WorldWideScience

Sample records for wakasa wan energy

  1. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  2. Modeling the Energy Performance of LoRaWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Casals

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available LoRaWAN is a flagship Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN technology that has highly attracted much attention from the community in recent years. Many LoRaWAN end-devices, such as sensors or actuators, are expected not to be powered by the electricity grid; therefore, it is crucial to investigate the energy consumption of LoRaWAN. However, published works have only focused on this topic to a limited extent. In this paper, we present analytical models that allow the characterization of LoRaWAN end-device current consumption, lifetime and energy cost of data delivery. The models, which have been derived based on measurements on a currently prevalent LoRaWAN hardware platform, allow us to quantify the impact of relevant physical and Medium Access Control (MAC layer LoRaWAN parameters and mechanisms, as well as Bit Error Rate (BER and collisions, on energy performance. Among others, evaluation results show that an appropriately configured LoRaWAN end-device platform powered by a battery of 2400 mAh can achieve a 1-year lifetime while sending one message every 5 min, and an asymptotic theoretical lifetime of 6 years for infrequent communication.

  3. Modeling the Energy Performance of LoRaWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Lluís; Mir, Bernat; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-10-16

    LoRaWAN is a flagship Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology that has highly attracted much attention from the community in recent years. Many LoRaWAN end-devices, such as sensors or actuators, are expected not to be powered by the electricity grid; therefore, it is crucial to investigate the energy consumption of LoRaWAN. However, published works have only focused on this topic to a limited extent. In this paper, we present analytical models that allow the characterization of LoRaWAN end-device current consumption, lifetime and energy cost of data delivery. The models, which have been derived based on measurements on a currently prevalent LoRaWAN hardware platform, allow us to quantify the impact of relevant physical and Medium Access Control (MAC) layer LoRaWAN parameters and mechanisms, as well as Bit Error Rate (BER) and collisions, on energy performance. Among others, evaluation results show that an appropriately configured LoRaWAN end-device platform powered by a battery of 2400 mAh can achieve a 1-year lifetime while sending one message every 5 min, and an asymptotic theoretical lifetime of 6 years for infrequent communication.

  4. Demand Side Management Using the Internet of Energy Based on LoRaWAN Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahryari, Kolsoom; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Shahryari, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    into cloud because of a long range, low power, wide area and low bit rate wireless telecommunication system which is called LoRaWAN. All devices in fog domain are connected by long range wide area network (LoRa) into a smart gateway. The gateway which bridges fog domain and cloud, is introduced...

  5. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  6. AMMR Air and Brightness Temperature Data, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted in January and February 2003 to validate rainfall algorithms developed for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer -...

  7. APR-2 Dual-frequency Airborne Radar Observations, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In January and February 2003, the Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) collected data in the Wakasa Bay AMSR-E validation campaign over the sea of...

  8. Demand Side Management Using the Internet of Energy Based on LoRaWAN Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahryari, Kolsoom; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Shahryari, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    The smart grid, as a communication network, allows numerous connected devices such as sensors, relays and actuators to interact and cooperate with each other. An Internet-based solution for electricity that provides bidirectional flow of information and power is internet of energy (IoE) which...... for scheduling devices/appliances by creating a priority queue which can perform demand side management dynamically. The queue is affected by not only the consumer importance but also the consumer policies and the status of energy resources....

  9. Using virtual Lustre clients on the WAN for analysis of data from high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourilkov, D.; Avery, P.; Cheng, M.; Fu, Y.; Kim, B.; Palencia, J.; Budden, R.; Benninger, K.; Shrum, D.; Wilgenbusch, J.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the work on creating system images of Lustre virtual clients in the ExTENCI project (Extending Science Through Enhanced National Cyberlnfrastructure), using several virtual technologies (Xen, VMware, VirtualBox, KVM). These virtual machines can be built at several levels, from a basic Linux installation (we use Scientific Linux 5 as an example), adding a Lustre client with Kerberos authentication, and up to complete clients including local or distributed (based on CernVM-FS) installations of the full CERN and project specific software stack for typical LHC experiments. The level, and size, of the images are determined by the users on demand. Various sites and individual users can just download and use them out of the box on Linux/UNIX, Windows and Mac OS X based hosts. We compare the performance of virtual clients with that of real physical systems for typical high energy physics applications like Monte Carlo simulations or analysis of data stored in ROOT trees.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTISIDED WAN ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Kumar*, Raman Bhanot, Shaina

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for implementing of Multisided WAN Architecture in which different colleges were attached with ISP and then create a VLAN for a switch and transfer VLAN to other switches.

  11. Multisensor Observation and Simulation of Snowfall During the 2003 Wakasa Bay Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Benjamin T.; Petty, Grant W.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Wang, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This research seeks to assess and improve the accuracy of microphysical assumptions used in satellite passive microwave radiative transfer models and retrieval algorithms by exploiting complementary observations from satellite radiometers, such as TRMM/AMSR-E/GPM, and coincident aircraft instruments, such as the next generation precipitation radar (PR-2). We focus in particular on aircraft data obtained during the Wakasa Bay field experiment, Japan 2003, pertaining to surface snowfall events. The observations of vertical profiles of reflectivity and Doppler-derived fall speeds are used in conjunction with the radiometric measurements to identify 1-D profiles of precipitation particle types, sizes, and concentrations that are consistent with the observations.

  12. Rainfall and Snowfall Observations by the Airborne Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar during the Wakasa Bay Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Im, Eastwood; Durden, Stephen L.; Meagher, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Radar data obtained through the NASA/JPL Airborne Precipitation Radar APR-2 during the Wakasa Bay Experiment in January/February 2003 were processed to obtain calibrated reflectivity measurements, rainfall/snowfall velocity measurements, classification of the surface type and detection of the boundaries of the melting layer of precipitation. In this paper the processing approach is described together with an overview of the resulting data quality and known issues.

  13. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  14. State of the Art in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Cano, Maria-Dolores

    2016-05-17

    The emergence of low-cost connected devices is enabling a new wave of sensorization services. These services can be highly leveraged in industrial applications. However, the technologies employed so far for managing this kind of system do not fully cover the strict requirements of industrial networks, especially those regarding energy efficiency. In this article a novel paradigm, called Low-Power Wide Area Networking (LP-WAN), is explored. By means of a cellular-type architecture, LP-WAN-based solutions aim at fulfilling the reliability and efficiency challenges posed by long-term industrial networks. Thus, the most prominent LP-WAN solutions are reviewed, identifying and discussing the pros and cons of each of them. The focus is also on examining the current deployment state of these platforms in Spain. Although LP-WAN systems are at early stages of development, they represent a promising alternative for boosting future industrial IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) networks and services.

  15. State of the Art in LP-WAN Solutions for Industrial IoT Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of low-cost connected devices is enabling a new wave of sensorization services. These services can be highly leveraged in industrial applications. However, the technologies employed so far for managing this kind of system do not fully cover the strict requirements of industrial networks, especially those regarding energy efficiency. In this article a novel paradigm, called Low-Power Wide Area Networking (LP-WAN, is explored. By means of a cellular-type architecture, LP-WAN–based solutions aim at fulfilling the reliability and efficiency challenges posed by long-term industrial networks. Thus, the most prominent LP-WAN solutions are reviewed, identifying and discussing the pros and cons of each of them. The focus is also on examining the current deployment state of these platforms in Spain. Although LP-WAN systems are at early stages of development, they represent a promising alternative for boosting future industrial IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things networks and services.

  16. IMPLEMENTASI VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK - WAN DALAM DUNIA BISNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Suryani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam dunia bisnis, biasanya sebuah organisasi ingin membangun Wide Area Network (WAN untuk menghubungkan beberapa kantor cabangnya. Sebelum munculnya Virtual Private Network (VPN, mereka umumnya menggunakan ” leased line” yang mahal sehingga hanya perusahaan besar yang dapat memilikinya.VPN - WAN memberi solusi alternatif karena dapat mengurangi biaya pembuatan infrastruktur jaringan dan memotong biaya operasional dengan memanfaatkan failitas internet sebagai media komunikasinya. Perusahaan cukup menghubungi  Internet Service Provider (ISP terdekat untuk mendapatkan layanan ini.Setiap paket informasi yang dikirim dapat diakses, diawasi atau bahkan dimanipulasi oleh pengguna. Supaya komunikasi berjalan aman maka diperlukan protokol tambahan khusus yang dirancang untuk mengamankan data yang dikirim.  Dewasa ini sudah banyak perusahaan seperti : perusahaan manufaktur, distribusi dan retail; pertambangan minyak dan gas, telekomunikasi, finansial, pemerintahan serta industri transportasi yang menggunakan VPN karena fasilitas –fasilitas yang ditawarkan berupa remote access client, internetworking LAN to LAN serta akses yang terkontrol dengan biaya yang murah.  Uji coba yang dilakukan Miercom(LAB penyedia testing kinerja perangkat keras terhadap  Cisco 1841 membuktikan bahwa Cisco 1841 dapat  menopang suatu komunikasi dua arah, interkoneksi IP WAN kapasitas E1 dengan enkripsi 3DES yang dapat menunjang throughput sampai dengan 2 Mbps dalam koneksi E1 IP-WAN. Penggunaan  VPN akan meningkatkan efektivitas, efisiensi kerja serta skalabilitas perusahaan. Keuntungan lain yang didapat dari VPN adalah pada biaya pulsa yang jauh lebih murah dibandingkan dengan menggunakan” leased line”.Kata Kunci: VPN, WAN,  paket informasi, ISP,  remote access client, skalabilitas.

  17. Optimizing the ASC WAN: evaluating network performance tools for comparing transport protocols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydick, Christopher L.

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Simulation & Computing Wide Area Network (ASC WAN), which is a high delay-bandwidth network connection between US Department of Energy National Laboratories, is constantly being examined and evaluated for efficiency. One of the current transport-layer protocols which is used, TCP, was developed for traffic demands which are different from that on the ASC WAN. The Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP), on the other hand, has shown characteristics which make it more appealing to networks such as these. Most important, before considering a replacement for TCP on any network, a testing tool that performs well against certain criteria needs to be found. In order to try to find such a tool, two popular networking tools (Netperf v.2.4.3 & v.2.4.6 (OpenSS7 STREAMS), and Iperf v.2.0.6) were tested. These tools implement both TCP and SCTP and were evaluated using four metrics: (1) How effectively can the tool reach a throughput near the bandwidth? (2) How much of the CPU does the tool utilize during operation? (3) Is the tool freely and widely available? And, (4) Is the tool actively developed? Following the analysis of those tools, this paper goes further into explaining some recommendations and ideas for future work.

  18. [Optimization of technology conditions from Ermiao Wan decoction by semi-bionic extraction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili

    2012-08-01

    To optimize the technology of Ermiao Wan decoction by SBE with uniform design. Uniform design was used to optimize the efficient processing conditions of the SBE for Ermiao Wan decoction according to the content of the berberine, total alkaloids, volatile oil and the yield of the total extract. The extract condition for Ermiao Wan decoction was set up as follow: the pH value of the water was 6.00, 6.50 and 8.7, respectively,and the extract times were 2, 1 and 1 h,respectively. The optimized extraction condition of the SBE for Ermiao Wan decoction is reasonable.

  19. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  20. The Therapeutic Effect of Zuogui Wan in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yuwei Wang; Qianjin Feng; Xin Niu; Xinshe Liu; Kaixia Xu; Xiangzhu Yang; Huifeng Wang; Qiuju Li

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment, we established an animal model of gestational diabetes mellitus rats using streptozotocin. Using the rat model of GDM, the pregnant rats in 1-19d were divided into three groups: (1) Zuogui Wan gestational diabetes mellitus group (group I, n = 12), (2) gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group (group II, n = 11), and (3) rats of normal pregnancy group (group III, n = 11). Compared with gestational diabetes mellitus rats as the control group, Zuogui Wan can cha...

  1. Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth are...... are considered. The consequences of this bounding for communication network planning and provisioning are discussed in relation to mitigating the effects of signal propagation delay as a barrier to the penetration of control applications into WAN...

  2. Scalla/xrootd WAN globalization tools: where we are.

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, F; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The Scalla/Xrootd software suite is a set of tools and suggested methods useful to build scalable, fault tolerant and high performance storage systems for POSIX-like data access. One of the most important recent development efforts has been to implement technologies able to deal with the characteristics of Wide Area Networks, and find solutions in order to allow data analysis applications to directly access remote data repositories in an efficient way. This contribution describes the current status of the various features and mechanisms implemented in the Scalla/Xrootd software suite, which allow to create and efficiently access 'global' data repositories, obtained by aggregating multiple sites through Wide Area Networks. One of these mechanisms is the ability of the clients to efficiently exploit high-latency high-throughput WANs and access remote repositories in read/write mode for analysis-like tasks. We will also discuss the possibilities of making distant data sub-repositories cooperate. The aim is to gi...

  3. Zhi-Bai-Di-Huang-Wan, a classic Chinese medicinal formula in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To explore the effects of Zhi-Bai-Di-Huang-Wan (ZBDHW), a classic formula of Chinese medicinal herbs in relieving menopausal symptoms in British and Chinese women. Methods and Materials: Between May 2011 and May 2013, 224 Chinese and British women were divided into a ZBDHW group with 115 ...

  4. The Efficacy of Jing Wan Hong Ointment for Nerve Injury Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Its Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumei Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wan Hong ointment contains 30 kinds of Chinese herbs, with functions of activating blood circulation to disperse blood stasis, clearing heat, eliminating dampness, and reducing swelling by detoxification. Therefore, Jing Wan Hong ointment may facilitate the healing of ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanisms of Jing Wan Hong ointment for healing diabetic foot ulceration in Wistar rats induced by streptozotocin and sciatic nerve damage. The results showed that Jing Wan Hong ointment had a marked effect on foot ulcers in diabetic rats induced by initial nerve injury. These effects were manifested by reducing the foot ulcer size and Wagner grade after seven days of treatment. The diabetic rats with foot ulcers were almost healed after 21 days of treatment. Moreover, the mechanisms of this effect seem to be dependent on increased expression of PDGF mRNA, but there was no influence on the expression of TGF-β, VEGF, and FLT-1 mRNA.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of Zhen Tian Wan on pial strip-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zhen Tian Wan (ZTW), decoction consisting of seven herbs including Rhizoma ligustici,Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ledebouriella sesloides, Radix Angelica pubescentis, Flos carthami, Ramulus uncariae cumuncis and Radix Angelica dahuricae, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) , as treatment for ...

  6. GPS-free Geolocation using LoRa in Low-Power WANs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fargas, Bernat Carbones; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) has been growing over the last few years in multiple applications and due to the high need GPS for tracking capabilities, an innovative opportunity arises. This paper reports on a design and implementation of a LoRaWAN tracking system which is capable exploiting transmitted...

  7. A Study of Low-Power Wide-Area Networks and an In-Depth Study of the LoRaWAN Standard

    OpenAIRE

    PETTER, LAGUSSON; JOHANNA, NORDLÖF

    2017-01-01

    Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are able to combine long range communication with a low energy consumption sacrificing performance in terms of bit rate and message frequency. This thesis presents a general evaluation of the LPWAN characteristics and a description of the LPWAN protocols LoRaWAN, SigFox and NB-IoT. It also covers a method to evaluate if a LPWAN technology would be a suitable choice of communication technology for a certain use case. Lastly, it covers the implementation of ...

  8. The Immunomodulatory Effect of You-Gui-Wan on Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus-Induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Jen Lin; Chin-Che Lin; Shulhn-Der Wang; Yun-Peng Chao; Shung-Te Kao

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine You-Gui-Wan (YGW) contains ten species of medicinal plants and has been used to improve health in remissive states of asthma for hundreds of years in Asia. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory mechanisms in vivo. Therefore, this study investigated the pathologic and immunologic responses to YGW in mice that had been repeatedly exposed to Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus (Der p). YGW reduced Der-p-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and total IgE in se...

  9. Estudio de las aplicaciones de gestión de la red WAN de un operador de telecomunicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    González Medina, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto se basa en analizar y estudiar exhaustivamente las aplicaciones de gestión de la red WAN de un operador de telecomunicaciones (OdT). Dichas aplicaciones se dividen en dos fases importantes: provisión y mantenimiento. Aquest projecte es basa en analitzar i estudiar exhaustivament les aplicacions de gestió de la xarxa WAN d'un operador de telecomunicacions (OdT). Aquestes aplicacions es divideixen en dues fases importants: provisió i manteniment.

  10. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M.; Jin, X.; X. Ren; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Gao, X

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method wa...

  11. A Dual Key-Based Activation Scheme for Secure LoRaWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT era, we are experiencing rapid technological progress. Billions of devices are connected to each other, and our homes, cities, hospitals, and schools are getting smarter and smarter. However, to realize the IoT, several challenging issues such as connecting resource-constrained devices to the Internet must be resolved. Recently introduced Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN technologies have been devised to resolve this issue. Among many LPWAN candidates, the Long Range (LoRa is one of the most promising technologies. The Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN is a communication protocol for LoRa that provides basic security mechanisms. However, some security loopholes exist in LoRaWAN’s key update and session key generation. In this paper, we propose a dual key-based activation scheme for LoRaWAN. It resolves the problem of key updates not being fully supported. In addition, our scheme facilitates each layer in generating its own session key directly, which ensures the independence of all layers. Real-world experimental results compared with the original scheme show that the proposed scheme is totally feasible in terms of delay and battery consumption.

  12. [Formation and definition of Dao-di herbs:"Wan medicines"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Wang, De-Qun; Peng, Dai-Yin

    2017-05-01

    As the saying goes, bencao is growing in specific areas. Anhui province is located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Plain. Its north-south direction is longer than the east-west and Anhui is divided into three regions by the Yangtze River and Huaihe. It is important for the land to have plentiful traditional Chinese medicine resources, and it exists profound cultural heritage of Chinese medicine and to cluster the Dao-di herbs with a long history. The vicissitude of historical geography of Anhui province was combed, the historical basis of Anhui short as "Wan" was hackles, the prosperity and decline of Dao-di herbs in Anhui territory was sorted out in this paper. This article holds that the history of Anhui established as a province started in the Qing Dynasty, but the history of Dao-di herbs in Anhui territory has always been the same strain, Bencao can be test clearly and production areas is stable. Despite Anhui Dao-di herbs have changed in the different historical periods, its core varieties and essential elements has been inherited to today. Generally speaking, "Wan medicines" are not only collectively called the current territory of Anhui Dao-di herbs, but also include the historical period of Anhui famous Dao-di herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Design and Smartphone-Based Implementation of a Chaotic Video Communication Scheme via WAN Remote Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuosheng; Yu, Simin; Li, Chengqing; Lü, Jinhu; Wang, Qianxue

    This paper proposes a chaotic secure video remote communication scheme that can perform on real WAN networks, and implements it on a smartphone hardware platform. First, a joint encryption and compression scheme is designed by embedding a chaotic encryption scheme into the MJPG-Streamer source codes. Then, multiuser smartphone communications between the sender and the receiver are implemented via WAN remote transmission. Finally, the transmitted video data are received with the given IP address and port in an Android smartphone. It should be noted that, this is the first time that chaotic video encryption schemes are implemented on such a hardware platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the technical challenges on hardware implementation of secure video communication are successfully solved, reaching a balance amongst sufficient security level, real-time processing of massive video data, and utilization of available resources in the hardware environment. The proposed scheme can serve as a good application example of chaotic secure communications for smartphone and other mobile facilities in the future.

  14. CoralWatch Data Analysis at Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A.; Hodgson, P.

    2015-12-01

    CoralWatch is a conservation organization that is based at the University of Queensland in Australia. Their development of the "Coral Health Chart" standardized the colour of corals for the further investigation of coral health and bleaching. The location of this project is in the NE part of Hong Kong in New Territories. The location faces ShenZhen, a heavily industrialized city, which is known for its pollution of the Pearl River. This area is protected by the Hong Kong Government and the WWF since 1996.Human activities have caused large amounts of greenhouse gasses to be released into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has caused the global temperature to rise and made ocean waters more acidic due to ocean respiration. The ocean is a carbon sink for mankind and the effect of severe acidification is negatively affecting marine life. The increase of temperature diminishes the amount of diversity of marine life; the decreasing acidity of the water has eliminated many species of shellfish and sea anemone; the increase of marine exploitation has decreased the diversity of marine life. The release of toxic waste, mainly mercury, waste and plastic products has also polluted the oceans which negatively impact coral reefs and endanger marine life.The data has been collected by observing the colours and discolouration (bleaching) of the corals of approximately 40 colonies per month. The species of coral in Hoi Ha Wan include, Favites flexuosa, Goniopora columna,Leptastrea purpurea, Lithophyllon undulatum, Pavona decussata. and Platygyra acuta (AFCD,1). The evaluation of four years of coralwatch data has shown the bleaching of hard boulder corals in Hoi Ha Wan, Hong Kong, has halted and the reefs are being to show signs of regeneration. Local marine biologists credited the improved situation of the corals to protected status of the area.

  15. Numerical simulations of interactions between Typhoon Choi-wan (0914) and the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, A.; Cronin, M. F.; Sutton, A. J.; Kawai, Y.; Ishii, M.

    2012-12-01

    This study uses data collected by the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO) mooring during the passage of Typhoon Choi-Wan (International designation 0914) to validate numerical simulations of the typhoon-ocean interactions and their effect on carbon dioxide uptake and outgassing conducted by an atmosphere-wave-ocean coupled model incorporating a carbon equilibrium model. The eye of the typhoon passed the KEO mooring, located at 32.3○N, 144.5○E, ~40 km to the southeast on 19 September 2009. The coupled model reasonably simulated the positions of Choi-wan and variation in observed sea-level pressure, although the simulated moving speed was slower than that of the best track when the typhoon passed near the KEO buoy. The slow translation and poor oceanic initial field appeared to cause the results of lower sea-surface temperature (SST), sea-surface salinity (SSS) and oceanic partial CO2 than those of observations. Better agreement was found with the grid point south of the buoy when the eye of the typhoon passed by the buoy three hours ago, where the initial SST and SSS were higher than observations and simulated dissolved inorganic carbon were relatively high compared with that at the buoy. A difference in surface-roughness-length schemes affects sea-level pressure, air temperature and surface wind asymmetry but little effect on the values of SST, SSS and oceanic partial CO2 variations. Therefore, simulation of the sudden variation of the air-sea partial CO2 appears to be more sensitive to the typhoon track, the intensity and oceanic initial field than the effect of ocean waves.

  16. An Evaluation of Traffic Management at ISF Academy on Kong Sin Wan Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students, is located on Kong Sin Wan Road. The majority of students from the academy commute to school every morning by private cars, school buses and other public transportation. For the past few years, the school management team has been imposing traffic management regulations to alleviate and minimize traffic congestion in the nearby area. In spite of that, traffic management on Kong Sin Wan Road is fairly limited and inadequate, resulting in congestion at the start and finish of the school day. As a school, we are dedicated to reduce and mitigate the number of private cars and school buses, as well as to control carbon dioxide emissions from the variety of vehicles. In order to implement strategies to make improvements to the current traffic management system, we, as a school, aim to establish a systematic approach to calculate and model the number of private cars, EV cars, plug-in hybrids and school buses flowing near the ISF campus every day, and the number of students on each vehicle. According to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the average annual carbon dioxide emission for a typical passenger vehicle is 4.7 metric tons. By multiplying the average carbon dioxide emission by the number of cars coming to campus every morning, we will gain a better understanding of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from school vehicles. To extend the research, we will design a survey to investigate and encourage carpooling between families and students who live close, in order to combat and relieve rising traffic congestion and minimize cars crowding the roads. The traffic study project will not only help the school community create a more environment-friendly campus, but also improve the traffic congestion around the school area.

  17. Alveolar bone regeneration potential of a traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-Shen-Gu-Chi-Wan, in experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Wen, Q; Xue, J; Ding, Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-Shen-Gu-Chi-Wan, on experimental periodontitis and bone regeneration in rat. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into three groups: a healthy control group (Group N); a periodontitis group (Group P); and the Bu-Shen-Gu-Chi-Wan treatment group (Group T). A 0.2-mm wire was placed around the maxillary first molar and Porphyromonas gingivalis was injected into the gingival sulcus. Rats in different groups were administered 0.9% normal saline or Bu-Shen-Gu-Chi-Wan solution (4 g/kg of body weight, for three alternate days), and the animals were killed after 4 wk. Morphological analysis of alveolar bone rebuilding was performed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and stereomicroscopy, and the variation of inflammation in the periodontium was determined histologically. The serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and of the bone-turnover biomarkers pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) were determined using radioimmunoassays. After treatment with Bu-Shen-Gu-Chi-Wan, there were significant decreases in the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, ICTP and OC and decreased inflammatory infiltration in the periodontal tissues of Group T. significant changes in alveolar bone volume and density were detected by micro-CT, but stereomicroscopy did not detect a significant improvement of alveolar bone height. The data of the present study suggest that the traditional Chinese medicine, Bu-Shen-Gu-Chi-Wan, has anti-inflammatory function in experimental periodontitis and may simultaneously improve alveolar bone remodeling. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of Various Amounts of Pork and Chicken Meat on the Sensory and Physicochemical Properties of Chinese-style Meatball (Kung-wan)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KANG, Zhuang-Li; ZOU, Yu-Feng; XU, Xing-Lian; ZHU, Chao-Zhi; WANG, Peng; ZHOU, Guang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    ...% on quality attributes of raw meat-emulsion batters and kung-wans were investigated. Increasing the content of chicken breast meat altered the color by increasing lightness and yellowness, increased protein solubility, and increased hardness...

  19. [Study on metabolism of Coptis chinensis alkaloids from different compatibility of Wuji Wan in human intestinal flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Wei; Chen, Ying; Yang, Qing; Li, Yu-Jie; Gong, Zi-Peng; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Ya-Jie; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Xin

    2013-02-01

    To study the metabolism of berberine and palmatine in prescription compatibility of Wuji Wan in human intestinal flora. The L9 (3(4)) orthogonal design was adopted to compare prescription compatibility of nine groups of Wuji Wan composed of Coptis chinensis, Evodiae and fried Radix paeoniae alba into and single ingredient of C. chinensis. They were cultivated with fresh human excrements under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. A HPLC-UV method was adopted for determining berberine and palmatine in bacteria culture medium, in order to compare the metabolism of the two components in different prescription compatibility. Metabolism of berberine was positively correlated with doses, whereas metabolism of palmatine was negatively correlated with doses in extracts from C. chinensis. Compound compatibility speeded up the metabolism of berberine in low dose, which was positively related to the doses of Evodiae and fried Paeoniae Alba Radix; meanwhile Compound compatibility slowed down the metabolism of berberine in high dose, which was negatively related to the dose of Evodiae. Compound compatibility speeded up the metabolism of palmatine in high dose, which was negatively related to the doses of Evodiae and fried Paeoniae Alba Radix. The metabolism of the compatibility of Wuji Wan speeds up, when Coptis chinensis components metabolite rapidly in intestinal flora; while the metabolism of the compatibility of Wuji Wan slows down, when C. chinensis components metabolite slowly in intestinal flora. Therefore, they show a balanced effect. Additionally, different proportion of C. chinensis, Evodiae and fried Paeoniae Alba Radix cause difference in metabolism speed of berberine and palmatine to some extent.

  20. Quality Control of the Traditional Patent Medicine Yimu Wan Based on SMRT Sequencing and DNA Barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Xu, Zhichao; Xin, Tianyi; Shi, Linchun; Song, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Substandard traditional patent medicines may lead to global safety-related issues. Protecting consumers from the health risks associated with the integrity and authenticity of herbal preparations is of great concern. Of particular concern is quality control for traditional patent medicines. Here, we establish an effective approach for verifying the biological composition of traditional patent medicines based on single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and DNA barcoding. Yimu Wan (YMW), a classical herbal prescription recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, was chosen to test the method. Two reference YMW samples were used to establish a standard method for analysis, which was then applied to three different batches of commercial YMW samples. A total of 3703 and 4810 circular-consensus sequencing (CCS) reads from two reference and three commercial YMW samples were mapped to the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively. Moreover, comparison of intraspecific genetic distances based on SMRT sequencing data with reference data from Sanger sequencing revealed an ITS2 and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer that exhibited high intraspecific divergence, with the sites of variation showing significant differences within species. Using the CCS strategy for SMRT sequencing analysis was adequate to guarantee the accuracy of identification. This study demonstrates the application of SMRT sequencing to detect the biological ingredients of herbal preparations. SMRT sequencing provides an affordable way to monitor the legality and safety of traditional patent medicines.

  1. Quality Control of the Traditional Patent Medicine Yimu Wan Based on SMRT Sequencing and DNA Barcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Substandard traditional patent medicines may lead to global safety-related issues. Protecting consumers from the health risks associated with the integrity and authenticity of herbal preparations is of great concern. Of particular concern is quality control for traditional patent medicines. Here, we establish an effective approach for verifying the biological composition of traditional patent medicines based on single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing and DNA barcoding. Yimu Wan (YMW, a classical herbal prescription recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, was chosen to test the method. Two reference YMW samples were used to establish a standard method for analysis, which was then applied to three different batches of commercial YMW samples. A total of 3703 and 4810 circular-consensus sequencing (CCS reads from two reference and three commercial YMW samples were mapped to the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively. Moreover, comparison of intraspecific genetic distances based on SMRT sequencing data with reference data from Sanger sequencing revealed an ITS2 and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer that exhibited high intraspecific divergence, with the sites of variation showing significant differences within species. Using the CCS strategy for SMRT sequencing analysis was adequate to guarantee the accuracy of identification. This study demonstrates the application of SMRT sequencing to detect the biological ingredients of herbal preparations. SMRT sequencing provides an affordable way to monitor the legality and safety of traditional patent medicines.

  2. The Immunomodulatory Effect of You-Gui-Wan on Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus-Induced Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Jen; Lin, Chin-Che; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Chao, Yun-Peng; Kao, Shung-Te

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine You-Gui-Wan (YGW) contains ten species of medicinal plants and has been used to improve health in remissive states of asthma for hundreds of years in Asia. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory mechanisms in vivo. Therefore, this study investigated the pathologic and immunologic responses to YGW in mice that had been repeatedly exposed to Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus (Der p). YGW reduced Der-p-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and total IgE in serum. It also inhibited eosinophil infiltration by downregulating the protein expression of IL-5 in serum and changed the Th2-bios in BALF by upregulating IL-12. Results of the collagen assay and histopathologic examination showed that YGW reduced airway remodeling in the lung. In addition, after YGW treatment there was a relative decrease in mRNA expression of TGF-β1, IL-13, eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung in the YGW group. The results of EMSA and immunohistochemistry revealed that YGW inhibited NF-κB expression in epithelial lung cells. YGW exerts its regulative effects in chronic allergic asthmatic mice via its anti-inflammatory activity and by inhibiting the progression of airway remodeling.

  3. Comparative In Vitro Dissolution of Two Commercially Available Er-Zhi-Wan Herbal Medicinal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Jin, X; Ren, X; Zhu, Y; Liu, Z; Gao, X

    2015-01-01

    In vitro dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicinal products in the solid dosage forms for oral use. Our work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of Er-Zhi-Wan, in the formulations of water-honeyed pill and formula granule. Different media (water, 30% EtOH, 0.1 M HCl, acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8) were used following United States Pharmacopoeia and Chinese Pharmacopeia. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to detect simultaneously six active ingredients for quantification and dissolution study (salidroside, specnuezhenide, nuezhenoside, luteolin, apigenin, oleanolic acid). As we observed, contents of main active ingredients were close in the two formulations for daily dose. In each medium, more ingredients dissolved from formula granule with higher Ymax and Ka. The mean dissolution time of the most ingredients in granule was significantly shorter than that in pill in acetate buffer, pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. Furthermore, salidroside, specnuezhenide and luteolin dissolved more than 80% in 30 min from formula granule, which indicated higher solubility along the intestinal tract according to biopharmaceutics classification system. The dissolution test developed and validated was adequate for its purposes and could be applied for quality control of herbal medicine. This work also can be used to provide necessary information on absorption for its biopharmaceutical properties.

  4. Jiao Tai Wan Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Tai Wan (JTW, a Chinese herbal formula containing Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, has been used for diabetic treatment for many years. The aim of this study was to determine the main components in JTW and to investigate the effects of JTW on hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. JTW extract was prepared and the main components were assayed by HPLC. An animal model of diabetes mellitus was established and JTW was administered intragastrically. In the clinical study, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were treated with JTW. Blood glucose and lipid parameters, liver histology, hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic gene expression were examined. Our data demonstrated that JTW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC and fatty acid synthase (FAS protein expressions, and the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and phosphorylated-ACC (pACC protein expressions in the liver tissues. Diabetic patients also exhibited decreases in their hepatic triglyceride content. The results suggest that JTW attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. These beneficial effects are possibly associated with the inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in the liver.

  5. The Immunomodulatory Effect of You-Gui-Wan on Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus-Induced Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese medicine You-Gui-Wan (YGW contains ten species of medicinal plants and has been used to improve health in remissive states of asthma for hundreds of years in Asia. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory mechanisms in vivo. Therefore, this study investigated the pathologic and immunologic responses to YGW in mice that had been repeatedly exposed to Dermatogoides-pteronyssinus (Der p. YGW reduced Der-p-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and total IgE in serum. It also inhibited eosinophil infiltration by downregulating the protein expression of IL-5 in serum and changed the Th2-bios in BALF by upregulating IL-12. Results of the collagen assay and histopathologic examination showed that YGW reduced airway remodeling in the lung. In addition, after YGW treatment there was a relative decrease in mRNA expression of TGF-β1, IL-13, eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung in the YGW group. The results of EMSA and immunohistochemistry revealed that YGW inhibited NF-κB expression in epithelial lung cells. YGW exerts its regulative effects in chronic allergic asthmatic mice via its anti-inflammatory activity and by inhibiting the progression of airway remodeling.

  6. DNA Extraction Protocol for Biological Ingredient Analysis of Liuwei Dihuang Wan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM preparations are widely used for healthcare and clinical practice. So far, the methods commonly used for quality evaluation of TCM preparations mainly focused on chemical ingredients. The biological ingredient analysis of TCM preparations is also important because TCM preparations usually contain both plant and animal ingredients, which often include some mis-identified herbal materials, adulterants or even some biological contaminants. For biological ingredient analysis, the efficiency of DNA extraction is an important factor which might affect the accuracy and reliability of identification. The component complexity in TCM preparations is high, and DNA might be destroyed or degraded in different degrees after a series of processing procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective protocol for DNA extraction from TCM preparations. In this study, we chose a classical TCM preparation, Liuwei Dihuang Wan (LDW, as an example to develop a TCM-specific DNA extraction method. An optimized cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method (TCM-CTAB and three commonly-used extraction kits were tested for extraction of DNA from LDW samples. Experimental results indicated that DNA with the highest purity and concentration was obtained by using TCM-CTAB. To further evaluate the different extraction methods, amplification of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 and the chloroplast genome trnL intron was carried out. The results have shown that PCR amplification was successful only with template of DNA extracted by using TCM-CTAB. Moreover, we performed high-throughput 454 sequencing using DNA extracted by TCM-CTAB. Data analysis showed that 3–4 out of 6 prescribed species were detected from LDW samples, while up to 5 contaminating species were detected, suggesting TCM-CTAB method could facilitate follow-up DNA-based examination of TCM preparations.

  7. Antinociceptive activity and chemical composition of Wei-Chang-An-Wan extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Jingze; Gao, Wenyuan; Liu, Changxiao

    2013-06-01

    Currently, famous traditional Chinese medicine formulas have undergone re-evaluation and development in China. Wei-Chang-An-Wan (WCAW) as one of them has been used for treating various gastrointestinal diseases for several decades. The secondary development of WCAW is in progress so as to interpret the effective material basis or find new pharmacological activity. To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of WCAW (ME) as well as four fractions (P.E., EtOAc, n-BuOH, H2O) and obtain information on the correlation between the contents of the fractions and antinociceptive effect. ME was divided into four parts extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by three models of acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate test in mice after repetitive administration of ME at 200, 400 or 800 mg/kg, P.E. 132 mg/kg, EtOAc 106 mg/kg, n-BuOH 176 mg/kg and H2O 176 mg/kg for six days. The chemical compounds were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. ME at 800 mg/kg inhibited acid-induced writhing by 84.69%, and reduced the licking time of second phase in formalin test by 53.23%. The inhibition rates in acid-induced writhing of P.E., EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O were 27.79, 33.85, 38.97 and 37.69%, respectively, and in formalin test about 50%. They had no effect on the hot-plate test. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis showed that 68 chemical compounds were detected and 41 compounds were identified from ME. The results obtained herein indicate that WCAW possesses the antinociceptive activity that provides a new aspect in clinical application.

  8. Global Application of TaiWan Ionospheric Model to Single-Frequency GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalalad, E.; Tsai, L. C.; Wu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ionospheric delay is one the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. For single-frequency receivers, this delay is usually removed using ionospheric models. Two of them are the Klobuchar, or broadcast, model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model, is used. It was used to calculate the slant total electron content (STEC) between receiver and GPS satellites to correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to determine a more accurate position of the receiver. Observations were made in July 2, 2011(Kp index = 0-2) in five randomly selected sites across the globe, four of which are IGS stations (station ID: cnmr, coso, irkj and morp) while the other is a low-cost single-frequency receiver located in Chungli City, Taiwan (ID: isls). It was illustrated that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited a detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for single-frequency static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models for all stations. The average %error of the corrections made by Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM in DRMS are 3.88%, 0.78% and 17.45%, respectively. While the average %error in VRMS for Klobuchar, GIM and TWIM are 53.55%, 62.09%, 66.02%, respectively. This shows the capability of TWIM to provide a good global 3-dimensional ionospheric model.

  9. A prototype Infrastructure for Cloud-based distributed services in High Availability over WAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfon, C.; Carlino, G.; De Salvo, A.; Doria, A.; Graziosi, C.; Pardi, S.; Sanchez, A.; Carboni, M.; Bolletta, P.; Puccio, L.; Capone, V.; Merola, L.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the architectural and performance studies concerning a prototype of a distributed Tier2 infrastructure for HEP, instantiated between the two Italian sites of INFN-Romal and INFN-Napoli. The network infrastructure is based on a Layer-2 geographical link, provided by the Italian NREN (GARR), directly connecting the two remote LANs of the named sites. By exploiting the possibilities offered by the new distributed file systems, a shared storage area with synchronous copy has been set up. The computing infrastructure, based on an OpenStack facility, is using a set of distributed Hypervisors installed in both sites. The main parameter to be taken into account when managing two remote sites with a single framework is the effect of the latency, due to the distance and the end-to-end service overhead. In order to understand the capabilities and limits of our setup, the impact of latency has been investigated by means of a set of stress tests, including data I/O throughput, metadata access performance evaluation and network occupancy, during the life cycle of a Virtual Machine. A set of resilience tests has also been performed, in order to verify the stability of the system on the event of hardware or software faults. The results of this work show that the reliability and robustness of the chosen architecture are effective enough to build a production system and to provide common services. This prototype can also be extended to multiple sites with small changes of the network topology, thus creating a National Network of Cloud-based distributed services, in HA over WAN.

  10. DNA extraction protocol for biological ingredient analysis of Liuwei Dihuang Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinwei; Chen, Xiaohua; Su, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Huanxin; Han, Maozhen; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Jian; Bai, Hong; Ning, Kang

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are widely used for healthcare and clinical practice. So far, the methods commonly used for quality evaluation of TCM preparations mainly focused on chemical ingredients. The biological ingredient analysis of TCM preparations is also important because TCM preparations usually contain both plant and animal ingredients, which often include some mis-identified herbal materials, adulterants or even some biological contaminants. For biological ingredient analysis, the efficiency of DNA extraction is an important factor which might affect the accuracy and reliability of identification. The component complexity in TCM preparations is high, and DNA might be destroyed or degraded in different degrees after a series of processing procedures. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective protocol for DNA extraction from TCM preparations. In this study, we chose a classical TCM preparation, Liuwei Dihuang Wan (LDW), as an example to develop a TCM-specific DNA extraction method. An optimized cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method (TCM-CTAB) and three commonly-used extraction kits were tested for extraction of DNA from LDW samples. Experimental results indicated that DNA with the highest purity and concentration was obtained by using TCM-CTAB. To further evaluate the different extraction methods, amplification of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the chloroplast genome trnL intron was carried out. The results have shown that PCR amplification was successful only with template of DNA extracted by using TCM-CTAB. Moreover, we performed high-throughput 454 sequencing using DNA extracted by TCM-CTAB. Data analysis showed that 3-4 out of 6 prescribed species were detected from LDW samples, while up to 5 contaminating species were detected, suggesting TCM-CTAB method could facilitate follow-up DNA-based examination of TCM preparations. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Technical Knowledge, Cultural Practices and Social Boundaries: Wan-Nan Scholars and the Recasting of Jesuit Astronomy, 1600-1800

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ping-Yi.

    Taking four Wan-nan Confucian scholars--Yang Kuang -hsien, Mei Wen-ting, Chiang Yung and Tai Chen--as examples, this dissertation studies how an immigrant Jesuit scientific community built and defended itself in a specialized institutional niche located at the Ch'ing court and how a defeated Chinese scientific tradition successfully survived by occupying a broader cultural space, with the Manchu emperor in between. Special attention is paid to how these four Confucian scholars constructed social boundaries between the Chinese and the Westerners in their astronomical discourses and how they domesticated Western astronomy in order to fit the Chinese cultural conditions situated in the power structure built by the Manchus. This inquiry begins with a brief introduction of Wan-nan and the Wan-nan school. I then discuss how the Jesuits legitimated their knowledge during the Ming -Ch'ing transition, and how Jesuit astronomy was situated within the power nexus between the Confucian literati and the emperors. The next chapter focuses on Yang Kuang-hsien and his challenges to the Jesuits. I examine his strategies and the power structure in which Yang carried out his challenge to the Jesuits. The fourth and fifth chapters investigate how Mei Wen-ting restructured the relationship between Confucianism and astronomy. The former chapter focuses on Mei's social networking and his ambivalence towards the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties, on the one hand, and towards Chinese and Western learning on the other. The latter chapter deals with how Mei Wen-ting recast Chinese astronomical tradition and Confucianism. In the sixth chapter, I will compare the fame of Chiang Yung and Tai Chen in order to demonstrate how astronomy was practiced in evidential studies after Mei Wen-ting, and how evidential studies itself conveyed an ideological construction of the other. Through integrating Western astronomy with indigenous tradition while exorcising the otherness contained within the cultural package

  12. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing Zuo Gui Wan and/or You Gui Wan on the Differentiation of Stem Cells Derived from Human First Trimester Umbilical Cord into Oocyte-Like Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zuo Gui Wan (ZGW and You Gui Wan (YGW are two classic formulas used in clinical treatment of infertility in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the actions of the formulas remain to be proven at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigate whether the two formulas have any effect on germ cell formation and differentiation by culturing rat medicated serums containing YGW or ZGW with stem cells derived from human first trimester umbilical cord. Our results showed that while the normal rat serums had no significant effects, the rat medicated serums had significant effects on the differentiation of the stem cells into oocyte-like cells (OLCs based on (1 cell morphological changes that resembled purative cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; (2 expressions of specific markers that were indicative of germ cell formation and oocyte development; and (3 estradiol production by the COC-like cells. Furthermore, ZGW medicated serums exhibited more obvious effects on specific gene expressions of germ cells, whereas YGW medicated serums showed stronger effects on estradiol production. Accordingly, our study provides evidence demonstrating for the first time that one of molecular and cellular actions of YGW or ZGW in treating human reproductive dysfunctions may be through an enhancement of neooogenesis.

  13. The ENET WAN of ENEA`S geographical network: Present situation and optimization; La rete geografica ENET dell`ENEA: Situazione attuale e proposte di ottimizzazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongiovanni, Giancarlo [Rome, Univ. La Sapienza (Italy); Di Marco, Roberto Antonio [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica; Marocco, Glaudio

    1997-10-01

    The wide area networks for data transmission are submitting to evolution process by technological progress and unrelated process to the network. The evolution process can be originated by the bottom up integration of different networks that were born to solve specific problems (i.e.: scientific calculations and business administration). The ENET WAN of ENEA had been submitted to the same evolution progress. In this thesis the author analyze all the problems about WAN with emphasis in ENET WAN. The purpose of this research is the analysis of the present situation in particularly links, efficiency, expenses and throughput. The goal is to suggest alternative solutions to optimized the network and to amplify the throughput by new technology. The research suggests in particularly two new wide area networks: ENET{sub C}-LAN95 e ENET{sub S}ERV96. The first one is a mix interconnection solution, that is basis on the public network C-LAN, with the transportation protocol Frame Relay, and on the private links Numerical Direct Channels (CDN). The second one is also a mix interconnection solution, but it is based on two new network services that are supplied by two new public networks just introduce in Italian telecommunications market since `96. Frame Relay and ATM are the transportation protocol employed.

  14. Searching for Synergistic Bronchodilators and Novel Therapeutic Regimens for Chronic Lung Diseases from a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhou, Mengge; Fang, Runping; Jiang, Min; Hou, Wenbin; Bai, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for β2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the β2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective βAR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD. PMID:25397687

  15. Synergistic Effect of Zuo Jin Wan on DDP-Induced Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901/DDP Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Feng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW, has been found as an anticancer drug in human cancer. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ZJW extracts on DDP-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901/DDP cells. Our results demonstrated that ZJW extracts could increase the sensitivity of SGC-7901/DDP cells to DDP by increasing the concentration of DDP in cytoplasm and enhance the proapoptosis of DDP by upregulating the JNK and Bax expression, downregulating the Bcl-2 expression, increasing the accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm, and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In vivo, ZJW extracts enhanced the inhibiting effect of DDP on tumor growth in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft model and upregulated the expression of p-JNK and Bax but downregulated the Bcl-2 expression in xenograft tumors. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo, ZJW extracts could enhance the proapoptotic effect of DDP by promoting the activation of JNK and the expression of Bcl-2, inhibiting the Bax expression, followed by increasing the release of Cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and finally activating the caspase cade reaction. Our results implied that ZJW might serve as a synergistic drug with chemotherapeutic drugs DDP in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  16. Searching for synergistic bronchodilators and novel therapeutic regimens for chronic lung diseases from a traditional Chinese medicine, Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hou

    Full Text Available Classical Chinese pharmacopeias describe numerous excellent herbal formulations, and each prescription is an outstanding pool of effective compounds for drug discovery. Clarifying the bioactivity of the combined mechanisms of the ingredients in complex traditional Chinese medicine formulas is challenging. A classical formula known as Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, used clinically as a treatment for prevalent chronic lung disease, was investigated in this work. A mutually enhanced bioactivity-guided ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS characterization system was proposed, coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter assay for β2AR-agonist cofactor screening. Arctiin, arctigenin, descurainoside and descurainolide B, four lignin compounds that showed synergistic bronchodilation effects with ephedrine, were revealed. The synergistic mechanism of arctigenin with the β2ARagonist involved with the reduction of free Ca2+ was clarified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay for intracellular calcium and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4/AM to monitor changes in the fluorescence. The relaxant and contractile responses of airway smooth muscle are regulated by crosstalk between the intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Our data indicated the non-selective βAR agonist ephedrine as the principal bronchodilator of the formula, whereas the lignin ingredients served as adjuvant ingredients. A greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the control of these pathways, based on conventional wisdom, could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets or new agents for the treatment of asthma and COPD.

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility of security technologies in teleradiology as biometric fingerprint scanners for data exchange over a satellite WAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soegner, Peter I.; Helweg, Gernot; Holzer, Heimo; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of fingerprint-scanners in combination with smart cards for personal identification and transmission of encrypted TCP/IP-data-packages via satellite between the university-hospital of Innsbruck and the rural hospital of Reutte. The aim of our study was the proof of the userfriendliness of the SkymedTM technology for security purpose in teleradiology. We examined the time of the personal identification process, the time for the necessary training and the personal satisfaction. The images were sent from the local PACS in Reutte via a Data-Encryption-and-Transmission- Box via satellite from Reutte to Innsbruck. We used an asymmetric bandwidth of 512 kbit/s from Reutte to Innsbruck and 128 kbit/s in the opposite direction. Window NT 4.0- operating PCs were used for the electronical patient record, the medical inquiry of the referring physician and the final report of the radiologist. The images were reported on an UNIX-PACS viewing station. After identification through fingerprint-scanners in combination with the smart card the radiologist was able to open the electronic patient record (EPR) from Reutte and sign with his digital signature his confirmed final report before it was send back to Reutte. The used security technology enables encrypted communication over a WAN, which fulfill data-protection.

  18. [Research on whole blending end-point evaluation method of Angong Niuhuang Wan based on QbD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Na; Zheng, Qiu-Sheng; Che, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2017-03-01

    The blending end-point determination of Angong Niuhuang Wan (AGNH) is a key technology problem. The control strategy based on quality by design (QbD) concept proposes a whole blending end-point determination method, and provides a methodology for blending the Chinese materia medica containing mineral substances. Based on QbD concept, the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to assess the cinnabar, realgar and pearl powder blending of AGNH in a pilot-scale experiment, especially the whole blending end-point in this study. The blending variability of three mineral medicines including cinnabar, realgar and pearl powder, was measured by moving window relative standard deviation (MWRSD) based on LIBS. The time profiles of realgar and pearl powder did not produce consistent results completely, but all of them reached even blending at the last blending stage, so that the whole proposal blending end point was determined. LIBS is a promising Process Analytical Technology (PAT) for process control. Unlike other elemental determination technologies such ICP-OES, LIBS does not need an elaborate digestion procedure, which is a promising and rapid technique to understand the blending process of Chinese materia medica (CMM) containing cinnabar, realgar and other mineral traditional Chinese medicine. This study proposed a novel method for the research of large varieties of traditional Chinese medicines.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. The absence of fan activism in the queer fandom of Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk Yin Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The queer fandom of female Hong Kong pop singer Ho Denise Wan See (HOCC from 2009 to mid-2011 is dealt with through the qualitative methodology of in-depth interviews and media ethnography. HOCC, an idiosyncratic cultural producer who dabbles in the politics of ambiguity, creates texts that invite queer interpretations from fans and from queer activists in Hong Kong. Via analyses informed by both queer studies and audience studies, the various creative practices of fans in reshaping their sexual identities via popular culture are explored. These practices are highly political and empowering to a queer audience. However, the intensive rewriting of meanings as queer symbolic creativity and tactics in cultural politics fail to transform into formal institutional politics and more confrontational queer activism. This is so for several reasons. Internally, the hierarchical structure of fan organization, fan proximity to the culture industry, and the top-down encouragement of social charity as the only channel of activism have all reduced the possibility of transforming fans' queer sensibilities into institutional queer politics. Furthermore, Hong Kong, under the influence of three major discourses that seek to discipline and regulate sexualities—traditional Chinese ethics, the British colonial legacy, and the postcolonial revival of rightist Christianity—has a long social history of heterosexist discrimination and a preference for normalizing when striving for queer citizenship. This empirical study examines relations between cultural specificity and fan agency in a non-Western context.

  20. Chromatographic fingerprinting analysis of Zhizhu Wan preparation by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Sakurai, Tetsuro; Jiang, Jinzhong; Wang, Xijun

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been used for over 1000 years and most of them contain complicate chemical constituents. Chromatographic fingerprinting has been widely accepted as a crucial method for qualitative and quantitative analyses for TCM. Zhi Zhu Wan (ZZW), a classical Chinese medical formula, has been commonly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disease, which pose a serious challenge to its quality control. In this work, a sensitive and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was developed to control the quality of ZZW for chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative analysis of four major bioactive constituents, including hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, and atractylenolide I. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Symmetry C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm particle size), with an aqueous 0.095% phosphate acid and acetonitrile mobile phase gradient. Optimization of other experimental conditions was validated with satisfactory accuracy, precision, repeatability, and recovery. In quantitative analysis, the four components showed good regression (R > 0.9994) within test ranges, and the recovery method ranged from 99.32% to 100.630%. HPLC fingerprints of the ZZW samples were compared by performing similarity analysis. The results indicated that the newly developed HPLC-PDA fingerprint method would be suitable for quality control of ZZW.

  1. Realgar and realgar-containing Liu-Shen-Wan are less acutely toxic than arsenite and arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liang, Shi-Xia; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Miao, Jia-Wei; Wu, Qin; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-03-08

    Liu-Shen-Wan (LSW) is a widely-used traditional Chinese medicine containing realgar (As(4)S(4)). Realgar has been included in many traditional medicines, and is often taken as arsenite for risk assessment in realgar-containing traditional remedies. Is realgar toxicologically similar to arsenite? Mice were orally given LSW (60 and 200mg/kg; 200mg LSW contains 27 mg realgar), realgar (30 mg/kg, equivalent to 21 mg As/kg), and the equivalent As dose as sodium arsenite (NaAsO(2)), or as arsenate (Na(2)HAsO(4)). Acute toxicity and tissue As accumulation were determined 8h later. Arsenite and arsenate increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, indicative of liver injury; blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was also increased by arsenite and arsenate, indicative of nephrotoxicity. No elevations of ALT and BUN were observed in LSW and realgar groups. Histopathology showed more damage in arsenite- and arsenate-treated liver and kidneys, while in realgar- and LSW- treated animals, only mild alterations were seen. Hepatic and renal As contents were dramatically increased to 6200 and 3350ng/g, respectively, after arsenite, but only increased to 260 and 180 ng/g after LSW. The expressions of arsenic-sensitive stress genes, namely metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, were increased after arsenite or arsenate by 3-10-folds, but were unaltered after LWS and realgar. Realgar and LSW are much less toxic than arsenite and arenate. The use of total As content to evaluate the safety of realgar-containing traditional medicines is not scientifically sound. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Study on effect and mechanism of cinnabaris and realgar in promoting awake of endotoxin-induced brain injury rat applied with Angong Niuhuang Wan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun-Jie; Sun, Jian-Ning

    2014-10-01

    To explore the effect and mechanism of cinnabaris and realgar in promoting awake effect of endotoxin- induced brain injury rat applied with Angong Niuhuang Wan. Normal rats implanted cortical electrode in advance were divided into 6 groups: control, model, the Angong Niuhuang Wan (AGNH, 0.4, 0.2 g · kg(-1)), the Angong Niuhuang Wan without cinnabaris and realgar (QZX-AGNH, 0.32, 0.16 g · kg(-1)). Rats in the control and model groups were given distilled water. After three days of intragastric administration, the brain injury model was injected with endotoxin through tail vein. Then trace electro-corticogram (EcoG) 1-6 h after LPS injection, and compare the power and relative power of beta (β) and delta-waves (δ) at 6 h of these groups. The content of acetylcholine (Ach) and the affinity of M-receptor (M-R) in cortex and brainstem were detected by alkaline hydroxylamine colorimetric method and radioactive ligand binding assay, respectively. AGNH (0.4, 0.2 g · kg(-1)) could increase the power and relative power of β and AGNH (0.4 g · kg(-1)) showed better action on brain electrical activation. QZX-AGNH showed weak effect on it. AGNH (0.4 g · kg(-1)) could increase the affinity of M-R in cortex and the content of Ach in brainstem. The action of QZX-AGNH was not obvious. In endotoxin-induced brain injury rats, AGNH can raise the cholinergic system function of cortex, and strengthen the uplink of cortex activation of brainstem cholinergic system, improve the level of cortical activity and enhance the activation of EcoG to promote the body's awakening. QZX-AGNH show weak effect. Cinnabaris and realgar play an important role in promoting awake effect in endotoxin-induced brain injury applied with Angong Niuhuang Wan. The mechanism may be related to cortical and brainstem cholinergic system function.

  3. Application of TaiWan Ionosphere Model to Single-Frequency Ionospheric Delay Correction for GPS Static Position Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalalad, E. P.; Tsai, L.; Wu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Ionospheric delay is one of the major sources of error in GPS positioning and navigation. This error in both pseudorange and phase ranges can vary depending on the location of observation, local time, season, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity. This effect can be practically removed using dual-frequency receivers. However, these types of receivers are very expensive and thus, impractical for most users. Therefore, for single-frequency receivers, ionosphere is usually modeled to attempt to remove this effect analytically. Numerous ionosphere models have been introduced in the past. Some of which are the Klobuchar (or broadcast) model and the global ionosphere map (GIM) provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS). In this paper, another model, called the TaiWan Ionosphere Model (TWIM) was used to correct this effect. TWIM is a three dimensional ionospheric electron (ne) density model derived from FormoSat3/COSMIC GPS Radio Occultation measurements, was used to calculate ionospheric delay for GPS single-frequency positioning. The ne profiles were used to calculate the slant TEC (STEC) between a receiver and each GPS satellite and correct the pseudorange single-frequency observations. The corrected pseudorange for every epoch was used to calculate the position of the receiver. Observations were made in a low-latitude location near one of the peaks of the equatorial anomaly. It was shown that TEC maps generated using TWIM exhibited detailed structure of the ionosphere, whereas Klobuchar and GIM only provided the basic diurnal and geographic features of the ionosphere. Also, it was shown that for static point positioning TWIM provides more accurate and more precise positioning than the Klobuchar and GIM models. That is, on the average, the horizontal accuracy, represented by the circular error probable (CEP), distance RMS (DRMS) and twice the DRMS (2DRMS), were better by 15-18% as compared with the CEP, DRMS and 2DRMS of uncorrected, Klobuchar and GIM. Moreover

  4. Realgar, cinnabar and An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan are much less chronically nephrotoxic than common arsenicals and mercurials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Yan, Jun-Wen; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-02-01

    Realgar (As(4)S(4)) and cinnabar (HgS) are frequently included in traditional Chinese medicines and Indian Ayurvedic medicines. Both As and Hg are well known for toxic effects, and their safety is of concern. The aim of this study was to compare chronic nephrotoxicity of An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH), realgar and cinnabar with common arsenicals and mercurials. Mice were orally administrated with AGNH (3 g/kg, 6-fold of clinical dose), cinnabar (0.3 g/kg, amount in AGNH) and realgar (0.3 g/kg, amount in AGNH), HgCl(2) (0.118 mmol/kg, 1/10 of cinnabar), MeHg (0.012 mmol/kg, 1/100 of cinnabar), NaAsO(2) (As(3+) 0.028 mmol/kg, 1/100 of realgar) or Na(2)HAsO(4) (As(5+) 0.056 mmol/kg, 1/50 of realgar), daily for six weeks, and nephrotoxicity was examined. Animal body weights were decreased by MeHg and HgCl(2). Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were elevated by MeHg. Renal pathology was severe in the MeHg and HgCl(2) groups, moderate in the arsenite, arsenate and realgar groups and mild in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Renal Hg accumulation in the MeHg and HgCl(2) groups was 50-200 folds higher than the cinnabar group. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for metal toxicity, were increased 2-5 folds by arsenite, arsenate, MeHg and HgCl(2), but not by realgar, cinnabar and AGNH. The chemokine and glutathione-S transferase-α4, markers for inflammation, were also increased by MeHg and HgCl(2). Expressions of cell adhesion gene S100a9 and E-cadherin were altered by HgCl(2), arsenite and realgar. Taken together, chemical forms of mercury and arsenic are major determinants in their disposition and toxicity.

  5. Litter and Soil Carbon Stock in Cultivated and Natural Area of Intergrated Forest for Conservation Education of Wan Abdul Rachman Great Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Dellta Ellannia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intergrated Forest for Conservation Education of Wan Abdul Rachman (IFCE WAR Great Forest Park is a conservation forest zone which has natural area and cultivated area. The natural area in Wan Abdul Rachman Great Forest Park consists of secondary forest, whereas the cultivated area consists of agroforestry with cacao plants and agroforestry with coffee plants. The different land use in both areas caused the difference in carbon sink specifically in litter and soil. The research was aimed to study the difference of litter and soil carbon stock in natural and cultivated area in IFCE WAR Great Forest Park. The observation plots included in the current study was determined using purposive sampling method. The research was conducted in June until August 2015. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance and continued with honestly significant difference test. The results showed that there was no difference of litter carbon stock in cultivated area and natural area in IFCE WAR Great Forest Park, whereas the soil carbon stock in natural area was higher than that in cultivated area.

  6. Using multiple-criteria decision-making techniques for eco-environmental vulnerability assessment: a case study on the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pi-Hui; Tsai, Jing-Shyan; Lin, Wen-Tzu

    2010-09-01

    The Chi-Jia-Wan Stream watershed, located in the area of the upstream Da-Chia River in central Taiwan, is famous for slopeland agriculture and the land-locked salmon. Improper agricultural activities have caused apparent ecosystem vulnerability and sensitivity. In this study, a system that combined three watershed-based environmental indicators with multiple-criteria decision-making techniques, the Analytical Hierarchy Process, and the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations was developed to assess eco-environmental vulnerability. The composite evaluation index system was set up including sediment, runoff, and nutrient factors. Supported by geographic information system and K-means clustering and taking the subwatershed as the evaluation unit, the vulnerability is classified into four levels: potential, low, moderate, and high. The evaluated results show that 8.82% of subwatersheds (six subwatersheds) are in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones. These subwatersheds represent vertical-belt distribution, mainly concentrated in the right side of the studied area and near the riparian zone along the Chi-Jia-Wan Stream. The exploited farmland in the moderately and highly vulnerable zones is about 142.21 ha, occupying 75.38% of the total farmland in the studied watershed. These seriously vulnerable zones that have caused degradation in the quality of the eco-environment should be treated with more best management practices for eco-environmental rehabilitation. Additionally, the proposed model can effectively evaluate the eco-environmental vulnerability grade for reference in policy planning and ecological restoration in this area.

  7. Airborne Cloud Radar (ACR) Reflectivity, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes 94 GHz co- and cross-polarized radar reflectivity. The Airborne Cloud Radar (ACR) sensor was mounted to a NASA P-3 aircraft flown over the Sea...

  8. PSR/A Multiband Polarimetric Imaging, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes brightness temperature data measured over the Sea of Japan, the Western Pacific Ocean, and the Japanese Islands in January and February 2003....

  9. Advanced materials for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu (Kyo Jo), Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine-Based Photosensitizing Metal Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCheuk-Lam Ho and Wai-Yeung Wongp-Type Small Electron-Donating Molecules for Organic Heterojunction Solar CellsZhijun Ning and He TianInorganic Materials for Solar Cell ApplicationsYasutake ToyoshimaDevelopment of Thermoelectric Technology from Materials to GeneratorsRyoji Funahashi, Chunlei Wan, Feng Dang, Hiroaki Anno, Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Takeyuki Fujisaka, and Kunihito KoumotoPiezoelectric Materials for Energy HarvestingDeepam Maurya, Yongke Yan, and Shashank PriyaAdvanced Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Ca

  10. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Unlock the mysteries of energy! Energy is more than ""the ability to do work""; we present these concepts in a way that makes them more accessible to students and easier to understand. The best way to understand energy is to first look at all the different kinds of energy including: What Is Energy, Mechanical Energy, Thermal, Sound Energy and Waves, as well as Light Energy.

  11. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Santos Giani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and 99mTc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P and blood cells (BC were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (pBuzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong é uma fórmula utilizada na Medicina Tradicional Chinesa para tratamento de distúrbios nos sistemas digestório e circulatório. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são usados na medicina nuclear. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do extrato de Buzhong na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com diferentes concentrações do extrato de Buzhong e a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram separados, frações solúveis e insolúveis do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram isoladas. A radioatividade nos constituintes sangüíneos foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade incorporada (%ATI, determinada. Extrato de Buzhong nas maiores concentrações utilizadas altera significativamente (p<0.05 a %ATI nos constituintes sangüíneos. Substâncias presentes no extrato de Buzhong poderiam alterar a membrana celular e/ou gerar radicais livres, que têm propriedades oxidantes, modificando a marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com

  12. Identification of the Chemical Constituents in Simiao Wan and Rat Plasma after Oral Administration by GC-MS and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunshuang; Li, Yamei; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Lixin; Wang, Yuming; Li, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    Simiao Wan (SMW), an important multiherbal formula used in traditional Chinese medicine, is extensively used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, the knowledge of the bioactive components of SMW remains unclear. Thus, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to analyze the chemical constituents of volatile and nonvolatile extracts of SMW, as well as its absorbed components in rat plasma after oral SMW administration. Identification of several compounds was enabled by comparison of retention times, MS spectra, and MS/MS spectral data with the standard substance and reference materials reported in the literature. In the volatile extracts, GC-MS identified 26 compounds in vitro, three of which observed in blood by GC-MS. In the nonvolatile extracts, LC-MS identified 49 compounds in SMW; 18 compounds containing 7 prototype compounds, 5 metabolites, and 6 unknown compounds were absorbed by blood. The proposed GC-MS and LC-MS method was appropriate not only for the rapid screening and identification of multiple components of an SMW extract but also for screening its bioactive constituents in vivo. The proposed method could be a promising tool for the quality control of other Chinese herbal medicines.

  13. Preparation of a micro/nanotechnology based multi-unit drug delivery system for a Chinese medicine Niuhuang Xingxiao Wan and assessment of its antitumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhang, Yongtai; Yang, Gang; Guo, Teng; Feng, Nianping

    2015-08-15

    Novel drug delivery systems have previously never been used in the formulation of any crude unfractionated traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, a multi-unit drug delivery system (MUDDS) for a Chinese medicine Niuhuang Xingxiao Wan (NXW) was prepared using micro/nanotechnologies to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy. NXW was formulated into four units, that is, realgar, frankincense and myrrh oil (FMO), musk, and bezoar. The four units were processed using the wet ball milling, high-pressure homogenization, liquid nitrogen freezing-ultracentrifugation trituration, and dry grinding methods, respectively. After formulation, the four independent units prepared were encapsulated together to obtain the final NXW-MUDDS. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), terminal half-life (T1/2), and time to reach the peak plasma concentration (Tmax) following administration of NXW-MUDDS were 5.21, 1.96, and 1.99 times higher, respectively, than that of NXW. The in vivo antitumor activity assay showed that the efficacy of NXW-MUDDS was significantly higher (Pnanotechnologies in formulating Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A High Content Screening Assay to Identify Compounds with Anti-Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Effects from the Chinese Herbal Medicine Tong-Mai-Yang-Xin-Wan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide health problem with growing prevalence in developing countries. Renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a critical step and key factor in the development of this condition. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a basic pathological change at the later stages of the disease. Therefore, blocking the development of EMT could be a critical factor in curing CKD. We have established a cell-based high-content screening (HCS method to identify inhibitors of EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2 cells by automatic acquisition and processing of dual-fluorescent labeled images. With the aid of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry, we achieved the rapid and reliable screening of active compounds from the Chinese herbal medicine Tong-Mai-Yang-Xin-Wan (TMYX for treating EMT. Five fractions were found to exert anti-EMT activity and were further identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Glycyrrhizic acid, glyasperin A, and licorisoflavan A were found to inhibit EMT. The proposed approach was successfully applied to screen active compounds from TMYX on TGF-β1-stimulated HK-2 cells and may offer a new means for identifying lead compounds for treating EMT from registered Chinese herbal medicines.

  15. Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats through PKC-α/NADPH Oxidase Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW is a Chinese herbal prescription used to treat kidney deficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of HLBW on diabetic nephropathy (DN in type 2 diabetic rats. The rat model of DN was established by being fed a high-fat diet and intravenous injection of streptozotocin. Then, HLBW decoction was administered for 16 weeks. Blood glucose level, lipid profile, renal function, 24-hour total urinary protein, and albumin content were examined. Renal morphology and superoxide anion levels were evaluated. The activity of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α related genes expression in renal tissue were also determined. Our data demonstrated that HLBW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria in diabetic rats compared with those of control group. HLBW also alleviated glomerular expansion and fibrosis, extracellular matrix accumulation and effacement of the foot processes. Additionally, HLBW reduced superoxide anion level, NADPH oxidase activity, the protein and mRNA expressions of p47phox, and the protein expression of phosphorylated PKC-α in renal tissue. These results suggest that HLBW is effective in the treatment of DN in rats. The underlying mechanism may be related to the attenuation of renal oxidative stress via PKC-α/NADPH oxidase signaling pathway.

  16. Hepatorenal protective effects of medicinal herbs in An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) against cinnabar- and realgar-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ao; Zhang, Jing-Yao; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Song-Song; Wan, Jian-Bo; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Li, Peng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2017-12-02

    An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription that contains cinnabar (HgS) and realgar (As 2 S 2 ); the clinical practice of AGNH is hindered because both mercury and arsenic are hepatorenal toxic metalloids. It is noted that the cinnabar and realgar in AGNH are not used alone, but rather combined with different kinds of medicinal herbs as a formula to use. In this study, we evaluated the hepatorenal protective effects of the medicinal herbs in AGNH after co-exposure to cinnabar and realgar for 4 weeks in mice. The combination of the herbs in AGNH alleviated cinnabar and realgar-induced histopathological alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidneys. Furthermore, in cinnabar and realgar-treated mice, the increased expression levels of inducible enzymes (COX-2 and iNOS) and proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2 and NO) in the liver and kidneys were consistently down-regulated when medicinal herbs were combined as a formula. We also found that the herbs could reduce the inflammatory response by the inactivation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and the resulting blockade of NF-κB activation. Overall, our data indicates that the herbal medicines in AGNH attenuate cinnabar and realgar-induced hepatorenal toxicity by improving antioxidant competence and suppressing inflammatory injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Si Shen Wan Regulates Phospholipase Cγ-1 and PI3K/Akt Signal in Colonic Mucosa from Rats with Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan-yong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the feasible pathway of Si Shen Wan (SSW in inhibiting apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs by observing activation of phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLC-γ1 and PI3K/Akt signal in colonic mucosa from rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. After SSW was administrated for 7 days after TNBS infusion, western blot showed an increment in levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and IL-23 and a decrement in levels of PLC-γ1 and HSP70 in colonic mucosal injury induced by TNBS. Meanwhile, assessments by ELISA revealed an increment in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17 and a reduction in level of TGF-β after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with SSW for 7 days significantly attenuated the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt and the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 and promoted the activation of PLC-γ1, HSP70, and TGF-β. Our previous studies had demonstrated that SSW restored colonic mucosal ulcers by inhibiting apoptosis of IECs. The present study demonstrated that the effect of SSW on inhibiting apoptosis of IECs was realized probably by activation of PLC-γ1 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  18. Guizhi Fuling Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Sensitizes Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells through Inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the possible mechanisms that Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW enhances the sensitivity of the SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells and the resistant xenograft tumours to cisplatin. Rat medicated sera containing GFW were prepared by administering GFW to rats, and the primary bioactive constituents of the sera were gallic acid, paeonol, and paeoniflorin analysed by HPLC/QqQ MS. Cell counting kit-8 analysis was shown that coincubation of the sera with cisplatin/paclitaxel enhanced significantly the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin or paclitaxel in SKOV3/DDP cells. The presence of the rat medicated sera containing GFW resulted in an increase in rhodamine 123 accumulation by flow cytometric assays and a decrease in the protein levels of P-gp, phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, and mTOR in a dose-dependent manner in SKOV3/DDP cells by western blot analysis, but the sera had no effect on the protein levels of PI3K p110α and total AKT. The low dose of GFW enhanced the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment in resistant SKOV3/DDP xenograft tumours. GFW could sensitize cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP cells by inhibiting the protein level and function of P-gp, which may be medicated through inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

  19. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: tgiani@gmail.com; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  20. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  1. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  2. Paeonifiorin sulfonate as a characteristic marker for specifically inspecting Chinese patent medicine Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan contained sulfur-fumigated Moutan Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Yang; Long, Fang; Xu, Jin-Di; Shen, Hong; Kong, Ming; Zhu, He; Zhang, Ye-Qing; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-05-10

    Sulfur fumigation can induce chemical transformation of bioactive components, consequently the alteration of bioactivities or even toxicities of medicinal herbs. Inspecting Chinese patent medicines (CPM) contained sulfur-fumigated constituent herbs is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of CPM. Paeonifiorin sulfonate is a sulfur-fumigation induced compound of Moutan Cortex (MC), one of the main constituent herbs of a commonly used CPM Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan (LWDHW). Herein, we investigated the approach of paeonifiorin sulfonate as a characteristic marker for specifically inspecting LWDHW potentially contained sulfur-fumigated MC (SFMC). First, mimic LWDHW samples contained SFMC (SFMC-LWDHW) and non-fumigated MC (NFMC-LWDHW) were prepared respectively. Second, an LC-MS method was developed and validated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine paeonifiorin sulfonate in the mimic LWDHW samples. Third, the established method was applied to analyze the commercial LWDHW samples. The results showed that paeoniflorin sulfonate could only be detectable in SFMC-LWDHW, but not in NFMC-LWDHW samples. The CPM matrix could enhance the response of paeoniflorin sulfonate in mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, the LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability were also demonstrated to be acceptable for quantifying paeoniflorin sulfonate in LWDHW. Commercial samples analysis indicated that paeoniflorin sulfonate were detectable in 9 of 10 commercial LWDHW samples, with the content varied between 105.53μg/g and 438.61μg/g. All the results suggested that paeoniflorin sulfonate could be used as a characteristic and reliable chemical marker for specifically inspecting commercial LWDHW contained SFMC. This study also provides a new strategy for the quality control of other CPMs potentially produced from sulfur-fumigated constituent herbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Realgar- and cinnabar-containing an-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is much less acutely toxic than sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Yan, Jun-Wen; Wu, Qin; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

    2011-01-15

    An-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used for brain trauma, hemorrhage, and coma. AGNH contains 10% realgar (As₄S₄) and 10% cinnabar (HgS). Both As and Hg are well-known for their toxic effects, and the safety of AGNH is of concern. To address this question, the acute toxicity of AGNH, realgar and cinnabar were compared to sodium arsenite (NaAsO₂) and mercuric chloride (HgCl₂). Mice were administrated orally AGNH at 1, 3 and 6g/kg. AGNH at 3g/kg contains 2.8mmol As/kg as realgar and 1.18mmol Hg/kg as cinnabar. Realgar, cinnabar, arsenite (0.28 mmol/kg, 10% of realgar) and HgCl₂ (0.256 mmol/kg, 20% of cinnabar) were orally given to mice for comparison. Blood and tissues were collected 8h later for toxicity evaluation. Serum alanine aminotransferase was increased by arsenite and blood urea nitrogen was increased by HgCl₂. Total As accumulation after arsenite in liver (100-fold) and kidney (13-fold) was much higher than that after realgar. The accumulation of Hg after HgCl₂ in liver was 400-fold higher and kidney 30-fold higher than after cinnabar. Histopathology showed moderate liver and kidney injuries after arsenite and HgCl₂, but injuries were mild or absent after AGNH, realgar, and cinnabar. The expression of metallothionein-1, a biomarker of metal exposure, was increased 4-10-fold by arsenite and HgCl₂, but was unchanged by AGNH, realgar and cinnabar. Thus, AGNH, realgar and cinnabar are much less toxic acutely than arsenite and HgCl₂. The chemical forms of As and Hg are extremely important factors in determining their disposition and toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accumulation of Arsenic Speciation and In Vivo Toxicity Following Oral Administration of a Chinese Patent Medicine Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Han, Xu; Dou, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2017-01-01

    Realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines such as Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan (XEZBW), have been widely used for thousands of years. However, events associated with arsenic-induced ailments have increasingly become a public concern. To address the toxicity of XEZBW, we studied the histopathology and blood biochemistry of rats exposed to XEZBW using technology like high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled mass spectrometry to determine arsenic speciation. Our results demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) increased from 18.57 ± 7.45 to 22.74 ± 7.45 ng/g in rat kidney after oral administration for 7 and 14 days, which was 10-fold higher than the levels observed in controls. Trivalent arsenite As(III) showed a large increase on day 7 (26.99 ± 1.98 ng/g), followed by a slight decrease on day 14 (13.67 ± 6.48 ng/g). Total arsenic levels on day 7 (185.52 ± 24.56 ng/g) and day 14 (198.57 ± 26.26 ng/g) were nearly twofold higher than that in the control group (92.77 ± 14.98 ng/g). Histopathological analysis showed mild injury in the liver and kidney of rats subjected to oral administration of realgar for 14 days. As in the XEZBW groups, a mild injury in these organs was observed after administration for 14 days. This study inferred that the toxicity of arsenic was concentration- and time-dependent. The accumulation of DMA, a byproduct of choline metabolism, was responsible for inducing higher toxicity. Therefore, we concluded that measuring the levels of DMA, instead of total arsenic, might be more suitable for evaluating the toxicity of realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:28790918

  5. Accumulation of Arsenic Speciation and In Vivo Toxicity Following Oral Administration of a Chinese Patent Medicine Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyang Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines such as Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan (XEZBW, have been widely used for thousands of years. However, events associated with arsenic-induced ailments have increasingly become a public concern. To address the toxicity of XEZBW, we studied the histopathology and blood biochemistry of rats exposed to XEZBW using technology like high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled mass spectrometry to determine arsenic speciation. Our results demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid (DMA increased from 18.57 ± 7.45 to 22.74 ± 7.45 ng/g in rat kidney after oral administration for 7 and 14 days, which was 10-fold higher than the levels observed in controls. Trivalent arsenite As(III showed a large increase on day 7 (26.99 ± 1.98 ng/g, followed by a slight decrease on day 14 (13.67 ± 6.48 ng/g. Total arsenic levels on day 7 (185.52 ± 24.56 ng/g and day 14 (198.57 ± 26.26 ng/g were nearly twofold higher than that in the control group (92.77 ± 14.98 ng/g. Histopathological analysis showed mild injury in the liver and kidney of rats subjected to oral administration of realgar for 14 days. As in the XEZBW groups, a mild injury in these organs was observed after administration for 14 days. This study inferred that the toxicity of arsenic was concentration- and time-dependent. The accumulation of DMA, a byproduct of choline metabolism, was responsible for inducing higher toxicity. Therefore, we concluded that measuring the levels of DMA, instead of total arsenic, might be more suitable for evaluating the toxicity of realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines.

  6. Composition and Realization of Source-to-Sink High-Performance Flows: File Systems, Storage, Hosts, LAN and WAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase Qishi [Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A number of Department of Energy (DOE) science applications, involving exascale computing systems and large experimental facilities, are expected to generate large volumes of data, in the range of petabytes to exabytes, which will be transported over wide-area networks for the purpose of storage, visualization, and analysis. To support such capabilities, significant progress has been made in various components including the deployment of 100 Gbps networks with future 1 Tbps bandwidth, increases in end-host capabilities with multiple cores and buses, capacity improvements in large disk arrays, and deployment of parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS. High-performance source-to-sink data flows must be composed of these component systems, which requires significant optimizations of the storage-to-host data and execution paths to match the edge and long-haul network connections. In particular, end systems are currently supported by 10-40 Gbps Network Interface Cards (NIC) and 8-32 Gbps storage Host Channel Adapters (HCAs), which carry the individual flows that collectively must reach network speeds of 100 Gbps and higher. Indeed, such data flows must be synthesized using multicore, multibus hosts connected to high-performance storage systems on one side and to the network on the other side. Current experimental results show that the constituent flows must be optimally composed and preserved from storage systems, across the hosts and the networks with minimal interference. Furthermore, such a capability must be made available transparently to the science users without placing undue demands on them to account for the details of underlying systems and networks. And, this task is expected to become even more complex in the future due to the increasing sophistication of hosts, storage systems, and networks that constitute the high-performance flows. The objectives of this proposal are to (1) develop and test the component technologies and their synthesis methods to

  7. The effects of Jiao-Tai-Wan on sleep, inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity-resistant rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xin; Huang, Wenya; Lu, Fuer; Fang, Ke; Wang, Dingkun; Zhao, Shuyong; Jia, Jiming; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Kaifu; Wang, Nan; Dong, Hui

    2017-03-23

    Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), composed of Rhizome Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, is a classical traditional Chinese prescription for treating insomnia. Several in vivo studies have concluded that JTW could exert its therapeutical effect in insomnia rats. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effect of JTW on sleep in obesity-resistant (OR) rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) and to clarify its possible mechanism. JTW was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by 3D-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (3D-HPLC) assay. The Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent 4 h PSD by environmental noise and the treatment with low and high doses of JTW orally for 4 weeks, respectively. Then sleep structure was analyzed by electroencephalographic (EEG). Inflammation markers including high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were examined in the rat plasma. Meanwhile, metabolic parameters as body weight increase rate, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS) levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were measured. The expressions of clock gene cryptochromes (Cry1 and Cry2) and inflammation gene nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMC) were also determined. The result showed that the administration of JTW significantly increased total sleep time and total slow wave sleep (SWS) time in OR rats with PSD. Furthermore, the treatment with JTW reversed the increase in the markers of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance caused by sleep loss. These changes were also associated with the up-regulation of Cry1 mRNA and Cry 2 mRNA and the down-regulation of NF-κB mRNA expression in PBMC. This study suggests that JTW has the beneficial effects of improving sleep, inflammation and insulin sensitivity. The mechanism appears to be related to the modulation of circadian clock and

  8. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  9. The energy-climate continuum lessons from basic science and history

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    An entertaining, highly informative introduction to the intimate linkage between the energy and climate debates Illustrates the basic science behind energy and climate with back-of-the-envelope calculations, that even non-experts can easily follow without a calculator Thus provides an access to getting an accurate feeling for orders of magnitudes from simple estimations A conversation starter for some of the most debated topics of today Compares the actual situation with historic cases of societies at a turning point and finds warning as well as encouraging examples For everyone, who wan

  10. Evaluation of caries progression in dentin treated by fluoride-containing materials using an in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H., E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Iwami, Y.; Yagi, K.; Hayashi, M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Okuyama, K.; Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Nagatani, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    It is well-known that fluorine (F) is involved in the progression of caries. The evaluation of caries progression has conventionally been based on the change in mineral content using transverse microradiography (TMR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression of dentinal caries by the change in calcium (Ca) content using Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission/Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIGE/PIXE) techniques at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. We also assessed the relationship between caries progression rate and the concentration of F penetration into dentin from dental fluoride-containing materials (FCMs). Dentin sections of six extracted human teeth were prepared to obtain various amounts of F uptake using three types of FCMs. F and Ca distribution of specimens were obtained using PIGE/PIXE techniques. After evaluation, the specimens were immersed in 10 ml of demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) to simulate caries attack. To estimate caries progression rates, the same portions of the specimens were evaluated after caries attack treatment using PIGE/PIXE. A negative correlation between the F uptake in dentin and the rate of caries progression was observed. Therefore, caries progression in dentin was reduced by increasing the amount of F uptake from FCMs. This demonstrates that PIGE/PIXE techniques are valuable for estimating caries progression rates.

  11. Energies; Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG, cholic acid (CLA, chlorogenic acid (CGA and sinapic acid (SPA, regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES, reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.

  13. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332

  14. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, ameliorates Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute lung inflammation by regulation of PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative pathogen-induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.

  15. Impacts of You Gui Wan on the expression of estrogen receptors and angiogenic factors in OVX‑rat vagina: a possible mechanism for the trophic effect of the formula on OVX‑induced vaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiao-Zhi; Lu, Hua; Li, Li-Min; Yie, Shang-Mian; Hu, Xiang; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Zheng, Xiao; Cao, Sheng; Yao, Zou-Ying

    2013-11-01

    The administration of You Gui Wan (YGW) decoction has been observed to improve vaginal atrophy induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats. The aim of the current study was to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Following OVX, 37 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups which were orally administered with YGW decoction, saline or estrogen for 11 weeks. In parallel with this, 19 normal and 17 rats with sham-surgery were used as controls. The effects of these treatments on estrogen receptors (ER) and various angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), angiopoietin (Ang)1 and 2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the vagina were compared using immunohistochemistry or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). OVX was found to induce significant vaginal atrophy and decrease the expression of ER and various angiogenic factors when compared with the normal and sham-surgery animals (all P<0.05). Estrogen replacement and the administration of YGW decoction reversed the vaginal atrophic process. The hormonal replacement and YGW treatment recovered the protein expression of ER-α and -β, VEGF and VEGFR-1 and the mRNA levels of ER-α, VEGF, VEGFR-1, Ang1 and 2, and bFGF when compared with OVX-rats with saline, normal and sham-surgery treatments (all P<0.05). Thus, it may be concluded that a possible mechanism underlying the effect of YGW on OVX-induced vaginal atrophy may be the upregulated expression of ER and various angiogenic factors in the vaginal tissue.

  16. Final Project Report: Composition and Realization of Source-to-Sink High-Performance Flows: File Systems, Storage, Hosts, LAN and WAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2017-09-06

    A number of Department of Energy (DOE) science applications, involving exascale computing systems and large experimental facilities, are expected to generate large volumes of data, in the range of petabytes to exabytes, which will be transported over wide-area networks for the purpose of storage, visualization, and analysis. The objectives of this proposal are to (1) develop and test the component technologies and their synthesis methods to achieve source-to-sink high-performance flows, and (2) develop tools that provide these capabilities through simple interfaces to users and applications. In terms of the former, we propose to develop (1) optimization methods that align and transition multiple storage flows to multiple network flows on multicore, multibus hosts; and (2) edge and long-haul network path realization and maintenance using advanced provisioning methods including OSCARS and OpenFlow. We also propose synthesis methods that combine these individual technologies to compose high-performance flows using a collection of constituent storage-network flows, and realize them across the storage and local network connections as well as long-haul connections. We propose to develop automated user tools that profile the hosts, storage systems, and network connections; compose the source-to-sink complex flows; and set up and maintain the needed network connections.

  17. Bioelectromagnetic and subtle energy medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Rosch, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    PREFACEPreface: Why and How This Book Was Assembled; Paul J. RoschA Tribute to W. Ross Adey: A Man for All Seasons; Paul J. RoschCHAPTERS REPRODUCED FROM THE FIRST EDITIONPreface from the First Edition; Paul J. RoschPotential Therapeutic Applications of Nonthermal Electromagnetic Fields: Ensemble Organization of Cells in Tissue as a Factor in Biological Field Sensing; W. Ross AdeyA Fundamental Basis for the Effects of EMFs in Biology and Medicine: The Interface between Matter and Function; Jacques BenvenisteSubtle Energies and Their Roles in Bioelectromagnetic Phenomena; William A. TillerElectromagnetism versus Bioelectromagnetism; William A. TillerMagneto-Metabolic Therapy for Advanced Malignancy and Cardiomyopathy; Demetrio Sodi Pallares and Paul J. RoschIs There an Electrical Circulatory System That Communicates Internally and Externally?; Paul J. Rosch and Björn E.W. NordenströmSUBTLE ENERGIES: THEORIES AND THERAPIESLife is Water Electric; Mae-Wan HoWhy Biological Water Differs from H2O and Acts Like a ...

  18. Modeling the 10-gigabit ethernet ASC WAN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Wertz, Jason Scott

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, modeling and simulation has played an increasingly important role in the maintenance of the nuclear stockpile. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program continues to support and encourage the development of a modeling and simulation infrastructure to make these goals a reality. The Distance Computing Network has been making make the ASC resources available to users throughout the tri-lab environment for over five years. This network relies on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite to provide high performance and reliable communications. Understanding TCP/IP operation in this unique environment is critical. Software modeling has been used to analyze current network performance and predict the effect of proposed changes. Recently the network architecture was radically changed and the software model had to be changed as well. Whereas the original network was based on 2.5 gigabit per second ATM links, the redesigned network is comprised of 10-gigabit Ethernet links arranged as a 3-node ring. Therefore, a new software model was needed to continue to predict the performance of proposed changes and allow engineers to experiment with new network applications without the risk of interfering with critical operations.

  19. The Lingo of the LAN (or WAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Larry

    1996-01-01

    More educators could effectively communicate with network designers and installers if they understood the technical vocabulary related to computer networks. Terms associated with local area and wide area networks--building materials, connection strategies, network traffic control, and protocols--are defined. Advice is given for planning school…

  20. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  1. Energy intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The first book to consider intermittency as a key point of an energy system, Energy Intermittency describes different levels of variability for traditional and renewable energy sources, presenting detailed solutions for handling energy intermittency through trade, collaboration, demand management, and active energy storage. Addressing energy supply intermittency systematically, this practical text:Analyzes typical time-distributions and intervals between episodes of demand-supply mismatch and explores their dependence on system layouts and energy source characteristicsSimulates scenarios regar

  2. Energy sustainability through green energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  3. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  4. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  5. Page 1 WAN.LN DERVATIVESPRAY REAGENTS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    graphic plates were of shades of the spectrum, and characteristic for a good number of the com- pounds tested. The series of spray reagents are suitable, not only for identification, but also, for preparative chromatography. The reagents may also find application in the analysis of food and pharmaceutical products,.

  6. Evaluation of the Klobuchar model in TaiWan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghua; Wan, Qingtao; Ma, Guanyi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xiaolan; Fan, Jiangtao

    2017-09-01

    Ionospheric delay is the mainly error source in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Ionospheric model is one of the ways to correct the ionospheric delay. The single-frequency GNSS users modify the ionospheric delay by receiving the correction parameters broadcasted by satellites. Klobuchar model is widely used in Global Positioning System (GPS) and COMPASS because it is simple and convenient for real-time calculation. This model is established on the observations mainly from Europe and USA. It does not describe the equatorial anomaly region. South of China is located near the north crest of the equatorial anomaly, where the ionosphere has complex spatial and temporal variation. The assessment on the validation of Klobuchar model in this area is important to improve this model. Eleven years (2003-2014) data from one GPS receiver located at Taoyuan Taiwan (121°E, 25°N) are used to assess the validation of Klobuchar model in Taiwan. Total electron content (TEC) from the dual-frequency GPS observations is calculated and used as the reference, and TEC based on the Klobuchar model is compared with the reference. The residual is defined as the difference between the TEC from Klobuchar model and the reference. It is a parameter to reflect the absolute correction of the model. RMS correction percentage presents the validation of the model relative to the observations. The residuals' long-term variation, the RMS correction percentage, and their changes with the latitudes are analyzed respectively to access the model. In some months the RMS correction did not reach the goal of 50% purposed by Klobuchar, especially in the winter of the low solar activity years and at nighttime. RMS correction did not depend on the 11-years solar activity, neither the latitudes. Different from RMS correction, the residuals changed with the solar activity, similar to the variation of TEC. The residuals were large in the daytime, during the equinox seasons and in the high solar activity years; they are small at night, during the solstice seasons, and in the low activity years. During 1300-1500 BJT in the high solar activity years, the mean bias was negative, implying the model underestimated TEC on average. The maximum mean bias was 33TECU in April 2014, and the maximum underestimation reached 97TECU in October 2011. During 0000-0200 BJT, the residuals had small mean bias, small variation range and small standard deviation. It suggested that the model could describe the TEC of the ionosphere better than that in the daytime. Besides the variation with the solar activity, the residuals also vary with the latitudes. The means bias reached the maximum at 20-22°N, corresponding to the north crest of the equatorial anomaly. At this latitude, the maximum mean bias was 47TECU lower than the observation in the high activity years, and 12TECU lower in the low activity years. The minimum variation range appeared at 30-32°N in high and low activity years. But the minimum mean bias was at different latitudes in the high and low activity years. In the high activity years, it appeared at 30-32°N, and in the low years it was at 24-26°N. For an ideal model, the residuals should have small mean bias and small variation range. Further study is needed to learn the distribution of the residuals and to improve the model.

  7. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  8. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  9. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  10. Energy, tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Frantál, B.

    2015-01-01

    The chapter provides a general definition of energy and resume the role and environmental impacts of tourism as one of the largest global industries and energy consumers.Then the energy tourism nexus is conceptualized from three perspectives: The first is energy as a driver of tourism. The second is energy as a constraint of tourism. The third is energy as an attraction and object of tourists´interests.

  11. Energy Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical…

  12. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  13. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  14. Advantage Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Increased focus has been placed on the issues of energy access and energy poverty over the last number of years, most notably indicated by the United Nations (UN) declaring 2012 as the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All'. Although attention in these topics has increased, incorrect assumptions and misunderstandings still arise in both the literature and dialogues. Access to energy does not only include electricity, does not only include cook stoves, but must include access to all types of energy that form the overall energy system. This paper chooses to examine this energy system using a typology that breaks it into 3 primary energy subsystems: heat energy, electricity and transportation. Describing the global energy system using these three subsystems provides a way to articulate the differences and similarities for each system's required investments needs by the private and public sectors.

  15. Energy audit and energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  16. Graph Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang; Gutman, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This book is about graph energy. The authors have included many of the important results on graph energy, such as the complete solution to the conjecture on maximal energy of unicyclic graphs, the Wagner-Heuberger's result on the energy of trees, the energy of random graphs or the approach to energy using singular values. It contains an extensive coverage of recent results and a gradual development of topics and the inclusion of complete proofs from most of the important recent results in the area. The latter fact makes it a valuable reference for researchers looking to get into the field of g

  17. Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses President Nixon's proposed national endeavor for energy self-sufficiency in the United States by 1980, to be known as Project Independence. Examines some of the factors that will be involved in attempting to attain energy independence. (JR)

  18. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  19. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  20. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  1. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  2. Energy requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an

  3. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  4. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S. [eds.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  5. Energy Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of reprints offers practical solutions, not readily available elsewhere, to everyday energy problems, such as high utility bills, insulating windows, getting more gas mileage, or buying a more efficient washer or refrigerator. The Arkansas Energy Office provides a weekly column of energy news and conservation tips to newspapers,…

  6. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  7. Energy Audits. Energy Technology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in energy audits is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in company-sponsored training…

  8. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  9. Transporation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2012-06-30

    This Transportation Energy Project is comprised of four unique tasks which work within the railroad industry to provide solutions in various areas of energy conservation. These tasks addressed: energy reducing yard related decision issues; alternate fuels; energy education, and energy storage for railroad applications. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team examined these areas and provided current solutions which can be used to both provide important reduction in energy usage and system efficiency in the given industry. This project also sought a mode in which rural and long-distance education could be provided. The information developed in each of the project tasks can be applied to all of the rail companies to assist in developing efficiencies.

  10. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  11. Energy saver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-07-01

    This publication aims to assist the businessman to save money and increase profits by demonstrating how to use energy efficiently. It is aimed at both the technically qualified and unqualified energy practitioner. Published in ring-binder form it enables the user to add supplements whenever they are published, enabling the user to keep up-to-date with the latest technology for energy savings. (UK)

  12. Energy Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, James; Bekbenbetov, Marat; Coffman, Katherine; Davies, Kirk; Farrar, Michael R; Fletcher, Scott N; Hall, Robert; Kljajic, Senad; Koprucu, Feza; Leek, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    .... This policy must address energy supply stability, support infrastructure improvements, promote greater use of nuclear power, and reduce hazardous emissions through the development of cleaner burning...

  13. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  14. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  15. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  16. Energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Tolou, N.

    2013-01-01

    Energy harvester comprising a mass (2) that is subjectable to environmental forces for bringing it into the status of a moving mass, and means (5) linked to the mass (2) for converting and storing of energy embodied in the moving mass, which means (5) are arranged for subsequent release of said

  17. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  18. Energy Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed as an interdisciplinary, supplemental teaching guide, this document provides fundamental information about energy supply, use, and conservation and related learning activities for secondary students. Eight units address the following topics: energy history, petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, alternative sources, energy…

  19. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  20. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  1. Energy Choices. Energy markets; Vaegval Energi. Energimarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsgaard, Niclas (Econ Poeyry AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    Each of the major energy markets for oil, coal, natural gas, biofuels and electricity has its own character. But markets are dependent on each other in an often complicated way. This interconnection has become even more complex since the market for emissions trading began in Europe in 2005. This report describes the current situation of the different energy markets but also the relationships between them, and some possible future scenarios. The oil market is global, but is dominated by a few producing countries. Coal is traded on the international market with good competition and over time probably a stable price. Other markets are more regional or even local. One example is the natural gas market. In the current situation of natural gas is not particularly important for Sweden's energy supply, but very much so in a European perspective. There may be repercussions also in Sweden. The gas price ups and downs are important for the price of emission rights and electricity. Biofuel markets ranging from global markets, such as ethanol, to regional or local markets, depending on processing. Only with the creation of a single trading venue, Nordpool was a common pricing of electricity possible in the Nordic region. In the near future we will have a common electricity market covering at least the Nordic region and northwestern Europe. This does not mean that prices will become equalized, for that further expansion of the transmission capacity is needed. It is possible to imagine several scenarios for future energy markets, but the interaction between the different markets will persist. To develop appropriate instruments is of great importance to achieve the political objectives in the energy field the next decade

  2. Ocean energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlier, R.H. (Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)); Justus, J.R. (The Library of Congress, CRS/SPRD, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  3. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  4. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  5. Hydro-energy; Energie hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Tardieu, B. [Coyne et Bellier, 92 - Gennevilliers (France)

    2005-07-01

    The first part of this study concerns the different type of hydraulic works. The second part presents the big hydro-energy, its advantages and disadvantages, the industrial risks, the electric power transport network, the economy and the development perspectives. The third part presents the little hydro-energy, its advantages and disadvantages, the decentralized production and the development perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  7. Energy generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available be placed in areas of high average wind speeds in order to be as economical as possible. Care should be taken so that the turbine is not placed in the flight paths of birds or bats as they have difficulty in detecting the rapidly moving blades...:865–879. Richards.B.S and Watt.M.E, 2007, Permanently dispelling a myth of photovoltaics via the adoption of a new net energy indicator, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11, 162–172. Leithead.W.E, 2007, Wind energy, The Royal Society. Eltrop...

  8. Clean energy, renewable energies; Energie propre, energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This document is the compilation of the 4 issues of the 'energie propre - energie renouvelables' newsletter published by the regional energy agency of Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region (ARENE). Each issue is a technical file presenting a particular facility or installation: the pico-hydraulic power plant of the Allos lake (Mercantour, French Alps), the 'Chute de la Guerche' and 'Chute de Chastillon' hydraulic power plant exploited by the Isola town; the pico-hydraulic power plant of the drinkable water network of Hameau des Agnielles village, the direct solar thermal floor. (J.S.)

  9. Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditterich, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to expose middle school students to a variety of alternative energy sources with a variety of practical applications. It was part of an Austria-wide IMST-project (IMST stands for innovation makes students strong). As part of this exposure, several classes of about 80 students visited a number of locations for alternative energy resources, including a hydroelectric site, a biological energy plant, a wind turbine manufacturing plant, a water purification station as well as others others. A short film was made to document the project in order that non-participants in the class could also gain knowledge on alternative energy. The three minute film will be shown at the poster.

  10. Tidal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact of Science on Society, 1987

    1987-01-01

    States that tidal power projects are feasible in a relatively limited number of locations around the world. Claims that together they could theoretically produce the energy equivalent to more than one million barrels of oil per year. (TW)

  11. Salinity Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  12. Energy behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, P.C.; Kirkpatrick, E.M.

    1977-12-01

    The energy crisis is approached as a social and psychological problem with solutions based on an understanding of principles of attitude and behavior change. Propaganda calling for voluntary energy conservation has had little effect, and incentive systems present several serious drawbacks. The author believes that the ideal role of both incentives and persuasion is to influence the behavior of groups who in turn would maintain individual behavior and attitudes by social pressure. Thus a program of incentives and education directed at groups of people may effectively increase conservation and change related attitudes without increasing reactance. The author presents 2 strategies to cope with the energy problem: one relies strongly on government action, combining appeal to national feelings and a threat to future coercion to change attitudes and behavior; the other uses incentives to communities for conservation and development of renewable energy resources.

  13. Energy absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyen, J.

    1980-03-04

    The collection of solar energy, radiated onto roofs, is the goal of this invention, to supply a heating system. The invention is based on the utilization of sealing webs. The prefered material for such energy absorbers is ethylen-copolymer-bitumen. Two each of the bitumen sheets are bonded together to form a bag flown through bag the heat transfer medium. The bag simultaneously serves for roof sealing.

  14. Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  15. Energy awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the Symposium for Public Awareness on Energy was to provide an information exchange among the members of the technical community and the public, civic, fraternal, service, and labor organizations on timely energy-related issues. The 1977 symposium was oriented toward state and local governmental officials in the southeastern states. Since it is these officials who have the responsibility for the development and actualization of local energy strategies, the program was directed toward providing information which would be of help to them in considering energy plans. The symposium presentations featured speakers who are recognized in many facets of the energy field. A variety of views were expressed and a number of policy alternatives were suggested. It is hoped that the presentations provided the motivation for the audience to return to their respective communities with a new and expanded perspective regarding energy issues and policies. The private and public organizations represented at the symposium can continue to provide pertinent information to those who are interested. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 presentations.

  16. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  17. Energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Jones, L.L.C.; Lovich, R. L.; Halama, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of the desert southwest are currently developed or being evaluated for construction of utility-scale renewable energy projects. These projects include numerous solar and wind energy facilities some of which will be massive. Unfortunately, peer-reviewed scientific publications are not yet available to evaluate the potential effects of solar-based utility-scale renewable energy development (USRED) on any species of wildlife, including amphibians and reptiles (herpetofauna). Scientific publications on the effects of wind-based USRED and operation (USREDO) are focused almost exclusively on flying wildlife including birds and bats. To the best of our knowledge the only publications on the effects of wind-based USREDO on herpetofauna are three publications on desert tortoise ecology at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California. Those studies suggested that not all effects of USREDO were detrimental in the short-term. However, additional research is required to determine if wind energy operation is compatible with conservation of this long-lived species over longer periods of time.

  18. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  19. Energy Deskbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the Energy Deskbook is to serve as a convenient reference to definitions of energy-related terms and descriptions of current and potential energy sources and their utilization. The material is presented at a low technical level with emphasis on general principles, which are not difficult to understand, rather than technology. The entries vary in length from a few lines to several pages, according to circumstances. As a general rule, each topic is defined and outlined in the first paragraph; this may be followed by a more detailed treatment, as required. An important feature of the Deskbook is the use of boldface (heavy) type for cross references. Words in the text set in boldface are the titles of articles where the particular subjects are described.

  20. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  1. Moving Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameau, Jon; Crabtree, George; Greene, Laura; Kwok, Wai; Johnson, Peter; Tsvelik, Alexei [Artist

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Emergent Superconductivity (CES), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of the CES is to discover new high-temperature superconductors and improve the performance of known superconductors by understanding the fundamental physics of superconductivity.

  2. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...

  3. Energy Refurbishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumbul, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    Student working paper for the course AR0531/AR0532. Improvements in the building sector have a great potential of change in energy efficiency, instead of demolition of the worst performing building stock in terms of emissions. Refurbished buildings could accomplish the same levels of reduction and

  4. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power, flexibility requirements in the power system are generally increasing. However, what is not so clear yet is what “increasing flexibility...

  5. Energy Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    This game is designed to provide basic energy information and to foster addition, subtraction, and multiplication skills while the game is being played. Game cards contain questions, answers, and information on the value of the questions. The cards are to be cut apart and retained by the "referee" as he/she asks questions of team…

  6. Sandia energy titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.L. (ed.)

    1978-08-01

    The bibliography of energy-related publications produced by Sandia authors is arranged in broad subject category order. Subjects included are conservation, drilling technology, energy (general), environment and safety, fossil energy, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and solar energy.

  7. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  8. Cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  9. Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose Ethanol in the Spot Light. Geothermal energy is generated from the earth’s natural convective movement of internal gradients nearly 6,500...recoverable natural gas prospects, which are located in the Outer Continental Shelf, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico , Alaska North Slope, Arctic National...The majority are located in the Gulf of Mexico with one on the Northeast coast and none on the west coast. Currently, government regulators have

  10. Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government of South Africa, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank Group. A large share of the research for this report was conducted on a v...

  11. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.

    1965-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed: areas of ''normal'' geothermal gradient, large areas of higher-than-''normal'' geothermal gradient, hot spring areas, hydrothermal systems of composite type, general problems of utilization, and domestic and world resources of geothermal energy. Almost all estimates and measurements of total heat flow published through 1962 for hot spring areas of the world are tabulated. (MHR)

  12. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  13. Renewable energy, energy security and resilient societies

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Abstract in Undetermined Sometimes energy security is used as an advocacy for renewable energy systems. Although renewable energy systems can surely have such characteristics they will not per se solve all types of security problems, and new problems will most certainly arise. In this paper, energy security aspects of renewable energy systems are analysed taking the starting point in a broad typology on energy security. Various renewable energy systems will be discussed from an EU perspective...

  14. A comparison of upper and lower body energetics during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L; Wiegand, A; Solomon, C; Mclellan, C; Lovell, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure and compare the aerobic, anaerobic alactic and anaerobic lactic energy system contribution during the 30-sec Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for the upper and lower body within the same individuals. Physically active men (N.=14) completed two WAnTs on an electronic arm ergometer and a cycle ergometer separated by three days. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% and 7.5% of the participants body weight was used for the upper and lower body WAnTs respectively. Oxygen uptake and blood lactate were measured before, during and after both WAnTs, and body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The anaerobic lactic energy system contribution was significantly (P<0.01) higher during the upper body (60.3±5.6%) compared to the lower body (46.9±6.9%) WAnT. The contribution of the anaerobic alactic system was significantly higher (P<0.01) during the lower body (36.5±6.3%) compared to the upper body (28.3±4.9%) WAnT, with the aerobic system contribution significantly (P<0.05) higher for the lower body (16.8±2.5%) compared to the upper body (11.4±1.4%) WAnT. The anaerobic lactic energy system provides over 60% of the energy requirements during an upper body WAnT but provides less the 50% during the lower body WAnT. In contrast, the aerobic and anaerobic alactic energy system contribution was significantly less for the upper body WAnT compared to the lower body WAnT.

  15. Energy barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy conservation and home insulation may have been off the front pages in recent years, but rising fuel prices and the current crisis in the Mideast remind us once again that it's time to make sure our houses are adequately insulated. Doing so saves money and, to borrow a phrase from that Quaker Oats commercial, It's the right thing to do. Heat always wants to sneak from a warm space to a cold one. In the winter, it's like a convict trying to bust out of the big joint - it looks for any gap, crack or chink that it can slip through. Int he summer, it's more like a burglar trying to break in to your house. Insulation, properly installed, keeps the heat and the cold where you want it. You probably already know that insulation is rated by R-value, which indicates the material's ability to (R)esist the flow of heat. The higher the R-value, the greater the insulating power. But how much is enough The three model national building codes that form the basis for most state and municipal building codes now support a single, recently revised Model Energy Code. This article deals with deciding how much insulation is right for the application and how to install it correctly.

  16. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-09-11

    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  17. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  18. Waste energy harvesting mechanical and thermal energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ling Bing, Kong; Hng, Huey Hoon; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    Waste Energy Harvesting overviews the latest progress in waste energy harvesting technologies, with specific focusing on waste thermal mechanical energies. Thermal energy harvesting technologies include thermoelectric effect, storage through phase change materials and pyroelectric effect. Waste mechanical energy harvesting technologies include piezoelectric (ferroelectric) effect with ferroelectric materials and nanogenerators. The book aims to strengthen the syllabus in energy, materials and physics and is well suitable for students and professionals in the fields.

  19. Energy awareness luncheon and energy seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-23

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the following: the luncheon address, energy-growth-freedom by Kenneth A. Randall; the keynote commentary, by F.S. Patton, program chairman; and four current-awareness papers on the future of oil and gas, coal, nuclear energy, and solar energy. In addition, in a section, Speaking of Energy, very brief statements by eight professional engineers on the energy challenge are included. Also, the NSPE position paper on energy policy is included.

  20. The renewable energies; Les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The renewable energies are everywhere but also irregular. Thus they need savings in our energy consumptions. This document provides information, such as economics, capacity and implementation, on the following renewable energies: the wind power, the solar energy, the photovoltaic energy, the biogas, the geothermal energy, the hydroelectricity, the wood. It also presents a state of the art and examples of bio-climatic architecture. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy Trends 2012; Energie Trends 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, T. (ed.); Gerdes, J. (ed.) [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Marbus, S. (ed.) [Energie-Nederland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boelhouwer, M. (ed.) [Netbeheer Nederland, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In Energy Trends 2012, all figures and developments in the field of energy in the Netherlands are presented in conjunction. The book provides information on energy use by consumers and businesses, provides insight into the international energy trade, energy production and development of energy networks [Dutch] In Energie Trends 2012 staan alle cijfers en ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energie in Nederland in samenhang gepresenteerd. Het boek biedt informatie over energiegebruik door consumenten en bedrijven, geeft inzage in de internationale energiehandel en energieproductie en biedt inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de energienetten.

  2. Arctic Energy Resources: Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryc, George

    1984-04-01

    Arctic Energy Resources is a volume of 26 papers recording the proceedings of the Comite' Arctique International Conference, held at the Veritas Centre, Oslo, Norway, September 22-24, 1982. This was the fourth of a series of meetings on the Arctic organized by the Comite', an organization established in the Principality of Monaco with the active support of H.S.H. Prince Rainer III. The fourth Conference was opened by H.R.H. Crown Prins Harald of Norway, a noble beginning for a noble objective.The North Polar Region has drawn world attention recently because of several large hydrocarbon and other mineral discoveries and because of major political and environmental actions in the North American Arctic. Since 1923 when Naval Petroleum Reserve number 4 (NPR-4) was established, northern Alaska has been considered a major petroleum province. It was first explored systematically with modern techniques from 1943 to 1953. In 1958, Alaska became a state, and both federal and state lands in northern Alaska were available for private exploration. Building on the knowledge base provided by the Pet-4 program and its spinoff research laboratory at Barrow, industry explored the area east of NPR-4 and discovered the largest hydrocarbon accumulation (9.6 bbl crude oil and 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas) in North America at Prudhoe Bay. Concerns for environmental impacts, including oil spills, led to the passing of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. In 1970, over 9 million acres were set aside, now known as the Arctic National Wildlife Range, and in 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was passed by the U.S. Congress. The Arab oil embargo of 1973 heightened the energy crisis and changed the economic basis for further exploration in the Arctic. The convergence of these events dramatically changed the balance of power and the pace of activity in the North American Arctic.

  3. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  4. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  5. Basis for life: Energy; Lebensgrundlage Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, D.

    2003-07-01

    Main topics are: Energy problem from the view of biology by introduction of a metabolism coefficient; thermoregulation and heat thresholds until mankind starts to live; energy from the view of physics; energy policy for engineering and economy taking into account energy consumption, -utilization and -supply; outlook for the future and carbon dioxide growth in earth's atmosphere. (GL)

  6. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  7. Energy modelling software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has turned to energy modelling in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under...

  8. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  9. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  10. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  11. Annual energy review 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report presents historical energy statistics on all major energy activities. The statistics cover consumption, production, trade, stock, and prices, for all major energy commodities including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources.

  12. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  13. The energy; L'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In order to inform the public on the stakes bonded to the energy, the french government developed seven days of information on the energy. Visits of energy facilities (production, transport, storage, distribution) are proposed. Colloquium, exhibitions and debates on the energy questions are also offered to the public. This paper summarizes the activities and the concerned addresses of these energy days. (A.L.B.)

  14. The ABC's of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H., Ed.; Bitner, Betty L., Ed.

    This resource guide consists of activities related to 26 separate energy topics (one for each letter of the alphabet). Topic areas are: approaches to problems related to energy shortages; biomass; conserving energy; demand for energy in the year 2000; economics and energy; fossil fuels; geothermal energy; hydroelectric power; insulation; energy…

  15. Architecture and energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Lauring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies.......Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies....

  16. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  17. Architecture and energy; Arkitektur og energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R.; Grupe Larsen, V.; Lauring, M.; Christensen, Morten

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this book is to illustrate the interaction between architecture and energy in an overall perspective starting from the new energy requirements. Architects make a lot of form related outlines early in the design process, and these have significant consequences for the energy consumption. Furthermore, the new energy requirements start from an overall evaluation, during which the architectural form is of decisive importance to minimization of the energy consumption. The book focuses on four themes: a) day lighting, which plays a decisive part in relation to our health and wellness inside buildings, b) solar heating; passive solar heating has traditionally been playing an important part in low-energy architecture, c) rough house; choice of materials can both increase and decrease buildings' energy consumption, and d) technology; modern buildings use a number of energy demanding installations, therefore the interaction between technology and energy is examined. (BA)

  18. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  19. Industry and energy; Industrie et energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birules y Bertran, A.M. [Ministere des Sciences et de la Technologie (Spain); Folgado Blanco, J. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Economie, a l' Energie et aux PME du Royaume d' Espagne (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This document is the provisional version of the summary of the debates of the 2433. session of the European Union Council about various topics relative to the industry and the energy. The energy-related topics that have been debated concern: the government helps in coal industry, the internal electricity and gas market, the trans-European energy networks, the bio-fuels in transportation systems, the energy charter, the pluri-annual energy program, and the green book on the security of energy supplies. (J.S.)

  20. Energy Mix between Renewable Energy and Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry E. M. Abushady

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Energy is the backbone of any development in any State. Renewable Energy (wind, solar and biomass appears currently as a major strategic energy source for a sustainable development particularly for developing or under developing societies. Use of renewable Energy will challenge major technological changes, by achieving energy production and saving. In particular by replacing fossil fuel, a significant cut of environmental impact and green house gas emission (GHG could be achieved. In addition Renewable Energy could offer a sustainable development for different societies particularly those in rural area (e.g. desert or isolated islands. The significant technical renewable energy tool developments in developed States could be much easier to be transferred to or copied in developing States .

  1. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  2. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  3. Negative energy; L'energie negative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, L. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Roman, Th. [Connecticut Univ., Farmington, CT (United States)

    2000-05-01

    We could travel at light velocity or more if we mastered a new form of energy called negative energy. This energy is predicted by the quantum theory and follows from the Heisenberg principle applied to the void. In the void the density of energy is null in average but in fact fluctuates around zero according to the quantum theory, so we can find places with negative energy. This concept has nothing to do with antimatter or with the energy introduced in the recent theories of anti-gravity. According to the theory of general relativity the presence of matter and energy distorts the space-time geometry. In the presence of negative energy strange phenomena might happen. A tunnel could bridge 2 distant points in the universe, and inside it travelling at light velocity or more would be possible. (A.C.)

  4. Guam Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to Guam to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020.The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the Guam Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, reducing energy consumption at federal facilities, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including buildings energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity production, and alternative transportation. The strategies are categorized based on the time required to implement them.

  5. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  6. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  7. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  8. Energy Conservation Simplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  9. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  10. Monthly Energy Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  11. Energy and health; Energie et sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    If the energy is an important factor of public health a d quality by the technology development (heat, transport, production and communication), it may also generate hazard for the environment and the health. This report takes stock on the impacts and the risks of the use of energy sources with a special interest to the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Alternative energy. Southern Italy. Alternativ energi. Syditalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report about Southern Italy is part of a larger project, for which the Minstry of Energy has had reports made, examining the possibilities of especially renewable energy sources for the less developed areas of the European Communities: Southern Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Ireland. A number of programmes supported by the EC are mentioned, where money is granted for projects within the energy sector. That is the Valoren programme, which is directed towards the energy sector and the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRU) including integrated Mediterrenean programmes. The report is made in Denmark as desk research with the limitations that makes. Italy is very dependent on imported oil, their production of electricity is primarily based on oil. The energy planning aims at reducing the denpence of imported fuel and spreading the comsumption on several energy sources. Coal is to play a more prominent role in the supply, since it is planned to double the consumption from 1985 to 1995. It was planned that nuclear power was to be more important, but a popular vote said no. The use of internal energy sources will get a higher priority - that is hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, lignite, a small oil and gas production, and renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy and biomass. There should be possibilities for Danish export of technology in renewable energy, which is ahead of the Italian. The country itself has great knowhow within the fields of traditional energy technology, geothermal energy, nuclear power and solar energy. The EC has granted large sums of money for the development in Southern Italy, especially the Valoren programme. (SM).

  13. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload challenges...

  14. Dissolve energy obesity by energy diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Heum [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Every organism takes needed materials or energy from outside and excretes unessential things to outside. This is called a metabolism or energy metabolism. Calculating the amount of energy consumed by human in the world by converting to the amount of metabolism of an animal to survive, the weight of a human being is corresponding to an animal with a weigh of 40 ton. Human beings can find a solution to dissolve energy obesity or can maintain a massive status by finding a new energy source in the universe.

  15. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  16. Energy storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulia, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

  17. World energy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Basic facts on energy reserves and main environmental effects of energy production are recalled. Physical constraints associated to the different energy production means are summarized, and present cost estimates are given. (author)

  18. Sustainable Energy for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy crisis is one of the most pressing issues of our century. The world currently invests more than $1 trillion per year in energy, much of it going toward the energy systems of the past instead of building the clean energy economies of the future. Effectively, the provision of energy should...... be such that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Investment in sustainable energy is a smart strategy for growing markets, improving competitiveness, and providing greater equity and opportunity. Sustainable energy has two key elements...... - renewable energy and energy efficiency. The promise of renewable energy can only be realised through significant R&D investments on technologies such as solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel coupled with energy storage technologies necessary...

  19. Energy in Sweden 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    Statistical data on supply and consumption of energy are presented together with information on the current energy situation, developments in energy use and supply, prices and environmental data. International aspects are also treated.

  20. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  1. Energy in Sweden 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Statistical data on supply and consumption of energy are presented together with information on the current energy situation, developments in energy use and supply, prices and environmental data. International aspects are also treated

  2. Energy for Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincherle, L.; Rice-Evans, P.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses statistics concerning world energy requirements and supplies of different types of fuels. Also discusses the storage and transmission of energy and pollution problems related to energy utilization. (MLH)

  3. Energy in Sweden 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Statistical data on supply and consumption of energy are presented together with information on the current energy situation, developments in energy use and supply, prices and environmental data. International aspects are also treated.

  4. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  5. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  6. Ultimate Choice for Energy: The Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yıldırım*

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the prices of oil, hard coal and natural gas, emergence of Russia as a not reliable resource for the natural and the developments in the security of the energy supply again have been started the nuclear energy as a hotly debated issue in the world. This is also a sensitive topic among the opponents and proponents of the nuclear energy in Turkey. Nuclear energy is very important since it provides about 17 % of the electric energy in the world and is used in industry and medical area. However, Turkey has not declared any policy about this yet, because of the worries about the environmental reasons and has not gained any progress about nuclear energy. First of all, Turkey must use her geothermal, hydropower, hard coal, solar and wind energies. Otherwise, Turkey may find herself in a competition with her neighboring countries

  7. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  8. Oneida Tribe Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst

    2014-08-15

    Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.

  9. Energy Informatics Panel (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2012-06-01

    Designed to be the world's most comprehensive, open, and collaborative energy information network, Open Energy Information (OpenEI - openei.org) supplies essential energy data to decision makers and supports a global energy transformation. The platform, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is intended for global contribution and collaboration.

  10. Climate and energy; Klima und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-12-31

    The dossier on Climate and Energy encompasses contributions addressing the following topics: Climate research in Germany, perspectives of the energy of the future; Energy-conserving building design, construction and retrofitting; Companies developing ecological awareness and ecological performance; World population, energy consumption and greenhouse gas abatement; On the uncertainty involved in political evaluation of the global climate change; Economic aspects of the carbon dioxide issue; Ozone - polar stratospheres - clouds and ozone hole; Ozone - vertical ozone distribution in the antarctic region; Sudden climate change; Sulfate aerosols and climate change; Symptoms of the global climate change; IKARUS - greenhouse gas abatement strategies; Energy from fossil fuels; Renewable energy sources; Nuclear fusion; Is there a chance for nuclear energy?; Least-cost planning leading to energy-conserving power plants; Pleading for a sustainable energy economy; Why we both love and destroy nature. The concluding two contributions are interviews highlighting two statements: We will persist in our intention to achieve the declared objectives for greenhouse gas abatement, and: We cannot do without nuclear energy. (RHM) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Dossier Klima und Energie enthaelt Beitraege zu folgenden Themen: Klimaforschung in Deutschland, Perspektiven fuer die Energie der Zukunft; energiesparendes Bauen und Modernisieren; Unternehmen auf dem Weg zu oekologischem Handeln; Weltbevoelkerung, Energieverbrauch und Klimaschutz; ueber die Unsicherheit in der politischen Analyse von Klimaaenderungen; wirtschaftliche Aspekte des Kohlendioxid-Problems; ozon-polare Stratosphaerenwolken und Ozonloch; ozon-vertikale Verteilung des Ozons ueber der Antarktis; ploetzliche Klimawechsel; Sulfat-Aerosole und Klimawandel, Symptome des Klimawandels, Ikarus-Klimagas-Reduktionsstrategien; Energie aus fossilen Brennstoffen; degenerative Energien; Kernfusion, hat Kernenergie eine Chance; der Bau von

  11. World energy insight 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.

  12. Hamilton district energy project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsales, D. [Hamilton Community Energy, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation began with a description of the Hamilton District Energy Project. A piping distribution system delivers the energy. For those buildings located in the close vicinity of the central energy centre, heating and cooling are provided. The Hamilton City Hall, the Copps Coliseum, and a host of other buildings located downtown are included in this project. Both the proximity to the energy centre and the pipe infrastructure are important components for the delivery of the energy. A natural gas burning engine is part of the energy centre. Direct waste is minimized since waste exhaust is used to heat water. Individual energy transfer systems, much smaller than the equipment being replaced, are used for each building connected to the district energy network. All emission requirements are met by district heating, which is a reliable source of energy and more efficient. There are instances where only more efficient energy solutions are available to a municipality when renewable energy sources are not feasible. figs.

  13. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  14. Geothermal energy program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  15. Energy saving report; Energispareredegoerelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Making the energy consumption more efficient in Denmark by means of energy saving are connected to the Danish government's overall National Growth Strategy. A reduced consumption of energy as a result of economic attractive energy saving initiatives leads to reduced energy costs and consequently an improvement of Denmark's competitive power. Furthermore, reducing the energy consumption decreases the vulnerability towards rising energy prices, and the security of supplies is increased. Finally energy conservation serves as a means of reducing environmental impact from the energy sector. Energy consumption is not damaging to the environment in itself, however, to the extent that energy consumption causes negative impact on the environment, e.g. through discharge of environmentally damaging substances generated during energy production, a reduction of the energy consumption will benefit the environment. Energy saving in itself does not lead to a decrease in CO{sub 2} emission in Denmark unless it is accompanied by an adjustment of CO{sub 2} quotas on production of electricity. The Danish Government emphasizes that the energy saving efforts are cost-effective both for the society and for the consumers. The energy saving report contains an updated projection of the Danish energy consumption and an evaluation of the impacts of the energy saving efforts. The impacts of more effective end use of energy are described, and an account of the barriers preventing the realization of a number of potential economic attractive energy saving initiatives is made. Finally the energy saving report presents a number of proposals for new energy saving initiatives. (BA)

  16. Energy Literacy : Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.

  17. Energy Literacy : Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.

  18. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  19. Energy Statistics Manual; Manual Statistik Energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  20. Conference on energy. Energia Biltzarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    45 papers are presented under the following section headings: general lectures; energy and mining planning; energy applications, costs and financing; energy conservation; energy application advances in furnaces and boilers; new energy sources (renewable energy); applications of gas; and electricity.

  1. Scalable Energy Networks to Promote Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    commodity. Consider current challenges of converting energy and synchronizing sources with loads—for example, capturing solar energy to provide hot water...distributed micro-generation1 (for example, roof-mounted solar panels) and plug-in elec- tric/hybrid vehicles. The imperative extends to our national...systems will gradually incorporate more closed cycles—for example, capturing energy from renewable sources (wind, sun) or waste heat (stove, dryer

  2. National Energy Plan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the Administration's second National Energy Plan, as required by section 801 of the Department of Energy Organization Act (Public Law 95-91). A second volume will contain an assessment of the environmental trends associated with the energy futures reported here. Detailed appendices to the Plan will be published separately. The eight chapters and their subtitles are: Crisis and Uncertainty in the World Energy Future (The Immediate Crisis and the Continuing Problem, The Emergence of the Energy Problem, The Uncertainties of the World Energy Future, World Oil Prices, Consequences for the U.S.); The U.S. Energy Future: The Implications for Policy (The Near-, Mid-, and Long-Term, The Strategy in Perspective); Conservation (Historical Changes in Energy Use, Post-Embargo Changes - In Detail, Conservation Policies and Programs, The Role of Conservation); Oil and Gas (Oil, Natural Gas); Coal and Nuclear (Coal, Nuclear, Policy for Coal and Nuclear Power); Solar and Other Inexhaustible Energy Sources (Solar Energy, Geothermal, Fusion, A Strategy for Inexhaustible Resources); Making Decisions Promptly and Fairly (Managing Future Energy Crises: Emergency Planning, Managing the Current Shortfall: The Iranian Response Plan, Managing the Long-Term Energy Problem: The Institutional Framework, Fairness in Energy Policy, Public Participation in the Development of Energy Policy); and NEP-II and the Future (The Second National Energy Plan and the Nation's Energy Future, The Second National Energy Plan and the Economy, Employment and Energy Policy, The Second National Energy Plan and Individuals, The Second National Energy Plan and Capital Markets, and The Second National Energy Plan and the Environment). (ERA citation 04:041097)

  3. State energy drive toward greater energy independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Part two of a state-by-state review of grassroots energy conservation developments covers a local energy center at the St. Louis, Missouri library, 10 regional energy management and information centers in Pennsylvania, and a house doctor program of home energy audits in Pierre, South Dakota. Pierre homeowners may have an infrared scan, but must agree to implement at least some of the conservation recommendations to get the free service. South Dakota also has a pilot program to dispense alternate fuel and conservation information in Clay County and a television series designed to teach homeowners conservation techniques. (DCK)

  4. Social energy: mining energy from the society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, David Wenzhong; Zhang, Yingchen; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Xiangyang; Duan, Dongliang; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Jun; Wang, Fei-Yue

    2017-01-01

    The inherent nature of energy, i.e., physicality, sociality and informatization, implies the inevitable and intensive interaction between energy systems and social systems. From this perspective, we define 'social energy' as a complex sociotechnical system of energy systems, social systems and the derived artificial virtual systems which characterize the intense intersystem and intra-system interactions. The recent advancement in intelligent technology, including artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies, sensing and communication in Internet of Things technologies, and massive high performance computing and extreme-scale data analytics technologies, enables the possibility of substantial advancement in socio-technical system optimization, scheduling, control and management. In this paper, we provide a discussion on the nature of energy, and then propose the concept and intention of social energy systems for electrical power. A general methodology of establishing and investigating social energy is proposed, which is based on the ACP approach, i.e., 'artificial systems' (A), 'computational experiments' (C) and 'parallel execution' (P), and parallel system methodology. A case study on the University of Denver (DU) campus grid is provided and studied to demonstrate the social energy concept. In the concluding remarks, we discuss the technical pathway, in both social and nature sciences, to social energy, and our vision on its future.

  5. Ocean energy; L'energie marine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  6. Buiksloterham Integrated Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Bokel, R.M.J.; Elswijk, M; Mueller, Saskia; Brotas, Luisa; Roaf, Susan; Nicol, Fergus

    2017-01-01

    The traditional way of supplying energy to the built environment is no longer suitable: New buildings with high energy performance and decentralised renewable energy generation, together with the desire to become fossil-free, involve the need for new, more flexible and more integrated energy

  7. Energy visions 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well

  8. Energy Balance and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  9. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  10. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  11. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  12. Energy Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-08

    Energy Savings. Applying energy conservation techniques, using shared energy savings contracts under 42 U.S.C. 8287 (reference (k)), when they are the...material acquisition and research and 93-24426 Best Available Copy requesting appropriated funds to construct energy producing facilities. (2) Shared

  13. Energy Parodoxes in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the energy situation in the world and in the Post-Soviet area was carried out. The main focus was on the energy problems in Ukraine. The current paper presents existing energy sector paradoxes. Issues of the comfort level and of the natural environment dependence on the energy resources consumption are being discussed. The relationship between the human life quality level and the level of energy consumption is shown. The analysis of the energy resources distribution in the world is provided. The likely review of the energy re-sources market is forecasted. State energy policies and strategies are being compared. The high profitability of the centralized energy supply management in municipalities is being underlined. Issues regarding the scientific poten-tial and the energy management development are considered. The compliance of energy resource prices with the level of thermal protection of buildings and with energy projects investment principles is being analyzed. The importance of the market-based choice of energy resources considering energy company mergers and decision power concentration is presented. The compliance between the energy policy of Ukraine and the obligations resulting from gas contract with Russia is being discussed. The role of energy in the agricultural processing chain is analyzed.

  14. Monthly energy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  15. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  16. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  17. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  18. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  19. Annual Energy Review 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  20. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  1. Handbook of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, Cutler J

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Energy, Volume II: Chronologies, Top Ten Lists, and Word Clouds draws together a comprehensive account of the energy field from the prestigious and award-winning authors of the Encyclopedia of Energy (2004), The Dictionary of Energy, Expanded Edition (2009), and the Handbook of Energy, Volume I (2013). Handbook of Energy, Volume II takes the wealth of information about historical aspects of energy spread across many books, journals, websites, disciplines, ideologies, and user communities and synthesizes the information in one central repository. This book meets the needs of a di

  2. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  3. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  4. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  5. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  6. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  7. Monthly energy review June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents data on energy consumption, fossil fuels imports, supply and disposition, energy prices, electricity, nuclear energy electricity production, and international energy production and consumption.

  8. Energy diagnosis; Diagnostic energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivien, P. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques (CETIM), Franche-Comte (France)

    1996-12-31

    Through a partnership with regional authorities and the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME), the CETIM (Technical Agency for Mechanical Industries) is proposing energy audits in industrial plants with the aim to increase the plant performances, reduce energy costs and work out environmental issues. Concrete improvement solutions are proposed with profitability calculations. The audit procedure is presented. The most efficient solutions generally involve energy tariff rate shifts, heating regulation, power cut-off, reactive energy compensation and lighting management

  9. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  10. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  11. Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2007-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegrap...

  12. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    NANA Strategic Energy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC Strategic Energy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authority’s state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: • Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine.

  13. The Energy Factory; EnergieFabriek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Boomen, M.; Van den Dungen, G.J.; Elias, T.; Jansen, M. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The Energy Factory is a collaboration of 26 Dutch local water boards in which options for energy saving and energy production are examined. According to the authors, the initiative of the Energy Factory will lead to a reframing of the role of the water boards. Moreover, they explain how the PPP concept (People, Planet, Profit) may act as platform for negotiations between actors who are involved in the Energy Factory. In addition, the PPP concept is used to demonstrate that the Energy Factory will lead to larger social involvement, social entrepreneurship and growing profits [Dutch] De Energiefabriek is een samenwerkingsverband van 26 waterschappen in Nederland waarin wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om energie te besparen en zelf energie te produceren. Volgens de auteurs van deze notitie leidt het initiatief van de Energiefabriek tot een reframing van de rol van waterschappen. Daarnaast leggen ze uit hoe het PPP-concept (People, Profit, Planet) kan fungeren als platform voor onderhandelingen tussen de actoren die betrokken zijn bij de Energiefabriek. Verder wordt met het PPP-concept aangetoond dat de Energiefabriek leidt tot ruimere maatschappelijke betrokkenheid, maatschappelijk ondernemen en winstvergroting.

  14. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  15. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  16. The energy services dimension of energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J.

    2011-07-01

    This Handbook examines the subject of energy security: its definition, dimensions, ways to measure and index it, and the complicating factors that are often overlooked. The volume identifies varying definitions and dimensions of energy security, including those that prioritize security of supply and affordability alongside those that emphasize availability, energy efficiency, trade, environmental quality, and social and political stewardship. It also explores the various metrics that can be used to give energy security more coherence, and also to enable it to be measured, including recent attempts to measure energy security progress at the national level, with a special emphasis placed on countries within the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), countries within Asia, and industrialized countries worldwide.

  17. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  18. Municipal energy managers; Responsables energie municipaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    On 1 and 2 July, municipal energy managers from all over Europe met in Stuttgart, Germany. On these two days, more the 150 participants form 22 countries listened to presentations, took part in excursions to cutting-edge energy conservation projects in Stuttgart and, above all, participated in a broad array of workshops presented by experts firmly grounded in local practice. 27 experts drawn from 11 European countries showcased their projects and imparted their experience. The event has been accompanied by an exhibition of companies and service providers offering energy-conservation products and planning services. The first workshop dealt with energy management in Europe and examples from different active municipalities; the second one with energy management in Germany and best practice in the leading cities; the third one with non-municipal and European projects. (A.L.B.)

  19. Annual Energy Review 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  20. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  1. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The... CONTACT: Mr. Hoyt Battey, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy...

  3. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  4. The future of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Towler, Brian F

    2014-01-01

    Using the principle that extracting energy from the environment always involves some type of impact on the environment, The Future of Energy discusses the sources, technologies, and tradeoffs involved in meeting the world's energy needs. A historical, scientific, and technical background set the stage for discussions on a wide range of energy sources, including conventional fossil fuels like oil, gas, and coal, as well as emerging renewable sources like solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. Readers will learn that there are no truly ""green"" energy sources-all energy usage involves some trad

  5. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  6. Wind energy; Energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius Gusmao do; Lima, Jorge H. Greco; Francescutti, Fabio Gino; Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Silva, Patricia de Castro; Giannini, Marcio; Vianna Junior, Affonso [Centro de Pesquisa de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from wind energy, presenting a panoramic approaching on the state-of-art of wind energy, the evolution of the technological dynamics of the sector in Brazil, description of the wind energy technology, the environment and the wind energy, analysis of the economic viability, the strategy for the development of a Brazilian wind energy technology, the estimative for the necessary financial resources, the identification of the present barriers to the penetration of the technology, the mechanisms for the viabilization of the technology introduction.

  7. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  8. Wind energy bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  9. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  10. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  11. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  12. Geothermal energy as a future energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, Tony

    2001-07-01

    Geothermal energy is literally heat used directly from the Earth; 'mined' or extracted like other resources. In general, society has found the mining and extraction of fossil fuels from the Earth to provide energy to be acceptable, and even desirable, until just very recently. Now the two-edged problem of both the depletion of fossil resources and the possible effects of emissions on the environment are forcing a contentious major revaluation of their role as energy sources in the medium and long term. Geothermal energy, on the other hand, does not suffer in the same way from the depletion problem nor does it contribute any significant pollutants to the environment, It is a genuinely sustainable means of providing energy at all times and all locations. This paper presents the arguments to show that energy from geothermal resources: (1) Provides a very large resource base, readily available in one form or another in every country worldwide. (2) Can provide continuous, base load electricity and heat in the right circumstances. (3) Can leverage the role of other forms of renewable electricity generation by factors of 3 or 4. (4) Is economically competitive now in the right circumstances and, because incremental development of established technologies are improving production and reducing costs, major 'eureka' type R and D 'breakthroughs' are not required. (5) Is generally accepted in the market place both for investment and operations, while the work can be undertaken with local staff, contractors and facilities with some imported plant, training and expertise. All energy sources have a role in securing a sustainable future while protecting the safety and comfort of existing lifestyles. They also provide the means to support developing countries to meet their own aspirations in regard to access to energy. Geothermal energy just happens to be an energy source with universal application, albeit with restrictions to the type and nature of

  13. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  14. 10-100 Gbps Offload NIC for WAN, NLR, Grid Computing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 1 proposal addresses the 2006 NASA SBIR Research Topic S8.05 Science Data Management and Visualization (GSFC). The subtopic we address is Distributed Data...

  15. The Role of Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) in Navy Wide-Area Network (WAN) Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Innovation Research SDR Scalable Data Referencing SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language SOA Service-Oriented Architecture SPAWAR Space and...related work and literature from academic, government , and commercial research to provide a fundamental understanding of the terminology and technology...the sliding window, granularity of identified patterns , and the structures that map between signatures and previously seen data. Without any

  16. A quasi-online distributed data processing on WAN: the ATLAS muon calibration system

    CERN Document Server

    De Salvo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In the Atlas experiment, the calibration of the precision tracking chambers of the muon detector is very demanding, since the rate of muon tracks required to get a complete calibration in homogeneous conditions and to feed prompt reconstruction with fresh constants is very high (several hundreds Hz for 8-10 hours runs). The calculation of calibration constants is highly CPU consuming. In order to fulfill the requirement of completing the cycle and having the final constants available within 24 hours, distributed resources at Tier-2 centers have been allocated. The best place to get muon tracks suitable for detector calibration is the second level trigger, where the pre-selection of data sitting in a limited region by the first level trigger via the Region of Interest mechanism allows selecting all the hits from a single track in a limited region of the detector. Online data extraction allows calibration data collection without performing special runs. Small event pseudo-fragments (about 0.5 kB) built at the m...

  17. Wuji Baifeng Wan White Phoenix Bolus of Black-Bone Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    *Source It is a modified recipe from "Shoushi Baoyuan" (Preserving Essence to Extending Life-span) by Gong Tingxian of Ming Dynasty in beginning of 17th century, the imperial hospital listed as specific drug for royal palace. Carried in Pharmacopoeia of P.R.China (1995 Edition)  *Chief Ingredients Black-bone chicken, Antler glue, Turtle shell, Oyster shell, Mantis egg-case, Ginseng root, Milkvetch root, Chinese angelica root, White peony root, Nutgrass flatsedge rhizome, Lucid asparagus root, Licorice root, Rehmannia root, Prepared rehmannia root, Chuanxiong rhizome, Stellaria root, Red sage root, Chinese yam, Gordon euryale seed, Deglued antler powder.  *Explanation The black-bone chicken can replenish Liver and Kidney, Qi and blood, serve as principal drug; Antler glue, Mantis warm Kidney Yang while Turtle and Oyster shell, Asparagus, Stellaria nourish Yin to clear asthenia heat, Ginseng, Milkvetch, Yam, Licorice, Euryale tonify Spleen Qi, and Chinese angelica, Chuanxiong, Peony, Rehmannia, Red sage replenish blood and regulate menstruation.  *Function Replenishing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation and arresting vaginal discharge  *Indication Deficiency of both Qi and blood, pathological wasting and asthenia, aching and weak loins and knees, irregular menstruation, metrorrhagia metrostaxis, leukorrhagia……

  18. Experiences with TCP/IP over an ATM OC12 WAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzan, Rebecca L.; Tierney, Brian L.

    1999-12-23

    This paper discusses the performance testing experiences of a 622.08 Mbps OC12 link. The link will be used for large bulk data transfer, and as such, of interest are both the ATM level throughput rates and end-to-end TCP/IP throughput rates. Tests were done to evaluate the ATM switches, the IP routers, the end hosts, as well as the underlying ATM service provided by the carrier. A low level of cell loss, (resulting in <.01 % packet loss), decreased the TCP throughput rate considerably when one TCP flow was trying to use the entire OC12 bandwidth. Identifying and correcting cell loss in the network proved to be extremely difficult. TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) improved performance dramatically, and the maximum throughput rate increased from 300 Mbps to 400 Mbps. The effects of TCP slow start on performance at OC12 rates are also examined, and found to be insignificant for very large file transfers (e.g., for a 10 GB file). Finally, a history of TCP performance over high-speed networks is presented.

  19. DNA Extraction Protocol for Biological Ingredient Analysis of Liuwei Dihuang Wan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xinwei; Chen, Xiaohua; Su, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Huanxin; Han, Maozhen; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Jian; Bai, Hong; Ning, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are widely used for healthcare and clinical practice. So far, the methods commonly used for quality evaluation of TCM preparations mainly focused on chemical ingredients. The biological ingredient analysis of TCM preparations is also important because TCM preparations usually contain both plant and animal ingredients, which often include some mis-identified herbal materials, adulterants or even some biological contaminants. For biological ingred...

  20. Novel circulatory connection from the acupoint Zhong Wan(CV12 to pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoo Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Demonstrating a novel circulatory path from the acupoint(CV12 to the pancreas. Method : Alcian blue(1% solution, 20μl, pH 7.4 was injected into the acupoint(CV12. Two hours later the surfaces of internal organs were observed by using a stereomicroscope. Results : Alcian blue arrived and colored the omental fat band(OFB on the pancreas. The OFB connected the head and tail of the pancreas, the pancreas and the spleen, and the pancreas and the stomach. Conclusion : The existence of a novel circulatory path from the acupoint CV12 to the pancreas and its OFB was demonstrated.

  1. Practical network design techniques a complete guide for WANs and LANs

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    This new edition has two parts. The first part focuses on wide area networks; the second, which is entirely new, focuses on local area networks. Because Ethernet emerged victorious in the LAN war, the second section pays particular attention to Ethernet design and performance characteristics.

  2. 10-100 Gbps Offload NIC for WAN, NLR, and Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrach, James; Maccabe, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    An extremely fast offload engine system has been developed that operates at 60 Gigabits per second (Gbps), and has scalability to 100 Gbps full-duplex (f-d). This system is based on unique coding and architecture derived from splintered UDP (User Datagram Protocol) offload technology, resulting in unique FPGA (field programmable gate array) intellectual property core and firmware. This innovation improves the networking speed of supercomputer clusters by providing an ultra-fast network protocol processing offload from a CPU (central processing unit) by inserting an offload engine into a host backplane and network connections. This runs on protocol firmware.

  3. Integrating LAN/WAN technologies in support of multimedia telemedicine and teleradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Holcomb, Michael J.; Ovitt, Theron W.

    1999-07-01

    In July 1996 the Arizona Telemedicine Program (ATP) was initiated by the state legislature in recognition of the needs of under-served populations in the state. Two important goals are: establish a statewide telemedicine network infrastructure; and use that infrastructure as a test bed to evaluate the effectiveness of state-of-the-art telemedicine services. These two goals exist in the context of an integrated, multidisciplinary telemedicine program. It is necessary to accommodate distinct levels of connectivity for sites depending on their association with the program and the corresponding level of services to be provided. For remote client sites requiring the highest level of service were selected the use of dedicated T1 circuits. At these sites the capabilities provided include: PC based store-and- forward services; point-to-point interactive real-time video interactions for clinical encounters; and multi-point interactive real-time video interactions for support groups and educational activities. For sites funded for lower levels of service we selected simple dial-up telephone based communications to support store-and-forward activities and inexpensive telephone based video conferencing equipment for administrative interactions. At the service sites distributed within the Arizona Health Sciences Center (AHSC) we selected standard LAN technology for store-and-forward applications and T1 based services for interactive video. To integrate these services we selected the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol, integrated with the LAN environment within the AHSC. The integrated telemedicine network supports eight client sites and two service sites with T1-based ATM and four sites with dial-up lines. At the AHSC, ATM and LAN infrastructure is distributed to several clinical areas, allowing physicians to support telemedicine activities where they normally work. Between July 1997 and Jan 1999 over 2000 telemedicine sessions have been performed, nearly 50 percent of which are teleradiology consults. The use of T1-based ATM has facilitated the development of a wide-area infrastructure that has been easily integrated with LAN and dial-up technology to provide the foundation for diverse telemedicine services.

  4. GPS-free geolocation using LoRa in low-power WANs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fargas, Bernat Carbones; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) has been growing over the last few years in multiple applications and due to a growing need for geolocation and tracking capabilities, an innovative opportunity arises. Whereas geolocation is traditionally based on GPS units this paper reports on a design and implementation...

  5. Integration of the Peruvian Air Force Information Systems through an Integrated LAN/WAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    34Integracion de los Centros de Computo de la Fuerza Aerea Peruana", Trabajo de eficiencia profesional para optar el grado de Coronel FAP, Imprenta FAP, Lima...del Peru. 5. Escuela de Oficiales de la Fuerza Aerea 2 Peruana. Biblioteca del Grupo de Instruccion. Base Aerea "Las Palmas", Surco, Lima, Republica...del Peru. 6. Escuela de capacitamiento (ESCAP) de la Fuerza 1 Aerea del Peru. Surco, Lima, Republica del Peru. 7. Escuela Superior de la Fuerza Aerea

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Zhen Tian Wan on Pial strip-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    motor disorders, some of which continues to progress beyond the time of initial insult [2]. Certain pathophysiological changes like neuronal damage, hippocampal ..... physiological levels of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by enhancing dismutation of oxygen radicals [5]. SOD acts in concert with other enzymes like catalase ...

  7. Monthly energy review, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This is an overview of the January energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 47 figs., 71 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This is an overview of the February energy statistics by the Energy Information Administration. The contents of the report include an energy overview, US energy production, energy consumption, trade stocks and prices for petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  9. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  12. Energy information directory 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are: (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory lists most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters.

  13. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  14. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  15. The goldstone energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, K. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Golstone Energy Project was established in 1974 to investigate ways in which the Goldstone Deep Space Complex in California could be made partly or completely energy-sufficient, especially through the use of solar- and wind-derived energy resources. Ways in which energy could be conserved at the Complex were also studied. Findings included data on both wind and solar energy. Obstacles to demonstrating energy self-sufficiency are: (1) operation and maintenance costs of solar energy systems are estimated to be much higher than conventional energy systems, (2) initial capital costs of present-day technology solar collectors are high and are compounded by low collector efficiency, and (3) no significant market force exists to create the necessary industry to reduce costs through mass production and broad open-market competition.

  16. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  17. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  18. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynich, Raman A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such "energy breathing" is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 i 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  19. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  20. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described.......The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described....

  1. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool is for state and local governments interested in developing a financing program to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  2. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  3. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.W.

    1977-05-01

    Topics covered include: geothermal energy development at LLL, energy conversion engineering, continuing education at LLL, and the Western states uranium resource survey. Separate abstracts were prepared for 3 sections. (MCG)

  5. Energy design for architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  6. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  7. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynich, Raman A., E-mail: dynich@solo.by [Institute of Social Educational Technologies (Belarus)

    2015-06-15

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such “energy breathing” is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 and 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  10. Energy information directory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-28

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information.

  11. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  12. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  13. Annual Energy Review 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  14. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  15. Energy markets and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Innovations mechanisms on energy markets are discussed, in particular valorization of energy products which invokes decarbonization of energy recourses. The valorization, meaning higher value of energy products, is expressed as electrification and entry of modern renewable energy based on

  16. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AEH) for extracting acoustical energy. The developed AEH comprises Helmholtz resonator (HR), a wound coil bonded to a flexible membrane and a permanent magnet placed in a magnet holder. The harvester's performance is analyzed ...

  17. Tracking Clean Energy Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Global demand for energy shows no signs of slowing; carbon dioxide emissions keep surging to new records; and political uprisings, natural disasters and volatile energy markets put the security of energy supplies to the test. More than ever, the need for a fundamental shift to a cleaner and more reliable energy system is clear. What technologies can make that transition happen? How do they work? And how much will it all cost?.

  18. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  19. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  20. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  1. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  2. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  3. Chemistry of sustainable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Energy BasicsWhat Is Energy?Energy, Technology, and SustainabilityEnergy Units, Terms, and AbbreviationsElectricity Generation and StorageOther ResourcesReferencesFossil FuelsFormation of Oil and GasExtraction of Fossil FuelsRefiningCarbon Capture and StorageSummaryOther ResourcesOnline Resources Related to Carbon Capture andSequestrationReferencesThermodynamicsIntroductionThe First Law of ThermodynamicsThe Second Law and Thermodynamic Cycles: the Carnot EfficiencyExerg

  4. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  5. Isovector monopole excitation energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Lipparini, E.; Stringary, S.

    1987-11-05

    Using a hydrodynamical model whose parameters have been adjusted to fit the polarizability and excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance we predict excitation energies of the isovector monopole resonance. The predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data. The mass dependence of the excitation energy is strongly influenced by nuclear geometry.

  6. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  7. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus...

  8. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  9. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  10. Energy for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy efficiency and reduced reliance on fossil fuels are both essential if people are to have any chance of avoiding escalating energy prices and the grim reality of catastrophic climate change. By increasing the diversity of energy sources people can also achieve increased security, reducing their dependence on imports. As…

  11. Annual Energy Review 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  12. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  13. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  14. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  15. Energy Initiatives in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion; Duta, Anca

    2017-01-01

    Energy business shifts from the centralized organizations to networks of producers and consumers labelled as distributed energy generation. This global paradigm shift on energy markets is analyzed with focus on the European Union. The changes evolved during last three decades when the neo-liberal

  16. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  17. Energy master equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1995-01-01

    energies chosen randomly according to a Gaussian. The random-walk model is here derived from Newton's laws by making a number of simplifying assumptions. In the second part of the paper an approximate low-temperature description of energy fluctuations in the random-walk model—the energy master equation...

  18. School of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Saligin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia's cooperation with international community in finding ways of addressing global energy security, serves its national interests on international arena. International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy (IIEPD was established at MGIMO University in February 2000, in accordance with the decision of the Academic Council of the 30 th of November 1999 and in the framework of an agreement with the International Academy of the fuel and energy complex. IIEPD combines two important aspects of foreign policy studies - energy and diplomacy. For the first time in Russia it launched a multi-level training in the field of energy diplomacy and geopolitics, and international energy cooperation. The immediate cause of the creation of IIEPD was an urgent demand on the part of major government agencies and leading oil, gas and energy companies for specialists with qualifications necessary to address the issues in the international energy cooperation and integration of the Russian fuel and energy sector in the world economy: - Energy Policy and Diplomacy; - International law; - World Economy and Finance; - International Management and Marketing. The idea of creation of the International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomacy was supported by the State Duma and the Federation Council, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Education and Science, Ministry of Economic Development. The Supervisory Board is headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

  19. Energy biotechnology with cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.; Hellingwerf, K.; Lindblad, P.; Teixeira De Mattos, J.

    2009-01-01

    The world's future energy demand calls for a sustainable alternative for the use of fossil fuels, to restrict further global warming. Harvesting solar energy via photosynthesis is one of Nature's remarkable achievements. Existing technologies exploit this process for energy ‘production’ via

  20. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  1. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  2. Energy and Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenblum, Sidney

    This report reviews the economic impacts of the energy dilemma. Presented are viewpoints that have emerged relating to: (1) the desirability of economic growth; (2) the relationship between economic growth and energy usage; (3) the effects of energy wage in limiting or expanding the opportunities for growth; and (4) whether there is some sense in…

  3. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  4. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  5. Energy-Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  6. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  7. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  8. Wavestar Energy Production Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter Bak; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    It is of paramount importance to decrease the Cost of Energy (CoE) from Wavestar wave energy con-verters (WECs) in order to make the WECs competitive to other sources of renewable energy. The CoE can be decreased by reducing the cost of the machines (CAPEX and OPEX) and by increasing the in-come....

  9. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  10. Tips for Energy Savers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    According to 1986 U.S. Department of Energy data, 48% of our residential energy is used to heat and cool our homes, 16% goes for heating water, 12% is used to refrigerators and freezers, and the remaining 24% goes into lighting, cooking, and running appliances. This booklet contains tips for saving energy, including sections on: (1) draft-proof…

  11. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  12. Energy recovery injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, V.; Petrov, V.M. [BINP SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Atkinson, T.; Matveenko, A. [HZB, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-10-21

    This article presents a novel design for a superconducting rf electron injector that incorporates energy recovery. This concept relaxes the demands of high power input couplers, improves essential beam parameters and energy efficiency and reduces the overall cost of a compact energy recovery linac machine.

  13. Energy in Sweden 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Statistical data on supply and consumption of energy are presented together with information on the current energy situation, developments in energy use and supply, prices and environmental data. International aspects are also treated 37 figs, 4 tabs. Also available in Swedish as STEM-ET--25-98

  14. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...

  15. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  16. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    ) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  17. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  18. Energy information directory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.

  19. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy

  20. Physics of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Krischer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Covers the physical basis of the most important energy conversion processes used for energy supply. Provides the fundamentals and a scientific understanding of the physics behind thermal power plants, solar cells and power plants, batteries and fuels cells as well as energy storage devices.

  1. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  3. Annual energy review 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherin E. [Energy Information Adminstration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-30

    The Annual Energy Review 2003 is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States in modern times. Data are presented for all major forms of energy by production (extraction of energy from the earth, water, and other parts of the environment), consumption by end-user sector, trade with other nations, storage changes, and pricing. Much of the data provided covers the fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are nature’s batteries; they have stored the sun’s energy over millennia past. It is primarily that captured energy that we are drawing on today to fuel the activities of the modern economy. Data in this report measure the extraordinary expansion of our use of fossil fuels from 29 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1949 to 84 quadrillion Btu in 2003. In recent years, fossil fuels accounted for 86 percent of all energy consumed in the United States. This report also records the development of an entirely new energy industry—the nuclear electric power industry. The industry got its start in this country in 1957 when the Shippingport, Pennsylvania, nuclear electric power plant came on line. Since that time, the industry has grown to account for 20 percent of our electrical output and 8 percent of all energy used in the country. Renewable energy is a third major category of energy reported in this volume. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite in supply, renewable energy is essentially inexhaustible because it can be replenished. Types of energy covered in the renewable category include conventional hydroelectric power, which is power derived from falling water; wood; waste; alcohol fuels; geothermal; solar; and wind. Together, these forms of energy accounted for about 6 percent of all U.S. energy consumption in recent years.

  4. Energy is space; Energie is ruimte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordijn, H.; Verwest, F.; Van Hoorn, A.

    2003-07-01

    In chapter 2 the relation between energy and space in the past is discussed. Geological deposits of peat, coal, oil and natural gas determined the exploratyion of energy and by that the landscape, the structure of settlements, means of transportation and the effect on the economic structure in a country. In chapter 3 attention is paid to the present use of space of energy systems, in particular coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power and electricity. In chapter 4 insight is given into the future use of space, focusing on new energy sources, e.g. biomass, hydroelectric power, wind power and solar energy. [Dutch] Het Nederlandse ruimtelijk beleid moet nu al anticiperen op een grotere capaciteit aan windenergie dan de huidige beleidsdoelstelling voor 2020. Windenergie heeft in het windrijke Nederland als duurzame bron een aanzienlijk potentieel, vooral op de Noordzee. Als het huidige energiebeleid gericht op duurzame energie succesvol is, moet het mogelijk zijn om meer molens te plaatsen dan nu wordt voorzien. Ruimte mag dan geen beperking zijn. Dit is een van de bevindingen uit dit rapport. Het Ruimtelijk Planbureau wijst erop dat het debat over energie ook over de ruimtelijke aspecten moet gaan. Energie heeft altijd al een grote invloed gehad op de ruimte. De overgang naar nieuwe, duurzamer energiesystemen, die in het Nederlandse en internationale beleid wordt gestimuleerd, zal eveneens ruimtelijke gevolgen hebben. Omgekeerd kunnen ruimtelijke beperkingen die transitie afremmen. Behalve de reserveringen voor grootschalige windmolenparken is het zaak ook aandacht te hebben voor een uitgewerkte energie-infrastructuur op de Noordzee alsmede havenruimte die nodig is voor opslag van onderdelen, plaatsing en reparaties. De toekomst voor grootschalige opwekking van energie uit biomassa lijkt minder voor de hand te liggen. Wel biedt de infrastructuur van havens en petrochemische industrie kansen voor grootschalige import en verwerking van biomassa. Hiernaast constateert het

  5. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  6. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE... CONTACT: Christine Platt-Patrick, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), (202) 586-7691...

  7. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  8. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  9. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    -reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance......Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self...... of energy balance....

  10. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  11. Holographic Dark Information Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Gough

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle and the Holographic principle are used to derive the holographic information energy contribution to the Universe. Information energy density has increased with star formation until sufficient to start accelerating the expansion of the universe. The resulting reduction in the rate of star formation due to the accelerated expansion may provide a feedback that limits the information energy density to a constant level. The characteristics of the universe’s holographic information energy then closely match those required to explain dark energy and also answer the cosmic coincidence problem. Furthermore the era of acceleration will be clearly limited in time.

  12. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  13. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  14. Tidal Energy Update 2009

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rourke, Fergal; Boyle, Fergal; Reynolds, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Tidal energy has the potential to play a valuable part in a sustainable energy future. It is an extremely predictable energy source, depending only on the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and the centrifugal forces created by the rotation of the earth-moon system. Tidal energy has been exploited on a significant scale since the construction of the La Rance tidal barrage in France in 1967. A tidal barrage utilises the potential energy of the tide and has proven to be very successful,...

  15. FEMP Renewable Energy Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    This four-page overview describes how Federal agencies can contact the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to obtain assistance in acquiring renewable energy systems, renewable fuels, and renewable ("green") power for use in their facilities and vehicles. Renewable resources, technologies, and fuels are described, as well as Federal goals for using clean, sustainable renewable energy; the current goal is to supply 2.5% of the Federal Government's energy with renewable sources by 2005. Also included is a description of the resources and technologies themselves and associated benefits.

  16. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  17. Limerick Clare Energy Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Dubuisson, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    at a national level, but they need to be supplemented by local plans also, since the most successful renewable energy projects to date are at a local level. For example, it is evident from the transition to renewable energy in Denmark, that 100% renewable energy systems can already be implemented at a local...... level. Hence, by initiating local action, national targets can be met and exceeded, while also creating a template for a wider transition to renewable energy. Accordingly, the primary goal of the project is: To develop a local energy plan for Limerick and Clare which is based on a quantified assessment...

  18. Energy research for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzberger, Isolde; Breh, Wolfgang; Brendler, Vinzenz; Danneil, Friederike; Eulenburg, Katharina; Messner, Frank; Ossing, Franz; Saupe, Stephan; Sieber, Julia; Zeiss, Erhard (eds.)

    2011-04-15

    One of the central challenges of the 21st century is to ensure a sustainable energy supply for the world's people and its economy. That's why scientists are searching for solutions that will provide sufficient amounts of energy - reliably, affordably and without endangering the natural environment on which our lives are based. One thing everyone agrees on is that there are no obvious solutions. No single energy carrier or technology will suffice to safeguard our future energy supply. Consequently, researchers must examine a broad range of options and develop many different kinds of technologies. This is the only way to create a sustainable energy system that adequately takes local environmental, political, social and economic conditions into account. Germany's largest scientific organisation, the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, is carrying out world-class research into diverse aspects of this existential challenge in its Research Field Energy. A broad spectrum of energy sources such as the sun, nuclear fusion, fossil fuels, geothermal energy, water, wind, nuclear fission and biomass are being investigated - but this is not all. Technologies for energy storage, energy distribution and efficient energy use also play a key role. This comprehensive approach corresponds to the energy concept of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, which calls for a dynamic energy mix that includes the expanded use of renewable energies, a corresponding extension of the power grid, the development of new energy storage systems and increased energy efficiency. The scientists of the Helmholtz Association are investigating entire chains of energy processes, including boundary conditions and side effects such as the impact on the climate and the environment and acceptance issues. They are taking into account interactions with other sectors such as the raw materials, construction and mobility industries. Energy research is directed at industrial

  19. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  20. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  1. Energy emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, B.K.; Rothkopf, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    Energy emergency preparedness is the special responsibility of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy Emergencies within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies; though other Department of Energy (DOE) offices manage some aspects and DOE also coordinates emergency management with other federal departments. There are two basic objectives for energy emergency preparedness. The first of these, the economic stabilization objective, seeks to ease the impact of an energy supply disruption by facilitating a quick recovery and minimizing the disruption's economic consequences. The second is the mobilization support objective to ensure that there is adequate energy and fuel to support defense, defense industrial and critical civilian needs for energy and fuel. While all energy systems are vulnerable they vary in the degree of seriousness and the probability of a disruption. Oil is the most vulnerable, and will become increasingly so in the 1990's, as domestic and reliable foreign sources diminish and the United States relies more on imports from volatile Persian Gulf countries. Electric power is the next most vulnerable system, being open particularly to multi-site terrorist attack. This overview examines two highly connected organizations: the Office of Energy Emergencies (OEE) itself and the actual response organization, centering on the Energy Emergency Management System (EEMS). 38 refs., 10 figs.

  2. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  3. Deep Energy Retrofit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhivov, Alexander; Lohse, Rüdiger; Rose, Jørgen

    Deep Energy Retrofit – A Guide to Achieving Significant Energy User Reduction with Major Renovation Projects contains recommendations for characteristics of some of core technologies and measures that are based on studies conducted by national teams associated with the International Energy Agency...... Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (IEA-EBC) Annex 61 (Lohse et al. 2016, Case, et al. 2016, Rose et al. 2016, Yao, et al. 2016, Dake 2014, Stankevica et al. 2016, Kiatreungwattana 2014). Results of these studies provided a base for setting minimum requirements to the building...... envelope-related technologies to make Deep Energy Retrofit feasible and, in many situations, cost effective. Use of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in addition to core technologies bundle and high-efficiency appliances will foster further energy use reduction. This Guide also provides best practice...

  4. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  5. Guam Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  6. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  7. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...

  8. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    , (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...... clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...

  9. Renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twidell, J.; Weir, T.

    1985-01-01

    Every country in the world is seeking new energy sources as alternatives to fossil fuels. For the best use of such resources we need to know how much is available, what the limitations are and how to make efficient devices which will harness the energy in a practical cost-effective way. Contents: Preface; Acknowledgements; List of symbols; Principles of renewable energy; Essentials of fluid mechanics; Heat transfer; Solar radiation; Soalr water heating; Other uses for solar heat; Photoelectric generation; Hydro power; Power from the wind; The photosynthetic process; Biofuels; Wave energy; Tidal power; Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC); Geothermal energy; Energy storage and distribution; Appendix A: Units; Appendix B: Data; Appendix C: Some heat transfer formulas; Index.

  10. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...... to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  11. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  12. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    . Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy......This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years...

  13. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  14. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  15. Annual Energy Review, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document presents statistics on energy useage for 1995. A reviving domestic economy, generally low energy prices, a heat wave in July and August, and unusually cold weather in November and December all contributed to the fourth consecutive year of growth in U.S. total energy consumption, which rose to an all-time high of almost 91 quadrillion Btu in 1995 (1.3). The increase came as a result of increases in the consumption of natural gas, coal, nuclear electric power, and renewable energy. Petroleum was the primary exception, and its use declined by only 0.3 percent. (Integrating the amount of renewable energy consumed outside the electric utility sector into U.S. total energy consumption boosted the total by about 3.4 quadrillion Btu, but even without that integration, U.S. total energy consumption would have reached a record level in 1995.)

  16. Common energy audit report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, A.I.; Sheina, L.S.; Ivanov, N.S. [RDIEE, Moswoc (Russian Federation); Draborg, S.; Oestergaard, T. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interst in energy savings. At some dairies it seemed to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting could production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  17. Zero Energy Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  18. Energy and Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  19. Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  20. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  1. Energy Savers Tips on Saving Energy& Money at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-06-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances

  2. Energy Savers: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    Provides consumers with home energy and money savings tips such as insulation, weatherization, heating, cooling, water heating, energy efficient windows, landscaping, lighting, and energy efficient appliances.

  3. Energy 83. Revised and Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, John, Ed.

    Energy 80 is an energy education program for middle/junior high school students. This document is a booklet of energy topics designed for student use in the program. Topics considered in this booklet include: forms of energy; energy rules; solar energy; food energy; fossil fuels; coal; oil and gas production and consumption; nuclear fission;…

  4. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  5. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  6. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  7. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  8. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  9. Annual Energy Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  10. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  11. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  12. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  13. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  14. Renewable Energy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China is the most densely populated country in the world with high rate of economic growth resulting in higher demand for energy resources and in strive to guarantee stable supply of these resources. Chinese annual GDP growth in 2012 and 2013 was down to 7.7% comparing to 10% in 2000-2011 [7]. In 2012 and 2013 economic growth stumbled because of slowdown in manufacturing and exports, taking into account that Chinese government was eager to cut inflation and excessive investments in some segments of the market. Speaking about energy sector Chinese government is aimed at promotion of market-based pricing systems, activities for advanced energy efficiency and higher competition between energy companies, and increased investment in renewable energy resources. Considering renewables as one of many ways to diversify energy supplies, lower dependence on coal and improve environmental situation Chinese government actively supports and develops programs aimed at support of renewable energy industry in China. Chinese economic development is tightly attached to five-year plans. It seems important to mention the fact that main energy goals for current 12-th "five-year plan" are to achieve 15% renewables consumption and CO2 sequestration up to 40-45% by2020 in order to lower dependency on coal and improve environmental situation. As a result of Chinese state policy to develop renewables China achieved certain results in wind energy, helioenergetics, hydroenergetics and energy from waste recycling.

  15. Energy Education Materials Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The two volumes of the Energy Education Materials Inventory (EEMI) comprise an annotated bibliography of widely available energy education materials and reference sources. This systematic listing is designed to provide a source book which will facilitate access to these educational resources and hasten the inclusion of energy-focused learning experiences in kindergarten through grade twelve. EEMI Volume II expands Volume I and contains items that have become available since its completion in May, 1976. The inventory consists of three major parts. A core section entitled Media contains titles and descriptive information on educational materials, categorized according to medium. The other two major sections - Grade Level and Subject - are cross indexes of the items for which citations appear in the Media Section. These contain titles categorized according to grade level and subject and show the page numbers of the full citations. The general subject area covered includes the following: alternative energy sources (wood, fuel from organic wastes, geothermal energy, nuclear power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy); energy conservation, consumption, and utilization; energy policy and legislation, environmental/social aspects of energy technology; and fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum). (RWR)

  16. Annual Energy Review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  17. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  18. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  19. Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2017-01-13

    In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation-nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale-and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.

  20. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced

  1. ENERGI EXPENDITURE PADA LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Rosmalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ENERGY EXPENDITURE OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: Physical activity is a factor to estimate the energy requirement. The elderly tend to reduce their activities which influence their energy requirement. Now aday the energy need for elderly is extrapolated from the adult. Energy expenditure based on their daily activities Is a method to estimate the energy requirement.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess energy expenditure of elderly people based on the daily physical activities.Methods: The study was conducted in 2 sub-sub districts of Bogar Country. A total of 92 elderly (42 men and 50 women were included in this study. The inclusion criteria were BMI 18.5- 25.0, physically and hematologically healthy and agree to participate in this study. Physical activities data were collected 3 days respectively using method record and recall and energy intakes using 3 day food record by weighing.Results: The average age was 67.5 ± 5,1 years for male elderly and 65.4 ± 3.9 years of female elderly. Recreational activities (reading, watching TV, sitting were the most activities done by male elderly (34.9% of the day while female elderly 34.8% of the day were spent for sleeping activity. The highest energy expenditure of male elderly was contributed from reactional activities (570.3 ± 187.8 Kcal/day while female elderly the highest energy expenditure was contributed from household work activities. The average energy expenditure for male elderly was 1870.2 ± 261.2 Kcal/day or 34.4 Kcal/Body weight/day and female elderly was 1840.2 ± 255.7 Kcal/day or 38.2 Kcal/Body weight/day. The energy Intake of male elderly was 1858 ± 471.7 Kcal/day or 34.1 Kcal/Body weight/day and female elderly was 1472 ± 255.7 Kcal/day or 30.8 Kcal/Body weight/day.Conclusions: Conclusion of this research was the energy expenditure of male elderly balance with their energy consumption, while the energy expenditure of female elderly higher than their energy consumption

  2. World energy insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The 21st World Energy Congress offers a unique opportunity for all stake-holders of the energy sector to meet and exchange visions, strategies and practices, during four days of very intensive and interesting sessions, round-tables and exhibitions. More than 3,000 energy leaders gather from around the world from both developed and developing countries, from all types of energy, from public and private companies and government organisations, in order to think together about how to bring about a sustainable and acceptable energy future. The truth is that nobody has the choice any longer. All energy leaders have to take decisions every day, and they need to have a clear analysis of what is at stake, what the risks are, and what the solutions can be.

  3. Making Energy Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2016-01-01

    Integrating renewable energy sources into the power grid and ensuring public interest in energy is a key concern in many countries. What role may art play, and what political strategies do artists employ, in order to intervene in the infrastructuring of energy and public environments? As the case...... study here, a Copenhagen art and energy competition invited artists and designers from around the world to submit ideas for large-scale public artworks that can generate utility-scale renewable energy. The competition process had a smooth and consensus-seeking political strategy, manifested in a set...... politics appear here, especially compared to the literature analysing the roles played by art and design when imagining new ways of living with energy. Oscillation between smooth politics and cosmopolitics may provide a generative way forward for actors wishing to engage in the infrastructuring...

  4. Buildings Energy Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Buildings Energy Technology (BET) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Each issue of BET also will include an article presenting a program overview or highlighting a current energy conservation technology project of DOE's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) plus a listing of scheduled meetings of interest. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  5. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  6. Limerick Clare Energy Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Dubuisson, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    worldwide are facing a new challenge, to transition to low-carbon sustainable forms of energy and therefore, the LCR has the opportunity to become a leading innovator within the energy sector once again. This study investigates how the LCR can begin the transition to a sustainable energy system by outlining......The Limerick-Clare Region (LCR) has a long history of innovation within the energy sector in Ireland, which includes the construction of Ireland’s largest hydro plant, Ardnacrusha, in the late 1920’s as well as Ireland’s largest power plant, Moneypoint, in the 1980’s. Currently, energy systems...... some key actions between now and 2020. Furthermore, a long-term vision is also presented to illustrate how these actions contribute to the final objective of a low-carbon 100% renewable energy system....

  7. Energy and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R; Frumkin, Howard; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Butler, Colin D; Chafe, Zoë A; Fairlie, Ian; Kinney, Patrick; Kjellstrom, Tord; Mauzerall, Denise L; McKone, Thomas E; McMichael, Anthony J; Schneider, Mycle

    2013-01-01

    Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also entails some health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. We do not review health impacts of climate change itself, which are due mostly to climate-altering pollutants from energy systems, but do discuss the potential for achieving near-term health cobenefits by reducing certain climate-related emissions.

  8. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  9. Energy & Climate: Getting Quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard

    2011-11-01

    A noted environmentalist claims that buying an SUV instead of a regular car is energetically equivalent to leaving your refrigerator door open for seven years. A fossil-fuel apologist argues that solar energy is a pie-in-the-sky dream promulgated by na"ive environmentalists, because there's nowhere near enough solar energy to meet humankind's energy demand. A group advocating shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant claims that 70% of its electrical energy is lost in transmission lines. Around the world, thousands agitate for climate action, under the numerical banner ``350.'' Neither the environmentalist, the fossil-fuel apologist, the antinuclear activists, nor most of those marching under the ``350'' banner can back up their assertions with quantitative arguments. Yet questions about energy and its environmental impacts almost always require quantitative answers. Physics can help! This poster gives some cogent examples, based on the newly published 2^nd edition of the author's textbook Energy, Environment, and Climate.

  10. Composing for Energy Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    Rising energy consumption, access to fossil fuels, and not least climate issues have put energy infrastructures on the agenda in many parts of the world. How to redesign electricity infrastructures in ways that ensure stable, affordable and ‘clean’ energy production? Denmark has set the ambitious...... goal to show the world that it is possible to replace all fossil fuels (including for transport and heating) with renewable energy, primarily wind, and thus become CO2–neutral before 2050. An integral part of a ‘green transition’ in Demark, and in many other countries, is a so-called smart grid, which...... can handle distributed energy production and ensure ‘flexible electricity consumption’. The smart energy infrastructure should ensure that electricity is consumed as the wind blows and it thus designates new forms of involvement of end users. Whereas the current electricity infrastructure has been...

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  12. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  13. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  14. Energy Organizational Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gina C. Paradis; James Yockey; Tracey LeBeau

    2009-04-17

    As the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) continues to refine and finalize its Strategic Energy Plan, it became necessary to insure that a sustainable organization structure was developed through which the energy program and its initiatives could be nurtured and managed. To that end, SNI undertook a study to thoroughly evaluate the existing organizational structures and assess the requisite changes and/or additions to that framework that would complement the mission of the Strategic Plan. The goal of this study was to analyze, work with staff and leadership and recommend the most effective plan for the development of an organizational framework within which the Seneca could more effectively exercise energy sovereignty – control and manage their natural resource assets – i.e. develop its own energy resources, meet the current and projected energy needs of their community, and “sit at the table” with other regional energy providers to deal with issues on a peer-to-peer basis.

  15. Energy statistics manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.

  16. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The European Union has some of the most ambitious targets to decarbonise its energy system in the coming decades. To do so, it is likely that many countries will depend on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. There is still a lot of uncertainty in relation...... in excess of 80% are possible in the electricity sector. Hence, this approach is one potential solution that will enable the European energy system to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. In this study, the Smart Energy System approach is applied to Europe, which achieves two key objectives: firstly...... to the integration of these resources, since the current energy system is not designed to handle intermittency on the supply side. The Smart Energy System concept is one approach which can accommodate very large penetrations of these intermittent resources, with some analysis demonstrating how penetration levels...

  17. Energy: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, S. J. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is the first update of a previous energy bibliography dated August 1974. It contains approximately 3,300 selected references on energy and energy related topics from bibliographic sources dated August 1974 through December 1974. The references are arranged by date, with the latest works first, in subject categories. (1) Energy and power - general; resources, supply/demand, and forecasting; policy, legislation, and regulation; research and development, environment; consumption and economics; conservation; and systems analysis. (2) Energy and power sources - general; fossil fuels; hydrogen and other fuels; organic wastes and waste heat; nuclear; geothermal; solar; wind; ocean/water; magnetohydrodynamics and electrohydrodynamics; and gas and steam turbines. (3) Energy and power storage and transmission.

  18. Annual energy review 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This 13th edition presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1994; thus, this report is well-suited to long-term trend analyses. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. Statistics on renewable energy sources are also included: this year, for the first time, usage of renewables by other consumers as well as by electric utilities is included. Also new is a two-part, comprehensive presentation of data on petroleum products supplied by sector for 1949 through 1994. Data from electric utilities and nonutilities are integrated as ``electric power industry`` data; nonutility power gross generation are presented for the first time. One section presents international statistics (for more detail see EIA`s International Energy Annual).

  19. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  20. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  1. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  2. Genomic Energy Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G

    2017-02-07

    Energy landscape theory, developed in the context of protein folding, provides, to our knowledge, a new perspective on chromosome architecture. We review what has been learned concerning the topology and structure of both the interphase and mitotic chromosomes from effective energy landscapes constructed using Hi-C data. Energy landscape thinking raises new questions about the nonequilibrium dynamics of the chromosome and gene regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  4. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Energy Efficient Content Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo J.; Giroire F.; Liu Y; Modrzejewski R.; Moulierac J.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize energy efficiency in network, operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently, there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impact of using in-network caches and CDN cooperation on an energy-efficient routing. We formulate this problem as Energy Efficient Content Distribution. The ...

  6. Energy Capture Optimization for an Adaptive Wave Energy Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Meijer, Harmen; van Rooij, Marijn; Clemente Pinol, Silvia; Galvan Garcia, Bruno; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy has great potential as a renewable energy source, and can therefore contribute significantly to the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This is especially important since energy mixes with high renewable penetration have become a worldwide priority. One solution to facilitate such goals is to harvest the latent untapped energy of the ocean waves and convert it into electrical energy. A device performing such a task is known as a wave energy converter (WEC). In...

  7. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farid U Khan

    giadis et al [10] respectively. Moreover, acoustical noise is also present in abundance in the surroundings [11–15]. Converting ambient acoustical noise with an acoustic energy (AEH) into a useful electrical power is most appropriate for applications like health monitoring of vehicles, machineries, buildings and bridges.

  8. Wind energy: A renewable energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Wind turbine generator research programs administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration are examined. The design and operation of turbine demonstration models are described. Wind assessments were made to determine the feasibility of using wind generated power for various parts of the country.

  9. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  10. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  11. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... to meet the required reduction in final energy consumption (goal for 2013) and in primary energy consumption (with goals in 2011 and 2020) as planned by parliament? Recommendations were made on how to improve and develop the portfolio using cost effectiveness as well as organisational clarity as criteria...

  12. Energy Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    On 15 December 2011, the European Commission adopted the Communication 'Energy Roadmap 2050'. The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group. In the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission explores the challenges posed by delivering the EU's decarbonisation objective while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness. The Energy Roadmap 2050 is the basis for developing a long-term European framework together with all stakeholders.

  13. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  15. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  16. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system.......The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  17. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  18. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  20. The science of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to describe the scientific concepts of energy. Accessible to readers with no scientific education beyond high-school chemistry, it starts with the basic notion of energy and the fundamental laws that govern it, such as conservation, and explains the various forms of energy, such as electrical, chemical, and nuclear. It then proceeds to describe ways in which energy is stored for very long times in the various fossil fuels (petroleum, gas, coal) as well as for short times (flywheels, pumped storage, batteries, fuel cells, liquid hydrogen). The book also discusses the modes of transport of energy, especially those of electrical energy via lasers and transmission lines, as well as why the latter uses alternating current at high voltages. The altered view of energy introduced by quantum mechanics is also discussed, as well as how almost all the Earth's energy originates from the Sun. Finally, the history of the forms of energy in the course of development of the universe is described, and how this ...

  1. Schizophrenic Energy Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Wael; Halgaard, Anne-Marie Rud; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

    2009-01-01

      On the basis of qualitative interviews on 'Energibyen Frederikshavn' (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether...... the interest in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. And does it really matter what the motivations are as long as behaviour is changed? The article will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people...

  2. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  3. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  4. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  5. Zero energy house

    OpenAIRE

    Milián Martínez, Irene; Vink, Willem; Ortiz Braulio, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    The zero energy house project talks about sustainability. In general terms the house is designed to produce as much energy as it consume. If you take a look to the house its possible to find several systems that takes as much profit as possible to the renewable energies like photovoltaic electricity production, geothermal energy used to run a heat pump or a well thought isolated house. First of all it’s possible to find general information about the topics in house, to make people understa...

  6. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  7. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  8. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Thermal energy transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  10. Predesign energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A new graphic technique developed to help architects and engineers design more energy-efficient buildings is presented. An energy-efficient design includes two interrelated elements: physical design characteristics which minimize testing, cooling, and lighting loads; and mechanical and electrical subsystems which meet energy loads efficiently. The technique focuses on manipulation of design variables to effectively reduce excessive heat gains and losses. The technique, termed a visual one, is designed to show how a building uses energy. The technique described can also be done manually.

  11. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  12. Thermophotovoltaic energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celanovic, Ivan; Chan, Walker; Bermel, Peter; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Marton, Christopher; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Araghchini, Mohammad; Jensen, Klavs F.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert; Fisher, Peter

    2015-08-25

    Inventive systems and methods for the generation of energy using thermophotovoltaic cells are described. Also described are systems and methods for selectively emitting electromagnetic radiation from an emitter for use in thermophotovoltaic energy generation systems. In at least some of the inventive energy generation systems and methods, a voltage applied to the thermophotovoltaic cell (e.g., to enhance the power produced by the cell) can be adjusted to enhance system performance. Certain embodiments of the systems and methods described herein can be used to generate energy relatively efficiently.

  13. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector......This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...

  14. Energy and globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Hossein Saremi

    Before the Industrial Revolution, nations required no energy fuel. People relied on human, animal, and wind and waterpower for energy need. Energy (oil) has resettled populations, elected officials in the free world, or changed the governments of the energy rich countries by force. Energy fueled wars, played the major factor in the might of those who have it or more importantly the abilities to acquire it by force. This dissertation researches the primacy of oil as an energy source from the time of oil's discovery to the present times. Between 1945 and 1960, the use of oil and gas doubled as power was generated for industries as steel, cement, metalworking and more important of all filling station hoses into automobiles gas tanks, thus energy swept people and societies quite literally off their feet. One in every six jobs in the industrial world hired by the giant automotive industries. The big five American oil companies spurred on by special tax benefit, these companies grew to gigantic sizes by taking out the best part of the nation's oil. Then, for greater growth, they leaped overseas and built up an immensely profitable system, in alliance with Anglo-Dutch Shell and British Petroleum, known as seven sisters. On the other side of the world, the energy producing nations form an alliance mainly to protect themselves from downward price fluctuations of oil. The struggle for survival in the global energy market forced those countries to get together and form OPEC, which is referred as an "oil cartel".

  15. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  16. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  17. Institute for Sustainable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Alternate fuels offer unique challenges and opportunities as energy source for power generation, vehicular transportation, and industrial applications. Institute for Sustainable Energy (ISE) at UA conducts innovative research to utilize the complex mix of domestically-produced alternate fuels to achieve low-emissions, high energy-efficiency, and fuel-flexibility. ISE also provides educational and advancement opportunities to students and researchers in the energy field. Basic research probing the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels has generated practical concepts investigated in a burner and engine test platforms.

  18. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  19. Energy balance in JET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Matthews

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss results from the study of the energy balance in JET based on calculated heating energies, radiated energy from bolometry and tile calorimetry. Recent data enables us to be more confident in the numbers used and to exclude certain possibilities but the overall energy imbalance which typically amounts to 25% of total input remains unexplained. This shows that caution is required in interpreting fractional radiated powers which are commonly used to measure the effectiveness of impurity seeded scenarios at reducing divertor heat load.

  20. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold its inaugural meeting under... expected to develop recommendations on improving the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy...