Sample records for wak

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel wall-associated kinase gene TaWAK5 in wheat(Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun; Yang; Lin; Qi; Zengyan; Zhang


    Wall-associated kinases(WAKs) play an important role in plant defense and development.Considerable progress has been made in understanding WAK genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.However, much less is known about these genes in common wheat. Here, we isolated a novel wheat WAK gene TaWAK5 from sharp eyespot disease-resistant wheat line CI12633,based on a differentially-expressed sequence identified by microarray analysis. The transcript abundance of TaWAK5 was rapidly increased following inoculation with the pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis. TaWAK5 in resistant wheat lines was induced to higher levels than in susceptible lines at 7 days post inoculation with R. cerealis. The expression of TaWAK5 was also induced by treatments with exogenous salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate. The deduced TaWAK5 protein contained a signal peptide, two epidermal growth factor(EGF)-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and a serine/threonine protein kinase catalytic domain. Subcellular localization analyses in onion epidermal cells indicated that the TaWAK5 protein was localized to the plasma membrane. Virus-induced gene silencing of TaWAK5 in CI12633 plants showed that the silencing of TaWAK5 did not obviously impair wheat resistance to R. cerealis, suggesting that TaWAK5 may be not the major gene in wheat defense response to R. cerealis, or that it is functionally redundant with other genes. This study paves the way for further research into WAK functions in wheat stress physiology.

  2. Words Spoken with Insistence: "Wak'as" and the Limits of the Bolivian Multi-Institutional Democracy (United States)

    Cuelenaere, Laurence Janine


    Building on 18 months of fieldwork in the Bolivian highlands, this dissertation examines how traversing landscapes, through the mediation of spatial practices and spoken words, are embedded in systems of belief. By focusing on "wak'as" (i.e. sacred objects) and on how the inhabitants of the Altiplano relate to the Andean deities known as "wak'as,"…

  3. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others


    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others


    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Akad Wakâlah dan Samsarah sebagai Solusi atas Klaim Keharaman Dropship dalam Jual Beli Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Yunia Fauzia


    Full Text Available Online business (selling-buying has become prominent in the past few years ago as demand increases. This kind of business forms a positive effect of the development of internet which produces new business-men. Along with the development of online business, there emerges dropship system which is mostly undertaken by female entrepreneurs. Despite its negative effect, dropship system has positive influence, i.e. creating positive activities for women and therefore empowering them. The polemics of dropship is still going on. According to some Muslim jurists, dropship is forbidden (harâm because the practicioners of this system sell items only from picture. Moreover, the items sold have not been the property of the practicioners. This article deals with the benefit of wakâlah and samsarah contract used to accommodate the dropship system. The specification of both contracts is explained in detail in order for this system to be undertaken as wakalah and samsarah contract. The practicioners of dropship as wâkil, and suppliers as muwakkil, or the practicioners of dropship as simsâr with some conditions that should be accorded to the contract in the beginning of transaction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino A. Barbosa


    Full Text Available

    Em trabalho realizado na Escola de Agronomia e Veterinária da U.F.Go. — Goiânia, em 1971, foram comparadas quatro variedades alemãs de batata quanto à susceptibilidade à sarna comum (Streptomyces scabies. Houve diferença significante quanto à infecção pela bactéria incitadora da sarna comum, sendo a variedade Hydra a mais severamente afetada (41,91%, seguindo-se a Delta-A (28,48%, e finalmente as variedades Tondra (19,87% e Hansa (16,51% que apresentaram menor suscetibilidade. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as variedades Tondra e Hansa. Os tubérculos da variedade Hydra apresentaram-se, em parte, nitidamente deformados, com lesões profundas, semelhantes as rachaduras imperfeitamente cicatrizadas, ficando parcialmente inutilizados para o comércio. Os tubérculos das variedades Tondra e Hansa exibiram, por outro lado, lesões pequenas, superficiais e pouco numerosas, não chegando a afetar o valor comercial do produto.

    Four German potato varieties Delta-A, Hansa, Hydra and Tondra were tested on their resistence to common scab (Streptomyces scabies. This trial was carried out, in Goiânia, state of Goiás, with tubers harvested from the first planting of imported seed potatoes, in the so-called dry season (March to August. The four varieties differed significantly each other in resistence to common scab. Hansa was found to be the most resistent, followed by Tondra, Delta-A and Hydra. The last one showed a large number of tubers misshaded by scab infestion.

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.63805, Lat: 19.30092 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.22m; Data Range: 20070505-20090324. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.59801, Lat: 19.31633 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 24.08m; Data Range: 20051023-20070430. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.59808, Lat: 19.31609 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.97m; Data Range: 20051022-20070430. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.60453, Lat: 19.30868 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20051021-20070430. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. 基于空间唤醒的水声传感器网络节能路由协议%Energy-efficient Routing Protocol Based on Spatial Wak eup for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟永信; 黄建国; 韩晶


    针对水声传感器网络高能耗的特点,该文提出了基于空间唤醒的节能路由协议ERBSW(Energy-efficientRouting protocol Based 0n Spatial Wakeup),该协议将3维网络空间划分为唤醒层和睡眠层,每个节点根据当前的深度信息,动态地决定其处于唤醒或睡眠状态.另外,ERBSW通过定期地广播Hello包来建立唤醒邻节点集合,使得数据包由较高的唤醒层节点向较低的唤醒层节点传递,从而避免了冗余节点因空闲侦听以及不必要的数据接收所产生的能量浪费.仿真结果表明,在不同网络密度条件下,该协议相比VBF(Vector-Based Forwarding)能耗节省了约16%~48%.%Considering the characteristic of high energy consumption in underwater acoustic sensor networks, an Energy-efficient Routing protocol Based on Spatial Wakeup (ERBSW) is presented. It divides three dimensional network space into wakeup layers and sleep layers, each node makes local decision on whether to wake up or to sleep according to its current depth. In addition, ERBSW gets wakeup neighbor sets by broadcasting Hello packets periodically, and delivers data from nodes in higher wakeup layer to nodes in lower wakeup layer, which avoids energy consumption caused by idle listening and unnecessary data reception of redundant nodes. Compared with the Vector-Based Forwarding (VBF) protocol, simulation tests show that the proposed protocol can save energy cost by about 16%~~48% in various network density.

  12. AcEST: BP916350 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um sp... 34 4.1 tr|Q8WAK0|Q8WAK0_9HYME Cytochrome b (Fragment) OS=Neozeleboria i... 33 9.2 tr|Q234U2|Q234U2_... +M F+FF LLN ++ Sbjct: 175 LFWTFVVNMFMLTWLGAQP-IEYPFMTISQINSTMYFSFFFLLNYVN 220 >tr|Q234U2|Q234U

  13. Requirement for pectin methyl esterase and preference for fragmented over native pectins for wall-associated kinase-activated, EDS1/PAD4-dependent stress response in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Kohorn, Bruce D; Kohorn, Susan L; Saba, Nicholas J; Martinez, Victoriano Meco


    The wall-associated kinases (WAKs) have a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that spans the plasma membrane and binds pectin in the extracellular matrix of plants. WAKs are required for cell expansion during Arabidopsis seedling development but are also an integral part of the response to pathogens and stress that present oligogalacturonides (OGs), which subsequently bind to WAKs and activate a MPK6 (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway. It was unclear how WAKs distinguish native pectin polymers and OGs to activate one or the other of these two pathways. A dominant allele of WAK2 constitutively activates the stress response, and we show here that the effect is dependent upon EDS1 and PAD4, transcriptional activators involved in the pathogen response. Moreover, the WAK2 dominant allele is suppressed by a null allele of a pectin methyl esterase (PME3) whose activity normally leads to cross-linking of pectins in the cell wall. Although OGs activate a transcriptional response in wild type, the response is enhanced in a pme3/pme3 null, consistent with a competition by OG and native polymers for activation of WAKs. This provides a plausible mechanism for WAKs to distinguish an expansion from a stress pathway.

  14. Reference: 375 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hown that a reduction in WAK protein levels leads to a loss of cell expansion, indicating that these recepto...he expression and activity of vacuolar invertase, often a key factor in turgor and expansion. WAKs may thus

  15. Longitudinal Control of Intense Charged Particle Beams (United States)


    Professor Edo Waks Professor Richard Ellis, Deans Representative © Copyright by Brian Louis Beaudoin...committee members, Professor Victor L. Granatstein, Professor Richard Ellis and Professor Edo Waks. I am grateful for all of the UMER staff as this...A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J-Y. Jung, J.W. Kwan, E.P. Lee, M.A. Leitner, B.G. Logan, J.-L. Vay, W.L. Waldron, R.C. Davidson, M. Dorf , E.P. Gilson

  16. A maize wall-associated kinase confers quantitative resistance to head smut. (United States)

    Zuo, Weiliang; Chao, Qing; Zhang, Nan; Ye, Jianrong; Tan, Guoqing; Li, Bailin; Xing, Yuexian; Zhang, Boqi; Liu, Haijun; Fengler, Kevin A; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Xianrong; Chen, Yongsheng; Lai, Jinsheng; Yan, Jianbing; Xu, Mingliang


    Head smut is a systemic disease in maize caused by the soil-borne fungus Sporisorium reilianum that poses a grave threat to maize production worldwide. A major head smut quantitative resistance locus, qHSR1, has been detected on maize chromosome bin2.09. Here we report the map-based cloning of qHSR1 and the molecular mechanism of qHSR1-mediated resistance. Sequential fine mapping and transgenic complementation demonstrated that ZmWAK is the gene within qHSR1 conferring quantitative resistance to maize head smut. ZmWAK spans the plasma membrane, potentially serving as a receptor-like kinase to perceive and transduce extracellular signals. ZmWAK was highly expressed in the mesocotyl of seedlings where it arrested biotrophic growth of the endophytic S. reilianum. Impaired expression in the mesocotyl compromised ZmWAK-mediated resistance. Deletion of the ZmWAK locus appears to have occurred after domestication and spread among maize germplasm, and the ZmWAK kinase domain underwent functional constraints during maize evolution.

  17. A Dominant Allele of Arabidopsis Pectin-Binding Wall-Associated Kinase Induces a Stress Response Suppressed by MPK6 but Not MPK3 Mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce D.Kohorn; Susan L.Kohorn; Tanya Todorova; Gillian Baptiste; Kevin Stansky; Meghan McCullough


    The plant cell wall is composed of a matrix of cellulose fibers,flexible pectin polymers,and an array of assorted carbohydrates and proteins.The receptor-like Wall-Associated Kinases(WAKs)of Arabidopsis bind pectin in the wall,and are necessary both for cell expansion during development and for a response to pathogens and wounding.Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases(MPKs)form a major signaling link between cell surface receptors and both transcriptional and enzyme regulation in eukaryotes,and Arabidopsis MPK6 and MPK3 indeed have important roles in development and the response to stress and pathogens.A dominant allele of WAK2 requires kinase activity and activates a stress response that includes an increased ROS accumulation and the up-regulation of numerous genes involved in pathogen resistance,wounding,and cell wall biogenesis.This dominant allele requires a functional pectin binding and kinase domain,indicating that it is engaged in a WAK signaling pathway.A null mutant of the major plasma membrane ROS-producing enzyme complex,rbohd/f does not suppress the WAK2cTAP-induced phenotype.A mpk6,but not a mpk3,null allele is able to suppress the effects of this dominant WAK2 mutation,thus distinguishing MPK3 and MPK6,whose activity previously was thought to be redundant.Pectin activation of gene expression is abated in a wak2-null,but is tempered by the WAK-dominant allele that induces elevated basal stress-related transcript levels.The results suggest a mechanism in which changes to the cell wall can lead to a large change in cellular responses and help to explain how pathogens and wounding can have general effects on growth.

  18. Dewey and Video Games: From Education through Occupations to Education through Simulations (United States)

    Waddington, David I.


    Critics like Leonard Waks argue that video games are, at best, a dubious substitute for the rich classroom experiences that John Dewey wished to create and that, at worst, they are profoundly miseducative. Using the example of "Fate of the World," a climate change simulation game, David Waddington addresses these concerns through a…

  19. 网虫白描(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Damages three“cats”(modems)and five“mice”in a short time while try-ing to log onto the Internet; Must chat on-line with friends right before bed and immediately after wak-ing up; Can’t go to the washroom,even at midnight,without first checking his e-

  20. 弱可约极大三角代数的上同调%Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浙; 鲁世杰


    In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras which form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let (ж)be a wakly closed algebra containing (ж) , we prove that the cohomulogy spaces Hn((y).(ж) ) (n≥1) are trivial.

  1. Dewey's Theory of the Democratic Public and the Public Character of Charter Schools (United States)

    Waks, Leonard J.


    In this essay, Leonard Waks reconsiders the issue of the public character of charter schools, that is, schools funded through public taxation but operated by non-state organizations such as nonprofit and for-profit educational corporations and nongovernmental public interest organizations. Using John Dewey's conception of a democratic public as a…

  2. AtGRP3 Is Implicated in Root Size and Aluminum Response Pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mangeon

    Full Text Available AtGRP3 is a glycine-rich protein (GRP from Arabidopsis thaliana shown to interact with the receptor-like kinase AtWAK1 in yeast, in vitro and in planta. In this work, phenotypic analyses using transgenic plants were performed in order to better characterize this GRP. Plants of two independent knockout alleles of AtGRP3 develop longer roots suggesting its involvement in root size determination. Confocal microscopy analysis showed an abnormal cell division and elongation in grp3-1 knockout mutants. Moreover, we also show that grp3-1 exhibits an enhanced Aluminum (Al tolerance, a feature also described in AtWAK1 overexpressing plants. Together, these results implicate AtGRP3 function root size determination during development and in Al stress.

  3. Wearable devices for blood purification: principles, miniaturization, and technical challenges. (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Lorenzin, Anna; Neri, Mauro; Nalesso, Federico; Garzotto, Francesco; Ronco, Claudio


    The prevalences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) continue to increase across the world imposing staggering costs on providers. Therefore, strategies to optimize the treatment and improve survival are of fundamental importance. Despite the benefits of daily dialysis, its implementation is difficult and wearable hemodialysis might represent an alternative by which frequent treatments can be delivered to ESRD patients with much less interference in their routines promoting better quality of life. The development of the wearable artificial kidney (WAK) requires incorporation of basic components of a dialysis system into a wearable device that allows mobility, miniaturization, and above all, patient-oriented management. The technical requirements necessary for WAK can be divided into the following broad categories: dialysis membranes, dialysis regeneration, vascular access, patient monitoring systems, and power sources. Pumping systems for blood and other fluids are the most critical components of the entire device.

  4. Subjective disturbance of perception is related to facial affect recognition in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Corigliano, Valentina; Romano, Silvia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Campana, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo


    To examine the relationship between facial affect recognition (FAR) and subjective perceptual disturbances (SPDs), we assessed SPDs in 82 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (44 with first-episode psychosis [FEP] and 38 with multiple episodes [ME]) using two subscales of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), WAS (simple perception) and WAK (complex perception). Emotional judgment ability was assessed using Ekman and Friesen's FAR task. Impaired recognition of emotion correlated with scores on the WAS but not on the WAK. The association was significant in the entire group and in the ME group. FAR was more impaired in the ME than in the FEP group. Our findings suggest that there is a relationship between SPDs and FAR impairment in schizophrenia, particularly in multiple-episode patients.

  5. Third Congress on Information System Science and Technology (United States)


    Waks Robert M. Fano Gordon T. Gould, Jr., Major General, USAF Richard M. Longmire Ruth M. Davis Samuel N. Alexander Irving K. Cohen Paul G...TAC Command System 359 Irving K. Cohen David A. Schum Joseph M. Doughty L.W.Miller, R.J.Kaplan, and W. Edwards XVI NEW DIRECTIONS FOR...Conference, 26 343-350 Spartan Hooks, Washington. D.C. 1964 4 R. A. KIRSCH Computer interpretation of English text and picture

  6. Long-Term Interactions of Full-Scale Cemented Waste Simulates with Salt Brines (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7721)


    Kienzler, Bernhard [Hrsg.; Borkel, Christoph; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina


    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A signifi-cant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1...

  7. An experimental and numerical study of the flow and mass transfer in a model of the wearable artificial kidney dialyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfeld Moshe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published studies of the past decades have established that mass transfer across the dialyzer membrane is governed by diffusion, convection and osmosis. While the former is independent of the pressure in the liquids, the latter two are pressure dependent and are enhanced when the pressure difference across the membrane is increased. The goal of the present study is to examine the impact of pulsatile flow on the transport phenomena across the membrane of a high-flux dialyzer in a wearable artificial kidney (WAK with a novel single small battery-operated pulsatile pump that drives both the blood and dialysate in a counter-phased manner, maximizing the trans-membrane pressure. Methods Both in-vitro experimental and numerical tools are employed to compare the performance of the pulsatile WAK dialyzer with a traditional design of a single-channel roller blood pump together with a centrifugal pump that drives the dialysate flow. The numerical methods utilize the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and mass transfer equations to model the flow in the fibers of the dialyzer. Results While diffusion is still the dominating transport regime, the WAK pump enhances substantially the trans-membrane pressure and thus increases mass convection that might be as high as 30% of the overall transfer. This increase is obtained due to the design of the pulsatile WAK pump that increases ultrafiltration by increasing the trans-membrane pressure. Conclusions The experimental and numerical results revealed that when pumping at similar flow rates, a small battery-operated pulsatile pump provides clearances of urea and creatinine similar as or better than a large heavy AC-powered roller pump.

  8. Southeast Asia Report. No. 1325 (United States)


    preoccupation with Bandar these days. The history of "modern" Brunei begins with its conversion to Islam by traders from Malacca. The fall of Malacca to the...Datuk Sudin Wahab was given the post of Central Information chief and former Kelantan PAS liaison Secretary Haji Salahuddin Mohamad appointed Exe...interesting, even exciting. Never before in the history of Sara- wak politics has the internal squabbles of a party been brought so out in the open

  9. Probability Distribution of Precipitation Extremes over the Yangtze River Basin%1960-2005年长江流域降水极值概率分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏布达; Marco Gemmer; 姜彤


    Based on the daily observational precipitation data of 147 stations in the Yangtze River basin for 1960-2005,and the projected daily data of 79 grids from ECHAM5/MPI-OM in the 20th century,time series of precipitation extremes which contain annual maximum(AM)and Munger index(MI)were constructed.The distribution feature of precipitation extremes was analyzed based on the two index series.Research results show that(1)the intensity and probability of extreme heavy precipitation are higher in the middle Mintuo River sub-catchment,the Dongting Lake area,the mid-lower main stream section of the Yangtze River,and the southeastern Poyang Lake sub-catchment;whereas,the intensity and probability of drought events are higher in the mid-lower Jinsha River sub-catchment and the Jialing River sub-catchment;(2)compared with observational data,the averaged value of AM is higher but the deviation coefficient is lower in projected data,and the center of precipitation extremes moves northwards;(3)in spite of certain differences in the spatial distributions of observed and projected precipitation extremes,by applying General Extreme Value(GEV)and Wakeby(WAK)models with the method of L-Moment Estimator(LME)to the precipitation extremes,it is proved that WAK can simulate the probability distribution of precipitation extremes calculated from both observed and projected data quite well.The WAK could be an important function for estimating the precipitation extreme events in the Yangtze River basin under future climatic scenarios.

  10. International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion: Base Bleed Held in Athens, Greece on November 23, 24, 25, 1988 (United States)


    oh ( urte ba S’ ex- 1d 1 pec tione in’-y Ohe Wak throughti lhcan be.iý aii en as in Fk~ctsona A knowIIt iIIge on wai fsos t and b as te" drag rc pi eti...1w u (25) Hence, the probable errors of the falling point caused by the gusty wind are given by Exwx a Wx wxb (26) aZ Ezwz = 2•-Z E V EZW z 3.3

  11. Testing of welded seams in the light of new requirements. Rules, new joining techniques, new test methods, automation, code cases; Schweissnahtpruefung im Licht neuer Anforderungen. Regelwerke, neue Fuegetechniken, neue Prueftechniken, Automatisierung, Code Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This proceedings CD contains 8 contributions on the following subjects: 1. Ultrasonic testing of welds using TOFD (A. Hecht); 2. Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection - Inspection of Welded Pipes in Accordance with New and Strict International Specifications (W.A.K. Deutsch); 3. Detection and analysis of longitudinal defects in welds of pipelines (K. Reber); 4. Ultrasonic inline inspection of pipelines for circumferential cracks (H. Willems); 6. Ultrasonic testing of welds at temperatures up to 200 C (A. Erhard); 7. Defect detection and defect size measurement in welds using ultrasonic phased arrays (W. Rathgeb); 8. Dry ultrasonic testing of laser-welded butt welds using guided SH waves illustrated by the example of tailored blanks (H.-J. Salzburger). Four papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. [German] Diese Berichtsband-CD enthaelt 8 Beitraege mit folgenden Themen: 1. Ultraschallpruefung an Schweissnaehten mittels TOFD (A. Hecht); 2. Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Weld Inspection - Inspection of Welded Pipes in Accordance with New and Strict International Specifications (W.A.K. Deutsch); 3. Detektion und Bewertung von Laengsfehlern an Schweissnaehten von Pipelines (K. Reber); 4. Inline-Pruefung von Pipelines auf Umfangrisse mittels Ultraschall (H. Willems); 6. Ultraschallschweissnahtpruefung bei Temperaturen bis 200 C (A. Erhard); 7. Fehlerauffindung und Fehlergroessenbestimmung mit der Gruppenstrahlertechnik bei der Schweissnahtpruefung (W. Rathgeb); 8. Trockene Ultraschallpruefung lasergeschweisster Stumpfschweissnaehte mittels gefuehrter SH-Wellen am Beispiel der Tailored Blanks (H.-J. Salzburger). Vier der Beitraege wurden separat fuer die ENERGY Datenbank aufgenommen.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rauf


    Full Text Available This article discuss about theory concept of transactions in Islamic banking products. In collecting and distributing funds, Islamic banking used variety of transactions, such as deposit transactions (wadî’ah yad amânah, wadî’ah yad dhamânah, transactions for results (mudhârabah, musyârakah, buying and selling  (murâbahah, salâm, istishnâ’, lease transactions (ijârah, ijârah wa iqtinâ’, atau ijârah muntahiyah bi al-tamlîk, loan transactions (qardh, and transactions with other patterns (wakâlah, kafâlah, hiwâlah, rahn. Murâbahah and salâm transactions are used for collecting the funds and mudhârabah muthlaqah and wadî’ah are used for funding. Meanwhile, ijârah and wakâlah are used in loan transactions that implemented in a bank guarantee.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2536


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrul Huda


    Full Text Available The article discusses the mechanism of foreign exchange through what so-called Forex teamster. The study concludes that trading, viewed from the aspect of goods exchanged, consists of three kinds, namely barter, buying and selling of goods with money, and money exchange. It is allowed to use broker’s service in money exchange activity. It has been even a compulsory (wâjib ‘ayn for a trader to select and chose a legal and trusteed broker in order to assure and secure his money. The reason is that a broker becomes not only wakîl (a trustee or an agent of trader to proceed the transaction of the trader into the market, but also plays role as a responsible person who guarantees the trustiness of market over the trader. In other words, a broker has to make the market trusts every trader’s transaction. The transaction has to cover all benefits and risks. It can be understood, therefore, that non-dealing desk broker is a person who meets the requirements of wakâlah and d}amân contacts implemented within Forex transaction.

  14. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices. (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio


    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features.

  15. The nature of reality represented in high fidelity human patient simulation: philosophical perspectives and implications for nursing education. (United States)

    Dunnington, Renee M


    Simulation technology is increasingly being used in nursing education. Previously used primarily for teaching procedural, instrumental, or critical incident types of skills, simulation is now being applied to training related to more dynamic, complex, and interpersonal human contexts. While high fidelity human patient simulators have significantly increased in authenticity, human responses have greater complexity and are qualitatively different than current technology represents. This paper examines the texture of representation by simulation. Through a tracing of historical and contemporary philosophical perspectives on simulation, the nature and limits of the reality of human health responses represented by high fidelity human patient simulation (HF-HPS) are explored. Issues concerning nursing education are raised around the nature of reality represented in HF-HPS. Drawing on Waks, a framework for guiding pedagogical considerations around simulation in nursing education is presented for the ultimate purpose of promoting an educative experience with simulation.

  16. Nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Dzheparov, F S; Jacquinot, J F


    First part of the work contains a calculation of the kinetics of nuclear relaxation via paramagnetic impurities for systems with arbitrary (including fractal) space dimension d basing on ideas, which run current for 3d objects now. A new mean-field-type theory is constructed in the second part of the work. It reproduces all results of the first part for integer d and gives a possibility to describe the process for longer time, when a crossover to Balagurov-Waks asymptotics starts to develop. Solutions of the equations of the new theory are constructed for integer d. To obtain the solutions a method of calculation of the low-energy and long-wave asymptotics for T matrix of potential scattering out of the mass shell for singular repulsive potentials is developed

  17. Modern methods of project handling - lean management during the deconstruction of nuclear facilities as illustrated by the vitrification plant VEK; Moderne Methoden der Projektabwicklung. Lean Management beim Rueckbau kerntechnischer Anlagen am Beispiele der Verglasungsanlage VEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Christina; Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb (TMB); Dux, Joachim; Reinelt, Joachim [WAK Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    The authors describe the positive experiences from the project handling during the WAK deconstruction process including the implementation of the so called lean management that is supposed to optimize the timing and cost specific approaches. The practical application includes the planning, the licensing application and in case of licensing the realization of the project. Enhancement of transparency and information flow are reached by periodic last planner sessions. Time management and exact scheduling are central parts of the project handling. The contract partners, authorities and consultants are involved at an early state of the project. After shutdown of the vitrification plant VEK the planning for the deconstruction licensing application according to the atomic law have been started.

  18. Investigation and control on diseases and insect pests of‘No. 5 Weiyu’potato under different planting densities%不同种植密度下‘威芋5号’病虫害种类调查及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 陈祖瑶; 郑元红; 牟东岭


    in this investigation 10 types of diseases and insect pests were found, such as Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky, Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acyrthosiphon solani (Kaltenbach), Chrysomelidae Latreille, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Henvici, PVY, Phytophthora infestans Mont, Erwinia carotovora subsp and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Incidence rates of diseases and pests increased with plant density. To realize the high yield and good quality cultivation of the‘No. 5 Weiyu’potato cultivars, it was very important to identify the diseases and insect pests correctly and to adopt the integrated control technology.%本次调查总共发现马铃薯病、虫害共10种。分别是马铃薯28星瓢虫(Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motschulsky)、茶黄螨(Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks)、茄无网蚜(Acyrthosiphon solani Kaltenbach)、叶甲(Chrysomelidae Latreil e)、金针虫(Helicoverpa armigera Hubner)、马铃薯疮痂病(Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Henvici),马铃薯病毒病(PVY)、马铃薯晚疫病(Phytophthora infestans Mont)、马铃薯软腐病(Erwinia carotovora subsp)和马铃薯早疫病(Alternaria solani Sorauer),病虫害的发生率随着种植密度增大而增加。为保证‘威芋5号’的高产、优产,准确识别病虫害的种类,采用综合防治技术是关键。

  19. Simulation of extreme precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin using Wakeby distribution (United States)

    Su, Buda; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Jiang, Tong


    Based on the daily observational precipitation data at 147 stations in the Yangtze River Basin during 1960-2005 and projected daily data of 79 grid cells from the ECHAM5/ MPI-OM model in the 20th and 21st century, time series of precipitation extremes which contain AM (Annual Maximum) and MI (Munger Index) are constructed. The distribution feature of precipitation extremes is analyzed based on the two index series. Three principal results were obtained, as stated in the sequel. (i) In the past half century, the intensity of extreme heavy precipitation and drought events was higher in the mid-lower Yangtze than in the upper Yangtze reaches. Although the ECHAM5 model still can’t capture the precipitation extremes over the Yangtze River Basin satisfactorily, spatial pattern of the observed and the simulated precipitation extremes are much similar to each other. (ii) For quantifying the characteristics of extremely high and extremely low precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, four probability distributions are used, namely: General Extreme Value (GEV), General Pareto (GPA), General Logistic (GLO), and Wakeby (WAK). It was found that WAK can adequately describe the probability distribution of precipitation extremes calculated from both observational and projected data. (iii) Return period of precipitation extremes show spatially different changes under three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The 50-year heavy precipitation and drought events from simulated data during 1951-2000 will become more frequent, with return period below 25 years, for the most mid-lower Yangtze region in 2001-2050. The changing character of return periods of precipitation extremes should be taken into account for the hydrological design and future water resources management.

  20. The future of the artificial kidney: moving towards wearable and miniaturized devices. (United States)

    Ronco, C; Davenport, A; Gura, V


    New directions in dialysis research include cheaper treatments, home based therapies and simpler methods of blood purification. These objectives may be probably obtained with innovations in the field of artificial kidney through the utilization of new disciplines such as miniaturization, microfluidics, nanotechnology. This research may lead to a new era of dialysis in which the new challenges are transportability, wearability and why not the possibility to develop implantable devices. Although we are not there yet, a new series of papers have recently been published disclosing interesting and promising results on the application of wearable ultrafiltration systems (WUF) and wearable artificial kidneys (WAK). Some of them use extracorporeal blood cleansing as a method of blood purification while others use peritoneal dialysis as a treatment modality (ViWAK and AWAK.) A special mention deserves the wearable/portable ultrafiltration system for the therapy of overhydration and congestive heart failure (WAKMAN). This system will allow dehospitalization and treatment of patients with less comorbidity and improved tolerance. On the way to the wearable artificial kidney, new discoveries have been made such as a complete system for hemofiltration in newborns (CARPEDIEM). The neonate in fact is the typical patient who may benefit from miniaturization of the dialysis circuit. This review analyzes the rationale for such endeavour and the challenges to overcome in order to make possible a true ambulatory dialysis treatment. Some initial results with these new devices are presented. We would like to stimulate a collaborative effort to make a quantum leap in technology making the wearable artificial kidney a reality rather than a dream. 

  1. Tradition et innovations esthétiques dans la nouvelle yéménite contemporaine Tradition and aesthetic innovations in contemporary Yemeni short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Jenvrin


    Full Text Available Le nouveau recueil de Mu/hammad ‘Abd al-Wakîl Jâzim témoigne d’une transformation capitale dans la littérature yéménite contemporaine :  le passage d’une forme expérimentale en rupture avec les règles de la nouvelle traditionnelle et avec la réalité yéménite, à une autre forme plus accomplie dans laquelle les principes traditionnels de la nouvelle sont ici associés sans complexe aux formes renouvelées du genre.  La nouvelle intitulée Le maître des vautours, présente, dans une structure narrative traditionnelle, un conte fantastique moderne qui mêle réalisme, symbolisme et poésie, et dans lequel l’auteur traite à sa manière les thèmes littéraires contemporains de la dualité du rêve et de la réalité, du désenchantement et de l’enfermement perpétuel.  C’est notamment en s’inspirant de la langue, des pratiques orales, des croyances et de l’imaginaire populaire, que l’auteur, soucieux de donner un ancrage au texte dans la réalité yéménite, transfigure cette expérience existentielle moderne.The latest collection of short stories by Mu/hammad 'Abd al-Wakîl signals a major shift in contemporary Yemeni literature: from an experimental form, breaking away from both traditional short story conventions and Yemeni reality, to another, more accomplished form, unabashedly mixing traditional short story principles with renewed genre forms. The short story entitled The Vulture Master presents us, from within a traditional narrative structure, with a modern fantasy tale blending in realism, symbolism and poetry, and where the writer deals in his own way with such contemporary literary themes as disenchantment, perpetual captivity, and the duality of dream and reality. Drawing his inspiration from language itself, oral practices, beliefs and popular imagery, the writer, seeking to set his tale firmly in Yemeni reality, manages to transfigure this modern existential experiment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mujibatun


    Full Text Available Mudhārabah practices as an icon rather than LKS (Sharia Financial Institution is still raise unresolved polemic associated with akunting system and balance, especially in the domain of financing, so that the stigma of people who think that the operating system is the same as the system of financial calculating interest only the different’s name has been continues. When examined in detail, there are other products that legitimized the contract either by the arguments Syara agreed by the majority of scholars and schools of jurisprudence, namely the contract of Ba‘i Bitsaman Ājil (BBA or purchase by way of pay gradually. This article concludes; First, offers a BBA in finance BMT Damar and BMT-KJKS IAIN Walisongo experiencing significant growth, in addition to a simple transaction models are not complex, almost the akunting system likes fixed rate (fixed rate so that customers become more familiar because the system is not much different from the credit money. Second, BBA financing acounting system can be separated from other products offered by BMT and not to be come one system with murābahah financing. Third, although the BBA acounting system similar to the system of interest and somewhat complicated because managers have the purchase to be come representer for wakālah contract to goods of customers, but offers and akunting BBA financing is more flexible and is not affected by rising interest rates as the often occurs in LKK Conventional Financial Institutional


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, R.; Komorowski, K.


    In a period of approximately 40 years prior to 1994, the German Federal Government had spent about {approx} 15 billion to promote nuclear technology. These funds were earmarked for R&D projects as well as demonstration facilities which took up operation between 1960 and 1980. These BMBF (Federal Ministry for Research) facilities were mainly located at the sites of the federal research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe (the research reactors AVR, FR2, FRJ-1, KNK, and MZFR, the pilot reprocessing plant WAK) but included also the pilot plants SNR-300 and THTR-300 for fast breeder and high-temperature gas-cooled reactor development, respectively, and finally the salt mine Asse which had been used for waste emplacement prior to conversion into an underground research laboratory. In the meantime, almost all of these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling. This is mainly due to the facts that R&D needs are satisfied or do not exist any more and that, secondly, the lack of political consensus led to the cancellation of advanced nuclear technology.

  4. Deformations of $W_{A,D,E}$ SCFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Intriligator, Kenneth


    We discuss aspects of theories with superpotentials given by Arnold's $A,D,E$ singularities, particularly the novelties that arise when the fields are matrices. We focus on 4d ${\\cal N}=1$ variants of susy QCD, with $U(N_c)$ or $SU(N_c)$ gauge group, $N_f$ fundamental flavors, and adjoint matter fields $X$ and $Y$ appearing in $W_{A,D,E}(X,Y)$ superpotentials. Many of our considerations also apply in other possible contexts for matrix-variable $W_{A,D,E}$. The 4d $W_{A,D,E}$ SQCD-type theories RG flow to superconformal field theories, and there are proposed duals in the literature for the $W_{A_k}$, $W_{D_k}$, and $W_{E_7}$ cases. As we review, the $W_{D_\\text{even}}$ and $W_{E_7}$ duals rely on a conjectural, quantum truncation of the chiral ring. We explore these issues by considering various deformations of the $W_{A,D,E}$ superpotentials, and the resulting RG flows and IR theories. Rather than finding supporting evidence for the quantum truncation and $W_{D_\\text{even}}$ and $W_{E_7}$ duals, we note some ...

  5. Forced gradings in integral quasi-hereditary algebras with applications to quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Parshall, Brian


    Let $\\sO$ be a discrete valuation ring with fraction field $K$ and residue field $k$. A quasi-hereditary algebra $\\wA$ over $\\sO$ provides a bridge between the representation theory of the quasi-hereditary algebra $\\wA_K:=K\\otimes \\wA$ over the field $K$ and the quasi-hereditary algebra $A_k:=k\\otimes_\\sO\\wA$ over $k$. In one important example, $\\wA_K$--mod is a full subcategory of the category of modules for a quantum enveloping algebra while $\\wA_k$--mod is a full subcategory of the category of modules for a reductive group in positive characteristic. This paper considers first the question of when the positively graded algebra $\\gr \\wA:= \\bigoplus_{n\\geq 0}(\\wA\\cap\\rad^n\\wA_K)/(\\wA\\cap\\rad^{n+1}\\wA_K)$ is quasi-hereditary. A main result gives sufficient conditions that $\\gr\\wA$ be quasi-hereditary. The main requirement is that each graded module $\\gr\\wDelta(\\lambda)$ arising from a $\\wA$-standard (Weyl) module $\\wDelta(\\lambda)$ have an irreducible head. An additional hypothesis requires that the graded al...

  6. The extracellular EXO protein mediates cell expansion in Arabidopsis leaves. (United States)

    Schröder, Florian; Lisso, Janina; Lange, Peggy; Müssig, Carsten


    The EXO (EXORDIUM) gene was identified as a potential mediator of brassinosteroid (BR)-promoted growth. It is part of a gene family with eight members in Arabidopsis. EXO gene expression is under control of BR, and EXO overexpression promotes shoot and root growth. In this study, the consequences of loss of EXO function are described. The exo loss of function mutant showed diminished leaf and root growth and reduced biomass production. Light and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that impaired leaf growth is due to reduced cell expansion. Epidermis, palisade, and spongy parenchyma cells were smaller in comparison to the wild-type. The exo mutant showed reduced brassinolide-induced cotyledon and hypocotyl growth. In contrast, exo roots were significantly more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of synthetic brassinolide. Apart from reduced growth, exo did not show severe morphological abnormalities. Gene expression analyses of leaf material identified genes that showed robust EXO-dependent expression. Growth-related genes such as WAK1, EXP5, and KCS1, and genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism showed weaker expression in exo than in wild-type plants. However, the vast majority of BR-regulated genes were normally expressed in exo. HA- and GFP-tagged EXO proteins were targeted to the apoplast. The EXO gene is essential for cell expansion in leaves. Gene expression patterns and growth assays suggest that EXO mediates BR-induced leaf growth. However, EXO does not control BR-levels or BR-sensitivity in the shoot. EXO presumably is involved in a signalling process which coordinates BR-responses with environmental or developmental signals. The hypersensitivity of exo roots to BR suggests that EXO plays a diverse role in the control of BR responses in the root.

  7. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.


    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  8. Long-term evapotranspiration estimates in the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Klazura, G. E.; Lesht, B. M.; Wesely, M. L.


    This project focuses on improving and testing a simple method for using reflectance data obtained from satellites to infer the effects on evapotranspiration of variations in soil moisture availability. The major advantage to the method, which is based on the parameterization of subgrid-scale surface fluxes (PASS) model (Gao 1995; Gao et al. 1998), is that it can be applied to areas having diverse surface characteristics where direct surface flux measurements either do not exist or are not feasible and where meteorological data are available from only a limited number of ground stations. The emphasis of the PASS model is on improving (1) methods for using high-resolution satellite remote sensing data to derive the essential parameters for individual types of surfaces overlarge areas, (2) algorithms for describing the interactions of near-surface atmospheric conditions with surface processes, and (3) algorithms for computing surface energy and water vapor flux at a scale close to the size of a satellite pixel. An operational modeling system is being developed. Testing of the system is accomplished by applying it to the Walnut River Wak-shed (WRW), instrumented watershed of moderate area (5,000 km{sup 2}) located just east of Wichita, Kansas. Data from field experiments such as the intensive field campaign in 1997 by the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study (CASES) and from routine operation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) in the WRW are used to evaluate the ability of the PASS model to estimate accumulated water loss over a growing season. The research goals of the project areas follow: (1) Improve the existing satellite-data interfacing modules, especially the parameterization of soil moisture availability and water vapor flux; (2) Apply and evaluate the methods by using measurements at ground stations distributed within the WRW; and (3) Develop an operational version of the modeling system, and apply it to derive long

  9. Purification and characterization of keratinase from recombinant Pichia and Bacillus strains. (United States)

    Radha, Selvaraj; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy


    The keratinase gene from Bacillus licheniformis MKU3 was cloned and successfully expressed in Bacillus megaterium MS941 as well as in Pichia pastoris X33. Compared with parent strain, the recombinant B. megaterium produced 3-fold increased level of keratinase while the recombinant P. pastoris strain had produced 2.9-fold increased level of keratinase. The keratinases from recombinant P. pastoris (pPZK3) and B. megaterium MS941 (pWAK3) were purified to 67.7- and 85.1-folds, respectively, through affinity chromatography. The purified keratinases had the specific activity of 365.7 and 1277.7 U/mg, respectively. Recombinant keratinase from B. megaterium was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa which was appropriately glycosylated in P. pastoris to have a molecular mass of 39 kDa. The keratinases from both recombinant strains had similar properties such as temperature and pH optimum for activity, and sensitivity to various metal ions, additives and inhibitors. There was considerable enzyme stability due to its glycosylation in yeast system. At pH 11 the glycosylated keratinase retained 95% of activity and 75% of its activity at 80 degrees C. The purified keratinase hydrolyzed a broad range of substrates and displayed effective degradation of keratin substrates. The K(m) and V(max) of the keratinase for the substrate N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA was found to be 0.201 mM and 61.09 U/s, respectively. Stability in the presence of detergents, surfactants, metal ions and solvents make this keratinase suitable for industrial processes.

  10. Recent Advances in Dissecting Stress-Regulatory Crosstalk in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rita Sharma; David De Vleesschauwer; Manoj K.Sharma; Pamela C.Ronald


    Biotic and abiotic stresses impose a serious limitation on crop productivity worldwide.Prior or simultaneous exposure to one type of stress often affects the plant response to other stresses,indicating extensive overlap and crosstalk between stress-response signaling pathways.Systems biology approaches that integrate large genomic and proteomic data sets have facilitated identification of candidate genes that govern this stress-regulatory crosstalk.Recently,we constructed a yeast two-hybrid map around three rice proteins that control the response to biotic and abiotic stresses,namely the immune receptor XA21,which confers resistance to the Gram-negative bacterium,Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae; NH1,the rice ortholog of NPR1,a key regulator of systemic acquired resistance; and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor,SUBlA,which confers tolerance to submergence stress.These studies coupled with transcriptional profiling and co-expression analyses identified a suite of proteins that are positioned at the interface of biotic and abiotic stress responses,including mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (OsMPK5),wall-associated kinase 25 (WAK25),sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1),SUBIA binding protein 23 (SAB23),and several WRKY family transcription factors.Emerging evidence suggests that these genes orchestrate crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stresses through a variety of mechanisms,including regulation of cellular energy homeostasis and modification of synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions between the stress hormones salicylic acid,ethylene,jasmonic acid,and abscisic acid.

  11. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Radiochemistry. Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    more used to describe the interaction of trace metals on aqueous / mineral surfaces, their application in environmental engineering and risk assessment is still scarce. We started to create minieral/scecific data collection that allows data processing and gives links to spectroscopic species evidence and theoretical background for surface complexation models. A new radio-analytical tool was developed which allows the direct and fast determination of {alpha}-emitting radionuclides in concrete. By a special treatment of the sample and a special evaluation procedure {alpha} - emitting radionuclides in multi-element spectra can be dctra can be detected as low as 0,02Bq/g within 30 h. The large amounts of concrete potentially contaminated with {alpha}-active nuclides which pile up during the decommissioning of nuclear installations can be characterized more efficiently by the application of this method. Its application for the decommissioning of the WAK, Karlsruhe is under discussion. (orig.)

  12. Solos da área indígena Yanomami no médio Rio Catrimani, Roraima Soils in the Yanomami indigenous area in the mid-Catrimani River - Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinar Ferreira Melo


    Full Text Available Em Roraima, a distribuição espacial das populações indígenas identifica um cenário de busca constante de solos capazes de sustentar uma agricultura itinerante. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer relação entre a compreensão dos solos por parte dos Yanomami da região do médio Catrimani e o Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, bem como avaliar o seu tipo de uso em função de análises químicas para diagnóstico da fertilidade do solo. O trabalho foi executado em duas etapas. A primeira consistiu em visitas a oito malocas para estudar os solos. Foram coletadas amostras em trincheiras até 1,50 m de profundidade para análise e classificação dos solos e (em prospecções com o trado nas profundidades de 0-10 a 10-30 cm, em 21 tipos de uso agrícola, e da área de floresta para análises químicas de fertilidade. A segunda fase foi uma oficina, abordando os sistemas de exploração agrícola, com duração de 20 h. Focalizou-se a discussão sobre a compreensão do meio ambiente (Urihi(1 e sistemas de produção agrícolas e sobre a importância do uso correto do conhecimento dos solos. Os solos são denominados pelos Yanomami em função das características morfológicas, pelos teores de matéria orgânica e pela presença de minhocas, e da posição na paisagem - a escolha para agricultura é fundamentada nessas características. As práticas agrícolas consistem da derrubada da mata nativa, queima e plantio das culturas em separado. Os solos descritos na área foram: Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Maxita a uuxi wakë axi, Argissolo Amarelo (Maxita a axi, Latossolo Amarelo (Maxita a axi e Plintossolo (Maxita a axi a maamaxipë. O processo de derruba e queima promove um incremento inicial do teor de Ca e K trocáveis e P assimilável devido à contribuição das cinzas, o que permite a exploração das áreas por um período máximo de três anos.In Roraima, the spatial distribution of indigenous peoples indicates a

  13. Bir Kaidenin Serencamı: Hâcet Umumi Olsun Hususi Olsun Zaruret Menzilesine Tenzil Olunur / The Historical Development of an Lex: Need, General or Particular, is Dealt with as to Meet Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    pure advantage and relaxation and it must have some conditions. Likewise, Gazzalī (d. 1111 and ‘Izz b. ʿAbd al-salām (d. 1262 continued the clear attitude of him. Both asserted some conditions about ḥāje dealt with as ḍarūra. But both did not mention any notation to imply these conditions in the lex. However, Ibn al-Wakīl (d. 1317 seems to want to show all ḥāje not to be dealt with as ḍarūra by adding the notation of in some situation: “Umūmī ḥāje is dealt with as ḍarūra in some situation.” In the historical development, it is seen that the first person to mention the notion of “khuṣūṣī ḥāje” in a lex is Zarkashī (d. 1392. But he mentioned this notion in another lex not in the lex in question. It is claimed that the addition of “khuṣūṣī ḥāje” to the lex was done in time of Ibn al-Wakīl or before and Zarkashī divided the lex in two as umūmī ḥāje and khuṣūṣī ḥāje. But this study proves for the mentioned claims to be unsuitable the historical development. Because, the first person to mention the notions both of umūmī ḥāje and khuṣūṣī ḥāje in one lex is Suyūtī (d. 1505: “Ḥāje, umūmī or khuṣūsī, is dealt with as to meet ḍarūra.” The lex has been fixed and become popular as it is. After this, especially in the recent period, the clear definitions have started to be done regarding what scope the notions of umūmī and khuṣūsī ḥāje in question in the lex is and the conditions about ḥāje have been dwelled on. In this study, the conditions in question have been treated under four items. In this study, this conditions have been analyzed with regard to functionality of the lex. It has been determined that the idea claimed about that ḥāje must not oppose to a special base, in the context of the first conditions especially, will cancel the functionality of the lex. The current use of the lex, because of the study’s boundaries, has been dealt with over a specific