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Sample records for wak

  1. Waste management at WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.D.; Willax, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    After a short description of the WAK plant and its reprocessing and intervention activities, types and sources of WAK wastes are described. Roughly half of the waste volume is generated during reprocessing, the other half during intervention periods. Most of the waste is transported to KfK for conditioning. Only waste from the head end cell is cementated on the spot. HLLW is stored in stainless steel tanks. Some results from analyzing this stuff are given. The corrosion behavior is acceptable for medium term storage. (orig.)

  2. Corrosion behaviour of the WAK-HLW glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Luckscheiter, B.; Nesovic, M.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption studies were performed on corrosion products from the glass GP WAK1 formed over a period of 40 days in deionized water at 80 C and S/V=1000 m -1 . After 40 days the pH of the solution was adjusted to various preselected values in the pH range 2-10. The pH was kept constant during the experiments by daily addition of either HNO 3 or NaOH. The sorption experiments were run at ambient temperature and 80 C for up to 10 days using various starting concentrations of Eu, Th and U. Sorption isotherms of Eu, Th and U(VI) on corrosion products were determined in deionized water, in NaCl-rich and MgCl 2 -rich solution. Presently, data of the sorption studies in deionized water are available.Furthermore the investigations of the pH dependence of saturation concentration of silica and of the release of various glass constituent of the glass GP WAK1 were continued with studies in the MgCl 2 -rich solution 1 at 80 C. Results of these studies (30 days) are given in terms of normalized elemental mass losses. (MM)

  3. Role of OsWAK124, a rice wall-associated kinase, in response to environmental heavy metal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, X.; Hou, X.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Arabidopsis cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) family play important roles in both development and stress responses. There are about one hundred and twenty five OsWAKs annotated in the rice genome but their functions in rice growth and development are largely unknown. In this paper, we reported a functional role of the OsWAK124 (Os12g0266200) in rice heavy metal responses. Confocal GFP experiments located OsWAK124 in the cell wall and analyses of OsWAK124 promoter GUS transgenic lines suggested that OsWAK124 promoter is primarily active at the meristematic tissues under normal growth condition. Under stress conditions, however, OsWAK124 promoter activity is induced in non-meristematic tissues, such as leaf, stem and root, and the activity in the meristematic tissues is further enhanced. Various transgenic rice lines carrying either RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression constructs were generated. Transgenic lines were tested for their responses to various stress conditions including salicylic acid, NaCl, AlCl/sub 3/, CuSO/sub 4/ and CdSO/sub 4/. Our analyses showed that rice seedlings overexpressing OsWAK124 are more resistant to the three tested heavy metals (Al, Cu, and Cd), which suggested that OsWAK124, like some Arabidopsis WAK members, plays a role in environmental heavy metal stress responses. (author)

  4. Operating experiences in the reprocessing of LWR fuels in the WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, K.L.

    40 tons of fuel have been processed in the WAK. Problems encountered are reviewed. Through constant control and advance preparation for nonroutine procedures, the average monthly dosage has dropped from more than 100 mrem to 40 to 50 mrem

  5. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Overexpression of Rice Wall-Associated Kinase 25 (OsWAK25) Alters Resistance to Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkenrider, Mitch; Sharma, Rita; De Vleesschauwer, David; Tsao, Li; Zhang, Xuting; Chern, Mawsheng; Canlas, Patrick; Zuo, Shimin; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Wall-associated kinases comprise a sub-family of receptor-like kinases that function in plant growth and stress responses. Previous studies have shown that the rice wall-associated kinase, OsWAK25, interacts with a diverse set of proteins associated with both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Here, we show that wounding and BTH treatments induce OsWAK25 transcript expression in rice. We generated OsWAK25 overexpression lines and show that these lines exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype and enhanced expression of rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog 1), OsPAL2, PBZ1 and PR10. Furthermore, these lines show resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Magnaporthe oryzae, yet display increased susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Cochliobolus miyabeanus. PMID:26795719

  7. Computer aided process control equipment at the Karlsruhe reprocessing pilot plant, WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R.; Finsterwalder, L.; Gutzeit, G.; Reif, J.; Stollenwerk, A.H.; Weinbrecht, E.; Weishaupt, M.

    1991-01-01

    A computer aided process control system has been installed at the Karlsruhe Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant, WAK. All necessary process control data of the first extraction cycle is collected via a data collection system and is displayed in suitable ways on a screen for the operator in charge of the unit. To aid verification of displayed data, various measurements are associated to each other using balance type process modeling. Thus, deviation of flowsheet conditions and malfunctioning of measuring equipment are easily detected. (orig.) [de

  8. Provision of the technical infrastructure for the dismantling of the WAK HAWC container. Design and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquard, C.; Ripholz, M.; Lutz, W.

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling concept of the WAK HAWC (high-level liquid waste concentrate) containers includes remote handling equipment. Due to the solid deposits that formed during the concentrate storage time the activity and the dose rates of the containers are very high (2.6x10E15 Bq alpha and beta, dose rates higher 100 Sv/h). Therefore appropriate radiation protection measures have to be installed to protect personnel and environment. The provision of the technical infrastructure for the remote HAWC container dismantling is described in detail.

  9. Tinjauan Hukum Islam tentang Praktik Jual Beli Sayur Melalui Wakâlah di Desa Krisik Ponorogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harir Muzakki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the transaction of vegetables through wakâlah method in Krisik Village Ponorogo from Islamic legal perspective. Wakâlah requires four important elements: the person who gives a trust (muwakkil, the trustee (muwakkal or wakîl, the deed (muwakkal fîh, and the transaction statements (ijâb-qabûl. The transaction of vegetables in Krisik Village is done in an unusual way. In many areas, the brokers usually buy all farmers’ crops at once and pay for the farmers in-cash. In Krisik Village, the brokers, however, first of all, sell farmers’ vegetables into markets. The brokers will pay the farmers for their vegetables afterward. It means that the brokers do not pay for the farmers in-cash. It is also found that the farmers and brokers in Krisik Village make an uncommon agreement (‘aqd, in which they agree to reduce the scale. The practice seems to violate a number of Quranic verses, which ask people to enhance the scales. Such a practice of reducing scale has been a “common agreement” among the Krisik people for decades. On the one hand, the practice aims at preventing the brokers from loss, while on the other the farmers do not feel aggrieved from the reduction of the scale.

  10. Long term corrosion behavior of the WAK-HLW glass in salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckscheiter, B.; Nesovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of the HLW glass GP WAK1 containing simulated HLW oxides from the WAK reprocessing plant in Karlsruhe is investigated in long-term corrosion experiments at high S/V ratios in two reference brines at 110 and 190 C. In case of the MgCl 2 -rich solution the leachate becomes increasingly acid with reaction time up to a final pH of about 3.5 at 190 C. In the NaCl-rich solution the pH rises to about 8.5 after one year of reaction. The release of soluble elements in MgCl 2 solution, under Si-saturated conditions, is proportional to the surface area of the sample and the release increases at 190 C according to a t 1/2 rate law. This time dependence may be an indication of diffusion controlled matrix dissolution. However, at 110 C the release of the mobile elements cannot be described by a t 1/2 rate law as the time exponents are much lower than 0.5. This difference in corrosion behavior may be explained by the higher pH of about 5 at 110 C. In case of NaCl solution under alkaline conditions, the release of soluble elements is not proportional to the surface area of the sample and it increases with time exponents much lower than 0.5. After one year of reaction at 190 C a sharp increase of the release values of some elements was observed. This increase might be explained by the high pH of the solution attained after one year. The corrosion mechanism in NaCl solution, as well as in MgCl 2 solution at 110 C, has not yet been explained. By corrosion experiments in water at constant pH values between 2 and 10, it could be shown that the time exponents of the release of Li and B decrease with increasing pH of the solution. This result can explain qualitatively the differences found in the corrosion behavior of the glass under the various conditions

  11. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V.

    1997-01-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Consequences of the EU basic safety standards. Omission of the clearance for demolition/disposal with respect to the deconstruction projects of WAK GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    The WAK GmbH's task is to decommission the nuclear installation projects at the KIT Campus Nord. These include the former Reprocessing Plant (WAK-Anlage), the Multi-purpose Research Reactor (MZFR), Research Reactor 2 (FR2), Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility (KNK), the Hot Cells (HZ) and some more small research facilities of the KIT. The buildings should be released by paragraph 29 German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) after the demolition of the process-engineering equipment. For this the clearance levels for 'demolition of buildings' Annex III Tab. 1 Column 10 (StrlSchV) must be reached, depth profiles were sampled on order to estimate how much material of the walls has to be removed to reach the values of the clearance levels. In a proposal (10926/12 ATO 90 SOC 501 SAN 149) on the basis of new scientific knowledge the EU plans to introduce clearance levels from the IAEA - ''Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption and Clearance RS-G-1.7''. In the proposal there are only clearance levels for an unrestricted release. Clearance levels for specific purpose (Annex III Tab. 1 Column 9a - 9d, 10 and 10a StrlSchV) are not named. A worst case scenario has been made what the possible effects are if the unrestricted release in the proposal of the basic safety standards from EU is guilty for every material. An estimation were done how much material and how much volume of building rubbish has to be removed to reach these new resulted clearance. Based on these volumes the caused additional financial costs for the final disposal for the WAK GmbH were calculated. (orig.)

  14. The Craterostigma plantagineum glycine-rich protein CpGRP1 interacts with a cell wall-associated protein kinase 1 (CpWAK1) and accumulates in leaf cell walls during dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Valentino; Krey, Stephanie; von den Driesch, Barbara; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-04-01

    Craterostigma plantagineum tolerates extreme desiccation. Leaves of this plant shrink and extensively fold during dehydration and expand again during rehydration, preserving their structural integrity. Genes were analysed that may participate in the reversible folding mechanism. Analysis of transcripts abundantly expressed in desiccated leaves identified a gene putatively coding for an apoplastic glycine-rich protein (CpGRP1). We studied the expression, regulation and subcellular localization of CpGRP1 and its ability to interact with a cell wall-associated protein kinase (CpWAK1) to understand the role of CpGRP1 in the cell wall during dehydration. The CpGRP1 protein accumulates in the apoplast of desiccated leaves. Analysis of the promoter revealed that the gene expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) and involves a drought-responsive cis-element (DRE). CpGRP1 interacts with CpWAK1 which is down-regulated in response to dehydration. Our data suggest a role of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex in dehydration-induced morphological changes in the cell wall during dehydration in C. plantagineum. Cell wall pectins and dehydration-induced pectin modifications are predicted to be involved in the activity of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. The WAK decommissioning and dismantling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiben, K.; Fritz, P.

    1995-01-01

    After an extensive rinsing of the reprocessing equipment the operation in the plant was terminated in 1991 following the principal political decision to abolish reprocessing of nuclear fuel in Germany. Since July 1991 only the safety relevant units are still in operation including the waste storage facilities for 80 m 3 of high active waste concentrate (HAWC). The decommissioning and dismantling will be achieved in six steps taking into account that some of the reprocessing equipment can be dismantled before and the rest only after the HAWC has been vitrified approximately by mid 2000. So far two licenses for decommissioning have been granted. An application for the dismantling of twelve systems in the process building including headend and tailend facilities will be licensed in 1995. The remote dismantling of equipment from the hot cells in the process building is being planned and will be executed between 1998--2001. New remote handling equipment will be cold tested in a test facility scheduled to start in the middle of this year. The final task is the green meadow after demolishing of the building and remediation of the site which is scheduled for 2005

  16. From El Wak to Sidi Rezegh: The Union Defence Force's First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    the country's total forces.20 This strategy worked well in East Africa and upon conclusion of the ... company rotation was implemented. This meant that ..... Cunningham's aim with Crusader was to draw out the enemy armour in the Tobruk area ...

  17. From El Wak to Sidi Rezegh: The Union Defence Force's First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Hitler's armies conquered. Western Europe the Springboks prepared to go North and in spite of trepidations about the might of Mussolini's East African Empire the First South African Infantry Division set sail for East Africa in mid-July 1940. In five short months, Mussolini's East African Empire had been torn to shreds.

  18. The determination of Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting in gaseous effluents of an incineration facility, FERAB, and the Karlsruhe Nuclear Reprocessing Plant, WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1983-03-01

    Although the concentration of Pu-241 in nuclear fuel to be reprocessed is high, there are only few results published about the emission of Pu-241 with gaseous and liquid effluents. Nearly no information is available, too, about the environmental contamination of nuclear installations by Pu-241. Therefore a procedure was developed to measure Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting. Sample preparation was performed by electroplating of plutonium on stainless steel planchets. To correct the selfabsorption the linear dependence of counting efficiency in the liquid scintillation counter and the resolution in the α-spectrometer was used. (orig./HP) [de

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.60452, Lat: 19.30868 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20070505-20090325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. Topological Order in Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-07

    photonic edge states and quantum emitters [ S. Barik , H. Miyake, W. DeGottardi, E. Waks and M. Hafezi, New J. Phys., 18, 11301 (2016) ]. Entanglement... Barik , H. Miyake, W. DeGottardi, E. Waks, and M. Hafezi “Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals”, New J. Phys., 18

  1. Requirement for Pectin Methyl Esterase and Preference for Fragmented over Native Pectins for Wall-associated Kinase-activated, EDS1/PAD4-dependent Stress Response in Arabidopsis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorn, Bruce D.; Kohorn, Susan L.; Saba, Nicholas J.; Martinez, Victoriano Meco

    2014-01-01

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) have a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that spans the plasma membrane and binds pectin in the extracellular matrix of plants. WAKs are required for cell expansion during Arabidopsis seedling development but are also an integral part of the response to pathogens and stress that present oligogalacturonides (OGs), which subsequently bind to WAKs and activate a MPK6 (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway. It was unclear how WAKs distinguish native pectin polymers and OGs to activate one or the other of these two pathways. A dominant allele of WAK2 constitutively activates the stress response, and we show here that the effect is dependent upon EDS1 and PAD4, transcriptional activators involved in the pathogen response. Moreover, the WAK2 dominant allele is suppressed by a null allele of a pectin methyl esterase (PME3) whose activity normally leads to cross-linking of pectins in the cell wall. Although OGs activate a transcriptional response in wild type, the response is enhanced in a pme3/pme3 null, consistent with a competition by OG and native polymers for activation of WAKs. This provides a plausible mechanism for WAKs to distinguish an expansion from a stress pathway. PMID:24855660

  2. Requirement for pectin methyl esterase and preference for fragmented over native pectins for wall-associated kinase-activated, EDS1/PAD4-dependent stress response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Kohorn, Susan L; Saba, Nicholas J; Martinez, Victoriano Meco

    2014-07-04

    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) have a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that spans the plasma membrane and binds pectin in the extracellular matrix of plants. WAKs are required for cell expansion during Arabidopsis seedling development but are also an integral part of the response to pathogens and stress that present oligogalacturonides (OGs), which subsequently bind to WAKs and activate a MPK6 (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway. It was unclear how WAKs distinguish native pectin polymers and OGs to activate one or the other of these two pathways. A dominant allele of WAK2 constitutively activates the stress response, and we show here that the effect is dependent upon EDS1 and PAD4, transcriptional activators involved in the pathogen response. Moreover, the WAK2 dominant allele is suppressed by a null allele of a pectin methyl esterase (PME3) whose activity normally leads to cross-linking of pectins in the cell wall. Although OGs activate a transcriptional response in wild type, the response is enhanced in a pme3/pme3 null, consistent with a competition by OG and native polymers for activation of WAKs. This provides a plausible mechanism for WAKs to distinguish an expansion from a stress pathway. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Processing and monitoring liquid, radioactive effluents from the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.; Huppert, K.L.; Winter, M.

    1977-01-01

    The Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) serves as a demonstration plant for the processing of highly-irradiated uranous oxide. The high active waste concentrates find interim storage at the WAK until they are solidified at a later stage. In contrast to this, the slightly- and the medium-active liquid wastes are transported to the decontamination facility of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe, where they are immediately processed. These liquid wastes contain about 1 per thousand of the activity inventary of the fuel elements processed. Monitoring of the radioactive waste water of the WAK is carried out by the Nuclear Research Centre's department radiation protection and safety. (orig.) [de

  4. Calculation of the clearance requirements for the development of a hemodialysis-based wearable artificial kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ki; Lee, Jung Chan; Lee, Hajeong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Kim, Yon Su; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2016-04-01

    Wearable artificial kidney (WAK) has been considered an alternative to standard hemodialysis (HD) for many years. Although various novel WAK systems have been recently developed for use in clinical applications, the target performance or standard dose of dialysis has not yet been determined. To calculate the appropriate clearance for a HD-based WAK system for the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease with various dialysis conditions, a classic variable-volume two-compartment kinetic model was used to simulate an anuric patient with variable target time-averaged creatinine concentration (TAC), daily water intake volume, daily dialysis pause time, and patient body weight. A 70-kg anuric patient with a HD-based WAK system operating for 24 h required dialysis clearances of creatinine of at least 100, 50, and 25 mL/min to achieve TACs of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/dL, respectively. The daily water intake volume did not affect the clearance required for dialysis under various conditions. As the pause time per day for the dialysis increased, higher dialysis clearances were required to maintain the target TAC. The present study provided theoretical dialysis doses for an HD-based WAK system to achieve various target TACs through relevant mathematical kinetic modeling. The theoretical results may contribute to the determination of the technical specifications required for the development of a WAK system. © 2015 The Authors. Hemodialysis International published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on reprocessing plants at present under construction, in operation, and planned, as well as on the most important process steps such as receipt, storage, conversion, the extraction process, purification of the end products, gaseous waste treatment and waste treatment, and repair and maintenance of reprocessing plants. An outline on operational experience with WAK follows. (HR/LN) [de

  6. A Qualitative Study of Affordability: Virginia and San Antonio Class Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-04

    under a cost-plus-fixed-fee (CPFF) contract for the electric plant and later added cost-plus-award fee for the construction of the ship (Schank et al...From Defense Acquisition University (DAU, n.d.) ACRONYMS ACWP Actual Cost of Wart PerRm!ed AlJW Authorizecl Urpiced Wak BAG Budge{ A1 Cornple5on

  7. Reason and Culture in Cosmopolitan Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Leonard Waks reviews three recent books on cosmopolitan education: Kwame Anthony Appiah's "Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers"; Neil Burtonwood's "Cultural Diversity, Liberal Pluralism, and Schools: Isaiah Berlin and Education"; and Thomas Popkewitz's "Cosmopolitanism and the Age of School Reform: Science, Education and…

  8. Derelict radioactivity in Rhineland-Palatinate: A first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following of theft of a radioactive source and radioactively contaminated material from the Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK), persons, flats and vehicles in the Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate were grossly contaminated. The article gives quantitative information about kind and height of the contaminations and describes the actions, measurements and measures taken by the radiation protection staff members in this extraordinary case. (orig.) [de

  9. Assessment of the DoD Laboratory Civilian Science and Engineering Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    NJ: Wharton School Publishing, 2005. Siewert, Raymond F. “Conversion to GOCO.” Briefing 1992. Smallwood , Scott. “Stipends Are Key in Competition To...Professional Personnel Policies and Prac- tices at R&D Organizations. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report No. 00735. 1971. Waks, Norman . Problems in

  10. Dewey and Video Games: From Education through Occupations to Education through Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Critics like Leonard Waks argue that video games are, at best, a dubious substitute for the rich classroom experiences that John Dewey wished to create and that, at worst, they are profoundly miseducative. Using the example of "Fate of the World," a climate change simulation game, David Waddington addresses these concerns through a…

  11. Wearable devices for blood purification: principles, miniaturization, and technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Lorenzin, Anna; Neri, Mauro; Nalesso, Federico; Garzotto, Francesco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) continue to increase across the world imposing staggering costs on providers. Therefore, strategies to optimize the treatment and improve survival are of fundamental importance. Despite the benefits of daily dialysis, its implementation is difficult and wearable hemodialysis might represent an alternative by which frequent treatments can be delivered to ESRD patients with much less interference in their routines promoting better quality of life. The development of the wearable artificial kidney (WAK) requires incorporation of basic components of a dialysis system into a wearable device that allows mobility, miniaturization, and above all, patient-oriented management. The technical requirements necessary for WAK can be divided into the following broad categories: dialysis membranes, dialysis regeneration, vascular access, patient monitoring systems, and power sources. Pumping systems for blood and other fluids are the most critical components of the entire device. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Derelict radioactivity in Rhineland-Palatinate: A first report; Herrenlose Radioaktivitaet in Rheinland-Pfalz. Ein erster Bericht ueber das Ausmass, die Massnahmen und die Folgen fuer die Behoerden und den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, J. [Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Following of theft of a radioactive source and radioactively contaminated material from the Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK), persons, flats and vehicles in the Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate were grossly contaminated. The article gives quantitative information about kind and height of the contaminations and describes the actions, measurements and measures taken by the radiation protection staff members in this extraordinary case. (orig.) [German] Nach dem Diebstahl einer Strahlenquelle und von kontaminiertem Material aus der Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) wurden im Bundesland Rheinland-Pfalz Personen, Wohnungen und Fahrzeuge stark kontaminiert. Der Aufsatz gibt zahlmaessige Angaben ueber die Art und Hoehe der Kontaminationen und beschreibt die Vorgehensweise bei den Messungen und die Massnahmen, die vom Strahlenschutz in diesem aussergewoehnlichen Fall getroffen werden mussten. (orig.)

  13. An experimental and numerical study of the flow and mass transfer in a model of the wearable artificial kidney dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfeld Moshe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published studies of the past decades have established that mass transfer across the dialyzer membrane is governed by diffusion, convection and osmosis. While the former is independent of the pressure in the liquids, the latter two are pressure dependent and are enhanced when the pressure difference across the membrane is increased. The goal of the present study is to examine the impact of pulsatile flow on the transport phenomena across the membrane of a high-flux dialyzer in a wearable artificial kidney (WAK with a novel single small battery-operated pulsatile pump that drives both the blood and dialysate in a counter-phased manner, maximizing the trans-membrane pressure. Methods Both in-vitro experimental and numerical tools are employed to compare the performance of the pulsatile WAK dialyzer with a traditional design of a single-channel roller blood pump together with a centrifugal pump that drives the dialysate flow. The numerical methods utilize the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and mass transfer equations to model the flow in the fibers of the dialyzer. Results While diffusion is still the dominating transport regime, the WAK pump enhances substantially the trans-membrane pressure and thus increases mass convection that might be as high as 30% of the overall transfer. This increase is obtained due to the design of the pulsatile WAK pump that increases ultrafiltration by increasing the trans-membrane pressure. Conclusions The experimental and numerical results revealed that when pumping at similar flow rates, a small battery-operated pulsatile pump provides clearances of urea and creatinine similar as or better than a large heavy AC-powered roller pump.

  14. KfK Institute for Hot Atom Chemistry. Results report on research and development activities 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Institute for Hot Atom Chemistry is concerned with R and D tasks in nuclear fuel reprocessing. The aim is to optimize reprocessing technology with a view to safety and economic efficiency. Work is carried out within the framework of the projects reprocessing and waste management, and fast breeder in contact with WAK. The Institute increasingly carries out work within the framework of the project pollution abatement in the environment; the emphasis lies on dioxin chemistry. After the Wackersdorf task, subjects of waste management, in particular special wastes, have been added. (orig.) [de

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  16. Compilation of papers presented to the KTG conference on 'Advanced LWR fuel elements: Design, performance and reprocessing', 17-18 November 1988, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-05-01

    The two expert groups of the Nuclear Society (KTG), 'chemistry and waste disposal' and 'fuel elements' discussed interdisciplinary problems concerning the development and reprocessing of advanced fuel elements. The 10 lectures deal with waste disposal, mechanical layout, operating behaviour, operating experiences and new developments of fuel elements for water moderated reactors as well as operational experiences of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant (WAK) with reprocessing of high burnup LWR and MOX fuel elements, the distribution of fission products, the condition of the fission products during dissolution and with the effects of the higher burnup of fuel elements on the PUREX process. (DG) [de

  17. Pilot plant experience on high-level waste solidification and design of the engineering prototype VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guber, W; Diefenbacher, W; Hild, W; Krause, H; Schneider, E; Schubert, G

    1972-11-01

    In the present paper the solidification process for highly active waste solutions as developed in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center is presented. Its principal steps are: denitration, calcination in a spray calciner operated with superheated steam, melting of the calcine with appropriate additives to borosilicate glass in an induction-heated melting furnace. The operational experiences gained so far in the inactive 1:1 pilot plant are reported. Furthermore, a description is given of the projected multi-purpose experimental facility VERA 2 which is provided for processing the highly active waste solutions from the first German reprocessing plant WAK.

  18. PENERAPAN TEORI AKAD PADA PERBANKAN SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rauf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss about theory concept of transactions in Islamic banking products. In collecting and distributing funds, Islamic banking used variety of transactions, such as deposit transactions (wadî’ah yad amânah, wadî’ah yad dhamânah, transactions for results (mudhârabah, musyârakah, buying and selling  (murâbahah, salâm, istishnâ’, lease transactions (ijârah, ijârah wa iqtinâ’, atau ijârah muntahiyah bi al-tamlîk, loan transactions (qardh, and transactions with other patterns (wakâlah, kafâlah, hiwâlah, rahn. Murâbahah and salâm transactions are used for collecting the funds and mudhârabah muthlaqah and wadî’ah are used for funding. Meanwhile, ijârah and wakâlah are used in loan transactions that implemented in a bank guarantee.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2536

  19. Novel fabrication method of the peritoneal dialysis filter using silk fibroin with urease fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Bo Mi; Choi, Myung-Jin; Sultan, Md Tipu; Yang, Jae Won; Ju, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Hyun Jung; Park, Ye Ri; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Min Chae; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Lee, Ok Joo; Sung, Gun Yong; Park, Chan Hum

    2017-10-01

    During the last decade, there has been a great advance in the kidney dialysis system by wearable artificial kidney (WAK) system for end-stage renal disease patients. Uremic solute removal and water regeneration system are the most prerequisite for WAK to work properly. In this study, we designed a filtering membrane system by using immobilized urease silk fibroin filter and evaluated its comparative effectiveness with a PVDF filtering system in peritoneal dialysate regeneration system by urea removal efficacy. We evaluated this membrane's characteristic and performances by conducting SEM-EDX analyze, water-binding abilities and porosity test, removal abilities of urea, cytotoxicity assay and enzyme activity assay. Under the condition for optimization of urease, the percentage removal of urea was about 40% and 60% in 50 mg/dL urea solution by urease immobilized PVDF and silk fibroin scaffolds, respectively. The batch experimental result showed that immobilized filter removed more than 50% of urea in 50 mg/dL urea solution. In addition silk fibroin with urease filter removed 90 percent of urea in the peritoneal dialysate after 24 h filtration. We suggest that silk fibroin with urease fixation filter can be used more effectively for peritoneal dialysate regeneration system, which have hydrophilic property and prolonged enzyme activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2136-2144, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. TRANSAKSI PASAR MATA UANG (FOREIGN EXCHANGE DALAM PERSPEKTIF FIQH ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrul Huda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the mechanism of foreign exchange through what so-called Forex teamster. The study concludes that trading, viewed from the aspect of goods exchanged, consists of three kinds, namely barter, buying and selling of goods with money, and money exchange. It is allowed to use broker’s service in money exchange activity. It has been even a compulsory (wâjib ‘ayn for a trader to select and chose a legal and trusteed broker in order to assure and secure his money. The reason is that a broker becomes not only wakîl (a trustee or an agent of trader to proceed the transaction of the trader into the market, but also plays role as a responsible person who guarantees the trustiness of market over the trader. In other words, a broker has to make the market trusts every trader’s transaction. The transaction has to cover all benefits and risks. It can be understood, therefore, that non-dealing desk broker is a person who meets the requirements of wakâlah and d}amân contacts implemented within Forex transaction.

  1. Releases of radioiodine from the Karlsruhe nuclear fuel reprocessing plant as a result of spontaneous fission of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1977-02-01

    Fro, 23,7,1976 to 28.7.76 and from 8.3.76 to 9.16.76 50 pCi 131 I/m 3 , 116 pCi 133 I/m 3 und 195 pCi 135 I/m 3 were measured on an average in 11 samples of waste air from the Karlsruhe Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant (WAK). During these time intervals no dissolution of fuel material was performed. From 16.9.76 to 27.10.76 18 charges of nuclear fuel were dissolved. During this period 3.3 pCi 131 I/m 3 and 7.9 pCi 133 I/m 3 were obtained as mean waste air concentrations which were higher than the lower detection limit of the method of measurement used. 244 Cm, 242 Cm, 242 Pu, 240 Pu and 238 Pu are responsible for the production of radioiodine in nuclear fuel by spontaneous fission. 244 Cm is the most important nuclide in highly active waste solutions (HAL). The cumulative fission yield is well approximated by 3% for 13 I and by 6% for 133 I. The radioiodine is set free during fuel dissolution by venting of tanks and HAL pipes and during the vritification of such solutions. The radioiodine produced by spontaneous fission is released from WAK only by venting of tanks and HAL pipes. Corresponding to the conditions of venting, air concentrations as high as 4.4 pCi 131 I/m 3 and 8.2 pCi 133 I/m 3 are expected. These concentrations agree well with air concentrations measured during the period of fuel dissolution. Based on plausible assumptions the 131 I and 133 I waste air concentrations for the period of outage are calculated from an evaporated volume of HAL in the pipes corresponding to about 10 g of 244 Cm and with 40% equilibrium between I 2 in evaporated HAL and in waste air. In the worst case 131 I-concentrations in the waste air of WAK result in an annual release of 0.2 mCi 131 I. This value is less than 1% of the authorized annual releases of 1976. For a reprocessing plant of 1,400 t/a capacity the annual expected release of 131 I lies in the mCi range. (orig.) [de

  2. Regulations and control of fuel reprocessing plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with regard to environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The principles of radiation protection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) are reviewed. These principles are based on ICRP recommendations and are laid down in the Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act, 1959) and in the Strahlenschutzverordnung (Radiological Protection Ordinance, 1976). The licencing procedure in the FRG is outlined together with the extent of the information on environmental protection to be submitted by the applicant for a licence. Information is required about the site, safety against external and internal hazards, control of occupational radiation exposure, control of gaseous and liquid effluents, environmental dose limits and accident situations. The methods used to monitor releases to the environment are briefly discussed. Finally, figures for occupational and general public exposure in respect of the operation of the WAK reprocessing facility at Karlsruhe are given

  3. Bibliographie générale

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aalund (F.). — « La wakāla Bazār‛a », in Arkitekten, Copenhague, 1977. ‛Abd al-Laṭif Aḥmad (Laïla), al-Idāra fī Miṣr fi l‛aṣr al-‛uṯmānī, Le Caire, 1978. Abdul Tawab (A.) et Raymond (Α.). — « La waqfiyya de Muṣṭafā Ğa‛far », in Annales Islamologiques, XIV. 1978, 177-193. ‛Abd ar-Rāziq (Aḥmad). — La femme au temps des Mamelouks en Égypte, Le Caire, I.F.A.O., 1973. Abu-Lughod (Janet). — Cairo, Princeton, 1971. Abouseif (Doris). — « The north-eastern Extensions of Cairo under the Mamluks », in A...

  4. Nondestructive determination of residual fuel on leached hulls and dissolver sludges from LWR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Wagner, K.; Becker, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    In reprocessing plants leached hulls and dissolver sludges represent rather important intermediate level α-waste streams. A control of the Pu content of these waste streams is desirable. The nondestructive assay method to be preferred would be passive neutron counting. However, before any decision on passive neutron monitoring becomes possible, a characterization of hulls and sludges in terms of Pu content and neutron emission is necessary. For the direct determination of Plutonium on hulls and in sludges, as coming from reprocessing, an active neutron measurement is required. A simple, and sufficiently sensitive active neutron method which can easily be installed uses a stationary 252 Cf neutron source. This method was used for the characterization of hulls and sludges in terms of Plutonium content and total neutron emission in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

  5. Report of the Institute for Hot Chemistry on research and development in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The Institute for Hot Chemistry is concerned with research and development programmes in the field of re-processing nuclear fuels. The investigations are oriented towards the objectives of the planned waste disposal plant and are carried out within the frame-work of the Reprocessing, Waste Treatment and Fast Breeder Projects, with the cooperation of the firms DWK and WAK. The Institute can be divided up into the following subject areas: extraction chemistry and plant operation, analytical processing, chemical processing and apparatus development; solvent and waste gas treatment; process control and automation; organic analysis; and fundamental research. In the developmental stage, evaluations are carried out up to the kilogram and kilo-Curie level, at the technical level, however, up to a daily throughput in tonnes. (orig.) [de

  6. Long-term studies on the leachability of cemented and non-cemented iodine-129 loaded sorption material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempffer, R.; Furrer, J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaching tests on the load AC 6120 iodine sorption material (12 wt.% Ag) in water and salt brines were performed over a rather long period of time to allow better judgement of the behavior of radioactive waste disposed of in a salt dome. The utilization of capacity of the loaded iodine sorption material from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant (WAK) was 95% related to the amount of silver added. The result of the stationary leaching tests has been a leaching rate of the material not embedded in cement of < 0.1%, whereas the leaching rate of the iodine sorption material embedded in cement has been < 0.01% of the total iodine-129 inventory. After addition of carbon steel to the sorption material embedded in cement the same leaching rates were measured as for material not embedded in cement. The addition of stainless steel exerted but little influence on the leaching rate. (orig.)

  7. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  8. The IDA-80 measurement evaluation programme on mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis of uranium and plutonium. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, P. de; Gallet, M.; Hendrickx, F.; Lycke, E.; Wolters, W.H.; Mainka, E.; Wertenbach, H.

    1984-12-01

    A description is given of the test samples for the IDA-80 interlaboratory measurement evaluation programme. The preparation is described from the delivery of authentic reprocessing plant input samples (WAK Karlsruhe), their treatment at the IRCh-KfK and their further preparation and bottling at CBNM-Geel. All test samples have been characterized with best methods and instrumentation available at CBNM Geel and NBS Washington. Joint certified values for U/Pu element and isotopes content of a real-life and of a synthetic input test material were established, to serve the evaluation of participant's results. Full details of packaging, transport requirements and transport formalities in order to dispatch the samples world wide are also given. (orig.) [de

  9. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel in water pool storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    Storage of irradiated nuclear fuel in water pools (basins) has been standard practice since nuclear reactors first began operation approximately 34 years ago. Pool storage is the starting point for all other fuel storage candidate processes and is a candidate for extended interim fuel storage until policy questions regarding reprocessing and ultimate disposal have been resolved. This report assesses the current performance of nuclear fuel in pool storage, the range of storage conditions, and the prospects for extending residence times. The assessment is based on visits to five U.S. and Canadian fuel storage sites, representing nine storage pools, and on discussions with operators of an additional 21 storage pools. Spent fuel storage experience from British pools at Winfrith and Windscale and from a German pool at Karlsruhe (WAK) also is summarized

  11. Modern methods of project handling - lean management during the deconstruction of nuclear facilities as illustrated by the vitrification plant VEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Christina; Gentes, Sascha; Dux, Joachim; Reinelt, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the positive experiences from the project handling during the WAK deconstruction process including the implementation of the so called lean management that is supposed to optimize the timing and cost specific approaches. The practical application includes the planning, the licensing application and in case of licensing the realization of the project. Enhancement of transparency and information flow are reached by periodic last planner sessions. Time management and exact scheduling are central parts of the project handling. The contract partners, authorities and consultants are involved at an early state of the project. After shutdown of the vitrification plant VEK the planning for the deconstruction licensing application according to the atomic law have been started.

  12. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of 'safeguards by design'. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how 'safeguardability' was introduced into RRP.

  13. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-08-07

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

  14. Limitation of right of codetermination of the works council in case of an administrative order for security controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    BetrVG section 87, sub-sec. (1), No. 1 and 7, first sentence; Atomic Energy Act section 7, sub-sec. (2), No. 5; section 17, sub-sec. (1), sentence 2. On the basis of a right of codetermination, the works council may only claim an arrangement that could be decided upon by the employer alone outside the Works Constitution Act. In case the employer is obliged by an administrative act binding upon him, to take certain measures, the works council may not claim an arrangement deviating from this directive by referring to the right of codetermination. Federal Labour Court, decision of May 26, 1988 - 1 ABR 9/87 - concerning the execution of security controls on the personnel entering the WAK. (orig./HP) [de

  15. APL used for control of a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruschka, B.

    1975-05-01

    A package of interactive APL functions for data maintaining and processing is discussed in some detail. The data is recorded during the cycle of irradiated fuels and is used to control the reprocessing plant at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (WAK). First nuclear fuel processing is explained. A short justification is given of the reasons why the program language APL and the facilities of the file subsystem APL PLUS had been chosen for data handling. This is followed by the description of workspace and file organisation, all mainfunctions and files are described. Finally all functions are listed, an example of a user session and the output of daily and monthly reports from terminal and high-speed printer are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Ecological problems of fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of the effects of a reprocessing plant to its environment lies in the amount of the handled radioactivity and its longerity. According to the toxicity of the nuclides extensive measures for retainings and filtering are necessary, in order to keep the resulting radiation load in the surrounding within justified limits. The experiences with the WAK prove, that they managed to reduce that radiation load to values that are negligible compared with the natural one. The expected adaptation of the radiation protection legislation to the latest recommendations of the ICRP will in addition help to do more realistic estimations as to the radiotoxicity of certain nuclides (Kr-85, J-129), which means at lower levels than up to now. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Emission of Tc-99 from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxenburger, H.J.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Bohn, B.

    1984-11-01

    No noticeable Tc-activities are emitted from nuclear power stations. The emissions with the gaseous effluents exceed but rarely the detection limit of 25 nCi/h. Likewise, the emission with the liquid effluents remains below the detection limit of about 0.5 nCi/m 3 . Neither can a remarkable emission be recorded from the facilities of the Central Decontamination Services Department (HDB) of KfK. The emissions from the evaporation system for low level solutions and from the evaporation system for low level solutions and from the incineration facility for solid wastes do not exceed or rarely exceed to a minor extent the detection limit of 0.3 pCi/m 3 waste air. Also with the liquid effluents only minor Tc-amounts are discharged of 0.3 nCi/m 3 at the maximum. In the distillate of the medium level solutions discharged from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) to HDB as so-called tritiated water 2 nCi/m 3 Tc-99 at the maximum are contained. Only in the gaseous effluents from the evaporation system for medium level solutions emissions of up to 14 pCi/m 3 can be detected. The detection limits are almost permanently exceeded by the gaseous effluents from WAK. Small amounts of Tc-99 of 7 pCi/m 3 exhaust air at the maximum are released to the environment. However, the amount of Tc accumulated over the sampling period is insignificant from the radioecological point of view. (orig./HP) [de

  18. The future of the artificial kidney: moving towards wearable and miniaturized devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, C; Davenport, A; Gura, V

    2011-01-01

    New directions in dialysis research include cheaper treatments, home based therapies and simpler methods of blood purification. These objectives may be probably obtained with innovations in the field of artificial kidney through the utilization of new disciplines such as miniaturization, microfluidics, nanotechnology. This research may lead to a new era of dialysis in which the new challenges are transportability, wearability and why not the possibility to develop implantable devices. Although we are not there yet, a new series of papers have recently been published disclosing interesting and promising results on the application of wearable ultrafiltration systems (WUF) and wearable artificial kidneys (WAK). Some of them use extracorporeal blood cleansing as a method of blood purification while others use peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality (ViWAK and AWAK.) A special mention deserves the wearable/portable ultrafiltration system for the therapy of overhydration and congestive heart failure (WAKMAN). This system will allow dehospitalization and treatment of patients with less comorbidity and improved tolerance. On the way to the wearable artificial kidney, new discoveries have been made such as a complete system for hemofiltration in newborns (CARPEDIEM). The neonate in fact is the typical patient who may benefit from miniaturization of the dialysis circuit. This review analyzes the rationale for such endeavour and the challenges to overcome in order to make possible a true ambulatory dialysis treatment. Some initial results with these new devices are presented. We would like to stimulate a collaborative effort to make a quantum leap in technology making the wearable artificial kidney a reality rather than a dream. 

  19. Can nuclear power be accepted today in the light of the waste management problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1978-01-01

    The waste management problem occupies a central position in the public debate about nuclear power. Even many proponents of this source of power share the concern that the seemingly unsolved problems associated with the disposal of radioactive waste might lead into a technological blind alley. The nuclear fuel cycle, including plutonium reycling in light water reactors, has been practised in the Federal Republic on a technical scale for many years. The three demonstration plants used for this purpose, i.e., KWO, WAK and ALKEM, represent an aggregate capital investment of some DM 830 million and have a staff of at present approximately 900 persons. More than 24 years of experience on a technical scale is available for the Purex process used for reprocessing. The experience of German industry in reprocessing high-burnup oxide LWR fuel elements is based on the operation of two experimental facilities over a period of twelve years, almost seven years of which are for the WAK, which successfully reprocessed fuel elements with burnups as high as 39.000 MWd/t of uranium. The article specifically discusses the doubts frequently expressed about the extrapolability of operating experience accumulated in processing low-burnup fuels to fuel with high burnup, i.e., from the Karlsruhe experimental scale facility to the large scale plant of the waste management center. The objections often raised against the planned upscaling of plant throughputs when moving to industrial scale processes do not take into account that the decisive operating experience generated in the technical radiochemistry is hardly a function of material throughputs, but rather refers to the specialized techniques employed in handling radioactive and fissile materials. (orig.) [de

  20. Radioecological studies on plutonium and iodine-129 in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1982-01-01

    Plutonium and 129 I are emitted from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) together with exhaust air and liquid effluents. Plutonium dispersion in the environment was used to calculate the dispersion factors, to determine the rates of deposition on grass and of the total deposition rates, to measure the distribution at depth of plutonium in the soil and to evaluate the contamination of plants and animals in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant. The plutonium emissions with the liquid effluents were studied to deepen understanding of the process of sedimentation in a river system. Sediments, water samples, aerosols and living organisms from the Altrhein were examined. Factors of transfer to various organisms living in the Altrhein were measured. Most of the 129 I release from WAK goes via the exhaust air: this even applies after installation of an iodine filter into the exhaust air stack. The 129 I contamination of the environmental air, the soil, thyroids and milk was measured. Regarding the milk/air concentration ratio, a mean value of 210 was determined with a scattering range of 50 to 1480. Soil contamination was studied very thoroughly. Iodine-129 is transported into lower soil layers at a very slow rate only, if at all. The contamination of the soil with 129 I remained largely constant during the three years of investigations. The low rates of deposition of 0.02 to 0.05 cm/s indicate that 129 I is released to the environmental air again from plants undergoing the process of rotting. (author)

  1. Tradition et innovations esthétiques dans la nouvelle yéménite contemporaine Tradition and aesthetic innovations in contemporary Yemeni short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Jenvrin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Le nouveau recueil de Mu/hammad ‘Abd al-Wakîl Jâzim témoigne d’une transformation capitale dans la littérature yéménite contemporaine :  le passage d’une forme expérimentale en rupture avec les règles de la nouvelle traditionnelle et avec la réalité yéménite, à une autre forme plus accomplie dans laquelle les principes traditionnels de la nouvelle sont ici associés sans complexe aux formes renouvelées du genre.  La nouvelle intitulée Le maître des vautours, présente, dans une structure narrative traditionnelle, un conte fantastique moderne qui mêle réalisme, symbolisme et poésie, et dans lequel l’auteur traite à sa manière les thèmes littéraires contemporains de la dualité du rêve et de la réalité, du désenchantement et de l’enfermement perpétuel.  C’est notamment en s’inspirant de la langue, des pratiques orales, des croyances et de l’imaginaire populaire, que l’auteur, soucieux de donner un ancrage au texte dans la réalité yéménite, transfigure cette expérience existentielle moderne.The latest collection of short stories by Mu/hammad 'Abd al-Wakîl signals a major shift in contemporary Yemeni literature: from an experimental form, breaking away from both traditional short story conventions and Yemeni reality, to another, more accomplished form, unabashedly mixing traditional short story principles with renewed genre forms. The short story entitled The Vulture Master presents us, from within a traditional narrative structure, with a modern fantasy tale blending in realism, symbolism and poetry, and where the writer deals in his own way with such contemporary literary themes as disenchantment, perpetual captivity, and the duality of dream and reality. Drawing his inspiration from language itself, oral practices, beliefs and popular imagery, the writer, seeking to set his tale firmly in Yemeni reality, manages to transfigure this modern existential experiment.

  2. PEMBACAAN ANGKA TAHUN PRASASTI SIRAH KẼTING DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN TOKOH ŚRĪ JAYAWARSA DIGWIJAYA ŚASTRAPRABHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churmatin Nasoichah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to know the exact age for Sirah Kĕting Inscription and its relation with Śrī Jayawarsa Digwijaya Śastraprabhu. The assessment was done by using inductive-deductive reasoning which moves from the facts on the field and then ends with a conclusion. In reading the Sirah Kĕting Inscription were found in the Ponorogo area, East Java, there are two different opinions in chanting year number. According to J.L.A. Brandes and W.F. Stutterheim readings, Sirah Kĕting Inscription was built on 1026 Śaka, while according to the Louis-Charles Damais readings, Sirah Kĕting Inscription was built on 1126 Śaka. From some of the results of the comparison can be concluded that the date Sirah Kĕting Inscription was built in 1126 Saka (1204 AD, the reading means agree with Louis-Charles Damais. Related to the Śrī Jayawarsa Digwijaya Śastraprabhu figure, is a king who has an autonomous kingdom (power located in the region of Madiun and Ponorogo, East Java and is the grandson of Dharmmawangsa Tguh. Keywords: Sirah Kĕting Inscription, date built, Śrī Jayawarsa Digwijaya Śastraprabhu, Mṛwak Inscription  Tujuan penulisan makalah ini adalah untuk mengetahui secara pasti angka tahun Prasasti Sirah Kĕting dan kaitannya dengan tokoh Śrī Jayawarsa Digwijaya Śastraprabhu. Pengkajian dilakukan dengan menggunakan penalaran induktif-deduktif yang bergerak dari fakta-fakta di lapangan yang kemudian diakhiri dengan sebuah simpulan. Dalam pembacaan Prasasti Sirah Kĕting yang ditemukan di daerah Ponorogo, Jawa Timur terdapat dua pendapat yang berbeda dalam penyebutan angka tahunnya. Menurut pembacaan  J.L.A. Brandes dan W.F. Stutterheim, Prasasti Sirah Kĕting berangka tahun 1026 Śaka, sedangkan menurut hasil pembacaan Louis-Charles Damais, Prasasti Sirah Kĕting berangka tahun 1126 Śaka. Berdasarkan beberapa hasil perbandingan dapat ditarik simpulan bahwa angka tahun pada Prasasti Sirah Kĕting adalah 1126 Śaka (1204 Masehi

  3. Institute of Nuclear Waste Management Technology (INE). 1994 progress report on research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994 INE worked on the following research projects: radionuclide behaviour during corrosion of high-level radioactive COGEMA glass; studies of glassy basalt of the Werra-Fulda salt deposit as a natural analogue of the corrosion of HAW glass; corrosion studies of high burnup LWR fuels in brine; chemical behaviour of Tc in aqueous, chloride systems; corrosion studies of waste container materials; solution chemistry of U; thermodynamics of Np(V) in concentrated brines; radiation-chemical effects in the vicinity of repositories; laser spectroscopic speciation and thermodynamics of Cm(III); development of laser spectroscopic methods; radiochemical and chemical analyses of nuclear samples; solid-state and surface analyses; coupling of transport and speciation models; influence of colloid formation on the migration behaviour of long-lived radionuclides; studies of the consolidation behaviour of filling material; thermomechanical effects of inhomogeneities in the salt dome; basic studies and process engineering developments in the field of solidification of high-level radioactive fission product solutions; corrosion behaviour of WAK-HAW containing glass products in brines. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Separation of krypton and xenon from the offgas of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, R. von; Bumiller, W.; Burkhardt, H.G.; Franz, G.; Hutter, E.; Knittel, G.; Neffe, G.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    During the test runs of the KRETA plant with the three-component system N 2 -Kr-Xe the concentration range of Kr and Xe in the feed gas could be determined where desublimation in the vicinity of the feed entry into the column takes place. This range decreases with decreasing total gas flow and increasing column pressure. The Kr recycle stream which is being planned for the improved offgas specification system of the WAK (project AZUR) was simulated by increasing the Kr feed concentration. The tendency of xenon to freeze out also decreases by this means. Analysis and control of H 2 during the catalytic reduction of O 2 and NOsub(x) is achieved best using the method of measuring combustion heats. The cell of Leeds and Northrup operates at room temperature and is insensitive towards NOsub(x). CO 2 is partially reduced by H 2 on the Ru-catalyst, but only if there is no O 2 present. Acid resistant molecular sieves (e.g. Norton Zeolen) adsorb Krypton almost twice as well as the type 5A. The same is true with NO. However, NH 3 and NO 2 are adsorbed less strongly on Zeolen as on 5A. (orig.) [de

  5. Treatment of liquid radioactive waste: Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, R.

    1982-01-01

    About 10.000 m 3 of low active liquid waste (LLW) arise in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. Chemical contents of this liquid waste are generally not declared. Resulting from experiments carried out in the Center during the early sixties, the evaporator facility was built in 1968 for decontamination of LLW. The evaporators use vapor compression and concentrate recirculation in the evaporator sump by pumps. Since 1971 the medium active liquid waste (MLW) from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) was decontaminated in this evaporator facility, too. By this time the amount of low liquid waste (LLW) had been decontaminated without mentionable interruptions. Afterwards a lot of interruptions of operations occurred, mainly due to leakages of pumps, valves and pipes. There was also a very high radiation level for the operating personnel. As a consequence of this experience a new evaporator facility for decontamination of medium active liquid waste was built in 1974. This facility started operation in 1976. The evaporator has natural circulation and is heated by steam through a heat exchanger. (orig./RW)

  6. Nondestructive determination of residual fuel on leached hulls and dissolver sludges from LWR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerz, H.; Wagner, K.; Becker, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    In reprocessing plants leached hulls and dissolver sludges represent rather important intermediate level α-waste streams. A control of the Pu content of these waste streams is desirable. The nondestructive assay method to be preferred would be passive neutron counting. However, before any decision on passive neutron monitoring becomes possible a characterization of hulls and sludges in terms of Pu content and neutron emission is necessary. For the direct determination of plutonium on hulls and in sludges, as coming from reprocessing, an active neutron measurement is required. A simple, and sufficiently sensitive active neutron method which can easily be installed uses as stationary Cf-252 neutron source. This method was used for the characterization of hulls and sludges in terms of plutonium content and total neutron emission in the WAK. Meanwhile a total of 28 batches of leached hulls and 22 batches of dissolver sludges from reprocessing of PWR fuel have been assayed. The paper describes the assay method used and gives an analysis of the error sources together with a discussion of the results and the accuracies obtained in a reprocessing plant. (orig./HP)

  7. Determination and behaviour of plutonium emitted with liquid effluents and exhaust air into the environment of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1986-01-01

    The plutonium concentrations in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) are in the range of variation of the global plutonium contamination caused by fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests. Exclusively in the sediments of the Old River Rhine, which serves as main canal for the liquid effluents, higher plutonium concentrations could be detected. The dose exposure of the population living in the environment of the KfK caused by the measured plutonium concentrations is negligible low. From the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) and the facilities needed to decontaminate radioactive wastes 0.48 GBq (13 mCi) plutonium alpha activity has been emitted within 11 years of operation until 1982 - 1/3 with the liquid effluents and 2/3 with the exhaust air. Following the pathway with the exhaust air, plutonium concentrations in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant were measured in groundlevel air, in soil, in plants, in food and in animal tissues. Radioecological parameters like dispersion factors, deposition velocities, migration velocities in soil and transfer soil-to-plant were investigated. Following the pathway with the liquid effluents, plutonium concentrations were measured in surface waters, sediments, water plants, plankton and animals. Dilution and sedimentation behaviour were studied as well as the transfer water-to-plant and water-to-animals. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigations concerning the exchange of iodine from non-volatile organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarros, N.; Duschner, H.; Molzahn, D.; Schmidt, L.; Heise, S.; Jungclas, H.; Brandt, R.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-10-01

    The iodine produced by nuclear fission is removed during the reprocessing of exhausted nuclear fuel elements by desorption achieving good decontamination factors. Nevertheless the further optimization of the process requires detailed information about the iodine speciation during fuel reprocessing, and about possible reactions. For the study of decomposition reactions of iodo-alcanes, which are built up during the fuel recycling process, we developed a method for the synthesis of labelled iodo-dodecane, which was used as tracer. In order to identify the iodo species in the organic phase of the reprocessing cycle we applied plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The problem of the volatility of the iodo-compounds in the ultra vacuum of the mass spectrometer was overcome by derivatization of the iodo-alcanes with dithizon, which yielded non-volatile ionic alcyltetrazolium iodides. Beta-spectrometric analysis of the exhaust condensates collected from the organic phase of the WAK reprocessing cycle revealed beside iodine-129 the existence of a low-energetic beta emitter, which has yet to be identified. A literature survey on the topic was also performed. (orig.) With 42 refs., 9 figs [de

  9. Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the security of the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution (DPSQKD) protocol by introducing an improved version of the so-called sequential attack, which was originally discussed by Waks et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006)]. Our attack differs from the original form of the sequential attack in that the attacker Eve modulates not only the phases but also the amplitude in the superposition of the single-photon states which she sends to the receiver. Concentrating especially on the 'discretized Gaussian' intensity modulation, we show that our attack is more effective than the individual attack, which had been the best attack up to present. As a result of this, the recent experiment with communication distance of 100 km reported by Diamanti et al. [Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006)] turns out to be insecure. Moreover, it can be shown that in a practical experimental setup which is commonly used today, the communication distance achievable by the DPSQKD protocol is less than 95 km

  10. SOLUSI PROBLEM PENGHAPUSAN BUNGA DENGAN PENDEKATAN PRODUK BAI‘ BITSAMAN ĀJIL DALAM UPAYA MEWUJUDKAN LEMBAGA KEUANGAN LĀ-RIBA (Studi Kasus di BMT Damar dan BMT-KJKS IAIN Walisongo Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mujibatun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mudhārabah practices as an icon rather than LKS (Sharia Financial Institution is still raise unresolved polemic associated with akunting system and balance, especially in the domain of financing, so that the stigma of people who think that the operating system is the same as the system of financial calculating interest only the different’s name has been continues. When examined in detail, there are other products that legitimized the contract either by the arguments Syara agreed by the majority of scholars and schools of jurisprudence, namely the contract of Ba‘i Bitsaman Ājil (BBA or purchase by way of pay gradually. This article concludes; First, offers a BBA in finance BMT Damar and BMT-KJKS IAIN Walisongo experiencing significant growth, in addition to a simple transaction models are not complex, almost the akunting system likes fixed rate (fixed rate so that customers become more familiar because the system is not much different from the credit money. Second, BBA financing acounting system can be separated from other products offered by BMT and not to be come one system with murābahah financing. Third, although the BBA acounting system similar to the system of interest and somewhat complicated because managers have the purchase to be come representer for wakālah contract to goods of customers, but offers and akunting BBA financing is more flexible and is not affected by rising interest rates as the often occurs in LKK Conventional Financial Institutional

  11. EGG TRAY DAUN SALAM (Eugenia polyantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Bekti Pertiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Telur ayam ras merupakan salah satu makanan yang bergizi tinggi dengan rasa yang enak dan harga relatif murah serta dapat diolah menjadi berbagai macam produk makanan. Namun, telur ayam ras mentah memiliki sifat mudah menurun kualitasnya dan mudah rusak karena lama wak-tu simpan telur yang relatif pendek. Penelitian ini secara umum bertujuan untuk mengetahui pe-ngaruh penggunaan baki telur daun salam (Eugenia polyantha terhadap lama waktu simpan telur ayam ras mentah yang dicuci dan tidak dicuci, dan secara khusus bertujuan untuk menge-tahui pengaruh perbandingan komposisi 0 %, 20 % dan 40 % dari daun salam yang digunakan. Penelitian yang dilakukan adalah true experiment dengan rancangan post test only with control group. Sebagai kontrol adalah baki telur yang biasa dijumpai di pasaran. Di setiap baki telur, pa-da suhu kamar diletakkan masing-masing 10 butir telur yang tidak dicuci dan 10 butir telur yang dicuci sebelumnya. Pengamatan lama waktu simpan telur dilakukan selama dua puluh tujuh hari dengan melihat perubahan kondisi telur-telur tersebut. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji Anova satu jalan pada α 0,05; dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa baki telur dengan komposisi daun salam 40 % adalah yang paling efektif dalam memperpanjang lama waktu simpan telur ayam ras mentah yang dicuci. Nilai mean difference yan dihasilkan adalah 14.00000 dan nilai p lebih kecil dari 0,001.

  12. Xyloglucan Deficiency Disrupts Microtubule Stability and Cellulose Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, Altering Cell Growth and Morphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen; Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Anderson, Charles T.

    2015-11-02

    Xyloglucan constitutes most of the hemicellulose in eudicot primary cell walls and functions in cell wall structure and mechanics. Although Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking detectable xyloglucan are viable, they display growth defects that are suggestive of alterations in wall integrity. To probe the mechanisms underlying these defects, we analyzed cellulose arrangement, microtubule patterning and dynamics, microtubule- and wall-integrity-related gene expression, and cellulose biosynthesis in xxt1 xxt2 plants. We found that cellulose is highly aligned in xxt1 xxt2 cell walls, that its three-dimensional distribution is altered, and that microtubule patterning and stability are aberrant in etiolated xxt1 xxt2 hypocotyls. We also found that the expression levels of microtubule-associated genes, such as MAP70-5 and CLASP, and receptor genes, such as HERK1 and WAK1, were changed in xxt1 xxt2 plants and that cellulose synthase motility is reduced in xxt1 xxt2 cells, corresponding with a reduction in cellulose content. Our results indicate that loss of xyloglucan affects both the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the production and patterning of cellulose in primary cell walls. These findings establish, to our knowledge, new links between wall integrity, cytoskeletal dynamics, and wall synthesis in the regulation of plant morphogenesis.

  13. The new MAW scrap processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, L.

    1994-01-01

    The shielded bunker for heat-generating waste attached to the MAW scrap processing cell will be modified and extended to comprise several MAW scrap processing cells of enhanced throughput capacity, and a new building to serve as an airlock and port for acceptance of large shipping casks (shipping cask airlock, TBS). The new facility is to process scrap from decommissioned nuclear installations, and in addition radwaste accrued at operating plants of utilities. This will allow efficient and steady use of the new MAW scrap processing facility. The planning activities for modification and extension are based on close coordination between KfK and the GNS mbH, in order to put structural dimensioning and capacity planning on a realistic basis in line with expected amounts of radwaste from operating nuclear installations of utilities. The paper indicates the currently available waste amount assessments covering solid radwaste (MAW) from the decommissioning of the WAK, MZFR, and KNK II, and existing waste amounts consisting of core internals of German nuclear power plant. The figures show that the MAW scrap processing facility will have to process an overall bulk of about 1100 Mg of solid waste over the next ten years to come. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Codetermination in the enforcement of an administrative directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Federal Labour Court, decision of May 26, 1988 - 1 ABR 9/87. Lower instances: Karlsruhe Labour Court, October 15, 1985 - 4 BV 3/85; Baden-Wuerttemberg Regional Labour Court, November 24, 1986 - 12 Ta BV 6/86. On the basis of a right of codetermination, the works council may only claim an arrangement that could be decided upon by the employer alone outside the Works Constitution Act. In case the employer is obliged by an administrative act binding upon him, to take certain measures, the works council may not claim an arrangement deviating from this directive by referring to the right of codetermination. In the case under review, the public authority demanded that security controls be made on 5% of the ordinary personnel and the external personnel of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, WAK. The employer ordered these controls to be made, and the works council protested referring to the right of codetermination. The motion failed in all instances. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Twenty years of experience in spent fuel shipment from German nuclear power plants - a view of the competent authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasten, Ch.; Mueller, U.; Alter, U.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of the transport of spent fuel in and from Germany during the last 20 years is presented. The spent fuel is now transported from the German nuclear power facilities to the reprocessing plants in France and the United Kingdom. In the past, there were also shipments to the former reprocessing plant WAK Karlsruhe (Germany), to the long-term storage facility CLAB (Sweden) and also from the former German Democratic Republic to the USSR. The transport of the spent fuel is carried out in specially built flasks requiring an extensive quality assurance programme. Due to the heavy weight of these packages, the shipments are mostly carried out by rail, but also by road and sea. An overview is given of the following matters: (i) quantities of spent fuel transport, (ii) organisation of transport (iii) licensing matters, and (iv) reported incidents. In addition, an analysis is included of the radiation exposure for normal conditions of transport, especially of the transport workers. Difficulties and hindrances during transport are also reported. (author)

  16. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-07-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO{sub 3} solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  17. Twenty-fifth anniversary of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harde, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center was founded on July 19, 1956. The initial company, in which the Federal Republic of Germany held a 30% interest, the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg 20%, and German industry 50%, was founded mainly for the purposes of building and operating a German-designed research reactor. In 1959, the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH was founded for execution of the research and development activities, in which the Federal Republic of Germany held 75%, the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg 25% of the shares. The two companies were merged in 1963, after industry had donated its holdings in the initial company to the new company. In 1972, the financial holdings of the Federal Government were raised to 90%. On January 1, 1978, the company was named Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (KfK). Over the past 25 years, KfK has received approx. DM 7 billion out of public funds. Important milestones in the development of nuclear technology in the Federal Republic contributed by KfK include the development of the fast breeder line and responsibility for construction of the first German fast breeder reactor, KNK; development of reprocessing technologies and responsibility for construction of the first German reprocessing plant, WAK; development of a uranium enrichment technique (separation nozzle method); important contributions to reactor safety, fusion research, and training in nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  18. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO 3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  19. Releases of 14CO2 from nuclear facilities with gaseous effluents; Die Emission von 14C02 mit der Abluft kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettelkopf, H.

    1977-06-01

    Since only little information is available about the extent and type of the 14C emission from nuclear facilities, the Radiation Protection and Safety Department of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has measured the 14C stack vent emission from various facilities. The measurement was restricted to 14CO2 because it is only this coumpound which can lead to exposure doses as a result of ingestion and inhalation. Sampling was carried out with 200 ml of 5 M NaOH in a scrubber. The sample flow was 1 l/min. The sampling period was one week. The 14CO2 emission was measured in the stack vent air of the FR-2 research reactor, the Multi-purpose Research Reactor (MZFR), the combustion facility for burnable radioactive waste (FERAB), the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), all of which are located on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, and in the exhaust air of the Obrigheim (KWO) and Biblis A Nuclear Power Stations.

  20. Integral migration and source term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Howse, R.M.; Sharpe, B.M.; Smith, A.J.; Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.; Young, M.

    1986-01-01

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate level wasteforms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of wasteform, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two wasteforms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe, W. Germany and bitumenised intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium wire rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the wasteform. The release of all nuclides from the bitumenised waste was very low. (author)

  1. Integral migration and source-term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Howse, R.M.; Sharpe, B.M.; Smith, A.J.; Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.; Young, M.

    1986-01-01

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate-level waste-forms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of waste-form, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two waste forms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe in the Federal Republic of Germany and bitumenized intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium were rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the waste-form. The released of all nuclides from the bitumenized waste was very low

  2. Current research and development at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK) is funded to 90% by the Federal Republic of Germany and to 10% by the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Since its foundation in 1956 the main objective of the Center is research and development (R and D) in the aera of the nuclear technology and about 2/3 of the research capacity is now devoted to this field. Since 1960 a major activity of KfK is R and D work for the design of fast breeder reactors, including material research, physics, and safety investigations; a prototype of 300 MWe is under construction now in the lower Rhine Valley. For enrichment of 235 U fissile material KfK developed the separation nozzle process; its technical application is realized within an international contract between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil. Within the frame of the European Programme on fusion technology KfK develops and tests superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion systems; a smaller activity deals with research on inertial confinement fusion. A broad research programme is carried through for safety investigations of nuclear installations, especially for PWRs; this activity is supplemented by research and development in the field of nuclear materials' safeguards. Development of fast reactors has to initiate research for the reprocessing of spent fuel and waste disposal. In the pilot plant WAK spent fuel from LKWs is reprocessed; research especially tries e.g. to improve the PUREX-process by electrochemical means, vitrification of high active waste is another main activity. First studies are being performed now to clarify the necessary development for reprocessing fast reactor fuel. About 1/3 of the research capacity of KfK deals with fundamental research in nuclear physics, solid state physics, biology and studies on the impact of technology on environment. Promising new technologies as e.g. the replacement of gasoline by hydrogen cells as vehicle propulsion are investigated. (orig.)

  3. The bile acid deoxycholate elicits defences in Arabidopsis and reduces bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarattini, Marco; Launay, Alban; Farjad, Mahsa; Wénès, Estelle; Taconnat, Ludivine; Boutet, Stéphanie; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Fagard, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    Disease has an effect on crop yields, causing significant losses. As the worldwide demand for agricultural products increases, there is a need to pursue the development of new methods to protect crops from disease. One mechanism of plant protection is through the activation of the plant immune system. By exogenous application, 'plant activator molecules' with elicitor properties can be used to activate the plant immune system. These defence-inducing molecules represent a powerful and often environmentally friendly tool to fight pathogens. We show that the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces defence in Arabidopsis and reduces the proliferation of two bacterial phytopathogens: Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We describe the global defence response triggered by this new plant activator in Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level. Several induced genes were selected for further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We describe the kinetics of their induction and show that abiotic stress, such as moderate drought or nitrogen limitation, does not impede DCA induction of defence. Finally, we investigate the role in the activation of defence by this bile acid of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SID2, of the receptor-like kinase family genes WAK1-3 and of the NADPH oxidase-encoding RbohD gene. Altogether, we show that DCA constitutes a promising molecule for plant protection which can induce complementary lines of defence, such as callose deposition, reactive oxygen species accumulation and the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling pathways. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Status report - expert knowledge of operators in fuel reprocessing plants, enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Kramer, J.; Wildberg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The necessary qualifications of the responsible personnel and the knowledge required by personnel otherwise employed in nuclear plants are among the requirements for licensing laid down in paragraph 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act. The formal regulations for nuclear power plants are not directly applicable to plants in the fuel cycle because of the differences in the technical processes and the plant and work organisation. The aim of the project was therefore to establish a possible need for regulations for the nuclear plants with respect to the qualification of the personnel, and to determine a starting point for the definition of the required qualifications. An extensive investigation was carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany into: the formal requirements for training; the plant and personnel organisation structures; the tasks carried out by the responsible and otherwise employed personnel; and the state of training. For this purpose plant owners and managers were interviewed and the literature and plant specific documentation (e.g. plant rules) were reviewed. On the basis of literature research, foreign practices were determined and used to make comparative evaluations. The status report is divided into three separate parts for the reprocessing, the uranium enrichment, and the manufacture of the fuel elements. On the basis of the situation for reprocessing plants (particularly that of the WAK) and fuel element manufacturing plants, the development of a common (not uniform) regulation for all the examined plants in the fuel cycle was recommended. The report gives concrete suggestions for the content of the regulations. (orig.) [de

  5. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  6. The isotope correlation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1983-01-01

    The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques, ICT and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment, ICE with the aim to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the WAK plant were analysed by 4 laboratories. All information to compare ICT with the gravimetric and volumetric methods was available. ICT combined with simplified reactor physics calculation was included. The main objectives of the statistical data evaluation were detection of outliers, the estimation of random errors and of systematic errors of the measurements performed by the 4 laboratories. Different methods for outlier detection, analysis of variances, Grubbs' analysis for the constant-bias model and Jaech's non-constant-bias model were applied. Some of the results of the statistical analysis may seem inconsistent which is due to the following reasons. For the statistical evaluations isotope abundance data (weight percent) as well as nuclear concentration data (atoms/initial metal atoms) were subjected to different outlier criteria before being used for further statistical evaluations. None of the four data evaluation groups performed a complete statistical data analysis which would render possible a comparison of the different methods applied since no commonly agreed statistical evaluation procedure existed. The results prove that ICT is as accurate as conventional techniques which have to rely on costly mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. The potential of outlier detection by ICT on the basis of the results from a single laboratory is as good as outlier detection by costly interlaboratory comparison. The application of fission product or Cm-244 correlations would be more timely than remeasurements at safeguards laboratories

  7. Status of reprocessing technology in the HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.; Merz, E.; Zimmer, E.

    1977-01-01

    For more than ten years extensive R and D work has been carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in order to develop the technology necessary for closing the fuel cycle of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The efforts are concentrated primarily on fuel elements having either highly enriched 235 U or recycled 233 U as the fissile and thorium as the fertile material embedded in a graphite matrix. They include the development of processes and equipment for reprocessing and remote preparation of coated microspheres from the recovered uranium. The paper reviews the issues and problems associated with the requirements to deal with high burn-up fuel from HTGR's of different design and composition. It is anticipated that a grind-burn-leach head-end treatment and a modified THOREX-type chemical processing are the optimum choice for the flowsheet. An overview of the present status achieved in construction of a small reprocessing facility, called JUPITER, is presented. It includes a discussion of problems which have already been solved and which have still to be solved like the treatment of feed/breed particle systems and for minimizing environmental impacts envisaged with a HTGR fuel cycle technology. Also discussed is the present status of remote fuel kernel fabrication and coating technology. Additional activities include the design of a mock-up prototype burning head-end facility, called VENUS, with a throughput equivalent to about 6000 MW installed electrical power, as well as a preliminary study for the utilisation of the Karlsruhe LWR prototype reprocessing plant (WAK) to handle HTGR fuel after remodelling of the installations. The paper concludes with an outlook of projects for the future

  8. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    used to describe the interaction of trace metals on aqueous / mineral surfaces, their application in environmental engineering and risk assessment is still scarce. We started to create mineral/specific data collection that allows data processing and gives links to spectroscopic species evidence and theoretical background for surface complexation models. A new radio-analytical tool was developed which allows the direct and fast determination of α-emitting radionuclides in concrete. By a special treatment of the sample and a special evaluation procedure α - emitting radionuclides in multi-element spectra can be detected as low as 0,02Bq/g within 30 h. The large amounts of concrete potentially contaminated with α-active nuclides which pile up during the decommissioning of nuclear installations can be characterized more efficiently by the application of this method. Its application for the decommissioning of the WAK, Karlsruhe is under discussion. (orig.)

  10. Head-end iodine removal from a reprocessing plant with a solid sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Furrer, J.; Schultes, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the first large-scale reprocessing plant planned in the Federal Republic of Germany a total amount of 580 kg of iodine per annum will be released in the fuel dissolution process for a maximum heavy metal throughput of 1800 tons per year and 40,000 MWd/t of burnup. The main portion of the iodine is formed by the 129 I (T/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10 7 a) isotope of which 82 Ci at the maximum are released every year. With the scheduled fuel element storage time of greater than or equal to 220 d the simultaneous release of 131 I is less than or equal to 12.5 Ci the mass of which does not play any part. According to the computer model presently imposed in the Federal Republic of Germany for treatment of the environmental impact by radioiodine, a total decontamination factor of 340 must be attained. This implies a long-term diffusion factor of 1 x 10 -7 s/m 3 for releases via the stack of the reprocessing plant and a limit value of 50 mrem/a at the maximum for the thyroid dose to the critical group of the population via the ingestion path. The flowsheet for dissolver off-gas cleaning in a reprocessing plant employing solid iodine sorption material and the arrangement of filter components are discussed. The principle of an iodine sorption filter is described which allows exhaustive loading of the iodine sorption material. The removal reactions of different organic iodine compounds and the loading capacity and removal efficiency of the iodine sorption material in the original dissolver off-gases of reprocessing plants are indicated. Studies on the influence of filter poisons are reported.Operating experience gathered with a first iodine sorption filter in operation is discussed; this filter has been used to remove practically all iodine produced in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Pilot Plant (WAK). Direct measurement of 129 I in samples of filter material using a low energy photon spectrometer is briefly reported

  11. Protection of Landscape Values of Historical Post Military Objects - Complexes in Spatial, Urban and Architectural Planning of Polish Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawryluk, Dorota; Zagroba, Marek

    2017-12-01

    Within the borders of modern Poland there are numerous barracks units erected at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries by the invaders from Russia, Austria and Prussia. Former barracks are a clear element of the history of the place. Historical complexes have a strong influence on the urban landscape and on building their former and contemporary identity. The analysis of functional and landscape absorption of postmodern complexes allows for their adaptation and modern use without limiting the readability of historical values. For this reason, their landscape should be protected comprehensively within the scope of subsequent exposure scales. The aim of the work is to justify the conditions of comprehensive protection of the fortified landscape of the former barracks of the former Russian partition in the landscape of contemporary Polish cities. The article contains a review of the literature on the protection, supplement and access to fortified buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in contemporary Poland. A review of current research conducted at various academic centres in Poland, concerning the exposition of fortified buildings in the landscape, is presented. Particular attention was paid to the scales and forms of exposition, proposed for the fortifications and barracks. The paper presents justification for the protection of barracks complexes from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in the landscape of Polish cities of the former Russian partition area. Protection of the landscape was proposed in the following scales: superregional, landscape (panorama of the centre), urban (urban structure of the complex in the context of the urban space), architectural and landscape interiors of the complex (WAK) such as alleys, alarm squares, greenery) and detail (view of the building from the outside), interior of the building (characteristic interior spaces, e.g. home chapels, staircases). Taking account of exposures analysis of individual scales

  12. Solos da área indígena Yanomami no médio Rio Catrimani, Roraima Soils in the Yanomami indigenous area in the mid-Catrimani River - Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinar Ferreira Melo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Em Roraima, a distribuição espacial das populações indígenas identifica um cenário de busca constante de solos capazes de sustentar uma agricultura itinerante. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relação entre a compreensão dos solos por parte dos Yanomami da região do médio Catrimani e o Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, bem como avaliar o seu tipo de uso em função de análises químicas para diagnóstico da fertilidade do solo. O trabalho foi executado em duas etapas. A primeira consistiu em visitas a oito malocas para estudar os solos. Foram coletadas amostras em trincheiras até 1,50 m de profundidade para análise e classificação dos solos e (em prospecções com o trado nas profundidades de 0-10 a 10-30 cm, em 21 tipos de uso agrícola, e da área de floresta para análises químicas de fertilidade. A segunda fase foi uma oficina, abordando os sistemas de exploração agrícola, com duração de 20 h. Focalizou-se a discussão sobre a compreensão do meio ambiente (Urihi(1 e sistemas de produção agrícolas e sobre a importância do uso correto do conhecimento dos solos. Os solos são denominados pelos Yanomami em função das características morfológicas, pelos teores de matéria orgânica e pela presença de minhocas, e da posição na paisagem - a escolha para agricultura é fundamentada nessas características. As práticas agrícolas consistem da derrubada da mata nativa, queima e plantio das culturas em separado. Os solos descritos na área foram: Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Maxita a uuxi wakë axi, Argissolo Amarelo (Maxita a axi, Latossolo Amarelo (Maxita a axi e Plintossolo (Maxita a axi a maamaxipë. O processo de derruba e queima promove um incremento inicial do teor de Ca e K trocáveis e P assimilável devido à contribuição das cinzas, o que permite a exploração das áreas por um período máximo de três anos.In Roraima, the spatial distribution of indigenous peoples indicates a