; Leroy, D; den Ouden, A; Rifflet, J M; Rossi, L; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G
2004-01-01
The LHC magnet R&D program has shown that the limit of NbTi technology at 1.9 K was in the 10-to-10.5-T range. Hence, to go beyond the 10-T threshold, it is necessary to change the superconducting material. Given the state of the art in HTS, the only serious candidate is Nb$_{3}$Sn. A series of dipole magnet models built at Twente University and LBNL as well as a vigorous program carried out at Fermilab have demonstrated the feasibility of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnet technology. The next step is to bring this technology to maturity, which require further conductor and conductor insulation development and a simplification of manufacturing processes. After a brief history, we review ongoing R&D programs in Europe and we present the Next European Dipole (NED) initiative promoted by the European Steering Group on Accelerator R&D (ESGARD).
Experimental Studies of W-Band Accelerator Structures at High Field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Marc E
2001-02-09
A high-gradient electron accelerator is desired for high-energy physics research, where frequency scalings of breakdown and trapping of itinerant beamline particles dictates operation of the accelerator at short wavelengths. The first results of design and test of a high-gradient mm-wave linac with an operating frequency at 91.392 GHz (W-band) are presented. A novel approach to particle acceleration is presented employing a planar, dielectric lined waveguide used for particle acceleration. The traveling wave fields in the planar dielectric accelerator (PDA) are analyzed for an idealized structure, along with a circuit equivalent model used for understanding the structure as a microwave circuit. Along with the W-band accelerator structures, other components designed and tested are high power rf windows, high power attenuators, and a high power squeeze-type phase shifter. The design of the accelerator and its components where eased with the aide of numerical simulations using a finite-difference electromagnetic field solver. Manufacturing considerations of the small, delicate mm-wave components and the steps taken to reach a robust fabrication process are detailed. These devices were characterized under low power using a two-port vector network analyzer to verify tune and match, including measurements of the structures' fields using a bead-pull. The measurements are compared with theory throughout. Addition studies of the W-band structures were performed under high power utilizing a 11.424 GHz electron linac as a current source. Test results include W-band power levels of 200 kW, corresponding to fields in the PDA of over 20 MV/m, a higher gradient than any collider. Planar accelerator devices naturally have an rf quadrupole component of the accelerating field. Presented for the first time are the measurements of this effect.
Estimating and Adjusting Field Quality in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
1996-02-01
The experience with estimating and adjusting field quality in RHIC and SSC magnets is discussed. An alternative approach which makes a better estimate for systematic and random values of harmonics is presented.
Collection of ions in a plasma by magnetic field acceleration with selective polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forsen, H.K.
1976-01-01
Method and apparatus are described for generating and accelerating ions in a vapor by use of relatively polarized laser radiation and a magnetic field. As applied to uranium isotope enrichment, a flowing uranium vapor has particles of the 235 U isotope type selectively ionized by laser radiation and the ionized flow is subjected to a transverse gradient in a magnetic field. The magnetic field gradient induces an acceleration on the ionized particles of 235 U which deflects them from their normal flow path toward a collecting structure. High magnetic field and corresponding high ion accelerations are achieved without loss in ionization selectivity by maintaining a polarization between the applied laser radiation and magnetic field which minimizes Zeeman splitting of the uranium energy states
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.
Field size dependent mapping of medical linear accelerator radiation leakage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu Bezin, Jérémi; De Vathaire, Florent; Diallo, Ibrahima; Veres, Attila; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Deutsch, Eric
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of a graphics library based model for the assessment of linear accelerator radiation leakage. Transmission through the shielding elements was evaluated using the build-up factor corrected exponential attenuation law and the contribution from the electron guide was estimated using the approximation of a linear isotropic radioactive source. Model parameters were estimated by a fitting series of thermoluminescent dosimeter leakage measurements, achieved up to 100 cm from the beam central axis along three directions. The distribution of leakage data at the patient plane reflected the architecture of the shielding elements. Thus, the maximum leakage dose was found under the collimator when only one jaw shielded the primary beam and was about 0.08% of the dose at isocentre. Overall, we observe that the main contributor to leakage dose according to our model was the electron beam guide. Concerning the discrepancies between the measurements used to calibrate the model and the calculations from the model, the average difference was about 7%. Finally, graphics library modelling is a readily and suitable way to estimate leakage dose distribution on a personal computer. Such data could be useful for dosimetric evaluations in late effect studies. (paper)
Generation of magnetic fields for accelerators with permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meinander, T.
1994-01-01
Commercially available permanent magnet materials and their properties are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of using permanent magnets as compared to electromagnets for the generation of specific magnetic fields are discussed. Basic permanent magnet configurations in multipole magnets and insertion devices are presented. (orig.)
Simulation of wake potentials induced by relativistic proton bunches in electron clouds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrov, Fedor; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)
2012-07-01
Electron clouds limit the intensity of modern high intensity hadron accelerators. Presently electron clouds are the main limiting factor for the LHC operation with 25 ns bunch trains. The bunches passing through an electron cloud induce a wake field. When the electron cloud density exceeds a certain threshold beam instabilities occur. The presence of electron clouds results in a shift of the synchronous phase, which increases if the bunch spacing is reduced. For LHC and SPS conditions we compare the longitudinal electron cloud wake potentials and stopping powers obtained using a simplified 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell code with fully electromagnetic simulations using VORPAL. In addition we analyze the wake fields induced by displaced or tilted bunches.
Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction
Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.
2015-01-01
Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.
Enhancement of proton acceleration field in laser double-layer target interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Ma, Y. Y.
2013-01-01
A mechanism is proposed to enhance a proton acceleration field in laser plasma interaction. A double-layer plasma with different densities is illuminated by an intense short pulse. Electrons are accelerated to a high energy in the first layer by the wakefield. The electrons accelerated by the laser wakefield induce the enhanced target normal sheath (TNSA) and breakout afterburner (BOA) accelerations through the second layer. The maximum proton energy reaches about 1 GeV, and the total charge with an energy higher than 100 MeV is about several tens of μC/μm. Both the acceleration gradient and laser energy transfer efficiency are higher than those in single-target-based TNSA or BOA. The model has been verified by 2.5D-PIC simulations
Critical heat flux of forced convection boiling in an oscilating acceleration field. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otsuji, T.; Kurosawa, A.
1982-01-01
The influence of periodically varying acceleration on critical heat flux (CHF) of Freon-113 flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical annular channel has been studied experimentally. The freon loop was oscillated vertically to determine the ratio of CHF in the oscillating acceleration field to the corresponding stationary value. The amplitude of inlet flow oscillation induced by variation of acceleration, which causes early CHF, is proportional to the acceleration amplitude. The dependence of inlet flow rate on the oscillating acceleration decreases with increasing inlet subcooling, and no oscillation of inlet flow is observed in the case of negative exit quality (subcooled boiling). Nevertheless the degradation of CHF is more remarkable in the low quality region. This result suggests the necessity to introduce an other mechanism of early CHF than flow oscillation. (orig.)
Qualitative models of magnetic field accelerated propagation in a plasma due to the Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukushkin, A.B.; Cherepanov, K.V.
2000-01-01
Two qualitatively new models of accelerated magnetic field propagation (relative to normal diffusion) in a plasma due to the Hall effect are developed within the frames of the electron magnetic hydrodynamics. The first model is based on a simple hydrodynamic approach, which, in particular, reproduces the number of known theoretical results. The second one makes it possible to obtain exact analytical description of the basic characteristics of the magnetic field accelerated propagation in a inhomogeneous iso-thermic plasma, namely, the magnetic field front and its effective width [ru
Sudden flux change studies in high field superconducting accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feher, S.; Bordini, B.; Carcagno, R.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Zlobin, A.V.
2004-01-01
As part of the High Field Magnet Program at Fermilab many magnets have been tested which utilize multi strand Rutherford type cable made of state-of-the art Nb 3 Sn strands. During these magnet tests we observed sudden flux changes by monitoring coil voltages and the magnetic field close to the magnets. These flux changes might be linked to magnet instabilities. The voltage spike signals were correlated with quench antenna signals, a strong indication that these are magnet phenomena. With a new high resolution voltage spike detection system, we were able to observe the detailed structure of the spikes. Two fundamentally different signal shapes were distinguished, most likely generated by different mechanisms
Modeling of electron cyclotron resonance acceleration in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeri D. Dougar-Jabon
2008-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the cyclotron autoresonance acceleration of electrons in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field is studied. The trajectory and energy of electrons are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation by a finite difference method. The electrons move along a TE_{112} cylinder cavity in a steady-state magnetic field whose axis coincides with the cavity axis. The magnetic field profile is such that it keeps the phase difference between the electric microwave field and the electron velocity vector within the acceleration phase band. The microwaves amplitude of 6 kV/cm is used for numerical calculations. It is shown that an electron with an initial longitudinal energy of 8 keV can be accelerated up to 260 keV by 2.45 GHz microwaves at a distance of 17 cm.
Instrument for the measuring magnetic field characteristics of induction acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, V.M.; Romasheva, P.I.
1976-01-01
An instrument for the measuring instantaneous values of variable and pulsed magnetic fields with an amplitide of 0.005-2.0 and duration of 5x10 -6 -2x10 -2 sec is described. Time resolution is not less than 0.5 musec, measuring accuracy is about 1%. Induction coils are used as sensors. A digital voltmeter serves as a secondary recorder
Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing
2006-12-01
MRI confirmed a large coexisting haemangioma which may have confounded perception of stress fracture symptoms. Table 1 is a comprehensive subject...Johnson JR, Light KI, Yuan HA: A double-blind study of capacitively coupled electrical stimulation as an adjunct to lumbar spinal fusions. Spine 24...Simmons JW, Jr., Mooney V, Thacker I: Pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: nonoperative salvage with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Am J
Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E.; Becker Tjus, Julia
2013-01-01
Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10 13 keV cm –1 . At gradients above 1.6 keV cm –1 , muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.
The modification of the terminal electrostatic field of HI-13 tandem accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Tao; Guan Xialing
1993-01-01
The calculation of electrostatic field of terminal and its neighbour region for HI-13 tandem accelerator is made. The limit terminal voltage without tubes is evaluated. Using elliptical cross section in stead of circular ones for the first six equipotential rings, the electrostatic field of this region are modified
Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harres, K; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Nuernberg, F; Otten, A; Schuetrumpf, J; Roth, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A; Bagnoud, V [GSI - Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Plasmaphysik and PHELIX, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Daido, H; Tampo, M [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa-city, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Schollmeier, M, E-mail: k.harres@gsi.d [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185 (United States)
2010-08-01
A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 10{sup 12} particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.
Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harres, K; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Nuernberg, F; Otten, A; Schuetrumpf, J; Roth, M; Tauschwitz, A; Bagnoud, V; Daido, H; Tampo, M; Schollmeier, M
2010-01-01
A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 10 12 particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.
Heavy ions acceleration in RF wells of 2-frequency electromagnetic field and in the inverted FEL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzergach, A.I.; Kabanov, V.S.; Nikulin, M.G.; Vinogradov, S.V.
1995-03-01
Last results of the study of heavy ions acceleration by electrons trapped in moving 2-frequency 3-D RF wells are described. A linearized theoretical model of ions acceleration in a polarized spheroidal plasmoid is proposed. The equilibrium state of this plasmoid is described by the modified microcanonical distribution of the Courant-Snyder invariant (open-quotes quasienergyclose quotes of electrons). Some new results of computational simulation of the acceleration process are given. The method of computation takes into account the given cylindrical field E 011 (var-phi,r,z) and the self fields of electrons and ions. The results of the computation at relatively short time intervals confirm the idea and estimated parameters of acceleration. The heavy ion accelerator using this principle may be constructed with the use of compact cm band iris-loaded and biperiodical waveguides with double-sided 2-frequency RF feeding. It can accelerate heavy ions with a charge number Z i from small initial energies ∼ 50 keV/a.u. with the rate ∼ Z i · 10 MeV/m. Semirelativistic ions may be accelerated with similar rate also in the inverted FEL
Beam emittance growth caused by transverse deflecting fields in a linear accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chao, A W; Richter, B; Yao, C Y [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)
1980-12-01
The effect of the beam-generated transverse deflecting fields on the emittance of an intense bunch of particles in a high-energy linear accelerator is analyzed in this paper. The equation of motion is solved by a perturbation method for cases of a coasting beam and a uniformly accelerated beam. The results are applied to obtain some design tolerance specifications for the recently proposed SLAC Single Pass Collider.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu
2004-01-01
We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)
TE/TM scheme for computation of electromagnetic fields in accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagorodnov, Igor; Weiland, Thomas
2005-01-01
We propose a new two-level economical conservative scheme for short-range wake field calculation in three dimensions. The scheme does not have dispersion in the longitudinal direction and is staircase free (second order convergent). Unlike the finite-difference time domain method (FDTD), it is based on a TE/TM like splitting of the field components in time. Additionally, it uses an enhanced alternating direction splitting of the transverse space operator that makes the scheme computationally as effective as the conventional FDTD method. Unlike the FDTD ADI and low-order Strang methods, the splitting error in our scheme is only of fourth order. As numerical examples show, the new scheme is much more accurate on the long-time scale than the conventional FDTD approach
Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Pegoraro, F.
1996-11-01
The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a much-gt 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order λ p . The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations
Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walter Winter
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.
Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; /Fermilab
2004-12-01
A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are {approx}15mV in magnitude and lasts for {approx}30 {micro}sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets at currents up to {approx}20KA will also be shown.
Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.
2004-01-01
A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are ∼15mV in magnitude and lasts for ∼30(micro)sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb3Sn magnets at currents up to ∼20KA will also be shown
Rueda, A.
1985-01-01
That particles may be accelerated by vacuum effects in quantum field theory has been repeatedly proposed in the last few years. A natural upshot of this is a mechanism for cosmic rays (CR) primaries acceleration. A mechanism for acceleration by the zero-point field (ZPE) when the ZPE is taken in a realistic sense (in opposition to a virtual field) was considered. Originally the idea was developed within a semiclassical context. The classical Einstein-Hopf model (EHM) was used to show that free isolated electromagnrtically interacting particles performed a random walk in phase space and more importantly in momentum space when submitted to the perennial action of the so called classical electromagnrtic ZPE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rueda, A.
1985-01-01
That particles may be accelerated by vacuum effects in quantum field theory has been repeatedly proposed in the last few years. A natural upshot of this is a mechanism for cosmic rays (CR) primaries acceleration. A mechanism for acceleration by the zero-point field (ZPE) when the ZPE is taken in a realistic sense (in opposition to a virtual field) was considered. Originally the idea was developed within a semiclassical context. The calssical Einstein-Hopf model (EHM) was used to show that free isolated electromagnrtically interacting particles performed a random walk in phase space and more importantly in momentum space when submitted to the perennial action of the so called classical electromagnetic ZPE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob
and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison of selected datasets from the campaign showed good far wake agreements of mean wake expansion with Actuator Line CFD computations and simpler engineering models. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction...... for modeling the resulting double wake deficit is only relevant at high turbine thrust coefficients. For high wind speed and low thrust coefficient, linear summation should be primarily used. The first iteration of a new engineering model capable of modeling the overlapped wake deficit is formulated and its...... measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. A benchmark of several wake accumulation models is performed as a basis for the subsequent development of an engineering model for wake interaction.Finally, the validated numerical CFD model is used as part...
Acceleration of particles by electron plasma waves in a moderate magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.F.
1976-01-01
A general scheme is established to examine any magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration for its acceleration potential including the effects of various types of plasma waves. The analysis is restricted to plasma waves in a magnetic field with electron cyclotron frequency less than, but comparable to, the electron plasma frequency (moderate field). The general role of electron plasma waves is examined in this paper independent of a specific MHD configuration or generating mechanism in the weak turbulence limit. The evolution of arbitrary wave spectra in a non-relativistic plasma is examined, and it is shown that the nonlinear process of induced scattering on the polarization clouds of ions leads to the collapse of the waves to an almost one-dimensional spectrum directed along the magnetic field. The subsequent acceleration of non-relativistic and relativistic particles is considered. It is shown for non-relativistic particles that when the wave distribution has a negative slope the acceleration is retarded for lower velocities and enhanced for higher velocities compared to acceleration by an isotropic distribution of electron plasma waves in a magnetic field. This change in behaviour is expected to affect the development of wave spectra and the subsequent acceleration spectrum. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, T.M.
1995-01-01
The Datacon system is a serial coaxial transformer isolated communication field bus system used to control and monitor accelerator remote devices. The Datacon field bus has been a BNL accelerator standard since its initial use in 1965. A single Datacon field bus supports up to 256 devices on a multidrop RG62A/U coaxial cable with up to 33 devices or 2,000 feet between repeaters or buffered branches. The forcing factor to renovate was the inability to repair the aging PDP-8E and PDP10 computers. The maintenance on this aging system was costly and the large number of accelerator devices dependent on the Datacon system could not be converted in a reasonable period of time to a new modern field bus. A commercial VMEbus host CPU mated with a custom designed VMEbus SBC event driven serial communications engine featuring a superscaler RISC 32-bit Intel i960 CPU met the design challenge. The commercial VMEbus host runs the VxWorks real-time operating system and connects to UNIX workstations over a Ethernet LAN. The V110 Datacon Master is the custom designed front end computer that integrates an accelerator event time line system with accelerator devices for up to 8 ppm users adding new capabilities
Multidimensional Plasma Wake Excitation in the Non-linear Blowout Regime
Vieira, J.; Silva, L.O.
2016-01-01
Plasma accelerators can sustain very high acceleration gradients. They are promising candidates for future generations of particle accelerators for sev- eral scientific, medical and technological applications. Current plasma based acceleration experiments operate in the relativistic regime, where the plasma response is strongly non-linear. We outline some of the key properties of wake- field excitation in these regimes. We outline a multidimensional theory for the excitation of plasma wakefields in connection with current experiments. We then use these results and provide design guidelines for the choice of laser and plasma parameters ensuring a stable laser wakefield accelerator that maximizes the quality of the accelerated electrons. We also mention some of the future challenges associated with this technology.
Orbit and optics distortion in fixed field alternating gradient muon accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinji Machida
2007-11-01
Full Text Available In a linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerator, betatron tunes vary over a wide range and a beam has to cross integer and half-integer tunes several times. Although it is plausible to say that integer and half-integer resonances are not harmful if the crossing speed is fast, no quantitative argument exists. With tracking simulation, we studied orbit and optics distortion due to alignment and magnet errors. It was found that the concept of integer and half-integer resonance crossing is irrelevant to explain beam behavior in a nonscaling FFAG when acceleration is fast and betatron tunes change quickly. In a muon FFAG accelerator, it takes 17 turns for acceleration and the betatron tunes change more than 10, for example. Instead, the orbit and optics distortion is excited by random dipole and quadrupole kicks. The latter causes beam size growth because the beam starts tumbling in phase space, but not necessarily with emittance growth.
Generation of mesoscale magnetic fields and the dynamics of Cosmic Ray acceleration
Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M. A.
The problem of the cosmic ray origin is discussed in connection with their acceleration in supernova remnant shocks. The diffusive shock acceleration mechanism is reviewed and its potential to accelerate particles to the maximum energy of (presumably) galactic cosmic rays (1018eV ) is considered. It is argued that to reach such energies, a strong magnetic field at scales larger than the particle gyroradius must be created as a result of the acceleration process, itself. One specific mechanism suggested here is based on the generation of Alfven wave at the gyroradius scale with a subsequent transfer to longer scales via interaction with strong acoustic turbulence in the shock precursor. The acoustic turbulence in turn, may be generated by Drury instability or by parametric instability of the Alfven waves. The generation mechanism is modulational instability of CR generated Alfven wave packets induced, in turn, by scattering off acoustic fluctuations in the shock precursor which are generated by Drury instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giacalone, J. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
2017-10-20
We investigate the physics of charged-particle acceleration at spherical shocks moving into a uniform plasma containing a turbulent magnetic field with a uniform mean. This has applications to particle acceleration at astrophysical shocks, most notably, to supernovae blast waves. We numerically integrate the equations of motion of a large number of test protons moving under the influence of electric and magnetic fields determined from a kinematically defined plasma flow associated with a radially propagating blast wave. Distribution functions are determined from the positions and velocities of the protons. The unshocked plasma contains a magnetic field with a uniform mean and an irregular component having a Kolmogorov-like power spectrum. The field inside the blast wave is determined from Maxwell’s equations. The angle between the average magnetic field and unit normal to the shock varies with position along its surface. It is quasi-perpendicular to the unit normal near the sphere’s equator, and quasi-parallel to it near the poles. We find that the highest intensities of particles, accelerated by the shock, are at the poles of the blast wave. The particles “collect” at the poles as they approximately adhere to magnetic field lines that move poleward from their initial encounter with the shock at the equator, as the shock expands. The field lines at the poles have been connected to the shock the longest. We also find that the highest-energy protons are initially accelerated near the equator or near the quasi-perpendicular portion of the shock, where the acceleration is more rapid.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, A. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Stawarz, Ł. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Reville, B. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Sergis, N. [Office of Space Research and Technology, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527 Athens (Greece); Fujimoto, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burgess, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Coates, A. J., E-mail: a.masters@imperial.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)
2017-07-10
A leading explanation for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays is acceleration at high-Mach number shock waves in the collisionless plasma surrounding young supernova remnants. Evidence for this is provided by multi-wavelength non-thermal emission thought to be associated with ultrarelativistic electrons at these shocks. However, the dependence of the electron acceleration process on the orientation of the upstream magnetic field with respect to the local normal to the shock front (quasi-parallel/quasi-perpendicular) is debated. Cassini spacecraft observations at Saturn’s bow shock have revealed examples of electron acceleration under quasi-perpendicular conditions, and the first in situ evidence of electron acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock. Here we use Cassini data to make the first comparison between energy spectra of locally accelerated electrons under these differing upstream magnetic field regimes. We present data taken during a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing on 2008 March 8 and during a quasi-parallel shock crossing on 2007 February 3, highlighting that both were associated with electron acceleration to at least MeV energies. The magnetic signature of the quasi-perpendicular crossing has a relatively sharp upstream–downstream transition, and energetic electrons were detected close to the transition and immediately downstream. The magnetic transition at the quasi-parallel crossing is less clear, energetic electrons were encountered upstream and downstream, and the electron energy spectrum is harder above ∼100 keV. We discuss whether the acceleration is consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory in each case, and suggest that the quasi-parallel spectral break is due to an energy-dependent interaction between the electrons and short, large-amplitude magnetic structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2002-01-01
The first accelerators were designed as a tool in high-energy particle physics. Their development has given rise to numerous applications in industry, such as materials processing, sterilization, food preservation, and radiopharmaceutical product generation (Barbalat, 1994). Modern day linear accelerators for particle physics accelerate multiple bunches of electrons and positrons up to 50 GeV. Accelerators of the next generation, such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC), aim to accelerate the bunches initially to a center of mass of 500GeV and later to 1.5 TeV (Decking 2001, Miyamoto 2002, Phinney 2002). The NLC will operate under gradient fields on the order of 70 MV/m (Phinney, 2002). For all accelerators, two issues are fundamental for their construction: maximizing the efficiency of acceleration while, at the same time, preserving the luminosity of the beam. These issues are critically important in the design of the NLC. A linear accelerator operates as follows: An electron gun fires electrons into a structure that bunches the electrons and tightly focuses the beam. At the same time, a radiofrequency wave is fed into the accelerating structure. The electron bunches enter the accelerating structure in phase with the crest of the radiofrequency wave in order to achieve maximum energy. There are two principal types of accelerating structures: traveling wave (TW) and standing wave (SW). The electromagnetic wave in a TW structure travels in one direction; the electromagnetic wave in a SW structure travels in two directions. Many TW structures have been designed for the NLC, but recent experiments indicate that TW structures suffer from electrical breakdown at high gradients (Miller et. al., 2001). To address this problem, SW structures are being considered as the alternative for the NLC (Jones and Miller et. al., 2002). The input power required for an accelerating cavity increases with the length of the cavity (Miller et. al., 2001). Since SW structures can be made
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, Frank
1998-01-01
We compare different approximations to the point-charge Green function for the radial electric monopole field excited by an ultrarelativistic particle propagating through a resistive pipe, and study the applicability of these approximations for calculating the field of a bunch with finite length. It has been speculated that the exact form of the electric field could be important for simulations of the electron-cloud instability. In this paper, we show, however, that the usual approximation of the Green function by a delta function is adequate, except for extremely short bunch lengths
Stochastic Acceleration in Turbulent Electric Fields Generated by 3D Reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, Marco; Isliker, Heinz; Vlahos, Loukas
2006-01-01
Electron and proton acceleration in three-dimensional electric and magnetic fields is studied through test particle simulations. The fields are obtained by a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetic reconnection in slab geometry. The nonlinear evolution of the system is characterized by the growth of many unstable modes and the initial current sheet is fragmented with formation of small scale structures. We inject at random points inside the evolving current sheet a Maxwellian distribution of particles. In a relatively short time (less than a millisecond) the particles develop a power-law tail. The acceleration is extremely efficient and the electrons absorb a large percentage of the available energy in a small fraction of the characteristic time of the MHD simulation, suggesting that resistive MHD codes are unable to represent the full extent of particle acceleration
Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects
García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus
Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...
Remanent radiation fields around medical linear accelerators due to the induced radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabol, J.; Khalifa, O.; Berka, Z.; Stankus, P.; Frencl, L.
1998-01-01
Radiation fields around two linear accelerators, Saturn 43 and a Saturn 2 Plus, installed at radiotherapy department is Prague, were measured and interpreted. The measurements included the determination of the dose equivalent rate resulting from photons emitted by induced radionuclides produced in reactions of high-energy photons with certain elements present in air and accelerator components as well as in the shielding and building materials in the treatment rooms, which are irradiated by high-energy X-rays, and due to radionuclides formed by capture of photoneutrons. While scattered photons and photoneutrons are only present during the accelerator operation, residual radioactivity creates a remanent radiation field persisting for some time after the instrument shutdown. The activity induced in the accessories is also an important source of exposure. (P.A.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesiecki, H.; Cosack, M.; Schoelermann, H.
1987-01-01
The present state in the realization of monoenergetic standard neutron fields and the possibility of calibrating neutron dose- and doserate meters at the accelerator facility of the PTB are described. There are excellent conditions for the performance of irradiations in the neutron energy range of 1 keV to 14.8 MeV. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laclare, J.-L.
1978-01-01
Indicated specifications of Saturne II are summed up: performance of the injection system, quality of the guidance field (magnetic measurements and multipolar corrections), transverse and longitudinal instabilities, characteristics of the beam stored in the machine and of the extracted beam. The problem of depolarization along the acceleration cycle is briefly discussed (1 or 2% between injection and 3 GeV) [fr
Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P
2006-01-01
This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.
Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Field Research Center (FRC) Management Plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watson, D.B.
2002-02-28
The Environmental Sciences Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Field Research Center (FRC) to support the Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the DOE Headquarters Office of Biological and Environmental Research within the Office of Science.
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel, and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. New simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Furthermore, the nonlinear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, and electric and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at a comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. In addition, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by tine Weibel instability scale proportionally to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s (positron s) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This
Enhancement of electron energy during vacuum laser acceleration in an inhomogeneous magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B., E-mail: behrouz@aut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-03-15
In this paper, the effect of a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field on the electron acceleration by a high intensity Gaussian laser pulse is investigated. A focused TEM (0,0) laser mode with linear polarization in the transverse x-direction that propagates along the z-axis is considered. The magnetic field is assumed to be stationary in time, but varies longitudinally in space. A linear spatial profile for the magnetic field is adopted. In other words, the axial magnetic field increases linearly in the z-direction up to an optimum point z{sub m} and then becomes constant with magnitude equal to that at z{sub m}. Three-dimensional single-particle simulations are performed to find the energy and trajectory of the electron. The electron rotates around and stays near the z-axis. It is shown that with a proper choice of the magnetic field parameters, the electron will be trapped at the focus of the laser pulse. Because of the cyclotron resonance, the electron receives enough energy from the laser fields to be accelerated to relativistic energies. Using numerical simulations, the criteria for optimum regime of the acceleration mechanism is found. With the optimized parameters, an electron initially at rest located at the origin achieves final energy of γ=802. The dynamics of a distribution of off-axis electrons are also investigated in which shows that high energy electrons with small energy and spatial spread can be obtained.
Effect of strong-focusing field distortions on particle motion in a linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarev, B.I.; Durkin, A.P.; Solov'ev, L.Yu.
1979-01-01
The increased sensitivity of quadrupole focusing channel used in the highenergetic part of the linear accelerator makes it necessary to pay serious attention to the effect of various distortions of focusing fields on the transverse motion of the beam. The distortions may cause the inadmissible losses of particles in the accelerator. To achieve this aim the main equation of disturbed motion of particles in the linear accelerator, obtained by analogy with the cyclic accelerator theory is presented. The investigation of the solutions of this equation has permitted to obtain the analytical formulas for the estimation of the beam size increase under the effect of focusing field distortions of various types, such as structural non-linearity, gradient errors, random non-linearity, channel axis deformation. While studying the effect of structural non-linearity considered are the resonance effects and obtained are the relations describing the maximum beam size increase in the channel of the linear accelerator in the presence and in the absence of the resonance
Characterization of wake region by using and emissive probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Yong Ho
1993-02-01
An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of plasma in the wake region. The floating potential method' among various schemes was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with circular shape was introduced in a simply discharged argon plasma without the magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake regions of artificial satellite were measured, and plasma parameters were compared in the both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake, the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake, when the positive voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than that out of the wake and when the negative voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher, the space potential was lower than that out of the wake
Theory of the dielectric wakefield accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mtingwa, S.K.
1990-10-01
The general theory for all angular modes m of the dielectric wakefield accelerator is reformulated. The expressions for the accelerating electric fields and transverse wake forces are written in terms of matrices, the zeros of one of which determine the excitation frequencies of the dielectric structure. In this scheme it is possible to obtain a maximum accelerating gradient of 2.0 megavolts per meter per nanoCoulomb of driver beam charge, for a driver beam of 0.7 millimeters rms bunch length. 29 refs., 5 figs
Tune-stabilized, non-scaling, fixed-field, alternating gradient accelerator
Johnstone, Carol J [Warrenville, IL
2011-02-01
A FFAG is a particle accelerator having turning magnets with a linear field gradient for confinement and a large edge angle to compensate for acceleration. FODO cells contain focus magnets and defocus magnets that are specified by a number of parameters. A set of seven equations, called the FFAG equations relate the parameters to one another. A set of constraints, call the FFAG constraints, constrain the FFAG equations. Selecting a few parameters, such as injection momentum, extraction momentum, and drift distance reduces the number of unknown parameters to seven. Seven equations with seven unknowns can be solved to yield the values for all the parameters and to thereby fully specify a FFAG.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Keil
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H^{+}/C^{6+} ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250 MeV/68.8 and 400 MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created by relativistic pair jets are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mierau, Anna
2013-01-01
The new international facility for antiproton and ion research FAIR will be built in Darmstadt (Germany). The existing accelerator facility of GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy Ion Research will serve as a pre-accelerator for the new facility. FAIR will provide high-energy antiproton and ion beams with unprecedented intensity and quality for fundamental research of states of matter and the evolution of the universe. The central component of FAIR's accelerator and storage rings complex is a double-ring accelerator consisting of two heavy ion synchrotrons SIS100 and SIS300. The SIS100 is the primary accelerator of FAIR. The desired beam properties of SIS100 require a design of the machine much more challenging than the conventional design of existing proton and ion synchrotrons. The key technical components of each synchrotron are the special electromagnets, which allow guiding the charged particles on their orbits in the synchrotron during the acceleration processes. For a stable operation of the SIS100's the magnets have to produce extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. Furthermore, the SIS100 high-intensity ion beam modes, for example with U 28+ ions, require an ultra-high vacuum in the beam pipe of the synchrotron, which can be generated effectively only at low temperatures below 15 K. Due to the field quality requirements for the magnets, the properties of the dynamic vacuum in the beam pipe but also in order to minimise future operating costs, fast ramped superconducting magnets will be used to guide the beam in SIS100. These magnets have been developed at GSI within the framework of the FAIR project. Developing a balanced design of a superconducting accelerator magnet requires a sound understanding of the interaction between its thermal and electromagnetic fields. Of special importance in this case are the magnetic field properties such as the homogeneity of the static magnetic field in the aperture of the magnet, and the dynamic heat losses of the whole magnet
Development of L-band niobium superconducting RF cavities with high accelerating field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Ono, Masaaki; Kako, Eiji; Shishido, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masanori; Suzuki, Takafusa; Higuchi, Tamawo.
1994-01-01
Superconducting RF cavity is a candidate for the TeV energy e + /e - linear collider of next generation if the accelerating field is improved to 25-30 MV/m and much cost down is achieved in cavity fabrication. Since 1990, KEK has continued R and D of L-band niobium superconducting cavities focusing on the high field issue. A serious problem like Q-degradation due to vacuum discharge came out on the way, however, it has been overcome and presently all of cavities which were annealed at 1400degC achieved the accelerating field of >25 MV/m with enough Qo value. Recent results on single cell cavities are described in this paper. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)
2013-05-10
Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous {alpha} prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective {alpha} within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant {alpha}-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.
2013-01-01
Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous α prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective α within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant α-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.
Accelerator for medical applications and electron acceleration by laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosokai, Tomonao; Uesaka, Mitsuru
2006-01-01
In this article, the current status of radiation therapies in Japan and updated medical accelerators are reviewed. For medical use, there is a strong demand of a compact and flexible accelerator. At present, however, we have only two choices of the S-band linac with one or two rotation axis combined with the multi leaf collimator, or the X-band linac with a rather flexible robotic arm. In addition, the laser plasma cathode that is the second generation of the laser wake-field accelerator (LWFA) is studied as a high-quality electron source for medical use though it is still at the stage of the basic research. The potential of LWFA as medical accelerator near future is discussed based on updated results of laser plasma cathode experiment in Univ. of Tokyo. (author)
Magnetic field alignment for a 20 MeV linear induction accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Wenwei; Pan Haifeng; Li Hong; Liu Yunlong; Zhang Linwen
2002-01-01
'Dragon-1' accelerator now is being constructed in CAEP. It will produce high current pulse electron beams. The main components of the accelerator include 72 induction accelerating cells and 18 connection cells with ports for beam di gnostic hardware and vacuum pump. In order to acquire high quality beams, a lot of problems have to be addressed such as to reduce the emittance, to control the increase of corkscrew and so on. The alignment of the focus magnetic field is the most concerned. A laser track has been used for mechanical alignment, magnetic alignment is performed by using pulsed-wire technique, and the natural tilt errors is corrected by a pair of steering coil, which is located inside the cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Qifeng; Ni Jianping; Meng Cui; Cheng Cheng; Liu Yinong; Li Jin
2009-01-01
The close of high voltage switch in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator often radiates strong transient electric field, which may influence ambient sensitive electric equipment, signals and performance of other instruments, etc. By performing gridded measurement around the Marx generator, the general distribution law and basic characters of electric field radiation are summarized. The current signal of the discharge circuit is also measured, which demonstrates that the current and the radiated electric field both have a resonance frequency about 150 kHz, and contain much higher frequency components. (authors)
Acceleration of auroral particles by magnetic-field aligned electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, L.P.
1988-01-01
Measurements on the S3-3 and Viking satellites appear to show that at least a large fraction of magnetic field-aligned potential drops are made up of multiple double layers. Solitons and double layers in U-shaped potential structures give rise to spiky electric fields also perpendicular to the magnetic field in agreement with satellite measurements. The large scale potential structures associated with inverted V-events are built up of many similar short-lived structures on a small scale. Viking measurements indicate that electric fields parallel to the magnetic field are almost always directed upward
Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.
2015-12-01
Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance non-linear electrostatic stucture called Time Domain Structures (TDS). One of the type of TDS is electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). Observed DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bi-directional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV (rarely up to tens of keV). We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal electrons parallel to the magnetic field via the electrostatic Fermi mechanism, i.e. due to reflections from DL potential humps. Due to this interaction some fraction of electrons is scattered into the loss cone. The electron energy gain is larger for larger DL scalar potential amplitudes and higher propagation velocities. In addition to the Fermi mechanism electrons can be trapped by DLs in their generation region and accelerated due to transport to higher latitudes. Both mechanisms result in formation of field-aligned PADs for electrons with energies comparable to those found in observations. The Fermi mechanism provides field-aligned PADs for <1 keV electrons, while the trapping mechanism extends field-aligned PADs to higher energy electrons.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.
We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, howev...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larsen, G.C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Larsen, T.J.; Troldborg, N.
2008-07-15
We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the DWM model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. A computationally low cost model is developed for this purpose. Likewise, the character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by a simple semi-empirical model essentially based on an eddy viscosity philosophy. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the DWM approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power- and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. To establish an integrated modeling tool, the DWM methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjaereborg wind farm, have
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Marshall, T. C.; Hirshfield, J. L.; Wang, Changbiao; LaPointe, M. A.
2006-01-01
LACARA (laser cyclotron auto-resonance accelerator) is a vacuum laser accelerator of electrons that is under construction at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is expected that the experiment will be assembled by September 2006; this paper presents progress towards this goal. According to numerical studies, as an electron bunch moves along the LACARA solenoidal magnetic field (∼5.2 T, length ∼1 m), it will be accelerated from 50 to ∼75 MeV by interacting with a 0.8 TW Gaussian-mode circularly polarized optical pulse provided by the ATF CO2 10.6μm laser system. The LACARA laser transport optics must handle 10 J and be capable of forming a Gaussian beam inside the solenoid with a 1.4 mm waist and a Rayleigh range of 60 cm. The electron optics must transport a bunch having input emittance of 0.015 mm-mrad and 100 μm waist through the magnet. Precision alignment between the electron beam and the solenoid magnetic axis is required, and a method to achieve this is described in detail. Emittance- filtering may be necessary to yield an accelerated bunch having a narrow (∼1%) energy-spread
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosinski, M.; Badziak, B.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Pisarek, M.
2009-01-01
The laser-produced ion stream may be attractive for direct ultra-low-energy ion implantation in thin layer of semiconductor for modification of electrical and optical properties of semiconductor devices. Application of electrostatic fields for acceleration and formation of laser-generated ion stream enables to control the ion stream parameters in broad energy and current density ranges. It also permits to remove the useless laser-produced ions from the ion stream designed for implantation. For acceleration of ions produced with the use of a low fluence repetitive laser system (Nd:glass: 2 Hz, pulse duration: 3.5 ns, pulse energy:∼0.5 J, power density: 10 10 W/cm 2 ) in IPPLM the special electrostatic system has been prepared. The laser-produced ions passing through the diaphragm (a ring-shaped slit in the HV box) have been accelerated in the system of electrodes. The accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, the distance of the diaphragm from the target, the diaphragm diameter and the gap width were changed for choosing the desired parameters (namely the energy band of the implanted ions) of the ion stream. The characteristics of laser-produced Ge ion streams were determined with the use of precise ion diagnostic methods, namely: electrostatic ion energy analyser and various ion collectors. The laser-produced and post-accelerated Ge ions have been used for implantation into semiconductor materials for nanocrystal fabrication. The characteristics of implanted samples were measured using AES
Field uses of a portable 4/6 MeV electron linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schonberg, R.G.
1987-01-01
The portable electron linear accelerator which was developed on Electric Power Research Institute funds was targeted to provide an additional inspection tool for the nuclear power industry. The results have justified the expense in cost savings by reducing unnecessary repairs and in demonstrating integrity of some critical welds in pump bodies. The minac (miniature accelerator) has proven effective in cases where other inspection techniques have been ineffective, such as cast stainless steel pump bodies and overlay clad welds. Other applications, such as dynamic imaging of rocket motor test firings and field inspection of pressure vessels, will be reported. A description of the equipment, the method of field operation and the special safety problems related to a high intensity radiation source without containment will be discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lizhi; Pan, Rong; Li, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Tongmin
2013-01-01
Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is a common approach in reliability prediction, especially for products with high reliability. However, oftentimes the laboratory condition of ADT is different from the field condition; thus, to predict field failure, one need to calibrate the prediction made by using ADT data. In this paper a Bayesian evaluation method is proposed to integrate the ADT data from laboratory with the failure data from field. Calibration factors are introduced to calibrate the difference between the lab and the field conditions so as to predict a product's actual field reliability more accurately. The information fusion and statistical inference procedure are carried out through a Bayesian approach and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The proposed method is demonstrated by two examples and the sensitivity analysis to prior distribution assumption
Fixed field alternating gradient accelerator with small orbit shift and tune excursion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzanne L. Sheehy
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A new design principle of a nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is proposed. It is based on optics that produce approximate scaling properties. A large field index k is chosen to squeeze the orbit shift as much as possible by setting the betatron oscillation frequency in the second stability region of Hill’s equation. Then, the lattice magnets and their alignment are simplified. To simplify the magnets, we expand the field profile of r^{k} into multipoles and keep only a few lower order terms. A rectangular-shaped magnet is assumed with lines of constant field parallel to the magnet axis. The lattice employs a triplet of rectangular magnets for focusing, which are parallel to one another to simplify alignment. These simplifications along with fringe fields introduce finite chromaticity and the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator is no longer a scaling one. However, the tune excursion of the whole ring can be within half an integer and we avoid the crossing of strong resonances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.; Wanderer, P.
1985-01-01
The very large energy ratio of machines such as the SSC dictates rather low injection field (for 6T, 20 TeV it is approximately 0.3T). Since the harmonic content at such low fields is largely determined by magnetization currents in the superconductor, the random errors depend on the uniformity of the superconducting wire. In principle the magnitude of the residual fields can be reduced indefinitely by using finer filaments, but in practice there is a lower limit of a few microns. We have compared the injection field harmonics for a number of accelerator dipoles with magnetization measurements made on samples of the conductor used to wind the coils. In addition both the magnetization and harmonics have been compared with short sample critical current measurements made at 5T. The results indicated that an accurate estimate of the variation in injection field harmonics can only be obtained from direct measurements of the magnetization of the cable. It appears feasible to use such measurements to ''shuffle'' magnets for a large accelerator by predicting the low field properties of a magnet before actually winding the coils. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Beam collimation and transport of quasineutral laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harres, K.; Alber, I.; Guenther, M.; Nuernberg, F.; Otten, A.; Schuetrumpf, J.; Roth, M.; Tauschwitz, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Daido, H.; Tampo, M.; Schollmeier, M.
2010-01-01
This article reports about controlling laser-accelerated proton beams with respect to beam divergence and energy. The particles are captured by a pulsed high field solenoid with a magnetic field strength of 8.6 T directly behind a flat target foil that is irradiated by a high intensity laser pulse. Proton beams with energies around 2.3 MeV and particle numbers of 10 12 could be collimated and transported over a distance of more than 300 mm. In contrast to the protons the comoving electrons are strongly deflected by the solenoid field. They propagate at a submillimeter gyroradius around the solenoid's axis which could be experimentally verified. The originated high flux electron beam produces a high space charge resulting in a stronger focusing of the proton beam than expected by tracking results. Leadoff particle-in-cell simulations show qualitatively that this effect is caused by space charge attraction due to the comoving electrons. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications such as postacceleration by conventional accelerator structures.
Nishikawa, K. I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman. G. J.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
A late time accelerated FRW model with scalar and vector fields via Noether symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babak Vakili
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We study the evolution of a three-dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW model, a scalar field with potential function V(ϕ with which the gravity part of the action is minimally coupled and a vector field of its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function f(ϕ. Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the coupling function between the scalar and the vector fields and also the scalar field potential function for which such symmetry exists. Finally, by means of the corresponding Noether current, we integrate the equations of motion and obtain exact solutions for the scale factor, scalar and vector fields. It is shown that the resulting cosmology is an accelerated expansion universe for which its expansion is due to the presence of the vector field in the early times, while the scalar field is responsible of its late time expansion. Keywords: Noether symmetry, Scalar field cosmology, Vector field cosmology
Time variations of fields in superconducting magnets and their effects on accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrup, D.A.; Syphers, M.J.; Johnson, D.E.; Johnson, R.P.; Tollestrup, A.V.; Hanft, R.W.; Brown, B.C.; Lamm, M.J.; Kuchnir, M.; McInturff, A.D.
1988-08-22
A report on the time dependence of magnetic fields in the superconducting magnets of the Fermilab Tevatron has been published. A field variation of order 1 gauss at the aperture radius is observed. Studies on both full sized Tevatron, dipoles and prototype magnets have been used to elucidate these effects. Explanations based on eddy currents in the coil matrix or on flux creep in the superconducting filaments are explored with these tests. Measurement results and techniques for controlling the effect based on new laboratory tests and the latest accelerator operation are presented. 9 refs., 4 figs.
Time variations of fields in superconducting magnets and their effects on accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrup, D.A.; Syphers, M.J.; Johnson, D.E.
1988-01-01
A report on the time dependence of magnetic fields in the superconducting magnets of the Fermilab Tevatron has been published. A field variation of order 1 gauss at the aperture radius is observed. Studies on both full sized Tevatron, dipoles and prototype magnets have been used to elucidate these effects. Explanations based on eddy currents in the coil matrix or on flux creep in the superconducting filaments are explored with these tests. Measurement results and techniques for controlling the effect based on new laboratory tests and the latest accelerator operation are presented. 9 refs., 4 figs
Measurement of asymmetric optical pumping of ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xuan; Scime, Earl; Miah, Mahmood; Cohen, Samuel; Skiff, Frederick
2004-01-01
We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic-field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities
Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff
2004-10-28
We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities.
Measurement of Asymmetric Optical Pumping of Ions Accelerating in a Magnetic-field Gradient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xuan Sun; Earl Scime; Mahmood Miah; Samuel Cohen; Frederick Skiff
2004-01-01
We report observations of asymmetric optical pumping of argon ions accelerating in a magnetic field gradient. The signature is a difference in the laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the asymmetry on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With the model, the fluorescence intensity ratio provides a new method of measuring ion collisionality. This phenomenon has implications for interpreting stellar plasma spectroscopy data which often exhibit unequal Zeeman state intensities
Magnetized particle motion and acceleration around a Schwarzschild black hole in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Bobomurat Ahmedov; Rahimov, Ozodbek; Salikhbaev, Umar
2014-01-01
The capture cross section of magnetized particles with nonvanishing magnetic moment by a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field has been studied as an extension of the approach developed in Zakharov (1994 Class. Quantum Grav. 11 1027) for neutral unmagnetized particles in the Reissner–Nordström spacetime. The magnetic moment of the particle is chosen as in de Felice and Sorge (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 469). It is shown that the spin of the particle sustains the stability of particles circularly orbiting around the black hole immersed in a magnetic field, i.e., a spinning particle's motion near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon is more stable than that of a particle with zero spin. It is shown that the magnetic parameter essentially changes the value of the critical angular momentum and affects the process of capture of the particles by the central black hole. Furthermore, the interaction between the magnetic moment of the particle and the magnetic field forces stable circular orbits to shift to the central object, and this effect should be taken into account in astrophysical scenarios related to the accretion discs and in measuring the spin of the black holes. The magnetized particle's acceleration mechanism near the black hole in an external magnetic field is studied. It is shown that due to the presence of a magnetic field, magnetized particles can accelerate to unlimited high energies. (paper)
Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.
2003-01-01
The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Shawarby, Ihab; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham
2005-01-01
The main objectives of this paper are two fold. First, the paper evaluates the impact of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration levels on vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates using field data gathered under real-world driving conditions. Second, it validates the VT-Micro model for the modeling of real-world conditions. Specifically, an on-board emission-measurement device was used to collect emissions of oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using a light-duty test vehicle. The analysis demonstrates that vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates per-unit distance are optimum in the range of 60-90 km/h, with considerable increase outside this optimum range. The study demonstrates that as the level of aggressiveness for acceleration maneuvers increases, the fuel-consumption and emission rates per maneuver decrease because the vehicle spends less time accelerating. However, when emissions are gathered over a sufficiently long fixed distance, fuel-consumption and mobile-source emission rates per-unit distance increase as the level of acceleration increases because of the history effects that accompany rich-mode engine operations. In addition, the paper demonstrates the validity of the VT-Micro framework for modeling steady-state vehicle fuel-consumption and emission behavior. Finally, the research demonstrates that the VT-Micro framework requires further refinement to capture non-steady-state history behavior when the engine operates in rich mode. (Author)
Nonlinear Monte Carlo model of superdiffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification
Bykov, Andrei M.; Ellison, Donald C.; Osipov, Sergei M.
2017-03-01
Fast collisionless shocks in cosmic plasmas convert their kinetic energy flow into the hot downstream thermal plasma with a substantial fraction of energy going into a broad spectrum of superthermal charged particles and magnetic fluctuations. The superthermal particles can penetrate into the shock upstream region producing an extended shock precursor. The cold upstream plasma flow is decelerated by the force provided by the superthermal particle pressure gradient. In high Mach number collisionless shocks, efficient particle acceleration is likely coupled with turbulent magnetic field amplification (MFA) generated by the anisotropic distribution of accelerated particles. This anisotropy is determined by fast particle transport, making the problem strongly nonlinear and multiscale. Here, we present a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of collisionless shock structure with superdiffusive propagation of high-energy Fermi accelerated particles coupled to particle acceleration and MFA, which affords a consistent description of strong shocks. A distinctive feature of the Monte Carlo technique is that it includes the full angular anisotropy of the particle distribution at all precursor positions. The model reveals that the superdiffusive transport of energetic particles (i.e., Lévy-walk propagation) generates a strong quadruple anisotropy in the precursor particle distribution. The resultant pressure anisotropy of the high-energy particles produces a nonresonant mirror-type instability that amplifies compressible wave modes with wavelengths longer than the gyroradii of the highest-energy protons produced by the shock.
Magnetic field simulation of wiggler on LUCX accelerator facility using Radia
Sutygina, Y. N.; Harisova, A. E.; Shkitov, D. A.
2016-11-01
A flat wiggler consisting of NdFeB permanent magnets was installed on a compact linear electron accelerator LUCX (KEK) in Japan. After installing the wiggler on LUCX, the experiments on the generation of undulator radiation (UR) in the terahertz wavelength range is planned. To perform the detailed calculations and optimization of UR characteristics, it is necessary to know the parameters of the magnetic field generated in the wiggler. In this paper extended simulation results of wiggler magnetic field over the entire volume between the poles are presented. The obtained in the Radia simulation magnetic field is compared with the field calculated by another code, which is based on the finite element method.
Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.;
2014-01-01
We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.
Acceleration/heating of plasma on auroral field lines: preliminary results from the Viking satellite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundin, R.
1988-01-01
In this report, a review of the first results obtained from the particle experiment on board the Viking spacecraft will be given. During the first part of the Viking mission, the orbit was suitable for high-altitude measurements (up to ∼ 13500 km) in the dayside oval and the cusp/cleft region. Thus, some emphasis will be put on processes occurring in the dayside auroral region. On the basis of more than 100 Viking traversals of the cusp and cleft it is suggested that these regions can be identified by some regular characteristics in the particle data. The cusp has a continuous presence of solar wind plasma, affected mainly by convection and containing modest plasma energization. Conversely, the cleft is characterized by extensive plasma energization, and strong field aligned current sheets. Temporal injections of solar wind plasma are frequently observed in the cleft. A distinguishing characteristic of the Viking charged particle experiment is the energy and angular resolution. Thus, the fine-structure of narrow particle beams and conical distributions of both electrons and ions can be determined. This enables very detailed studies of the plasma acceleration processes along auroral field lines. Some examples of accelerated plasma populations and their related energy and angular distribution will be presented. The observations are compared with existing theories of auroral plasma heating and acceleration processes
Electron Acceleration by Stochastic Electric Fields in Thunderstorms: Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes
Alnussirat, S.; Miller, J. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fishman, G. J.
2016-12-01
Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are energetic pulses of photons, which are intense and short, originating in the atmosphere during thunderstorm activity. Despite the number of observations, the production mechanism(s) of TGFs and other energetic particles is not well understood. However, two mechanisms have been suggested as a source of TGFs: (1) the relativistic runaway electron avalanche mechanism (RREA), and (2) the lightning leader mechanism. The RREA can account for the TGF observations, but requires restrictive or unrealistic assumptions. The lightning leader channel is also expected to produce runaway electrons, but through inhomogeneous, small scale, strong electric fields. In this work we use the Boltzmann equation to model the electron acceleration by the lightning leader mechanism, and we derive the gamma-ray spectrum from the electron distribution function. The electric fields at the tip of the leaders are assumed to be stochastic in space and time. Since the physics involved in the lightening leader is not known, we test different cases of the stochastic acceleration agent. From this modeling we hope to investigate the possibility and efficiency of stochastic acceleration in thunderstorm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsawa, Yukiharu.
1984-12-01
A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)
Magnetic field measurements of superconducting magnets for the colliding beam accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, J.; Kirk, H.; Prodell, A.; Willen, E.
1983-01-01
An important aspect of the development and production of superconducting magnets for the Colliding Beam Accelerator is the measurement of the magnetic field in the aperture of these magnets. The measurements have the three-fold purpose of determining the field quality as compared to the lattice requirements of the CBA, of obtaining the survey data necessary to position the magnets in the CBA tunnel, and lastly, of characterizing the magnetic fields for use in initial and future orbit studies of the CBA proton beams. Since for a superconducting storage accelerator it is necessary to carry out these detailed measurements on many (approx. 1000) magnets and at many current values (approx. 1000), we have chosen, in agreement with previous experience, to develop a system which Fourier analyses the voltages induced in a number of rotating windings and thereby obtains the multipole field components. The important point is that such a measuring system can be fast and precise. It has been used for horizontal measurements of the CBA ring dipoles
JDiffraction: A GPGPU-accelerated JAVA library for numerical propagation of scalar wave fields
Piedrahita-Quintero, Pablo; Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2017-05-01
JDiffraction, a GPGPU-accelerated JAVA library for numerical propagation of scalar wave fields, is presented. Angular spectrum, Fresnel transform, and Fresnel-Bluestein transform are the numerical algorithms implemented in the methods and functions of the library to compute the scalar propagation of the complex wavefield. The functionality of the library is tested with the modeling of easy to forecast numerical experiments and also with the numerical reconstruction of a digitally recorded hologram. The performance of JDiffraction is contrasted with a library written for C++, showing great competitiveness in the apparently less complex environment of JAVA language. JDiffraction also includes JAVA easy-to-use methods and functions that take advantage of the computation power of the graphic processing units to accelerate the processing times of 2048×2048 pixel images up to 74 frames per second.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Herman, Matthew Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-09-20
These are slides for a presentation at Stanford University. The outline is as follows: Motivation: customers for compact accelerators, LANL's technologies for laser acceleration, DFEA cathodes, and additive manufacturing of micron-size structures. Among the stated conclusions are the following: preliminary study identified DFEA cathodes as promising sources for DLAs--high beam current and small emittance; additive manufacturing with Nanoscribe Professional GT can produce structures with the right scale features for a DLA operating at micron wavelengths (fabrication tolerances need to be studied, DLAs require new materials). Future plans include DLA experiment with a beam produced by the DFEA cathode with field emission, demonstration of photoemission from DFEAs, and new structures to print and test.
Calculation of flux density distribution on irradiation field of electron accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Ryuichi
1977-03-01
The simple equation of flux density distribution in the irradiation field of an ordinary electron accelerator is a function of the physical parameters concerning electron irradiation. Calculation is based on the mean square scattering angle derived from a simple multiple scattering theory, with the correction factors of air scattering, beam scanning and number transmission coefficient. The flux density distribution was measured by charge absorption in a graphite target set in the air. For the calculated mean square scattering angles of 0.089-0.29, the values of calculation agree with those by experiment within about 10% except at large scattering angles. The method is applicable to dose evaluation of ordinary electron accelerators and design of various irradiators for radiation chemical reaction. Applicability of the simple multiple scattering theory in calculation of the scattered flux density and periodical variation of the flux density of scanning beam are also described. (auth.)
Radiation Field Forming for Industrial Electron Accelerators Using Rare-Earth Magnetic Materials
Ermakov, A. N.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Yurov, D. S.
2016-09-01
The article describes the radiation field forming system for industrial electron accelerators, which would have uniform distribution of linear charge density at the surface of an item being irradiated perpendicular to the direction of its motion. Its main element is non-linear quadrupole lens made with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials. The proposed system has a number of advantages over traditional beam scanning systems that use electromagnets, including easier product irradiation planning, lower instantaneous local dose rate, smaller size, lower cost. Provided are the calculation results for a 10 MeV industrial electron accelerator, as well as measurement results for current distribution in the prototype build based on calculations.
Relativistic electron acceleration in focused laser fields after above-threshold ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2003-01-01
Electrons produced as a result of above-threshold ionization of high-Z atoms can be accelerated by currently producible laser pulses up to GeV energies, as shown recently by Hu and Starace [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245003 (2002)]. To describe electron acceleration by general focused laser fields, we employ an analytical model based on a Hamiltonian, fully relativistic, ponderomotive approach. Though the above-threshold ionization represents an abrupt process compared to laser oscillations, the ponderomotive approach can still adequately predict the resulting energy gain if the proper initial conditions are introduced for the particle drift following the ionization event. Analytical expressions for electron energy gain are derived and the applicability conditions of the ponderomotive formulation are studied both analytically and numerically. The theoretical predictions are supported by numerical computations
Study of field-limiting defects in superconducting RF cavities for electron-accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aderhold, Sebastian
2015-02-01
Superconducting radio-frequency resonators made from niobium are an integral part of many accelerator projects. Their main advantage are the low ohmic losses resulting in the possibility for a long pulse structure and high duty cycles up to continous wave (cw) operation. The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) are based on this technology. In some cases the resonators reach accelerating electric fields close to the theoretical limit of bulk niobium. Yet most resonators are limited at lower fields and mass production for large scale accelerator projects suffers from the spread in the achievable gradient per resonator. The main limitations are field emission and the breakdown of superconductivity (quench). While field emission is mostly attributed to the overall surface cleanliness of the resonator, quench is usually associated with local defects. Optical inspection of the inner surface of the resonators with unprecedented resolution, accuracy and a special illumination has been established at DESY and used to study such local surface defects. More than 30 resonators have been inspected. Distinctive features from these inspections have been catalogued and assessed for their potential risk for the performance of the resonator. Several confirmed quenching defects could be extracted for further analysis and could be traced back to likely origins in the production process. A new, automated set-up for optical inspection of large series of resonators, named OBACHT, has been developed and successfully commissioned. Its design includes the minimal need for operator interference, reproducibility, robustness and versatility, in order to fit the requirements for application both in a laboratory and in a production environment. To facilitate the comparison of the results obtained during the global R and D effort on resonators for the ILC, the ILC global yield database has been established. The yield and selection rules for the
Influence of a transverse magnetic field on the dose deposited by a 6 MV linear accelerator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richter Sebastian
2017-09-01
Full Text Available An integrated system of a linear accelerator and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI device may provide real-time imaging during radiotherapy treatments. This work investigated changes affecting the dose deposition caused by a magnetic field (B-field transverse to the beam direction by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Two different phantoms were used: A water phantom (Ph1 and a water-air phantom (Ph2 with a 4-2-4 cm water-air-water cross section. Dose depositions were scored for B-field values of 0 T, 0.35 T, 0.5 T, 1.5 T, 3 T and 5 T. Beams were based on a precalculated photon spectrum taken from an earlier simulated Elekta 6 MV FFF accelerator. All lateral profiles in Ph1 showed a Lorentz force driven shift w.r.t. the B-field strength, presenting a steeper penumbra in the shift's direction. Depositions were shifted up to 0.3 cm for 5 T, showing a constant central axis plateau-dose or an increase by 2.3 % for small fields. Depth-dose curves in Ph1 showed a shift of the dose maximum towards the beam entrance direction for increasing B-field of up to 1.1 cm; the maximum dose was increased by 6.9 %. In Ph2, an asymmetric dose increase by up to 36.9 % was observed for 1.5 T at the water-air boundary, resulting from the electron return effect (ERE. In our scenario, B-field dependent dose shifts and local build-ups were observed, which consequently affect the resulting dose distribution and need to be considered in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy treatment planning.
Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, C.
1990-01-01
This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus
Mid-infrared lasers for energy frontier plasma accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Pogorelsky
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Plasma wake field accelerators driven with solid-state near-IR lasers have been considered as an alternative to conventional rf accelerators for next-generation TeV-class lepton colliders. Here, we extend this study to the mid-IR spectral domain covered by CO_{2} lasers. We conclude that the increase in the laser driver wavelength favors the regime of laser wake field acceleration with a low plasma density and high electric charge. This regime is the most beneficial for gamma colliders to be converted from lepton colliders via inverse Compton scattering. Selecting a laser wavelength to drive a Compton gamma source is essential for the design of such a machine. The revealed benefits from spectral diversification of laser drivers for future colliders and off-spring applications validate ongoing efforts in advancing the ultrafast CO_{2} laser technology.
Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Kawata, S.
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic field in the electron “bubble” regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption
Effects of Field Distortions in IH-APF Linac for a Compact Medical Accelerator
Kapin, Valery; Yamada, Satoru
2004-01-01
The project on developing compact medical accelerators for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is a doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-Mev/u 200-MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in the IH-cavity are caused by an asymmetry of the gap fields due to presence of the stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the gap voltages from programmed values. The RF fields in the IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically. The intrinsic field distortions a...
Impact of compressibility and a guide field on Fermi acceleration during magnetic island coalescence
Montag, Peter; Egedal, Jan; Lichko, Emily; Wetherton, Blake
2017-10-01
Previous work has shown that Fermi acceleration can be an effective heating mechanism during magnetic island coalescence, where electrons may undergo repeated reflections as the magnetic field lines contract. This energization has the potential to account for the power-law distributions of particle energy inferred from observations of solar flares. Here, we develop a generalized framework for the analysis of Fermi acceleration that can incorporate the effects of compressibility and non-uniformity along field lines, which have commonly been neglected in previous treatments of the problem. Applying this framework to the simplified case of the uniform flux tube allows us to find both the power-law scaling of the distribution function and the rate at which the power-law behavior develops. We find that a guide magnetic field of order unity effectively suppresses the development of power-law distributions. The work was supported by NASA Grant No. NNX14AC68G, NSF GEM Grant No. 1405166, NSF Award 1404166, and NASA Award NNX15AJ73G.
Luminescent tracks of high-energy photoemitted electrons accelerated by plasmonic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Vece Marcel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The emission of an electron from a metal nanostructure under illumination and its subsequent acceleration in a plasmonic field forms a platform to extend these phenomena to deposited nanoparticles, which can be studied by state-of-the-art confocal microscopy combined with femtosecond optical excitation. The emitted and accelerated electrons leave defect tracks in the immersion oil, which can be revealed by thermoluminescence. These photographic tracks are read out with the confocal microscope and have a maximum length of about 80 μm, which corresponds to a kinetic energy of about 100 keV. This energy is consistent with the energy provided by the intense laser pulse combined with plasmonic local field enhancement. The results are discussed within the context of the rescattering model by which electrons acquire more energy. The visualization of electron tracks originating from plasmonic field enhancement around a gold nanoparticle opens a new way to study with confocal microscopy both the plasmonic properties of metal nano objects as well as high energy electron interaction with matter.
Collective acceleration of laser plasma in a nonstationary and nonuniform magnetic field
Isaev, A.; Kozlovskiy, K.; Shikanov, A.; Vovchenko, E.
2017-12-01
This paper presents the new experimental results concerning acceleration of deuterium ions extracted from laser plasma in the rapid-growing nonuniform magnetic field in order to initiate the nuclear reactions D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He. For obtaining of laser plasma a Nd: YAG laser (λ = 1,06 μm) that generates in Q-switched mode the radiation pulses with the energy W ≤ 0,85 J and duration of τ ≈ 10 ns was used. Rapid-growing magnetic field was created with the discharge of Arkadyev-Marx pulsed-voltage generator to conical coil with the inductance of 0,65 μΗ. At characteristic discharge time of 30 ns, the rate of magnetic field growth achieved 2·107 T/s. Ion velocity was determined with the time-of-flight technique. During the experiment on deuterium plasma an ion flux velocity of ∼3 · 108 cm/s was obtained, which corresponds to the deuteron energy of ∼100 keV. Herewith, for target power density of ∼5·1011 W/cm2 obtaining of up to 1015 of accelerated deuterons and up to 108 of neutrons per a pulse is expected.
Mechanisms of force production during linear accelerations in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus
Tytell, Eric D.; Wise, Tyler N.; Boden, Alexandra L.; Sanders, Erin K.; Schwalbe, Margot A. B.
2016-11-01
In nature, fish rarely swim steadily. Although unsteady behaviors are common, we know little about how fish change their swimming kinematics for routine accelerations, and how these changes affect the fluid dynamic forces and the wake produced. To study force production during acceleration, particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the wake of bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus and to estimate the pressure field during linear accelerations and steady swimming. We separated "steady" and "unsteady" trials and quantified the forward acceleration using inertial measurement units. Compared to steady sequences, unsteady sequences had larger accelerations and higher body amplitudes. The wake consisted of single vortices shed during each tail movement (a '2S' wake). The structure did not change during acceleration, but the circulation of the vortices increased, resulting in larger forces. A fish swimming unsteadily produced significantly more force than the same fish swimming steadily, even when the accelerations were the same. This increase is likely due to increased added mass during unsteady swimming, as a result of the larger body amplitude. Pressure estimates suggest that the increase in force is correlated with more low pressure regions on the anterior body. This work was supported by ARO W911NF-14-1-0494 and NSF RCN-PLS 1062052.
Gamma radiation and magnetic field mediated delay in effect of accelerated ageing of soybean
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahesh Kumar; Anand, Anjali; Singh, Bhupinder; Ahuja, Sumedha; Dahuja, Anil
2015-01-01
Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (0.5, 1, 3 and 5 kGy), static magnetic field (50, 100 and 200 mT) and a combination of gamma radiation and magnetic energy (0.5 kGy+200 mT and 5 kGy+50 mT) and stored at room temperature for six months. These seeds were later subjected to accelerated ageing treatment at 42°C temperature and 95-100 % relative humidity and were compared for various physical and biochemical characteristics between the untreated and the energized treatments. Energy treatment protected the quality of stored seeds in terms of its protein and oil content. Accelerated aging conditions, however, affected the oil and protein quantity and quality of seed negatively. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited a decline in their activity during aging while the LOX activity, which reflects the rate of lipid peroxidation, in general, increased during the aging. Gamma irradiated (3 and 5 kGy) and magnetic field treated seeds (100 and 200 mT) maintained a higher catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity which may help in efficient scavenging of deleterious free radical produced during the aging. Aging caused peroxidative changes to lipids, which could be contributed to the loss of oil quality. Among the electromagnetic energy treatments, a dose of 1-5 kGy of gamma and 100 mT, 200 mT magnetic field effectively slowed the rate of biochemical degradation and loss of cellular integrity in seeds stored under conditions of accelerated aging and thus, protected the deterioration of seed quality. Energy combination treatments did not yield any additional protection advantage. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Antipov, S.; Chang, C.; Gold, S. H.; Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gai, W.
2013-01-01
Efforts by a number of institutions to develop a Dielectric-Loaded Accelerating (DLA) structure capable of supporting high gradient acceleration when driven by an external radio frequency source have been ongoing over the past decade. Single surface resonant multipactor has been previously identified as one of the major limitations on the practical application of DLA structures in electron accelerators. In this paper, we report the results of an experiment that demonstrated suppression of multipactor growth in an X-band DLA structure through the use of an applied axial magnetic field. This represents an advance toward the practical use of DLA structures in many accelerator applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirotani, Kouichi [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
2015-01-10
We investigate the particle accelerator that arises in a rotating neutron-star magnetosphere. Simultaneously solving the Poisson equation for the electro-static potential, the Boltzmann equations for relativistic electrons and positrons, and the radiative transfer equation, we demonstrate that the electric field is substantially screened along the magnetic field lines by pairs that are created and separated within the accelerator. As a result, the magnetic-field-aligned electric field is localized in higher altitudes near the light cylinder and efficiently accelerates the positrons created in the lower altitudes outward but does not accelerate the electrons inward. The resulting photon flux becomes predominantly outward, leading to typical double-peak light curves, which are commonly observed from many high-energy pulsars.
Filtered x-ray diode diagnostics fielded on the Z-accelerator for source power measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, C.; Cuneo, M.
1998-01-01
Filtered x-ray diode, (XRD), detectors are used as primary radiation flux diagnostics on Sandia's Z-accelerator, which generates nominally a 200 TW, 2 MJ, x-ray pulse. Given such flux levels and XRD sensitivities the detectors are being fielded 23 meters from the source. The standard diagnostic setup and sensitivities are discussed. Vitreous carbon photocathodes are being used to reduce the effect of hydrocarbon contamination present in the Z-machine vacuum system. Nevertheless pre- and post-calibration data taken indicate spectrally dependent changes in the sensitivity of these detectors by up to factors up to 2 or 3
Induced radioactivity of materials by stray radiation fields at an electron accelerator
Rokni, S H; Gwise, T; Liu, J C; Roesler, S
2002-01-01
Samples of soil, water, aluminum, copper and iron were irradiated in the stray radiation field generated by the interaction of a 28.5 GeV electron beam in a copper-dump in the Beam Dump East facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectroscopy and other techniques. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. The calculated activities are compared to the experimental values and differences are discussed.
PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION IN THE JETS OF 4C74.26
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araudo, A. T.; Blundell, K. M.; Bell, A. R.
2015-01-01
We model the multi-wavelength emission in the southern hotspot of the radio quasar 4C74.26. The synchrotron radio emission is resolved near the shock with the MERLIN radio-interferometer, and the rapid decay of this emission behind the shock is interpreted as the decay of the amplified downstream magnetic field as expected for small scale turbulence. Electrons are accelerated to only 0.3 TeV, consistent with a diffusion coefficient many orders of magnitude greater than in the Bohm regime. If the same diffusion coefficient applies to the protons, their maximum energy is only ∼100 TeV
Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG)accelerators and their medical application in proton therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fourrier, J.
2008-10-01
Radiotherapy uses particle beams to irradiate and kill cancer tumors while sparing healthy tissues. Bragg peak shape of the proton energy loss in matter allows a ballistic improvement of the dose deposition compared with X rays. Thus, the irradiated volume can be precisely adjusted to the tumour. This thesis, in the frame of the RACCAM project, aims to the study and the design of a proton therapy installation based on a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator in order to build a spiral sector FFAG magnet for validation. First, we present proton therapy to define medical specifications leading to the technical specifications of a proton therapy installation. Secondly, we introduce FFAG accelerators through their past and on-going projects which are on their way around the world before developing the beam dynamic theories in the case of invariant focusing optics (scaling FFAG). We describe modelling and simulation tools developed to study the dynamics in a spiral scaling FFAG accelerator. Then we explain the spiral optic parameter search which has leaded to the construction of a magnet prototype. Finally, we describe the RACCAM project proton therapy installation starting from the injector cyclotron and ending with the extraction system. (author)
Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine
Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.
2015-02-01
The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.
Khaerdinov, N S; Petkov, V B; 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity
2004-01-01
We present the data on correlations of the intensity of the soft component of cosmic rays with the local electric field of the near-earth atmosphere during thunderstorm periods at the Baksan Valley (North Caucasus, 1700 m a. s. l.). The large-area array for studying the extensive air showers of cosmic rays is used as a particle detector. An electric field meter of the "electric mill" type (rain-protected) is mounted on the roof of the building in the center of this array. The data were obtained in the summer seasons of 2000-2002. We observe strong enhancements of the soft component intensity before some lightning strokes. At the same time, the analysis of the regression curve "intensity versus field" discovers a bump at the field sign that is opposite to the field sign corresponding to acceleration of electrons. It is interpreted as a signature of runaway electrons from the region of the strong field (with opposite sign) overhead.
Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.
2015-01-01
. These extend several tens of kilometres downwind e.g. 70 km. Other SAR wind maps show near-field fine scale details of wake behind rows of turbines. The satellite SAR wind farm wake cases are modelled by different wind farm wake models including the PARK microscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting...... (WRF) model in high resolution and WRF with coupled microscale parametrization....
Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.
2011-01-01
Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.
Stochastic Wake Modelling Based on POD Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Bastine
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, large eddy simulation data is analysed to investigate a new stochastic modeling approach for the wake of a wind turbine. The data is generated by the large eddy simulation (LES model PALM combined with an actuator disk with rotation representing the turbine. After applying a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, three different stochastic models for the weighting coefficients of the POD modes are deduced resulting in three different wake models. Their performance is investigated mainly on the basis of aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in the wake. Three different load cases and their statistical characteristics are compared for the original LES, truncated PODs and the stochastic wake models including different numbers of POD modes. It is shown that approximately six POD modes are enough to capture the load dynamics on large temporal scales. Modeling the weighting coefficients as independent stochastic processes leads to similar load characteristics as in the case of the truncated POD. To complete this simplified wake description, we show evidence that the small-scale dynamics can be captured by adding to our model a homogeneous turbulent field. In this way, we present a procedure to derive stochastic wake models from costly computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations or elaborated experimental investigations. These numerically efficient models provide the added value of possible long-term studies. Depending on the aspects of interest, different minimalized models may be obtained.
Use of mobile robots for mapping radiation field around particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S.; Agashe, V.; Pal, P.K.
2011-01-01
In Particle Accelerators, when the accelerated particles hit the target or inadvertently strike the wall, prompt and induced radiation is produced. It is necessary to monitor the resulting radiation field in order to reduce radiation exposure to operating personnel, as well as to locate points of leakage of the particle beam. This paper describes the development of mobile robots equipped with onboard radiation detectors for mapping such radiation fields. They include a user interface software running on a host computer to tele operate the robot, monitor radiation levels, and build and display a radiation map out of these data through interpolation. One such robot (ARMER-II), designed and developed by us in consultation with Radiation Safety Division (RSD), is a portable mobile robot for identifying locations with radiation levels higher than permissible limits. Its remote interface computes and guides the robot to move in a direction in which the increase in intensity of radiation is the steepest. Another mobile robot (ARMER-I) has a telescopic arm fitted with a light and small GM tube. This also can be controlled remotely, and is very useful in remote measurement of radiation from locations which are difficult to reach otherwise. Another version (ASHWA) has been successfully adapted by VECC, Kolkata, for gamma and neutron radiation profiling in the cyclotron vault area. We are presently working on the design and development of a four-wheel differentially driven mobile robot (RADMAPPER) with higher payload capacity for carrying radiation detectors like gamma camera and neutron dosimeters and positioning them at desired heights. With appropriate localization capability, this is going to be a very flexible mobile robot based system for radiation profiling around particle accelerators. The specification for this robot has been prepared in consultation with VECC for use in their cyclotron facilities. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunckhorst, Elin
2009-01-01
The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a 10 B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with 6 Li and 7 Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined with an
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunckhorst, Elin
2009-02-26
The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a {sup 10}B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, S.H.; Guimarães, T.M., E-mail: shpereira@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: thiago.mogui@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Engenharia, Guaratinguetá, Departamento de Física e Química, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, 12516-410, Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil)
2017-09-01
In this paper we construct the complete evolution of the universe driven by the mass dimension one dark spinor called Elko, starting with inflation, passing by the matter dominated era and finishing with the recent accelerated expansion. The dynamic of the fermionic Elko field with a symmetry breaking type potential can reproduce all phases of the universe in a natural and elegant way. The dynamical equations in general case and slow roll conditions in the limit H || m {sub pl} are also presented for the Elko system. Numerical analysis for the number of e-foldings during inflation, energy density after inflation and for present time and also the actual size of the universe are in good agreement with the standard model of cosmology. An interpretation of the inflationary phase as a result of Pauli exclusion principle is also possible if the Elko field is treated as an average value of its quantum analogue.
Magnetic field design for a Penning ion source for a 200 keV electrostatic accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fathi, A., E-mail: Atefeh.Fathi115@gmail.com [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feghhi, S.A.H.; Sadati, S.M. [Radiation Applications Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimibasabi, E. [Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, 3619995161, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-01
In this study, the structure of magnetic field for a Penning ion source has been designed and constructed with the use of permanent magnets. The ion source has been designed and constructed for a 200 keV electrostatic accelerator. With using CST Studio Suite, the magnetic field profile inside the ion source was simulated and an appropriate magnetic system was designed to improve particle confinement. Designed system consists of two ring magnets with 9 mm distance from each other around the anode. The ion source was constructed and the cylindrical magnet and designed magnetic system were tested on the ion source. The results showed that the ignition voltage for ion source with the designed magnetic system is almost 300 V lower than the ion source with the cylindrical magnet. Better particle confinement causes lower voltage discharge to occur.
Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi
2017-06-12
Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.
Impact of bubble wakes on a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomiyama, A.; Makino, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Tamai, H.; Serizawa, A.; Zun, I.
1998-01-01
Three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking simulation of single large air bubbles rising through a stagnant water filled in a vertical pipe was conducted to investigate the structures of bubble wakes. Spatial distributions of time-averaged liquid velocity field, turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress caused by bubble wakes were deduced from the calculated local instantaneous liquid velocities. It was confirmed that wake structures are completely different from the ones estimated by a conventional wake model. Then, we developed a simple wake model based on the predicted time-averaged wake velocity fields, and implemented it into a 3D one-way bubble tracking method to examine the impact of bubble wake structures on time-spatial evolution of a developing air-water bubble flow in a vertical pipe. As a results, we confirmed that the developed wake model can give better prediction for flow pattern evolution than a conventional wake model
Charging and the cross-field discharge during electron accelerator operation on a rocket
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J.
1988-01-01
We present some limited results obtained from the flight of SCEX II, from Poker Flat, Alaska, on January 31, 1987. Some of the experiments were aimed at understanding neutralization processes around an electron beam emitting rocket. It was expected that electrons drifting in the strong electric fields around the charged rocket would acquire sufficient energy to ionize neutrals, and that the resulting ions would be hurled outward at energies up to the rocket potential. Three hemispherical retarding potential analyzers were ejected from the main payload to measure these ions. This experiment was successful, in spite of arcs which developed around the batteries for the electron guns, which degraded the emitted electron beam to unusable levels except for about 8 sec of the flight. Ions were observed at energies up to 175 eV, the limit of the analyzers. The main payload carried, in addition to the electron accelerator, two arms with conducting elements to act as Langmuir probes, and to measure floating potentials. These measurements show that fields sufficient to accelerate electrons to ionizing energies were present around the rocket. (author)
Introduction to wakefields and wake potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, P.B.
1989-01-01
What are wakefields and wake potentials, and why are these concepts useful in the physics of linear accelerators and storage rings We approach this question by first reviewing the basic physical concepts which underlie the mathematical formalism. We then present a summary of the various techniques that have been developed to make detailed calculations of wake potentials. Finally, we give some applications to current problems of interest in accelerator physics. No attempt at completeness can be made in an introductory article of modest length. Rather, we try to give a broad overview and to list key references for more detailed study. It will also be apparent that the last chapter on this subject, with all the loose ends neatly tied up, has yet to be written. There are subtle points, there are controversial questions, and active calculations to resolve these questions are continuing at the time of this writing. 61 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Introduction to wakefields and wake potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.
1989-01-01
What are wakefields and wake potentials, and why are these concepts useful in the physics of linear accelerators and storage rings? We approach this question by first reviewing the basic physical concepts which underlie the mathematical formalism. We then present a summary of the various techniques that have been developed to make detailed calculations of wake potentials. Finally, we give some applications to current problems of interest in accelerator physics. No attempt at completeness can be made in an introductory article of modest length. Rather, we try to give a broad overview and to list key references for more detailed study. It will also be apparent that the last chapter on this subject, with all the loose ends neatly tied up, has yet to be written. There are subtle points, there are controversial questions, and active calculations to resolve these questions are continuing at the time of this writing. 61 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab
GPU-accelerated FDTD modeling of radio-frequency field-tissue interactions in high-field MRI.
Chi, Jieru; Liu, Feng; Weber, Ewald; Li, Yu; Crozier, Stuart
2011-06-01
The analysis of high-field RF field-tissue interactions requires high-performance finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computing. Conventional CPU-based FDTD calculations offer limited computing performance in a PC environment. This study presents a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel-computing framework, producing substantially boosted computing efficiency (with a two-order speedup factor) at a PC-level cost. Specific details of implementing the FDTD method on a GPU architecture have been presented and the new computational strategy has been successfully applied to the design of a novel 8-element transceive RF coil system at 9.4 T. Facilitated by the powerful GPU-FDTD computing, the new RF coil array offers optimized fields (averaging 25% improvement in sensitivity, and 20% reduction in loop coupling compared with conventional array structures of the same size) for small animal imaging with a robust RF configuration. The GPU-enabled acceleration paves the way for FDTD to be applied for both detailed forward modeling and inverse design of MRI coils, which were previously impractical.
Hegelich, B. Manuel
2011-10-01
A steady increase of on-target laser intensity with also increasing pulse contrast is leading to light-matter interactions of extreme laser fields with matter in new physics regimes which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transperent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a0 >10), ultra high contrast laser pulse [1] with a solid density target, turning it transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons. Thus, the interactions becomes volumetric, increasing the energy coupling from laser to plasma, facilitating a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration [3], highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime [4], and the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. Experiments at the LANL 130TW Trident laser facility successfully reached the TOR, and show relativistic pulse shaping beyond the Fourier limit, the acceleration of mono-energetic ~40 MeV electron bunches from solid targets, forward directed coherent relativistic high harmonic generation >1 keV Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration of Carbon to >1 GeV and Protons to >100 MeV. Carbon ions were accelerated with a conversion efficiency of >10% for ions >20 MeV and monoenergetic carbon ions with an energy spread of ICF diagnostics over ion fast ignition to medical physics. Furthermore, TOR targets traverse a wide range of HEDP parameter space during the interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g. brown dwarfs) to energy densities of ~1011 J/cm3 at peak, then dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Whereas today this regime can only be accessed on very few dedicated facilities, employing special targets and pulse cleaning technology, the next generation of laser facilities will operate in this regime by default, turning its
Effects of energetic coherent motions on the power and wake of an axial-flow turbine
Chamorro, L. P.; Hill, C.; Neary, V. S.; Gunawan, B.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2015-05-01
A laboratory experiment examined the effects of energetic coherent motions on the structure of the wake and power fluctuations generated by a model axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine. The model turbine was placed in an open-channel flow and operated under subcritical conditions. The incoming flow was locally perturbed with vertically oriented cylinders of various diameters. An array of three acoustic Doppler velocimeters aligned in the cross-stream direction and a torque transducer were used to collect high-resolution and synchronous measurements of the three-velocity components of the incoming and wake flow as well as the turbine power. A strong scale-to-scale interaction between the large-scale and broadband turbulence shed by the cylinders and the turbine power revealed how the turbulence structure modulates the turbine behavior. In particular, the response of the turbine to the distinctive von Kármán-type vortices shed from the cylinders highlighted this phenomenon. The mean and fluctuating characteristics of the turbine wake are shown to be very sensitive to the energetic motions present in the flow. Tip vortices were substantially dampened and the near-field mean wake recovery accelerated in the presence of energetic motions in the flow. Strong coherent motions are shown to be more effective than turbulence levels for triggering the break-up of the spiral structure of the tip-vortices.
Study of Laser Wakefield Accelerators as injectors for Synchrotron light sources
Hillenbrand, Steffen; Müller, Anke-Susanne; Jansen, Oliver; Judin, Vitali; Pukhov, Alexander
2014-01-01
Laser WakeField Accelerators (LWFA) feature short bunch lengths and high peak currents, combined with a small facility footprint. This makes them very interesting as injectors for Synchrotron light sources. Using the ANKA Synchrotron as an example, we investigate the possibility to inject a LWFA bunch into an electron storage ring. Particular emphasis is put on the longitudinal evolution of the bunch.
Multi-GPU Jacobian accelerated computing for soft-field tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsic, A; Attardo, E A; Halter, R J
2012-01-01
Image reconstruction in soft-field tomography is based on an inverse problem formulation, where a forward model is fitted to the data. In medical applications, where the anatomy presents complex shapes, it is common to use finite element models (FEMs) to represent the volume of interest and solve a partial differential equation that models the physics of the system. Over the last decade, there has been a shifting interest from 2D modeling to 3D modeling, as the underlying physics of most problems are 3D. Although the increased computational power of modern computers allows working with much larger FEM models, the computational time required to reconstruct 3D images on a fine 3D FEM model can be significant, on the order of hours. For example, in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) applications using a dense 3D FEM mesh with half a million elements, a single reconstruction iteration takes approximately 15–20 min with optimized routines running on a modern multi-core PC. It is desirable to accelerate image reconstruction to enable researchers to more easily and rapidly explore data and reconstruction parameters. Furthermore, providing high-speed reconstructions is essential for some promising clinical application of EIT. For 3D problems, 70% of the computing time is spent building the Jacobian matrix, and 25% of the time in forward solving. In this work, we focus on accelerating the Jacobian computation by using single and multiple GPUs. First, we discuss an optimized implementation on a modern multi-core PC architecture and show how computing time is bounded by the CPU-to-memory bandwidth; this factor limits the rate at which data can be fetched by the CPU. Gains associated with the use of multiple CPU cores are minimal, since data operands cannot be fetched fast enough to saturate the processing power of even a single CPU core. GPUs have much faster memory bandwidths compared to CPUs and better parallelism. We are able to obtain acceleration factors of 20 times
Multi-GPU Jacobian accelerated computing for soft-field tomography.
Borsic, A; Attardo, E A; Halter, R J
2012-10-01
Image reconstruction in soft-field tomography is based on an inverse problem formulation, where a forward model is fitted to the data. In medical applications, where the anatomy presents complex shapes, it is common to use finite element models (FEMs) to represent the volume of interest and solve a partial differential equation that models the physics of the system. Over the last decade, there has been a shifting interest from 2D modeling to 3D modeling, as the underlying physics of most problems are 3D. Although the increased computational power of modern computers allows working with much larger FEM models, the computational time required to reconstruct 3D images on a fine 3D FEM model can be significant, on the order of hours. For example, in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) applications using a dense 3D FEM mesh with half a million elements, a single reconstruction iteration takes approximately 15-20 min with optimized routines running on a modern multi-core PC. It is desirable to accelerate image reconstruction to enable researchers to more easily and rapidly explore data and reconstruction parameters. Furthermore, providing high-speed reconstructions is essential for some promising clinical application of EIT. For 3D problems, 70% of the computing time is spent building the Jacobian matrix, and 25% of the time in forward solving. In this work, we focus on accelerating the Jacobian computation by using single and multiple GPUs. First, we discuss an optimized implementation on a modern multi-core PC architecture and show how computing time is bounded by the CPU-to-memory bandwidth; this factor limits the rate at which data can be fetched by the CPU. Gains associated with the use of multiple CPU cores are minimal, since data operands cannot be fetched fast enough to saturate the processing power of even a single CPU core. GPUs have much faster memory bandwidths compared to CPUs and better parallelism. We are able to obtain acceleration factors of 20
The Influence of Waves on the Near-Wake of an Axial-Flow Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine
Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen
2017-11-01
Flow field results are presented for the near-wake of an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine in the presence of surface gravity waves. The turbine is a 1/25 scale, 0.8 m diameter, two bladed turbine based on the U.S. Department of Energy's Reference Model 1 tidal current turbine. Measurements were obtained in the large towing tank facility at the U.S. Naval Academy with the turbine towed at a constant carriage speed and a tip speed ratio selected to provide maximum power. The turbine has been shown to be nearly scale independent for these conditions. Velocity measurements were obtained using an in-house designed and manufactured, submersible, planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) system at streamwise distances of up to two diameters downstream of the rotor plane. Phase averaged results for steady and unsteady conditions are presented for comparison showing further expansion of the wake in the presence of waves as compared to the quiescent case. The impact of waves on turbine tip vortex characteristics is also examined showing variation in core radius, swirl velocity, and circulation with wave phase. Some aspects of the highly coherent wake observed in the steady case are recognized in the unsteady wake, however, the unsteady velocities imposed by the waves, particularly the vertical velocity component, appears to convect tip vortices into the wake, potentially enhancing energy transport and accelerating the re-energization process.
Singh Ghotra, Harjit; Kant, Niti
2018-06-01
We examine the electron dynamics during laser-cluster interaction. In addition to the electrostatic field of an individual cluster and laser field, we consider an external transverse wiggler magnetic field, which plays a pivotal role in enhancing the electron acceleration. Single-particle simulation has been presented with a short pulse linearly polarized as well as circularly polarized laser pulses for electron acceleration in a cluster. The persisting Coulomb field allows the electron to absorb energy from the laser field. The stochastically heated electron finds a weak electric field at the edge of the cluster from where it is ejected. The wiggler magnetic field connects the regions of the stochastically heated, ejected electron from the cluster and high energy gain by the electron from the laser field outside the cluster. This increases the field strength and hence supports the electron to meet the phase of the laser field for enhanced acceleration. A long duration resonance appears with an optimized magnetic wiggler field of about 3.4 kG. Hence, the relativistic energy gain by the electron is enhanced up to a few 100 MeV with an intense short pulse laser with an intensity of about 1019 W cm‑2 in the presence of a wiggler magnetic field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
2011-01-01
that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero-servo-elastic...... tool HAWC2, developed at Risø-DTU in Denmark, and their potential load reduction capabilities compared: (1) full-blade ‘individual-pitch controllers’ acting as wake compensators and (2) controllers using trailing-edge flaps. Information on the wake inflow conditions, induced by upstream turbines...... for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...
Dark-field study of rear-side density structure in laser-accelerated foils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stamper, J.A.; Gold, S.H.; Obenschain, S.P.; McLean, E.A.; Sica, L.
1981-01-01
A dark-field, laser-probing diagnostic has produced the first high-resolution photographs of density structure on the rear side of laser-accelerated foils. This diagnostic allows the preferential sampling of the steep-gradient region of an expanding plasma and permits two-dimensional, multiple-time recordings on a single photograph. The studies are aimed at understanding the early-time physics of target implosions for inertial-confinement fusion. Both long (500 psec) and short (150 psec) probe pulses were used to study the rear-side plasmas of thin foils accelerated by the rocket-like reaction to a hot plasma ablated from the front side by the laser radiation. The longer pulse results, both for angular scatter and the life-time of small, transverse structure, imply a relatively cold (1 eV) rear side plasma. The short pulses provide high resolution photographs of the complete structure. One of these was a vortex-like structure, suggestive of the remnants of a hydrodynamic instability. These observations are relevant to two of the basic requirements of inertial-confinement fusion: cold fuel isentrope and implosion symmetry
Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan
2013-01-01
The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Ghamdi, H.; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Maalej, N. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)
2008-08-15
In X-ray radiotherapy accelerators, neutrons are produced mainly by ({gamma},n) reaction when high energy X-rays interact with high Z materials of the linear accelerator head. These materials include the lead (Pb) used as shielding in the collimator, tungsten (W) target used for the production of X-rays and iron (Fe) in the accelerator head. These unwanted neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and contribute to the patient dose during the treatment of a cancer patient. Knowing the neutron distribution around the radiotherapy accelerator is therefore desired. CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs) were used to study the variation of fast and thermal neutron relative intensities around an 18 MeV linear accelerator X-ray beam with the field sizes of 0, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40cm{sup 2}. For fast neutron detection, bare NTDs were used. For thermal neutron detection, NTDs were covered with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters. The NTDs were placed at different locations in the direction perpendicular to the treatment couch (transversal) and in the direction parallel to the treatment couch (longitudinal) with respect to the isocenter of the accelerator. The fast neutron relative intensity is symmetrical about the beam axis and exhibits an exponential-like drop with distance from the isocenter of the accelerator for all the field sizes. At the primary beam (isocenter), the relative fast neutron intensity is highest for 40x40cm{sup 2} field size and decreases linearly with the decrease in the field size. However, fast neutron intensities do not change significantly with beam size for the measurements outside the primary beam. The fast neutron intensity in the longitudinal direction outside the primary beam decreases linearly with the field size. The thermal neutron intensity, at any location, was found to be almost independent of the field size.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, James; Hendry, Chris
2009-01-01
The paper considers the role of government funded demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) in accelerating the commercialisation of new energy technologies that meet a public good but do not have immediate market appeal [Sagar, A.D., van der Zwaan, B., 2006. Technological innovation in the energy sector: R and D, deployment, and learning-by-doing. Energy Policy 34, 2601-2608]. Drawing on an original database of DTs in the EU, Japan and USA from 1973 to 2004, we review the history of DTs in photovoltaic technology for electricity generation, and its subsequent take up as a commercial energy source. We find that DTs that are aimed purely at discovering suitable market opportunities are less successful in achieving diffusion than projects that target a particular application and concentrate resources on it. The former nevertheless have a vital role to play in the learning process, while a targeted focus is often dependent on national industrial and institutional factors.
Field-Distortion Air-Insulated Switches for Next-Generation Pulsed-Power Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wisher, Matthew Louis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johns, Owen M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Breden, Eric Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Calhoun, Jacob Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruner, Frederick Rusticus [Kinetech LLC, Cedar Crest, NM (United States); Hohlfelder, Robert James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulville, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muron, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoltzfus, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stygar, William A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
We have developed two advanced designs of a field-distortion air-insulated spark-gap switch that reduce the size of a linear-transformer-driver (LTD) brick. Both designs operate at 200 kV and a peak current of ~50 kA. At these parameters, both achieve a jitter of less than 2 ns and a prefire rate of ~0.1% over 5000 shots. We have reduced the number of switch parts and assembly steps, which has resulted in a more uniform, design-driven assembly process. We will characterize the performance of tungsten-copper and graphite electrodes, and two different electrode geometries. The new switch designs will substantially improve the electrical and operational performance of next-generation pulsed-power accelerators.
New Statistical Multiparticle Approach to the Acceleration of Electrons by the Ion Field in Plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugene Oks
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of the acceleration of the (perturbing electrons by the ion field (AEIF significantly reduces Stark widths and shifts in plasmas of relatively high densities and/or relatively low temperature. Our previous analytical calculations of the AEIF were based on the dynamical treatment: the starting point was the ion-microfield-caused changes of the trajectories and velocities of individual perturbing electrons. In the current paper, we employ a statistical approach: the starting point is the electron velocity distribution function modified by the ion microfield. The latter had been calculated by Romanovsky and Ebeling in the multiparticle description of the ion microfield. The result shows again the reduction of the electron Stark broadening. Thus two totally different analytical approaches (dynamical and statistical agree with each other and therefore disprove the corresponding recent fully-numerical simulations by Stambulchik et al. that claimed an increase of the electron Stark broadening.
Yang, Ying; Liu, Xiaobao; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang
2018-03-01
We study how to improve the precision of the quantum estimation of phase for an uniformly accelerated atom in fluctuating electromagnetic field by reflecting boundaries. We find that the precision decreases with increases of the acceleration without the boundary. With the presence of a reflecting boundary, the precision depends on the atomic polarization, position and acceleration, which can be effectively enhanced compared to the case without boundary if we choose the appropriate conditions. In particular, with the presence of two parallel reflecting boundaries, we obtain the optimal precision for atomic parallel polarization and the special distance between two boundaries, as if the atom were shielded from the fluctuation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayes, S.M.
1996-02-01
At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a national defense laboratory with a history of working in seclusion and secrecy, scientists and engineers have received an important new mission to partner with industry. The scientists and engineers need to expand their skill base beyond science and understand the business of innovation to be successful in this new environment. An administrative field experiment of conducting intensive, immersion training about the commercialization process was piloted at Los Alamos in September, 1992. This Field Research Project addresses the following research question: {open_quotes}Does {open_quotes}immersion{close_quotes} commercialization training complement organizational goals and does the method accelerate cultural change?{close_quotes} The field experiment first began as a pilot Commercialization Workshop conducted for twelve scientists in September, 1992. The objective was to create commercialization action plans for promising environmental technologies. The immersion method was compared to the indoctrination method of training also. The indoctrination training was a one-day lecture style session conducted for one hundred and fifty scientists in July, 1993. The impact of the training was measured by perceived attitude change and the amount of subsequent industrial partnerships that followed the training. The key management question addressed on the job was, {open_quotes}With a limited budget, how do we maximize the impact of training and achieve the best results?{close_quotes}
Multi-GPU hybrid programming accelerated three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changsheng Zhu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In the process of dendritic growth simulation, the computational efficiency and the problem scales have extremely important influence on simulation efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field model. Thus, seeking for high performance calculation method to improve the computational efficiency and to expand the problem scales has a great significance to the research of microstructure of the material. A high performance calculation method based on MPI+CUDA hybrid programming model is introduced. Multi-GPU is used to implement quantitative numerical simulations of three-dimensional phase-field model in binary alloy under the condition of multi-physical processes coupling. The acceleration effect of different GPU nodes on different calculation scales is explored. On the foundation of multi-GPU calculation model that has been introduced, two optimization schemes, Non-blocking communication optimization and overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization, are proposed. The results of two optimization schemes and basic multi-GPU model are compared. The calculation results show that the use of multi-GPU calculation model can improve the computational efficiency of three-dimensional phase-field obviously, which is 13 times to single GPU, and the problem scales have been expanded to 8193. The feasibility of two optimization schemes is shown, and the overlap of MPI and GPU computing optimization has better performance, which is 1.7 times to basic multi-GPU model, when 21 GPUs are used.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick
2017-01-01
On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....
Feasibility study of Nb3Al Rutherford cable for high field accelerator magnet application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamada, R.; /Fermilab; Kikuchi, A.; /Tsukuba Magnet Lab.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Cooper, C.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab; Takeuchi, T.; /Tsukuba Magnet Lab.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; /Fermilab; Verweij, A.P.; /CERN; Wake, M.; Willering, G; /Tsukuba Magnet Lab.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab
2006-08-01
Feasibility study of Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al strand and Rutherford cable for the application to high field accelerator magnets are being done at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. The Nb{sub 3}Al strand, which was developed and manufactured at NIMS in Japan, has a non-copper Jc of about 844 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2 K, a copper content of 50%, and filament size of about 50 microns. Rutherford cables with 27 Nb{sub 3}Al strands of 1.03 mm diameter were fabricated and tested. Quench tests on a short cable were done to study its stability with only its self field, utilizing a high current transformer. A pair of 2 meter long Nb{sub 3}Al cables was tested extensively at CERN at 4.3 and 1.9 K up to 11 Tesla including its self field with a high transport current of 20.2 kA. In the low field test we observed instability near splices and in the central region. This is related to the flux-jump like behavior, because of excessive amount of Nb in the Nb{sub 3}Al strand. There is possibility that the Nb in Nb{sub 3}Al can cause instability below 2 Tesla field regions. We need further investigation on this problem. Above 8 Tesla, we observed quenches near the critical surface at fast ramp rate from 1000 to 3000 A/sec, with quench velocity over 100 m/sec. A small racetrack magnet was made using a 14 m of Rutherford cable and successfully tested up to 21.8 kA, corresponding to 8.7 T.
Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects
Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich
1995-01-01
As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.
Multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma wakefield
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corde, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adli, E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Allen, J. M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); An, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Clarke, C. I. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Delahaye, J. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frederico, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gessner, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Green, S. Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lipkowitz, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lu, W. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Marsh, K. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmeltz, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Vafaei-Najafabadi, N. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Walz, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yocky, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Clayton, C. E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2015-08-26
New accelerator concepts must be developed to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable. The Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) is one such concept, where the electric field of a plasma wake excited by a charged-particle bunch is used to accelerate a trailing bunch of particles. To apply plasma acceleration to particle colliders, it is imperative that both the electrons and their antimatter counterpart, the positrons, are efficiently accelerated at high fields using plasmas1. While substantial progress has recently been reported on high-field, high-efficiency acceleration of electrons in a PWFA powered by an electron bunch 2, such an electron-driven wake is unsuitable for the acceleration and focusing of a positron bunch. Here we demonstrate a new regime of PWFA where particles in the front of a single positron bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of those in the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma. In the process, the accelerating field is altered – self-loaded – so that about a billion positrons gain five gigaelectronvolts (GeV) of energy with a narrow energy spread in a distance of just 1.3 meters. They extract about 30% of the wake’s energy and form a spectrally distinct bunch with as low as a 1.8% r.m.s. energy spread. This demonstrated ability of positron-driven plasma wakes to efficiently accelerate a significant number of positrons with a small energy spread may overcome the long-standing challenge of positron acceleration in plasma-based accelerators.
Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1996-12-31
This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.; Vorobieff, P.
1999-01-01
We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Transport and acceleration of low-emittance electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henke, H.
1989-01-01
Linear accelerators for colliders and for free-electron lasers require beams with both high brightness and low emittance. Their transport and acceleration is limited by single-particle effects originating from injection jitter, from the unavoidable position jitter of components, and from chromaticity. Collective phenomena, essentially due to wake fields acting within the bunch, are most severe in the case of high-frequency structures, i.e. a small aperture. Whilst, in the past, the transverse wake-field effects were believed to be most serious, we know that they can even be beneficial when inducing a corresponding spread in betatron oscillation either by an energy spread along the bunch or by an RF focusing system acting on the bunch scale. This paper evaluates the different effects by simple analytical means after making use of the smooth focusing approximation and the two-particle model. Numerical simulation results are used for verification. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramsdell, J.V.
1988-03-01
Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs
On the coupling of fields and particles in accelerator and plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-10-15
In accelerator and plasma physics it is generally accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles motion in manifestly covariant form, that is by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time. In other words, in order to describe the dynamical processes in the laboratory frame there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momentum on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Therefore, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. In previous papers we argued that this is a misconception. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on classical electrodynamics correctly tell us that Maxwell's equations in standard form in the laboratory frame and charged particles are coupled by introducing particles trajectories as projections of particles world-lines onto coordinates of the laboratory frame and by subsequently using the laboratory time to parameterize the trajectory curves. For the first time we showed a difference between conventional and covariant particle tracking results in the laboratory frame. This essential point has never received attention in the physical community. Only the solution of the dynamical equations in covariant form gives the correct coupling between field equations in standard form and particles trajectories in the laboratory frame. We conclude that previous theoretical and simulation results in
On the coupling of fields and particles in accelerator and plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni
2016-10-01
In accelerator and plasma physics it is generally accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles motion in manifestly covariant form, that is by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time. In other words, in order to describe the dynamical processes in the laboratory frame there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momentum on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Therefore, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. In previous papers we argued that this is a misconception. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on classical electrodynamics correctly tell us that Maxwell's equations in standard form in the laboratory frame and charged particles are coupled by introducing particles trajectories as projections of particles world-lines onto coordinates of the laboratory frame and by subsequently using the laboratory time to parameterize the trajectory curves. For the first time we showed a difference between conventional and covariant particle tracking results in the laboratory frame. This essential point has never received attention in the physical community. Only the solution of the dynamical equations in covariant form gives the correct coupling between field equations in standard form and particles trajectories in the laboratory frame. We conclude that previous theoretical and simulation results in accelerator and plasma
Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zangouei J.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.
Liu, Yang
2016-03-25
A parallel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD)-accelerated explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) is presented. The proposed scheme leverages pulse functions and Lagrange polynomials to spatially and temporally discretize the electric flux density induced throughout the scatterers, and a finite difference scheme to compute the electric fields from the Hertz electric vector potentials radiated by the flux density. The flux density is explicitly updated during time marching by a predictor-corrector (PC) scheme and the vector potentials are efficiently computed by a scalar PWTD scheme. The memory requirement and computational complexity of the resulting explicit PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver scale as ( log ) s s O N N and ( ) s t O N N , respectively. Here, s N is the number of spatial basis functions and t N is the number of time steps. A scalable parallelization of the proposed MOT scheme on distributed- memory CPU clusters is described. The efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the resulting (parallelized) PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver are demonstrated via its application to the analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on canonical and real-life scatterers represented with up to 25 million spatial discretization elements.
Comparison of mechanical concepts for $Nb_3Sn$ high field accelerator magnets
AUTHOR|(CDS)2084469; Peter, Schmolz
Several magnets using Nb$_{3}$Sn as conductor are currently developed at CERN; these magnets are either slated for future updates of the LHC or for research purposes relating to future accelerators. The mechanical structure is one of the challenging aspects of superconducting high-field magnets. The main purpose of the mechanical structure is to keep the coils in compression till the emergence of the highest electromagnetic forces that are developed in the ultimate field of the magnet. Any loss of pre-compression during the magnet’s excitation would cause too large deformation of the coil and possibly a quench in the conductor owing to relative movements of strands in contact associated with excessive local heat release. However, too high pre-compression would overstrain the conductor and thereby limit the performance of the magnet. This thesis focuses on the mechanical behaviour of three of these magnets. All of them are based on different mechanical designs, “bladder and key” and “collar-based”, ...
Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F [Catharina-Hospital Eindhoven, PO Box 1350, 5602 ZA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Faddegon, Bruce A [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115-1708 (United States)], E-mail: rogier.janssen@mac.com
2008-04-21
The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm.
Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F; Faddegon, Bruce A
2008-01-01
The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm 2 was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm 2 dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm
Liu, Yang; Al-Jarro, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric
2016-01-01
A parallel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD)-accelerated explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) is presented. The proposed scheme leverages pulse functions and Lagrange polynomials to spatially and temporally discretize the electric flux density induced throughout the scatterers, and a finite difference scheme to compute the electric fields from the Hertz electric vector potentials radiated by the flux density. The flux density is explicitly updated during time marching by a predictor-corrector (PC) scheme and the vector potentials are efficiently computed by a scalar PWTD scheme. The memory requirement and computational complexity of the resulting explicit PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver scale as ( log ) s s O N N and ( ) s t O N N , respectively. Here, s N is the number of spatial basis functions and t N is the number of time steps. A scalable parallelization of the proposed MOT scheme on distributed- memory CPU clusters is described. The efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the resulting (parallelized) PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver are demonstrated via its application to the analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on canonical and real-life scatterers represented with up to 25 million spatial discretization elements.
Transverse beam dynamics in non-linear Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haj, Tahar M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-03-02
In this paper, we present some aspects of the transverse beam dynamics in Fixed Field Ring Accelerators (FFRA): we start from the basic principles in order to derive the linearized transverse particle equations of motion for FFRA, essentially FFAGs and cyclotrons are considered here. This is a simple extension of a previous work valid for linear lattices that we generalized by including the bending terms to ensure its correctness for FFAG lattice. The space charge term (contribution of the internal coulombian forces of the beam) is contained as well, although it is not discussed here. The emphasis is on the scaling FFAG type: a collaboration work is undertaken in view of better understanding the properties of the 150 MeV scaling FFAG at KURRI in Japan, and progress towards high intensity operation. Some results of the benchmarking work between different codes are presented. Analysis of certain type of field imperfections revealed some interesting features about this machine that explain some of the experimental results and generalize the concept of a scaling FFAG to a non-scaling one for which the tune variations obey a well-defined law.
Shang, Jing; Li, Juexin; Xu, Bing; Li, Yuxiong
2011-10-01
Electron accelerators are employed widely for diverse purposes in the irradiation-processing industry, from sterilizing medical products to treating gemstones. Because accelerators offer high efficiency, high power, and require little preventative maintenance, they are becoming more and more popular than using the 60Co isotope approach. However, the electron accelerator exposes potential radiation hazards. To protect workers and the public from exposure to radiation, the radiation field around the electronic accelerator must be assessed, especially that outside the shielding. Thus, we measured the radiation dose at different positions outside the shielding of a 10-MeV electron accelerator using a new data-acquisition unit named Mini-DDL (Mini-Digital Data Logging). The measurements accurately reflect the accelerator's radiation status. In this paper, we present our findings, results and compare them with our theoretical calculations. We conclude that the measurements taken outside the irradiation hall are consistent with the findings from our calculations, except in the maze outside the door of the accelerator room. We discuss the reason for this discrepancy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shang Jing [National Synchrotron Radiation Lab, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Li Juexin, E-mail: juexin@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Lab, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Xu Bing; Li Yuxiong [National Synchrotron Radiation Lab, University of Science and Technology of China (China)
2011-10-01
Electron accelerators are employed widely for diverse purposes in the irradiation-processing industry, from sterilizing medical products to treating gemstones. Because accelerators offer high efficiency, high power, and require little preventative maintenance, they are becoming more and more popular than using the {sup 60}Co isotope approach. However, the electron accelerator exposes potential radiation hazards. To protect workers and the public from exposure to radiation, the radiation field around the electronic accelerator must be assessed, especially that outside the shielding. Thus, we measured the radiation dose at different positions outside the shielding of a 10-MeV electron accelerator using a new data-acquisition unit named Mini-DDL (Mini-Digital Data Logging). The measurements accurately reflect the accelerator's radiation status. In this paper, we present our findings, results and compare them with our theoretical calculations. We conclude that the measurements taken outside the irradiation hall are consistent with the findings from our calculations, except in the maze outside the door of the accelerator room. We discuss the reason for this discrepancy.
A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Gunner Chr.
We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non......-linear. With each of these approached, a parabolic system are described, which is initiated by first considering the most upwind located turbines and subsequently successively solved in the downstream direction. Algorithms for the resulting wind farm flow fields are proposed, and it is shown that in the limit......-uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...
Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research using Ground Based Accelerators
Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis
Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20 percents accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.
The role of magnetic field fluctuations in nonadiabatic acceleration of ions during dipolarization
Ono, Y.; Nosé, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T. Y.
2009-05-01
We statistically examine changes in the composition of two different ion species, proton and oxygen ions, in the near-Earth plasma sheet (X = -16 R E ˜ -6 R E ) during substorm-associated dipolarization. We use 10 years of energetic (9-212 keV/e) ion data obtained by the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS) sensor of the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) instrument on board the Geotail spacecraft. The results are as follows: (1) Although the percentage increase in the energy density of O+ ions before and after a dipolarization exceeds that of H+ ions in the low-energy range (9-36 keV/e), this property is not evident in the high-energy range (56-212 keV/e); (2) the energy spectrum of H+ and that of O+ become harder after dipolarization in almost all events; and (3) in some events the energy spectrum of O+ becomes harder than that of H+ as reported by previous studies, and, importantly, in other events, the spectrum of H+ becomes harder than that of O+. In order to investigate what mechanism causes these observational results, we focus on magnetic field fluctuations during dipolarization. It is found that the increase of the spectrum slope is positively correlated with the power of waves whose frequencies are close to the gyrofrequency of H+ or O+, respectively (the correlation coefficient is 0.48 for H+ and 0.68 for O+). In conclusion, ions are nonadiabatically accelerated by the electric field induced by the magnetic field fluctuations whose frequencies are close to their gyrofrequencies.
Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake
Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark
2012-11-01
Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.
Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar
Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.
2017-08-01
The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin
2016-01-01
To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kolos, Martin [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)
2016-01-15
To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study the dynamics of the charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of the charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes of the charged particle dynamics provides a mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause a transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is largest and it can be ultra-relativistic. We discuss the consequences of the model of ionization of test particles forming a neutral accretion disc, or heavy ions following off-equatorial circular orbits, and we explore the fate of heavy charged test particles after ionization where no kick of heavy ions is assumed and only the switch-on effect of the magnetic field is relevant. We demonstrate that acceleration and escape of the ionized particles can be efficient along the Kerr black hole symmetry axis parallel to the magnetic field lines. We show that a strong acceleration of the ionized particles to ultra-relativistic velocities is preferred in the direction close to the magnetic field lines. Therefore, the process of ionization of Keplerian discs around the Kerr black holes can serve as a model of relativistic jets. (orig.)
Wake effects on Middelgrund Windfarm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Frandsen, S.; Vølund, P.
2003-01-01
This report describes the data analysis of the Middelgrund Wind Farm online collected data with the purpose of calculating the wake effects and turbulence intensities within the wind farm when maximum wake effects are present. The data are compared to themost commonly used wake model PARK...... decreasing wind speed through the array when the wind iscoming from north. The turbulence intensity is enhanced up to 0.3 due to the wake effects. The analysis has shown that this enhancement is nearly independent of the number of turbines involved in the wake creation....
Gavrilov, B.; Zetzer, J.; Sobyanin, D.; Podgorny, I.
One of the major topics of space weather research is to understand auroral structure and the processes that guide, accelerate, and otherwise control particle precipitation and produce auroral substorms. Navigation, communications and radars in the high latitude regions are severely affected through the effects on the ionosphere. It has long been recognized that the direct cause of the aurora is the precipitation of energetic electrons and ions into the atmosphere leading to excitation of the ambient atmospheric gases. Observations of the ionospheric ionization profiles and auroral precipitation characteristics have shown that field-aligned potential drops are formed to create this effect. The problem is that it is not clear the structure of the regions of magnetic field-aligned electric fields and how they are supported in the magnetospheric plasma. The objective of this research is to study the physical mechanisms of these phenomena in a laboratory experiment. It should be achieved by simulating the charged particle acceleration due to field-aligned electrical field generation in all totality of the interconnected events: generation of a plasma flow, its evolution in the magnetic field, polarization of plasma, generation of the field-aligned currents, development of instabilities in the plasma and current layers, double layers or anomalous resistance regions appearance, electrons acceleration. Parameters of the laboratory simulation and preliminary results of the experiment are discussed.
Magnetic field structure of the U-120 cyclotron for heavy ions acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwabe, J.; Starzewski, J.
1975-01-01
The proposed magnetic structure makes possible the acceleration, in quasi-isochronous conditions, of ions having the ratio Z/A=0,665 - 0,1 on the U-120 cyclotron in Cracow. Simultaneously, significant improvement of the accelerated beam emittance, decrease in energy scattering down to a value of about 10 -3 , and an increase in the maximum accelerated beam energy may be obtained. (author)
Kubo, Takayuki
2017-02-01
The theory of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) multilayer structure for application in superconducting accelerating cavities is reviewed. The theoretical field limit, optimum layer thicknesses and material combination, and surface resistance are discussed for the SIS structure and are also reviewed for the superconductor-superconductor bilayer structure.
Kubo, Takayuki
2016-01-01
Theory of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S-I-S) multilayer structure in superconducting accelerating cavity application is reviewed. The theoretical field limit, optimum layer thicknesses and material combination, and surface resistance are discussed. Those for the S-S bilayer structure are also reviewed.
Rowland, D. R.
2007-01-01
The physical analysis of a uniformly accelerating point charge provides a rich problem to explore in advanced courses in electrodynamics and relativity since it brings together fundamental concepts in relation to electromagnetic radiation, Einstein's equivalence principle and the inertial mass of field energy in ways that reveal subtleties in each…
Kurt Hübner, 38 years of service to the accelerator field
2002-01-01
Kurt Hübner will long be remembered at CERN for his leadership in the accelerator field during his 38 years of service to it. A brilliant, conscientious and determined physicist, he has always been known for his humility and humanity. He retired from CERN on 29th November. Kurt Hübner, who is Austrian, joined CERN in 1964 as a fellow, to work on the CESAR electron storage ring project for the ISR. He became a member of the personnel in 1966 and joined the ISR Division two years later. At the end of the 1970s he played an important role in the design studies for LEP, in particular proposing that the existing synchrotrons be used as the injectors for the new collider. It was therefore logical that he should take on the responsibility for designing the LEP injector chain from 1983 onwards. In addition to his involvement in the commissioning and operation of the collider, he took part in drawing up the proposals for the LHC and in the studies for CLIC, the project for a future linear collider...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassout, P.; Franke, R.; Parmentier, G.; Evrard, G.; Dancer, A.
1987-01-01
A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs
The outflows accelerated by the magnetic fields and radiation force of accretion disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Xinwu, E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China)
2014-03-01
The inner region of a luminous accretion disk is radiation-pressure-dominated. We estimate the surface temperature of a radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disk, Θ=c{sub s}{sup 2}/r{sup 2}Ω{sub K}{sup 2}≪(H/r){sup 2}, which is significantly lower than that of a gas-pressure-dominated disk, Θ ∼ (H/r){sup 2}. This means that the outflow can be launched magnetically from the photosphere of the radiation-pressure-dominated disk only if the effective potential barrier along the magnetic field line is extremely shallow or no potential barrier is present. For the latter case, the slow sonic point in the outflow will probably be in the disk, which leads to a slow circular dense flow above the disk. This implies that hot gas (probably in the corona) is necessary for launching an outflow from the radiation-pressure-dominated disk, which provides a natural explanation for the observational evidence that the relativistic jets are related to hot plasma in some X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. We investigate the outflows accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and radiation force of the accretion disk. We find that with the help of the radiation force, the mass loss rate in the outflow is high, which leads to a slow outflow. This may be why the jets in radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert galaxies are in general mildly relativistic compared with those in blazars.
INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY MIXED RADIATION FIELD AROUND A MEDICAL LINEAR ACCELERATOR.
Tulik, Piotr; Tulik, Monika; Maciak, Maciej; Golnik, Natalia; Kabat, Damian; Byrski, Tomasz; Lesiak, Jan
2017-09-29
The aim of this study is to investigate secondary mixed radiation field around linac, as the first part of an overall assessment of out-of-field contribution of neutron dose for new advanced radiation dose delivery techniques. All measurements were performed around Varian Clinic 2300 C/D accelerator at Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial, Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Krakow Branch. Recombination chambers REM-2 and GW2 were used for recombination index of radiation quality Q4 determination (as an estimate of quality factor Q), measurement of total tissue dose Dt and calculation of gamma and neutron components to Dt. Estimation of Dt and Q4 allowed for the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) per monitor unit (MU) calculations. Measurements around linac were performed on the height of the middle of the linac's head (three positions) and on the height of the linac's isocentre (five positions). Estimation of secondary radiation level was carried out for seven different configurations of upper and lower jaws position and multileaf collimator set open or closed in each position. Study includes the use of two photon beam modes: 6 and 18 MV. Spatial distribution of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) per MU on the height of the linac's head and on the standard couch height for patients during the routine treatment, as well as relative contribution of gamma and neutron secondary radiation inside treatment room were evaluated. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
12th Advanced Accelerator Concept (AAC 2006) Workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piot, Philippe
2006-01-01
Summary of the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concept (AAC 2006) Workshop help by NIU and ANL on July 10th-15th 2006 in Lake Geneva WI. The proceedings of the workshop have been published as an AIP conference proceedings '12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop' volume 877. The Twelfth Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts was held at the Grand Geneva Resort in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, from July 10 to July 15, 2006. The Workshop was sponsored by the High Energy Physics program of the U.S. Department of Energy, and was hosted by the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Group (AWA) of Argonne National Laboratory and by Northern Illinois University. The workshop is a bi-annual meeting among physicist working on novel charged particle acceleration concept. The name 'advanced accelerator' physics covers long term research and development in beam physics and accelerator technologies. Some of the topics in advanced accelerator R and D are laser acceleration of electrons, wake field acceleration, novel high power rf source, new beam diagnostics, free-electron lasers, generating high brightness electron beams etc. The Advanced Accelerator Concept workshop is the only acknowledged and fully sponsored forum that provides a platform for inter- and cross-disciplinary discussion on various aspects of advanced accelerator and beam physics/technology concepts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Zeil, Karl [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)
2016-07-01
Compact laser-driven ion accelerators are a potential alternative to large and expensive conventional accelerators. High-power short-pulse lasers, impinging on e.g. thin metal foils, enable multi-MeV ion acceleration on μm length and fs to ps time scale. The generated ion bunches (typically protons) show unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, laser accelerators still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. Recently developed pulsed magnets meet the demands of laser acceleration and open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed solenoid for effective collection and focusing of laser-accelerated protons that acts as link between fundamental research and application. The solenoid is powered by a capacitor-based pulse generator and can reach a maximum magnetic field of 20 T. It was installed in the target chamber of the Draco laser at HZDR. The transported beam was detected by means of radiochromic film, scintillator and Thomson parabola spectrometer. We present the characterization of the solenoid with regard to future application in radiobiological irradiation studies. Furthermore, a detailed comparison to previous experiments with a similar magnet at the PHELIX laser at GSI, Darmstadt is provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salgado, Ana Paula
2011-01-01
The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)
Wake structure of a single vertical axis wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Posa, Antonio; Parker, Colin M.; Leftwich, Megan C.; Balaras, Elias
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The wake structure of an isolated Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is studied by both Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Large Eddy Simulation. • The wake structure is investigated for two values of tip speed ratio, TSR_1=1.35 and TSR_2=2.21. • A displacement of the momentum deficit towards the windward side is verified in the wake. • Higher turbulence and coherence is observed on the leeward side of the wake, due to the upwind stall of the blades. • Coherence in the wake core, associated to the downwind stall, decays quickly downstream. - Abstract: The wake structure behind a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is both measured in a wind tunnel using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and computed with large-eddy simulation (LES). Geometric and dynamic conditions are closely matched to typical applications of VAWTs (Re_D ∼ 1.8 × 10"5). The experiments and computations were highly coordinated with continuous two-way feedback to produce the most insightful results. Good qualitative agreement is seen between the computational and experimental results. The dependence of the wake structure on the tip speed ratio, TSR, is investigated, showing higher asymmetry and larger vortices at the lower rotational speed, due to stronger dynamic stall phenomena. Instantaneous, ensemble-averaged and phase-averaged fields are discussed, as well as the dynamics of coherent structures in the rotor region and downstream wake.
The generation of high fields for particle acceleration to very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-01-01
A Workshop organised by the CERN Accelerator School, the European Committee for Future Accelerators and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare was held at the Frascati laboratory of INFN during the last week of September 1984. Its purpose was to bring together an inter-disciplinary group of physicists to review ideas for the acceleration of particles to energies beyond those attainable in machines whose construction is underway, or is currently contemplated. These proceedings contain some of the material presented and discussed at the Workshop, comprising papers on topics such as: the free-electron-laser, the lasertron, wakefield accelerators, the laser excitation of droplet arrays, a switched-power linac, plasma beat-wave accelerators and the choice of basic parameters for linear colliders intended for the TeV energy region. (orig.)
Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac
Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.
2013-05-01
We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.
Probing strong field ionization of solids with a Thomson parabola ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-01-11
Jan 11, 2014 ... that generate peak intensity up to 1022 W/cm2 on a table top [1]. ... and energy, plasma wake fields are generated that accelerate electrons to GeVs ... more detail, it is inevitable to use Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS).
Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban
2014-01-01
The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers
Synchronization of RF fields of Indus 2 RF cavities for proper injection and acceleration of beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.
2009-01-01
Indus-2 is a synchrotron light source with designed parameters of 2.5 GeV, 300 mA beam current. Four RF cavities fed from four RF power stations have been used for beam acceleration from 550 MeV to 2.5 GeV and synchrotron loss compensation. Particle should reach the RF cavity at the proper phase for proper acceptance of the beam in ring. At injection if the phase is not proper the acceptance efficiency reduces and the maximum stored current in the ring also gets limited. Equal contribution from four cavities at every value of current and energy level is very important. Improper phase will cause the imbalance of the power among different station hence will limit maximum stored current and reduce life time of the stored beam. Phase optimization was done in two-step, first at injection to have better injection rate and the stations were operated at the sufficient power for control loops to operate. Then at 2 GeV and 2.5 GeV energy so that beam extracts equal power from all four RF stations. Phase synchronization of all four cavities from injection to 2.5 GeV has already been done at 50 mA stored beam current. If phases of RF fields inside four RF cavities is not proper then beam will not see the total RF voltage as summation of all four cavity gap voltages, hence it is a very important parameter to be optimized and maintained during operation. (author)
Two-phase flow dynamics in a model steam generator under vertical acceleration oscillation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, T.; Teshima, N.; Sakurai, S.
1992-01-01
The influence of periodically varying acceleration on hydrodynamic response has been studied experimentally using an experimental rig which models a marine reactor subject to vertical motion. The effect on the primary loop is small, but the effect on the secondary loop is large. The variables of the secondary loop, such as circulation flow rate and water level, oscillate with acceleration. The variation of gains in frequency response is analysed. The variations of flow in the secondary loop and in the downcome water level, increase in proportion to the acceleration. The effect of the flow resistance in the secondary loop on the two-phase flow dynamics is clarified. (7 figures) (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tygier, S.; Appleby, R.B.; Garland, J.M.; Hock, K.; Owen, H.; Kelliher, D.J.; Sheehy, S.L.
2015-01-01
We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tygier, S., E-mail: sam.tygier@hep.manchester.ac.uk [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Appleby, R.B., E-mail: robert.appleby@manchester.ac.uk [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Garland, J.M. [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Hock, K. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Owen, H. [Cockcroft Accelerator Group, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kelliher, D.J.; Sheehy, S.L. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)
2015-03-01
We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi.
Linear accelerators for TeV colliders. Revision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.B.
1985-10-01
The basic scaling relations for important linear collider design parameters are introduced. Some of the basic concepts concerning the design of accelerating structures are presented, and breakdown limitations are discussed. Rf power sources are considered. Some of the key concepts of wakefield accelerators are discussed, and some examples of wake fields for typical linac structures are presented. Some general concepts concerning emittance, and the limitations on the emittance that can be obtained from linac guns and damping rings are discussed. 49 refs., 15 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Dabagov, S.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Marocchino, A.; Paroli, B.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A.R.; Zigler, A.
2016-01-01
Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); “Tor Vergata” University, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Dabagov, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A. [Dipartimento SBAI Universitá di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, via Antonio Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Paroli, B. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zigler, A. [Racah Institute of Physics Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)
2016-09-01
Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.
Efficiency Versus Instability in Plasma Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab
2017-01-05
Plasma wake-field acceleration in a strongly nonlinear (a.k.a. the blowout) regime is one of the main candidates for future high-energy colliders. For this case, we derive a universal efficiency-instability relation, between the power efficiency and the key instability parameter of the witness bunch. We also show that in order to stabilize the witness bunch in a regime with high power efficiency, the bunch needs to have high energy spread, which is not presently compatible with collider-quality beam properties. It is unclear how such limitations could be overcome for high-luminosity linear colliders.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardet, Rene; Consoli, Terenzio; Geller, Richard
1964-09-01
In the first part of the paper, the theory of the physical mechanism of ion dragging by accelerated electrons due to the superimposition of the gradient of a electromagnetic field and the gradient of a static magnetic field, is described. The resulting trajectory of the electrons is a helicoid and one shows the variations of the diameter and the path of the spirals along the axis as a function of the difference between the gyrofrequency and the applied R.F. frequency. The ion acceleration is due to an electron space charge effect. The grouping of the equations of the electronic and ionic fluid motions leads to the introduction of a tensor mass: along the x and y direction the transverse motion of the fluid is controlled by the relativistic mass of electrons whereas along the z direction the axial motion is determined by the ionic mass. Then we deduce physical consequences of the theoretical study and give three experimental evidences. The second part of the paper is devoted to the experimental device called Pleiade which allowed us to verify some of the theoretical predictions. Pleiade produces a D.C. operating plasma beam in which the electrons exhibit radially oriented energies whereas the ionic energy is mainly axial. The experimental results indicate that the energy of the particles is in the keV range. In the third part we deal with the reflecting properties of the device. We show that the R.F. static magnetic field gradients are not only capable of accelerating a Plasma beam along the axially decreasing magnetic field, but are also capable of stopping and reflecting such a beam when the latter is moving along an axially increasing magnetic field. We describe finally a plasma accumulation experiment in which two symmetric structures form simultaneously an accelerator and a 'dynamic mirror' for the particles. Evidence of accumulation is given. (authors) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Downer, M.C.
1996-01-01
The Laser Sources working group concerned itself with recent advances in and future requirements for the development of laser sources relevant to high-energy physics (HEP) colliders, small scale accelerators, and the generation of short wave-length radiation. We heavily emphasized pulsed terawatt peak power laser sources for several reasons. First, their development over the past five years has been rapid and multi-faceted, and has made relativistic light intensity available to the advanced accelerator community, as well as the wider physics community, for the first time. Secondly, they have strongly impacted plasma-based accelerator research over the past two years, producing the first experimental demonstrations of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in both its resonantly-driven and self-modulated forms. Thirdly, their average power and wall-plug efficiency currently fall well short of projected requirements for future accelerators and other high average power applications, but show considerable promise for improving substantially over the next few years. A review of this rapidly emerging laser technology in the context of advanced accelerator research is therefore timely
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmer, R.
1994-06-01
Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/λ or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation
Light detection and ranging measurements of wake dynamics. Part II: two-dimensional scanning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trujillo, Juan-José; Bingöl, Ferhat; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
2011-01-01
the instantaneous transversal wake position which is quantitatively compared with the prediction of the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. The results, shown for two 10-min time series, suggest that the conjecture of the wake behaving as a passive tracer is a fair approximation; this corroborates and expands...... the results of one-dimensional measurements already presented in the first part of this paper. Consequently, it is now possible to separate the deterministic and turbulent parts of the wake wind field, thus enabling capturing the wake in the meandering frame of reference. The results correspond, qualitatively...
Wakeless triple soliton accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mima, K.; Ohsuga, T.; Takabe, H.; Nishihara, K.; Tajima, T.; Zaidman, E.; Horton, W.
1986-09-01
We introduce and analyze the concept of a wakeless triple soliton accelerator in a plasma fiber. Under appropriate conditions the triple soliton with two electromagnetic and one electrostatic waves in the beat-wave resonance propagates with velocity c leaving no plasma wake behind, while the phase velocity of the electrostatic wave is made also c in the fiber
Wake flow control using a dynamically controlled wind turbine
Castillo, Ricardo; Wang, Yeqin; Pol, Suhas; Swift, Andy; Hussain, Fazle; Westergaard, Carsten; Texas Tech University Team
2016-11-01
A wind tunnel based "Hyper Accelerated Wind Farm Kinematic-Control Simulator" (HAWKS) is being built at Texas Tech University to emulate controlled wind turbine flow physics. The HAWKS model turbine has pitch, yaw and speed control which is operated in real model time, similar to that of an equivalent full scale turbine. Also, similar to that of a full scale wind turbine, the controls are developed in a Matlab Simulink environment. The current diagnostic system consists of power, rotor position, rotor speed measurements and PIV wake characterization with four cameras. The setup allows up to 7D downstream of the rotor to be mapped. The purpose of HAWKS is to simulate control strategies at turnaround times much faster than CFD and full scale testing. The fundamental building blocks of the simulator have been tested, and demonstrate wake steering for both static and dynamic turbine actuation. Parameters which have been studied are yaw, rotor speed and combinations hereof. The measured wake deflections for static yaw cases are in agreement with previously reported research implying general applicability of the HAWKS platform for the purpose of manipulating the wake. In this presentation the general results will be introduced followed by an analysis of the wake turbulence and coherent structures when comparing static and dynamic flow cases. The outcome of such studies could ultimately support effective wind farm wake flow control strategies. Texas Emerging Technology Fund (ETF).
A modified wake oscillator model for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Zhipeng; Zang Fenggang; Zhang Yixiong; Ye Xianhui
2014-01-01
Base on the classical wake oscillator model, a new modified wake oscillator model is proposed, for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube in uniform current. The comparison between the new wake oscillator model and experimental show that the present model can simulate the characteristics of vortex induced vibration of tube. Firstly, the research shows that the coupled fluid-structure dynamical system should be modeled by combined displacement and acceleration mode. Secondly, the empirical parameter in wake oscillator model depends on the material properties of the structure, instead of being a universal constant. Lastly, the results are compared between modified wake oscillator model and fluid-structure interaction numerical model. It shows the present, predicted results are compared to the fluid-structure interaction numerical data. The new modified wake oscillator model can predict the vortex induced heat exchanger tube vibration feasibly. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Junye; Roux, Jakobus A. le; Arthur, Aaron D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
2016-08-01
We study the physics of locally born interstellar pickup proton acceleration at the nearly perpendicular solar wind termination shock (SWTS) in the presence of a random magnetic field spiral angle using a focused transport model. Guided by Voyager 2 observations, the spiral angle is modeled with a q -Gaussian distribution. The spiral angle fluctuations, which are used to generate the perpendicular diffusion of pickup protons across the SWTS, play a key role in enabling efficient injection and rapid diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) when these particles follow field lines. Our simulations suggest that variation of both the shape ( q -value) and the standard deviation ( σ -value) of the q -Gaussian distribution significantly affect the injection speed, pitch-angle anisotropy, radial distribution, and the efficiency of the DSA of pickup protons at the SWTS. For example, increasing q and especially reducing σ enhances the DSA rate.
Salmi, Tiina; Marchevsky, Maxim; Bajas, Hugo; Felice, Helene; Stenvall, Antti
2015-01-01
The quench protection of superconducting high-field accelerator magnets is presently based on protection heaters, which are activated upon quench detection to accelerate the quench propagation within the winding. Estimations of the heater delay to initiate a normal zone in the coil are essential for the protection design. During the development of Nb3Sn magnets for the LHC luminosity upgrade, protection heater delays have been measured in several experiments, and a new computational tool CoHDA (Code for Heater Delay Analysis) has been developed for heater design. Several computational quench analyses suggest that the efficiency of the present heater technology is on the borderline of protecting the magnets. Quantifying the inevitable uncertainties related to the measured and simulated delays is therefore of pivotal importance. In this paper, we analyze the uncertainties in the heater delay measurements and simulations using data from five impregnated high-field Nb3Sn magnets with different heater geometries. ...
Salmi, Tiina; Marchevsky, Maxim; Bajas, Hugo; Felice, Helene; Stenvall, Antti
2015-01-01
The quench protection of superconducting high-field accelerator magnets is presently based on protection heaters, which are activated upon quench detection to accelerate the quench propagation within the winding. Estimations of the heater delay to initiate a normal zone in the coil are essential for the protection design. During the development of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets for the LHC luminosity upgrade, protection heater delays have been measured in several experiments, and a new computational tool CoHDA (Code for Heater Delay Analysis) has been developed for heater design. Several computational quench analyses suggest that the efficiency of the present heater technology is on the borderline of protecting the magnets. Quantifying the inevitable uncertainties related to the measured and simulated delays is therefore of pivotal importance. In this paper, we analyze the uncertainties in the heater delay measurements and simulations using data from five impregnated high-field Nb$_{3}$Sn magnets with different heater ge...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q., E-mail: tengjian@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.
2013-11-21
This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.
Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.
2013-11-01
This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffstaetter, G.H.
1994-12-01
Analyzing stability of particle motion in storage rings contributes to the general field of stability analysis in weakly nonlinear motion. A method which we call pseudo invariant estimation (PIE) is used to compute lower bounds on the survival time in circular accelerators. The pseudeo invariants needed for this approach are computed via nonlinear perturbative normal form theory and the required global maxima of the highly complicated multivariate functions could only be rigorously bound with an extension of interval arithmetic. The bounds on the survival times are large enough to the relevant; the same is true for the lower bounds on dynamical aperatures, which can be computed. The PIE method can lead to novel design criteria with the objective of maximizing the survival time. A major effort in the direction of rigourous predictions only makes sense if accurate models of accelerators are available. Fringe fields often have a significant influence on optical properties, but the computation of fringe-field maps by DA based integration is slower by several orders of magnitude than DA evaluation of the propagator for main-field maps. A novel computation of fringe-field effects called symplectic scaling (SYSCA) is introduced. It exploits the advantages of Lie transformations, generating functions, and scaling properties and is extremely accurate. The computation of fringe-field maps is typically made nearly two orders of magnitude faster. (orig.)
Evolution of plasma wakes in density up- and down-ramps
Zhang, C. J.; Joshi, C.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.
2018-02-01
The time evolution of plasma wakes in density up- and down-ramps is examined through theory and particle-in-cell simulations. Motivated by observation of the reversal of a linear plasma wake in a plasma density upramp in a recent experiment (Zhang et al 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 064801) we have examined the behaviour of wakes in plasma ramps that always accompany any plasma source used for plasma-based acceleration. In the up-ramp case it is found that, after the passage of the drive pulse, the wavnumber/wavelength of the wake starts to decrease/increase with time until it eventually tends to zero/infinity, then the wake reverses its propagation direction and the wavenunber/wavelength of the wake begins to increase/shrink. The evolutions of the wavenumber and the phase velocity of the wake as functions of time are shown to be significantly different in the up-ramp and the down-ramp cases. In the latter case the wavenumber of the wake at a particular position in the ramp increases until the wake is eventually damped. It is also shown that the waveform of the wake at a particular time after being excited can be precisely controlled by tuning the initial plasma density profile, which may enable a new type of plasma-based ultrafast optics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlov, A.N.; Klimov, N.S.; Moskacheva, A.A.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Drukarenko, S.P.
2009-01-01
Installation of the coaxial quasi-steady high-current one-stage plasma accelerator with a longitudinal magnetic field is created. The lead experiments have shown an opportunity of realization of the discharges, formation of the ionization front and generation of the plasma streams at the presence of a longitudinal field in the accelerator channel. The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge at the presence and absence of a longitudinal field are measured. It is established that a weak longitudinal field does not render the appreciable influence on the integrated characteristics of discharge in the accelerator with the rod anode in an ion current transport regime
Application of staring lidars to study the dynamics of wind turbine wakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Trabucchi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Standard anemometry or vertical profiling remote sensing are not always a convenient approach to study the dynamics of wind turbines wake. One or more lidar windscanner can be applied for this purpose. In this paper a measurement strategy is presented, which permits the characterization of the wake dynamics using two long range wind lidars operated in a stationary mode. In this approach two pulsed devices are staring with low elevation obliquely across the wake. The lidar beams are supposed to cross each other on the downstream axis of the wake to perform simultaneous measurements in the wake field from side to side. The deflection of the wake is identified fitting a model to the average data. Spectral analysis provide the frequency content of the measurements at different distances from the wake center. This setup was implemented in a full-field measurement campaign where the wake of a multi-MW wind turbine was analysed. The tracking of the wake centre was applied successfully to this measurement. Moreover the spectral analysis showed increased energy content close to the wake lateral edges. This can be connected both to the higher turbulence level due to the tip vorteces and to the large scale dynamics of the wake.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muir, B; McEwen, M [National Research Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Belec, J; Vandervoort, E [Ottawa Hospital General Campus, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Christiansen, E [Carleton University, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To investigate small field dosimetry measurements and associated uncertainties when conical applicators are used to shape treatment fields from two different accelerating systems. Methods: Output factor measurements are made in water in beams from the CyberKnife radiosurgery system, which uses conical applicators to shape fields from a (flattening filter-free) 6 MV beam, and in a 6 MV beam from the Elekta Precise linear accelerator (with flattening filter) with BrainLab external conical applicators fitted to shape the field. The measurements use various detectors: (i) an Exradin A16 ion chamber, (ii) two Exradin W1 plastic scintillation detectors, (iii) a Sun Nuclear Edge diode, and (iv) two PTW microDiamond synthetic diamond detectors. Profiles are used for accurate detector positioning and to specify field size (FWHM). Output factor measurements are corrected with detector specific correction factors taken from the literature where available and/or from Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc code system. Results: Differences in measurements of up to 1.7% are observed with a given detector type in the same beam (i.e., intra-detector variability). Corrected results from different detectors in the same beam (inter-detector differences) show deviations up to 3 %. Combining data for all detectors and comparing results from the two accelerators results in a 5.9% maximum difference for the smallest field sizes (FWHM=5.2–5.6 mm), well outside the combined uncertainties (∼1% for the smallest beams) and/or differences among detectors. This suggests that the FWHM of a measured profile is not a good specifier to compare results from different small fields with the same nominal energy. Conclusion: Large differences in results for both intra-detector variability and inter-detector differences suggest potentially high uncertainties in detector-specific correction factors. Differences between the results measured in circular fields from different accelerating
TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*
Burov, A
2013-01-01
If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).
Field-reversed bubble in deep plasma channels for high quality electron acceleration
Pukhov, A; Tueckmantel, T; Thomas, J; Yu, I; Kostyukov, Yu
2014-01-01
We study hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime. Contrary to the uniform plasma case, the laser forms no optical shock and no etching at the front. This increases the eﬀective bubble phase velocity and energy gain. The longitudinal ﬁeld has a plateau that allows for mono-energetic acceleration. We observe as low as 10−3 r.m.s. relative witness beam energy uncertainty in each cross-section and 0.3% total energy spread. By varying plasma density proﬁle inside a deep channel, the bubble ﬁelds can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths. Bubble scaling laws for the deep channel are derived. Ultra-short pancake-like laser pulses lead to the highest energies of accelerated electrons per Joule of laser pulse energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikulin, A.A.; Vanyushkin, B.M.; Garnyk, D.V.; Kon'kov, N.G.; Terent'ev, B.M.
1980-01-01
Measurement results of exposure dose rate (EDR) of radiation in fields of bremsstrahlung of radiation plants with LUEh-8/5B linear accelerator of electrons by means of DRG2-03 dose meter, intended for operative measuring EDR in high intense fields of γ-radiation of powerful radioisotopic plants, are presented. Dose meter design is described. Measurements of bremsstrahlung EDR have been carried out in the chamber of plant irradiation for radiation sterilizing medical items, as well as in the chamber of VNIIRT experimental plant. RUP-1 device has been used for measuring radiation EDR in a labyrinth behind 1.8 m thick shoulder by concrete [ru
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Bárta, Miroslav; Gan, W.; Liu, S.
2016-01-01
Roč. 827, č. 2 (2016), 94/1-94/14 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : acceleration of particles * magnetic reconnection * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bugalski Tomasz
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.
Solving the quasi-static field model of the pulse-line accelerator; relationship to a circuit model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedman, Alex
2005-01-01
The Pulse-Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) is a promising approach to high-gradient acceleration of an ion beam at high line charge density. A recent note by R. J. Briggs suggests that a 'sheath helix' model of such a system can be solved numerically in the quasi-static limit. Such a model captures the correct macroscopic behavior from first principles without the need to time-advance the full Maxwell equations on a grid. This note describes numerical methods that may be used to effect such a solution, and their connection to the circuit model that was described in an earlier note by the author. Fine detail of the fields in the vicinity of the helix wires is not obtained by this approach, but for purposes of beam dynamics simulation such detail is not generally needed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Lin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Yang, Chao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division
2013-10-28
We discuss techniques for accelerating the self consistent field (SCF) iteration for solving the Kohn-Sham equations. These techniques are all based on constructing approximations to the inverse of the Jacobian associated with a fixed point map satisfied by the total potential. They can be viewed as preconditioners for a fixed point iteration. We point out different requirements for constructing preconditioners for insulating and metallic systems respectively, and discuss how to construct preconditioners to keep the convergence rate of the fixed point iteration independent of the size of the atomistic system. We propose a new preconditioner that can treat insulating and metallic system in a unified way. The new preconditioner, which we call an elliptic preconditioner, is constructed by solving an elliptic partial differential equation. The elliptic preconditioner is shown to be more effective in accelerating the convergence of a fixed point iteration than the existing approaches for large inhomogeneous systems at low temperature.
Electron acceleration by laser fields in a gas: Technical progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontana, J.R.
1987-01-01
Alternative media are considered for inverse Cherenkov interactions, with refractive indices given for several neutral gases. Breakdown considerations are taken into account as well as elastic collisions. Properties of ionized gases are also discussed as they relate to the usefulness of plasmas as accelerator media. The planning for inverse Cherenkov interaction experiments at a CO 2 laser, 50 MeV electron linac test facility is being carried out
The inertial effect of acceleration fields on a self-decoupled wheel force transducer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihang Feng
Full Text Available AbstractWheel force transducer (WFT is a tool which can measure the three-axis forces and three-axis torques applied to the wheel in vehicle testing applications. However, the transducer is generally mounted on the wheel of a moving vehicle, when abruptly accelerating or braking, the mass/inertia of the transducer itself has extra effects on the sensor response so that inertia/mass loads will be detected and coupled into the signal outputs. This is the inertia coupling effect that decreases the sensor accuracy and should be avoided. In this paper, the inertia coupling problem induced by six dimensional accelerations is investigated for a universal WFT. Inertia load distribution of the WFT is solved based on the principle of equivalent mass and rotary inertia firstly, thus then its impact can be identified with the theoretical derivation. FEM simulation and experimental verification are performed as well. Results show that strains in simulation agree well with the theoretical derivation. The relationship between the applied acceleration and inertia load for both wheel force and moment is the approximate linear respectively. The relative errors are acceptable within less than 5% and the maximum impact of inertia loads on the signal output is about 1.5% in the measuring range.
Single bunch beam loading on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Wilson, P.B.
1977-03-01
Since the report on single bunch beam loading experiments at SLAC at the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference, it has been possible to obtain a much better understanding and agreement of theoretical and experimental results related to this problem. These improvements were made possible by two developments: the generation of a ''wake-field'' function for the SLAC 3-km slow-wave structure and the use of this function to calculate single bunch energy spectra. The wake-field function which gives the time decay of the fields generated by the passage of a delta-function beam was derived by summing all the TM cylindrically symmetrical modes of an equivalent accelerator cavity. By multiplying this wake-field function by a measured bunch density function and integrating along the bunch, it is possible to calculate the energy of each electron in the bunch. This in turn enables one to predict the energy spectrum for any given phase angle of the bunch with respect to the crest of the rf accelerating wave. Agreement between these calculations and experimental measurements is very good. These results are presented, and the possible sources of some of the remaining discrepancies are discussed
Single bunch beam loading on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Wilson, P.B.
1977-01-01
Since the report on single bunch beam loading experiments at SLAC at the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference, it has been possible to obtain a much better understanding and agreement of theoretical and experimental results related to this problem. These improvements have been made possible by two developments: the generation of a ''wake-field'' function for the SLAC 3-km slow-wave structure and the use of this function to calculate single bunch energy spectra. The wake-field function which gives the time decay of the fields generated by the passage of a delta-function beam was derived by summing all the TM cylindrically symmetrical modes of an equivalent accelerator cavity. By multiplying this wake-field function by a measured bunch density function and integrating along the bunch, it is possible to calculate the energy of each electron in the bunch. This in turn enables one to predict the energy spectrum for any given phase angle of the bunch with respect to the crest of the rf accelerating wave. Agreement between these calculations and experimental measurements is very good. These results are presented and the possible sources of some of the remaining discrepancies are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruceru, I.; Sandu, M.; Cruceru, M.
1994-01-01
A method for measuring and evaluation of doses and dose equivalent rate in mixed gamma- neutron fields is discussed in this paper. The method is basedon a double detector system consist of an ionization chamber with components made from a plastic scintillator, coupled to on photomultiplier. Generally the radiation fields around accelerators are complex, often consisting of many different ionizing radiations extending over a broad range of energies. This method solve two major difficulties: determination of response functions of radiation detectors; interpretation of measurement and determination of accuracy. The discrimination gamma-fast neutrons is assured directly without a pulse shape discrimination circuit. The method is applied to mixed fields in which particle energies are situated in the energy range under 20 MeV and an izotropic emision (Φ=10 4 -10 11 n.s -1 ). The dose equivalent rates explored is 0.01mSV--0.1SV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utanohara, Yoichi; Nagaya, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Murase, Michio
2008-01-01
In this study, in order to evaluate the effects of flow field on corrosion rate due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC), an orifice flow was measured and calculated. The diameter of pipe is 50 mm and that of the orifice is 24.3 mm, and flow velocity in a water loop was set at 2.41 m/s. Flow field was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), and compared with a calculation for the same flow conditions. Measurements of wall shear stress downstream of the orifice was also planed. The calculated velocity distribution of standard k-□ agreed qualitatively with PIV data and quantitatively with LDV data. Instantaneous flow field measured by PIV showed vortices around the jet from the orifice and some of them reached near the pipe wall. (author)
Kurz, S
1999-01-01
In this paper a new technique for the accurate calculation of magnetic fields in the end regions of superconducting accelerator magnets is presented. This method couples Boundary Elements (BEM) which discretize the surface of the iron yoke and Finite Elements (FEM) for the modelling of the nonlinear interior of the yoke. The BEM-FEM method is therefore specially suited for the calculation of 3-dimensional effects in the magnets, as the coils and the air regions do not have to be represented in the finite-element mesh and discretization errors only influence the calculation of the magnetization (reduced field) of the yoke. The method has been recently implemented into the CERN-ROXIE program package for the design and optimization of the LHC magnets. The field shape and multipole errors in the two-in-one LHC dipoles with its coil ends sticking out of the common iron yoke is presented.
Resistive-wall wake and impedance for nonultrarelativistic beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Zimmermann
2004-04-01
Full Text Available The usual formulas for the resistive-wall wake field are derived considering ultrarelativistic beams, traveling at the speed of light. This simplifies the calculation, and it leads to a cancellation between electric and magnetic fields. However, for proton beams below 10 GeV and for many heavy-ion beams, the velocities may significantly differ from the speed of light. In this paper, we compute the longitudinal and transverse wake fields for velocities smaller than c and examine under which conditions nonrelativistic effects become important. We illustrate our results by a few examples.
Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.
2014-12-01
A huge number of different non-linear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. These structures, found as short duration (~0.1 msec) quasi-periodic bursts of electric field in the high time resolution electric field waveform, have been called Time Domain Structures (TDS). They can quite effectively interact with radiation belt electrons. Due to the trapping of electrons into these non-linear structures, they are accelerated up to ~10 keV and their pitch angles are changed, especially for low energies (˜1 keV). Large amplitude electric field perturbations cause non-linear resonant trapping of electrons into the effective potential of the TDS and these electrons are then accelerated in the non-homogeneous magnetic field. These locally accelerated electrons create the "seed population" of several keV electrons that can be accelerated by coherent, large amplitude, upper band whistler waves to MeV energies in this two step acceleration process. All the elements of this chain acceleration mechanism have been observed by the Van Allen Probes.
Dynamics of plasma ions motion in ultra-intense laser-excited plasma wakes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Suyun; Li Jing
2013-01-01
The effects of heavy ions and protons motion in an ultra-intense laser-driven plasma wake are compared by rebuilding a plasma wake model. It is shown that with the same laser and plasma background electron density n 0 , the heavy ions' motion suppresses wake-field resonant excitation less than the protons' motion in their own plasma wake. Though heavy ions obtain more kinetic energy from the plasma wake, its energy density is less than that of the protons due to the ion density being far less than the proton density. As a result, the total energy of heavy ions obtained from the wake-field is far less than that of protons. The dependence of the kinetic energy and the energy density of protons and heavy ions on n 0 is discussed. (paper)
Wake modelling combining mesoscale and microscale models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badger, Jake; Volker, Patrick; Prospathospoulos, J.
2013-01-01
In this paper the basis for introducing thrust information from microscale wake models into mesocale model wake parameterizations will be described. A classification system for the different types of mesoscale wake parameterizations is suggested and outlined. Four different mesoscale wake paramet...
Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
2016-01-01
Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...
Mast Wake Reduction by Shaping
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Beauchamp, Charles H
2005-01-01
The present invention relates to various mast shapes, in which the mast shapes minimize the production of visible, electro-optic, infrared and radar cross section wake signatures produced by water surface piercing masts...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valmianski, Emanuil I.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Alexander, Neil B.
2003-01-01
The heat flux from both gas convection and chamber radiation on a direct drive target must be limited to avoid target damage from excessive D-T temperature increase. One of the possibilities of protecting the target is a wake shield flying in front of the target. A shield will also reduce drag force on the target, thereby facilitating target tracking and position prediction. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code was used to calculate convection heat loads as boundary conditions input into ANSYS thermal calculations. These were used for studying the quality of target protection depending on various shapes of shields, target-shield distance, and protective properties of the shield moving relative to the target. The results show that the shield can reduce the convective heat flux by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on pressure, temperature, and velocity. The protective effect of a shield moving relative to the target is greater than the protective properties of a fixed shield. However, the protective effect of a shield moving under the drag force is not sufficient for bringing the heat load on the target down to the necessary limit. Some other ways of diminishing heat flux using a protective shield are discussed
Dynamics and symmetries of a field partitioned by an accelerated frame
Gerlach, Ulrich H.
1999-01-01
The canonical evolution and symmetry generators are exhibited for a Klein-Gordon (K-G) system which has been partitioned by an accelerated coordinate frame into a pair of subsystems. This partitioning of the K-G system is conveyed to the canonical generators by the eigenfunction property of the Minkowski Bessel (M-B) modes. In terms of the M-B degrees of freedom, which are unitarily related to those of the Minkowski plane waves, a near complete diagonalization of these generators can be reali...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lihang Feng
Full Text Available Wheel force transducer (WFT, which measures the three-axis forces and three-axis torques applied to the wheel, is an important instrument in the vehicle testing field and has been extremely promoted by researchers with great interests. The transducer, however, is typically mounted on the wheel of a moving vehicle, especially on a high speed car, when abruptly accelerating or braking, the mass/inertia of the transducer/wheel itself will have an extra effect on the sensor response so that the inertia/mass loads will also be detected and coupled into the signal outputs. The effect which is considered to be inertia coupling problem will decrease the sensor accuracy. In this paper, the inertia coupling of a universal WFT under multi-axis accelerations is investigated. According to the self-decoupling approach of the WFT, inertia load distribution is solved based on the principle of equivalent mass and rotary inertia, thus then inertia impact can be identified with the theoretical derivation. The verification is achieved by FEM simulation and experimental tests. Results show that strains in simulation agree well with the theoretical derivation. The relationship between the applied acceleration and inertia load for both wheel force and moment is the approximate linear, respectively. All the relative errors are less than 5% which are within acceptable and the inertia loads have the maximum impact on the signal output about 1.5% in the measurement range.
Feng, Lihang; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong; Dai, Dong
2015-01-01
Wheel force transducer (WFT), which measures the three-axis forces and three-axis torques applied to the wheel, is an important instrument in the vehicle testing field and has been extremely promoted by researchers with great interests. The transducer, however, is typically mounted on the wheel of a moving vehicle, especially on a high speed car, when abruptly accelerating or braking, the mass/inertia of the transducer/wheel itself will have an extra effect on the sensor response so that the inertia/mass loads will also be detected and coupled into the signal outputs. The effect which is considered to be inertia coupling problem will decrease the sensor accuracy. In this paper, the inertia coupling of a universal WFT under multi-axis accelerations is investigated. According to the self-decoupling approach of the WFT, inertia load distribution is solved based on the principle of equivalent mass and rotary inertia, thus then inertia impact can be identified with the theoretical derivation. The verification is achieved by FEM simulation and experimental tests. Results show that strains in simulation agree well with the theoretical derivation. The relationship between the applied acceleration and inertia load for both wheel force and moment is the approximate linear, respectively. All the relative errors are less than 5% which are within acceptable and the inertia loads have the maximum impact on the signal output about 1.5% in the measurement range.
Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection
Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio
2017-04-01
The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.
Wake effect in rocket observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa
1975-01-01
The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)
Design of the detuned accelerator structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.W.; Nelson, E.M.
1993-05-01
This is a summary of the design procedure for the detuned accelerator structure for SLAC's Next Linear Collider (NLC) program. The 11.424 GHz accelerating mode of each cavity must be synchronous with the beam. The distribution of the disk thicknesses and lowest synchronous dipole mode frequencies of the cavities in the structure is Gaussian in order to reduce the effect of wake fields. The finite element field solver YAP calculated the accelerating mode frequency and the lowest synchronous dipole mode frequency for various cavity diameters, aperture diameters and disk thicknesses. Polynomial 3-parameter fits are used to calculate the dimensions for a 1.8 m detuned structure. The program SUPERFISH was used to calculate the shunt impedances, quality factors and group velocities. The RF parameters of the section like filling time, attenuation factor, accelerating gradient and maximum surface field along the section are evaluated. Error estimates will be discussed and comparisons with conventional constant gradient and constant impedance structures will be presented
Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K
2006-01-01
The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here
Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2006-10-15
The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here.
Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, V.S.; Bogacz, S.A.; Roblin, Y.R.; Beard, K.B.
2012-01-01
Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-01-01
The UKP-2-1 accelerator is intended for research works conducting in the field of solid state physics, low energy nuclear physics, nuclear microanalysis, materials modification and others. The accelerator includes two autonomous beam transporting channels jointed by one accelerating potential. One of the channel is intended for hydrogen and inert gases' ions acceleration, obtained from duoplasmatron. The second one includes the source with cesium dispersion and it is intended for heavy ions acceleration. On the base of the accelerator the set of the analytical methods such as PIXE, RBS, NRA were developed allowing to study of samples element content, distribution of elements by depth, analysis of thin films thickness. The accelerator intensively using in the filed of inertial nuclear fusion and studies on Coulomb energy losses of plasma target fast protons. The experience of the accelerator in different environmental researches is gained as well. In particular of deuterium determination in the water samples by the nuclear reaction method and study of plutonium and uranium distribution in 'hot' particles by the proton-induced X-ray method are developed. Beginning of 1999 on the accelerator a new research activity trend related with nuclear physical analysis methods adaptation on charged particles beams for study of a biological objects has been developed. At present the accelerator hardware does not concedes to hardware of the best world laboratories
Seryi, Andrei; Lesz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan
2017-03-01
A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal fields in a laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper, we present an outline of what a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like, and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.
study of the magnetic field of the MGC-20 cyclotron accelerator magent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gad, K.M.M.
2007-01-01
studies of the magent of the MGC-20 cyclotron were carried out. measurements of the magnetic field were done in the cyclotron project, EAEA. calculations of the magnetic field were carried out using Poisson's 2D code, which was developed in Los Alamos laboratories in the USA. we developed a new calculation method for the magnetic field which is the independent layer method. a comparison between the measured and the calculated values for the magnetic field was done, we found good agreement between them, also we calculated the averaged magnetic field and found that the calculations show good isochronous magnetic field which is important in the focusing of the ion beam . study of the poisson code is presented as a target of the master plane to have a good understanding of the code as a step to develop the program or to do another one, this new calculation method proved to give good results for the magnetic field of a complicated magnet such as that of the MGC-20 magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almberg, S. S.; Frengen, J.; Lindmo, T.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electron energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 × 5 cm 2 was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 × 40 cm 2 was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 × 5 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields. Results: Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was found to be, reduced for FFF beams. Conclusions: The build-up and depth
Almberg, S S; Frengen, J; Lindmo, T
2012-08-01
To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electron energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 × 5 cm(2) was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 × 40 cm(2) was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 × 5 cm(2) and 10 × 10 cm(2) fields. Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was found to be, reduced for FFF beams. The build-up and depth-dose characteristics of a conventional "6 MV" beam
Inflation and acceleration of the universe by nonlinear magnetic monopole fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oevguen, A. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Famagusta (Country Unknown). Dept. of Physics
2017-02-15
Despite impressive phenomenological success, cosmological models are incomplete without an understanding of what happened at the big bang singularity. Maxwell electrodynamics, considered as a source of the classical Einstein field equations, leads to the singular isotropic Friedmann solutions. In the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime, we show that singular behavior does not occur for a class of nonlinear generalizations of the electromagnetic theory for strong fields. A new mathematical model is proposed for which the analytical nonsingular extension of FRW solutions is obtained by using the nonlinear magnetic monopole fields. (orig.)
Inflation and acceleration of the universe by nonlinear magnetic monopole fields
Övgün, A.
2017-02-01
Despite impressive phenomenological success, cosmological models are incomplete without an understanding of what happened at the big bang singularity. Maxwell electrodynamics, considered as a source of the classical Einstein field equations, leads to the singular isotropic Friedmann solutions. In the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime, we show that singular behavior does not occur for a class of nonlinear generalizations of the electromagnetic theory for strong fields. A new mathematical model is proposed for which the analytical nonsingular extension of FRW solutions is obtained by using the nonlinear magnetic monopole fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco de Cesare
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We study the expansion of the Universe using an effective Friedmann equation obtained from the dynamics of GFT (Group Field Theory isotropic condensates. The evolution equations are classical, with quantum correction terms to the Friedmann equation given in the form of effective fluids coupled to the emergent classical background. The occurrence of a bounce, which resolves the initial spacetime singularity, is shown to be a general property of the model. A promising feature of this model is the occurrence of an era of accelerated expansion, without the need to introduce an inflaton field with an appropriately chosen potential. We discuss possible viability issues of this scenario as an alternative to inflation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yazicioglu, Hasan; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh
2016-01-01
The wind energy community is in need of detailed full-field measurements in the wake of wind turbines. Here, three dimensional(3D) wind vector field measurements obtained in the near-wake region behind a full-scale test turbine are presented. Specifically, the wake of a NEG Nordtank turbine...
Cardenas, Carlos E.; Nitsch, Paige L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Howell, Rebecca M.
2016-01-01
Out‐of‐field doses from radiotherapy can cause harmful side effects or eventually lead to secondary cancers. Scattered doses outside the applicator field, neutron source strength values, and neutron dose equivalents have not been broadly investigated for high‐energy electron beams. To better understand the extent of these exposures, we measured out‐of‐field dose characteristics of electron applicators for high‐energy electron beams on two Varian 21iXs, a Varian TrueBeam, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at various energy levels. Out‐of‐field dose profiles and percent depth‐dose curves were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom using a Farmer ion chamber. Neutron dose was assessed using a combination of moderator buckets and gold activation foils placed on the treatment couch at various locations in the patient plane on both the Varian 21iX and Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators. Our findings showed that out‐of‐field electron doses were highest for the highest electron energies. These doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. The Elekta linear accelerator had higher electron out‐of‐field doses than the Varian units examined, and the Elekta dose profiles exhibited a second dose peak about 20 to 30 cm from central‐axis, which was found to be higher than typical out‐of‐field doses from photon beams. Electron doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. With respect to neutron dosimetry, Q values and neutron dose equivalents increased with electron beam energy. Neutron contamination from electron beams was found to be much lower than that from photon beams. Even though the neutron dose equivalent for electron beams represented a small portion of neutron doses observed under photon beams, neutron doses from electron beams may need to be considered for
Cardenas, Carlos E; Nitsch, Paige L; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Howell, Rebecca M; Kry, Stephen F
2016-07-08
Out-of-field doses from radiotherapy can cause harmful side effects or eventually lead to secondary cancers. Scattered doses outside the applicator field, neutron source strength values, and neutron dose equivalents have not been broadly investigated for high-energy electron beams. To better understand the extent of these exposures, we measured out-of-field dose characteristics of electron applicators for high-energy electron beams on two Varian 21iXs, a Varian TrueBeam, and an Elekta Versa HD operating at various energy levels. Out-of-field dose profiles and percent depth-dose curves were measured in a Wellhofer water phantom using a Farmer ion chamber. Neutron dose was assessed using a combination of moderator buckets and gold activation foils placed on the treatment couch at various locations in the patient plane on both the Varian 21iX and Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators. Our findings showed that out-of-field electron doses were highest for the highest electron energies. These doses typically decreased with increasing distance from the field edge but showed substantial increases over some distance ranges. The Elekta linear accelerator had higher electron out-of-field doses than the Varian units examined, and the Elekta dose profiles exhibited a second dose peak about 20 to 30 cm from central-axis, which was found to be higher than typical out-of-field doses from photon beams. Electron doses decreased sharply with depth before becoming nearly constant; the dose was found to decrease to a depth of approximately E(MeV)/4 in cm. With respect to neutron dosimetry, Q values and neutron dose equivalents increased with electron beam energy. Neutron contamination from electron beams was found to be much lower than that from photon beams. Even though the neutron dose equivalent for electron beams represented a small portion of neutron doses observed under photon beams, neutron doses from electron beams may need to be considered for special cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song
2011-01-01
Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Weiliang; Gao, Song [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, 77030 (United States)
2011-08-15
Purpose: The isocenter accuracy of a linear accelerator is often assessed with star-shot films. This approach is limited in its ability to quantify three dimensional wobble of radiation field centers (RFCs). The authors report a Winston-Lutz based method to measure the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation, collimator rotation, and collimator field size change. Methods: A stationary ball-bearing phantom was imaged using multileaf collimator-shaped radiation fields at various gantry angles, collimator angles, and field sizes. The center of the ball-bearing served as a reference point, to which all RFCs were localized using a computer algorithm with subpixel accuracy. Then, the gantry rotation isocenter and the collimator rotation axis were derived from the coordinates of these RFCs. Finally, the deviation or wobble of the individual RFC from the derived isocenter or rotation axis was quantified. Results: The results showed that the RFCs were stable as the field size of the multileaf collimator was varied. The wobble of RFCs depended on the gantry angle and the collimator angle and was reproducible, indicating that the mechanical imperfections of the linac were mostly systematic and quantifiable. It was found that the 3D wobble of RFCs during gantry rotation was reduced after compensating for a constant misalignment of the multileaf collimator. Conclusions: The 3D wobble of RFCs can be measured with submillimeter precision using the proposed method. This method provides a useful tool for checking and adjusting the radiation isocenter tightness of a linac.
O'Shea, Tuathan P; Foley, Mark J; Faddegon, Bruce A
2011-06-01
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation can be used for accurate electron beam treatment planning and modeling. Measurement of large electron fields, with the applicator removed and secondary collimator wide open, has been shown to provide accurate simulation parameters, including asymmetry in the measured dose, for the full range of clinical field sizes and patient positions. Recently, disassembly of the treatment head of a linear accelerator has been used to refine the simulation of the electron beam, setting tightly measured constraints on source and geometry parameters used in simulation. The simulation did not explicitly include the known deflection of the electron beam by a fringe magnetic field from the bending magnet, which extended into the treatment head. Instead, the secondary scattering foil and monitor chamber were unrealistically laterally offset to account for the beam deflection. This work is focused on accounting for this fringe magnetic field in treatment head simulation. The magnetic field below the exit window of a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator was measured with a Tesla-meter from 0 to 12 cm from the exit window and 1-3 cm off-axis. Treatment head simulation was performed with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code, modified to incorporate the effect of the magnetic field on charged particle transport. Simulations were used to analyze the sensitivity of dose profiles to various sources of asymmetry in the treatment head. This included the lateral spot offset and beam angle at the exit window, the fringe magnetic field and independent lateral offsets of the secondary scattering foil and electron monitor chamber. Simulation parameters were selected within the limits imposed by measurement uncertainties. Calculated dose distributions were then compared with those measured in water. The magnetic field was a maximum at the exit window, increasing from 0.006 T at 6 MeV to 0.020 T at 21 MeV and dropping to approximately 5% of the maximum at the secondary scattering foil. It
An introduction to acceleration mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmer, R.B.
1987-05-01
This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration
PIC simulation of electron acceleration in an underdense plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Darvish Molla
2011-06-01
Full Text Available One of the interesting Laser-Plasma phenomena, when the laser power is high and ultra intense, is the generation of large amplitude plasma waves (Wakefield and electron acceleration. An intense electromagnetic laser pulse can create plasma oscillations through the action of the nonlinear pondermotive force. electrons trapped in the wake can be accelerated to high energies, more than 1 TW. Of the wide variety of methods for generating a regular electric field in plasmas with strong laser radiation, the most attractive one at the present time is the scheme of the Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA. In this method, a strong Langmuir wave is excited in the plasma. In such a wave, electrons are trapped and can acquire relativistic energies, accelerated to high energies. In this paper the PIC simulation of wakefield generation and electron acceleration in an underdense plasma with a short ultra intense laser pulse is discussed. 2D electromagnetic PIC code is written by FORTRAN 90, are developed, and the propagation of different electromagnetic waves in vacuum and plasma is shown. Next, the accuracy of implementation of 2D electromagnetic code is verified, making it relativistic and simulating the generating of wakefield and electron acceleration in an underdense plasma. It is shown that when a symmetric electromagnetic pulse passes through the plasma, the longitudinal field generated in plasma, at the back of the pulse, is weaker than the one due to an asymmetric electromagnetic pulse, and thus the electrons acquire less energy. About the asymmetric pulse, when front part of the pulse has smaller time rise than the back part of the pulse, a stronger wakefield generates, in plasma, at the back of the pulse, and consequently the electrons acquire more energy. In an inverse case, when the rise time of the back part of the pulse is bigger in comparison with that of the back part, a weaker wakefield generates and this leads to the fact that the electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, D; Mutic, S; Shvartsman, S; Chmielewski, T; Fought, G; Sharma, A; Dempsey, J
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the MRI magnetic field from field-sensitive linear accelerator components at distances close to isocenter. Methods: A MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. In order to accomplish this, the magnetron, port circulator, radiofrequency waveguide, gun driver, and linear accelerator needed to be placed in locations with low magnetic fields. The system was also required to be compact, so moving these components far from the main magnetic field and isocenter was not an option. The magnetic field sensitive components (exclusive of the waveguide) were placed in coaxial steel sleeves that were electrically and mechanically isolated and whose thickness and placement were optimized using E&M modeling software. Six sets of sleeves were placed 60° apart, 85 cm from isocenter. The Faraday effect occurs when the direction of propagation is parallel to the magnetic RF field component, rotating the RF polarization, subsequently diminishing RF power. The Faraday effect was avoided by orienting the waveguides such that the magnetic field RF component was parallel to the magnetic field. Results: The magnetic field within the shields was measured to be less than 40 Gauss, significantly below the amount needed for the magnetron and port circulator. Additional mu-metal was employed to reduce the magnetic field at the linear accelerator to less than 1 Gauss. The orientation of the RF waveguides allowed the RT transport with minimal loss and reflection. Conclusion: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of creating low magnetic field environments for the magnetic-field sensitive components, has been solved. The measured magnetic fields are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This work supported by ViewRay, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Shvartsman, S; Chmielewski, T; Fought, G; Sharma, A; Dempsey, J [ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, OH (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a method for isolating the MRI magnetic field from field-sensitive linear accelerator components at distances close to isocenter. Methods: A MRI-guided radiation therapy system has been designed that integrates a linear accelerator with simultaneous MR imaging. In order to accomplish this, the magnetron, port circulator, radiofrequency waveguide, gun driver, and linear accelerator needed to be placed in locations with low magnetic fields. The system was also required to be compact, so moving these components far from the main magnetic field and isocenter was not an option. The magnetic field sensitive components (exclusive of the waveguide) were placed in coaxial steel sleeves that were electrically and mechanically isolated and whose thickness and placement were optimized using E&M modeling software. Six sets of sleeves were placed 60° apart, 85 cm from isocenter. The Faraday effect occurs when the direction of propagation is parallel to the magnetic RF field component, rotating the RF polarization, subsequently diminishing RF power. The Faraday effect was avoided by orienting the waveguides such that the magnetic field RF component was parallel to the magnetic field. Results: The magnetic field within the shields was measured to be less than 40 Gauss, significantly below the amount needed for the magnetron and port circulator. Additional mu-metal was employed to reduce the magnetic field at the linear accelerator to less than 1 Gauss. The orientation of the RF waveguides allowed the RT transport with minimal loss and reflection. Conclusion: One of the major challenges in designing a compact linear accelerator based MRI-guided radiation therapy system, that of creating low magnetic field environments for the magnetic-field sensitive components, has been solved. The measured magnetic fields are sufficiently small to enable system integration. This work supported by ViewRay, Inc.
Signature of open magnetic field lines in the extended solar corona and of solar wind acceleration
Antonucci, E.; Giordano, S.; Benna, C.; Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.; Michels, J.; Fineschi, S.
1997-01-01
The observations carried out with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) are discussed. The purpose of the observations was to determine the line of sight and radial velocity fields in coronal regions with different magnetic topology. The results showed that the regions where the high speed solar wind flows along open field lines are characterized by O VI 1032 and HI Lyman alpha 1216 lines. The global coronal maps of the line of sight velocity were reconstructed. The corona height, where the solar wind reaches 100 km/s, was determined.
Laser generated Ge ions accelerated by additional electrostatic field for implantation technology
Rosinski, M.; Gasior, P.; Fazio, E.; Ando, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Parys, P.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Wolowski, J.
2013-05-01
The paper presents research on the optimization of the laser ion implantation method with electrostatic acceleration/deflection including numerical simulations by the means of the Opera 3D code and experimental tests at the IPPLM, Warsaw. To introduce the ablation process an Nd:YAG laser system with repetition rate of 10 Hz, pulse duration of 3.5 ns and pulse energy of 0.5 J has been applied. Ion time of flight diagnostics has been used in situ to characterize concentration and energy distribution in the obtained ion streams while the postmortem analysis of the implanted samples was conducted by the means of XRD, FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy. In the paper the predictions of the Opera 3D code are compared with the results of the ion diagnostics in the real experiment. To give the whole picture of the method, the postmortem results of the XRD, FTIR and Raman characterization techniques are discussed. Experimental results show that it is possible to achieve the development of a micrometer-sized crystalline Ge phase and/or an amorphous one only after a thermal annealing treatment.
Noise emission from wind turbines in wake. Project report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dam Madsen, K.; Plovsing, B. (DELTA, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Soerensen, Thomas (EMD International A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)); Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bertagnolio, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))
2011-03-15
When installing wind turbines in clusters or wind farms the inflow conditions to the wind turbines can be disturbed due to wake effects from other wind turbines. The effect of wake on noise generation from wind turbines are described in this report. The work is based on measurements carried out on a M80 2 MW wind turbine. To investigate the relationship between the far field noise levels and the surface pressure and inflow angles measured by sensors on an instrumented wind turbine blade, a parabolic measurement system (PMMS) was designed and tested as part of this project. Based on the measurement results obtained with surface pressure sensors and results from the far field measurements using the PMMS it is concluded that: The variance of surface pressure at the trailing edge (TE) agrees with the theory with regard to variation of pressure spectra with varying inflow angle (AoA) to the blade. Low frequency TE surface pressure increases with increased AoA and high frequency surface pressure decreases with increased AoA. It seems that the TE surface pressure remains almost unaltered during wake operation. Results from the surface transducers at the leading edge (LE) and the inflow angles determined from the pitot tube indicates that the inflow at LE is more turbulent in wake for the same AoA and with a low frequency characteristic, thereby giving rise to more low frequency noise generated during wake operation. The far field measurements supports that on one hand there will be produced relative more low frequency noise due to a turbulent inflow to the blade and on the other hand there will be produced less noise in the broader frequency range/high frequency range due to a lower inflow angle caused by the wind deficit in the wake. The net effect of wake on the total noise level is unresolved. As a secondary result it is seen that noise observed from a position on the ground is related to directional effects of the noise radiated from the wind turbine blade. For an
Self-similar potential in the near wake
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diebold, D.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.; Bailey, A.
1987-01-01
The plasma potential is measured near the edge of an electrically floating obstacle placed in a steady-state, supersonic, unmagnetized, neutral plasma flow. Equipotential contours show the sheath of the upstream side of the obstacle wrapping around the edge of the obstacle and fanning out into the near wake. Both fluid theory and the data find the near-wake plasma potential to be self-similar when ionization, charge exchange, and magnetic field can be neglected. The theory also finds that fluid velocity is self-similar, the near wake is nonneutral, and plasma density is not self-similar. Strong electric fields are found near the obstacle and equipotential contours are found to conform to all boundaries
Wake meandering of a model wind turbine operating in two different regimes
Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Campagnolo, Filippo; Maniaci, David; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2018-05-01
The flow behind a model wind turbine under two different turbine operating regimes (region 2 for turbine operating at optimal condition with the maximum power coefficient and 1.4-deg pitch angle and region 3 for turbine operating at suboptimal condition with a lower power coefficient and 7-deg pitch angle) is investigated using wind tunnel experiments and numerical experiments using large-eddy simulation (LES) with actuator surface models for turbine blades and nacelle. Measurements from the model wind turbine experiment reveal that the power coefficient and turbine wake are affected by the operating regime. Simulations with and without a nacelle model are carried out for each operating condition to study the influence of the operating regime and nacelle on the formation of the hub vortex and wake meandering. Statistics and energy spectra of the simulated wakes are in good agreement with the measurements. For simulations with a nacelle model, the mean flow field is composed of an outer wake, caused by energy extraction by turbine blades, and an inner wake directly behind the nacelle, while for the simulations without a nacelle model, the central region of the wake is occupied by a jet. The simulations with the nacelle model reveal an unstable helical hub vortex expanding outward toward the outer wake, while the simulations without a nacelle model show a stable and columnar hub vortex. Because of the different interactions of the inner region of the wake with the outer region of the wake, a region with higher turbulence intensity is observed in the tip shear layer for the simulation with a nacelle model. The hub vortex for the turbine operating in region 3 remains in a tight helical spiral and intercepts the outer wake a few diameters further downstream than for the turbine operating in region 2. Wake meandering, a low-frequency large-scale motion of the wake, commences in the region of high turbulence intensity for all simulations with and without a nacelle model
Accelerating the numerical simulation of magnetic field lines in tokamaks using the GPU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalling, R.C.; Evans, T.E.; Orlov, D.M.; Schissel, D.P.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E.; Sabbagh, S.A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Tokamak magnetic field lines are simulated on a GPU. → Numerical integration of a set of nonlinear differential equations is required. → Using the GPU yields a significant reduction in processing time compared to the CPU. → Computational runs that took days now take hours. → These gains have been accomplished without significant hardware expense. - Abstract: TRIP3D is a field line simulation code that numerically integrates a set of nonlinear magnetic field line differential equations. The code is used to study properties of magnetic islands and stochastic or chaotic field line topologies that are important for designing non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation coils for controlling plasma instabilities in future machines. The code is very computationally intensive and for large runs can take on the order of days to complete on a traditional single CPU. This work describes how the code was converted from Fortran to C and then restructured to take advantage of GPU computing using NVIDIA's CUDA. The reduction in computing time has been dramatic where runs that previously took days now take hours allowing a scale of problem to be examined that would previously not have been attempted. These gains have been accomplished without significant hardware expense. Performance, correctness, code flexibility, and implementation time have been analyzed to gauge the success and applicability of these methods when compared to the traditional multi-CPU approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzyuba, A; Romanenko, A; Cooley, L D
2010-01-01
A model for the onset of the reduction in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity quality factor, the so-called Q-drop, at high accelerating electric fields is presented. Since magnetic fields at the cavity equator are tied to accelerating electric fields by a simple geometric factor, the onset of magnetic flux penetration determines the onset of Q-drop. We consider breakdown of the surface barrier at triangular grooves to predict the magnetic field of first flux penetration H pen . Such defects were argued to be the worst case by Buzdin and Daumens (1998 Physica C 294 257), whose approach, moreover, incorporates both the geometry of the groove and local contamination via the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. Since previous Q-drop models focused on either topography or contamination alone, the proposed model allows new comparisons of one effect in relation to the other. The model predicts equivalent reduction of H pen when either roughness or contamination were varied alone, so smooth but dirty surfaces limit cavity performance about as much as rough but clean surfaces do. Still lower H pen was predicted when both effects were combined, i.e. contamination should exacerbate the negative effects of roughness and vice versa. To test the model with actual data, coupons were prepared by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing, and stylus profilometry was used to obtain distributions of angles. From these data, curves for surface resistance generated by simple flux flow as a function of magnetic field were generated by integrating over the distribution of angles for reasonable values of κ. This showed that combined effects of roughness and contamination indeed reduce the Q-drop onset field by ∼ 20%, and that contamination contributes to Q-drop as much as roughness. The latter point may be overlooked by SRF cavity research, since access to the cavity interior by spectroscopy tools is very difficult, whereas optical images have become commonplace. The model
Dzyuba, A.; Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L. D.
2010-12-01
A model for the onset of the reduction in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity quality factor, the so-called Q-drop, at high accelerating electric fields is presented. Since magnetic fields at the cavity equator are tied to accelerating electric fields by a simple geometric factor, the onset of magnetic flux penetration determines the onset of Q-drop. We consider breakdown of the surface barrier at triangular grooves to predict the magnetic field of first flux penetration Hpen. Such defects were argued to be the worst case by Buzdin and Daumens (1998 Physica C 294 257), whose approach, moreover, incorporates both the geometry of the groove and local contamination via the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. Since previous Q-drop models focused on either topography or contamination alone, the proposed model allows new comparisons of one effect in relation to the other. The model predicts equivalent reduction of Hpen when either roughness or contamination were varied alone, so smooth but dirty surfaces limit cavity performance about as much as rough but clean surfaces do. Still lower Hpen was predicted when both effects were combined, i.e. contamination should exacerbate the negative effects of roughness and vice versa. To test the model with actual data, coupons were prepared by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing, and stylus profilometry was used to obtain distributions of angles. From these data, curves for surface resistance generated by simple flux flow as a function of magnetic field were generated by integrating over the distribution of angles for reasonable values of κ. This showed that combined effects of roughness and contamination indeed reduce the Q-drop onset field by ~ 20%, and that contamination contributes to Q-drop as much as roughness. The latter point may be overlooked by SRF cavity research, since access to the cavity interior by spectroscopy tools is very difficult, whereas optical images have become commonplace. The model was
CFD three dimensional wake analysis in complex terrain
Castellani, F.; Astolfi, D.; Terzi, L.
2017-11-01
Even if wind energy technology is nowadays fully developed, the use of wind energy in very complex terrain is still challenging. In particular, it is challenging to characterize the combination effects of wind ow over complex terrain and wake interactions between nearby turbines and this has a practical relevance too, for the perspective of mitigating anomalous vibrations and loads as well improving the farm efficiency. In this work, a very complex terrain site has been analyzed through a Reynolds-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical wind field model; in the simulation the inuence of wakes has been included through the Actuator Disk (AD) approach. In particular, the upstream turbine of a cluster of 4 wind turbines having 2.3 MW of rated power is studied. The objective of this study is investigating the full three-dimensional wind field and the impact of three-dimensionality on the evolution of the waked area between nearby turbines. A post-processing method of the output of the CFD simulation is developed and this allows to estimate the wake lateral deviation and the wake width. The reliability of the numerical approach is inspired by and crosschecked through the analysis of the operational SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) data of the cluster of interest.
The evolution of high energy accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courant, E.D.
1994-01-01
Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet
CFD Study on Effective Wake of Conventional and Tip-modified Propellers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shin, K. W.; Andersen, Poul
2016-01-01
result and the effective wake fractions from integrating CFD velocity fields, 5-15% higher effective wake fractions of tip-modified propellers from the existing estimation method based on the open-water correlation at thrust or torque identity can be related mainly to the effects of Reynolds number...
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Linearised CFD Models for Wakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ott, Søren; Berg, Jacob; Nielsen, Morten
This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in oshore wind farms taking wake eects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface....... Fuga is brie y described. The model is based on alinearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed{spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive...... use of look{up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Robert Tomkins
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A detection method that combines electric field-assisted virus capture on antibody-decorated surfaces with the “fingerprinting” capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for the case of M13 virus in water. The proof-of-principle surface mapping of model bioparticles (protein coated polystyrene spheres captured by an AC electric field between planar microelectrodes is presented with a methodology for analyzing the resulting spectra by comparing relative peak intensities. The same principle is applied to dielectrophoretically captured M13 phage particles whose presence is indirectly confirmed with micro-Raman spectroscopy using NeutrAvidin-Cy3 as a labeling molecule. It is concluded that the combination of electrokinetically driven virus sampling and micro-Raman based signal transduction provides a promising approach for time-efficient and in situ detection of viruses.
Tomkins, Matthew Robert; Liao, David Shiqi; Docoslis, Aristides
2015-01-08
A detection method that combines electric field-assisted virus capture on antibody-decorated surfaces with the "fingerprinting" capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for the case of M13 virus in water. The proof-of-principle surface mapping of model bioparticles (protein coated polystyrene spheres) captured by an AC electric field between planar microelectrodes is presented with a methodology for analyzing the resulting spectra by comparing relative peak intensities. The same principle is applied to dielectrophoretically captured M13 phage particles whose presence is indirectly confirmed with micro-Raman spectroscopy using NeutrAvidin-Cy3 as a labeling molecule. It is concluded that the combination of electrokinetically driven virus sampling and micro-Raman based signal transduction provides a promising approach for time-efficient and in situ detection of viruses.
Quench Modeling in High-field Nb3Sn Accelerator Magnets
Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; Bajas, H.; Bottura, L.
The development of high-field magnets is on-going in the framework of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The resulting peak field, in the range of 12 T to 13 T, requires the use Nb3Sn as superconductor. Due to the high stored energy density (compact winding for cost reduction) and the low stabilizer fraction (to achieve the desired margins), quench protection becomes a challenging problem. Accurate simulation of quench transientsin these magnets is hence crucial to the design choices, the definition of priority R&D and to prove that the magnets are fit for operation. In this paper we focus on the modelling of quench initiation and propagation, we describe approaches that are suitable for magnet simulation, and we compare numerical results with available experimental data.
Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs
Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.
2014-12-01
Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valérie Renaudin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU and acceleration gradient update (AGU. MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Caress, R.W.
1997-01-01
A miniature magnetic probe array, consisting of 10 spatially separated coils, has been used to obtain profile information on the time varying magnetic field within the 2.54 cm wide flow channel of the coaxial plasma source experiment (CPS-1) [R. M. Mayo et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 4, 47 (1995)]. The magnetic field data have been used, together with a resistive, Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of applied field distortion by the flowing plasma, to obtain estimates of the microturbulent enhancement to electron collisionality within the CPS-1 flow channel. These measurements provide direct experimental evidence of anomalous electron collisionality, a previously predicted effect in these devices. The anomaly parameter, a=ν an /ν cl , determined both from the distortion of contours of constant magnetic flux, and from local B θ and B z measurements scales with the classical electron magnetization parameter (Ω cl =ω ce /ν e cl ), indicating that collisionality plays a strong role in determining the level of anomalous transport in the plasma. When this anomaly parameter scaling is cast in terms of the ratio ν e cl /ω lh , it is found that the resistivity enhancement scales with ν e cl /ω lh , and becomes significant at ν e cl /ω lh ≤1, suggesting that a lower hybrid drift instability may be the responsible mechanism for enhanced transport. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Estimation of the Required Amount of Superconductors for High-field Accelerator Dipole Magnets
Schwerg, N
2007-01-01
The coil size and the corresponding amount of superconducting material that is used during the design process of a magnet cross-section have direct impacts on the overall magnet cost. It is therefore of interest to estimate the minimum amount of conductors needed to reach the defined field strength before a detailed design process starts. Equally, it is useful to evaluate the efficiency of a given design by calculating the amount of superconducting cables that are used to reach the envisaged main field by simple rule. To this purpose, the minimum amount of conductors for the construction of a dipole of given main field strength and aperture size is estimated taking the actual critical current density of the used strands into account. Characteristic curves applicable for the NED Nb$_{3}$Sn strand specification are given and some of the recently studied different dipole configurations are compared. Based on these results, it is shown how the required amount of conductors changes due to the iron yoke contributio...
Observations and computations of narrow Kelvin ship wakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francis Noblesse
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Computations of far-field ship waves, based on linear potential flow theory and the Hogner approximation, are reported for monohull ships and catamarans. Specifically, far-field ship waves are computed for six monohull ships at four Froude numbers F≡V/gL=0.58, 0.68, 0.86, 1.58 and for six catamarans with nondimensional hull spacing s≡S/L=0.25 at two Froude numbers Fs≡V/gS=1 and 2.5. Here, g is the gravitational acceleration, V and L denote the ship speed and length, and S is the separation distance between the twin hulls of a catamaran. The computations show that, although the amplitudes of the waves created by a ship are strongly influenced by the shape of the ship hull, as well known, the ray angles where the largest waves are found are only weakly influenced by the hull shape and indeed are mostly a kinematic feature of the flow around a ship hull. An important practical consequence of this flow feature is that the apparent wake angle of general monohull ships or catamarans (with arbitrarily-shaped hulls can be estimated, without computations, by means of simple analytical relations; these relations, obtained elsewhere via parametric computations, are given here. Moreover, the influence of the two parameters Fs and s that largely determine the ray angles of the dominant waves created by a catamaran is illustrated via computations for three catamarans with hull spacings s=0.2, 0.35, 0.5 at four Froude numbers Fs=1, 1.5, 2, 2.5. These computations confirm that the largest waves created by wide and/or fast catamarans are found at ray angles that only depend on Fs (i.e. that do not depend on the hull spacing s in agreement with an elementary analysis of lateral interference between the dominant waves created by the bows (or sterns of the twin hulls of a catamaran. The dominant-waves ray angles predicted by the theory of wave-interference effects for monohull ships and catamarans are also compared with the observations of narrow Kelvin ship
Toward Development of a Stochastic Wake Model: Validation Using LES and Turbine Loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae Sang Moon
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Wind turbines within an array do not experience free-stream undisturbed flow fields. Rather, the flow fields on internal turbines are influenced by wakes generated by upwind unit and exhibit different dynamic characteristics relative to the free stream. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC standard 61400-1 for the design of wind turbines only considers a deterministic wake model for the design of a wind plant. This study is focused on the development of a stochastic model for waked wind fields. First, high-fidelity physics-based waked wind velocity fields are generated using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES. Stochastic characteristics of these LES waked wind velocity field, including mean and turbulence components, are analyzed. Wake-related mean and turbulence field-related parameters are then estimated for use with a stochastic model, using Multivariate Multiple Linear Regression (MMLR with the LES data. To validate the simulated wind fields based on the stochastic model, wind turbine tower and blade loads are generated using aeroelastic simulation for utility-scale wind turbine models and compared with those based directly on the LES inflow. The study’s overall objective is to offer efficient and validated stochastic approaches that are computationally tractable for assessing the performance and loads of turbines operating in wakes.
Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions
Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen
2016-11-01
A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey
Linearised CFD models for wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ott, S.; Berg, J.; Nielsen, Morten
2011-12-15
This report describes the development of a fast and reasonably accurate model for the prediction of energy production in offshore wind farms taking wake effects into account. The model has been implemented as a windows application called Fuga which can run in batch mode or as a graphical user interface. Fuga is briefly described. The model is based on a linearization technique which is described in some detail, and linearized, governing equations are derived and written in a standard form based on a mixed-spectral formulation. A new solution method is used to solve the equations which involves intensive use of look-up tables for storage of intermediate results. Due to the linearity of the model, multiple wakes from many turbines can be constructed from the wake of a single, solitary turbine. These are in turn constructed from Fourier components by a fast Fourier integral transform of results derived from generic look-up tables. Three different models, based on three different closures, are examined: 1) the 'simple closure' using an unperturbed eddy viscosity kucentre dotz. 2) the mixing length closure. 3) the E-epsilon closure. Model results are evaluated against offshore wind farm production data from Horns Rev I and the Nysted wind farm, and a comparison with direct wake measurements in an onshore turbine (Nibe B) is also made. A very satisfactory agreement with data is found for the simple closure. The exception is the near wake, just behind the rotor, where all three linearized models fail. The mixing length closure underestimates wake effects in all cases. The E-epsilon closure overestimates wake losses in the offshore farms while it predicts a too shallow and too wide the wake in the onshore case. The simple closure performs distinctly better than the other two. Wind speed data from the the Horns rev met masts are used to further validate Fuga results with the 'simple' closure. Finally, Roedsand 1 and 2 are used as an example to illustrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omel'yanenko, M.M.; Borisov, V.V.; Donyagin, A.M.; Kostromin, S.A.; Makarov, A.A.; Khodzhibagiyan, G.G.; Shemchuk, A.V.
2017-01-01
The described pulse-mode current power supply has been designed and fabricated for the magnetic field measurement system of superconducting magnets for accelerators. The power supply is based on a current regulator with pass transistor bank in linear mode. The output current pulses (0-100 A) are produced by using the energy of preliminary charged capacitor bank (5-40 V), which is charged additionally after each pulse. There is no AC-line frequency and harmonics ripple in the output current, the relative noise level is less than -100 dB (or 10 -5 ) of RMS value (it is defined as the ratio of output RMS noise current to the maximal output current 100 A within the operating bandwidth, expressed in dB).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calonne-Chatelee, V.; Thebault, Y.; De Bouvier, O.; Dejoux, L.; Trevin, S.; Pavageau, E.-M.
2007-01-01
After the Mihama accident (2004), EDF re-examined its existing inspection strategy of Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) for the secondary loop of NPPs. Welds, which are still not taken into account by the predictive software BRT-CICERO, have been identified as a weak point. An inventory of the welds' inspections and a program of metallurgical examinations on field components have been established. The chromium content, hydrodynamic effects and dissimilar metal welds have been studied. These examinations showed that the welds' degradation was really due to FAC. It appears that the chromium contents, of the weld and of the base metal, is an important parameter. Moreover, the presence of a weld penetration and dissimilar metal welds seem to have a consequence on the damage of the weld assembly. These parameters will be investigated in an R and D program on the CIROCO loop. Meanwhile, all these results have been taken into account by the maintenance program. (author)
Salmi, Tiina
2016-01-01
Superconducting accelerator magnets with increasingly hi gh magnetic fields are being designed to improve the performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. One of the technical challenges is the magnet quench p rotection, i.e., preventing damage in the case of an unexpected loss of superc onductivity and the heat generation related to that. Traditionally this is d one by disconnecting the magnet current supply and using so-called protection he aters. The heaters suppress the superconducting state across a large fraction of the winding thus leading to a uniform dissipation of the stored energy. Preli minary studies suggested that the high-field Nb 3 Sn magnets under development for the LHC luminosity upgrade (HiLumi) could not be reliably protected using the existing heaters. In this thesis work I analyzed in detail the present state-of-the-art protection heater technology, aiming to optimize its perfo rmance and evaluate the prospects in high-field magnet protection. The heater efficiency analyses ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Kumar, K. Sravan; Marto, João [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês D' Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal); Morais, João [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Zhuk, Alexander, E-mail: mbl@ubi.pt, E-mail: sravan@ubi.pt, E-mail: jmarto@ubi.pt, E-mail: jviegas001@ikasle.ehu.eus, E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)
2016-07-01
In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, we can consider the Universe to be filled with dust-like matter in the form of discretely distributed galaxies, a K -essence scalar field, playing the role of dark energy, and radiation as matter sources. We investigate such a Universe in the mechanical approach. This means that the peculiar velocities of the inhomogeneities (in the form of galaxies) as well as the fluctuations of the other perfect fluids are non-relativistic. Such fluids are designated as coupled because they are concentrated around the inhomogeneities. In the present paper, we investigate the conditions under which the K -essence scalar field with the most general form for its action can become coupled. We investigate at the background level three particular examples of the K -essence models: (i) the pure kinetic K -essence field, (ii) a K -essence with a constant speed of sound and (iii) the K -essence model with the Lagrangian bX + cX {sup 2}− V (φ). We demonstrate that if the K -essence is coupled, all these K -essence models take the form of multicomponent perfect fluids where one of the component is the cosmological constant. Therefore, they can provide the late-time cosmic acceleration and be simultaneously compatible with the mechanical approach.
Simultaneous density-field visualization and PIV of a shock-accelerated gas curtain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prestridge, K.; Rightley, P.M.; Vorobieff, P. [Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Exp. Div.; Benjamin, R.F.; Kurnit, N.A.
2000-10-01
We describe a highly-detailed experimental characterization of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (the impulsively driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability) (Meshkov 1969; Richtmyer 1960). In our experiment, a vertical curtain of heavy gas (SF{sub 6}) flows into the test section of an air-filled, horizontal shock tube. The instability evolves after a Mach 1.2 shock passes through the curtain. For visualization, we pre-mix the SF{sub 6} with a small ({proportional_to}10{sup -5}) volume fraction of sub-micron-sized glycol/water droplets. A horizontal section of the flow is illuminated by a light sheet produced by a combination of a customized, burst-mode Nd:YAG laser and a commercial pulsed laser. Three CCD cameras are employed in visualization. The ''dynamic imaging camera'' images the entire test section, but does not detect the individual droplets. It produces a sequence of instantaneous images of local droplet concentration, which in the post-shock flow is proportional to density. The gas curtain is convected out of the test section about 1 ms after the shock passes through the curtain. A second camera images the initial conditions with high resolution, since the initial conditions vary from test to test. The third camera, ''PIV camera,'' has a spatial resolution sufficient to detect the individual droplets in the light sheet. Images from this camera are interrogated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to recover instantaneous snapshots of the velocity field in a small (19 x 14 mm) field of view. The fidelity of the flow-seeding technique for density-field acquisition and the reliability of the PIV technique are both quantified in this paper. In combination with wide-field density data, PIV measurements give us additional physical insight into the evolution of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in a problem which serves as an excellent test case for general transition-to-turbulence studies. (orig.)
Numerical study on wake characteristics of high-speed trains
Yao, Shuan-Bao; Sun, Zhen-Xu; Guo, Di-Long; Chen, Da-Wei; Yang, Guo-Wei
2013-12-01
Intensive turbulence exists in the wakes of high speed trains, and the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car could deteriorate rapidly due to complicated features of the vortices in the wake zone. As a result, the safety and amenity of high speed trains would face a great challenge. This paper considers mainly the mechanism of vortex formation and evolution in the train flow field. A real CRH2 model is studied, with a leading car, a middle car and a trailing car included. Different running speeds and cross wind conditions are considered, and the approaches of unsteady Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and detached eddy simulation (DES) are utilized, respectively. Results reveal that DES has better capability of capturing small eddies compared to URANS. However, for large eddies, the effects of two approaches are almost the same. In conditions without cross winds, two large vortex streets stretch from the train nose and interact strongly with each other in the wake zone. With the reinforcement of the ground, a complicated wake vortex system generates and becomes strengthened as the running speed increases. However, the locations of flow separations on the train surface and the separation mechanism keep unchanged. In conditions with cross winds, three large vortices develop along the leeward side of the train, among which the weakest one has no obvious influence on the wake flow while the other two stretch to the tail of the train and combine with the helical vortices in the train wake. Thus, optimization of the aerodynamic performance of the trailing car should be aiming at reducing the intensity of the wake vortex system.