WorldWideScience

Sample records for waiting point nuclide

  1. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  2. Nuclear binding around the RP-process waiting points $^{68}$Se and $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Encouraged by the success of mass determinations of nuclei close to the Z=N line performed at ISOLTRAP during the year 2000 and of the recent decay spectroscopy studies on neutron-deficient Kr isotopes (IS351 collaboration), we aim to measure masses and proton separation energies of the bottleneck nuclei defining the flow of the astrophysical rp-process beyond A$\\sim$70. In detail, the program includes mass measurements of the rp-process waiting point nuclei $^{68}$Se and $^{72}$Kr and determination of proton separation energies of the proton-unbound $^{69}$Br and $^{73}$Rb via $\\beta$-decays of $^{69}$Kr and $^{73}$Sr, respectively. The aim of the project is to complete the experimental database for astrophysical network calculations and for the liquid-drop type of mass models typically used in the modelling of the astrophysical rp process in the region. The first beamtime is scheduled for the August 2001 and the aim is to measure the absolute mass of the waiting-point nucleus $^{72}$Kr.

  3. Approaching the r-process "waiting point" nuclei below $^{132}$Sn: quadrupole collectivity in $^{128}$Cd

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Blazhev, A A; Nardelli, S; Voulot, D; Habs, D; Schwerdtfeger, W; Iwanicki, J S

    We propose to investigate the nucleus $^{128}$Cd neighbouring the r-process "waiting point" $^{130}$Cd. A possible explanation for the peak in the solar r-abundances at A $\\approx$ 130 is a quenching of the N = 82 shell closure for spherical nuclei below $^{132}$Sn. This explanation seems to be in agreement with recent $\\beta$-decay measurements performed at ISOLDE. In contrast to this picture, a beyond-mean-field approach would explain the anomaly in the excitation energy observed for $^{128}$Cd rather with a quite large quadrupole collectivity. Therefore, we propose to measure the reduced transition strengths B(E2) between ground state and first excited 2$^{+}$-state in $^{128}$Cd applying $\\gamma$-spectroscopy with MINIBALL after "safe" Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated beam obtained from REX-ISOLDE. Such a measurement came into reach only because of the source developments made in 2006 for experiment IS411, in particular the use of a heated quartz transfer line. The result from the proposed measure...

  4. β-delayed proton emission of 69Kr and the 68Se rp-process waiting point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Del Santo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The slow β-decay of the 68Se waiting point in the astrophysical rp-process can in principle be bypassed by a sequential two proton capture. The rate of this reaction sequence depends exponentially on the 69Br proton separation energy. We studied β-delayed proton emission of 69Kr and extracted a proton separation energy of −641(42 keV. In addition, we determined a 69Kr β-decay half-life of T1/2=28(1 ms and an excitation energy of 3153(55 keV of the 69Kr isobaric analog state in 69Br. X-ray burst model calculations show that regardless of the values of other uncertain masses in the region, the new Sp(Br69 allows for a reaction flow via Se68(2p,γ of at most 20%. Uncertainties are sufficiently reduced to conclude that Se68(2p,γ has at best a very small effect on burst light curve and composition, and that 68Se is a strong rp-process waiting point. Our results also exclude the possibility of a suggested longer lived, so far unobserved, 69Br ground state.

  5. Nuclide Guide and International Chart of Nuclides - 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golashvili, T.

    2009-08-01

    New versions of Nuclide Guide and Chart of the Nuclides were developed as a result of Russian-Chinese collaboration. The Nuclide Guide contains the basic information on more than 3000 radioactive and stable nuclides. The characteristics of isomers with half-lives more than 1 ms are included. For each nuclide spin, parity, mass of nuclide, magnetic moment (if available), mass excess, half-life or abundance, decay modes, branching ratios, emitted particles, energies of most intense gamma-rays and their intensities, decay energies and mean values of radiation energy per decay are given. For stable and natural long-lived nuclides cross-sections of thermal neutron induced activation are indicated. The information presented in the Guide was compiled from 5 sources: 1) ENSDF-2008, 2) atomic mass evaluation-2005 by Audi and Wapstra, 3) interactive data bases at web-sites , , 4) original evaluations of authors, 5) recent publications. The International Chart ot Nuclides was developed on the basis of information presented in Nuclide Guide.

  6. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  7. Cardiac EASE (Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation) – the impact of a single-point-of-entry multidisciplinary outpatient cardiology consultation program on wait times in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungard, Tammy J; Smigorowsky, Marcie J; Lalonde, Lucille D; Hogan, Terry; Doliszny, Katharine M; Gebreyesus, Ghirmay; Garg, Sipi; Archer, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal access to health care is valued in Canada but increasing wait times for services (eg, cardiology consultation) raise safety questions. Observations suggest that deficiencies in the process of care contribute to wait times. Consequently, an outpatient clinic was designed for Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation (Cardiac EASE) in a university group practice, providing cardiac consultative services for northern Alberta. Cardiac EASE has two components: a single-point-of-entry intake service (prospective testing using physician-approved algorithms and previsit triage) and a multidisciplinary clinic (staffed by cardiologists, nurse practitioners and doctoral-trained pharmacists). OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized that Cardiac EASE would reduce the time to initial consultation and a definitive diagnosis, and also increase the referral capacity. METHODS: The primary and secondary outcomes were time from referral to initial consultation, and time to achieve a definitive diagnosis and management plan, respectively. A conventionally managed historical control group (three-month pre-EASE period in 2003) was compared with the EASE group (2004 to 2006). The conventional referral mechanism continued concurrently with EASE. RESULTS: A comparison between pre-EASE (n=311) and EASE (n=3096) revealed no difference in the mean (± SD) age (60±16 years), sex (55% and 52% men, respectively) or reason for referral, including chest pain (31% and 40%, respectively) and arrhythmia (27% and 29%, respectively). Cardiac EASE reduced the time to initial cardiac consultation (from 71±45 days to 33±19 days) and time to a definitive diagnosis (from 120±86 days to 51±58 days) (P<0.0001). The annual number of new referrals increased from 1512 in 2002 to 2574 in 2006 due to growth in the Cardiac EASE clinic. The number of patients seen through the conventional referral mechanism and their wait times remained constant during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac EASE reduced

  8. Designs for Testing Group-Based Interventions with Limited Numbers of Social Units: The Dynamic Wait-Listed and Regression Point Displacement Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A; Henry, David; Knoblauch, Shannon; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic wait-listed design (DWLD) and regression point displacement design (RPDD) address several challenges in evaluating group-based interventions when there is a limited number of groups. Both DWLD and RPDD utilize efficiencies that increase statistical power and can enhance balance between community needs and research priorities. The DWLD blocks on more time units than traditional wait-listed designs, thereby increasing the proportion of a study period during which intervention and control conditions can be compared, and can also improve logistics of implementing intervention across multiple sites and strengthen fidelity. We discuss DWLDs in the larger context of roll-out randomized designs and compare it with its cousin the Stepped Wedge design. The RPDD uses archival data on the population of settings from which intervention unit(s) are selected to create expected posttest scores for units receiving intervention, to which actual posttest scores are compared. High pretest-posttest correlations give the RPDD statistical power for assessing intervention impact even when one or a few settings receive intervention. RPDD works best when archival data are available over a number of years prior to and following intervention. If intervention units were not randomly selected, propensity scores can be used to control for non-random selection factors. Examples are provided of the DWLD and RPDD used to evaluate, respectively, suicide prevention training (QPR) in 32 schools and a violence prevention program (CeaseFire) in two Chicago police districts over a 10-year period. How DWLD and RPDD address common threats to internal and external validity, as well as their limitations, are discussed.

  9. Determining the resonance strength of the 56Ni rp-process waiting point through (d,n) with VANDLE and MoNA-LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W.; Grzywacz, R.; Madurga, M.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Taylor, S.; Allen, J.; Cizewski, J. A.; Manning, B.; Howard, M. E.; Smith, J.; Jones, M.; Baumann, T.; Thoennessen, M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Pain, S. D.; Clement, R. C. C.; Brown, J.; Luther, B.; Ilyushkin, S.; O'Malley, P. D.; Ikeyama, R.; Kozub, R. L.; Bergstrom, Z. J.; Deyoung, P. A.; Rogers, W.

    2014-03-01

    The rapid proton capture (rp) process of explosive nucleosynthesis is believed to be the driver of X-ray bursts and creates nuclei up to around mass 110. Whereas much of this process burns in an equilibrium determined by half-lives and masses, the waiting point at 56Ni is unique. At this point the process reaches its peak luminosity and the synthesis of almost all heavier nuclei pass through the 56Ni(p,γ)57Cu reaction. Since the gamma-decay width dominates the relevant resonance in 57Cu, a measurement of its proton partial width can be used to extract the proton-capture resonance strength. An experiment to do this was performed at the NSCL using the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE) along with the MoNA-LISA neutron detector arrays; and was the commissioning experiment for VANDLE with a transfer reaction. The events in the digitizing electronics of VANDLE were event-matched to the MoNA-LISA-Sweeper data acquisition system. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE, the NNSA SSAA, and the NSF.

  10. Neutron-Rich Silver Isotopes Produced by a Chemically Selective Laser Ion-Source: Test of the R-Process " Waiting-Point " Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The r-process is an important nucleosynthesis mechanism for several reasons: \\begin{enumerate} \\item It is crucial to an understanding of about half of the A>60 elemental composition of the Galaxy; \\item It is the mechanism that forms the long-lived Th-U-Pu nuclear chronometers which are used for cosmochronolgy; \\item It provides an important probe for the temperature (T$ _{9} $)-neutron density ($n_{n}$) conditions in explosive events; and last but not least \\item It may serve to provide useful clues to and constraints upon the nuclear properties of very neutron-rich heavy nuclei. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\With regard to nuclear-physics data, of particular interest are the T$ _{1/2} $ and P$_{n-} $ values of certain$\\,$ "waiting-point"$\\,$ isotopes in the regions of the A $ \\approx $ 80 and 130. r-abundance peaks. Previous studies of $^{130}_{\\phantom{1}48}$Cd$_{82}$ and $^{79}_{29}$Cu$_{50}$. $\\beta$-decay properties at ISOLDE using a hot plasma ion source were strongly complicated by isobar and molecular-ion c...

  11. $\\beta$- decay of the N=Z, rp-process waiting points: $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and the N=Z+2: $^{66}$Ge, $^{70}$Se for accurate stellar weak-decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    The contribution of electron capture to weak-decay rates has been neglected in model calculations of Type I X-ray bursts so far. Nucleosynthesis in these astrophysical events eventually proceeds through the rp-process near the proton drip-line. In particular, several N=Z nuclei such as $^{64}$Ge and $^{68}$Se act as waiting points in the nuclear flow due to the low S${_P}$ values of their Z+1 neighbours. Recent theoretical calculations have shown that, in these high density ($\\thicksim10^{6}$ g/cm$^3$) and high temperature (1 - 2 GK) scenarios, continuum electron capture rates might play an important role, in particular for species at and around these waiting point nuclei. This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta^{+}$/EC-decay of the waiting point nuclei $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and their N=Z+2 second neighbours $^{66}$Ge and $^{70}$Se with the Total Absorption Spectroscopy method. This will allow for a detailed analysis of their contribution to the EC-decay rates in X-Ray burst explosions. The proposed ...

  12. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  13. Waiting for a pacemaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, B.; Elming, H.; Jensen, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    to implantation. A lack of implantation capacity was responsible for 4.5 of the waiting days. Twenty-nine patients (11.2) developed infection while waiting, primarily urinary tract infections. Thirteen patients (5.0) suffered non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and eight patients (3.1) suffered clinical...... event during the waiting period. The present study indicates that a waiting period is dangerous as it is associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Acute PPMs should be implanted with a 24-h pacemaker implantation service capacity. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All...

  14. Paleo-erosion rates versus paleo-erosion processes from cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in sedimentary archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildgen, Taylor; Garcin, Yannick; Savi, Sara; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Strecker, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Paleo-erosion rates derived from cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in sedimentary archives are commonly observed to differ from modern rates, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. However, the meaning of these rates can be unclear when we consider the averaging timescale (and presumed lag) of the cosmogenic nuclide technique in recording erosion rates, grain-size dependencies in nuclide concentrations, and assumptions inherent to the detrital approach. These issues can complicate our ability to interpret landscape response to past climate change from cosmogenic nuclides. In general, the cosmogenic nuclide concentration in sediment is inversely related to the catchment mean erosion rate. However, several studies, including ours from the Central Andes, have suggested that low nuclide concentrations from fill terrace sediment coupled with a strong grain-size dependence in nuclide concentrations point to a greater importance of landslide activity in the past. In such settings, cosmogenic nuclide concentrations may provide clear signals of changes in erosion processes, but are difficult to interpret in terms of changes in erosion rates. These complications may be reduced in low-relief catchments, where landsliding is unlikely. Such is the case for the semi-arid Baragoi catchment of East Africa, which was affected by a wetter climate during the African Humid Period (ca. 15-6 cal. kyr BP). From that time period, we calculate paleo-erosion rates from cosmogenic nuclides within deltaic sediments that are up to 7x faster than modern rates. Moreover, erosion rates rise rapidly near the onset of wetter climate conditions, then drop to near-modern rates well before the return to semi-arid conditions. Given that the averaging timescale of our samples is 8 to 46 kyr, to match the rapid observed rise in erosion rates with a 1D model of cosmogenic nuclide accumulation requires an increase in erosion rates several hundred times higher than the initial (pre-delta formation

  15. Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these nuclides: /sup 241/Am, /sup 242/Am, /sup 242/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 247/Cm, /sup 248/Cm, /sup 250/Cm, /sup 245/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 246/Cf, /sup 249/Cf, /sup 250/Cf, /sup 252/Cf, /sup 254/Cf, /sup 251/Cf, /sup 253/Es, /sup 254/Es, /sup 244/Fm, /sup 246/Fm, /sup 255/Fm, /sup 252/No, /sup 254/Fm, /sup 256/Fm, /sup 257/Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs. (LEW)

  16. Nuclide production in (very) small meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. R.; Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most interesting open questions in the study of cosmic-ray effects in meteorites is the expected behavior of objects which are very small compared to the mean interaction length of primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. A reasonable limit might be a pre-atmospheric radius of 5 gram/cm(2), or 1.5 cm for chondrites. These are interesting for at least three reasons: (1) this is a limiting case for large objects, and can help us make better models; (2) this size is intermediate between usual meteorites and irradiated grams (spherules); and (3) these are the most likely objects to show solar cosmic ray (SCR) effects. Reedy (1984) has recently proposed a model for production by GCR of radioactive and stable nuclides in spherical meteorites. Very small objects are expected to deviate from this model in the direction of fewer secondary particles (larger spectral shape parameter), at all depths. The net effect will be significantly lower production of such low-energy products as Mn-53 and Al-26. The SCR production of these and other nuclides will be lower, too, because meteorite orbits extend typically out into the asteroid belt, and the mean SCR flux must fall off approximately as r(-2) with distance from the Sun. Kepler's laws insure that for such orbits most of the exposure time is spent near aphelion. None the less the equivalent mean exposure distance, R(exp), is slightly less than the semimajor axis A because of the weighting by R(-2). For the three meteorite orbits we have, R(exp) has a narrow range, from about 1.6 to 2.1 a.u. This is probably true for the great majority of meteorites.

  17. Challenging "Waiting for Superman"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Molle

    2014-01-01

    A group of New York City public school teachers, angry about the depiction of public schools in 'Waiting for Superman," decide to make their own film about the realities of the current education reform movement. They persevered even though they had no budget when they started and lacked a background in filmmaking. "The Inconvenient Truth…

  18. Two definitions of waiting well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Kate; Reynolds, Chandra A; Falkenstein, Angelica; Andrews, Sara E; Dooley, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Waiting for uncertain news is often distressing, at times even more distressing than facing bad news. The goal of this article was to investigate strategies for "waiting well" during these periods of uncertainty. Specifically, we propose 2 definitions of waiting well. First, people can wait in such a way as to ease their distress during the waiting period. Second, people could wait in such a way as to ease the pain of bad news or enhance the thrill of good news. We conducted a longitudinal study of law graduates (N = 230) awaiting their result on the California bar exam. Participants completed questionnaires prior to the exam, every 2 weeks during the 4-month waiting period, and shortly after learning whether they passed or failed. Cross-lagged models revealed that participants were quite unsuccessful at waiting well by our first definition. That is, their coping strategies were ineffective for reducing distress associated with uncertainty, apparently even backfiring in some cases. However, multiple regression analyses examining relationships between waiting experiences and responses to good and bad news found that many participants were successful at waiting well according to our second definition: Participants who suffered through a waiting period marked by anxiety, rumination, and pessimism responded more productively to bad news and more joyfully to good news, as compared with participants who suffered little during the wait. These findings substantiate the difficulty of enduring a stressful waiting period but suggest that this difficulty may pay off once the news arrives. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Multi-nuclide AMS performances at MALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko (Sunohara); Kato, Kazuhiro; Maejima, Yuji; Miyairi, Yosuke; Wakasa, Sachi; Aze, Takahiro

    2007-06-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is a service and research facility for elemental and isotopic micro-analysis using a tandem accelerator, which was constructed in 1991-1993 and has been in operation since 1994. Since then, AMS, NRA and PIXE systems have been developed and highly refined. The accelerator of MALT is a 5UD Pelletron™ tandem van de Graaf (produced by National Electrostatics Corporation, USA) and maximum 5 MV voltage is available. MALT is equipped with two MC-SNICS ion sources (one of them dedicated for 14C-AMS), a sequential injection system and multi-Faraday cup systems. These equipment are all indispensable for a high precision and high efficiency AMS system. At MALT, high quality AMS of 7Be, 10Be, 14C, 26Al has been available. Recently, a 36Cl-AMS system using a gas-filled magnet was also greatly refined, and a new 129I-AMS system was developed and shows good performance. Now MALT is the only facility with multi-nuclide AMS in the Asian area. Over 40 projects are running at MALT every year. The total accelerator operation time in the 2004 season was 6363 h. In November 2004, the total operation time of the pelletron chain system since the construction of MALT went over 40,000 h without replacement.

  20. Waiting when hospitalised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    2004-01-01

    , and interpret the meaning of having fellow-patients during hospitalisation. Three main dimensions are explored; attitudes toward own illness, interpersonal relationships and environmental factors. Questions such as how do patients pass time, find out about illnesses, examinations, treatment, and staff members...... increasingly important in today's health care environment. The indicative conclusions form this study suggest that nurses play an important role in ensuring that patients are satisfied and receive quality care when waiting....

  1. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    , the r process has not yet been reached. Further technical development on suppression of contaminants are required. This includes improvements on the ISOLDE side, e.g., by improving the selectivity of the transfer line or on the ISOLTRAP setup by implementing an electrostatic ion beam trap for a fast and efficient isobaric selection. Nevertheless the obtained results contribute to the knowledge of nuclear structure. The trends in the two-neutron separation-energy S2n and the interaction between the last neutrons and last protons {delta}V{sub pn} were corrected to more smooth evolutions, as already seen in other regions of the nuclear chart. The strongest corrections have been observed for even-N nuclides, were more new experimental data are available. Thus, new measurements on odd-N nuclides are suggested. This also is underlined by the trends observed in the Garvey-Kelson relations for the neutron-rich Cd nuclides. Furthermore, it has been shown, that the prominent structure of the {delta}V{sub pn} for an entire chain of nuclides including inflexion points can be reproduced by using simple relations between quantum numbers of the occupied orbits. This approach connects ten values for each nuclide with only one adjusted parameter. This has been investigated for 63 {delta}V{sub pn} values of even-even nuclides in the vicinity of Z = 50 and 50 {<=} N {<=} 82. The simple model works remarkably well for the elements Cd, Sn, and Te. Small deviation have been observed for the Xe and Pd nuclides which were explained with the limitations of the model to the vicinity of the close shells, where the nuclides have only few valence protons and neutrons. Thus, it would be interesting to study the overlap model in the vicinity of the doubly magic nuclide {sup 208}Pb and also for more neutron-rich nuclides in the region of {sup 132}Sn. (orig.)

  2. Algorithm Improvement Program Nuclide Identification Algorithm Scoring Criteria And Scoring Application - DNDO.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  3. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  4. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  5. Waiting for care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ritika; Bloch, Gary; Caulford, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the experiences of a group of new immigrants and caregivers of new immigrants who were subject to the 3-month waiting period for the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and needed to access health care services during that time. Design Qualitative study using a phenomenologic framework. Setting Participants were recruited through the Scarborough Community Volunteer Clinic in Toronto, Ont. Interviews were conducted in person at the clinic or by telephone. Participants Seven participants were interviewed who themselves needed to access health care during the 3-month waiting period for the Ontario Health Insurance Plan or who were caring for someone who did. Methods Seven semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide; these were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed for themes to arrive at the essence of the participants’ experiences. Main findings Participants believed that there was a lack of clear information and a lack of help from officials. Other common themes included poor social situations, financial loss or threat of financial loss related to health care, a choice to delay seeking care owing to cost, difficulty accessing alternative care, and appreciation for those who advocated on their behalf. Other themes that arose included emotional hardship, poor health outcomes or threat of poor health outcomes resulting from not seeking care, the importance and unpredictability of health, as well as negative impressions of Canada as a country as a result of the negative experience of seeking care. Conclusion New immigrants to Ontario who need to access health care services during the 3-month waiting period for provincial health insurance and the caregivers of such newcomers can have potentially very negative experiences. They might be unable to access care without financial barriers and might, therefore, choose to delay seeking health care until the end of the waiting period; this can lead to

  6. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  7. Fast Radioactive Nuclide Recognition Method Study Based on Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Huo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on pattern recognition method, applied the nuclear radiation digital measurement and analysis system platform, through synthetically making use of the radioactive nuclide’s ray information, selected radiation characteristic information of the radioactive nuclide, established the characteristic arrays database of radioactive nuclides, the recognition method is designed and applied to the identification of radionuclide radiation while using middle or low-resolution detector in this paper. Verified by experiments, when the count value of the traditional low-resolution spectrometer system is not reach single full energy peak’s statistical lower limit value, the three kinds of mixed radioactive nuclides’ true discrimination rate reached more than 90 % in the digital measurement and analysis system using fast radionuclide recognition method. The results show that this method is obviously superior to the traditional methods, and effectively improve the rapid identification ability to radioactive nuclide.

  8. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hagen, M.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings.

  9. Quantifying nuclide contributions to reactor behaviour over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christie, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of adjoint techniques to fuel cycle analysis, in order to provide a more accurate description of the effects of nuclides on reactor behaviour. Transmutation and decay processes change the composition of the fuel. Allowing for these changes makes it possible to

  10. Numerical simulation of in situ production of cosmogenic nuclides Effects of irradiation geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Masarik, J; Vanya, S

    2000-01-01

    A variety of geomorphic events and processes can be studied with the cosmogenic nuclides accumulated in the exposed materials. Reliable interpretation of the measured in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides requires a good understanding of the involved nuclear processes. The production rates of nuclides depend on many parameters. In this paper, calculations for the production rates of in situ produced cosmogenic nuclides in rocks of various sizes on sloped surfaces are reported and discussed.

  11. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Adjust Camps Resources LIVING DONATION Facts Types Being a Living Donor About the Operation Financing Living Donation Home / Before The Transplant / About Organ Allocation / Organ Type & Waiting Time Organ Facts Heart ...

  12. Wait times for gastroenterology consultation in Canada: The patients’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, WG; Barkun, AN; Hopman, WM; Leddin, DJ; Paré, P; Petrunia, DM; Sewitch, MJ; Switzer, C; van Zanten, S Veldhuyzen

    2010-01-01

    Long wait times for health care have become a significant issue in Canada. As part of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology’s Human Resource initiative, a questionnaire was developed to survey patients regarding wait times for initial gastroenterology consultation and its impact. A total of 916 patients in six cities from across Canada completed the questionnaire at the time of initial consultation. Self-reported wait times varied widely, with 26.8% of respondents reporting waiting less than two weeks, 52.4% less than one month, 77.1% less than three months, 12.5% reported waiting longer than six months and 3.6% longer than one year. One-third of patients believed their wait time was too long, with 9% rating their wait time as ‘far too long’; 96.4% believed that maximal wait time should be less than three months, 78.9% believed it should be less than one month and 40.3% believed it should be less than two weeks. Of those working or attending school, 22.6% reported missing at least one day of work or school because of their symptoms in the month before their appointment, and 9.0% reported missing five or more days in the preceding month. A total of 20.2% of respondents reported being very worried about having a serious disease (ie, scored 6 or higher on 7-point Likert scale), and 17.6% and 14.8%, respectively, reported that their symptoms caused major impairment of social functioning and with the activities of daily living. These data suggest that a significant proportion of Canadians with digestive problems are not satisfied with their wait time for gastroenterology consultation. Furthermore, while awaiting consultation, many patients experience an impaired quality of life because of their gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:20186353

  13. Mrs. Manumbu's wait: a case for reducing client waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Management Sciences for Health has published a case study on reducing client waiting time, case discussion questions, and a case analysis for training and group discussion for family planning (FP) managers. A married mother of 3 children carries her 5-week-old son as she walks for 1 hour on a hot day to a FP clinic. She wants to learn how to prevent another birth too soon. After registering, she joins at least 35 other women and children under a tree. She sits next to a good friend who has been waiting for 2 hours. They listen to another woman who tells about waiting for 3 hours only to be told she needed to return the following day because too many people wanted to visit the physician. The woman adds that she just wanted a new supply of oral contraceptives. The long walk to the clinic was not the problem, leaving her children alone by themselves was the problem. The new client begins to be concerned about waiting for 3 hours while her children are also home alone; plus, she had chores to do. The case discussion questions ask participants how the waiting time can discourage the new client from using FP, what the clinic can do to ameliorate the situation, and what programs and policies can reduce long client waits. Some solutions to improving the waiting situation include providing transportation, appointments, and fast routes for resupplying contraceptives as well as analyzing client flow and implementing the findings. Mid- and senior-level managers could begin a community-based service delivery program in villages, support a triage policy, and implement higher level training for nurses to perform more medical functions.

  14. A deterministic method to calculate the radiation spectra of nuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, J

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the computer program IMRDEC has been developed to determine the radiation spectra due to a single atomic-subshell ionisation of a stable atom by a particle, or due to the atomic deexcitation or decay of nuclides. The data needed to describe the deexcitation or decay scheme are obtained from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) maintained at Brookhaven National Laboratory; this results in the simplest possible input specification. The atomic data as well as the atomic relaxation probabilities are taken from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL) from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The program IMRDEC calculates the radiation spectra (inclusively the atomic relaxation cascades) deterministically rather than by the Monte Carlo method; this results in much shorter calculational time per nuclide. Since many assumptions still have to be made in determining the atomic relaxation probabilities and in calculating the atomic relaxation, the deterministic method seems to be a small source of inaccuracy.

  15. Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar

    2013-09-17

    According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

  16. Production rates of terrestrial in-situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tuniz, C.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Production rates of cosmogenic nuclides made in situ in terrestrial samples and how they are applied to the interpretation of measured radionuclide concentrations were discussed at a one-day Workshop held 2 October 1993 in Sydney, Australia. The status of terrestrial in-situ studies using the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca and of various modeling and related studies were presented. The relative uncertainties in the various factors that go into the interpretation of these terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic nuclides were discussed. The magnitudes of the errors for these factors were estimated and none dominated the final uncertainty.

  17. 46 CFR 9.10 - Waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiting time. 9.10 Section 9.10 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 9.10 Waiting time. The same construction should be given the act when charging for waiting time as... for duty the waiting time amounts to at least one hour. ...

  18. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant.

  19. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  20. [The international adoption waiting period: waiting experience and coping strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Viejo, Ana Berástegui

    2008-11-01

    The adoption waiting period is a powerful stressor that can affect the well-being and configuration of future family life. Adoption research and practice have not paid enough attention to this phase. The principal aim of this study is to address prospective adoptive parents' experience of and coping with this period. For this purpose, 63 families answered a feelings scale, a coping resources scale and a needs questionnaire, all elaborated for the study. Results show that a shorter length of waiting time, using cognitive and learning coping strategies and associative participation were related to a better general experience of adoption whereas process-centred strategies were related to a worse experience of adoption. Families would like to see more speed in the process, more warmth and humanity in their relation with institutions and better information about their expedients. We conclude by proposing some activities and services during the waiting period that could be useful for post adoption.

  1. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B.F. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.P. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  2. Calculated nuclide production yields in relativistic collisions of fissile nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Grewe, A.; Jong, M. de [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Zhdanov, S. [Inst. of Nuclear Physcis, Alma Ata (Kazakstan)

    1998-01-19

    A model calculation is presented which predicts the complex nuclide distribution resulting from peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions involving fissile nuclei. The model is based on a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model which describes the formation of excited prefragments due to the nuclear collisions and their consecutive decay. The competition between the evaporation of different light particles and fission is computed with an evaporation code which takes dissipative effects and the emission of intermediate-mass fragments into account. The nuclide distribution resulting from fission processes is treated by a semi-empirical description which includes the excitation-energy dependent influence of nuclear shell effects and pairing correlations. The calculations of collisions between {sup 238}U and different reaction partners reveal that a huge number of isotopes of all elements up to uranium is produced. The complex nuclide distribution shows the characteristics of fragmentation, mass-asymmetric low-energy fission and mass-symmetric high-energy fission. The yields of the different components for different reaction partners are studied. Consequences for technical applications are discussed. (orig.). 78 refs.

  3. Selection of exception limits for all actinide nuclides based on revised criteria for safe international transport and including storage delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarenne, C.; Rouyer, V. [IRSN, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Mennerdahl, D. [EMS, TABY (Sweden); Dean, C. [SERCO, Winfrith Technology Center, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Barton, N. [Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom); Jean, F. [APTUS, Versailles (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since 1998, there have been some speculations about future transport of significant quantities and concentrations of other actinide nuclides than the four currently listed in the regulation for the safe transport of the radioactive material. Therefore, it raised a need to specify exception limits for such actinides. In order to define credible exception limits, it was necessary to have reasonably accurate data for all actinide nuclides. Then the DGTREN/participants decided to perform calculations with different codes (MONK, MCNP, CRISTAL and SCALE) and different cross-section libraries (JEF2.2, ENDFB, etc.). The parameters of interest (such as k-infinite, critical masses) were determined. This article presents the work achieved and the questions raised, e.g. related to the effect of the radioactive decay of the isotopes on the criticality risks. It also points out the need for an evolution of the regulation of the safe transport of radioactive materials and gives a proposition of modification for the IAEA requirements related to, firstly, the list of the fissile materials, secondly, the rule to determine the quantities of actinide nuclides that can be excepted from the requirements for the packages containing fissile materials.

  4. Removal of radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Polyacryamide-expanded perlite: Effects of pH, concentration and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkaya, Recep, E-mail: rakkaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet Univ. Vocat. Sch. Hlth. Serv. TR. 58140, Sivas (Turkey)

    2012-10-01

    Poly (Acryamide-expanded perlite) [P(AAm-EP)], was synthesized. The influence of process parameters: initial pH and five radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series (TI{sup +}, Ra{sup 2+}, Bi{sup 3+}, Ac{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} in a leaching solution) concentration, on sorption thermodynamic was studied and discussed. The five natural radio nuclides were counted by gamma spectrometer using a type NAI (Tl) detector. The amounts of five radio nuclides sorbed at equlibrium were well represented by Langmuir and Freundlich type isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (X{sub L}) were in the order of {sup 208}Tl (0.4 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi (0.3 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 228}Ac and (0.1 MBq kg{sup -1})>{sup 226}Ra (0.04 MBq kg{sup -1}). These results demonstrated that P(AAm-EP) had high affinity to the five natural radio nuclides. In order to specify the type of adsorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters such as the standard enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy were also determined. It was also demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was spontaneous ({Delta}G<0), the process was exothermic ({Delta}H<0) thus increasing entropy ({Delta}S>0). The composite was reused for four more times after regeneration without any detectable changes either in its structure or adsorptive capability. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite provide an enhanced adsorption uptake for radio nuclides of the U- and Th-series ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite can be applied to the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic parameters indicated adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The P(HEMA-EP) composite is reused up to 5 times with no loss of removal efficiency.

  5. Review of "Waiting for Superman"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutro, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    "Waiting for Superman" offers what appear to be straightforward, commonsense solutions to inequities in schooling. The film argues that heroic action can be taken to fix what it portrays as the disaster of public schooling. The film disregards poverty as a factor in school performance and connection--and therefore never addresses anti-poverty…

  6. SU-F-P-20: Predicting Waiting Times in Radiation Oncology Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, A; Herrera, D; Hijal, T; Kildea, J [McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hendren, L; Leung, A; Wainberg, J; Sawaf, M; Gorshkov, M; Maglieri, R; Keshavarz, M [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Waiting times remain one of the most vexing patient satisfaction challenges facing healthcare. Waiting time uncertainty can cause patients, who are already sick or in pain, to worry about when they will receive the care they need. These waiting periods are often difficult for staff to predict and only rough estimates are typically provided based on personal experience. This level of uncertainty leaves most patients unable to plan their calendar, making the waiting experience uncomfortable, even painful. In the present era of electronic health records (EHRs), waiting times need not be so uncertain. Extensive EHRs provide unprecedented amounts of data that can statistically cluster towards representative values when appropriate patient cohorts are selected. Predictive modelling, such as machine learning, is a powerful approach that benefits from large, potentially complex, datasets. The essence of machine learning is to predict future outcomes by learning from previous experience. The application of a machine learning algorithm to waiting time data has the potential to produce personalized waiting time predictions such that the uncertainty may be removed from the patient’s waiting experience. Methods: In radiation oncology, patients typically experience several types of waiting (eg waiting at home for treatment planning, waiting in the waiting room for oncologist appointments and daily waiting in the waiting room for radiotherapy treatments). A daily treatment wait time model is discussed in this report. To develop a prediction model using our large dataset (with more than 100k sample points) a variety of machine learning algorithms from the Python package sklearn were tested. Results: We found that the Random Forest Regressor model provides the best predictions for daily radiotherapy treatment waiting times. Using this model, we achieved a median residual (actual value minus predicted value) of 0.25 minutes and a standard deviation residual of 6.5 minutes

  7. Nuclide Transport and Diffusion for Vein and Fracture Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heer, W

    2004-06-01

    Modelling radionuclide transport through crystalline rock is usually based on a small water flow in a system of narrow fractures. This flow is denoted as fracture flow. In our model, it implies planar water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. According to the constitution of the rock, it can be necessary to consider additionally a vein flow being characterized by cylindrical water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. Transport calculations, based on a dual porosity concept, were performed for vein as well as for fracture flow. An extensive discussion of the results provides an overview on important parameter dependencies and on the major vein flow effects. Formulae for quick estimates are given to guide quantitative interpretation of break-through curves. The discussion of analytical results for nuclide diffusion from a planar and from a cylindrical boundary backs up the comments on matrix diffusion. The following effects of vein flow onto the break-through curves are illustrative examples of useful findings: (1) The peak height can be very strongly reduced compared to fracture flow. The peak arrival time, however, is only slightly changed. (2) The asymptotic part of the tail is flatter than the well-known t{sup -3/2} decrease for fracture flow. (3) The bump at the end of the tail, generated by the limitation of the diffusion zones, is substantially larger than for fracture flow. A double-peak break-through curve, therefore, can emerge from many cases of nuclide transport. (4) Sorption on the surfaces of diffusion-accessible pores can substantially change the break-through curves. The vein to fracture flow ratios of the break-through peak data, however, remain essentially equal. This holds for the whole range of investigated retardation factors from 7 to 27'000. The investigations presented contribute to sophisticated interpretations of break-through curves and improve the physical understanding

  8. Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive nuclide chart, and a command line interface. The nuclide chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the nuclides and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.

  9. Evidence for sudden of rotational structure in heavy Sr nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Azuma, R E; Carraz, L C; Hansen, P G; Jonson, B; Mattsson, S; Nielsen, O B; Nyman, G H; Ravn, H L

    1980-01-01

    The authors give evidence for rotational 2/sup +/ and 4/sup +/ levels in /sup 100/Sr. The nuclide /sub 37//sup 100/Rb with half-life of 55 ms was produced by mass separation at the ISOLDE Facility by bombarding a uranium carbide target with 600 MeV protons. The gamma- ray spectrum shows peaks that the authors interpret from systematics as the 4/sup +/ to 2/sup +/ and 2/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ gamma-ray transitions in strontium. Similar measurements on /sup 98/Rb confirm earlier findings by Wollnick et al. (1977). The level diagrams clearly show an abrupt onset of deformation at N=60. (4 refs).

  10. Mass measurement of short-lived halo nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, C.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; De Saint Simon, M.; Thibault, C. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    A direct mass measurement of the very-short-lived halo nuclide {sup 11}Li (T{sub 1/2}=8.7ms) has been performed with the transmission mass spectrometer MISTRAL. The preliminary result for the two-neutron separation energy is S{sub 2n}=376{+-}5 keV, improving the precision seven times with an increase of 20% compared to the previous value. In order to confirm this value, the mass excess of {sup 11}Be has also been measured, ME=20171{+-}4 keV, in good agreement with the previous value. (orig.)

  11. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  12. Client waiting time in an urban primary health care centre in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary Health Care is the usual entry point into the health system and has the potential to touch the lives of most people. However one of the reasons for poor uptake of health services at primary health care facilities in Nigeria is long waiting time. This study was carried out to assess client waiting time and ...

  13. Indefinite waitings in MIRELA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Arcile

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MIRELA is a high-level language and a rapid prototyping framework dedicated to systems where virtual and digital objects coexist in the same environment and interact in real time. Its semantics is given in the form of networks of timed automata, which can be checked using symbolic methods. This paper shows how to detect various kinds of indefinite waitings in the components of such systems. The method is experimented using the PRISM model checker.

  14. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobach, Mark P

    2007-02-01

    To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each waiting area (brochures, books, illuminated new trailer, children's play area, etc.). Per patient each activity was registered, and at each pharmacy the behaviour was studied for 2 weeks. Most patients only waited during the waiting time at the studied pharmacies. Few consumers obtained written information during their wait. The waiting area may have latent possibilities to expand the information function of the pharmacy and combine this with other activities that distract the consumer from the wait. Transdisciplinary research, combining knowledge from pharmacy practice research with consumer research, has been a useful approach to add information on queueing behaviour of consumers.

  15. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  16. Fission product studies at WAIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Loss, R.D. (Western Australian Inst. of Tech., South Bentley)

    1985-07-01

    A general review of fission yields is presented. The Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in the Department of Applied Physics at WAIT has been involved in a continuing programme of measuring the cumulative fission yields of the elements palladium, silver, cadmium, tin and tellurium for a variety of fissile materials (/sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 239/Pu) over a range of neutron energies. Results of studies into the isotopic composition and fission yields of samples from the Oklo natural reactor in Gabon, West Africa are summarised.

  17. In the queue for coronary artery bypass grafting: patients' perceptions of risk and 'maximal acceptable waiting time'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Thomas, H; Thiel, E; Paterson, M; Naylor, D

    1999-04-01

    To elicit patients' maximal acceptable waiting times (MAWT) for non-urgent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to determine if MAWT is related to prior expectations of waiting times, symptom burden, expected relief, or perceived risks of myocardial infarction while waiting. Seventy-two patients on an elective CABG waiting list chose between two hypothetical but plausible options: a 1-month wait with 2% risk of surgical mortality, and a 6-month wait with 1% risk of surgical mortality. Waiting time in the 6-month option was varied up if respondents chose the 6-month/lower risk option, and down if they chose the 1-month/higher risk option, until the MAWT switch point was reached. Patients also reported their expected waiting time, perceived risks of myocardial infarction while waiting, current function, expected functional improvement and the value of that improvement. Only 17 (24%) patients chose the 6-month/1% risk option, while 55 (76%) chose the 1-month/2% risk option. The median MAWT was 2 months; scores ranged from 1 to 12 months (with two outliers). Many perceived high cumulative risks of myocardial infarction if waiting for 1 (upper quartile, > or = 1.45%) or 6 (upper quartile, > or = 10%) months. However, MAWT scores were related only to expected waiting time (r = 0.47; P queue. These results suggest a need for interventions to modify patients' inaccurate risk perceptions, particularly if a scheduled surgical date must be deferred.

  18. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  19. Queues with waiting time dependent service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, R.; Koole, G. M.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by service levels in terms of the waiting-time distribution seen, for instance, in call centers, we consider two models for systems with a service discipline that depends on the waiting time. The first model deals with a single server that continuously adapts its service rate based...... on the waiting time of the first customer in line. In the second model, one queue is served by a primary server which is supplemented by a secondary server when the waiting of the first customer in line exceeds a threshold. Using level crossings for the waiting-time process of the first customer in line, we...... derive steady-state waiting-time distributions for both models. The results are illustrated with numerical examples....

  20. WAITING TIME IN THE WAITING ROOM IN FAMILY PRACTICE AND PATIENT SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Kersnik

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appointment system shortens the waiting time in the waiting room for the patient and allows better use of time for the doctor. We wanted to examine how long patients are willing to wait in the waiting room, how long they waited at the last visit, patient satisfaction with the last visit, the satisfaction with the length of waiting in the past 12 months and the overall patient satisfaction score for the last 12 months. Appointment system proved to be effective means of organising practice time. Waiting time in the waiting room with appointment system was considerably shorter (mean 18.5 minutes as compared to the waiting time in the practices without appointment system (mean 55.4 minutes, the fact which is reflected also in higher satisfaction with waiting in the waiting room in the past 12 months. Three quarters of patients in practices with appointment system waited standard 20 minutes or less, as opposed to the other practices where only one quarter of patients waited 20 minutes or less.Conclusions: The overall satisfaction with the doctor with the appointment system does not differ in both types of practices. The patients from practices with appointment system evaluated better possibility to get an appointment to suit the patients, but worse help of the doctors’ staff, possibility to get through to the office by phone, the length of time during the consultation and the doctors’ thoroughness.

  1. Wait too long to talk about kidney disease and you could be waiting for a kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Public Service Announcement Kidney Disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Wait too long to talk about kidney disease and you could be waiting for a ...

  2. A new nuclide transport model in soil in the GENII-LIN health physics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, F.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclide soil transfer model, originally included in the GENII-LIN software system, was intended for residual contamination from long term activities and from waste form degradation. Short life nuclides were supposed absent or at equilibrium with long life parents. Here we present an enhanced soil transport model, where short life nuclide contributions are correctly accounted. This improvement extends the code capabilities to handle incidental release of contaminant to soil, by evaluating exposure since the very beginning of the contamination event, before the radioactive decay chain equilibrium is reached.

  3. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  4. Production and Recoil Loss of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, I.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, I.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3He, 6,7Li, and 21,22Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3He and 21Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  5. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  6. Consumer Perception and Evaluation of Waiting Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Antonides (Gerrit); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTelephone waiting times for a commercial service were varied in two different experiments. In the first experiment, the telephone rate was either zero or fixed at Dfl.1.- (approx. $0.40) per minute. Consumer perceptions of waiting times could be described best by a psychophysical power

  7. Improving Patient Satisfaction with Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Gayleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Waiting times are a significant component of patient satisfaction. A patient satisfaction survey performed in the author's health center showed that students rated waiting time lowest of the listed categories--A ratings of 58% overall, 63% for scheduled appointments, and 41% for the walk-in clinic. The center used a quality improvement process and…

  8. Waiting for scheduled surgery: A complex patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich; Casson, Alan G

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to understand experiences of wait time among patients awaiting scheduled orthopaedic or cardiac surgery. Using a qualitative approach, 32 patients completed two interviews each regarding their wait time experiences, including effects of waiting. Patient experiences of wait time varied regardless of actual wait time and included reports of restriction, uncertainty, resignation, coping and opportunity. Participants' waiting experiences indicate a complex relationship between greater symptom severity and less tolerance for wait time. We suggest healthcare resources focus on alleviating the deleterious effects of waiting for certain patients rather than reducing absolute wait times.

  9. Cosmogenic nuclides: principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunai, T. J

    2010-01-01

    ... (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided...

  10. Constraining landscape development of the Sri Lankan escarpment with cosmogenic nuclides in river sediment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Vanacker; Friedhelm von Blanckenburg; T. Hewawasam; Kubik, P. W.;  

    2007-01-01

    Escarpments are prominentmorphological features along high-elevation passive margins. Recent studies integrating geomorphology, thermochronology, and cosmogenic nuclide-based denudation rate estimates suggest a rapid phase of denudation immediately after the earliest stages of seafloor spreading, and subsequent slow denudation rates since. To constrain the geomorphic evolution of passive margins, we have examined the development of the Sri Lankan escarpment. Cosmogenic nuclide data on river s...

  11. Constraining Quaternary ice covers and erosion rates using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2018-02-01

    Paired cosmogenic nuclides are often used to constrain the exposure/burial history of landforms repeatedly covered by ice during the Quaternary, including tors, high-elevation surfaces, and steep alpine summits in the circum-Arctic regions. The approach generally exploits the different production rates and half-lives of 10Be and 26Al to infer past exposure/burial histories. However, the two-stage minimum-limiting exposure and burial model regularly used to interpret the nuclides ignores the effect of variable erosion rates, which potentially may bias the interpretation. In this study, we use a Monte Carlo model approach to investigate systematically how the exposure/burial and erosion history, including variable erosion and the timing of erosion events, influence concentrations of 10Be and 26Al. The results show that low 26Al/10Be ratios are not uniquely associated with prolonged burial under ice, but may as well reflect ice covers that were limited to the coldest part of the late Pleistocene combined with recent exhumation of the sample, e.g. due to glacial plucking during the last glacial period. As an example, we simulate published 26Al/10Be data from Svalbard and show that it is possible that the steep alpine summits experienced ice-free conditions during large parts of the late Pleistocene and varying amounts of glacial erosion. This scenario, which contrasts with the original interpretation of more-or-less continuous burial under non-erosive ice over the last ∼1 Myr, thus challenge the conventional interpretation of such data. On the other hand, high 26Al/10Be ratios do not necessarily reflect limited burial under ice, which is the common interpretation of high ratios. In fact, high 26Al/10Be ratios may also reflect extensive burial under ice, combined with a change from burial under erosive ice, which brought the sample close to the surface, to burial under non-erosive ice at some point during the mid-Pleistocene. Importantly, by allowing for variable

  12. Waiting time care guarantees: necessity or nemesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N P; Noseworthy, F T; Noseworthy, T W

    2006-01-01

    One of the priorities of governments in Canada is to reduce long waiting times for health services. This has raised the prospect of introducing waiting time care guarantees. Such guarantees affirm the healthcare system's social contract with the public and provide an entitlement to Canadians to receive timely care. There are clinical, legal and political implications, which must be considered and well managed before introduction. Other countries have ventured down this path. They teach us that waiting time care guarantees are good policy and make good sense. Correspondingly, they remind us not to make a promise we are not ready to keep.

  13. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  14. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...

  15. Development of an imaging plate as a heavy-nuclide detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanase, G.; Sakurai, H.; Noma, M.; Gunji, S.; Yasuda, N.; Kobayashi, T.

    1999-12-01

    It is very important for the study of nucleo-synthesis in supernova explosion to be able to measure the abundance of heavy nuclides in cosmic rays. Though a large-area detector is necessary for measurements of the abundance, it takes very long time to analyze the data for large-area detectors such as emulsion chamber. To address this need, we are developing a new type of heavy nuclide detector using an imaging plate which is manufactured by Fuji Film Co. Ltd. This film has a position resolution of 25 /spl mu/m and a sensitivity 1000 times higher than X-ray film. Moreover it is easy to enlarge since the area of one plate can be 20/spl times/25 cm/sup 2/, and the accumulated cosmic-ray-interaction information can be read out in about 10 minutes. To measure the characteristics of the imaging plate for heavy nuclides, we irradiated it with several kinds of nuclides using an accelerator in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. These tests demonstrated that using an imaging plate, carbon, silicon, and argon nuclides can be distinguished.

  16. Determinants of Patient Waiting Time in the General Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    satisfied with the care received is strongly related to the quality ... clinic wait.[1] Failure to incorporate consumer‑driven features into the design of wait experience could lead to patient and provider dissatisfaction. Waiting time ... respondents waited for 90‑180 min in the clinic, whereas 36.1% (35/96) of the patients spent.

  17. Simulation of the Production of Shortlived Cosmogenic Nuclides and of 26Al in Meteoroids by Galactic Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, R.; Herpers, U.; Lupke, M.; Lange, H.-J.; Michel, R.; Filges, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dittrich, B.; Suter, M.; Wolfli, W.

    1992-07-01

    In order to simulate the production of cosmogenic nuclides by galactic protons in meteoroids, an artificial meteoroid with a diameter of 50 cm made out of gabbro was isotropically irradiated with 1.6 GeV protons at the Saturne cyclotron of the Laboratoire National Saturne/CEN Saclay (1). The artificial meteoroid contained more than 1400 individual targets consisting of pure elements, suitable chemical compounds, natural minerals and degassed meteoritic materials in two perpendicular bores, thus allowing the measurement of the elemental production rates from all target elements relevant in extraterrestrial matter. Up to now, more than 400 depth profiles for the production of radionuclides have been measured. Here, we report the results for ^26Al and for the short-lived cosmogenic radionuclides, e.g., ^7Be, ^22Na, ^46Sc, ^48V, ^51Cr, and ^54Mn. The experimental data were analyzed by model calculations derived from depth-dependent spectra of primary and secondary particles in the artificial meteoroid, calculated by Monte Carlo techniques using the HERMES code system (2), and from experimental and theoretical thin target cross sections of the underlying nuclear reactions. The model calculations excellently describe the production depth profiles in the artificial meteorite, if reliable cross sections are available. Cases of disagreement between the experimental and theoretical depth profiles point to still existing shortcomings in the theoretical cross sections for medium-energy neutron-induced reactions. Here, the results of the simulation experiment can be used to improve these cross sections by fitting the theoretical production rates to the experimental ones. The resulting cross sections can then be applied to model calcula- tions of the respective cosmogenic nuclide in extraterrestrial matter, as it was successfully demonstrated for the production of Be (3). Based on this analysis, we present model calculations for the production of ^26Al and of short

  18. A study of separation and solidification of group II nuclides in waste salt delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Jang, S. A.; Kim, T. J.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2017-08-01

    If group II nuclides, which contain high heat-generative elements, in waste salt are fabricated into a waste form rich in group II nuclides, the waste form can be used in radionuclide thermoelectric generator applications. For this reason, the separation of group II nuclides in salt (LiCl, LiCl-KCl) was conducted, after which a waste form rich in them was fabricated. In this study, group II nuclide chlorides in salt were effectively separated into a carbonate or oxychloride form, and the separated nuclides were successfully fabricated into a homogenous and stable glass waste form with high contents (45-50 wt%) of these nuclides.

  19. Willing to wait?: The influence of patient wait time on satisfaction with primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkrishnan Rajesh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the relationship between patient waiting time and willingness to return for care and patient satisfaction ratings with primary care physicians. Methods Cross-sectional survey data on a convenience sample of 5,030 patients who rated their physicians on a web-based survey developed to collect detailed information on patient experiences with health care. The survey included self-reported information on wait times, time spent with doctor, and patient satisfaction. Results Longer waiting times were associated with lower patient satisfaction (p Conclusion The time spent with the physician is a stronger predictor of patient satisfaction than is the time spent in the waiting room. These results suggest that shortening patient waiting times at the expense of time spent with the patient to improve patient satisfaction scores would be counter-productive.

  20. Third degree waiting time discrimination: optimal allocation of a public sector healthcare treatment under rationing by waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2009-08-01

    In many public healthcare systems treatments are rationed by waiting time. We examine the optimal allocation of a fixed supply of a given treatment between different groups of patients. Even in the absence of any distributional aims, welfare is increased by third degree waiting time discrimination: setting different waiting times for different groups waiting for the same treatment. Because waiting time imposes dead weight losses on patients, lower waiting times should be offered to groups with higher marginal waiting time costs and with less elastic demand for the treatment.

  1. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  2. Waiting times for radiation therapy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benk, Veronique; Przybysz, Raymond; McGowan, Tom; Paszat, Lawrence

    2006-02-01

    The mass media and clinical journals have reported lengthy waiting times after surgery before initiation of radiation therapy (RT) for cancer across Canada. We aimed to describe the length of time between the last date of surgery or biopsy or chemotherapy and first date of RT. This is a population-based study measuring waiting times for RT in Ontario among all patients with potentially curable cancer of the cervix, tonsil and larynx and a random sample of women who had had breast cancer resection, whose first date of RT fell between Sept. 1, 2001, and Aug. 31, 2002. Abstraction of original health care records provided each patient's demographics, cancer stage and cancer treatment (last surgery, consultation, simulation, first RT). Last dates of chemotherapy before RT were obtained from abstraction or from Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) files, and last dates of surgery before RT were compared with dates in the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) Discharge Abstract Database. Waiting times between the last date of surgery or chemotherapy and the first date of RT varied significantly among the health regions of Ontario. Increasing age, but not the presence of comorbidity, was associated with longer waiting times. Women who did not receive postoperative chemotherapy before RT for breast cancer waited significantly longer than all others. Measurement of waiting times for cancer RT must discount time during which adjuvant intravenous chemotherapy is administered after surgery and before RT. There appears to be a formal or informal process by which those at highest risk begin RT most rapidly.

  3. Time while waiting: patients' experiences of scheduled surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich C; Casson, Alan G

    2014-12-01

    Research on patients' experiences of wait time for scheduled surgery has centered predominantly on the relative tolerability of perceived wait time and impacts on quality of life. We explored patients' experiences of time while waiting for three types of surgery with varied wait times--hip or knee replacement, shoulder surgery, and cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients were recruited by their surgeons. We asked participants about their perceptions of time while waiting in two separate interviews. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), we discovered connections between participant suffering, meaningfulness of time, and agency over the waiting period and the lived duration of time experience. Our findings reveal that chronological duration is not necessarily the most relevant consideration in determining the quality of waiting experience. Those findings helped us create a conceptual framework for lived wait time. We suggest that clinicians and policy makers consider the complexity of wait time experience to enhance preoperative patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst-Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  5. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  6. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN_1 → RN_2 → RN_3 and a parallel reaction (RN_1 → RN_2A + RN_2B, were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  7. An innovative method for determining the diffusion coefficient of product nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih Lung [Dept. of Nuclear Back-end Management, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China); Wang, Tsing Hai [Dept. Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2017-08-15

    Diffusion is a crucial mechanism that regulates the migration of radioactive nuclides. In this study, an innovative numerical method was developed to simultaneously calculate the diffusion coefficient of both parent and, afterward, series daughter nuclides in a sequentially reactive through-diffusion model. Two constructed scenarios, a serial reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2} → RN{sub 3}) and a parallel reaction (RN{sub 1} → RN{sub 2}A + RN{sub 2}B), were proposed and calculated for verification. First, the accuracy of the proposed three-member reaction equations was validated using several default numerical experiments. Second, by applying the validated numerical experimental concentration variation data, the as-determined diffusion coefficient of the product nuclide was observed to be identical to the default data. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The significance of the proposed numerical method will be particularly powerful in determining the diffusion coefficients of systems with extremely thin specimens, long periods of diffusion time, and parent nuclides with fast decay constants.

  8. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Sik Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration flux under electroneutrality and zero electric current conditions. The distribution coefficient which arises due to ion interactions with the membrane material and the electric potential jump at the membrane interface are included as boundary conditions in solving the equation. A high Peclet approximation is adopted to simplify the calculation, but the effect of concentration polarization is included for a more accurate prediction of separation. Cobalt and cesium are specifically selected for the experiments in order to check the separation mechanism from liquid waste composed of various radioactive nuclides and nonradioactive substances, and the results are compared with the estimated cobalt and cesium rejections of the RO membrane using the model. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in excellent agreement. The proposed model will be very useful for the prediction of separation behavior of various radioactive nuclides by the RO membrane.

  9. Teaching Evaluation: Waiting for Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Canales Sánchez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this text, it is sustained that, despite the fact that the teaching activity is one of the main functions of higher education institutions or even the only one in most of them, it hasn’t been reflected in the leading initiatives that have been set in motion in this area for the last two decades. In particular, it points out that the wide evaluation politics established in the education system during the late eighties, didn’t consider the teaching activity as a concern issue for the mechanisms or rewards in the evaluation system. Even though the implementation of new actions tried to repair the situation, mainly by improving the quality of working time and the qualifications of the personnel performing these activities; teaching, in strict sense, and the design or application of a new evaluation scheme to strengthen it, didn’t get better.

  10. Sediment tracing, mixing and budgets in debris flow catchments: a cosmogenic nuclide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina; Salcher, Bernhard; Grischott, Reto; Christl, Markus; Hählen, Nils

    2013-04-01

    Mountain catchments are at the start of the source-to-sink cycle in erosional and sedimentary environments. These catchments are sensitive to climate, geomorphic inheritance and human perturbation and are commonly dominated by episodic mass-wasting processes (landslides, debris flows). Quantifying the production and evacuation of sediment from such catchments (i.e. their erosion rates) is difficult and highly dependent on the spatial and temporal scales investigated and the methods/techniques applied. Crucial questions are where and when the sediment is mobilized and discharged, and where and how the quantitative erosion measurement is taken in time and space. We have investigated such issues in the Haslital Aare of Central Switzerland, from a sediment yield and a cosmogenic nuclide perspective. Localized mobilization of sediment as debris flows due to rockfall, heavy rainfall and permafrost thawing has been quantified volumetrically and in terms of cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) concentrations. Sediment sources and reservoirs (talus slope deposits, glacial debris, hillslopes, debris flow fans) are investigated at the source site, at the tributary - trunk stream junction (debris-flow subcatchment scale, ~4 km2) and at the outlet of the catchment (~70 km2). These measurements indicate that the sediment is not as thoroughly mixed at subcatchment and catchment scale as required by the concept of cosmogenic nuclide. However, a balancing effect (potentially back to natural background levels) of localized signals is observed at variable temporal and spatial distances of the episodic event. Detected sediment volumes mobilized during debris-flow events are larger than those calculated from cosmogenic nuclide derived denudation rates. This is largely due to lateral and vertical sediment entrainment in debris flow channels for which the cosmogenic nuclide method is little sensitive. The incorporation of non-steady produced sediment (residing in shielded fan deposits) can yield

  11. Time to wait: a systematic review of strategies that affect out-patient waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiker, Ugenthiri; FitzGerald, Gerry; Dulhunty, Joel M; Rosemann, Michael

    2017-03-30

    Objective Out-patient waiting times pose a significant challenge for public patients in need of specialist evaluation and intervention. The aim of the present study was to identify and categorise effective strategies to reduce waiting times for specialist out-patient services with a focus on the Australian healthcare system.Methods A systematic review of major health databases was conducted using the key terms 'outpatient*' AND 'waiting time', 'process*' AND 'improvement in outpatient clinics'. Identified articles were assessed for their relevance by sequential review of the title, abstract and full text. References of the selected manuscripts were scanned for additional relevant articles. Selected articles were evaluated for consistent and emerging themes.Results In all, 152 articles were screened, of which 38 were included in the present review. Numerous strategies identified in the articles were consolidated into 26 consistent approaches. Three overarching themes were identified as significantly affecting waiting times: resource realignment, operational efficiency and process improvement.Conclusions Strategies to align resources, increase operational efficiency and improve processes provide a comprehensive approach that may reduce out-patient waiting times.What is known about the topic? Out-patient waiting times are a challenge in most countries that seek to provide universal access to health care for all citizens. Although there has been extensive research in this area, many patients still experience extensive delays accessing specialist care, particularly in the public health sector. The multiple factors that contribute to bottlenecks and inefficiencies in the referral process and affect patient waiting times are often poorly understood.What does this paper add? This paper reviews the published healthcare literature to identify strategies that affect specialist out-patient waiting times for patients. The findings suggest that there are numerous operational

  12. Consumer behaviour in the waiting area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, M.P.

    Objective of the study: To determine consumer behaviour in the pharmacy waiting area. Method: The applied methods for data-collection were direct observations. Three Dutch community pharmacies were selected for the study. The topics in the observation list were based on available services at each

  13. Analysis of emergency department waiting lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Močnik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Steady increase in the numbers of patients seeking medical assistance has recently been observed at the emergency department of the health center under study. This has led to increases in waiting times for patients. The management of the health center has been considering to implement certain measures to remedy this situation. One proposed solution is to add an additional physician to the emergency department. A computer model was constructed to simulate waiting lines and analyze the economic feasibility of employing an additional physician.Aim: This paper analyzes the waiting lines at the emergency department and performs an economic feasibility study to determine whether adding an additional physician to the department would be economically justified.Methods: Data about waiting times at the emergency department were collected to study the situation. For each patient, the arrival time at the waiting room and the starting and ending times of the examination were registered. The data were collected from 13 June 2011 to 25 September 2011. The sample included data on 65 nightly standbys, nine standbys on Saturdays, and 16 standbys on Sundays. Due to incomplete entries, data for nine weekly standbys and six Saturday standbys were excluded from the sample. Based on the data collected, we calculated the waiting and examination times per patient, average number of patients, average waiting time, average examination time, share of active standby teams in total standby time, and number of patients in different time periods. The study involved 1,039 patients. Using a synthesis method, we designed a computer model of waiting lines and economic feasibility. The model was validated using comparative analysis. A what-if analysis was performed using various computer simulations with various scenarios to consider the outcomes of decision alternatives. We applied economic analysis to select the best possible solution.Results: The research results

  14. VHA Support Service Center Electronic Wait List (EWL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The goal of the Electronic Wait List (EWL) is to provide care to the patient as quickly as possible. To facilitate this goal, patients may be placed on a Wait List...

  15. New Nuclide {sup 267}108 Produced by the {sup 238}U+{sup 34}S Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, Y.A.; Lobanov, Y.V.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Tsyganov, Y.S.; Utyonkov, V.K.; Abdullin, F.S.; Iliev, S.; Polyakov, A.N.; Rigol, J.; Shirokovsky, I.V.; Subbotin, V.G.; Sukhov, A.M.; Buklanov, G.V.; Gikal, B.N.; Kutner, V.B.; Mezentsev, A.N.; Sedykh, I.M.; Vakatov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; Moody, K.J.; Hulet, E.K. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1995-09-04

    In bombardments of {sup 238}U targets with 186-MeV {sup 34}S projectiles we discovered the {alpha}-decaying nuclide {sup 267}108 with a half-life of 19{sub {minus}10}{sup +29} ms, {ital E}{sub {alpha}}=9.74 to 9.87 MeV, and a production cross section of about 2.5 pb. The new nuclide was identified by measuring correlations in energy, time, and position to establish genetic links between its implantation in a position-sensitive silicon detector and subsequent {alpha} decay followed by {alpha} decays of known descendant nuclides.

  16. Outpatient waiting time in Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem Long waiting time for services has been identified as a reason people avoid presenting to for care in African countries. Design Examination of causes for long outpatient waiting time and the effect of measures to reduce waiting time. Setting Outpatient department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.

  17. Waiting time distribution in M/D/1 queueing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Staalhagen, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The well-known formula for the waiting time distribution of M/D/1 queueing systems is numerically unsuitable when the load is close to 1.0 and/or the results for a large waiting time are required. An algorithm for any load and waiting time is presented, based on the state probabilities of M/D/1...

  18. Maternity waiting homes in Rural Health Centers of Ethiop: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternity waiting homes have been promoted to improve pregnant women's access to quality obstetric care. The main aim of this study was to assess the situation of maternity waiting homes and the experiences and challenges of mothers using waiting homes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted ...

  19. Outpatient waiting time in Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lessons learned In-house training of records staff had little long-term impact on reducing the time patients waited to collect their cards. Increased staffing and coordinating staff strength to correspond to times of peak patient load had the greatest effect in reducing outpatient waiting time. Constructive use of patient waiting ...

  20. Bracing Later and Coping Better: Benefits of Mindfulness During a Stressful Waiting Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Kate; Howell, Jennifer L

    2017-10-01

    People frequently await uncertain news, yet research reveals that the strategies people naturally use to cope with uncertainty are largely ineffective. We tested the role of mindfulness for improving the experience of a stressful waiting period. Law graduates awaiting their bar exam results either reported their trait mindfulness (Study 1; N = 150) or were instructed to practice mindfulness meditation (Study 2; N = 90). As hypothesized, participants who were naturally more mindful or who practiced mindfulness managed their expectations more effectively by bracing for the worst later in the waiting period and perceived themselves as coping better. Additionally, participants who were low in dispositional optimism and high in intolerance of uncertainty benefited most from mindfulness (relative to control) meditation. These findings point to a simple and effective way to wait better, particularly for those most vulnerable to distress.

  1. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  2. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  3. Determination of Concentrations of Radioactive Nuclides in Soil Samples using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Arsalan; Weaver, Joshua

    2015-10-01

    A hyper-pure Germanium detector system was used to determine the contents and concentrations of various nuclides in soil samples collected from different parts of the United States. These include areas in close proximity to nuclear power plants, areas susceptible to nuclear fallout from weapons testing from the pre Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) period, and areas vulnerable to fallout from Fukushima from the west coast. The concentrations of naturally occurring nuclides in the 238U, 232Th, and 40K decay chains as well as that of synthetic isotopes of 137Cs and 60Co were measured with the aid of Genie-2000 and Radware (gf3m). An efficiency curve was obtained by designing a simulation and compared with standard sources. The research, now in its next stage, aims to do the same in samples from Karachi (Pakistan) which is home to three nuclear power plant projects but has no available baseline radioactivity measurements. University of Richmond.

  4. The exposure history of Jilin and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, G.

    1986-01-01

    Jilin, the largest known story meteorite, is a very suitable object for studying the systematics of cosmic ray produced nuclides in stony meteorites. Its well established two stage exposure history even permits to gain information about two different irradiation geometries (2pi and 4pi). All stable and long-lived cosmogenic nuclides measured in Jilin so far correlate well with each other. An example is shown where the Al-26 activities are plotted vs. the spallogenic Ne-21 concentration. These records of cosmic-ray interaction in Jilin can be used both to determine the history of the target and to study the nature of production rate profiles. This is unavoidably a bootstrap process, involving studying one with assumption about the other. Production rate equations are presented and discussed.

  5. ISOLTRAP mass measurements of exotic nuclides at $\\delta$m/m=10$^{-8}$

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, K.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; Delahaye, P.; George, S.; Guénaut, C.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lunney, D.; Mukherjee, M.; Schwarz, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Yazidjian, C.

    2005-01-01

    The ISOLTRAP experiment at the ISOLDE facility at CERN is a Penning trap mass spectrometer for on-line mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It allows the determination of atomic masses of exotic nuclides with a relative uncertainty of only 10$^{-8}$. The results provide important information for, for example, weak interaction studies and nuclear models. Recent ISOLTRAP investigations and applications of high-precision mass measurements are discussed.

  6. Establishing a Bayesian approach to determining cosmogenic nuclide reference production rates using He-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Brent M.; Muzikar, Paul; Lifton, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Production rates are a cornerstone of in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications, including surface exposure dating, erosion rate/denudation rate estimates, and burial dating. The most common approach for estimating production rates is to measure cosmogenic nuclide samples from sites with independently well-constrained exposure histories. In addition, while researchers attempt to minimize the effects of erosion through careful site and sample selection, it can be present at some unknown level in certain sites. We present a general Bayesian methodology for combining information from the nuclide concentrations, the exposure history, and the possibility of erosion, to determine the production rate at a given site. Then, we use another Bayesian approach to combine the results from the various sites. Cosmogenic 3He is an ideal test-bed for our Bayesian approach. It has the most calibration sites of the commonly measured cosmogenic nuclides, and there is evidence for the effect of erosion on some of the sites. Our approach largely reconciles previous discrepancies between sites of widely varying age, even at latitudes where geomagnetic effects are significant. With the canonical Lal/Stone scaling scheme, we derive a global sea level high latitude 3He production rate of 118 ± 2 atoms g-1 yr-1 when considering olivine and pyroxene together. Using the Lifton-Sato-Dunai scaling scheme yields a similar rate of 121 ± 2 atoms g-1 yr-1. Uncertainties associated with these values are improved over previous studies, due to both reduced scatter among the sites and an approach to combining sites which deemphasizes outliers.

  7. Nuclide Inventory Calculation Using MCNPX for Wolsung Unit 1 Reactor Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabir, Mohamad Hairie; Noh, Kyoung Ho; Hah, Chang Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The CINDER90 computation process involves utilizing linear Markovian chains to determine the time dependent nuclide densities. The CINDER90 depletion algorithm is implemented the MCNPX code package. The coupled depletion process involves a Monte-Carlo steady-state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation. The process is shown in Fig.1. MCNPX runs a steady state calculation to determine the system eigenvalue collision densities, recoverable energies from fission and neutrons per fission events. In order to generate number densities for the next time step, the CINDER90 code takes the MCNPX generated values and performs a depletion calculation. MCNPX then takes the new number densities and caries out a new steady-stated calculation. The process repeats itself until the final time step. This paper describe the preliminary source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel using MCNPX, as a part of the activities to support the equilibrium core model development and decommissioning evaluation process of a Candu reactor. The aim of this study was to apply the MCNPX code for source term and nuclide inventory calculation of Candu single fuel channel. Nuclide inventories as a function of burnup will be used to model an equilibrium core for Candu reactor. The core lifetime neutron fluence obtained from the model is used to estimate radioactivity at the stage of decommisioning. In general, as expected, the actinides and fission products build up increase with increasing burnup. Despite the fact that the MCNPX code is still in development we can conclude that the code is capable of obtaining relevant results in burnup and source term calculation. It is recommended that in the future work, the calculation has to be verified on the basis of experimental data or comparison with other codes.

  8. Uranium and thorium series nuclides in river sediments and river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M. R.; Salter, P. F

    1980-01-01

    Large volume suspended sediment samples were taken from Rio Grande, Mississippi and Suwannee Rivers. These rivers drain arid, moderate and subtropical regions, respectively. The samples were taken to provide enough material to use for chemical fractionation leaching studies of the relationship between Pu and other nuclides with various components of the sediment. This work is still in progress and is described in detail in a separate section of the progress report.

  9. Comparison of Spallation Neutron and Residual Nuclide Production Data with Different Intra-Nuclear Cascade Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, S.; Boudard, A.; Cugnon, J.; Legrain, R.; Volant, C.

    Recent results on neutron production obtained at SATURNE and isotopic distributions of residual nuclides measured at GSI are compared to high-energy transport code calculations in which three different Intra-Nuclear cascade models, Bertini, Isabel and Cugnon, are used. It is shown that the Bertini INC model generally fails to reproduce the data while the Cugnon and Isabel models give a better agreement.

  10. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs.

  11. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  12. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  13. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  14. Light nuclides produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (ES)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    The production of light and intermediate-mass nuclides formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the fragment separator (FRS) at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced nuclides were determined with high precision. The results show that the nuclides are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced nuclides merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases. (orig.)

  15. Work plan for improving the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation of nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzo Axel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DARWIN2.3 is the reference package used for fuel cycle applications in France. It solves the Boltzmann and Bateman equations in a coupling way, with the European JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, to compute the fuel cycle values of interest. It includes both deterministic transport codes APOLLO2 (for light water reactors and ERANOS2 (for fast reactors, and the DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code, each of them being developed by CEA/DEN with the support of its industrial partners. The DARWIN2.3 package has been experimentally validated for pressurized and boiling water reactors, as well as for sodium fast reactors; this experimental validation relies on the analysis of post-irradiation experiments (PIE. The DARWIN2.3 experimental validation work points out some isotopes for which the depleted concentration calculation can be improved. Some other nuclides have no available experimental validation, and their concentration calculation uncertainty is provided by the propagation of a priori nuclear data uncertainties. This paper describes the work plan of studies initiated this year to improve the accuracy of the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation concerning some nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle.

  16. Work plan for improving the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation of nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Axel; Vaglio-Gaudard, Claire; Martin, Julie-Fiona; Noguère, Gilles; Eschbach, Romain

    2017-09-01

    DARWIN2.3 is the reference package used for fuel cycle applications in France. It solves the Boltzmann and Bateman equations in a coupling way, with the European JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, to compute the fuel cycle values of interest. It includes both deterministic transport codes APOLLO2 (for light water reactors) and ERANOS2 (for fast reactors), and the DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code, each of them being developed by CEA/DEN with the support of its industrial partners. The DARWIN2.3 package has been experimentally validated for pressurized and boiling water reactors, as well as for sodium fast reactors; this experimental validation relies on the analysis of post-irradiation experiments (PIE). The DARWIN2.3 experimental validation work points out some isotopes for which the depleted concentration calculation can be improved. Some other nuclides have no available experimental validation, and their concentration calculation uncertainty is provided by the propagation of a priori nuclear data uncertainties. This paper describes the work plan of studies initiated this year to improve the accuracy of the DARWIN2.3 depleted material balance calculation concerning some nuclides of interest for the fuel cycle.

  17. Cross Sections for the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides with Protons up to 400 MeV for the Interpretation of Cosmic-Ray-produced Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekel, Th.; Rosel, R.; Herpers, U.; Bodemann, R.; Leya, I.; Gloris, M.; Michel, R.; Dittrich, B.; Kubik, P.; Suter, M.

    1993-07-01

    Integral excitation functions of the cosmogenic nuclides are the basic requirement for the interpretation of interactions between cosmic ray particles and extraterrestrial and terrestrial matter. Together with the knowledge of primary and secondary particle fields inside an irradiated body, model calculations can be developed to interpret abundances of cosmogenic nuclides in dependencies of the irradiation history of the irradiated body and of the cosmic particle ray itself. The quality of those model calculations depends on the quality of the available cross-section database, which is neither comprehensive nor reliable for the most important nuclides like the long-lived radionuclides (i.e., 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca) and the stable rare gas isotopes. For a systematic investigation in this field of science we carried out several irradiation experiments with protons in the energy region between 45 MeV and 400 MeV at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland) and the Laboratoire Nationale Saturne (Saclay, France) using the stacked foil technique. We included 21 different target elements with Z between 6 and 79 (C, N as Si3N4, O as SiO2, Mg, Al, Si, Ca as CaC2H2O4, Ti, V, Mn as Mn/Ni alloy, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr as SrF2, Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, Ba as Ba containing glass and Au) in our experiments. The proton fluxes were monitored via the reaction 27Al(p,3p3n)22Na using the evaluated data of [1]. Residual nuclides were measured by X-, gamma-, and after a chemical separation by accelerator mass spectrometry. In order to check the quality of our experimental procedures we included some target elements in our new experiments for which consistent excitation functions have already been determined [2,3,4]. Our new data show excellent agreement with the earlier measurements. We measured cross sections for more than 120 different reactions. Here we report on the results for target elements with Z up to 28. The exsisting database of experimental excitation functions for the production

  18. The Nondeterministic Waiting Time Algorithm: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jack

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We present briefly the Nondeterministic Waiting Time algorithm. Our technique for the simulation of biochemical reaction networks has the ability to mimic the Gillespie Algorithm for some networks and solutions to ordinary differential equations for other networks, depending on the rules of the system, the kinetic rates and numbers of molecules. We provide a full description of the algorithm as well as specifics on its implementation. Some results for two well-known models are reported. We have used the algorithm to explore Fas-mediated apoptosis models in cancerous and HIV-1 infected T cells.

  19. Emergency department waiting room nurse role: A key informant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kelli; Jackson, Debra; Plummer, Virginia; Elliott, Doug

    2017-02-01

    Emergency departments have become overcrowded with increased waiting times. Strategies to decrease waiting times include time-based key performance indicators and introduction of a waiting room nurse role. The aim of the waiting room nurse role is to expedite care by assessing and managing patients in the waiting room. There is limited literature examining this role. This paper presents results of semi-structured interviews with five key informants to explore why and how the waiting room nurse role was implemented in Australian emergency departments. Data were thematically analysed. Five key informants from five emergency departments across two Australian jurisdictions (Victoria and New South Wales) reported that the role was introduced to reduce waiting times and improve quality and safety of care in the ED waiting room. Critical to introducing the role was defining and supporting the scope of practice, experience and preparation of the nurses. Role implementation required champions to overcome identified challenges, including funding. There has been limited evaluation of the role. The waiting room nurse role was introduced to decrease waiting times and contributed to risk mitigation. Common to all roles was standing orders, while preparation and experience varied. Further research into the role is required. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Waiting list in a public health facility in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Letelier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Waiting lists are a well-known problem in public healthcare systems worldwide. For instance, England had over one million people in waiting lists for elective surgical procedures in 2000. Spain had over 360 000 patients in surgical waiting lists in 2007. Chile has been trying to manage waiting times through the GES (Explicit Guarantees in Healthcare plan, which was established by the Chilean government in 2005. Waiting lists for the guaranteed-care diseases in the GES plan had 380 000 patients at the beginning of 2010, and that number was reduced to zero in 2011. Internationally, there are some descriptive studies about waiting lists that focus on variables such as waiting times and number of patients in the list. In Chile, however, this type of study is lacking. Purpose This study aims to describe the characteristics of waiting lists for medical specialties between April and October 2011. It also aims to identify the components of management models in public healthcare centers, and to identify and analyze waiting-time frames of patients referred to a secondary or tertiary healthcare public center from a public primary healthcare center. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of the waiting list for first-time consultations for medical specialties was carried out. Referred patients were described and grouped using indicators of access to healthcare and waiting time between April and October 2011. Each consultation request or referral of a new patient was included in the waiting list and analyzed. Results There were 15 935 requests for consultations; 5 717 requests were resolved, and 8 544 were not (54% of the total requests for consultation. There was a mean waiting time of 498 days for non-resolved requests for consultation, and a mean of 141 days for resolved requests. The specialties in highest demand were orthopedic surgery and ophthalmology. The main waiting-list management processes were referral and reception of requests

  1. Revisiting Waiting Times in DNA evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nicodeme, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factors are short stretches of DNA (or $k$-mers) mainly located in promoters sequences that enhance or repress gene expression. With respect to an initial distribution of letters on the DNA alphabet, Behrens and Vingron consider a random sequence of length $n$ that does not contain a given $k$-mer or word of size $k$. Under an evolution model of the DNA, they compute the probability $\\mathfrak{p}_n$ that this $k$-mer appears after a unit time of 20 years. They prove that the waiting time for the first apparition of the $k$-mer is well approximated by $T_n=1/\\mathfrak{p}_n$. Their work relies on the simplifying assumption that the $k$-mer is not self-overlapping. They observe in particular that the waiting time is mostly driven by the initial distribution of letters. Behrens et al. use an approach by automata that relaxes the assumption related to words overlaps. Their numerical evaluations confirms the validity of Behrens and Vingron approach for non self-overlapping words, but provides up to 44...

  2. State anxiety during watchful waiting for urinary lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzi, C; Kalantzis, A; Gravas, S; Georgiadis, J; Christodoulou, C

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines on many disorders recommend a variable period of watchful waiting between diagnosis and indicated action. In this study, we assessed stress during the watchful waiting period for urinary lithiasis, a benign disorder treated with minimally invasive procedures, without the pitfall of the emotional burden of a terminal or debilitating disease or fear of impending major surgery and to assess the distress caused by waiting per se. Furthermore, we attempt to identify individual patients at risk of prolonged or debilitating psychological distress. A total of 112 lithiasis patients with stones pain during the waiting period. Clinicians should be more flexible when they face the above group of patients, as far as the duration of watchful waiting period is concerned, because a long waiting sets those patients under significant emotional burden.

  3. Waiting for coronary angiography: is there a clinically ordered queue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, H; Crook, A M; Feder, G; Dawson, J R; Timmis, A

    2000-03-18

    Among over 3000 patients undergoing coronary angiography in the absence of a formal queue-management system, we found that a-priori urgency scores were strongly associated with waiting times, prevalence of coronary-artery disease, rate of revascularisation, and mortality. These data challenge the widely held assumption that such waiting lists are not clinically ordered; however, the wide variation in waiting times within urgency categories suggests the need for further improvements in clinical queueing.

  4. Hospital waiting time: the forgotten premise of healthcare service delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Datuk Ir M S; Ghazali, Roslan Johari Dato Mohd; Manaf, Noor Hazilah Abd; Abdullah, Abu Hassan Asaari; Bakar, Azman Abu; Salikin, Faisal; Umapathy, Mathyvani; Ali, Roslinah; Bidin, Noriah; Ismail, Wan Ismefariana Wan

    2011-01-01

    This is a national study which aims to determine the average waiting time in Malaysian public hospitals and to gauge the level of patient satisfaction with the waiting time. It also aims to identify factors perceived by healthcare providers which contribute to the waiting time problem. Self-administered questionnaires were the main method of data collection. Two sets of questionnaires were used. The first set solicited information from patients on their waiting time expereince. The second set elucidated information from hospital employees on the possible causes of lengthy waiting time. The questionnaires were administered in 21 public hospitals throughout all 13 states in Malaysia. A total of 13,000 responses were analysed for the patient survey and almost 3,000 were analysed for the employee survey. The findings indicate that on average, patients wait for more than two hours from registration to getting the prescription slip, while the contact time with medical personnel is only on average 15 minutes. Employee surveys on factors contributing to the lengthy waiting time indicate employee attitude and work process, heavy workload, management and supervision problems, and inadequate facilities to be among the contributory factors to the waiting time problem. Public healthcare in Malaysia is in a state of "excess demand", where demand for subsidised healthcare far outstrips supply, due to the large fee differential between public and private healthcare services. There is a need for hospital managers to reduce the boredom faced by patients while waiting, and to address the waiting time problem in a more scientific manner, as has been carried out in other countries through simulation and modelling techniques. Healthcare organisations are keen to address their waiting time problem. However, not much research has been carried out in this area. The study thus fills the lacuna in waiting time studies in healthcare organisations.

  5. TSA Security Checkpoint Wait Times – API (PMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — TSA operational data including: Airport wait time (hourly) data Airport throughput (hourly) data Prohibited item (hourly) data Monthly Objectives Report (MOR) data...

  6. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  7. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K.; Yuhara, J.; Ishigami, R. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  8. Modelling the distribution of detrital cosmogenic nuclide concentrations: a new tool to study drainage basin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codilean, A. T.; Hoey, T. B.; Bishop, P.; Stuart, F. M.; Fabel, D.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations (CNCs) in alluvial sediments are now routinely being used to estimate time- and space-averaged drainage basin denudation rates but have the potential to offer considerably more. This is because each grain leaving a drainage basin has a potentially unique history of erosion, transport and storage, meaning that the distribution of CNCs in large numbers of grains can provide an integrated signature of the basin's geomorphic history. We use a numerical model describing cosmogenic nuclide acquisition in sediments moving through an arid- zone drainage basin to explore the sensitivity of alluvial CNC distributions to assumptions about the geomorphic settings of the sediment's source areas. The model fully accounts for variations in nuclide production due to changes in latitude, altitude and topographic shielding and allows for spatially variable erosion and sediment transport rates. Data for model validation are provided by measurements of cosmogenic 21Ne concentrations in 32 16-22 mm diameter quartzite clasts from a 200 m reach of the Gaub river (a tributary of the Kuiseb, Namibia) along with measurements of cosmogenic 10Be in 12 amalgamated fluvial sediment samples from the outlets of the Gaub's tributaries. Model results show that detrital CNC distributions are highly sensitive to the geomorphic settings of the sediments' source areas and have the potential to be able to differentiate tectonic settings and/or geomorphic histories. The clast 21Ne concentrations vary between 2.6×106 and 1.6×108 atoms/g and exhibit a non-Gaussian distribution. The shape of this distribution, also predicted by the model, confirms the non-random nature of detrital CNC acquisition. These results also emphasise the importance of the assumptions made when using cosmogenic nuclides to estimate basin-wide denudation rates. The non- Gaussian distribution shows that the assumption of random inheritance of CNCs in the sediments cannot always be made, such that

  9. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  10. In the post-colonial waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    This chapter investigates this puzzle of choosing non-sovereignty in a postcolonial setting. Historically, the question of freedom from imperial hegemony has been linked to how Western colonialism involved keeping the colonized in ‘the waiting room of history’ by insisting that they were not yet...... ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...... acknowledge. A number of overseas territories take alternative routes to agency; not by resisting the norm of sovereignty - but by creatively articulating it beyond its claim to represent an 'either/or' distinction. The chapter demonstrates that territories not formally decolonized may very well perform...

  11. "Waiting and the waiting room: how do you experience them?" emotional implications and suggestions from patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Chiara; De Pas, Tommaso; Minchella, Ida; De Braud, Filippo; Micheli, Daniela; Adamoli, Laura; Spitaleri, Gianluca; Noberasco, Cristina; Milani, Alessandra; Zampino, Maria Giulia; Toffalorio, Francesca; Radice, Davide; Goldhirsch, Aron; Nolè, Franco

    2011-06-01

    Waiting can increase discomfort. The goal of this study was to identify moods and fears of cancer patients while in a waiting room and to capture their concrete suggestions for an anthropocentric transformation of waiting itself. A 15-item questionnaire was given to 355 patients who came to our Out-patient Oncology Clinic. Eighty-three percent of patients felt that waiting has an emotional cost, 35% were upset by talking about their condition with others while waiting, and 26% suffered a major emotional impact seeing other sick people and witnessing their clinical decline. Eighty-nine percent of patients suggested that alternative activities, such as meetings with professionals, doctors, and psychologists, be organized during the waiting period; 65% suggested fun activities (music therapy, drawing courses, library, TV). Most patients asked to have the freedom to leave the waiting room. This option, feasibly by means of IMs/"beepers," would limit their sense of having a lack of freedom or being robbed of their time. This study highlighted the complexity and heterogeneity of emotional implications that waiting causes in patients with cancer and collected many patients' suggestions about how to create a constructive, free, and personalized waiting period, overcoming the boredom, distress, and psychological suffering it causes.

  12. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  13. Grain size dependency of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in alluvial sediment in an arid zone catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codilean, A. T.; Fabel, D.; Fenton, C. R.; Bishop, P.; Xu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Based on cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al analyses in 15 individual detrital quartz pebbles (16-21 mm diameter) and cosmogenic 10Be in an amalgamated medium sand sample (250-500 m diameter) all collected from the outlet of the upper Gaub River catchment in Namibia, quartz pebbles yield lower model erosion rates than those yielded by amalgamated sand. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in the 15 individual pebbles range from ~0.2 to ~22.7 x 106 atoms.g-1 and ~1.3 to ~72.8 x 106 atoms.g-1, respectively. When amalgamated, the pebbles yield average 10Be and 26Al concentrations of ~6.7 and ~27.3 x 106 atoms.g-1, respectively. These average concentrations yield minimum and maximum 10Be model erosion rates of ~0.4 and ~2.1 m.Myrs-1, and minimum and maximum 26Al model erosion rates of ~0.3 and ~1.4 m.Myrs-1, respectively. In contrast, the amalgamated sand yields an average 10Be concentration of ~0.8 x 106 atoms.g-1, and associated minimum and maximum 10Be model erosion rates that are an order of magnitude larger than those obtained for the amalgamated pebbles (i.e., ~4.8 and ~13.0 m.Myrs-1, respectively). Modelling results suggest that a difference in sediment transport times of the order of 105-106 years is necessary to explain the difference in cosmogenic nuclide inventories between the pebble and sand samples. Given the small catchment size and lack of accommodation space, such long transport times are unrealistic for the Gaub catchment. Furthermore, the 26Al/10Be ratios in the pebbles are indicative of simple exposure histories, suggesting that burial, and thus, storage of the pebbles has not been substantial. Therefore, the difference in nuclide concentrations between the pebble and sand samples cannot be caused solely by longer sediment residence times for the pebbles than for the sand grains. The inconsistency between the 10Be and 26Al in the pebbles and the 10Be in the amalgamated sand is best explained by differential sediment sourcing. The amalgamated sands leaving the

  14. Decay Study for the very Neutron-Rich Sn Nuclides, $^{135-140}$Sn Separated by Selective Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS378 %title\\\\ \\\\ In this investigation, we wish to take advantage of chemically selective laser ionization to separate the very-neutron-rich Sn nuclides and determine their half-lives and delayed-neutron branches (P$_{n}$) using the Mainz $^{3}$He-delayed neutron spectrometer and close-geometry $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy system. The $\\beta$-decay rates are dependent on a number of nuclear structure factors that may not be well described by models of nuclear structure developed for nuclides near stability. Determination of these decay properties will provide direct experimental data for r-process calculations and test the large number of models of nuclear structure for very-neutron rich Sn nuclides now in print.

  15. [Waiting list registration for kidney transplants must improve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Heemskerk, M.B.; Weimar, W.; Berger, S.P.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the composition of the waiting list for postmortem kidney transplant has developed, and whether the waiting list reflects actual demand. DESIGN: Retrospective research and cohort study. METHOD: We used data from the period 2000-2014 from the Dutch Transplant Foundation,

  16. Wait times, patient satisfaction scores, and the perception of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleustein, Clifford; Rothschild, David B; Valen, Andrew; Valatis, Eduardas; Schweitzer, Laura; Jones, Raleigh

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the impact of waiting time on patient satisfaction scores; not only of satisfaction with the provider in general, but also with the specific perception of the quality of care and physician abilities. Using surveys regarding patient satisfaction with provider care, data was collected from a sample of 11,352 survey responses returned by patients over the course of 1 year across all 44 ambulatory clinics within a large academic medical center. While a small minority of patients volunteered identification, the surveys were made anonymously. A questionnaire with Health Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems patient satisfaction and waiting time queries was administered via mail to all clinic patients-roughly 49,000-with a response rate of 23%. Employing a standard statistical approach, results were tabulated and stratified according to provider scores and wait time experience, and then analyzed using statistical modeling techniques. While it is well established that longer wait times are negatively associated with clinical provider scores of patient satisfaction, results indicated that every aspect of patient experience-specifically confidence in the care provider and perceived quality of care-correlated negatively with longer wait times. The clinical ambulatory patient experience is heavily influenced by time spent waiting for provider care. Not only are metrics regarding the likelihood to recommend and the overall satisfaction with the experience negatively impacted by longer wait times, but increased wait times also affect perceptions of information, instructions, and the overall treatment provided by physicians and other caregivers.

  17. Determinants of Patient Waiting Time in the General Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients spend substantial amount of time in the clinics waiting for services to be delivered by physicians and other allied health professionals. The degree to which health consumers are satisfied with the care received is strongly related to the quality of the waiting experience. Healthcare organizations that strive to deliver ...

  18. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate against the attendant high maternal mortality rates in hard to reach regions. Objective: To assess pregnancy outcomes verified through maternal mortality and perinatal mortality rates since the introduction of maternity waiting homes in some ...

  19. Mean Waiting Time and Patients' Satisfaction in GOPD, Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Waiting time is a major determinant of the patients' level of satisfaction. It is the average time spent by the patient from the time of presentation in the hospital to the time of contact with a health service provider. Objective: To determine the mean waiting time in the Records department/card room and the General ...

  20. 8 CFR 207.5 - Waiting lists and priority handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from these lists in a manner that will best support the policies and interests of the United States... association with the United States, compelling humanitarian concerns, and public interest factors. ... REFUGEES § 207.5 Waiting lists and priority handling. Waiting lists are maintained for each designated...

  1. Wait-Time and Multiple Representation Levels in Chemistry Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof

    2014-01-01

    Wait-time is an important aspect in a teaching and learning process, especially after the teacher has posed questions to students, as it is one of the factors in determining quality of students' responses. This article describes the practices of wait-time one after teacher's questions at multiple representation levels among twenty three chemistry…

  2. A novel intervention for medical waiting periods in IVF and early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockhuijsen, H.D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Patients who make use of healthcare services have to deal with all kind of waiting periods like waiting for the results of a biopsy or waiting for the results of a fertility treatment. Waiting periods can cause high levels of distress because the outcomes of these waiting periods are often

  3. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  5. Access to specialist gastroenterology care in Canada: Comparison of wait times and consensus targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddin, Desmond; Armstrong, David; Barkun, Alan NG; Chen, Ying; Daniels, Sandra; Hollingworth, Roger; Hunt, Richard H; Paterson, William G

    2008-01-01

    consensus targets; 51% to 88% of patients were not seen within the target wait time. Multiple interventions, including adoption of evidence-based management guidelines and provision of economic and human resources, are needed to ensure appropriate access to digestive health care in Canada. Outcomes can be evaluated by the ‘point-of-care’, practice audit methodology used for the present study. PMID:18299735

  6. Impact of diagnostic interval on mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A new perspective on the waiting list paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard

    INTRODUCTION: The impact of diagnostic delay on colorectal cancer mortality has never been conclusively evaluated. Most studies show either no association or find that rapidly diagnosed patients have higher mortality rates than patients with longer waits in the primary and secondary health care s...... interval had been treated as a categorical variable with standard cut-off points....

  7. Regional Dispersal of Fukushima-derived Fission Nuclides by East Asia Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Since the Fukushima nuclear accident happened on 12 March 2011, there have been a plethora of publications about the dispersion of radioactive material from the damaged reactors. Most of these works dealt with global transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the northern hemisphere and local transport in the vicinity of Fukushima and around Japan. In contrast, few works investigated into dispersal of radiation plumes from Japan to other areas on regional scales. This is because regional dispersal out of Japan in the springtime is most likely dominated by the northeastern monsoon, whereas there are few monitoring stations downwind in the southeastern Asia region. In this respect, we are only aware of the data in Vietnam published by Long et al (2012) in addition to our own data obtained in and around Taiwan (Huh et al., 2012; Hsu et al., 2012). By integrating the data published in the literature plus those that can be searched from relevant websites, we try to further elucidate the dispersal of Fukushima-derived radiation toward the southeastern Asia region. The WRF/Chem tracer model is employed to simulate the dispersal of radiation plumes from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From a vis-à-vis comparison between the model simulation and the time-series of Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around the southeastern Asia, we can distinguish between global transport by the Westerlies in the free troposphere and regional transport by the northeast monsoon in the planetary boundary layer. In general, regional (mainly meridional) transport carried more weight than global (mainly zonal) transport in contributing Fukushima-derived radioactivity to the area covered in this review, particularly at the ground-level sites. References 1. Hsu, S.C., Huh, C.A., Chan, C.Y., Lin, S.H., Lin, F.J. and Liu, S.C. (2012). Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L00

  8. The effect of waiting: A meta-analysis of wait-list control groups in trials for tinnitus distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, Hugo; Weise, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-04-01

    The response rates and effects of being placed on a wait-list control condition are well documented in psychiatric populations. Despite the usefulness of such estimates and the frequent use of no-treatment controls in clinical trials for tinnitus, the effect of waiting in a tinnitus trial has not been investigated systematically. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall effect of wait-list control groups on tinnitus distress. Studies were retrieved via a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of cognitive behaviour therapy for tinnitus distress. Outcomes of psychometrically robust tinnitus-specific measures (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Tinnitus Questionnaire, Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire) from wait-list control groups were quantified using meta-analytic techniques. Percentage of change and standard mean difference effect sizes were calculated using the pre and post wait period. Eleven studies involving 314 wait-list subjects with tinnitus were located. The analysis for a waiting period of 6 to 12 weeks revealed a mean decrease in scores on tinnitus-specific measures of 3% to 8%. Across studies, a statically significant small mean within-group effect size was obtained (Hedges' g=.17). The effects were moderated by methodological quality of the trial, sample characteristics (i.e., age, tinnitus duration), time of the wait-list and how diagnosis was established. Subjects in a tinnitus trial improve in tinnitus distress over a short waiting phase. The effects of waiting are highly variable and depend on the characteristics of the sample and of the trial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethics in radiology: wait lists queue jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natalie; Reid, Lynette; MacSwain, Sarah; Clarke, James R

    2013-08-01

    Education in ethics is a requirement for all Royal College residency training programs as laid out in the General Standards of Accreditation for residency programs in Canada. The ethical challenges that face radiologists in clinical practice are often different from those that face other physicians, because the nature of the physician-patient interaction is unlike that of many other specialties. Ethics education for radiologists and radiology residents will benefit from the development of teaching materials and resources that focus on the issues that are specific to the specialty. This article is intended to serve as an educational resource for radiology training programs to facilitate teaching ethics to residents and also as a continuing medical education resource for practicing radiologists. In an environment of limited health care resources, radiologists are frequently asked to expedite imaging studies for patients and, in some respects, act as gatekeepers for specialty care. The issues of wait lists, queue jumping, and balancing the needs of individuals and society are explored from the perspective of a radiologist. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Influence of waiting time on patient and companion satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontova-Almató, A; Juvinyà-Canal, D; Suñer-Soler, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate patient and companion satisfaction of a hospital Emergency Department and its relationship with waiting time. Prospective, observational study. Hospital de Figueres Emergency Department (Girona, Spain). sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction level, real and perceived waiting time for triage and being seen by a physician. A total of 285 responses were received from patients and companions. The mean age of the patients and companions (n=257) was 54.6years (SD=18.3). The mean overall satisfaction (n=273) was 7.6 (SD=2.2). Lower perceived waiting time until nurse triage was related to higher overall satisfaction (Spearman rho (ρ)=-0.242, P<.001), and lower perceived waiting time until being seen by physician, with a higher overall satisfaction (ρ=-0.304; P<.001). Users who were informed about estimated waiting time showed higher satisfaction than those who were not informed (P=.001). Perceived waiting time and the information about estimated waiting time determined overall satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental satisfaction with paediatric care, triage and waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Breen, Daniel T; Taylor, James; Paul, Eldho; Grosvenor, Robert; Heggie, Katrina; Mahar, Patrick D

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to determine parental and guardian's perceptions of paediatric emergency care and satisfaction with care, waiting times and triage category in a community ED. A structured questionnaire was provided to parents or guardians of paediatric patients presenting to emergency. The survey evaluated parent perceptions of waiting time, environment/facilities, professionalism and communication skills of staff and overall satisfaction of care. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received from parents of paediatric patients. Responses were overall positive with respect to the multiple domains assessed. Parents generally considered waiting times to be appropriate and consistent with triage categories. Overall satisfaction was not significantly different for varying treatment or waiting times. Patients triaged as semi-urgent were of the opinion that waiting times were less appropriate than urgent, less-urgent or non-urgent patients. On the basis of the present study, patient perceptions and overall satisfaction of care does not appear to be primarily influenced by time spent waiting or receiving treatment. Attempts made at the triage process to ensure that semi-urgent patients have reasonable expectations of waiting times might provide an opportunity to improve these patients' expectations and perceptions. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Reducing outpatient waiting time: a simulation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeenparast, Afsoon; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Shahanaghi, Kamran; Aryanejhad, Mir Bahador

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a model for reducing outpatient waiting time by using simulation. A simulation model was constructed by using the data of arrival time, service time and flow of 357 patients referred to orthopedic clinic of a general teaching hospital in Tehran. The simulation model was validated before constructing different scenarios. In this study 10 scenarios were presented for reducing outpatient waiting time. Patients waiting time was divided into three levels regarding their physicians. These waiting times for all scenarios were computed by simulation model. According to the final scores the 9th scenario was selected as the best way for reducing outpatient's waiting time. Using the simulation as a decision making tool helps us to decide how we can reduce outpatient's waiting time. Comparison of outputs of this scenario and the based- case scenario in simulation model shows that combining physician's work time changing with patient's admission time changing (scenario 9) would reduce patient waiting time about 73.09%. Due to dynamic and complex nature of healthcare systems, the application of simulation for the planning, modeling and analysis of these systems has lagged behind traditional manufacturing practices. Rapid growth in health care system expenditures, technology and competition has increased the complexity of health care systems. Simulation is a useful tool for decision making in complex and probable systems.

  13. Enhancing outpatient clinics management software by reducing patients' waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Iman; AlSarheed, Ahlam

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) gives great attention to improving the quality of services provided by health care sectors including outpatient clinics. One of the main drawbacks in outpatient clinics is long waiting time for patients-which affects the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of services. This article addresses this problem by studying the Outpatient Management Software (OMS) and proposing solutions to reduce waiting times. Many hospitals around the world apply solutions to overcome the problem of long waiting times in outpatient clinics such as hospitals in the USA, China, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan. These clinics have succeeded in reducing wait times by 15%, 78%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Such solutions depend mainly on adding more human resources or changing some business or management policies. The solutions presented in this article reduce waiting times by enhancing the software used to manage outpatient clinics services. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to understand current OMS and examine level of patient's satisfaction. Five main problems that may cause high or unmeasured waiting time have been identified: appointment type, ticket numbering, doctor late arrival, early arriving patient and patients' distribution list. These problems have been mapped to the corresponding OMS components. Solutions to the above problems have been introduced and evaluated analytically or by simulation experiments. Evaluation of the results shows a reduction in patient waiting time. When late doctor arrival issues are solved, this can reduce the clinic service time by up to 20%. However, solutions for early arriving patients reduces 53.3% of vital time, 20% of the clinic time and overall 30.3% of the total waiting time. Finally, well patient-distribution lists make improvements by 54.2%. Improvements introduced to the patients' waiting time will consequently affect patients' satisfaction and improve the quality of health care services

  14. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  15. TUNL Nuclear Structure Data Evaluation on A = 2-20 Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thinh; Kelley, John; Sheu, Grace

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear data represents measured or evaluated probabilities of various physical interactions involving the nuclei of atoms. The nuclear data group at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) compiles, evaluates and disseminates nuclear structure data relevant to light nuclei in the mass region of A = 2 - 20. Our activities primarily involve surveying literature articles and producing recommended values for inclusion into various United States Nuclear Data Program databases, such as Experimental Unevaluated Nuclear Data List (XUNDL) and Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). We have projects related to analyzing beta-decay lifetimes, compiling structure data from recently published articles, and producing full nuclear structure data evaluations of nuclides based on all existing literature. The nuclear data disseminated is used for theoretical model development of nuclear physics and for applications involving radiation and nuclear power technologies. This work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant No. NSF-PHY-1461204 and Duke/TUNL.

  16. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  17. Plumbing neutron stars to new depths with the binding energy of the exotic nuclide 82Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R N; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Böhm, Ch; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Chamel, N; Goriely, S; Herfurth, F; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Minaya Ramirez, E; Naimi, S; Neidherr, D; Rosenbusch, M; Schweikhard, L; Stanja, J; Wienholtz, F; Zuber, K

    2013-01-25

    Modeling the composition of neutron-star crusts depends strongly on binding energies of neutron-rich nuclides near the N = 50 and N = 82 shell closures. Using a recent development of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for on-line purification of radioactive ion beams to access more exotic species, we have determined for the first time the mass of (82)Zn with the ISOLTRAP setup at the ISOLDE-CERN facility. With a robust neutron-star model based on nuclear energy-density-functional theory, we solve the general relativistic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and calculate the neutron-star crust composition based on the new experimental mass. The composition profile is not only altered but now constrained by experimental data deeper into the crust than before.

  18. Current estimates of the energy released following the fission of actinide nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, Alejandro; McCutchan, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    We calculate the energy released following the neutron induced fission of the main fuel nuclides in a reactor, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 241Pu. These energies are used in a number of fields, but we were particularly motivated by their application in the recent measurements of reactor antineutrinos spectra and yields. The calculations are performed using the best estimates of cumulative fission yields for long-lived fission products and the recently released 2016 Atomic Mass Evaluation by Wang et al. Additionally, we obtain more precise values of the energy taken away by antineutrinos by using the latest Total Absorption Gamma Spectroscopy (TAGS) results. An important part of this project is also to obtain realistic estimates of the uncertainties. A comparison with earlier calculations will be presented. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC0298CH10886.

  19. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, Alexander R.; Thurn, Jan; Zuber, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  20. ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1986-11-01

    ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code.

  1. Cholelithiasis in patients on the kidney transplant waiting list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Thiago Scandiuzzi Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cholecystopathy in chronic renal patients awaiting kidney transplants. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence and management of cholelithiasis in renal transplant patients is not well established. METHODS: A total of 342 chronic renal failure patients on the waiting list for a kidney transplant were studied. Patients were evaluated for the presence of cholelithiasis and related symptoms, previous cholecystectomies and other abdominal surgeries, time on dialysis, and general data (gender, age, number of pregnancies, and body mass index. RESULTS: Cholelithiasis was found in 41 out of 342 patients (12%. Twelve of these patients, all symptomatic, had previously undergone cholecystectomies. Five out of 29 patients who had not undergone surgery were symptomatic. Overall, 17 patients (41.5% were symptomatic. Their mean age was 54 (range 32-74 years old; 61% were female, and their mean body mass index was 25.4. Nineteen (76% out of 25 women had previously been pregnant, with an average of 3.6 pregnancies per woman. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of cholelithiasis was similar to that reported in the literature for the general population. However, the high frequency of symptomatic patients points toward an indication of routine pre-transplant cholecystectomy to avoid serious post-transplant complications.

  2. Cosmogenic nuclides constrain surface fluctuations of an East Antarctic outlet glacier since the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Norton, K. P.; Mackintosh, A. N.; Anderson, J. T. H.; Kubik, P.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wittmann, H.; Fink, D.; Wilson, G. S.; Golledge, N. R.; McKay, R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding past changes in the Antarctic ice sheets provides insight into how they might respond to future climate warming. During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, geological data show that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet responded to glacial and interglacial cycles by remaining relatively stable in its interior, but oscillating at its marine-based margin. It is currently not clear how outlet glaciers, which connect the ice sheet interior to its margin, responded to these orbitally-paced climate cycles. Here we report new ice surface constraints from Skelton Glacier, an outlet of the East Antarctic ice sheet, which drains into the Ross Ice Shelf. Our multiple-isotope (10Be and 26Al) cosmogenic nuclide data indicate that currently ice-free areas adjacent to the glacier underwent substantial periods of exposure and ice cover in the past. We use an exposure-burial model driven by orbitally-paced glacial-interglacial cycles to determine the probable ice surface history implied by our data. This analysis shows that: 1) the glacier surface has likely fluctuated since at least the Pliocene; 2) the ice surface was >200 m higher than today during glacial periods, and the glacier has been thicker than present for ∼75-90% of each glacial-interglacial cycle; and 3) ice cover at higher elevations possibly occurred for a relatively shorter time per Pliocene cycle than Pleistocene cycle. Our multiple-nuclide approach demonstrates the magnitude of ice surface fluctuations during the Pliocene and Pleistocene that are linked to marine-based ice margin variability.

  3. Waiting for care: effects of Ontario's 3-month waiting period for OHIP on landed immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ritika; Bloch, Gary; Caulford, Paul

    2013-06-01

    To describe the experiences of a group of new immigrants and caregivers of new immigrants who were subject to the 3-month waiting period for the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and needed to access health care services during that time. Qualitative study using a phenomenologic framework. Participants were recruited through the Scarborough Community Volunteer Clinic in Toronto, Ont. Interviews were conducted in person at the clinic or by telephone. Seven participants were interviewed who themselves needed to access health care during the 3-month waiting period for the Ontario Health Insurance Plan or who were caring for someone who did. Seven semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide; these were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed for themes to arrive at the essence of the participants' experiences. Participants believed that there was a lack of clear information and a lack of help from officials. Other common themes included poor social situations, financial loss or threat of financial loss related to health care, a choice to delay seeking care owing to cost, difficulty accessing alternative care, and appreciation for those who advocated on their behalf. Other themes that arose included emotional hardship, poor health outcomes or threat of poor health outcomes resulting from not seeking care, the importance and unpredictability of health, as well as negative impressions of Canada as a country as a result of the negative experience of seeking care. New immigrants to Ontario who need to access health care services during the 3-month waiting period for provincial health insurance and the caregivers of such newcomers can have potentially very negative experiences. They might be unable to access care without financial barriers and might, therefore, choose to delay seeking health care until the end of the waiting period; this can lead to emotional hardship for themselves and their caregivers as well as to potentially poor

  4. [Improving the CMP appointment waiting time for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cani, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The increasing activity of mental health centres for children and adolescents and longer waiting times in obtaining a first appointment have led an area of child psychiatry to question the organisation of new consultation applications. Two CMP in the sector had a waiting period of over 40 days for half of the patients. Two improvement actions were implemented:the implementation of organisation and reception nurses and the development of a new applications management process. The evaluation after one year showed a decrease of half of the appointment waiting time without changing the non showed up rate.

  5. Waiting Time Increases Risk of Attrition in Gambling Disorder Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Pedersen, Anders Sune

    2014-01-01

    completion in gambling disorder. We compared 48 gambling disorder sufferers with a 56% completion rate (21 non-completers and 27 completers). Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that waiting time from initial contact to the first session with a therapist was a significant predictor of risk...... of attrition: longer waiting times were associated with increased risk of attrition. Age, gender, or comorbidity was not associated with an increased risk of attrition. These data suggest that gambling disorder sufferers benefit from fast access to treatment, and that longer waiting time increases the risk...

  6. Polymersomes as nano-carriers to retain harmful recoil nuclides in alpha radionuclide therapy. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thijssen, L.; Schaart, D.R.; Vries, D. de; Denkova, A.G. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2012-07-01

    Targeted alpha therapy has shown promising pre-clinical and clinical results in the fight against cancer. The use of in vivo generators, generating a highly cytotoxic cascade of alpha particles, is attracting increasing interest for clinical application. {sup 225}Ac is one of the nuclides that can serve as an in vivo generator. It is commercially available and provides four alpha particles with a total energy of 28 MeV per {sup 225}Ac decay. However, its alpha emitting daughter nuclides may escape from the target region due to recoil and cause unwanted toxicity in other parts of the body. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of designing spherical, block-copolymer based nano-carriers (polymersomes) to retain the recoiling daughter nuclides. A Monte Carlo code, called NANVES, has been developed to simulate the range distributions of recoil atoms in different materials and to determine the optimum nano-carriers design. Recoil ranges in planar polystyrene films were determined experimentally and compared to simulations of the experiment, indicating that NANVES may provide accurate results. Simulations of various nano-carriers designs indicate that double-layered polymersomes with a diameter of 800 nm are capable of completely retaining the first daughter nuclide {sup 221}Fr, while the escape fraction of the third radioactive daughter {sup 213}Bi is reduced to 20% and the percentage of alpha particles emitted from escaped daughter products outside the nano-carriers is less than 10%. (orig.)

  7. Burden of waiting for surveillance CT colonography in patients with screen-detected 6-9 mm polyps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C.Y.; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haan, Margriet C. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Thomeer, Maarten G.J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Montauban van Swijndregt, Alexander D. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise [University of Amsterdam, Public Health, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuipers, Ernst J. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Internal medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien [University of Amsterdam, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    We assessed the burden of waiting for surveillance CT colonography (CTC) performed in patients having 6-9 mm colorectal polyps on primary screening CTC. Additionally, we compared the burden of primary and surveillance CTC. In an invitational population-based CTC screening trial, 101 persons were diagnosed with <3 polyps 6-9 mm, for which surveillance CTC after 3 years was advised. Validated questionnaires regarding expected and perceived burden (5-point Likert scales) were completed before and after index and surveillance CTC, also including items on burden of waiting for surveillance CTC. McNemar's test was used for comparison after dichotomization. Seventy-eight (77 %) of 101 invitees underwent surveillance CTC, of which 66 (85 %) completed the expected and 62 (79 %) the perceived burden questionnaire. The majority of participants (73 %) reported the experience of waiting for surveillance CTC as 'never' or 'only sometimes' burdensome. There was almost no difference in expected and perceived burden between surveillance and index CTC. Waiting for the results after the procedure was significantly more burdensome for surveillance CTC than for index CTC (23 vs. 8 %; p = 0.012). Waiting for surveillance CTC after primary CTC screening caused little or no burden for surveillance participants. In general, the burden of surveillance and index CTC were comparable. (orig.)

  8. Determinants of Patient Waiting Time in the General Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Oct-Dec 2013 | Vol 3 | Issue 4 | ... clinic waiting time is an important indicator of quality of ... healthcare services. ... Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross‑sectional study was carried.

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbaek, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS...

  11. Ultrasound waiting lists: rational queue or extended capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasted, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    The features and issues regarding clinical waiting lists in general and general ultrasound waiting lists in particular are reviewed, and operational aspects of providing a general ultrasound service are also discussed. A case study is presented describing a service improvement intervention in a UK NHS hospital's ultrasound department, from which arises requirements for a predictive planning model for an ultrasound waiting list. In the course of this, it becomes apparent that a booking system is a more appropriate way of describing the waiting list than a conventional queue. Distinctive features are identified from the literature and the case study as the basis for a predictive model, and a discrete event simulation model is presented which incorporates the distinctive features.

  12. Effect of emergency physician burnout on patient waiting times

    OpenAIRE

    De Stefano, Carla; Philippon, Anne-Laure; Krastinova, Evguenia; Hausfater, Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Adnet, Frederic; Freund, Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Burnout is common in emergency physicians. This syndrome may negatively affect patient care and alter work productivity. We seek to assess whether burnout of emergency physicians impacts waiting times in the emergency department. Prospective study in an academic ED. All patients who visited the main ED for a 4-month period in 2016 were included. Target waiting times are assigned by triage nurse to patients on arrival depending on their severity. The primary endpoint wa...

  13. Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, C; Vink, P; Montgomery, J; Hedge, A

    2016-07-21

    This study compared the effects of pre-experience and expectations on participant comfort upon waking, arrival to, and after an appointment, as well as the assessment of properly placed Feng Shui elements in three healthcare waiting rooms. Participants assessed comfort levels using self-report surveys. The researcher conducted 'intention interviews' with each doctor to assess the goals of each waiting area design, and conducted a Feng Shui assessment of each waiting area for properly placed Feng Shui elements. The waiting area designed by the Feng Shui expert rated 'most comfortable', followed by the waiting area design by a doctor, and the lowest comfort rating for the conventional waiting room design. Results show a sufficiently strong effect to warrant further research. Awareness of the external environment, paired with pre-experience and expectation, influences comfort for people over time. Fostering and encouraging a holistic approach to comfort utilizing eastern and western concepts and ergonomic principles creates a sense of "placeness" and balance in the design for comfort in built environments. This is new research information on the influences of the comfort experience over time, to include pre-experience, expectations and the placement of elements in the external environment.

  14. Long-waiting outpatients: target audience for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgboye, E A; Jarallah, J S

    1994-04-01

    The study examines the meaning of waiting time in an outpatient department. Attention is payed to the activities of the patients and companions during the waiting time, the potential for health education programmes during the waiting time and the form such a health education programme should take. The setting was the King Khalid University Hospital Outpatient Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study sample was selected by a systematic random sample approach of one in every 10 patients or companions visiting the clinic in a period of 2 weeks. The results showed an average waiting time of 148 min with a standard deviation of 11 min. Patients currently engage in reading, sleeping or talking during long waiting time. However, they showed a preference for health education programmes for specific diseases such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus and bowel diseases during the waiting time. Leaflets were favoured to be the most preferred mode for disseminating such information. A sizeable proportion of patients also wanted religious programmes included. We conclude that education programmes for preferred specific health topics at outpatient clinic services would be of potential benefit to patients' overall health.

  15. Effect of emergency physician burnout on patient waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Carla; Philippon, Anne-Laure; Krastinova, Evguenia; Hausfater, Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Adnet, Frederic; Freund, Yonathan

    2017-07-04

    Burnout is common in emergency physicians. This syndrome may negatively affect patient care and alter work productivity. We seek to assess whether burnout of emergency physicians impacts waiting times in the emergency department. Prospective study in an academic ED. All patients who visited the main ED for a 4-month period in 2016 were included. Target waiting times are assigned by triage nurse to patients on arrival depending on their severity. The primary endpoint was an exceeded target waiting time for ED patients. All emergency physicians were surveyed by a psychologist to assess their level of burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We defined the level of burnout of the day in the ED as the mean burnout level of the physicians working that day (8:30 to the 8:30 the next day). A logistic regression model was performed to assess whether burnout level of the day was independently associated with prolonged waiting times, along with previously reported predictors. Target waiting time was exceeded in 7524 patients (59%). Twenty-six emergency physicians were surveyed. Median burnout score was 35 [Interquartile (24-49)]. A burnout level of the day higher than 35 was independently associated with an exceeded target waiting time (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.39-1.70), together with previously reported predictors (i.e., day of the week, time of the day, trauma, age and daily census). Burnout of emergency physicians was independently associated with a prolonged waiting time for patients visiting the ED.

  16. Respiratory viral RNA on toys in pediatric office waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Diane E; Hendley, J Owen; Schwartz, Richard H

    2010-02-01

    Toys in pediatric office waiting rooms may be fomites for transmission of viruses. Eighteen samples were taken from office objects on 3 occasions. Samples were tested for presence of picornavirus (either rhinovirus or enterovirus) on all 3 sample days; in addition, January samples were tested for respiratory syncytial virus and March samples were tested for influenza A and B. In addition, 15 samples were obtained from the sick waiting room before and after cleaning. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect picornavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A or B virus. Finally, 20 samples were obtained from the fingers of a researcher after handling different toys in the sick waiting room, and samples were then obtained from all the same toys; all samples were tested for picornavirus by polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected on 11 of 52 (21%) of toys sampled. Ten of the positives were picornavirus; 1 was influenza B virus. Three (30%) of 10 toys from the new toy bag, 6 of 30 (20%) in the sick child waiting room, and 2 of 12 (17%) in the well child waiting room were positive. Six (40%) of 15 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA before cleaning; after cleaning, 4 (27%) of 15 were positive in spite of the fact that RNA was removed from 4 of 6 of the original positives. Three (15%) of 20 toys in the sick waiting room were positive for picornaviral RNA, but RNA was not transferred to the fingers of the investigator who handled these toys. About 20% of the objects in a pediatric office may be contaminated with respiratory viral RNA, most commonly picornavirus RNA. Cleaning with a disinfectant cloth was only modestly effective in removing the viral RNA from the surfaces of toys, but transfer of picornaviral RNA from toys to fingers was inefficient.

  17. Satisfaction and Wait Time of Patients Visiting a Family Practice Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvater, David; Dunn, Earl V.; Townsend, Connie; Nelson, Wendy

    1988-01-01

    Data relating to wait times and time spent with nurses and physicians were recorded for 656 patients visiting a large family-practice unit. Patients were asked to provide estimates of their wait times and ratings of the acceptability of these wait intervals. Actual wait times were usually longer than those estimated by the patient, and total wait times were considered reasonable. The results of the study show high levels of patient satisfaction and indicate that few patients are dissatisfied until total wait time exceeds forty-five minutes. Different age groups appear to have different expectations, however, and younger patients are more likely to be dissatisfied with their wait times. PMID:21264021

  18. Don't stop the clock: manipulating hospital waiting lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David A; Storey, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the theoretical and practical management implications of a case involving the falsification of hospital patient waiting lists for elective orthopaedic surgery. This case study is based on qualitative schedule-structured interviews with 20 senior hospital staff (managerial and clinical), including the head of the investigation team, downloads from the hospital website, and internal hospital documentation. Those data were used to construct an event narrative exploring the underlying causes and implications of the incident. The blame for misconduct pointed at three surgeons, a senior manager, a general manager, an assistant general manager, one administrative staff member, and several organizational factors. In addition to censuring some of those involved, an investigation recommended changes to training and working practices, policies and procedures, governance arrangements, and organization culture, and led to an external evaluation of the hospital board. However, one year later, another similar incident occurred. This is a single case, and events are viewed through a management lens, the individuals concerned being protected by research ethics considerations. By detailing the sequence of events, surrounding conditions, and the reactions of multiple players, this analysis reveals typified responses to incidents of this kind, and the limitations inherent in post-event investigations. If the benefits derived from national targets are to be realized in a manner which commands support from staff at all levels, then greater attention should be paid by managers and regulators to issues of transparency, responsiveness, and honesty. As core dimensions of good governance, managers must be accountable for helping to meet targets, and also for tracking how targets are met, ensuring that resources are made available, and that problematic issues raised are promptly and effectively addressed. Studies of organizational misbehaviour are rare in healthcare

  19. Studies of Itokawa's Surface Exposure by Measurements of Cosmic-ray Produced Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    We plan to investigate the evolutionary history of surface materials from 25143 Itokawa, the Hayabusa samples. Our studies are based on the measurement of nuclides produced in asteroidal surface materials by cosmic rays. Cosmogenic radionuclides are used to determine the duration and nature of the exposure of materials to energetic particles. Our goals are to understand both the fundamental processes on the asteroidal surface and the evolutionary history of its surface materials. They are also key to understanding the history of Itokawa's surface and asteroid-meteoroid evolutionary dynamics. To achieve our key goals, in particular reconstructing the evolutionary histories of the asteroidal surface, we proposed: (1) characterizing Itokawa particles using SXCT, SXRD, and FE-SEM without modification of the sample; (2) embedding each particle in acrylic resin, then slicing a small corner with an ultra-microtome and examining it using super-STEM and SIMS for characterizing surface morphology, space weathering, and oxygen three-isotope analysis; and finally (3) measuring small amounts of cosmogenic radionuclides (104-105 atoms) in Hayabusa samples by AMS. However, we have to modify our plan due to unexpected situation.

  20. Deposition, adhere and remobilization of radioactive nuclide on surface and materials covered on the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanabusa, Tatsuo; Chiba, Masaru; Kurita, Susumu; Sato, Junji; Maki, hiroatsu; Okada, Kikuo; Mori, Hideaki [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of radioactive nuclide released from nuclear installation on human body, new model with retraveling process was developed. This retraveling process was changed by the surface state of the earth, for example, soil, grass (field) and tree. Study method of retraveling of particles adhered on grass and tree into the atmosphere was the following: the relation between particles retraveling rate and wind velocity was observed by a wind tunnel experiment. Then, the retraveling experiment was carried out in the natural environment. The effect of environmental factor on the retraveling rate was studied by comparing two experiments. Then, an experimental equation was derived from these results. We used Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl, Eurya emarginata Makino and Lycopodium clavatum L. as samples of grass, tree and particles, respectably. On grass, the retraveling rate decreased monotonously at the wind tunnel experiment, but it was changed by time at the experiment in the field. When a light set up in the wind tunnel and the capture rate of particle on the surface of grass was measured, the results showed the capture decreased monotonously under no light. However, when the wind tunnel lighted up well, the capture increase 3 times as much as no light. So that, sun light affected on retraveling of particle. (S.Y.)

  1. High Accuracy Mass Measurement of the Dripline Nuclides $^{12,14}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    State-of-the art, three-body nuclear models that describe halo nuclides require the binding energy of the halo neutron(s) as a critical input parameter. In the case of $^{14}$Be, the uncertainty of this quantity is currently far too large (130 keV), inhibiting efforts at detailed theoretical description. A high accuracy, direct mass deterlnination of $^{14}$Be (as well as $^{12}$Be to obtain the two-neutron separation energy) is therefore required. The measurement can be performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer, which is presently the only possible solution due to required accuracy (10 keV) and short half-life (4.5 ms). Having achieved a 5 keV uncertainty for the mass of $^{11}$Li (8.6 ms), MISTRAL has proved the feasibility of such measurements. Since the current ISOLDE production rate of $^{14}$Be is only about 10/s, the installation of a beam cooler is underway in order to improve MISTRAL transmission. The projected improvement of an order of magnitude (in each transverse direction) will make this measureme...

  2. A multi-layered active target for the study of neutron-unbound nuclides at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica; Gueye, Paul; Redpath, Thomas; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of neutron-unbound nuclides were investigated using a multi-layered Si/Be active target designed for use with the MoNA/LISA setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron (NSCL). The setup consists of the MoNA/LISA arrays (for neutron detection) and a superconducting sweeper magnet (for charged separation) to identify products following the decay of neutron unbound states. The segmented target consisted of three 700 mg/cm2 beryllium targets and four 0.14 mm thick 62x62 mm2 silicon detectors. As a commissioning experiment for the target the decay of two-neutron unbound 26O populated in a one-proton removal reaction from a radioactive 27F beam was performed. The 27F secondary radioactive beam from the NSCL's Coupled Cyclotron Facility was produced from the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam incident on a thick beryllium target and then cleanly selected by the A1900 fragment separator. The energy loss and position spectra of the incoming beam and reaction products were used to calibrate the Silicon detectors to within 1.5% in both energy and position. A dedicated Geant4 model of the target was developed to simulate the energy loss within the target. A description of the experimental setup, simulation work, and energy and position calibration will be presented. DoE/NNSA - DE-NA0000979.

  3. Cosmogenic nuclides in cometary materials: Implications for rate of mass loss and exposure history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, G. F.; Englert, P. A. J.; Reedy, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    As planned, the Rosetta mission will return to earth with a 10-kg core and a 1-kg surface sample from a comet. The selection of a comet with low current activity will maximize the chance of obtaining material altered as little as possible. Current temperature and level of activity, however, may not reliably indicate previous values. Fortunately, from measurements of the cosmogenic nuclide contents of cometary material, one may estimate a rate of mass loss in the past and perhaps learn something about the exposure history of the comet. Perhaps the simplest way to estimate the rate of mass loss is to compare the total inventories of several long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides with the values expected on the basis of model calculations. Although model calculations have become steadily more reliable, application to bodies with the composition of comets will require some extension beyond the normal range of use. In particular, the influence of light elements on the secondary particle cascade will need study, in part through laboratory irradiations of volatile-rich materials. In the analysis of cometary data, it would be valuable to test calculations against measurements of short-lived isotopes.

  4. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  5. Waiting Lists for Radiation Therapy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why waiting lists arise and how to address them remains unclear, and an improved understanding of these waiting list "dynamics" could lead to better management. The purpose of this study is to understand how the current shortage in radiation therapy in Ontario developed; the implications of prolonged waits; who is held accountable for managing such delays; and short, intermediate, and long-term solutions. Methods A case study of the radiation therapy shortage in 1998-99 at Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Relevant documents were collected; semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with ten administrators, health care workers, and patients were conducted, audio-taped and transcribed; and relevant meetings were observed. Results The radiation therapy shortage arose from a complex interplay of factors including: rising cancer incidence rates; broadening indications for radiation therapy; human resources management issues; government funding decisions; and responsiveness to previous planning recommendations. Implications of delays include poorer cancer control rates; patient suffering; and strained doctor-patient relationships. An incompatible relationship exists between moral responsibility, borne by government, and legal liability, borne by physicians. Short-term solutions include re-referral to centers with available resources; long-term solutions include training and recruiting health care workers, improving workload standards, increasing compensation, and making changes to the funding formula. Conclusion Human resource planning plays a critical role in the causes and solutions of waiting lists. Waiting lists have harsh implications for patients. Accountability relationships require realignment.

  6. Watchful Waiting Strategy May Reduce Low-Value Diagnostic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Larissa; Franks, Peter; Jerant, Anthony; Fenton, Joshua

    PCPs need effective communication strategies to address patient requests for low-value testing while sustaining patient-provider partnerships. Watchful waiting - allowing a negotiated period of time to pass before making a firm testing decision - shows promise as a tool for addressing patient requests for low-value testing. Observational analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of a communication intervention designed to boost patient-centeredness and reduce low-value test ordering among 61 resident primary care physicians. Intervention effectiveness was assessed during follow-up encounters of unannounced standardized patients (SPs) who requested low-value tests. We examined associations between five physician counseling behaviors and overall patient-centeredness (Measure of Patient-Centered Communication) and requested test ordering. During 155 SP encounters, residents most commonly used reassurance (96% of encounters), evidence-based recommendations (97%), and watchful waiting (68 %). Resident advice to pursue watchful waiting was associated with 39% lower likelihood of test ordering (adjusted marginal effect of -38.6% [95% CI -43.6 to -33.6]). When all communication behaviors were examined together, only watchful waiting was significantly associated with test ordering (marginal effect of -38% [95% CI -44.3% to -31.7%]). Overall patient-centeredness was not associated with low-value testing. Resident physician counseling to pursue watchful waiting was associated with less ordering of requested low-value diagnostic tests, while overall patient-centeredness was not. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  7. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3 / 2 , 5 / 2 , 7 / 2, and 9 / 2. These results are essential to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed.

  8. Workshop on the production, application and clinical translation of ''non-standard'' PET nuclides: a meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J S; Welch, M J; Tang, L

    2008-06-01

    A one-day satellite workshop was organized to coincide with the 17(th) International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences held in Aachen, Germany, April 30-May 4, 2007. The workshop, ''Production and application of non-standard' PET nuclides'', was held on Sunday April 29, 2007 at the Eurogress Aachen and was organized by J. Lewis, PhD, L. Tang, and M. Welch, PhD. The workshop was designed for the radiopharmaceutical community discussing the production, use and dissemination of the ''non-standard'' PET nuclides. The definition of ''non-standard'' positron emission tomography (PET) nuclides included (45)Ti, (60)Cu, (61)Cu, (64)Cu, (66)Ga, (72)As, (74)As, (76)Br, (86)Y, (89)Zr, (94)mTc and (124)I. The workshop was supported by the grant Research Resource for Cancer Applications (R24 CA86307) funded by the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. The workshop was attended by over 110 scientists and engineers from over 20 countries from all over the world and was designed with an open forum style to allow for discussions and interactions by all participants. All of the invited speakers were asked to make a contribution to this edition of the Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine. The individual articles following this introduction are reviews of their area of expertise and the current state-of-the-art. This introduction briefly describes the role of the workshop, the aims and the general outcome. Also, the translation of these nuclides to the clinic, perhaps the most important goal of this work is discussed in this introductory article.

  9. Reevaluation of the average prompt neutron emission multiplicity (nubar) values from fission of uranium and transuranium nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a need of the safeguards community, we have begun an evaluation effort to upgrade the recommended values of the prompt neutron emission multiplicity distribution, P/sub nu/ and its average value, nubar. This paper will report on progress achieved thus far. The evaluation of the uranium, plutonium, americium and curium nuclide's nubar values will be presented. The recommended values will be given and discussed. 61 references.

  10. Sequential multi-nuclide emission rate estimation method based on gamma dose rate measurement for nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaole, E-mail: zhangxiaole10@outlook.com [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany); Institute of Public Safety Research, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Trybushnyi, Dmytro; Li, Yu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Sequentially reconstruct multi-nuclide emission using gamma dose rate measurements. • Incorporate a priori ratio of nuclides into the background error covariance matrix. • Sequentially augment and update the estimation and the background error covariance. • Suppress the generation of negative estimations for the sequential method. • Evaluate the new method with twin experiments based on the JRODOS system. - Abstract: In case of a nuclear accident, the source term is typically not known but extremely important for the assessment of the consequences to the affected population. Therefore the assessment of the potential source term is of uppermost importance for emergency response. A fully sequential method, derived from a regularized weighted least square problem, is proposed to reconstruct the emission and composition of a multiple-nuclide release using gamma dose rate measurement. The a priori nuclide ratios are incorporated into the background error covariance (BEC) matrix, which is dynamically augmented and sequentially updated. The negative estimations in the mathematical algorithm are suppressed by utilizing artificial zero-observations (with large uncertainties) to simultaneously update the state vector and BEC. The method is evaluated by twin experiments based on the JRodos system. The results indicate that the new method successfully reconstructs the emission and its uncertainties. Accurate a priori ratio accelerates the analysis process, which obtains satisfactory results with only limited number of measurements, otherwise it needs more measurements to generate reasonable estimations. The suppression of negative estimation effectively improves the performance, especially for the situation with poor a priori information, where it is more prone to the generation of negative values.

  11. VRF ("Visual RobFit") — nuclear spectral analysis with non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasche, George; Coldwell, Robert; Metzger, Robert

    2017-09-01

    A new application (known as "VRF", or "Visual RobFit") for analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra has been developed using non-linear fitting techniques to fit full-spectrum nuclide shapes. In contrast to conventional methods based on the results of an initial peak-search, the VRF analysis method forms, at each of many automated iterations, a spectrum-wide shape for each nuclide and, also at each iteration, it adjusts the activities of each nuclide, as well as user-enabled parameters of energy calibration, attenuation by up to three intervening or self-absorbing materials, peak width as a function of energy, full-energy peak efficiency, and coincidence summing until no better fit to the data can be obtained. This approach, which employs a new and significantly advanced underlying fitting engine especially adapted to nuclear spectra, allows identification of minor peaks that are masked by larger, overlapping peaks that would not otherwise be possible. The application and method are briefly described and two examples are presented.

  12. A simplified model for estimating health effects due to leaching of long-lived nuclides stored in a radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robkin, M

    1984-02-01

    Evaluation of alternate methods of treating long-lived radionuclides to be stored in a waste repository include evaluating the differences in health effects from a potential release due to the distribution of nuclides produced by each method. The potential for release and the health effects extend into the indefinite future so predictions of human behavior become speculative. A simple model is proposed which incorporates the nuclides in the repository, leached, in transit in ground water, discharged to surface water, used for irrigation, taken up into crops and ingested. The model yields a solution of simple form and permits the evaluation of potential health effects per unit activity of a nuclide initially placed in the repository. The model is applied to calculate the potential health effects due to the nuclides occurring in a 4n, 4n + 1, 4n + 2, and 4n + 3 decay chain.

  13. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The aim...... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology. Subjects...... a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of six...

  14. Waiting lists and elective surgery: ordering the queue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrea J; Russell, Colin O H; Stoelwinder, Johannes U; McNeil, John J

    2010-02-15

    In the Australian public health system, access to elective surgery is rationed through the use of waiting lists in which patients are assigned to broad urgency categories. Surgeons are principally responsible for referring patients to waiting lists, deciding on the appropriate urgency category, and selecting patients from the waiting list to receive surgery. There are few agreed-upon criteria to help surgeons make these decisions, leading to striking differences between institutions in proportions of patients allocated to urgency categories. In other countries with publicly funded health systems, programs have been developed that aim to make prioritisation more consistent and access to surgery more equitable. As demand for health care increases, similar programs should be established in Australia using relevant clinical and psychosocial factors. Prioritisation methodology adapted for elective surgery may have a role in prioritising high-demand procedures in other areas of health care.

  15. Waiting Time as an Index of Quality of Nursing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, R. K. Dieter

    1970-01-01

    A model of the patient care process, based on queueing theory, is described and its parameters defined empirically for application to a burn unit. For the particular case, the model is shown to provide a close approximation to observed data. The model is descriptive, with an output of expected waiting times for various priorities of patient demand. The waiting times so estimated constitute an index of the quality of nursing care and afford a means of predicting changes in quality with changes in staffing or inpatient load. The model facilitates investigation of the relationships among three factors: patient condition, nurses' activity priorities, and patient load per nurse. PMID:5482376

  16. Pricing in M/M/1 queues when cost of waiting in queue differs from cost of waiting in service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görkem Sarıyer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Service providers can adjust the entrance price to the state of the demand in real life service systems where the customers' decision to receive the service, is based on this price, state of demand and other system parameters. We analyzed service provider's short and long term pricing problems in unobservable M/M/1 queues having the rational customers, where, for customers, the unit cost of waiting in the queue is higher than unit cost of waiting in the service. We showed that waiting in the queue has a clear negative effect on customers’ utilities, hence the service provider's price values. We also showed that, in the short term, monopolistic pricing is optimal for congested systems with high server utilization levels, whereas in the long term, market capturing pricing is more profitable.

  17. Patient Satisfaction with Wait-Times for Breast Cancer Surgery in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana; Gadag, Vereesh; West, Roy

    2016-02-01

    Do shorter waits for breast cancer surgery lead to greater wait-related patient satisfaction? Using survey and cancer clinic chart data of 99 patients with breast cancer from Newfoundland and Labrador, we found that median wait-time from first visit to a surgeon to surgery was 22.0 days and 87% were satisfied with their wait-time. Wait-related satisfaction was not associated with the length of wait but rather with the stage, severity of treatment, wait-time for a diagnosis and satisfaction with diagnosis-related wait. These findings highlight the importance of an early and timely diagnosis in patients' perceptions of breast cancer care wait-times. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  18. Reducing wait time in a hospital pharmacy to promote customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different interventions on wait times at a hospital outpatient pharmacy: (1) giving feedback to employees about customer satisfaction with wait times and (2) giving a combined intervention package that included giving more specific feedback about actual wait times and goal setting for wait time reduction in addition to the customer satisfaction feedback. The relationship between customer satisfaction ratings and wait times was examined to determine whether wait times affected customer service satisfaction. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCBA' within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction; and A' was a follow-up condition that was similar to the original baseline condition. Wait times were reduced by approximately 20%, and there was concomitant increased shift in levels of customer satisfaction, as indicated by the correlation between these variables (r = -0.57 and P customer's wait time. Data from this study may provide useful preliminary benchmarking data for standard pharmacy wait times.

  19. Deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica from glacial geomorphology and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. J.; Hein, A. S.; Sugden, D. E.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Shanks, R.; Xu, S.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.

    2017-02-01

    The retreat history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is important for understanding rapid deglaciation, as well as to constrain numerical ice sheet models and ice loading models required for glacial isostatic adjustment modelling. There is particular debate about the extent of grounded ice in the Weddell Sea embayment at the Last Glacial Maximum, and its subsequent deglacial history. Here we provide a new dataset of geomorphological observations and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure ages of erratic samples that constrain the deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, adjacent to the present day Foundation Ice Stream and Academy Glacier in the southern Weddell Sea embayment. We show there is evidence of at least two glaciations, the first of which was relatively old and warm-based, and a more recent cold-based glaciation. During the most recent glaciation ice thickened by at least 450 m in the Williams Hills and at least 380 m on Mt Bragg. Progressive thinning from these sites was well underway by 10 ka BP and ice reached present levels by 2.5 ka BP, and is broadly similar to the relatively modest thinning histories in the southern Ellsworth Mountains. The thinning history is consistent with, but does not mandate, a Late Holocene retreat of the grounding line to a smaller-than-present configuration, as has been recently hypothesized based on ice sheet and glacial isostatic modelling. The data also show that clasts with complex exposure histories are pervasive and that clast recycling is highly site-dependent. These new data provide constraints on a reconstruction of the retreat history of the formerly-expanded Foundation Ice Stream, derived using a numerical flowband model.

  20. ^{10}Be cosmogenic nuclide chronology of the latest Pleistocene glacial stages in the High Tatra Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opyrchał, Ewelina; Zasadni, Jerzy; Kłapyta, Piotr; Christl, Marcus; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2017-04-01

    During the Pleistocene glaciers readvanced several times, shaping the mountains and building the variety of landforms which can be used to reconstruct paleo-glaciers and better understand their response to climate changes as well as the influences from the local topography. The aim of this project is to investigate the timing and geometry of glacier advances during the final stages of the last glaciation in the Tatra Mountains. This study comprises detailed geomorphological mapping of landforms, absolute and relative dating, which were applied in the the Veľká Studená Valley, selected as a case study for the Tatra Mountains. The 10Be cosmogenic nuclide dating method was used to investigate the deglaciation history by dating the absolute time since the rock surface has been exposed by glacier. Surfaces selected for dating were also tested using the Schmidt-hammer tool to establish a relative chronology of landforms in the valley. In the highest parts of the mountains two well-developed systems of moraines and relict rock glaciers are present. The younger system can be attributed to glaciers activity during the Younger Dryas whereas the older one represents most likely pre-Bolling-Allerod glacier activity. Both systems are limited to the glacial cirque but are significantly different in their geometry, reconstructed direction of glacier advance and observed landform freshness. In addition, an analysis of snow persistence using Landsat imagery and a Normalized Differential Snow Index (NDSI) has been performed. Patterns obtained from NDSI reveal recent late-spring and early-summer snow patches and indicate sites prone to glacier inception, growth and readvance in accordance with the spatial extent of glaciers during their last activity in the investigated mountain range. This research was funded by the Polish National Science Centre (NCN) grant No. 2015/17/B/ST10/03127.

  1. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obstetric care including the application of task shifting of higher responsibilities to relatively lowly qualified health workers markedly improved outcomes in many developing countries 4,8. While maternity waiting homes have been successfully used in reducing maternal mortality in other setups9,10, little quantitative research ...

  2. Quality Improvement Cycles that Reduced Waiting Times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys were done in May and September to analyse the problems causing prolonged waiting times. The implemented change included instituting a functional triage system, improvement of the process of up- and down-referrals to and from the tertiary hospital, easy access to stock, reorganisation of doctors' duty roster, ...

  3. Waiting time among acute abdominal emergencies in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background-In many patients presenting with an acute surgical abdomen, the outcome of management is determined by the promptness of the appropriate surgical intervention. The average interval the patient has to spent waiting for treatment at first presentation to hospital with an acute abdominal emergency is unknown ...

  4. The Ultimate $uperpower: Supersized Dollars Drive "Waiting for "Superman"" Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, according to this author, "follow the money" has been an axiom in both journalism and politics--although, as Shakespeare might complain, one "more honour'd in the breach than the observance." It is useful to resurrect the axiom in analyzing the multimedia buzz and policy debates swirling around the movie "Waiting for…

  5. Maternity waiting homes in Rural Health Centers of Ethiop: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    had modern corrugated iron roof and brick wall structures that were ... 123.64. Fisher's=0.00. The roof of the waiting home ..... and sometimes, we would walk in the compound which is neat and green.” The health care staff's courtesy, passion, and cooperation were an excellent experience for women staying at the MWHs.

  6. Waiting times in discrete-time cyclic-service systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxma, O. J.; Groenendijk, W. P.

    1987-03-01

    Single-server, multiqueue systems with cyclic service in discrete time are considered. Nonzero switchover times between consecutive queues are assumed; the service strategies at the various queues may differ. A decomposition for the amount of work in such systems is obtained, leading to an exact expression for a weighted sum of the mean waiting times at the various queues.

  7. Did Not Wait Patient Management Strategy (DNW PMS) Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Keeffe, Fran

    2011-06-14

    Objectives This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of senior emergency medicine specialists\\' review of all \\'did not wait\\' (DNW) patients\\' triage notes and the recall of at-risk patients. Methods A prospective study of all DNW patients was performed from 1 January to 31 December 2008. Following a daily review of charts of those who failed to wait to be seen, those patients considered to be at risk of adverse outcome were contacted by the liaison team and advised to return. Data were gathered on all DNW patients on the Oracle database and interrogated using the Diver solution. Results 2872 (6.3%) of 45 959 patients did not wait to be seen. 107 (3.7%) were recalled on the basis of senior emergency medicine doctor review of the patients\\' triage notes. Variables found to be associated with increased likelihood of being recalled included triage category (p<0.001), male sex (p<0.004) and certain clinical presentations. The presenting complaints associated with being recalled were chest pain (p<0.001) and alcohol\\/drug overdose (p=0.001). 9.4% of DNW patients required admission following recall. Conclusion The systematic senior doctor review of triage notes led to 3.7% of patients who failed to wait being recalled. 9.4% of those recalled required acute admission. The daily review of DNW patients\\' triage notes and the recalling of at-risk patients is a valuable addition to our risk management strategy.

  8. Did Not Wait Patient Management Strategy (DNW PMS) Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of senior emergency medicine specialists\\' review of all \\'did not wait\\' (DNW) patients\\' triage notes and the recall of at-risk patients. Methods A prospective study of all DNW patients was performed from 1 January to 31 December 2008. Following a daily review of charts of those who failed to wait to be seen, those patients considered to be at risk of adverse outcome were contacted by the liaison team and advised to return. Data were gathered on all DNW patients on the Oracle database and interrogated using the Diver solution. Results 2872 (6.3%) of 45 959 patients did not wait to be seen. 107 (3.7%) were recalled on the basis of senior emergency medicine doctor review of the patients\\' triage notes. Variables found to be associated with increased likelihood of being recalled included triage category (p<0.001), male sex (p<0.004) and certain clinical presentations. The presenting complaints associated with being recalled were chest pain (p<0.001) and alcohol\\/drug overdose (p=0.001). 9.4% of DNW patients required admission following recall. Conclusion The systematic senior doctor review of triage notes led to 3.7% of patients who failed to wait being recalled. 9.4% of those recalled required acute admission. The daily review of DNW patients\\' triage notes and the recalling of at-risk patients is a valuable addition to our risk management strategy.

  9. Potential impact of enhanced practice efficiency on endoscopy waiting times.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, G C

    2009-06-01

    With the growing demand on endoscopy services, optimising practice efficiency has assumed increasing importance. Prior research has identified practice changes, which increase the efficiency in endoscopy. In this study, the potential impact of these practice changes on the current and projected future endoscopy waiting times at our institution was assessed.

  10. EVALUTION OF THE SINGLE INTERCITY FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION WAITING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ponomariova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The example of vechicle operation on the pendulum intercity route during single freightages processing is considered. Two approaches to the definition of the single freightage waiting time by the carrier are proposed. These approaches allow to take into account the probability of the single freightage obtaining by the carrier during the different load level of the transport enterprise capacity.

  11. Waiting Time Policies in the Health Care Sector. What Works?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Bech, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    times. In addition, a range of other measures may indirectly have affected waiting times, such as a general increase in spending on health care, the general practitioners’ role as gate-keepers, increased use of activity-based hospital reimbursement, increasing use of private heath insurance and private...

  12. Waiting for the Russians: Coetzee's The Master of Petersburg and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A meditation on transition time and on the protracted dimension of waiting for a new world to be born, the novel also presents a model of connectivity between Russia and South Africa. It places post-apartheid culture in a special relationship to postcolonialism and the global configuration born at the end of the Cold War.

  13. Waiting to Drive (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-09

    Over the past 10 years, the number of fatal motor-vehicle crashes involving teenage drivers has declined by more than 50 percent. This podcast discusses the trend of teens waiting until they are older to drive.  Created: 4/9/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/9/2015.

  14. Info card for surgery waiting room improves satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A hospital is reporting improved patient satisfaction from providing an information card in the surgery department. The card includes expected wait times. The card is provided by the patient transport team. Telephone numbers are included for more information. Staff update family members hourly during surgery.

  15. Waiting in the wings : New parties in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, Andre; Lucardie, Paul

    Even in the relatively open political system of the Netherlands, most new parties never pass the threshold of representation and keep waiting in vain in the wings of political power. Since 1989 only 10 out of 63 newcomers gained one or more seats in parliament, owing to a favourable political

  16. Waiting in the wings: New parties in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, A.P.M.; Lucardie, P.

    2008-01-01

    Even in the relatively open political system of the Netherlands, most new parties never pass the threshold of representation and keep waiting in vain in the wings of political power. Since 1989 only 10 out of 63 newcomers gained one or more seats in parliament, owing to a favourable political

  17. Self-Stabilization of Wait-Free Shared Memory Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Papatriantafilou, Marina; Tsigas, Philippas

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a general definition of self-stabilizing wait-free shared memory objects. The definition ensures that, even in the face of processor failures, every execution after a transient memory failure is linearizable except for an a priori bounded number of actions. Shared registers have

  18. Public Mode Access And Waiting Time Variability In Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines public mode access and waiting time variations in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data for the study were sought through a comprehensive field survey using a travel diary questionnaire. A total of 623 households were surveyed in 342 dwelling units. The results indicate that variations in modal access and ...

  19. Waiting line, the border and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tejeda González

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The philosophic discussion is the departure point related to Nietzsche and Heiddeger, about the coming of the nihilism to introduce us in the subjects of the border in the modern and postmodern world. That existencial condition approaches us the experience in the border, and to the fact to transfer and to live in the edges. In other dimensions, we found the present time of that philosophic debate, since the border subject acquires centrality. In the social, politic, and cultural land we paradoxically see as globalization leads to an weakeing of the borders and an increase of its importances. The border demarcation continues being important, but now it has to do with the proliferation of agents, regional and global forces, and tendencies make of the border a blurred and opened institution. The increase of the interdependence are causing that migration and border transfering to be changing the face of communities of many countries of the present world. The national states are painted of color by those migratory movements that give the diversity, the pluralidad and the multiculturalismo in the before homogeneous societies.

  20. Worth the Wait? Using Past Patterns to Determine Wait Periods for E-Books Released after Print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This paper asks if there is an optimal wait period for e-books that balances libraries' desire to acquire books soon after their publication with the frequent desire to purchase books electronically whenever feasible. Analyzing 13,043 titles that Temple University Libraries received on its e-preferred approval plan in 2014-15, the author looks at…

  1. Capture reactions into borromean two-proton systems at rp-waiting points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Fynbo, H. O. U.

    2016-01-01

    bound state is described both based on a full three-body calculation and on a very simple analytic rate expression for temperatures about $1-5$~GK. This rate is valid for both direct and sequential capture paths, and it only depends on the three-body resonance energy. As a result the relevant path...... of the radiative capture reactions can be determined. We present numerical results for $E1$ and $E2$ photon emission, and discuss occurrence preferences in general as well as relative sizes of these most likely processes. Finally, we present narrow estimated intervals for the proton capture rates relevant...

  2. Uranium and thorium nuclides series determined in medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Francisconi, L.; Damatto, S. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years the study of medicinal plants has become the focus of ever more extensive research all over the world due to their diversity and potential as source of medicinal products. According to the World Health Organization approximately 80% of world population makes use of medicinal herbs due to their believed therapeutic action. Besides being used as medicine, medicinal plants are also largely used as dietary supplements. The presence of radionuclides in plants constitutes one of the main pathways for their transfer to man. The amount of radioactive nuclides from U and Th series in edible vegetables are relatively well known since they have been the main concern of research conducted worldwide. Medicinal plants, on the other hand, have been neglected in these studies, possibly because the ingestion of radioactive material through their consumption has not been recognized or was considered insignificant. The objective of the present study was to determine the content of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in 25 species of medicinal plants used in Brazil, both as medicine and as dietary supplement. The medicinal plant samples were obtained in specialized pharmacies and drugstores. The raw plant and their extracts, produced as recommended by the National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance, were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses for the determination of U and Th and by Total Alpha and Beta Counting after Radiochemical Separation for determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. In the raw plants the activity concentrations varied from 0,08 Bq kg{sup -1} to 8,0 Bq kg{sup -1} for thorium, from < LID to 22 Bq kg{sup -1} for uranium, from 1,8 Bq kg{sup -1} to 12 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 33 Bq kg{sup -1} to 74 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and from 10 Bq kg{sup -1} to 120 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. In the extracts, the activity concentrations varied from 9 mBq kg{sup -1} to 137 mBq kg{sup -1} for Th

  3. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ...

  4. Patient satisfaction with ambulatory healthcare services: waiting time and filling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansky, K H; Miles, J

    1997-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is an important measure of service quality in healthcare organizations. This study investigated the relationship between patient waiting and satisfaction with ambulatory healthcare services, with waiting times divided into segments of the patient-care episode. Two management techniques to alter perceptions of waiting were also examined. Regression models measuring the effect of waiting times on satisfaction found that the total time spent waiting for the clinician was the most significant predictor of patient satisfaction. Informing patients how long their wait would be and being occupied during the wait were also significant predictors of patient satisfaction. These results show that waiting times, even if they cannot be shortened, can be managed more effectively to improve patient satisfaction.

  5. The effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing anxiety in health care waiting spaces: a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; Knibbe, Tara Joy; McPherson, Amy

    2014-08-01

    lowered-state anxiety (-5.1 ± 0.53 points on the State Trait Anxiety Scale) than those who received standard care. The efficacy of aromatherapy was inconclusive. Studies reporting on the impact of improved interior design of waiting areas, while positive, are minimal and heterogeneous. For children, insufficient evidence is available to corroborate the effectiveness of play opportunities, media distractions, and music for mitigating anxiety in children awaiting medical procedures. Music is a well-established means of decreasing anxiety in adult patients awaiting medical interventions. The effect of music on children's anxiety is not known. Limited studies and heterogeneity of interventions and methods in the areas of aromatherapy, interior design, digital media, and play opportunities (for children) suggest the need for future research.

  6. Dependence of nuclear quadrupole resonance transitions on the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for nuclides with half-integer spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Allowed transition energies and eigenstate expansions have been calculated and tabulated in numerical form as functions of the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter for the zero field Hamiltonian of quadrupolar nuclides with I = 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2. These results may be used to interpret nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectra and extract accurate values of the electric field gradient tensors. Applications of NQR methods to studies of electronic structure in heavy element systems are proposed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Heavy Element Chemistry program.

  7. Recent developments and on-line tests of uranium carbide targets for production of nuclides far from stability

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Barzakh, A.E; Fedorov, D.V; Ionan, A.M; Ivanov, V.S; Mezilev, K.A; Molkanov, P.L; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M; Alyakrinskiy, O; Lanchais, A; Lau, C; Lhersonneau, G; Rizzi, V; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L.B; Dubois, M; Eleon, C; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Saint Laurent, M.G; Villari, A.C.C; Essabaa, S; O. Bajeat; Mhamed, C; Leroy, R; 10.1140/epjst/e2007-00328-y

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of uranium carbide target materials of different structure and density for production of neutron-rich and heavy neutron-deficient nuclides have been investigated. The yields of Cs and Fr produced by a 1 GeV proton beam of the PNPI synchrocyclotron and release properties of different targets have been measured. The comparison of the yields and release efficiencies of Cs and Fr produced from a high density UC target material and from low density UCx prepared by the ISOLDE method at IRIS in the collaboration with PARRNe group from Orsay are presented. The yields from ISOLDE original target are presented for comparison as well.

  8. Mass measurements of the exotic nuclides {sup 11}Li and {sup 11,12}Be performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaulard, C. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, IN2P3-CNRS, Batiment 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)], E-mail: gaulard@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Bachelet, C.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Saint Simon, M. de; Sewtz, M.; Thibault, C. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, IN2P3-CNRS, Batiment 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2009-07-15

    The mass of the halo nuclide {sup 11}Li has been measured with unprecedented precision with the MISTRAL mass spectrometer at CERN's ISOLDE facility. Its resulting two-neutron separation energy, S{sub 2n}=378{+-}5 keV, is 25% higher than the previously accepted value and about an order of magnitude more precise than any of the previous measurements. We also report measurement of the masses of {sup 11}Be and {sup 12}Be. The detailed analysis of these results and their evaluation are presented, along with a discussion concerning mass models.

  9. Perceptions of cardiac rehabilitation patients, specialists and rehabilitation programs regarding cardiac rehabilitation wait times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sherry L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS Access to Care Working Group recommended a 30-day wait time benchmark for cardiac rehabilitation (CR. The objectives of the current study were to: (1 describe cardiac patient perceptions of actual and ideal CR wait times, (2 describe and compare cardiac specialist and CR program perceptions of wait times, as well as whether the recommendations are appropriate and feasible, and (3 investigate actual wait times and factors that CR programs perceive to affect these wait times. Methods Postal and online surveys to assess perceptions of CR wait times were administered to CR enrollees at intake into 1 of 8 programs, all CCS member cardiac specialists treating patients indicated for CR, and all CR programs listed in Canadian directories. Actual wait times were ascertained from the Canadian Cardiac Rehabilitation Registry. The design was cross-sectional. Responses were described and compared. Results Responses were received from 163 CR enrollees, 71 cardiac specialists (9.3% response rate, and 92 CR programs (61.7% response rate. Patients reported that their wait time from hospital discharge to CR initiation was 65.6 ± 88.4 days (median, 42 days, while their ideal median wait time was 28 days. Most patients (91.5% considered their wait to be acceptable, but ideal wait times varied significantly by the type of cardiac indication for CR. There were significant differences between specialist and program perceptions of the appropriate number of days to wait by most indications, with CR programs perceiving shorter waits as appropriate (p  Conclusions Wait times following access to cardiac rehabilitation are prolonged compared with consensus recommendations, and yet are generally acceptable to most patients. Wait times following percutaneous coronary intervention in particular may need to be shortened. Future research is required to provide an evidence base for wait time

  10. Reading of Waiting, Time and Social Change in S. N. A. Agoro's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The act of waiting as a critical feature of the human condition is the most significant and intense thematic engagement in Beckett's Waiting for Godot. The study notes that aside the circle of the absurd art in drama, the subject of waiting and time has not been given adequate dramatic representation by dramatists outside the ...

  11. Hip and knee arthroplasty waiting list – how accurate and fair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Resource-intensive procedures require the use of patient waiting lists in an attempt to increase fairness of access to surgery and improve surgical efficiency. Total hip and knee arthroplasty has waiting lists in excess of years. Objectives. To analyse our tertiary state institution's hip and knee arthroplasty waiting ...

  12. How Tolerable is Delay? Consumers' Evaluations of Internet Web Sites After Waiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Kahn, B.

    1998-01-01

    How consumers’ waiting times affect their retrospective evaluations of Internet Web Sites is investigated in four computer-based experiments. Results show that waiting can but does not always negatively affect evaluations of Web Sites. Results also show that the potential negative effects of waiting

  13. A Triage Approach to Managing a Two Year Wait-List in a Chronic Pain Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Clark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic pain referred to specialist chronic pain management programs frequently wait months to years for assessment and care. In the authors' pain management program, approximately 600 patients are on the waiting list. An innovative recommendation program to encourage and educate referring physicians to continue active care of pain during this waiting period was developed.

  14. The everyday of people waiting for kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Rezende Ferreira Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the everyday of people experiencing the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Methods: this is a qualitative research, based on Heideggerian phenomenology. 14 deponents participated in hemodialysis and registered on the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Phenomenological interview with the research question: How is the experience awaiting the kidney transplant? Color marking technique for analyzing demarcating lines that show similarity, of these, emerged the essential structures that enabled the units of meaning. Results: changing lifestyles, imposing a routine and rigidity of treatment signaling everyday stress and exhaustion of hemodialysis being. Emerging from the modes of gossip, curiosity, and bureaucracy, unfolding-inauthentic and impersonal regarding their care. Conclusion: hemodialysis dependence and awaiting kidney transplantation transfer care for family/professional caregivers. To understand the everyday marked by impositions and restrictions, the reflection about how professional health interaction/being-care becomes important.

  15. Waiting time dynamics of priority-queue networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungjoon; Goh, K-I; Kim, I-M

    2009-05-01

    We study the dynamics of priority-queue networks, generalizations of the binary interacting priority-queue model introduced by Oliveira and Vazquez [Physica A 388, 187 (2009)]. We found that the original AND-type protocol for interacting tasks is not scalable for the queue networks with loops because the dynamics becomes frozen due to the priority conflicts. We then consider a scalable interaction protocol, an OR-type one, and examine the effects of the network topology and the number of queues on the waiting time distributions of the priority-queue networks, finding that they exhibit power-law tails in all cases considered, yet with model-dependent power-law exponents. We also show that the synchronicity in task executions, giving rise to priority conflicts in the priority-queue networks, is a relevant factor in the queue dynamics that can change the power-law exponent of the waiting time distribution.

  16. Interactive media as a tool for reducing waiting anxiety at paediatric rehabilitation hospitals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; Knibbe, Tara Joy; Fehlings, Darcy; Mckeever, Patricia; Cohen, Ashley; Mcpherson, Amy

    2017-12-15

    To investigate the efficacy of waiting room media for reducing anxiety and increasing satisfaction at a paediatric rehabilitation hospital. In this clustered, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 310 young people with disabilities (age range 5-19y) and their parents attending outpatient clinics were assigned to interactive media (n=113), a silent nature video (n=97), or media-free comparison (n=100) groups. Young person and parent anxiety was reported using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) on arrival and after 10 minutes in the waiting space. Questionnaires measured young person, parent, and staff satisfaction. Young people exposed to interactive media reported a postexposure state anxiety that was 1.1 raw points (2.7 standardized points) lower on the STAI than the comparison group (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.9 to -0.22). There was no difference in postexposure state anxiety between the passive media and comparison groups (95% CI -0.64 to 1.1). Parents' state anxiety did not differ between conditions, but interactive media were associated with greater satisfaction (p=0.009). Of 120 staff, 119 reported that interactive media improved the clinic experience for families. Interactive media designed for accessible, hands-free play mitigate waiting anxiety and increases satisfaction. This paper provides evidence to guide design and decision-making around the use of interactive media in health care spaces. Interactive media reduced preclinic waiting anxiety for young people with disabilities. Interactive media were accessible to young people with a range of mobility. Interactive media increased parental and staff satisfaction in the clinic. Guidelines for the design of hands-free, inclusive interactive media for health care facilities are presented. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  17. Capture and Solidification of Rare Earth Nuclide (Nd) in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Using a Synthetic Inorganic Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na-Young; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, neodymium (Nd) nuclides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were captured and solidified using a synthetic inorganic composite (Li{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), a process that allows the selective capture of Nd and fabrication of a composite with Nd captured from waste, without additional additives or mixing. The Nd nuclides in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were mainly captured in the form of LiNdSiO{sub 4}, and it was confirmed that NdSiO{sub 3} can be formed in the composite with captured Nd when the content of Nd in the composite is increased. The capture efficiency was higher than about 98 wt%. It was thought that the salt recovered from the Nd capture test was a renewable form could be reused in the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel, because the composite has high chemical durability in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 900 ℃. The composite captured Nd was fabricated into a homogeneous glass form and a stable ceramic form.

  18. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V., E-mail: priscilaoamaral@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br, E-mail: marceloredigolo@gmail.com, E-mail: caike1995@gmail.com, E-mail: ovega@ipen.bremails [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C{sub 9}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}), clothianidin (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}S) and thiamethoxam (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 3}S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of environmental relevant nuclides with spinach powder as sample medium; Vergleichspruefung mit Spinatpulver als Probenart fuer umweltrelevante Nuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Tait, D. [Max Rubner-Institut, Kiel (Germany). Leitstelle fuer Boden, Bewuchs, Futtermittel und Nahrungsmittel pflanzlicher und tierischer Herkunft

    2014-01-20

    Spinach is cited as a representative medium for leafy vegetables in the Integrated Measurement and Information System for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS) in Germany. Fresh spinach, however, is not suitable in interlaboratory comparisons on the determination of spiked radionuclides because of the difficulties in homogeneously distributing the radionuclides and attaining a known specific activity in the samples. In contrast, spinach powder is finely milled, so that homogeneous distribution and known specific activities of the nuclides are more readily achievable. For this interlaboratory comparison spinach powder was mixed with the pure beta emitter Sr-90 and the gamma-emitting nuclides I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. After homogenization samples were dispatched to 77 laboratories from Germany and other European countries (59 in Germany, 5 in Switzerland, 4 each in the UK and Austria, and one each in France, Italy, the Netherlands, Ireland and Luxembourg). In addition to the added nuclides participants had to determine the natural radionuclide K-40. The participants were instructed to use a fast method for the determination of dry matter (DM). To check the homogeneity of the nuclide distribution 14 samples of the labeled spinach powder were randomly selected and analyzed in the Coordinating Laboratory for the Surveillance of Radioactivity in the Environment of the Max Rubner-Institute (MRI). According to DIN 13528:2005 the samples showed sufficient homogeneity of the added nuclides. For the evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) determined reference values for the the specific activities (Bq per kg DM) of the gamma emitters. The values with the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were as follows: I-131: 181 ± 6 Bq/kg; Cs-134: 34.4 ± 1.1 Bq/kg; Cs-137: 11.1 ± 0.4 Bq/kg; K-40: 1240 ± 40 Bq/kg. Since a reference value of the PTB for the specific activity of Sr-90 was not available the general average

  20. Using cosmogenic nuclides to date the stabilisation age of relict rockglaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, Olivia; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Christl, Marcus; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Active rockglaciers are periglacial landforms which are creeping down mountain slopes due to plastic deformation of the interstitial ice. The occurrence of active rockglaciers is an indicator of Alpine permafrost. Relict rockglaciers are not moving anymore because the ice melted, but they give evidence for the earlier existence of permafrost. In the Alps, relict rockglaciers can often be found below today's tree line raising the question of when these landforms have last been active. Judging from the present position of the relict rockglaciers, the lower permafrost limit during the time of their activity must have been hundreds of meters lower than it is today. Already in the early days of rockglacier research, the potential of relict rockglaciers as a paleoclimate proxy was recognised (Barsch 1977, Haeberli 1985). However, obtaining absolute ages on relict rockglaciers has always been a major difficulty. Lately it has been shown that with cosmogenic nuclides it is possible to date the stabilisation age of relict rockglaciers, but it has been applied only in a few cases (Ivy-Ochs et al. 2009). According to Reitner (2007), the lowest relict rockglaciers of the eastern Alps, the Tandl rockglaciers, are located in the Province of Carinthia (Austria). The Tandl rockglaciers are a complex series of rockglaciers spanning from around 2300 m down to 1220 m a.s.l. Due to their low position and based on modelling estimates on permafrost distribution in the area (Avian & Kellerer-Pirklbauer 2012), it is plausible that these low rockglaciers were active even prior to the Younger Dryas. Therefore, samples from the entire rockglacier series were taken for 10Be exposure dating. Furthermore, the close proximity of the rockglaciers to moraines associated to the Gschnitz stadial allow comparing the dating results to equilibrium line depression reconstructions. Less than 10 km to the southwest, a second rockglacier series, the Norbert rockglaciers, was sampled. In contrast to the

  1. Reducing pharmacy wait time to promote customer service: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    The present study had 3 objectives: (1) to evaluate the effects of 2 different interventions (feedback regarding customer satisfaction with wait time and combined feedback and goal setting) on wait time in a hospital outpatient pharmacy; (2) to assess the extent to which the previously applied interventions maintained their effects; and (3) to evaluate the differences between the effects of the original study and those of the present follow-up study. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCB within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; and C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction. Wait time decreased after baseline when the combined intervention was introduced, and wait time increased with the reintroduction of satisfaction feedback (alone). The results of the replication study confirm the pattern of the results of the original study and demonstrate high sensitivity of levels of customer satisfaction with wait time. The most impressive result of the replication is the nearly 2-year maintenance of lower wait time between the end of the original study and the beginning (baseline) of the replication.

  2. The effect of waiting time and distance on hospital choice for English cataract patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivey, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This paper applies latent-class multinomial logit models to the choice of hospital for cataract operations in the UK NHS. We concentrate on the effects of travel time and waiting time and especially on estimating the waiting time elasticity of demand. Models including hospital fixed effects rely on changes over time in waiting time to indentify coefficients. We show how using a latent-class multinomial logit model characterises the unobserved heterogeneity in GP practices' choice behaviour and affects the estimated elasticities of travel time and waiting time. The models estimate waiting time elasticities of demand of approximately -0.1, comparable with previous waiting time-demand models. For the average waiting time elasticity, the simple multinomial logit models are good approximations of the latent-class logit results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  4. The pattern for waiting time in the context of multiple stochastic process

    CERN Document Server

    Jamali, Tayeb; Farahani, S Vasheghani

    2015-01-01

    The aim here is to provide a deeper understanding on the concept of waiting time in application to multiple stochastic processes. This obliges us to work with the vector stochastic process which enables considering at least two stochastic process at simultaneous time instances. In the present study the plan is to master vector stochastic processes by developing the level crossing method. The reason that the previous level-crossing methods lack generality is based on their individual element studies, where the coupling between the components of the vector stochastic process had been simply neglected. In the present work by introducing the generalized level crossing method, consideration of coupling between the components has become possible. This enables analyzing and hence extracting information out of coupled processes usually faced when working in tensor environments. The results obtained by this technique state that in addition to the point distribution of the vector stochastic process, the coupling plays ...

  5. Lean-driven improvements slash wait times, drive up patient satisfaction scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Administrators at LifePoint Hospitals, based in Brentwood, TN, used lean manufacturing techniques to slash wait times by as much as 30 minutes and achieve double-digit increases in patient satisfaction scores in the EDs at three hospitals. In each case, front-line workers took the lead on identifying opportunities for improvement and redesigning the patient-flow process. As a result of the new efficiencies, patient volume is up by about 25% at all three hospitals. At each hospital, the improvement process began with Kaizen, a lean process that involves bringing personnel together to flow-chart the current system, identify problem areas, and redesign the process. Improvement teams found big opportunities for improvement at the front end of the flow process. Key to the approach was having a plan up front to deal with non-compliance. To sustain improvements, administrators gather and disseminate key metrics on a daily basis.

  6. Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on quality of life and functional capacity in patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Juliessa; Rubin, Adalberto; Mattiello, Rita; Fontoura, Fabrício Farias da; Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto; Teixeira, Paulo Jose Zimermann

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on the functional capacity and on the quality of life of patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation. Patients on lung transplant waiting lists were referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program consisting of 36 sessions. Before and after the program, participating patients were evaluated with the six-minute walk test and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The pulmonary rehabilitation program involved muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic training, clinical evaluation, psychiatric evaluation, nutritional counseling, social assistance, and educational lectures. Of the 112 patients initially referred to the program, 58 completed it. The mean age of the participants was 46 ± 14 years, and females accounted for 52%. Of those 58 patients, 37 (47%) had pulmonary fibrosis, 13 (22%) had pulmonary emphysema, and 18 (31%) had other types of advanced lung disease. The six-minute walk distance was significantly greater after the program than before (439 ± 114 m vs. 367 ± 136 m, p = 0.001), the mean increase being 72 m. There were significant point increases in the scores on the following SF-36 domains: physical functioning, up 22 (p = 0.001), role-physical, up 10 (p = 0.045); vitality, up 10 (p mental health, up 8 (p = 0.001). Pulmonary rehabilitation had a positive impact on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients on lung transplant waiting lists.

  7. Guided Online or Face-to-Face Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Insomnia: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; van Straten, Annemieke; Morina, Nexhmedin; Kaldo, Viktor; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were administered to all conditions, along with 3- and 6-mo follow-up assessments to the online and face-to-face conditions. Ninety media-recruited participants meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for insomnia were randomly allocated to either guided online CBT-I (n = 30), individual face-to-face CBT-I (n = 30), or wait-list (n = 30). At post-assessment, the online (Cohen d = 1.2) and face-to-face (Cohen d = 2.3) intervention groups showed significantly larger treatment effects than the wait-list group on insomnia severity (insomnia severity index). Large treatment effects were also found for the sleep diary estimates (except for total sleep time), and anxiety and depression measures (for depression only in the face-to-face condition). Face-to-face treatment yielded a statistically larger treatment effect (Cohen d = 0.9) on insomnia severity than the online condition at all time points. In addition, a moderate differential effect size favoring face-to-face treatment emerged at the 3- and 6-mo follow-up on all sleep diary estimates. Face-to-face treatment further outperformed online treatment on depression and anxiety outcomes. These data show superior performance of face-to-face treatment relative to online treatment. Yet, our results also suggest that online treatment may offer a potentially cost-effective alternative to and complement face-to-face treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01955850. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 13. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Average waiting time profiles of uniform DQDB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maly, K.; Olariu, S.; Dharanikota, S.; Zhang, L.; Game, D. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-09-07

    The Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) system consists of a linear arrangement of N nodes that communicate with each other using two contra-flowing buses; the nodes use an extremely simple protocol to send messages on these buses. This simple, but elegant, system has been found to be very challenging to analyze. We consider a simple and uniform abstraction of this model to highlight the fairness issues in terms of average waiting time. We introduce a new approximation method to analyze the performance of DQDB system in terms of the average waiting time of a node expressed as a function of its position. Our approach abstracts the intimate relationship between the load of the system and its fairness characteristics, and explains all basic behavior profiles of DQDB observed in previous simulation. For the uniform DQDB with equal distance between adjacent nodes, we show that the system operates under three basic behavior profiles and a finite number of their combinations that depend on the load of the network. Consequently, the system is not fair at any load in terms of the average waiting times. In the vicinity of a critical load of 1 {minus} 4/N, the uniform network runs into a state akin to chaos, where its behavior fluctuates from one extreme to the other with a load variation of 2/N. Our analysis is supported by simulation results. We also show that the main theme of the analysis carries over to the general (non-uniform) DQDB; by suitably choosing the inter-node distances, the DQDB can be made fair around some loads, but such system will become unfair as the load changes.

  9. Computation and evaluation of scheduled waiting time for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Timetables are affected by scheduled waiting time (SWT) that prolongs the travel times for trains and thereby passengers. SWT occurs when a train hinders another train to run with the wanted speed. The SWT affects both the trains and the passengers in the trains. The passengers may be further...... affected due to longer transfer times to other trains. SWT can be estimated analytically for a given timetable or by simulation of timetables and/or plans of operation. The simulation of SWT has the benefit that it is possible to examine the entire network. This makes it possible to improve the future...

  10. Waiting to go into a Danish Nursing Home - Generations Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik

    2006-01-01

    that their relationship toward their home care assistant became increasingly important as they waited to go into the nursing home. Assessments for home care were constrained by municipal authorities and their regulations, and the overall attitude was that the needs of older people were not being appropriately defined......The number of older people from their own home into a nursing home is likely to increase. This study intends to examine important aspects in the transition process by applying ethnographic methods. Ten older people and their relatives were interviewed and observed. It was found...... and met. This left them barely able to maintain their homes and, as a consequence of this, their identity....

  11. Search for unbound nuclides and beam/fragment optics with the MoNA/LISA segmented target at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul; Frank, Nathan; Thoennessen, Michael; Redpath, Thomas; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A multi-layered Si/Be segmented target consisting of three 700 mg/cm2 thick Be9 slabs and four 140 microns Si detectors was used by the MoNA Collaboration at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory of Michigan State University to study the O26 lifetime. This target provides unprecedented information on the incident beams and fragments (energy loss and position), thus allowing for better determination of the incident and outgoing energies and momenta of the detected particles compare to previous experiments conducted at this facility. With the availability of a newly developed Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of the full N2 vault, we will present and discuss the performances of this target. Search for unbound nuclides and beam/fragment optics with the MoNA/LISA segmented target at NSCL.

  12. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented.

  13. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.

  14. Removal of radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Polyacryamide-expanded perlite: Effects of pH, concentration and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Recep

    2012-10-01

    Poly (Acryamide-expanded perlite) [P(AAm-EP)], was synthesized. The influence of process parameters: initial pH and five radio nuclides of the U- and Th- series (TI+, Ra2+, Bi3+, Ac3+ and Pb2+ in a leaching solution) concentration, on sorption thermodynamic was studied and discussed. The five natural radio nuclides were counted by gamma spectrometer using a type NAI (Tl) detector. The amounts of five radio nuclides sorbed at equlibrium were well represented by Langmuir and Freundlich type isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacities (XL) were in the order of 208Tl (0.4 MBq kg-1)>212Pb and 212Bi (0.3 MBq kg-1)>228Ac and (0.1 MBq kg-1)>226Ra (0.04 MBq kg-1). These results demonstrated that P(AAm-EP) had high affinity to the five natural radio nuclides. In order to specify the type of adsorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters such as the standard enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy were also determined. It was also demonstrated that the adsorption mechanism was spontaneous (ΔG0). The composite was reused for four more times after regeneration without any detectable changes either in its structure or adsorptive capability.

  15. A Study of the r-Process Path Nuclides,$^{137,138,139}$Sb using the Enhanced Selectivity of Resonance Ionization Laser Ionization

    CERN Multimedia

    Walters, W

    2002-01-01

    The particular features of the r-process abundances with 100 < A < 150 have demonstrated the close connection between knowledge of nuclear structure and decay along the r-process path and the astrophysical environement in which these elements are produced. Key to this connection has been the measurement of data for nuclides (mostly even-N nuclides) that lie in the actual r-process path. Such data are of direct use in r-process calculations and they also serve to refine and test the predictive power of nuclear models where little or no data now exist. In this experiment we seek to use the newly developed ionization scheme for the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) to achieve selective ionization of neutron-rich antimony isotopes in order to measure the decay properties of r-process path nuclides $^{137,138,139}$Sb. These properties include the half-lives, delayed neutron branches, and daughter $\\gamma$-rays. The new nuclear structure data for the daughter Te nuclides is also of considerable in...

  16. The surgical waiting time initiative: A review of the Nigerian situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Imran Haruna

    2014-11-01

    The concept of surgical waiting time initiative (SWAT) was introduced in developed countries to reduce elective surgery waiting lists and increase efficiency of care. It was supplemented by increasing popularity of day surgery, which shortens elective waiting lists and minimises cancellations. It is established in Western countries, but not in developing countries like Nigeria where it is still evolving. A search was carried out in Pub Med, Google, African journals online (AJOL), Athens and Ovid for relevant publications on elective surgery waiting list in Nigeria, published in English language. Words include waiting/wait time, waiting time initiative, time to surgery, waiting for operations, waiting for intervention, waiting for procedures and time before surgery in Nigeria. A total of 37 articles published from Nigeria in relation to various waiting times were found from the search and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 11 publications (29.7%) were related to emergency surgery waiting times, 10 (27%) were related to clinic waiting times, 9 (24.3%) were related to day case surgery, 2 (5.5%) were related to investigation waiting times and only 5 (13.5%) articles were specifically published on elective surgery waiting times. A total of 9 articles (24.5%) were published from obstetrics and gynaecology (OG), 7 (19%) from general surgery, 5 (13.5%) from public health, 3 (8%) from orthopaedics, 3 (8%) from general practice (GP), 3 (8%) from paediatrics/paediatric surgery, 2 (5.5%) from ophthalmology, 1 (2.7%) from ear, nose and throat (ENT), 1 (2.7%) from plastic surgery, 1 (2.7%) from urology and only 1 (2.7%) article was published from dental/maxillofacial surgery. Waiting times mean different things to different health practitioners in Nigeria. There were only 5/37 articles (13.5%) specifically related to elective surgery waiting times in Nigerian hospitals, which show that the concept of the SWAT is still evolving in Nigeria. Of the 37, 11 (24

  17. Waiting room oral rehydration in the paediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, J A; Campbell, L; Martin, C T

    2009-03-01

    Oral rehydration is well established in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis, however it is profoundly underutilised as a treatment in the hospital setting. We introduced a protocol of waiting room oral rehydration for children presenting to the Paediatric Emergency Department with vomiting and/or diarrhoea. These children were given oral rehydration from the time of triage prior to medical assessment. During the study period, 251 children presented 269 times with vomiting and/or diarrhoea, of which 205 (76%) were diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis. A similar period 1 year previously was used as comparison, during which 129 children were diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis. During the study period, 58 children (28%) were given intravenous fluids and 47 (23%) were admitted, compared with 72 (56%) given intravenous fluids and 42 (32%) admitted in the comparison group. This protocol is now part of our routine management of children presenting with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Waiting room oral rehydration is a simple yet successful intervention that can be implemented in any Emergency Department.

  18. Identity Construction In Samuel Beckett’s Waiting For Godot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Fajar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the formation of the identity of the characters in Samuel Beckett’s famous play Waiting for Godot. One of the characters whose identity is constructed is Godot, a mysterious absent figure. The other characters, such as Vladimir and Estragon actively construct Godot’s identity. Thus, the formation of identity cannot be separated from the social construction in which a lot of characteristics are attributed by the members of the large community. The theory of identity elaborated by Stuart Hall and Erikson is employed to examine the play. The study shows that Godot and other characters’ identity is unstable and fluid. The characteristics of their identity are ambiguous and even challenged. Abstrak: Artikel ini mengkaji pembentukan identitas karakter dalam drama terkenal Waiting for Godot karya Samuel Beckett. Salah satu karakter yang dikonstruksi identitasnya adalah Godot, sosok misterius yang tidak pernah muncul. Karakter lain, seperti Vladimir dan Estragon secara aktif mengonstruksi identitas Godot. Oleh sebab itu, pembentukan identitas tidak dapat dipisahkan dari konstruksi sosial yang dimasuki banyak karakteristik oleh anggota masyarakat luas. Teori identitas Stuart Hall dan Erikson digunakan untuk menganalisis drama tersebut. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa identitas Godot dan karakter lain tidak stabil dan cair. Karakteristik identitas mereka ambigu dan bahkan meragukan. Kata-­Kata Kunci: identit; ambiguitas; Godot

  19. Patient deaths blamed on long waits at the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. This morning the lead article in the Arizona Republic was a report blaming as many as 40 deaths at the Phoenix VA on long waits (1. Yesterday, Rep. Jeff Miller, the chairman of the House Committee on Veterans Affairs, held a hearing titled “A Continued Assessment of Delays in VA Medical Care and Preventable Veteran Deaths.” “It appears as though there could be as many as 40 veterans whose deaths could be related to delays in care,” Miller announced to a stunned audience. The committee has spent months investigating patient-care scandals and allegations at VA facilities in Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Miami and other cities. said that dozens of VA hospital patients in Phoenix may have died while awaiting medical care. He went on to say that staff investigators have evidence that the Phoenix VA Health Care System keeps two sets of records to conceal prolonged waits that patients must endure for ...

  20. An automaton approach for waiting times in DNA evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Behrens, S; Nicodeme, P

    2011-01-01

    In a recent article, Behrens and Vingron (JCB 17, 12, 2010) compute waiting times for k-mers to appear during DNA evolution under the assumption that the considered k-mers do not occur in the initial DNA sequence, an issue arising when studying the evolution of regulatory DNA sequences with regard to transcription factor (TF) binding site emergence. The mathematical analysis underlying their computation assumes that occurrences of words under interest do not overlap. We relax here this assumption by use of an automata approach. In an alphabet of size 4 like the DNA alphabet, most words have no or a low autocorrelation; therefore, globally, our results confirm those of Behrens and Vingron. The outcome is quite different when considering highly autocorrelated k-mers; in this case, the autocorrelation pushes down the probability of occurrence of these k-mers at generation 1 and, consequently, increases the waiting time for apparition of these k-mers up to 40%. An analysis of existing TF binding sites unveils a s...

  1. Healthcare Use for Pain in Women Waiting for Gynaecological Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Walker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pain while waiting for surgery may increase healthcare utilization (HCU preoperatively. Objective. Examine the association between preoperative pain and HCU in the year prior to gynecological surgery. Methods. 590 women waiting for surgery in a Canadian tertiary care centre were asked to report on HCU in the year before surgery. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Results. 33% reported moderate to severe pain intensity and interference in the week before surgery. Sixty-one percent (n=360 reported a total of 2026 healthcare visits, with 21% (n=126 reporting six or more visits in the year before surgery. After controlling for covariates, women with moderate to severe (>3/10 pain intensity/interference reported higher odds of overall HCU (≥3 pain-related visits to family doctor or specialist in the past year or ≥1 to emergency/walk-in clinic compared to women with no or mild pain. Lower body mass index (BMI < 30 versus ≥30 and anxiety and/or depression were associated with emergency department or walk-in visits but not visits to family doctors or specialists. Conclusions. There is a high burden of pain in women awaiting gynecological surgery. Decisions about resource allocation should consider the impact of pain on individuals and the healthcare system.

  2. Joint optimisation of transmission and waiting times in cognitive radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mohammadreza; Samimi, Abouzar; Mirzavandi, Asra

    2016-04-01

    Transmission time optimisation is one of the key considerations of cognitive network design. There are many studies in cognitive radio networks (CRNs) focusing on finding the best transmission time for secondary users (SUs) to maximise transmission or energy efficiency. While longer sensing duration leads to a higher sensing accuracy and causes less interference, the SU spends less time for transmission and more energy on sensing spectrum. On the other hand, when the transmission duration becomes longer, although the SU has more opportunities to access the channel, it may encounter higher interference due to primary user (PU) returns and the probability of collision becomes higher. In this article, in a decentralised slotted protocol for CRN, the SU spectrum access is proved as a renewal process, then the interference due to PU return during SU transmission, the missed opportunities due to waiting for the channel to become idle and the energy consumed by the SU in the whole spectrum access process including idling energy, transmission energy and sensing energy consumption are formulated and integrated into newly defined efficiency to obtain the optimum transmission time and waiting time.

  3. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  5. The effect of waiting times on demand and supply for elective surgery: Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganti, Andrea; Siciliani, Luigi; Fiorio, Carlo V

    2017-09-01

    Waiting times are a major policy concern in publicly funded health systems across OECD countries. Economists have argued that, in the presence of excess demand, waiting times act as nonmonetary prices to bring demand for and supply of health care in equilibrium. Using administrative data disaggregated by region and surgical procedure over 2010-2014 in Italy, we estimate demand and supply elasticities with respect to waiting times. We employ linear regression models with first differences and instrumental variables to deal with endogeneity of waiting times. We find that demand is inelastic to waiting times while supply is more elastic. Estimates of demand elasticity are between -0.15 to -0.24. Our results have implications on the effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing supply and their ability to reduce waiting times. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The uncertainty room: strategies for managing uncertainty in a surgical waiting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anne M; Lammers, John C

    2012-01-01

    To describe experiences of uncertainty and management strategies for staff working with families in a hospital waiting room. A 288-bed, nonprofit community hospital in a Midwestern city. Data were collected during individual, semistructured interviews with 3 volunteers, 3 technical staff members, and 1 circulating nurse (n = 7), and during 40 hours of observation in a surgical waiting room. Interview transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative techniques. The surgical waiting room represents the intersection of several sources of uncertainty that families experience. Findings also illustrate the ways in which staff manage the uncertainty of families in the waiting room by communicating support. Staff in surgical waiting rooms are responsible for managing family members' uncertainty related to insufficient information. Practically, this study provided some evidence that staff are expected to help manage the uncertainty that is typical in a surgical waiting room, further highlighting the important role of communication in improving family members' experiences.

  7. The surgical waiting time initiative: A review of the Nigerian situation

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Haruna Abdulkareem

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of surgical waiting time initiative (SWAT) was introduced in developed countries to reduce elective surgery waiting lists and increase efficiency of care. It was supplemented by increasing popularity of day surgery, which shortens elective waiting lists and minimises cancellations. It is established in Western countries, but not in developing countries like Nigeria where it is still evolving. A search was carried out in Pub Med, Google, African journals online (AJOL), Athe...

  8. Change in hearing during 'wait and scan' management of patients with vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Tos, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate hearing changes during 'wait and scan' management of patients with vestibular schwannoma. Subjects: Over a 10-year period, 636 patients have prospectively been allocated to 'wait and scan' management, with annual magnetic resonance scanning and audiological examination. Results...... surgery and of radiation therapy with those of 'wait and scan' management, it appears that, in vestibular schwannoma patients with a small tumour and normal speech discrimination, the main indication for active treatment should be established tumour growth Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  9. How Long Are Patients Willing to Wait in the Emergency Department Before Leaving Without Being Seen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Brodeur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to evaluate patients’ threshold for waiting in an emergency department(ED waiting room before leaving without being seen (LWBS. We analyzed whether willingness to wait was influenced by perceived illness severity, age, race, triage acuity level, or insurance status.Methods: We conducted this survey-based study from March to July 2010 at an urban academic medical center. After triage, patients were given a multiple-choice questionnaire, designed to as certain how long they would wait for medical care. We collected data including age, gender, race,insurance status, and triage acuity level. We looked at the association between willingness to wait and these variables, using stratified analysis and logistic regression.Results: Of the 375 patients who were approached, 340 (91% participated. One hundred seventy one(51% were willing to wait up to 2 hours before leaving, 58 (17% would wait 2 to 8 hours, and110 (32% would wait indefinitely. No association was found between willingness to wait and race,gender, insurance status, or perceived symptom severity. Patients willing to wait >2 hours tended to be older than 25, have higher acuity, and prefer the study site ED.Conclusion: Many patients have a defined, limited period that they are willing to wait for emergency care. In our study, 50% of patients were willing to wait up to 2 hours before leaving the ED without being seen. This result suggests that efforts to reduce the percentage of patients who LWBS must factor in time limits.

  10. The acceptability of waiting times for elective general surgery and the appropriateness of prioritising patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knol Dirk L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problematic waiting lists in public health care threaten the equity and timeliness of care provision in several countries. This study assesses different stakeholders' views on the acceptability of waiting lists in health care, their preferences for priority care of patients, and their judgements on acceptable waiting times for surgical patients. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 257 former patients (82 with varicose veins, 86 with inguinal hernia, and 89 with gallstones, 101 surgeons, 95 occupational physicians, and 65 GPs. Judgements on acceptable waiting times were assessed using vignettes of patients with varicose veins, inguinal hernia, and gallstones. Results Participants endorsed the prioritisation of patients based on clinical need, but not on ability to benefit. The groups had significantly different opinions (p Acceptable waiting times ranged between 2 and 25 weeks depending on the type of disorder (p Conclusion The explicit prioritisation of patients seems an accepted means for reducing the overall burden from waiting lists. The disagreement about appropriate prioritisation criteria and the need for uniformity, however, raises concern about equity when implementing prioritisation in daily practice. Single factor waiting time thresholds seem insufficient for securing timely care provision in the presence of long waiting lists as they do not account for the different consequences of waiting between patients.

  11. An accelerated failure time model for investigating pedestrian crossing behavior and waiting times at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Huan, Mei; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-09-01

    The waiting process is crucial to pedestrians in the street-crossing behavior. Once pedestrians terminate their waiting behavior during the red light period, they would cross against the red light and put themselves in danger. A joint hazard-based duration model is developed to investigate the effect of various covariates on pedestrian crossing behavior and to estimate pedestrian waiting times at signalized intersections. A total of 1181 pedestrians approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. Pedestrian crossing behaviors are classified into immediate crossing behavior and waiting behavior. The probability and effect of various covariates for pedestrians' immediate crossing behavior are identified by a logit model. Four accelerated failure time duration models based on the exponential, Weibull, lognormal and log-logistic distributions are proposed to examine the significant risk factors affecting duration times for pedestrians' waiting behavior. A joint duration model is developed to estimate pedestrian waiting times. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity is considered in the proposed model. The results indicate that the Weibull AFT model with shared frailty is appropriate for modelling pedestrian waiting durations. Failure to account for heterogeneity would significantly underestimate the effects of covariates on waiting duration times. The proposed model provides a better understanding of pedestrian crossing behavior and more accurate estimation of pedestrian waiting times. It may be applicable in traffic system analysis in developing countries with high flow of mixed traffic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Time to Endoscopy in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Analysis of Wait-Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée M. Janssen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Wait Time Consensus Group recommends that patients with symptoms associated with colorectal cancer (CRC should have an endoscopic examination within 2 months. However, in a recent survey of Canadian gastroenterologists, wait-times for endoscopy were considerably longer than the current guidelines recommend. The purpose of this study was to evaluate wait-times for colonoscopy in patients who were subsequently found to have CRC through the Division of Gastroenterology at St. Paul’s Hospital (SPH. Methods. This study was a retrospective chart review of outpatients seen for consultation and endoscopy ultimately diagnosed with CRC. Subjects were identified through the SPH pathology database for the inclusion period 2010 through 2013. Data collected included wait-times, subject characteristics, cancer characteristics, and outcomes. Results. 246 subjects met inclusion criteria for this study. The mean wait-time from primary care referral to first office visit was 63 days; the mean wait-time to first endoscopy was 94 days. Patients with symptoms waited a mean of 86 days to first endoscopy, considerably longer than the national recommended guideline of 60 days. There was no apparent effect of length of wait-time on node positivity or presence of distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion. Wait-times for outpatient consultation and endoscopic evaluation at the St. Paul’s Hospital Division of Gastroenterology exceed current guidelines.

  13. Factors Associated with Residential Long-Term Care Wait-List Placement in North West Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Audrey; Rohit Dass, Adrian; Kuluski, Kerry; Peckham, Allie; Berta, Whitney; Lum, Janet; Williams, A Paul

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on a study that investigated factors associated with long-term care wait list placement in Ontario, Canada. We based the study's analysis on Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) data for 2014 in the North West Local Health Integration Network (LHIN). Our analysis quantified the contribution of three factors on the likelihood of wait list placement: (1) care recipient, (2) informal caregiver, and (3) formal system. We find that all three factors are significantly related to wait list placement. The results of this analysis could have implications for policies aimed at reducing the number of wait-listed individuals in the community.

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  16. Estimation of Diafenthiuron Residues in Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L. Maton Using Normal Phase HPLC: Dissipation Pattern and Safe Waiting Period in Green and Cured Cardamom Capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diafenthiuron is an effective insecticide used for pest management in cardamom. Residues of diafenthiuron and its degradation/dissipation pattern in cardamom were determined to work out safe waiting period. Samples were collected after three sprays of diafenthiuron @ 400 and 800 g a.i ha−1 and the residues extracted in acetonitrile and quantified in normal phase HPLC in UV detector. Diafenthiuron was detected in 6.61±0.1 min. The limits of detection (LOD and limits of quantification (LOQ were determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 μgmL−1. The initial deposits were found to be 3.82 and 4.10 μg g−1 after sprays of diafenthiuron @ 400 g a.i ha−1 in the first and second experiments, respectively. Nearly cent percent of residues dissipated at 10 days after treatment in the recommended dose of diafenthiuron 400 g a.i ha−1 and the half life varied from 2.0 to 2.8 days with a waiting period of 5.5 to 6.7 days in green capsules of cardamom. The waiting period was 5.4 to 7.0 days in cured capsules of cardamom. With harvest being the focal point for enforcement of residue tolerances, the suggested waiting period of seven days is safe without the problem of pesticide residues in harvestable produce.

  17. Enabling narrative pedagogy: inviting, waiting, and letting be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.

  18. Turn to staff for dramatic improvement in wait times, productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Baylor Medical Center in Garland,TX, has been able to drastically reduce ED wait times, as well as the LWBS rate by streamlining the triage process and implementing a staff-driven improvement effort aimed at identifying inefficiencies and replacing them with solutions that work. The result is 11 beds of added capacity just from changes in patient flow. A cross section of volunteers from the ED staff reviewed metrics and devised solutions that they felt would work best to boost efficiency and eliminate bottlenecks. Solutions included letting low-acuity patients move themselves between care settings, freeing the charge nurse from patient care duties so that he or she could oversee patient flow, and empowering physician-nurse teams to see patients more quickly. ED managers say leadership is important, but letting staff drive the improvement process is key to their success.

  19. Empowered citizen 'health hackers' who are not waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Timothy

    2016-08-17

    Due to the easier access to information, the availability of low cost technologies and the involvement of well educated, passionate patients, a group of citizen 'Health Hackers', who are building their own medical systems to help them overcome the unmet needs of their conditions, is emerging. This has recently been the case in the type 1 diabetes community, under the movement #WeAreNotWaiting, with innovative use of current medical devices hacked to access data and Open-Source code producing solutions ranging from remote monitoring of diabetic children to producing an Artificial Pancreas System to automate the management and monitoring of a patient's condition. Timothy Omer is working with the community to utilise the technology already in his pocket to build a mobile- and smartwatch-based Artificial Pancreas System.

  20. Pooled Open Blocks Shorten Wait Times for Nonelective Surgical Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, Ana C; Carnes, Tim; Levi, Retsef; Daily, Bethany J; Price, Devon; Moss, Susan C; Dunn, Peter F

    2015-07-01

    Assess the impact of the implementation of a data-driven scheduling strategy that aimed to improve the access to care of nonelective surgical patients at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Between July 2009 and June 2010, MGH experienced increasing throughput challenges in its perioperative environment: approximately 30% of the nonelective patients were waiting more than the prescribed amount of time to get to surgery, hampering access to care and aggravating the lack of inpatient beds. This work describes the design and implementation of an "open block" strategy: operating room (OR) blocks were reserved for nonelective patients during regular working hours (prime time) and their management centralized. Discrete event simulation showed that 5 rooms would decrease the percentage of delayed patients from 30% to 2%, assuming that OR availability was the only reason for preoperative delay. Implementation began in January 2012. We compare metrics for June through December of 2012 against the same months of 2011. The average preoperative wait time of all nonelective surgical patients decreased by 25.5% (P < 0.001), even with a volume increase of 9%. The number of bed-days occupied by nonurgent patients before surgery declined by 13.3% whereas the volume increased by 4.5%. The large-scale application of an open-block strategy significantly improved the flow of nonelective patients at MGH when OR availability was a major reason for delay. Rigorous metrics were developed to evaluate its performance. Strong managerial leadership was crucial to enact the new practices and turn them into organizational change.

  1. Oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and release of nuclides from a copper/iron canister. Model developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcheng Liu

    2001-12-01

    Three models have been developed and applied in the performance assessment of a final repository. They are based on accepted theories and experimental results for known and possible mechanisms that may dominate in the oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and the release of nuclides from a canister. Assuming that the canister is breached at an early stage after disposal, the three models describe three sub-systems in the near field of the repository, in which the governing processes and mechanisms are quite different. In the model for the oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix, a set of kinetic descriptions is provided that describes the oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix and the release of the embedded nuclides. In particular, the effect of autocatalytic reduction of hexavalent uranium by dissolved H{sub 2}, using UO{sub 2} (s) on the fuel pellets as a catalyst, is taken into account. The simulation results suggest that most of the radiolytic oxidants will be consumed by the oxidation of the fuel matrix, and that much less will be depleted by dissolved ferrous iron. Most of the radiolytically produced hexavalent uranium will be reduced by the autocatalytic reaction with H{sub 2} on the fuel surface. It will reprecipitate as UO{sub 2} (s) on the fuel surface, and thus very little net oxidation of the fuel will take place. In the reactive transport model, the interactions of multiple processes within a defective canister are described, in which numerous redox reactions take place as multiple species diffuse. The effect of corrosion of the cast iron insert of the canister and the reduction of dissolved hexavalent uranium by ferrous iron sorbed onto iron corrosion products and by dissolved H{sub 2} are particularly included. Scoping calculations suggest that corrosion of the iron insert will occur primarily under anaerobic conditions. The escaping oxidants from the fuel rods will migrate toward the iron insert. Much of these oxidants will, however, be consumed

  2. Patient Satisfaction Is Associated With Time With Provider But Not Clinic Wait Time Among Orthopedic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brendan M; Eskildsen, Scott M; Clement, R Carter; Lin, Feng-Chang; Olcott, Christopher W; Del Gaizo, Daniel J; Tennant, Joshua N

    2017-01-01

    Clinic wait time is considered an important predictor of patient satisfaction. The goal of this study was to determine whether patient satisfaction among orthopedic patients is associated with clinic wait time and time with the provider. The authors prospectively enrolled 182 patients at their outpatient orthopedic clinic. Clinic wait time was defined as the time between patient check-in and being seen by the surgeon. Time spent with the provider was defined as the total time the patient spent in the examination room with the surgeon. The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey was used to measure patient satisfaction. Factors associated with increased patient satisfaction included patient age and increased time with the surgeon (P=.024 and P=.037, respectively), but not clinic wait time (P=.625). Perceived wait time was subject to a high level of error, and most patients did not accurately report whether they had been waiting longer than 15 minutes to see a provider until they had waited at least 60 minutes (P=.007). If the results of the current study are generalizable, time with the surgeon is associated with patient satisfaction in orthopedic clinics, but wait time is not. Further, the study findings showed that patients in this setting did not have an accurate perception of actual wait time, with many patients underestimating the time they waited to see a provider. Thus, a potential strategy for improving patient satisfaction is to spend more time with each patient, even at the expense of increased wait time. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):43-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  4. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    spectral data at 1 s time intervals, which represents data collected by a mobile system operating in a dynamic radiation background environment; and one that represents static measurements with a foreground spectrum (background plus source) and a background spectrum. These data include controlled variations in both Source Related Factors (nuclide, nuclide combinations, activities, distances, collection times, shielding configurations, and background spectra) and Detector Related Factors (currently only gain shifts, but resolution changes and non-linear energy calibration errors will be added soon). The software tools will allow the developer to evaluate the performance impact of each of these factors. Although this first implementation is somewhat limited in scope, considering only NaI-based detection systems and two application domains, it is hoped that (with community feedback) a wider range of detector types and applications will be included in the future. This article describes the methods used for dataset creation, the software validation/performance measurement tools, the performance metrics used, and examples of baseline performance.

  5. Opportunistic Buffered Decode-Wait-and-Forward (OBDWF) Protocol for Mobile Wireless Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui; Huang, Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an opportunistic buffered decode-wait-and-forward (OBDWF) protocol to exploit both relay buffering and relay mobility to enhance the system throughput and the end-to-end packet delay under bursty arrivals. We consider a point-to-point communication link assisted by K mobile relays. We illustrate that the OBDWF protocol could achieve a better throughput and delay performance compared with existing baseline systems such as the conventional dynamic decode-and-forward (DDF) and amplified-and-forward (AF) protocol. In addition to simulation performance, we also derived closed-form asymptotic throughput and delay expressions of the OBDWF protocol. Specifically, the proposed OBDWF protocol achieves an asymptotic throughput O(logK) with O(1) total transmit power in the relay network. This is a significant gain compared with the best known performance in conventional protocols (O(logK) throughput with O(K) total transmit power). With bursty arrivals, we show that both the stability region and...

  6. Waiting for Godot is an Irish Endgame: A Postcolonial Reading of Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot and Endgame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Rahim Moosavinia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irish National Drama is very sensitive when it comes to the issue of English Colonization, colonial forces, independence and the matter of post-colonial. In fact, a kind of Irish consciousness is present in all the dramas of this nation and all playwrights in this trend- even indirectly or by implication- have tried to portray these matters through their works. This study is an attempt to prove the claim that even a playwright like Samuel Beckett, whose works have been written out of the canon of Irish Literature because of living on exile, adopting another language or semi-taboo labels like Absurdism, Universality and Placlessness, can be read in light postcolinalism. To this aim, two of Beckett’s plays Waiting for Godot and End Game are chosen here as the representative and put into explication.

  7. Waiting Time: The De-Subjectification of Children in Danish Asylum Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitus, Kathrine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between time and subjectification, focusing on the temporal structures created within Danish asylum centres and politics, and on children's experiences of and reactions to open-ended waiting. Such waiting leads to existential boredom which manifests in the children as restlessness, fatigue and despair. The…

  8. Effects of Wait Time When Communicating with Children Who Have Sensory and Additional Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole; Parker, Amy T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study utilized wait-time procedures to determine if they are effective in helping children with deafblindness or multiple disabilities that include a visual impairment communicate in their home. Methods: A single subject with an alternating treatment design was used for the study. Zero- to one-second wait time was utilized…

  9. Strategic Attention Deployment for Delay of Gratification in Working and Waiting Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Philip K.; Hebl, Michelle; Mischel, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined whether effects of attention to rewards during a delay of gratification task in waiting situations affects preschoolers' ability to delay gratification in working situations. Findings show that when work provides distraction, attention on rewards reduces delay time whether working or waiting; when work is not engaging,…

  10. The relationship between educational attainment and waiting time among the elderly in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Kaarboe, Oddvar Martin

    2015-11-01

    We investigate whether educational attainment affects waiting time of elderly patients in somatic hospitals. We consider three distinct pathways; that patients with different educational attainment have different disease patterns, that patients with different levels of education receive treatments at different hospitals, and that patient choice and supply of local health services within hospital catchment areas explain unequal waiting time of different educational groups. We find evidence of an educational gradient in waiting time for male patients, but not for female patients. Conditional on age, male patients with tertiary education wait 45% shorter than male patients with secondary or primary education. The first pathway is not quantitatively important as controlling for disease patters has little effect on relative waiting times. The second pathway is important. Relative to patients with primary education, variation in waiting time and education level across local hospitals contributes to higher waiting time for male patients with secondary education and female patients with secondary or tertiary education and lower waiting time for male patients with tertiary education. These effects are in the order of 15-20%. The third pathway is also quantitatively important. The educational gradients within catchment areas disappear when we control for travel distance and supply of private specialists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Access to Specialist Gastroenterology Care in Canada: The Practice Audit in Gastroenterology (PAGE Wait Times Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canadian wait time data are available for the treatment of cancer and heart disease, as well as for joint replacement, cataract surgery and diagnostic imaging procedures. Wait times for gastroenterology consultation and procedures have not been studied, although digestive diseases pose a greater economic burden in Canada than cancer or heart disease.

  12. Synchronization Control of Scheduled Train Services to Minimize Passenger Waiting Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1998-01-01

    During operation a transportation service may wait on delayed feeder services to secure scheduled transfers. For low-frequent connecting services this has a major positive impact on the transfer waiting times. However, the resulting synchronization control time of the connecting service also affects

  13. Customer waiting times in an (R,S) inventory system with compound Poisson demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; de Kok, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    Besides service level and mean physical stock, customer waiting time is an important performance characteristic for an inventory system. In this paper we discuss the calculation of this waiting time in case a periodic review control policy with order-up-to-levelS is used and customers arrive

  14. Impact of waiting on the perception of service quality in nuclear medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Man, S; Vlerick, P; Gemmel, P; De Bondt, P; Matthys, D; Dierckx, RA

    Background This is the first study examining the link between waiting and various dimensions of perceived service quality in nuclear medicine. Methods We tested the impact of selected waiting experience variables on the evaluation of service quality, measured using the Servqual tool, of 406 patients

  15. First in Line Waiting Times as a Tool for Analysing Queueing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koole, G. M.; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, Thomas Bang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to modelling queueing systems where the priority or the routing of customers depends on the time the first customer has waited in the queue. This past waiting time of the first customer in line, WFIL, is used as the primary variable for our approach. A Markov chain...

  16. Cigarette smoking and waiting time to pregnancy: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilaitiene, Birute; Dirzauskas, Marius; Preiksa, Romualdas Tomas; Matulevicius, Valentinas

    2007-01-01

    Waiting time to pregnancy is an important characteristic of human reproductive health, which has not been investigated in Lithuania until now. Data on waiting time to pregnancy have been collected from medical records of 111 women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics, Klaipeda Hospital. Seven women in whom pregnancy was the result of infertility treatment were excluded from the analysis, and the rest 104 cases were analyzed. We evaluated waiting time to pregnancy in respect to the age of couples, contraceptive use, cigarette smoking of both partners, and some other features of obstetric history. The mean waiting time to pregnancy in the cohort was 5.21+/-7.03 months. If both partners smoked, the mean waiting time to pregnancy was significantly longer than in nonsmoking couples (7.68+/-9.41 vs. 4.30+/-5.73, P<0.05). Risk to have waiting time to pregnancy longer than 6 months was significantly higher if both partners smoked as compared to nonsmoking couples (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.07-10.30, P=0.03), while paternal smoking and smoking of any partner did not increase this risk significantly. The other possible factors - age, living place (rural or city), previous contraceptive use, regularity of menstrual cycle, and frequency of intercourse - did not influence waiting time to pregnancy significantly. Results obtained from this pilot study enable us to plan and implement a larger-scale study of waiting time to pregnancy in Lithuanian population.

  17. How tolerable is delay? : Consumers' evaluations of internet web sites after waiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); B.E. Kahn

    1998-01-01

    textabstractHow consumer's waiting times affect their retrospective evaluations of Internet Web Sites is investigated in four computer-based experiments. Results show that waiting can but does not always negatively affect evaluations of Web Sites. Results also show that the potential negative

  18. Ambulatory health service users' experience of waiting time and expenditure and factors associated with the perception of low quality of care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda-Valenzuela, Alma Lucila; Wirtz, Veronika J; Santa-Ana-Téllez, Yared; de la Luz Kageyama-Escobar, Maria

    2010-06-23

    A principal reason for low use of public health care services is the perception of inferior quality of care. Studying health service user (HSU) experiences with their care and their perception of health service quality is critical to understanding health service utilization. The aim of this study was to define reference points for some aspects of health care quality and to analyze which HSU experiences resulted in perceptions of overall low quality of care. Data from the National Health Survey 2006 were used to compare the experiences of HSUs with their ambulatory care at Ministry of Health and affiliated institutions (MOH), social security institutions (SSI) and private institutions (PrivI). Reference points of quality of care related to waiting time and expenditure were defined for each of the three types of institutions by analyzing HSU experiences rated as 'acceptable'. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify the principal factors associated with the general perception of low quality of care. A total of 11,959 HSUs were included in the analysis, of whom 37.6% (n = 4,500) HSUs received care at MOH facilities; 31.2% (n = 3,730) used SSI and 31.2% (n = 3,729) PrivI. An estimated travel and waiting time of 10 minutes respectively was rated as acceptable by HSUs from all institutions. The differences between the waiting time rated as acceptable and the actual waiting time were the largest for SSI (30 min) in comparison to MoH (20 min) and PrivI (5 min) users. The principal factors associated with an overall perception of low quality of care are type of institution (OR 4.36; 95% CI 2.95-6.44), waiting time (OR 3.20; 95% CI 2.35-4.35), improvement of health after consultation (OR 2.93; CI 2.29-3.76) and consultation length of less than 20 minutes (2.03; 95% CI 1.60-2.57). The reference points derived by the HSUs' own ratings are useful in identifying where quality improvements are required. Prioritizing the reduction of waiting times and

  19. Ambulatory health service users' experience of waiting time and expenditure and factors associated with the perception of low quality of care in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Ana-Téllez Yared

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A principal reason for low use of public health care services is the perception of inferior quality of care. Studying health service user (HSU experiences with their care and their perception of health service quality is critical to understanding health service utilization. The aim of this study was to define reference points for some aspects of health care quality and to analyze which HSU experiences resulted in perceptions of overall low quality of care. Methods Data from the National Health Survey 2006 were used to compare the experiences of HSUs with their ambulatory care at Ministry of Health and affiliated institutions (MOH, social security institutions (SSI and private institutions (PrivI. Reference points of quality of care related to waiting time and expenditure were defined for each of the three types of institutions by analyzing HSU experiences rated as 'acceptable'. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify the principal factors associated with the general perception of low quality of care. Results A total of 11,959 HSUs were included in the analysis, of whom 37.6% (n = 4,500 HSUs received care at MOH facilities; 31.2% (n = 3,730 used SSI and 31.2% (n = 3,729 PrivI. An estimated travel and waiting time of 10 minutes respectively was rated as acceptable by HSUs from all institutions. The differences between the waiting time rated as acceptable and the actual waiting time were the largest for SSI (30 min in comparison to MoH (20 min and PrivI (5 min users. The principal factors associated with an overall perception of low quality of care are type of institution (OR 4.36; 95% CI 2.95-6.44, waiting time (OR 3.20; 95% CI 2.35-4.35, improvement of health after consultation (OR 2.93; CI 2.29-3.76 and consultation length of less than 20 minutes (2.03; 95% CI 1.60-2.57. Conclusions The reference points derived by the HSUs' own ratings are useful in identifying where quality improvements are required

  20. Estimate of the intensities of the radioactive nuclides produced at the super-FRS at the future GSI facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, M.V.

    2004-11-01

    The principal goal of the new facility is the construction of a worldwide unique and technically innovative accelerator system that will provide an extensive range of particle beams. Proton and antiproton beams will be available and ion beams of all chemical elements up to uranium will be produced with world-record intensities. The main employ of the high-intensity ion beams is the production of energetic beams of short-lived (radioactive) nuclei, in the following referred to as exotic or Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs). RIBs are produced in nuclear reactions experienced by the primary beams of stable particles. We report on the study of the production of radioactive nuclides and of their propagation through the Super-FRS. The study was performed by means of a nuclear-reaction Monte-Carlo code, ABRABLA, opportunely implemented for the above-described purpose. This work offers an overview of the radioactivity production in the Super-FRS area; the latter is the required starting knowledge for the design of the shielding structure. (orig.)

  1. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  2. Radioactivity of Natural Nuclides (40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra in Coals from Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring primordial radionuclides in coals might exhibit high radioactivity, and can be exported to the surrounding environment during coal combustion. In this study, nine coal samples were collected from eastern Yunnan coal deposits, China, aiming at characterizing the overall radioactivity of some typical nuclides (i.e., 40K, 238U, 232Th, 226Ra and assessing their ecological impact. The mean activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 226Ra are 63.86 (17.70–92.30 Bq· kg-1, 23.76 (11.10–37.10 Bq· kg-1, 96.84 (30.60–229.30 Bq· kg-1 and 28.09 Bq·kg-1 (3.10–61.80 Bq·kg-1, respectively. Both 238U and 232Th have high correlations with ash yield of coals, suggesting their inorganic origins. The overall environmental effect of natural radionuclides in studied coals is considered to be negligible, as assessed by related indexes (i.e., radium equivalent activity, air-adsorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, and external hazard index. However, the absorbed dose rates values are higher than the average value of global primordial radiation and the Chinese natural gamma radiation dose rate.

  3. Multiple cosmogenic nuclides document complex Pleistocene exposure history of glacial drifts in Terra Nova Bay (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Luigia; Strasky, Stefan; Schlüchter, Christian; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.; Christl, Marcus; Kasper, Haino Uwe; Wieler, Rainer; Baroni, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Geomorphological and glacial geological surveys and multiple cosmogenic nuclide analyses ( 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne) allowed us to reconstruct the chronology of variations prior to the last glacial maximum of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) and valley glaciers in the Terra Nova Bay region. Glacially scoured coastal piedmonts with round-topped mountains occur below the highest local erosional trimline. They represent relict landscape features eroded by extensive ice overriding the whole coastal area before at least 6 Ma (pre-dating the build-up of the Mt. Melbourne volcanic field). Since then, summit surfaces were continuously exposed and well preserved under polar condition with negligible erosion rates on the order of 17 cm/Ma. Complex older drifts rest on deglaciated areas above the younger late-Pleistocene glacial drift and below the previously overridden summits. The combination of stable and radionuclide isotopes documents complex exposure histories with substantial periods of burial combined with minimal erosion. The areas below rounded summits were repeatedly exposed and buried by ice from local and outlet glaciers. The exposure ages of the older drift(s) indicate multiple Pleistocene glacial cycles, which did not significantly modify the pre-existing landscape.

  4. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields; Descontaminacion de aceites contaminados con radionuclidos utilizando campos magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-07-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  5. Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions on Uranium for Energies between 20 and 70 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uosif, M. A. M.; Michel, R.; Herpers, U.; Kubik, P.-W.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.

    2005-05-01

    Within the HINDAS project, proton-irradiation experiments were performed at the injector cyclotron of the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen/Switzerland in order to investigate the production of residual nuclides from natural uranium. The stacked-foil technique was used to cover proton energies between 20 MeV and 70 MeV. Copper targets were used for monitoring the proton beam using the reaction 65Cu (p,n)65Zn. Residual radionuclides were measured by off-line γ-spectrometry. Excitation functions were obtained for the production of 91Y, 95Zr, 95mNb, 99Mo, 103Ru, 112Pd, 115Cd, 124Sb, 126Sb, 127Sb, 132Te, 131I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 147Nd, and 238Np. The experimental data are compared to the sparse results of earlier measurements and with theoretical excitation functions calculated by the newly developed TALYS code. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained for product masses up to 115. For higher-mass fission products and for 238Np, there are still systematic deviations between theory and experiment. These deviations are discussed as deficits of the fission model in the heavy part of the fission product distribution.

  6. G4MoNA - A Geant4 Simulation for unbound nuclides detected with MoNA/LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Paul; Freeman, Jessica; Frank, Nathan; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MoNA Collaboration has conducted a plethora of experiments to study unbound nuclei near the neutron dripline using the invariant mass technique since 2005. These experiments used a variety of secondary beams from the Coupled Cyclotron Facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The experimental setup consists of a large gap superconducting Sweeper magnet for charged fragments separation and the MoNA/LISA neutron detector arrays for neutron detection. Recently, a multi-layered Si/Be segmented target consisting of three 700 mg/cm2 thick 9Be slabs and four 140 μ m Si detectors were added to the setup. This target improves the resolution of the reconstructed decay energy spectra of the unbound nuclides. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was used to develop a complete realistic model of the setup including a new class to treat the decay of unbound nuclei, the Si/Be segmented target, the MoNA/LISA and the charged fragments detector systems. Comparison between simulated and experimental data will be presented. DoENNSA - DE-NA0000979.

  7. A new tool for the search of nuclides with properties suitable for nuclear solid state physics based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagl, M.A., E-mail: matthias@nagl.eu [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Barbosa, M.B. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CERN-EP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Vetter, U. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Correia, J.G. [CERN-EP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ITN, IST, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Hofsäss, H.C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2013-10-21

    A software tool for the displaying of nuclear decay schemes, the calculation of angular γ emission anisotropies, and the automated search for appropriate decay cascade properties based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files (ENSDF) was created and published for free download. After a short introduction of this tool, candidate nuclides for time differential perturbed γ–γ angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements are presented. These candidates are grouped according to their parent nuclides’ half-life periods in groups for online, on-site, and off-site measurements. For all candidates angular correlation coefficients (also called anisotropy values) were computed and are shown alongside magnetic and quadrupole moments from the ENSDF database and other sources. An extension of the presented software for the search of nuclides for Mössbauer spectroscopy, Nuclear Resonant Scattering, and other methods is easily possible.

  8. A new tool for the search of nuclides with properties suitable for nuclear solid state physics based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, M. A.; Barbosa, M. B.; Vetter, U.; Correia, J. G.; Hofsäss, H. C.

    2013-10-01

    A software tool for the displaying of nuclear decay schemes, the calculation of angular γ emission anisotropies, and the automated search for appropriate decay cascade properties based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data Files (ENSDF) was created and published for free download. After a short introduction of this tool, candidate nuclides for time differential perturbed γ-γ angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements are presented. These candidates are grouped according to their parent nuclides’ half-life periods in groups for online, on-site, and off-site measurements. For all candidates angular correlation coefficients (also called anisotropy values) were computed and are shown alongside magnetic and quadrupole moments from the ENSDF database and other sources. An extension of the presented software for the search of nuclides for Mössbauer spectroscopy, Nuclear Resonant Scattering, and other methods is easily possible.

  9. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Dworschak, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-01

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard C12. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, δVpn(Z,N).

  10. An investigation of the relationship between cataract surgery wait times and rates of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, William G; Ramsay, Timothy; Fergusson, Dean; Si, Francie; Pan, Irene; Su, Yinghua; Buhrmann, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between cataract surgery wait times and rates of surgery was investigated to determine whether wait times correlate with rates of surgery. Cross-sectional study. We collected 2 Ontario registries for cataract surgeries: (i) Cancer Care Ontario wait time registry; and (ii) The Ontario Health Insurance Plan billing records. Both registries were used to determine whether wait times correlated with rates of surgery, and the data were then stratified by region of the province, priority (severity) of cases, age, and sex. The total number of surgeries performed between April 2, 2007, and March 31, 2008, was 65,520. The overall mean number of wait days was 69.8 days; the mean patient age was 72.5 years; and the surgery rate was 540.3 per 100,000 members of the population. For high-priority cases (priorities 1 and 2), there was a very weak inverse correlation (p = -0.27 and -0.21) between wait time and surgery rate, whereas the overall correlation between wait time and surgical rate was close to zero in both databases, regardless of the region, the patients' ages, and the patients' genders. This study demonstrates a very weak correlation between wait times for and rates of cataract surgery, and this should be a concern for policy makers. Further study is needed to see whether this null relationship persists over time and whether it exists for other monitored wait time procedures. Reasons for this null relationship will have to be determined and remedied as the use of wait times becomes a more widespread outcome in Canadian Healthcare. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Wavelet-Monte Carlo Hybrid System for HLW Nuclide Migration Modeling and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, Hesham; Neyama, Atsushi

    2003-02-26

    This paper presents results of an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for performance of the different barriers of high level radioactive waste repositories. SUA is a tool to perform the uncertainty and sensitivity on the output of Wavelet Integrated Repository System model (WIRS), which is developed to solve a system of nonlinear partial differential equations arising from the model formulation of radionuclide transport through repository. SUA performs sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) on a sample output from Monte Carlo simulation. The sample is generated by WIRS and contains the values of the output values of the maximum release rate in the form of time series and values of the input variables for a set of different simulations (runs), which are realized by varying the model input parameters. The Monte Carlo sample is generated with SUA as a pure random sample or using Latin Hypercube sampling technique. Tchebycheff and Kolmogrov confidence bounds are compute d on the maximum release rate for UA and effective non-parametric statistics to rank the influence of the model input parameters SA. Based on the results, we point out parameters that have primary influences on the performance of the engineered barrier system of a repository. The parameters found to be key contributor to the release rate are selenium and Cesium distribution coefficients in both geosphere and major water conducting fault (MWCF), the diffusion depth and water flow rate in the excavation-disturbed zone (EDZ).

  12. Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on quality of life and functional capacity in patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliessa Florian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation program on the functional capacity and on the quality of life of patients on waiting lists for lung transplantation. METHODS: Patients on lung transplant waiting lists were referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation program consisting of 36 sessions. Before and after the program, participating patients were evaluated with the six-minute walk test and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. The pulmonary rehabilitation program involved muscle strengthening exercises, aerobic training, clinical evaluation, psychiatric evaluation, nutritional counseling, social assistance, and educational lectures. RESULTS: Of the 112 patients initially referred to the program, 58 completed it. The mean age of the participants was 46 ± 14 years, and females accounted for 52%. Of those 58 patients, 37 (47% had pulmonary fibrosis, 13 (22% had pulmonary emphysema, and 18 (31% had other types of advanced lung disease. The six-minute walk distance was significantly greater after the program than before (439 ± 114 m vs. 367 ± 136 m, p = 0.001, the mean increase being 72 m. There were significant point increases in the scores on the following SF-36 domains: physical functioning, up 22 (p = 0.001, role-physical, up 10 (p = 0.045; vitality, up 10 (p < 0.001; social functioning, up 15 (p = 0.001; and mental health, up 8 (p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation had a positive impact on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients on lung transplant waiting lists.

  13. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for HIV Treatment Side Effects: A Randomized Wait-List Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2011-01-01

    Context Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV offer life-extending benefit; however, the side effects associated with ART use negatively impact quality of life and medication adherence among people living with HIV. Objectives This study tested the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for reducing ART symptoms and bother/distress related to ART side effects. Secondary aims were to test the impact of MBSR on medication adherence and psychological functioning. Methods Seventy-six people living with HIV who were actively taking ART and reported distress from ART-related side effects were randomly assigned to MBSR or a wait-list control standard care condition. We measured side effects, ART adherence, perceived stress, depression, positive and negative affect, and mindfulness at three time points: baseline, three-month follow-up, and six-month follow-up. Side effects and related distress were assessed separately from other symptoms. Results Compared to a wait-list control, participants in the MBSR condition experienced a reduction in the frequency of symptoms attributable to antiretroviral therapies at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01, 0.66; t(132) = 2.04, P = 0.044) and at six months post intervention (mean difference = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.71; t(132) = 2.27, P = 0.025). MBSR participants also experienced a reduction in distress associated with those symptoms at three months post intervention (mean difference = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.003, 0.94; t(132) = 1.99, P = 0.048) compared with the wait-list control condition. Conclusion Mindfulness-based stress reduction is a promising approach for reducing HIV treatment-related side effects. PMID:21925831

  14. Evaluation of resolved resonance parameters of fission product nuclides with atomic numbers Z=46-51 for JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yutaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-08-01

    Resolved resonance parameters of the following fission product nuclides with atomic numbers Z=46-51 have been evaluated for JENDL-3.2: {sup 102,104,105,106,107,108,110}Pd, {sup 107,109,110m}Ag, {sup 106,108,110,111,112,113,114,116}Cd, {sup 113,115I}n, {sup 121,123}Sb. Evaluation was made on the basis of JENDL-2 for most nuclides and of the data recommended by Mughabghab et al. for the nuclides whose data have not been contained in JENDL-2. Data measured after the JENDL-2 evaluation (1982) have been taken into account in the evaluation. Spin of the resonance state and angular momentum of the incident neutron have been given for all levels. When there exist no measured data, the spin has been given tentatively on the basis of a random sampling technique using their statistical properties, and the angular momentum was also tentatively given on the basis of the Bayes`s theorem on conditional probability using the s- and p-wave strength functions and average level spacings. The resonance parameters have been evaluated so as to reproduce measured capture area of individual resonance levels, thermal cross section and resonance integral. Evaluated results have been compiled into JENDL-3.2 in the formats of ENDF-5 and ENDF-6. (author)

  15. The effects of publishing emergency department wait time on patient utilization patterns in a community with two emergency department sites: a retrospective, quasi-experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Youash, Sabrina

    2011-06-14

    Providing emergency department (ED) wait time information to the public has been suggested as a mechanism to reduce lengthy ED wait times (by enabling patients to select the ED site with shorter wait time), but the effects of such a program have not been evaluated. We evaluated the effects of such a program in a community with two ED sites. Descriptive statistics for wait times of the two sites before and after the publication of wait time information were used to evaluate the effects of the publication of wait time information on wait times. Multivariate logistical regression was used to test whether or not individual patients used published wait time to decide which site to visit. We found that the rates of wait times exceeding 4 h, and the 95th percentile of wait times in the two sites decreased after the publication of wait time information, even though the average wait times experienced a slight increase. We also found that after controlling for other factors, the site with shorter wait time had a higher likelihood of being selected after the publication of wait time information, but there was no such relationship before the publication. These findings were consistent with the hypothesis that the publication of wait time information leads to patients selecting the site with shorter wait time. While publishing ED wait time information did not improve average wait time, it reduced the rates of lengthy wait times.

  16. Advanced access: reducing waiting and delays in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mark; Berwick, Donald M

    2003-02-26

    Delay of care is a persistent and undesirable feature of current health care systems. Although delay seems to be inevitable and linked to resource limitations, it often is neither. Rather, it is usually the result of unplanned, irrational scheduling and resource allocation. Application of queuing theory and principles of industrial engineering, adapted appropriately to clinical settings, can reduce delay substantially, even in small practices, without requiring additional resources. One model, sometimes referred to as advanced access, has increasingly been shown to reduce waiting times in primary care. The core principle of advanced access is that patients calling to schedule a physician visit are offered an appointment the same day. Advanced access is not sustainable if patient demand for appointments is permanently greater than physician capacity to offer appointments. Six elements of advanced access are important in its application balancing supply and demand, reducing backlog, reducing the variety of appointment types, developing contingency plans for unusual circumstances, working to adjust demand profiles, and increasing the availability of bottleneck resources. Although these principles are powerful, they are counter to deeply held beliefs and established practices in health care organizations. Adopting these principles requires strong leadership investment and support.

  17. Mars can wait: facing the challenges of our civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoffrey; Gershwin, M Eric; Bercovich, Dani

    2014-12-01

    We are overwhelmed by warnings about inevitable geophysical and human problems. Earth is beset by escalating, manmade, environmental crises and our exploding population will eventually lack water, food and vital materials. This suggests, together with increasing poverty, deepening social unrest and advanced techniques for mass killing, that civilization will break down long before atmospheric CO2 or resistant microbes become catastrophic. Despite intensive searching, life has not been found in space, even though thousands of planets have been found and life there may be as problematic and unpredictable as on Earth. The human brain is already a 'universe', with 85 billion neurons and a hundred trillion synapses, more than the stars in our galaxy. Understanding consciousness, the brain, its aging and pathologies, and eliminating the propensity for human aggression are urgent challenges. During 1958-2012, NASA spent $800 billion. In contrast, the annual cost of brain disease in the U.S. is $600 billion, more than cardiovascular disease and cancer combined. We suggest that a massive switching of financial and human resources is required to explore the full potential of the human brain. Visiting Mars can wait. We further propose a novel Two-Brain Hypothesis: the animal 'brain' evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs: one electroionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access)--a relatively independent, stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting EM fields.

  18. Models of emergency departments for reducing patient waiting times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Laskowski

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply both agent-based models and queuing models to investigate patient access and patient flow through emergency departments. The objective of this work is to gain insights into the comparative contributions and limitations of these complementary techniques, in their ability to contribute empirical input into healthcare policy and practice guidelines. The models were developed independently, with a view to compare their suitability to emergency department simulation. The current models implement relatively simple general scenarios, and rely on a combination of simulated and real data to simulate patient flow in a single emergency department or in multiple interacting emergency departments. In addition, several concepts from telecommunications engineering are translated into this modeling context. The framework of multiple-priority queue systems and the genetic programming paradigm of evolutionary machine learning are applied as a means of forecasting patient wait times and as a means of evolving healthcare policy, respectively. The models' utility lies in their ability to provide qualitative insights into the relative sensitivities and impacts of model input parameters, to illuminate scenarios worthy of more complex investigation, and to iteratively validate the models as they continue to be refined and extended. The paper discusses future efforts to refine, extend, and validate the models with more data and real data relative to physical (spatial-topographical and social inputs (staffing, patient care models, etc.. Real data obtained through proximity location and tracking system technologies is one example discussed.

  19. Public views on a wait time management initiative: a matter of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

    2010-08-05

    Many countries have tried to reduce waiting times for health care through formal wait time reduction strategies. Our paper describes views of members of the public about a wait time management initiative--the Ontario Wait Time Strategy (OWTS) (Canada). Scholars and governmental reports have advocated for increased public involvement in wait time management. We provide empirically derived recommendations for public engagement in a wait time management initiative. Two qualitative studies: 1) an analysis of all emails sent by the public to the (OWTS) email address; and 2) in-depth interviews with members of the Ontario public. Email correspondents and interview participants supported the intent of the OWTS. However they wanted more information about the Strategy and its actions. Interview participants did not feel they were sufficiently made aware of the Strategy and email correspondents requested additional information beyond what was offered on the Strategy's website. Moreover, the email correspondents believed that some of the information that was provided on the Strategy's website and through the media was inaccurate, misleading, and even dishonest. Interview participants strongly supported public involvement in the OWTS priority setting. Findings suggest the public wanted increased communication from and with the OWTS. Effective communication can facilitate successful public engagement, and in turn fair and legitimate priority setting. Based on the study's findings we developed concrete recommendations for improving public involvement in wait time management.

  20. Survey of Access to GastroEnterology in Canada: The SAGE wait times program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddin, Desmond; Bridges, Ronald J; Morgan, David G; Fallone, Carlo; Render, Craig; Plourde, Victor; Gray, Jim; Switzer, Connie; McHattie, Jim; Singh, Harminder; Walli, Eric; Murray, Iain; Nestel, Anthony; Sinclair, Paul; Chen, Ying; Irvine, E Jan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of current wait times for specialist health services in Canada is a key method that can assist government and health care providers to plan wisely for future health needs. These data are not readily available. A method to capture wait time data at the time of consultation or procedure has been developed, which should be applicable to other specialist groups and also allows for assessment of wait time trends over intervals of years. METHODS: In November 2008, gastroenterologists across Canada were asked to complete a questionnaire (online or by fax) that included personal demographics and data from one week on at least five consecutive new consultations and five consecutive procedure patients who had not previously undergone a procedure for the same indication. Wait times were collected for 18 primary indications and results were then compared with similar survey data collected in 2005. RESULTS: The longest wait times observed were for screening colonoscopy (201 days) and surveillance of previous colon cancer or polyps (272 days). The shortest wait times were for cancer-likely based on imaging or physical examination (82 days), severe or rapidly progressing dysphagia or odynophagia (83 days), documented iron-deficiency anemia (90 days) and dyspepsia with alarm symptoms (99 days). Compared with 2005 data, total wait times in 2008 were lengthened overall (127 days versus 155 days; Pgastroenterology services continue to exceed consensus conference recommended targets and have significantly worsened since 2005. PMID:20186352

  1. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  2. The Influence of Ambient Scent and Music on Patients' Anxiety in a Waiting Room of a Plastic Surgeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Loock, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the influence of ambient scent and music, and their combination, on patients' anxiety in a waiting room of a plastic surgeon. BACKGROUND: Waiting for an appointment with a plastic surgeon can increase a patient's anxiety. It is important to make the waiting time

  3. Waiting times for diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark in 2010 compared to 1992 and 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, N M; Christensen, A; Alanin, M C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Significant tumour progression was observed during waiting time for treatment of head and neck cancer. To reduce waiting times, a Danish national policy of fast track accelerated clinical pathways was introduced in 2007. This study describes changes in waiting time and the pot...

  4. Improving wait times to care for individuals with multimorbidities and complex conditions using value stream mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalli, Tara; Desy, Michel; Dhir, Minakshi; Edwards, Lynn; Dickson, Robert; Blackmore, Gail

    2015-04-05

    Recognizing the significant impact of wait times for care for individuals with complex chronic conditions, we applied a LEAN methodology, namely - an adaptation of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to meet the needs of people with multiple chronic conditions and to improve wait times without additional resources or funding. Over an 18-month time period, staff applied a patient-centric approach that included LEAN methodology of VSM to improve wait times to care. Our framework of evaluation was grounded in the needs and perspectives of patients and individuals waiting to receive care. Patient centric views were obtained through surveys such as Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and process engineering based questions. In addition, LEAN methodology, VSM was added to identify non-value added processes contributing to wait times. The care team successfully reduced wait times to 2 months in 2014 with no wait times for care anticipated in 2015. Increased patient engagement and satisfaction are also outcomes of this innovative initiative. In addition, successful transformations and implementation have resulted in resource efficiencies without increase in costs. Patients have shown significant improvements in functional health following Integrated Chronic Care Service (ICCS) intervention. The methodology will be applied to other chronic disease management areas in Capital Health and the province. Wait times to care in the management of multimoribidities and other complex conditions can add a significant burden not only on the affected individuals but also on the healthcare system. In this study, a novel and modified LEAN methodology has been applied to embed the voice of the patient in care delivery processes and to reduce wait times to care in the management of complex chronic conditions. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  5. Improving wait times to care for individuals with multimorbidities and complex conditions using value stream mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalli, Tara; Desy, Michel; Dhir, Minakshi; Edwards, Lynn; Dickson, Robert; Blackmore, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognizing the significant impact of wait times for care for individuals with complex chronic conditions, we applied a LEAN methodology, namely – an adaptation of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to meet the needs of people with multiple chronic conditions and to improve wait times without additional resources or funding. Methods: Over an 18-month time period, staff applied a patient-centric approach that included LEAN methodology of VSM to improve wait times to care. Our framework of evaluation was grounded in the needs and perspectives of patients and individuals waiting to receive care. Patient centric views were obtained through surveys such as Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and process engineering based questions. In addition, LEAN methodology, VSM was added to identify non-value added processes contributing to wait times. Results: The care team successfully reduced wait times to 2 months in 2014 with no wait times for care anticipated in 2015. Increased patient engagement and satisfaction are also outcomes of this innovative initiative. In addition, successful transformations and implementation have resulted in resource efficiencies without increase in costs. Patients have shown significant improvements in functional health following Integrated Chronic Care Service (ICCS) intervention. The methodology will be applied to other chronic disease management areas in Capital Health and the province. Conclusion: Wait times to care in the management of multimoribidities and other complex conditions can add a significant burden not only on the affected individuals but also on the healthcare system. In this study, a novel and modified LEAN methodology has been applied to embed the voice of the patient in care delivery processes and to reduce wait times to care in the management of complex chronic conditions. PMID:26188810

  6. General practice cooperatives: long waiting times for home visits due to long distances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Paul; van Lin, Nieke; Mokkink, Henk; van den Bosch, Wil; Grol, Richard

    2007-02-12

    The introduction of large-scale out-of-hours GP cooperatives has led to questions about increased distances between the GP cooperatives and the homes of patients and the increasing waiting times for home visits in urgent cases. We studied the relationship between the patient's waiting time for a home visit and the distance to the GP cooperative. Further, we investigated if other factors (traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day, and degree of urgency) influenced waiting times. Cross-sectional study at four GP cooperatives. We used variance analysis to calculate waiting times for various categories of traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day, and degree of urgency. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate to what degree these factors affected the ability to meet targets in urgent cases. The average waiting time for 5827 consultations was 30.5 min. Traffic intensity, home visit intensity, time of day and urgency of the complaint all seemed to affect waiting times significantly. A total of 88.7% of all patients were seen within 1 hour. In the case of life-threatening complaints (U1), 68.8% of the patients were seen within 15 min, and 95.6% of those with acute complaints (U2) were seen within 1 hour. For patients with life-threatening complaints (U1) the percentage of visits that met the time target of 15 minutes decreased from 86.5% (less than 2.5 km) to 16.7% (equals or more than 20 km). Although home visits waiting times increase with increasing distance from the GP cooperative, it appears that traffic intensity, home visit intensity, and urgency also influence waiting times. For patients with life-threatening complaints waiting times increase sharply with the distance.

  7. Adjusting patients streaming initiated by a wait time threshold in emergency department for minimizing opportunity cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungjoon B J; Delbridge, Theodore R; Kendrick, Dawn B

    2017-07-10

    Purpose Two different systems for streaming patients were considered to improve efficiency measures such as waiting times (WTs) and length of stay (LOS) for a current emergency department (ED). A typical fast track area (FTA) and a fast track with a wait time threshold (FTW) were designed and compared effectiveness measures from the perspective of total opportunity cost of all patients' WTs in the ED. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This retrospective case study used computerized ED patient arrival to discharge time logs (between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010) to build computer simulation models for the FTA and fast track with wait time threshold systems. Various wait time thresholds were applied to stream different acuity-level patients. National average wait time for each acuity level was considered as a threshold to stream patients. Findings The fast track with a wait time threshold (FTW) showed a statistically significant shorter total wait time than the current system or a typical FTA system. The patient streaming management would improve the service quality of the ED as well as patients' opportunity costs by reducing the total LOS in the ED. Research limitations/implications The results of this study were based on computer simulation models with some assumptions such as no transfer times between processes, an arrival distribution of patients, and no deviation of flow pattern. Practical implications When the streaming of patient flow can be managed based on the wait time before being seen by a physician, it is possible for patients to see a physician within a tolerable wait time, which would result in less crowded in the ED. Originality/value A new streaming scheme of patients' flow may improve the performance of fast track system.

  8. Wait-time, classroom discourse, and the influence of sociocultural factors in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Olajide, Janet O.

    Wait-time, a variable related to questioning in a teaching-learning situation, has been found to have implications for the inquiry mode of science teaching especially in Western classroom environments. Aside from the fact that the literature is very sparse in this area about what obtains in developing countries, nothing appears to be available with regard to how wait-time interacts with the sociocultural factors within non-Western science classrooms. In a non-Western country such as Nigeria where most science programs in schools are inquiry-oriented, do teachers take notice of, and effectively use, wait-time in the teaching-learning process? Are science teachers able to effectively use the mediating role of sociocultural factors in science teaching in a traditional environment which expects children to be seen only and not heard? The main purpose of this study was to investigate the wait-time of Nigerian integrated science teachers in relation to the amount of students' participation in inquiry. This study also investigated the relationship between wait-time and sociocultural attitudinal factors prevalent in traditional societies. The instruments used for data collection were the Hough's Observational Schedule and a modified version of the Socio-Cultural Environment Scale (SCES); a stop-watch was used to measure the wait-time of audio-recorded integrated science lessons of 37 integrated science teachers from selected junior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The results showed that the average wait-time TT and wait-time ST of the integrated science teachers was 3.0 seconds and 0.7 seconds, respectively. The study reported the amount of student participation in the student-teacher classroom discourse to be very low. Wait-time was also shown to have a strong relationship with sociocultural factors of authoritarianism, goal structure, societal expectation, and traditional worldview. The pedagogical and curricular implications of the results have been

  9. Improving Wait Times to Care for Individuals with Multimorbidities and Complex Conditions Using Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sampalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recognizing the significant impact of wait times for care for individuals with complex chronic conditions, we applied a LEAN methodology, namely – an adaptation of Value Stream Mapping (VSM to meet the needs of people with multiple chronic conditions and to improve wait times without additional resources or funding. Methods Over an 18-month time period, staff applied a patient-centric approach that included LEAN methodology of VSM to improve wait times to care. Our framework of evaluation was grounded in the needs and perspectives of patients and individuals waiting to receive care. Patient centric views were obtained through surveys such as Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC and process engineering based questions. In addition, LEAN methodology, VSM was added to identify non-value added processes contributing to wait times. Results The care team successfully reduced wait times to 2 months in 2014 with no wait times for care anticipated in 2015. Increased patient engagement and satisfaction are also outcomes of this innovative initiative. In addition, successful transformations and implementation have resulted in resource efficiencies without increase in costs. Patients have shown significant improvements in functional health following Integrated Chronic Care Service (ICCS intervention. The methodology will be applied to other chronic disease management areas in Capital Health and the province. Conclusion Wait times to care in the management of multimoribidities and other complex conditions can add a significant burden not only on the affected individuals but also on the healthcare system. In this study, a novel and modified LEAN methodology has been applied to embed the voice of the patient in care delivery processes and to reduce wait times to care in the management of complex chronic conditions.

  10. Mobile Fences: J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pizzinat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fences usually enclose and separate, but they are also places of exchange neither inside nor outside. This concept is well represented in J.M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians, because not only this novel is setted on the border between an undefined Empire and the barbarians’ lands, but it also plays with various declinations of the idea of limit and boundary. Through a reading which intends to highlight every kind of frame in the novel, it will emerge that no border is fixed and conclusive. Namely, in this book every real or metaphoric fence is called into question: the distinction between the duality of “us and them” is actually determined by the Empire’s walls which separate the inside from the outside in an arbitrary way; the magistrate (with the empathy he feels for the barbarian girl is inevitably caught in a double bind; and, according to Emmanuel Lévinas’ philosophy, the desire to understand otherness reveals its predatory intentions from a post-colonial point of view. It is not possible to delineate an ultimate bordeline, and it will emerge that instead of a binary logic there is a more fruitful way of thinking, a way based on frames, paradoxes and literary texts which cannot be read as flat mirroring devices.      

  11. Transport and exchange of U-series nuclides between suspended material, dissolved load and colloids in rivers draining basaltic terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Burton, Kevin W.; Porcelli, Don; James, Rachael H.; van Calsteren, Peter; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents uranium and thorium concentrations and activity ratios for all riverine phases (bedload, suspended load, dissolved load and colloids) from basaltic terrains in Iceland and the Azores. Small basaltic islands, such as these, are thought to account for ~ 25% of CO2 consumed by global silicate weathering, and for ~ 45% of the flux of suspended material to the oceans. These data indicate that [U] and [Th] in the dissolved and colloidal fractions are strongly controlled by pH, and to a much lesser extent by levels of dissolved organic carbon (which are low in these environments). At high pH, basalt glass dissolution is enhanced, and secondary mineral formation (e.g. Fe-oxyhydroxides and allophane) is suppressed, resulting in high dissolved [U], and low colloidal [U] and [Th], indicating a direct chemical weathering control on elemental abundances. When the dissolved (234U/238U) activity ratio is >~1.3 (i.e. when physical weathering, groundwater contribution or soil formation are high), there is little isotope exchange between dissolved and colloidal fractions. At lower activity ratios, the dissolved load and colloids have indistinguishable activity ratios, suggesting that when chemical weathering rates are high, secondary clay formation is also high, and colloids rapidly adsorb dissolved U. Many of the suspended sediment samples have (234U/238U) activity ratios of > 1, which suggests that uptake of U onto the suspended load is important. Identical (230Th/232Th) in suspended, dissolved and colloidal samples suggests that Th, like U, is exchanged or sorbed rapidly between all riverine phases. This particle-reactivity, combined with poorly constrained contributions from groundwater and hydrothermal water, and short-term variations in input to soils (volcanic and glacial), suggests that U-series nuclides in riverine material from such basaltic terrains are unlikely to reflect steady state erosion processes.

  12. Distribution of U-Th nuclides in the riverine and coastal environments of the tropical southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, K; Shankar, R; Sarin, M M; Manjunatha, B R

    2001-01-01

    A reconnaissance study has been made on the distribution of 238U, 234U, 232Th and 230Th in soils, water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments in the Kali river basin around Kaiga, its estuarine region and the adjacent Arabian Sea to obtain the baseline data of U-Th series nuclides in view of the commissioning of nuclear power reactors at Kaiga, near Karwar, on the southwest coast of India. Drainage basin soils developed over greywackes (the dominant litho-unit upstream) are lower in 238U/Al and 232Th/Al ratios by factors of 3-5 in comparison with those developed over tonalitic gneisses (the dominant litho-unit downstream). The dominance of the former type of soils is reflected in the composition of river-bottom sediments derived from the upstream drainage basin during the monsoon. The 232Th in bottom sediments tends to increase towards the estuarine and coastal areas, presumably due to deposition of heavy minerals and onshore transport of coastal sediments into the estuary. The dissolved U in the Kali river is low (0.001-0.02 microg/l) when compared to the major Indian rivers as the Kali river flows through U-poor greywackes. Thus, the input of dissolved U to the Kali estuary is dominated by sea water. Although there is some evidence for the removal of dissolved U at low salinity during estuarine mixing, its behaviour is conservative in the lower estuary (at higher salinities). The removal rate of dissolved U from the Kali river basin is similar to that reported from other tropical river basins. The U flux from all the west-flowing rivers of Peninsular India is estimated at 26.3 x 10(6) g/yr to the Arabian Sea which is about 2% of the flux from the Himalayan rivers to the Bay of Bengal.

  13. Extracting dynamic topography from river profiles and cosmogenic nuclide geochronology in the Middle Atlas and the High Plateaus of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Alvar; Babault, Julien; Owen, Lewis A.; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, María-Luisa

    2015-11-01

    The Moulouya river system has intensely eroded the Arhbalou, Missour, and Guercif Neogene foreland basins in northeastern Morocco, having changed from net aggradation during the Miocene-early Pliocene to net incision punctuated by alluvial fan deposition at late Pliocene or early Quaternary time. This region as a whole has experienced mantle-driven, surface uplift (dynamic topography) since the late Cenozoic, being locally affected by uplift due to crustal shortening and thickening of the Middle Atlas too. Knickpoints located along the major streams of the Moulouya fluvial network, appear on both the undeformed margins of the Missour and Guercif foreland basins (High Plateaus), as well as along the thrust mountain front of the southern Middle Atlas, where they reach heights of 800-1000 m. 500-550 m of the knickpoint vertical incision might be explained by long-wavelength mantle-driven dynamic surface uplift, whereas the remaining 450-500 m in the southern Middle Atlas front and 200-300 m in the northeastern Middle Atlas front seem to be thrust-related uplift of the Jebel Bou Naceur. Be-10 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides have been used to date two Quaternary river terraces in the Chegg Ard valley at 62 ± 14 ka and 411 ± 55 ka. The dated terraces allow the incision rates associated with the frontal structures of the Middle Atlas to be estimated at ~ 0.3 mm yr- 1. Furthermore, these ages have served to evaluate mantle-driven regional surface uplift since the middle Pleistocene in the central Missour basin, yielding values of ~ 0.1-0.2 mm yr- 1.

  14. Can cosmogenic nuclides (36Cl) unravel the timing of dislocation of tsunami blocks on Bonaire (Leeward Antilles)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Rixhon, Gilles; Brückner, Helmut; May, S. Matthias; Binnie, Steve; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2013-04-01

    On Bonaire (Leeward Antilles) and rocky coasts worldwide, high-energy wave events (tsunamis, storms) dislocate coarse-clast deposits (Engel and May, 2012). Using these onshore blocks and boulders to derive ages for the most powerful events on millennial scales is still a major challenge. We apply terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN), in particular 36Cl, in case of the largest blocks in order to directly date the transport event(s), i.e. the inferred tsunami(s). This dating method has hitherto been disregarded in the coastal environment, particularly in the context of block transport. The following characteristics of the blocks are fundamental for the success of the presented dating approach: (1) due to the lithology (aragonite, calcite), concentration measurements of 36Cl are performed; (2) only large and thick boulders and blocks (>50 t, >2 m thickness) for which tsunami transport was inferred (Engel and May, 2012) were sampled; (3) since the boulders stem from the edge of the coral reef platform, they had been exposed to cosmic radiation prior to the transport event(s) and had already accumulated a certain amount of TCN. To avoid this problem of inheritance, we only sampled the thickest clasts, and those having experienced a 180° overturn during transport; thus, having exposed a "blank" side to cosmic rays only since the event. The complete overturn is attested by the presence of inactive rock pools in upside-down position and bioerosive notches. Engel, M., and May, S. M.: Bonaire's boulder fields revisited: Evidence for Holocene tsunami impact on the Leeward Antilles, Quat. Sci. Rev., 54, 126-141, 2012.

  15. Day surgery: patients' felt abandoned during the preoperative wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Wright, Kerrie

    2008-09-01

    The rapid expansion in day surgery has facilitated a shift in surgical nursing intervention. The evolving evidence base has a major part to play in influencing nurse-led preassessment, information provision, pain management and postoperative intervention. However, the literature is characterised by a number of deficits: poor attention to patient experience from admission to discharge, anxieties evoked and the potential needs of patients are not well articulated. The purpose of this paper is to describe and interpret patients' experiences of contemporary day surgery. This hermeneutic phenomenological approach focused on the experience of 20 adult patients. Data was collected by using unstructured interviews. The transcripts were interpreted through the identification of four prevalent themes using the phenomenological method. The themes that emerged from the data are emphasised, ranging from the feeling of empowerment during preparation, through apprehensions encountered and the feeling of abandonment in the preoperative waiting area, to recovery dynamics. The study demonstrates that the majority of the patients felt abandoned in the preoperative stage and nurses did not recognise the importance of ongoing psychological support. Therefore, it is crucial to strengthen the provision of emotional support and person-centred care in a day surgery context. There is also a need to be aware that environmental factors can impact on patient anxiety, promoting the use of music preoperatively can reduce anxiety and increase well-being. Crucially health professionals need to facilitate person-centred and continuity of care throughout the day surgery experience. Using dynamic interpersonal skills, such as active listening 'holding''containment' and attunement to reduce anxiety and feelings of abandonment in the preoperative period. Moreover, being alert to verbal utterances, para-language and non-verbal cues demonstrated by the patient. Specific information about delays regarding

  16. Extinction and anti-extinction: the "attentional waiting" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Rosamond; Danckert, James; Linnell, Karina J; Cocchini, Gianna

    2013-03-01

    Patients with visual extinction have difficulty detecting a single contralesional stimulus when a second stimulus is simultaneously presented on the ipsilesional side. The rarely reported phenomenon of visual anti-extinction describes the opposite behavior, in which patients show greater difficulty in reporting a stimulus presented in isolation than they do in reporting 2 simultaneously presented stimuli. S. J. Goodrich and R. Ward (1997, Anti-extinction following unilateral parietal damage, Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 14, pp. 595-612) suggested that visual anti-extinction is the result of a task-specific mechanism in which processing of the ipsilesional stimulus facilitates responses to the contralesional stimulus; in contrast, G. W. Humphreys, M. J. Riddoch, G. Nys, and D. Heinke (2002, Transient binding by time: Neuropsychological evidence from anti-extinction, Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 19, pp. 361-380) suggested that temporal binding groups contralesional and ipsilesional stimuli together at brief exposure durations. We investigated extinction and anti-extinction phenomena in 3 brain-damaged patients using an extinction paradigm in which the stimulus exposure duration was systematically manipulated. Two patients showed both extinction and anti-extinction depending on the exposure duration of stimuli. Data confirmed the crucial role of duration in modulating the effect of extinction and anti-extinction. However, contrary to Humphreys and colleagues' (2002) single case, our patients showed extinction for short and anti-extinction for long exposure durations, suggesting that different mechanisms might underlie our patients' pattern of data. We discuss a novel "attentional waiting" hypothesis, which proposes that anti-extinction may be observed in patients showing extinction if the exposure duration of stimuli is increased. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Cardiac evaluation in pediatric patients waiting for liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Naser Honar, Hamid Amoozegar, Ahad Eshraghian, Mohammad Borzooei, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh, Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular abnormalities are among common complication in patients with cirrhosis waiting for liver transplantation (LT. The aim of the present study was to investigate cardiac abnormalities among pediatric liver transplant candidates.Methods: We prospectively evaluated the pediatric patient aged less than 18 years listed for LT between 2006 and 2008. Besides history taking and physical examination all the patients underwent electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, contrast echocardiography and color Doppler echocardiography, as well as arterial blood gas analyses.Results: Totally 89 patients with mean age of 8.1±4.6 years were included in the study. The most common causes for liver disease were cryptogenic cirrhosis followed by biliary atresia and autoimmune cirrhosis. Clubbing was found in 27 out of 89 patients and was the most common abnormalities in physical examination. In 22 patients (24.7% heart murmur was heard by a pediatric cardiologist. Sixty nine patients (77.5% had normal cardiac findings in chest radiograph. Cardiomegaly was found in 17 (19.1% patients as the most common abnormal finding in chest radiograph. Electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia in 16 (18% patients. Eleven patients (12.4% had tricuspid regurgitation as the most common abnormal findings in echocardiography. Thirteen (14.6% patients had positive contrast echocardiography in favor of intrapulmonary shunt.Conclusion: As the leading cause of post transplant death after graft rejection are cardiovascular complications cardiac evaluation should be considered in all pediatric patients before LT to lower morbidity and mortality during and after transplantation.

  18. Wait watchers. Smart organizations are demonstrating that while they can't erase ED wait times, they can leverage technology to keep patients better informed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2010-04-01

    Increases in ED visits are significantly affecting patient access, quality, cost and care management--a trend that is expected to continue. A number of organizations are dealing with the increased demand for services by implementing technologies to keep patients better informed of wait times. Publishing ED wait times online offers hospitals a way to communicate information to patients quickly without requiring a significant investment from the IT staff. Hospitals are also utilizing visibility boards to keep both patients and staff updated on patient conditions and room status.

  19. DNW--"did not wait" or "demographic needing work": a study of the profile of patients who did not wait to be seen in an Irish emergency department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilligan, P

    2009-11-01

    Patients who fail to wait for medical assessment in the emergency department (ED) have been referred to in the international literature as "did not wait" (DNW) or "left without being seen" (LWBS) patients or, indeed, simply as "walkouts". This is taken as a performance indicator internationally. In common with many countries, Ireland has very considerable problems in the delivery of ED care due largely to inadequate resources and the inappropriate use of EDs as holding bays for admitted patients. This is the first study of this size to profile the DNW phenomenon in Ireland.

  20. Alleyway Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    topografier. Alleyway Points består af en række eksperimenter, som søger at udforske denne sammenvævning af disse to parallelle domæner gennem en pendulering imellem det fysiske og det digitale. En gyde danner rammen om disse forsøg, hvor den etablerede punktsky i sig selv bliver anskuet som en digital......Forskelligartede former for fotogrammetri og 3D-scanning muliggør indfangelse af den fysiske verden i det digitale domæne. Dette har vist sig instrumentelt i et utal af forskellige henseender. Når virkeligheden bliver digitaliseret, bliver den frigjort fra sine materielle forpligtigelser: der er...... dialog og pendulering mellem de to domæner, hvor grænsen mellem, hvad der kan anskues som det virkelige og repræsentionen deraf, bliver gradvis mere utydelig. Dette adskiller sig fra to dominerende diskurser inden for arbejdsgange mellem det virkelige og det digitale, der ofte er ensrettede bevægelser...

  1. Application of a Quality Control Circle to Reduce the Wait Times between Continuous Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hairong; Wang, Li; Cai, Yueye; Ye, Ronghua; Lin, Jingyi; Jiang, Dongdong

    2015-06-01

    To investigate how to shorten patient wait times between continuous ocular operations and to evaluate the influence of a quality control circle (QCC) on operating room management. QCC management was established to conduct activities. Clinical data were collected to analyze the causes of long wait times between continuous surgeries. Effective measures were undertaken correspondingly. The staff from QCC actively undertook measures that would significantly shorten patient wait times between continuous ocular surgeries (P < 0.05). Multiple measures, such as setting up a QCC, enhancing the arrangement of surgical procedures, establishing effective communication channels, optimizing human resources, and integrating the use of instruments, can effectively shorten patient wait times between continuous vitreous or retinal surgeries.

  2. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about the waiting time and patience distribution in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent...

  3. Restricting kidney transplant wait-listing for obese patients: let's stop defending the indefensible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Molnar, Miklos Z

    2014-01-01

    The allocation of limited medical resources represents an ethical dilemma that continues to generate lively debates. While the allocation of allografts to wait-listed patients is done in a transparent manner, with its rules open to public debate and prone to continuous improvement, the practice of wait-listing is not centrally regulated, and its rules are often less scrutinized. Denial of kidney transplant wait-listing to obese individuals has been a common practice by most transplant centers. On the face of it, this practice is justified by commonly accepted ethical standards, yet there is now mounting evidence that these justifications do not withstand closer scrutiny. A candid and open debate in the Nephrology and Transplant community is needed to examine the true motivations that underlie the practice of denying wait-listing to obese individuals, and to find a solution that is truly in the best interest of our patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Study on the interaction between the food and beverage servicescape and customer waiting experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Chih-Yun

    2014-01-01

    .... Very few studies conducted in-depth analysis and discus¬sion of how external environmental factors affect the experience of customer waiting, which it was also viewed as a negative factor that decreases customer satisfaction toward service...

  5. Continuous time random walk with generic waiting time and external force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Kwok Sau; Wang, K G

    2010-05-01

    We derive an integrodifferential diffusion equation for decoupled continuous time random walk that is valid for a generic waiting time probability density function and external force. Using this equation we also study diffusion behaviors for a couple of specific waiting time probability density functions such as exponential, a combination of power law and generalized Mittag-Leffler function and a sum of exponentials under the influence of a harmonic trap. We show that first two waiting time probability density functions can reproduce the results of the ordinary and fractional diffusion equations for all the time regions from small to large times. But the third one shows a much more complicated pattern. Furthermore, from the integrodifferential diffusion equation we show that the second Einstein relation can hold for any waiting time probability density function.

  6. Psychosocial and Patient Education Needs of Prostate Cancers Selecting Watchful Waiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Sara J; Latini, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... of this approach to disease management. We propose to gather data from prostate cancer patients selecting watchful waiting in lieu of an active treatment for their cancer in order to understand the psychosocial and symptom management...

  7. Gender Disparity in Liver Transplant Waiting List Mortality: The Importance of Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Regev, Arie; Seliger, Stephen L.; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of men and women on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list suggested a higher risk of mortality for women while on the waiting list without taking transplantation rates into account. The objective of this study was to compare men and women with respect of dying within three years of registration on the LT waiting list taking into account both the immediate mortality risks and transplantation rates. The analysis was based on Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data of patients with End-Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) on the waiting list registered between February 2002 and August 2009. Competing risk survival analysis was performed to assess gender disparity in waiting list mortality. 42,322 patients and 610,762 person-months of waiting list experience were included in the analysis. The risk of dying within three years of listing was 19% and 17% in women and men, respectively (P<0.0001). Among patients with kidney disease, especially those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 15 and < 30 ml/min/1.73m2, not on dialysis, women had a substantially higher risk of dying on the waiting list within three years of registration than men (26% vs. 20%, P=0.001). This disparity was related to lower transplantation rates in women; (transplantation rate ratio=0.68, P<0.0001). Controlling for eGFR and other variables related to mortality risk, the overall female-male disparity disappeared. In conclusion, among patients with ESLD with kidney dysfunction, not on dialysis, there is a substantial gender disparity in LT waiting list mortality. Our analysis suggests that this is explained by the fact that, in this group, women had lower transplant rates than men. The lower transplant rates can be explained, in part, by the fact that MELD scores tend to be lower for women than for men as they are based on serum creatinine rather than GFR. PMID:20879013

  8. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, RH; Davies, EA; Robinson, D; Sainsbury, R.; Moller, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods 35,354 women resid...

  9. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, R H; Davies, E A; Robinson, D; Sainsbury, R.; Møller, H

    2007-01-01

    Background: Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods: 35,354 women r...

  10. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2003-01-01

    A high intake of alcohol may prolong waiting time to pregnancy, whereas a moderate intake may have no or perhaps even a positive effect on fecundity. In previous studies on fecundity, different types of beverages have not been taken into consideration, although moderate wine drinkers appear to ha...... fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy....

  11. Watchful waiting as a treatment strategy for patients with a ventral hernia appears to be safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to risks of postoperative morbidity and recurrence some patients with a ventral hernia are not offered surgical repair. There is limited data on the rate and consequences of a watchful waiting (WW) strategy for these patients. The objective of this cohort study was to analyse outcome...... and umbilical/epigastric hernias. CONCLUSIONS: Watchful waiting appears to be a safe strategy in the treatment of incisional, umbilical and epigastric hernias....

  12. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Modelling to Reduce Waiting Times in An Iranian Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighinejad, Hourvash Akbari; Kharazmi, Erfan; Hatam, Nahid; Yousefi, Sedigheh; Hesami, Seyed Ali; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED) is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14) was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity). The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the "bed area" server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the number waiting to 586 patients. Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution.

  13. 'He Thinks He's Entangled in a Net': the Web of Continental Associations in Waiting for Godot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Burnside

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 'He Thinks He's Entangled in a Net': the Web of Continental Associations in Waiting for Godot Amy Burnside, Queen's University BelfastFollow Recommended Citation Burnside, Amy (2013 "'He Thinks He's Entangled in a Net': the Web of Continental Associations in Waiting for Godot," Journal of Franco-Irish Studies: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 7. Available at: http://arrow.dit.ie/jofis/vol3/iss1/7

  14. The experience of waiting and life during breast cancer follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudine, Alice; Sturge-Jacobs, Marilyn; Kennedy, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Much research exists on quality of life issues with breast cancer survivors. However, there has been little done on the waiting experience itself, and on the experience of follow-up from the women's perspective. Women who have been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer live with the condition for a minimum of 5 years, waiting for the next medical intervention; waiting for the next battery of tests; waiting for the next physician check-up. Throughout most of these years they may feel healthy, but they experience visits to cancer clinics, medical testing, and physician interactions. Women's accounts of their experiences of waiting and life during follow-up for breast cancer has not been the focus of research on the quality of life of breast cancer survivors. In particular research that uses a qualitative approach, in which women recount their experiences in their own language, has been missing. This study used a phenomenological approach, telling the stories of waiting and life throughout follow-up of nine women. The women's experiences are captured in four themes: life-changing; a sense of belonging; uncertainty; needing to know.

  15. Effect of an audiovisual message for tetanus booster vaccination broadcast in the waiting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubelen, Caroline; Brendel, Fannette; Belche, Jean-Luc; Freyens, Anne; Vanbelle, Sophie; Giet, Didier

    2011-09-28

    General practitioners (GPs) often lack time and resources to invest in health education; audiovisual messages broadcast in the waiting room may be a useful educational tool. This work was designed to assess the effect of a message inviting patients to ask for a tetanus booster vaccination. A quasi experimental study was conducted in a Belgian medical practice consisting of 6 GPs and 4 waiting rooms (total: 20,000 contacts/year). A tetanus booster vaccination audiovisual message was continuously broadcast for 6 months in 2 randomly selected waiting rooms (intervention group--3 GPs) while the other 2 waiting rooms remained unequipped (control group--3 GPs). At the end of the 6-month period, the number of vaccine adult-doses delivered by local pharmacies in response to GPs' prescriptions was recorded. As a reference, the same data were also collected retrospectively for the general practice during the same 6-month period of the previous year. During the 6-month reference period where no audiovisual message was broadcast in the 4 waiting rooms, the number of prescriptions presented for tetanus vaccines was respectively 52 (0.44%) in the intervention group and 33 (0.38%) in the control group (p = 0.50). By contrast, during the 6-month study period, the number of prescriptions differed between the two groups (p Broadcasting an audiovisual health education message in the GPs' waiting room was associated with a significant increase in the number of adult tetanus booster vaccination prescriptions delivered by local pharmacies.

  16. Scaling laws of ambush predator 'waiting' behaviour are tuned to a common ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearmouth, Victoria J; McHugh, Matthew J; Humphries, Nicolas E; Naegelen, Aurore; Ahmed, Mohammed Z; Southall, Emily J; Reynolds, Andrew M; Sims, David W

    2014-05-07

    The decisions animals make about how long to wait between activities can determine the success of diverse behaviours such as foraging, group formation or risk avoidance. Remarkably, for diverse animal species, including humans, spontaneous patterns of waiting times show random 'burstiness' that appears scale-invariant across a broad set of scales. However, a general theory linking this phenomenon across the animal kingdom currently lacks an ecological basis. Here, we demonstrate from tracking the activities of 15 sympatric predator species (cephalopods, sharks, skates and teleosts) under natural and controlled conditions that bursty waiting times are an intrinsic spontaneous behaviour well approximated by heavy-tailed (power-law) models over data ranges up to four orders of magnitude. Scaling exponents quantifying ratios of frequent short to rare very long waits are species-specific, being determined by traits such as foraging mode (active versus ambush predation), body size and prey preference. A stochastic-deterministic decision model reproduced the empirical waiting time scaling and species-specific exponents, indicating that apparently complex scaling can emerge from simple decisions. Results indicate temporal power-law scaling is a behavioural 'rule of thumb' that is tuned to species' ecological traits, implying a common pattern may have naturally evolved that optimizes move-wait decisions in less predictable natural environments.

  17. Improvement of Waiting Time for Patients Referring to Emergency Room Using Discrete Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Zare Mehrjardi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many simulation studies have been conducted in the hospitals and first in the emergency departments to increase the productivity. The first issue in the field of service quality and hence the patient right is “waiting time”. The goal of this study was to reduce patients waiting times, emergency service timing, modeling and improving using discrete event simulation. Methods: This was a descriptive - analytical study by the cross-sectional method on 150 patients referred to the emergency department in a public hospital. All necessary data were collected using questionnaire and through observation. Simulation model was designed using Arena software. Results: Our computer simulation model indicates that the maximum waiting time is the time waited for the test request till the results are received by the MD and also the time is necessary for the consultation and examination purposes. Among the five different scenarios, alternative 5 is more interesting economically since it requires only three additional staffs to bring down waiting times. Conclusion: According to research results, to reduce patient waiting time, the Triage processing in the emergency departments and the employment of emergency medicine expert, and the ordering of the diagnostic processes in the early stages of treatment as such as laboratory ordering for emergency patients are of main necessity.

  18. [Reducing patient waiting time for the outpatient phlebotomy service using six sigma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Song, Kyung Eun; Lee, Won Kil

    2009-04-01

    One of the challenging issues of the outpatient phlebotomy services at most hospitals is that patients have a long wait. The outpatient phlebotomy team of Kyungpook National University Hospital applied six sigma breakthrough methodologies to reduce the patient waiting time. The DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) model was employed to approach the project. Two hundred patients visiting the outpatient phlebotomy section were asked to answer the questionnaires at inception of the study to ascertain root causes. After correction, we surveyed 285 patients for same questionnaires again to follow-up the effects. A defect was defined as extending patient waiting time so long and at the beginning of the project, the performance level was 2.61 sigma. Using fishbone diagram, all the possible reasons for extending patient waiting time were captured, and among them, 16 causes were proven to be statistically significant. Improvement plans including a new receptionist, automatic specimen transport system, and adding one phlebotomist were put into practice. As a result, the number of patients waited more than 5 min significantly decreased, and the performance level reached 3.0 sigma in December 2007 and finally 3.35 sigma in July 2008. Applying the six sigma, the performance level of waiting times for blood drawing exceeding five minutes were improved from 2.61 sigma to 3.35 sigma.

  19. Waiting times for surgical and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Loya, David; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Puentes, Esteban; Garrido-Latorre, Francisco; Castro-Tinoco, Manuel; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation of waiting times for elective procedures was conducted in a sample of Mexican public hospitals from the following institutions: the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), the Institute for Social Security and Social Services for Civil Servants (ISSSTE) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). Our aim was to describe current waiting times and identify opportunities to redistribute service demand among public institutions. We examined current waiting times and productivity for seven elective surgical and four diagnostic imaging procedures, selected on the basis of their relative frequency and comparability with other national health systems. Mean waiting time for the seven surgical procedures in the three institutions was 14 weeks. IMSS and ISSSTE hospitals showed better performance (12 and 13 weeks) than the MoH hospitals (15 weeks). Mean waiting time for the four diagnostic procedures was 11 weeks. IMSS hospitals (10 weeks) showed better average waiting times than ISSSTE (12 weeks) and MoH hospitals (11 weeks). Substantial variations were revealed, not only among institutions but also within the same institution. These variations need to be addressed in order to improve patient satisfaction.

  20. Waiting times for surgical and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Contreras-Loya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A retrospective evaluation of waiting times for elective procedures was conducted in a sample of Mexican public hospitals from the following institutions: the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS, the Institute for Social Security and Social Services for Civil Servants (ISSSTE and the Ministry of Health (MoH. Our aim was to describe current waiting times and identify opportunities to redistribute service demand among public institutions. Materials and methods. We examined current waiting times and productivity for seven elective surgical and four diagnostic imaging procedures, selected on the basis of their relative frequency and comparability with other national health systems. Results. Mean waiting time for the seven surgical procedures in the three institutions was 14 weeks. IMSS and ISSSTE hospitals showed better performance (12 and 13 weeks than the MoH hospitals (15 weeks. Mean waiting time for the four diagnostic procedures was 11 weeks. IMSS hospitals (10 weeks showed better average waiting times than ISSSTE (12 weeks and MoH hospitals (11 weeks. Conclusion. Substantial variations were revealed, not only among institutions but also within the same institution. These variations need to be addressed in order to improve patient satisfaction.

  1. Waiting time distribution revealing the internal spin dynamics in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    Waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics of unidirectional electron transport through a double quantum dot molecule attached to spin-polarized leads are analyzed using the quantum master equation. The waiting time distribution exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the value of the exchange coupling between the dots and the gradient of the applied magnetic field, which reveals the oscillations between the spin states of the molecule. The zero-frequency full counting statistics, on the other hand, is independent of the aforementioned quantities, thus giving no insight into the internal dynamics. The fact that the waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics give a nonequivalent information is associated with two factors. Firstly, it can be explained by the sensitivity to different timescales of the dynamics of the system. Secondly, it is associated with the presence of the correlation between subsequent waiting times, which makes the renewal theory, relating the full counting statistics and the waiting time distribution, no longer applicable. The study highlights the particular usefulness of the waiting time distribution for the analysis of the internal dynamics of mesoscopic systems.

  2. The design and testing of interactive hospital spaces to meet the needs of waiting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; McPherson, Amy; Shea, Geoffrey; McKeever, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    To design an innovative interactive media display in a pediatric hospital clinic waiting space that addresses the growing demand for accessible, contact-surface-free options for play. In healthcare settings, waiting can be anxiety provoking for children and their accompanying family members. Opportunities for positive distraction have been shown to reduce waiting anxiety, leading to positive health outcomes. An interactive media display, ScreenPlay, was created and evaluated using a participatory design approach and a combination of techniques including quality function deployment and mixed data elicitation methods (questionnaires, focus groups, and observations). The user and organizational design requirements were established and used to review contemporary strategies for positive distraction in healthcare waiting spaces and to conceptualize and test ScreenPlay. Ten staff members, 11 children/youths, and 6 parents participated in the design and evaluation of ScreenPlay. ScreenPlay provided a positive, engaging experience without the use of contact surfaces through which infections can be spread. It was accessible to children, youth, and adults of all motor abilities. All participants strongly agreed that the interactive media display would improve the healthcare waiting experience. ScreenPlay is an interactive display that is the result of a successful model for the design of healthcare waiting spaces that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, and responsive to the needs of its community. Design process, healing environments, hospital, interdisciplinary, pediatric.

  3. Reasons military patients with primary care access leave an emergency department waiting room before seeing a provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Shawn M; Vargas, Toni E; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2012-10-01

    Our objective was to assess patients' understanding of emergency department (ED) wait times and why patients may leave the waiting room before seeing a provider. Survey of patients in the ED waiting room of an urban tertiary care military hospital where civilian and military patients are treated. A total of 508/517 surveys (98%) were completed. Age ranges were 18 to 35 years (49%), 36 to 60 (31%), or older than 60 (20%). Education levels were high school (20%), some college (37%), or college graduate (39%). Of 503 respondents, 125 (25%) had left an ED waiting room before seeing a provider. The reasons included excessive wait times (91%) and family responsibilities (5%). Five hundred eight reported the factors that would motivate them to wait to see the physician (not leave without being seen [LWOBS]) were the severity of illness (64%), and if they received an update of wait times (26%); 82% (391/480) understood that severely ill patients were seen first. Patients attributed long wait times to doctors and nurses caring for other patients (292/583, 50%) and insufficient physician and nurse staffing (245, 42%). Of 802 responses for ideas to improve the wait, 34% said regular updates on estimated wait times, 21% said television shows or movies to view, 20% said books and magazines to read, and 11% said computers to access. Long wait times were the primary reason that patients left before seeing a provider, despite having ready access to care. Respondents attributed long wait times to patient volume and inadequate staffing. Regular updates on wait times and material for entertainment may improve the waiting experience and reduce LWOBS.

  4. Cosmogenic nuclide and uranium-series dating of old, high shorelines in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, G.; Phillips, F.M.; Reheis, M.C.; Redwine, J.L.; Paces, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Closed-basin pluvial lakes are sensitive recorders of effective moisture, and they provide a terrestrial signal of climate change that can be compared to marine and ice records of glacial-interglacial cycles. Although the most recent deep-lake cycle in the western Great Basin (at ca. 16 ka) has been studied intensively, comparatively little is known about the longer-term Quaternary lacustrine history of the region. Lacustrine features higher than those of the most recent highstand have been discovered in many locations throughout the western Great Basin. Qualitative geomorphic and soil studies of shoreline sequences above the latest Pleistocene level suggest that their ages increase as a function of increasing altitude. The results of cosmogenic nuclide dating using chlorine-36 depth profiles from three sites in Nevada (Walker Lake, Columbus Salt Marsh, and Newark Valley), combined with uranium-series and radiocarbon ages, corroborate the geomorphic and soil evidence. The 36Cl results are consistent with available 14C ages and together indicate that the most recent highstands of all three lakes occurred ca. 20-15 ka, late in marine isotope stage (MIS) 2, as shown by previous ages. The 36Cl ages indicate that older lakes in all three basins reached highstands between 100 and 50 ka, and most likely during MIS 4. Shorelines of this age are at about the same or higher altitudes as the younger, MIS 2 shorelines in those basins. The 36Cl results combined with uranium-series ages and one tephra correlation obtained on shorelines higher in altitude than those of MIS 4 and 2 lakes suggest that there were also major lake highstands in the western Great Basin at ca. 100-200 ka, likely corresponding with MIS 6, and during at least two older periods. From these results, we conclude that the preserved shorelines show an apparent decrease in maximum levels with time, suggesting long-term drying of the region since the early middle Pleistocene. ?? 2011 Geological Society of

  5. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Maarten; Lavé, Jérôme; France-Lanord, Christian; Christl, Marcus; Bourlès, Didier; Carcaillet, Julien; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer; Rahman, Mustafizur; Bezbaruah, Devojit; Xiaohan, Liu

    2017-08-01

    The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr-1) and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs ˜ 150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa-Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm), an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo-Brahmaputra sediments, provides constraints on the

  6. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  7. 10Be systematics in the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra catchment: the cosmogenic nuclide legacy of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lupker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River drains the eastern part of the Himalayan range and flows from the Tibetan Plateau through the eastern Himalayan syntaxis downstream to the Indo-Gangetic floodplain and the Bay of Bengal. As such, it is a unique natural laboratory to study how denudation and sediment production processes are transferred to river detrital signals. In this study, we present a new 10Be data set to constrain denudation rates across the catchment and to quantify the impact of rapid erosion within the syntaxis region on cosmogenic nuclide budgets and signals. The measured 10Be denudation rates span around 2 orders of magnitude across individual catchments (ranging from 0.03 to > 4 mm yr−1 and sharply increase as the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra flows across the eastern Himalaya. The increase in denudation rates, however, occurs  ∼  150 km downstream of the Namche Barwa–Gyala Peri massif (NBGPm, an area which has been previously characterized by extremely high erosion and exhumation rates. We suggest that this downstream lag is mainly due to the physical abrasion of coarse-grained, low 10Be concentration, landslide material produced within the syntaxis that dilutes the upstream high-concentration 10Be flux from the Tibetan Plateau only after abrasion has transferred sediment to the studied sand fraction. A simple abrasion model produces typical lag distances of 50 to 150 km compatible with our observations. Abrasion effects reduce the spatial resolution over which denudation can be constrained in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. In addition, we also highlight that denudation rate estimates are dependent on the sediment connectivity, storage, and quartz content of the upstream Tibetan Plateau part of the catchment, which tends to lead to an overestimation of downstream denudation rates. While no direct 10Be denudation measurements were made in the syntaxis, the dilution of the upstream 10Be signal, measured in Tsangpo

  8. Reducing Patient Waiting Times for Radiation Therapy and Improving the Treatment Planning Process: a Discrete-event Simulation Model (Radiation Treatment Planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babashov, V; Aivas, I; Begen, M A; Cao, J Q; Rodrigues, G; D'Souza, D; Lock, M; Zaric, G S

    2017-06-01

    We analysed the radiotherapy planning process at the London Regional Cancer Program to determine the bottlenecks and to quantify the effect of specific resource levels with the goal of reducing waiting times. We developed a discrete-event simulation model of a patient's journey from the point of referral to a radiation oncologist to the start of radiotherapy, considering the sequential steps and resources of the treatment planning process. We measured the effect of several resource changes on the ready-to-treat to treatment (RTTT) waiting time and on the percentage treated within a 14 calendar day target. Increasing the number of dosimetrists by one reduced the mean RTTT by 6.55%, leading to 84.92% of patients being treated within the 14 calendar day target. Adding one more oncologist decreased the mean RTTT from 10.83 to 10.55 days, whereas a 15% increase in arriving patients increased the waiting time by 22.53%. The model was relatively robust to the changes in quantity of other resources. Our model identified sensitive and non-sensitive system parameters. A similar approach could be applied by other cancer programmes, using their respective data and individualised adjustments, which may be beneficial in making the most effective use of limited resources. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Probabilities and energies to obtain the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides. KLMN model; Probabilidades y energias de reestructuracion atomica subsiguientes a la captura electronica. Modelo KLMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, G.; Grau, A.

    1994-07-01

    An intelligent computer program has been developed to obtain the mathematical formulae to compute the probabilities and reduced energies of the different atomic rearrangement pathways following electron-capture decay. Creation and annihilation operators for Auger and X processes have been introduced. Taking into account the symmetries associated with each process, 262 different pathways were obtained. This model allows us to obtain the influence of the M-electro capture in the counting efficiency when the atomic number of the nuclide is high. (Author)

  10. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger Robert; Riper Kenneth Van; Lasche George

    2017-01-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit”) which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to dec...

  11. Not all waits are equal: an exploratory investigation of emergency care patient pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancutt, Dawn; Joel-Edgar, Sian; Allen, Michael; Thomas, Daniel; Brant, Heather; Benger, Jonathan; Byng, Richard; Pinkney, Jonathan

    2017-06-24

    Increasing pressure in the United Kingdom (UK) urgent care system has led to Emergency Departments (EDs) failing to meet the national requirement that 95% of patients are admitted, discharged or transferred within 4-h of arrival. Despite the target being the same for all acute hospitals, individual Trusts organise their services in different ways. The impact of this variation on patient journey time and waiting is unknown. Our study aimed to apply the Lean technique of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to investigate care processes and delays in patient journeys at four contrasting hospitals. VSM timing data were collected for patients accessing acute care at four hospitals in South West England. Data were categorised according to waits and activities, which were compared across sites to identify variations in practice from the patient viewpoint. We included Public and Patient Involvement (PPI) to fully interpret our findings; observations and initial findings were considered in a PPI workshop. One hundred eight patients were recruited, comprising 25,432 min of patient time containing 4098 episodes of care or waiting. The median patient journey was 223 min (3 h, 43 min); just within the 4-h target. Although total patient journey times were similar between sites, the stage where the greatest proportion of waiting occurred varied. Reasons for waiting were dominated by waits for beds, investigations or results to be available. From our sample we observed that EDs without a discharge/clinical decision area exhibited a greater proportion of waiting time following an admission or discharge decision. PPI interpretation indicated that patients who experience waits at the beginning of their journey feel more anxious because they are 'not in the system yet'. The novel application of VSM analysis across different hospitals, coupled with PPI interpretation, provides important insight into the impact of care provision on patient experience. Measures that could reduce patient

  12. Emergency department waiting times: Do the raw data tell the whole story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Janette; Dawber, James; Masso, Malcolm; Eagar, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether there are real differences in emergency department (ED) performance between Australian states and territories. Cross-sectional analysis of 2009-10 attendances at an ED contributing to the Australian non-admitted patient ED care database. The main outcome measure was difference in waiting time across triage categories. There were more than 5.8 million ED attendances. Raw ED waiting times varied by a range of factors including jurisdiction, triage category, geographic location and hospital peer group. All variables were significant in a model designed to test the effect of jurisdiction on ED waiting times, including triage category, hospital peer group, patient socioeconomic status and patient remoteness. When the interaction between triage category and jurisdiction entered the model, it was found to have a significant effect on ED waiting times (P<0.001) and triage was also significant (P<0.001). Jurisdiction was no longer statistically significant (P=0.248 using all triage categories and 0.063 using only Australian Triage Scale 2 and 3). Although the Council of Australian Governments has adopted raw measures for its key ED performance indicators, raw waiting time statistics are misleading. There are no consistent differences in ED waiting times between states and territories after other factors are accounted for. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The length of time patients wait to be treated after presenting at an ED is routinely used to measure ED performance. In national health agreements with the federal government, each state and territory in Australia is expected to meet waiting time performance targets for the five ED triage categories. The raw data indicate differences in performance between states and territories. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? Measuring ED performance using raw data gives misleading results. There are no consistent differences in ED waiting times between the states and territories after other factors are taken into account

  13. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse: randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women aged 55 years or over with symptomatic mild prolapse (leading edge above the hymen) were identified by screening. Exclusion criteria were current prolapse treatment or treatment in the previous year, malignancy of pelvic organs, current treatment for another gynaecological disorder, severe/terminal illness, impaired mobility, cognitive impairment, and insufficient command of the Dutch language. Interventions Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor symptoms measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), three months after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in condition specific and general quality of life, sexual function, degree of prolapse, pelvic floor muscle function, and patients’ perceived change in symptoms. Results Of the 287 women who were randomised to pelvic floor muscle training (n=145) or watchful waiting (n=142), 250 (87%) completed follow-up. Participants in the intervention group improved by (on average) 9.1 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 15.4) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the watchful waiting group (P=0.005). Of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group, 57% (82/145) reported an improvement in overall symptoms from the start of the study compared with 13% (18/142) in the watchful waiting group (Ppelvic floor muscle training led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 score, the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points). Nevertheless, 57% of the participants in the intervention group reported an improvement of overall symptoms

  14. Installation and operation of a high-temperature surface ion source for the online coupling of TRIGA-SPEC to the TRIGA Mainz research reactor and high-precision mass measurements of transuranium nuclides at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renisch, Dennis

    2016-06-23

    The TRIGA-SPEC setup is dedicated for high-precision measurements of ground-state properties of exotic nuclides, like fission products or transuranium nuclides. For the online coupling of TRIGA-SPEC to the TRIGA Mainz research reactor, fission products are transported from a target chamber close to the reactor core by a gas-jet system to an ion source, which provides the connected experiments with a radioactive ion beam for the actual measurements. The design, installation and operation of the online ion source was a major part of the work described in this thesis. In addition, investigations on the optimal conditions of the gas-jet system for a reliable ion source operation were performed and the coupling of the ion source part to the subsequent elements of the beamline was conducted. The second part of this thesis deals with high-precision mass measurements on transuranium nuclides with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP, which is one branch of the TRIGA-SPEC setup. These measurements contribute to a mapping of the region of the chart of nuclides around the deformed shell closure at N=152. The masses of some of the investigated nuclides are directly measured for the first time. Due to the appearance of systematic inconsistencies during the evaluation of the mass measurements, the focus of the final section of this thesis lies in the identification and correction of the sources of the observed inconsistencies.

  15. The experience of waiting for a kidney transplant: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Tania; Fernandez, Ritin; Stephens, Moira

    2017-12-01

    In Australia over 1100 people are living on dialysis while waiting for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. Worldwide there are an estimated 170,000 people who wait an average of three years before an organ becomes available. To provide an understanding of the lived experience of people waiting on dialysis for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. A qualitative descriptive research design was used. Participants were recruited from a large metropolitan hospital. Two focus groups were conducted with six participants ranging in age from 29-63 years, with dialysis experience of 10-72 months. Data saturation was achieved and thematic analysis was used to interpret the data providing a descriptive account of the experience of waiting for a kidney transplant. Waiting for a kidney transplant takes place in the context of living on dialysis. Four main themes were identified: living on dialysis is physically and mentally demanding; living with uncertainty; altered relationship dynamics; and feelings towards the deceased donor. This study provides a descriptive summary of what it is like to live on dialysis while waiting for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor from the perspective of the person waiting. People are burdened by; uncertainty; the experience of the dialysis therapy; and the thought of the human cost of transplantation. These findings suggest that this cohort may benefit from strategies to relieve uncertainty such as effective communication from the treating team and peer support from the dialysis community. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  16. List and liver transplant survival according to waiting time in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaggio, P R; Felga, G; Axelrod, D A; Della Guardia, B; Almeida, M D; Rezende, M B

    2015-03-01

    The time that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can safely remain on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) is unknown. We investigated whether waiting time on the list impacts transplant survival of HCC candidates and transplant recipients. This is a single-center retrospective study of 283 adults with HCC. Patients were divided in groups according to waiting-list time. The main endpoint was survival. The median waiting time for LT was 4.9 months. The dropout rates at 3-, 6-, and 12-months were 6.4%, 12.4%, and 17.7%, respectively. Mortality on the list was 4.8%, but varied depending of the time on the list. Patients who waited less than 3-months had an inferior overall survival when compared to the other groups (p = 0.027). Prolonged time on the list significantly reduced mortality in this analysis (p = 0.02, HR = 0.28). Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score at transplantation did also independently impact overall survival (p = 0.03, HR = 1.06). MELD was the only factor that independently impacted posttransplant survival (p = 0.048, HR = 1.05). We conclude that waiting time had no relation with posttransplant survival. It is beneficial to prolong the waiting list time for HCC candidates without having a negative impact in posttransplant survival. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Robinson, David; Sainsbury, Richard; Møller, Henrik

    2007-05-01

    Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%), and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments.

  18. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainsbury Richard

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. Results The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%, and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. Conclusion This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments.

  19. Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Modelling to Reduce Waiting Times in An Iranian Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourvash Akbari Haghighinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14 was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Results: Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity. The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the “bed area” server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the numberwaiting to 586 patients. Conclusion: Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution.

  20. Activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons is necessary for waiting for delayed rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kayoko W; Miyazaki, Katsuhiko; Doya, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    The forebrain serotonergic system is a crucial component in the control of impulsive behaviors. We previously reported that the activity of serotonin neurons in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus increased when rats performed a task that required them to wait for delayed rewards. However, the causal relationship between serotonin neural activity and the tolerance for the delayed reward remained unclear. Here, we test whether the inhibition of serotonin neural activity by the local application of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin in the dorsal raphe nucleus impairs rats' tolerance for delayed rewards. Rats performed a sequential food-water navigation task that required them to visit food and water sites alternately via a tone site to get rewards at both sites after delays. During the short (2 s) delayed reward condition, the inhibition of serotonin neural activity did not significantly influence the numbers of reward choice errors (nosepoke at an incorrect reward site following a conditioned reinforcer tone), reward wait errors (failure to wait for the delayed rewards), or total trials (sum of reward choice errors, reward wait errors, and acquired rewards). By contrast, during the long (7-11 s) delayed reward condition, the number of wait errors significantly increased while the numbers of total trials and choice errors did not significantly change. These results indicate that the activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons is necessary for waiting for long delayed rewards and suggest that elevated serotonin activity facilitates waiting behavior when there is the prospect of forthcoming rewards.

  1. Freeze, Wait, Reanimate: Cryonic Suspension and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall, Grant

    2010-01-01

    This essay takes as its chief point of departure Jacques Ellul's contention that imaginative treatments of malevolent technology in antitechnological science fiction, by way of inviting rejection, refusal, dismissal, or condemnation, conspire in facilitating human acceptance of and adjustment to technology as it otherwise presently is. The author…

  2. HIV MANAGEMENT ON A NEVER-ENDING WAITING LIST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-01

    Poor Health Policy Team, and, .... the director of a local hospice pointed out, 'The problem with clinics is that they don't see those behind their wall' – in .... Ministry of Education. The practice of privileging the employed and civil ...

  3. On the decay properties of sup 2 sup 6 sup 9 Hs and indications for the new nuclide sup 2 sup 7 sup 0 Hs

    CERN Document Server

    Türler, A; Gäggeler, H W; Kirbach, U W; Ginter, T N; Gregorich, K E; Lee, D M; Yakushev, A B; Schädel, M; Brüchle, W; Jäger, E; Dressler, R; Eichler, B; Eichler, R; Glaus, F; Jost, D T; Eberhardt, K; Hoffman, D C; Nitsche, H; Patin, J B; Pershina, V; Piguet, D; Qin, Z; Schausten, B; Schimpf, E; Schoett, H J; Soverna, S; Sudowe, R; Thörle, P; Timokhin, S N; Trautmann, N; Vahle, A; Wirth, G; Zielinski, P M

    2003-01-01

    In bombardments of sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm with 143.7-146.8 MeV sup 2 sup 6 Mg ions the nuclides sup 2 sup 6 sup 9 Hs and presumably sup 2 sup 7 sup 0 Hs were produced. After chemical isolation, Hs atoms were identified by observing genetically linked nuclear-decay chains. Three chains originating from sup 2 sup 6 sup 9 Hs confirmed the decay properties observed previously in the decay of sup 2 sup 7 sup 7 112. Two chains exhibited the characteristics expected for the new nuclide sup 2 sup 7 sup 0 Hs, which was predicted to be a deformed ''doubly magic'' nucleus. From the measured E subalpha =9.16 sup + sup 0 sup . sup 0 sup 7 sub - sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 3 MeV an alpha-decay half-life of 3.6 sup + sup 0 sup . sup 8 sub - sub 1 sub . sub 4 s was estimated. (orig.)

  4. Erosion rates and weathering history of rock surfaces associated with Aboriginal rock art engravings (petroglyphs) on Burrup Peninsula, Western Australia, from cosmogenic nuclide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillans, Brad; Fifield, L. Keith

    2013-06-01

    The Burrup Peninsula and surrounding Dampier Archipelago, in Western Australia, contain the world's largest known gallery of rock art engravings (petroglyphs), estimated to number up to 1 million images. The peninsula is also the site of major industrial development and there are concerns that industrial emissions may adversely affect the stability and longevity of the rock art. We have studied the natural processes and rates of weathering and erosion, including the effects of fire, that affect the stability of rock surfaces and hence the longevity of the rock art, using cosmogenic nuclides. The concentration of 10Be in quartz yields erosion rates in the range 0.15-0.48 mm/1000 years on horizontal rock surfaces and 0.34-2.30 mm/1000 years on vertical rock faces. The former, largely caused by mm-scale surface flaking, are amongst the lowest erosion rates measured by cosmogenic nuclides anywhere in the world. The latter are inferred to represent a combination of mm-scale flaking and very rare centimetre- to metre-scale block falls, controlled by failure along joint planes. Such low erosion rates result from a combination of resistant rocks, low relief and low rainfall, favouring long-term preservation of the petroglyphs - long enough to encompass the known period of human settlement in Australia.

  5. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  6. Cosmogenic nuclide age estimate for Laurentide Ice Sheet recession from the terminal moraine, New Jersey, USA, and constraints on latest Pleistocene ice sheet history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Stone, Byron D.; Caffee, Marc W.; Larsen, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    The time at which the Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent and subsequently retreated from its terminal moraine in New Jersey has been constrained by bracketing radiocarbon ages on preglacial and postglacial sediments. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced 10Be and 26Al in 16 quartz-bearing samples collected from bedrock outcrops and glacial erratics just north of the terminal moraine in north-central New Jersey; as such, our ages represent a minimum limit on the timing of ice recession from the moraine. The data set includes field and laboratory replicates, as well as replication of the entire data set five years after initial measurement. We find that recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the terminal moraine in New Jersey began before 25.2±2.1 ka (10Be, n=16, average, 1 standard deviation). This cosmogenic nuclide exposure age is consistent with existing limiting radiocarbon ages in the study area and cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages from the terminal moraine on Martha’s Vineyard ~300 km to the northeast. The age we propose for Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat from the New Jersey terminal position is broadly consistent with regional and global climate records of the last glacial maximum termination and records of fluvial incision.

  7. Applying ISO 11929:2010 Standard to detection limit calculation in least-squares based multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectrum evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisch, G.

    2017-05-01

    The concepts of ISO 11929 (2010) are applied to evaluation of radionuclide activities from more complex multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectra. From net peak areas estimated by peak fitting, activities and their standard uncertainties are calculated by weighted linear least-squares method with an additional step, where uncertainties of the design matrix elements are taken into account. A numerical treatment of the standard's uncertainty function, based on ISO 11929 Annex C.5, leads to a procedure for deriving decision threshold and detection limit values. The methods shown allow resolving interferences between radionuclide activities also in case of calculating detection limits where they can improve the latter by including more than one gamma line per radionuclide. The co"mmon single nuclide weighted mean is extended to an interference-corrected (generalized) weighted mean, which, combined with the least-squares method, allows faster detection limit calculations. In addition, a new grouped uncertainty budget was inferred, which for each radionuclide gives uncertainty budgets from seven main variables, such as net count rates, peak efficiencies, gamma emission intensities and others; grouping refers to summation over lists of peaks per radionuclide.

  8. Analisis Perbandingan Perhitungan Re-Order Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Sarjono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the Re-Order point (ROP between the ongoing policy of the company to the theoretical calculation according to the method of Economic Order Quantity (EOQ in manufacturing company. The research methodology that is used in this research is the method of quantitative analysis. It is a scientific approach to managerial decision making in which the source data is the primary data obtained directly from resource persons to provide the necessary data. The data is taken from the data the raw materials the company from 2007 to 2012. The results of this study state that the re-order point calculations specific to the year 2012 only, according to the company policy is 34,508 Kg, while according to the calculation method of EOQ is 91 925 Kg. This difference is due to the calculation of safety stock and the use of time while waiting.

  9. Impact of visual art on patient behavior in the emergency department waiting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Upali; Chanaud, Cheryl; Nelson, Michael; Zhu, Xi; Bajema, Robyn; Jansen, Ben H

    2012-07-01

    Wait times have been reported to be one of the most important concerns for people visiting emergency departments (EDs). Affective states significantly impact perception of wait time. There is substantial evidence that art depicting nature reduces stress levels and anxiety, thus potentially impacting the waiting experience. To analyze the effect of visual art depicting nature (still and video) on patients' and visitors' behavior in the ED. A pre-post research design was implemented using systematic behavioral observation of patients and visitors in the ED waiting rooms of two hospitals over a period of 4 months. Thirty hours of data were collected before and after new still and video art was installed at each site. Significant reduction in restlessness, noise level, and people staring at other people in the room was found at both sites. A significant decrease in the number of queries made at the front desk and a significant increase in social interaction were found at one of the sites. Visual art has positive effects on the ED waiting experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress Caused by Waiting: A Theoretical Evaluation of a Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck; Holling

    1997-09-01

    According to cognitive stress theories, stress caused by waiting is influenced by two components, the (psychological) cost of waiting, that is, a function C of time, and a probability distribution over waiting times. Osuna (1985a) suggested a model by which stress as a function of time could be calculated from these constituents. The aim of this paper is (1) to generalize the model, (2) to investigate its mathematical properties, (3) to derive predictions for experimental tests of the model, and (4) to give a precise meaning to the variability and duration hypothesis discussed in the experimental literature. In particular, several theorems are derived which specify situations in which the model enables the user to compare conditions for their stress inducing potential. Such conditions are the duration of the waiting time and the predictability of the length of a waiting period. The core of the mathematical derivations is an identity for expected stress which simplifies the calculations of the Osuna model considerably. Copyright 1997 Academic Press

  11. Waiting times for cancer patients in Sweden: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Adolfsson, Jan; Stattin, Pär; Sjövall, Annika; Winnersjö, Rocio; Hanning, Marianne; Sandelin, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    The reported long waiting times for cancer patients have mostly been related to prognostic outcome and less to patient-related experience to outcome. We assessed waiting times for patients with cancer of the breast, prostate, colon or rectum in Sweden. The median time from referral to start of treatment was assessed using data from clinical cancer registers for patients who received curative treatment during 2011, 2012 and 2013. The median overall waiting time in different counties ranged from 7 to 28 days for breast cancer, from 117 to 280 days for prostate cancer, from 27 to 64 days for colon cancer and from 48 to 80 days for rectal cancer. For the entire nation, the median time from referral to start of treatment remained unchanged from 2011 to 2013 for each cancer diagnosis. Large variations were found in waiting times between different counties in Sweden and between different types of cancer. The long waiting times identified in this study emphasize the need to improve national programmes for more rapid diagnosis and treatment.

  12. The 2012 SAGE wait times program: Survey of Access to GastroEnterology in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddin, Desmond; Armstrong, David; Borgaonkar, Mark; Bridges, Ronald J; Fallone, Carlo A; Telford, Jennifer J; Chen, Ying; Colacino, Palma; Sinclair, Paul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodically surveying wait times for specialist health services in Canada captures current data and enables comparisons with previous surveys to identify changes over time. METHODS: During one week in April 2012, Canadian gastroenterologists were asked to complete a questionnaire (online or by fax) recording demographics, reason for referral, and dates of referral and specialist visits for at least 10 consecutive new patients (five consultations and five procedures) who had not been seen previously for the same indication. Wait times were determined for 18 indications and compared with those from similar surveys conducted in 2008 and 2005. RESULTS: Data regarding adult patients were provided by 173 gastroenterologists for 1374 consultations, 540 procedures and 293 same-day consultations and procedures. Nationally, the median wait times were 92 days (95% CI 85 days to 100 days) from referral to consultation, 55 days (95% CI 50 days to 61 days) from consultation to procedure and 155 days (95% CI 142 days to 175 days) (total) from referral to procedure. Overall, wait times were longer in 2012 than in 2005 (Pgastroenterology services continue to exceed recommended targets, remain unchanged since 2008 and exceed wait times reported in 2005. PMID:23472243

  13. A state of limbo: the politics of waiting in neo-liberal Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoliņa-Fitzgerald, Liene

    2016-09-01

    This article presents an ethnographic study of politics of waiting in a post-Soviet context. While activation has been explored in sociological and anthropological literature as a neo-liberal governmental technology and its application in post-socialist context has also been compellingly documented, waiting as a political artefact has only recently been receiving increased scholarly attention. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at a state-run unemployment office in Riga, this article shows how, alongside activation, state welfare policies also produce passivity and waiting. Engaging with the small but developing field of sociological literature on the politics of waiting, I argue that, rather than interpreting it as a clash between 'neo-liberal' and 'Soviet' regimes, we should understand the double-move of activation and imposition of waiting as a key mechanism of neo-liberal biopolitics. This article thus extends the existing theorizations of the temporal politics of neo-liberalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  14. Waiting for Shadows from the Distant Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    How can we hope to measure the hundreds of thousands of objects in our distant solar system? A team of astronomers is harnessing citizen science to begin to tackle this problem!A light curve from an occultation collected by a RECON site in Quincy, California. As the objects shadow passes, the background stars light dims. [RECON/Charley Arrowsmith (Feather River College)]Occultation InformationEstimates currently place the number of Kuiper belt objects larger than 100 km across at over 100,000. Knowing the sizes and characteristics of these objects is important for understanding the composition of the outer solar system and constraining models of the solar systems formation and evolution.Unfortunately, measuring small, dim bodies at large distances is incredibly difficult! One of the best ways to obtain the sizes of these objects is to watch as they occult a distant star. Timing the object as it passes across the face of the star can give us a good measure of its size and shape, when observed from multiple stations in the path of the shadow.An Extended NetworkOccultations by nearby objects (like main-belt asteroids) can be predicted fairly accurately, but those by trans-Neptunian objects are much more poorly constrained. Only ~900 trans-Neptunian objects have approximately known paths, and occultation-shadow predictions for these objects are often only accurate to ~1000km on the Earths surface. So how can we ensure that theres a telescope in the right location, ready to observe when an occultation occurs?Map of the 56 RECON sites distributed over 2000 km in the western United States. [Buie et al. 2016]The simplest answer is to set up a huge network of observing stations, and wait for the shadows to come to the network. With this approach, even if the predicted path isnt precisely known, some of the stations will still observe the occultation.Due to the number of stations needed, this project lends itself perfectly to citizen science. In a recently published paper by

  15. On the control, stability, and waiting time in a slotted ALOHA random-access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper explores some of the boundaries in performance of slotted ALOHA systems by analyzing a simple and almost optimal centrally supervised control. The control results in a very simple Markov chain model and allows an examination of stability, conditional waiting time distribution of transmitting terminals, and many other system measures. The key to the simplicity is to have a probability of successful packet transmission that is independent of the number of transmitting terminals. In considering waiting time, we calculate the mean and other moments of the waiting time of a terminal when it enters the system to find (n - 1) other terminals already there competing for the channel. Under this control, the average time is proportional to n. The control requires exact knowledge of the number of terminals contending for the channel, and hence is not implementable, except as an approximation.

  16. Processing communications events in parallel active messaging interface by awakening thread from wait state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-10-22

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  17. Intake of wine, beer and spirits and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2003-01-01

    ,844 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1997-2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to consumption of wine, beer and spirits. RESULTS: All levels of wine intake compared with non-wine drinking or with consumption of beer...... appear to have fewer strokes, lung and digestive tract cancers, and overall mortality than both abstainers and moderate drinkers of beer or spirits. We examined the association between different types of alcoholic beverages and waiting time to pregnancy. METHODS: Self-reported data were used for 29...... or spirits had subfecundity odds ratios between 0.7 and 0.9. No association was seen regarding beer drinking, while the association with spirits was J-shaped. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that wine drinkers have slightly shorter waiting times to pregnancy than both non-wine drinkers and consumers...

  18. The waiting time distribution as a graphical approach to epidemiologic measures of drug utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, J; Gaist, D; Bjerrum, L

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of large, computerized pharmacoepidemiologic databases has enabled us to study drug utilization with the individual user as the statistical unit. A recurrent problem in such analyses, however, is the overwhelming volume and complexity of data. We here describe a graphical approach...... that effectively conveys some essential utilization parameters for a drug. The waiting time distribution for a group of drug users is a charting of their first prescription presentations within a specified time window. For a drug used for chronic treatment, most current users will be captured at the beginning...... of the window. After a few months, the graph will be dominated by new, incident users. As examples, we present waiting time distributions for insulin, ulcer drugs, systemic corticosteroids, antidepressants, and disulfiram. Appropriately analyzed and interpreted, the waiting time distributions can provide...

  19. Identification of waiting time distribution of M/G/1, Mx/G/1, GIr/M/1 queueing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghosal

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings out relations among the moments of various orders of the waiting time of the 1st customer and a randomly selected customer of an arrival group for bulk arrivals queueing models, and as well as moments of the waiting time (in queue for M/G/1 queueing system. A numerical study of these relations has been developed in order to find the (β1,β2 measures of waiting time distribution in a comutable form. On the basis of these measures one can look into the nature of waiting time distribution of bulk arrival queues and the single server M/G/1 queue.

  20. The control of deliberate waiting strategies in a stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Sylwan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To inhibit an ongoing flow of thoughts or actions has been largely considered to be a crucial executive function, and the stop-signal paradigm makes inhibitory control measurable. Stop-signal tasks usually combine two concurrent tasks, i.e., manual responses to a primary task (go-task are occasionally countermanded by a stimulus which signals participants to inhibit their response in that trial (stop-task. Participants are always instructed not to wait for the stop-signal, since waiting strategies cause the response times to be unstable, invalidating the data. The aim of the present study was to experimentally control the strategies of waiting deliberately for the stop-signal in a stop-task by means of an algorithm that measured the variation in the reaction times to go-stimuli on-line, and displayed a warning legend urging participants to be faster when their reaction times were more than two standard deviations of the mean. Thirty-four university students performed a stop-task with go- and stop-stimuli, both of which were delivered in the visual modality and were lateralized within the visual field. The participants were divided into two groups (group A, without the algorithm, vs group B, with the algorithm. Group B exhibited lower variability of reaction times to go-stimuli, whereas no significant between-group differences were found in any of the measures of inhibitory control, showing that the algorithm succeeded in controlling the deliberate waiting strategies. Differences between deliberate and unintentional waiting strategies, and anxiety as a probable factor responsible for individual differences in deliberate waiting behavior, are discussed.

  1. Community-based birth waiting homes in Northern Sierra Leone: Factors influencing women's use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyokan, Michiko; Whitney-Long, Melissa; Kuteh, Mabel; Raven, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    to explore the factors influencing women's use of birth waiting homes in the Northern Bombali district, Sierra Leone. this was a descriptive exploratory study using qualitative research methodology, which included in depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, document review and observations. two chiefdoms in the Northern Bombali district, Sierra Leone. eight interviews were conducted with women who had delivered in the past one year and used birth waiting homes; eight key informant interviews with a project manager, birth waiting homes hosts, and community members; thirteen women who delivered in the past year without using birth waiting homes (four interviews and two focus group discussions). there are several factors influencing the use of birth waiting homes (BWHs) including: past experience of childbirth, promotion of the birth waiting homes by traditional birth attendance, distance and costs of transport to the homes, child care and other family commitments, family's views of the importance of the homes, the costs of food during women's stay, and information given to women and families about when and how to use the homes. some barriers, especially those related to family commitments and costs of food, are challenging to solve. In order to make a BWH a user-friendly and viable option, it may be necessary to adjust ways in which BWHs are used. Good linkage with the health system is strength of the programme. However, further strengthening of community participation in monitoring and managing the BWHs is needed for the long term success and sustainability of the BWHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific low back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallel-group pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-In; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Jung Won; Kim, Kun Hyung; Choi, Jun-Yong; Kang, Kyung-Won; Kim, Ae-Ran; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, So-Young; Choi, Sun-mi

    2011-06-10

    Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP) is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Korea. In this context, we conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatment for PNSLBP. We recruited 32 participants (21 in the wet-cupping group and 11 in the waiting-list group) who had been having PNSLBP for at least 3 months. The participants were recruited at the clinical research centre of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korea. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to wet-cupping and waiting-list groups. Following the practice of traditional Korean medicine, the treatment group was provided with wet-cupping treatment at two acupuncture points among the BL23, BL24 and BL25 6 times within 2 weeks. Usual care, including providing brochures for exercise, general advice for PNSLBP and acetaminophen, was allowed in both groups. Separate assessors participated in the outcome assessment. We used the 0 to 100 numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire for pain intensity (PPI) and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), and we assessed acetaminophen use and safety issues. The results showed that the NRS score for pain decreased (-16.0 [95% CI: -24.4 to -7.7] in the wet-cupping group and -9.1 [-18.1 to -0.1] in the waiting-list group), but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p = 0.52). However, the PPI scores showed significant differences between the two groups (-1.2 [-1.6 to -0.8] for the wet-cupping group and -0.2 [-0.8 to 0.4] for the waiting-list group, p cupping group during 4 weeks (p = 0.09). The ODQ score did not show significant differences between the two groups (-5.60 [-8.90 to -2.30] in the wet-cupping group and -1.8 [-5.8 to 2.2] in the waiting-list group, p = 0.14). There was no report of adverse events due to wet-cupping. This pilot study may

  3. Appoximation Formula for Estimation of Waiting-Time in Multiple-Channel Queuing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Erik

    1973-01-01

    The article deals with two approxiamation formulae for estimation of W, Waiting-times in a M/E/R queuing system.m First is shown how W for the multiple-channel system is approximately an Rth part of the mean waiting time in a single channel system. A second approximation applies the exact ratio...... for W(multi-channel/W(single channel) and M/M/1-systems to general M/Ek/R-systems. This is particularly illustrated in the case og M/M/R and M/D/R-systems as a general warning against general practices...

  4. Gender disparity in liver transplant waiting-list mortality: the importance of kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Regev, Arie; Seliger, Stephen L; Magder, Laurence S

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies of men and women on the liver transplantation (LT) waiting list, without taking transplantation rates into account, have suggested a higher risk of mortality for women on the waiting list. The objective of this study was to compare men and women with respect to dying within 3 years of registration on the LT waiting list and to take into account both the immediate mortality risks and the transplantation rates. The analysis was based on Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data for patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) on the waiting list who were registered between February 2002 and August 2009. Competing risk survival analysis was performed to assess the gender disparity in waiting-list mortality; 42,322 patients and 610,762 person-months of waiting-list experience were included in the analysis. The risk of dying within 3 years of listing was 19% and 17% in women and men, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among patients with kidney disease and especially those not on dialysis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 and <30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2), women had a substantially higher risk of dying on the waiting list within 3 years of registration versus men (26% versus 20%, P = 0.001). This disparity was related to lower transplantation rates in women (transplantation rate ratio = 0.68, P < 0.0001). Controlling for eGFR and other variables related to mortality risk, we found that the overall female-male disparity disappeared. In conclusion, among patients with ESLD and kidney dysfunction who are not on dialysis, there is a substantial gender disparity in LT waiting-list mortality. Our analysis suggests as an explanation the fact that women have lower transplantation rates than men in this group. The lower transplantation rates can be explained in part by the fact that Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores tend to be lower for women versus men because they are based on serum creatinine rather than the glomerular filtration

  5. Interventions to reduce wait times for primary care appointments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Dominique; Crispo, James A G; Simard, Benjamin; Bjerre, Lise M

    2017-04-20

    Accessibility and availability are important characteristics of efficient and effective primary healthcare systems. Currently, timely access to a family physician is a concern in Canada. Adverse outcomes are associated with longer wait times for primary care appointments and often leave individuals to rely on urgent care. When wait times for appointments are too long patients may experience worse health outcomes and are often left to use emergency department resources. The primary objective of our study was to systematically review the literature to identify interventions designed to reduce wait times for primary care appointments. Secondary objectives were to assess patient satisfaction and reduction of no-show rates. We searched multiple databases, including: Medline via Ovid SP (1947 to present), Embase (from 1980 to present), PsychINFO (from 1806 to present), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; all dates), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; 1937 to present), and Pubmed (all dates) to identify studies that reported outcomes associated with interventions designed to reduce wait times for primary care appointments. Two independent reviewers assessed all identified studies for inclusion using pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria and a multi-level screening approach. Our study methods were guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Our search identified 3,960 articles that were eligible for inclusion, eleven of which satisfied all inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data abstraction of included studies revealed that open access scheduling is the most commonly used intervention to reduce wait times for primary care appointments. Additionally, included studies demonstrated that dedicated telephone calls for follow-up consultation, presence of nurse practitioners on staff, nurse and general practitioner triage, and email consultations were effective at reducing wait times. To our knowledge, this is

  6. Study on the interaction between the food and beverage servicescape and customer waiting experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, Chih-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Past research on the customer waiting experience tended to focus on two primary areas, namely managing the wait and managing the perception of the wait. Very few studies conducted in-depth analysis and discus¬sion of how external environmental factors affect the experience of customer waiting, which it was also viewed as a negative factor that decreases customer satisfaction toward service. However, in reality, the waiting experience can be positive as a result of certain environmental factors, and subsequently increases customer satisfaction toward the service. This study aimed to further examine the potential influencing factors arising from the servicescape during the customer waiting process, and the interaction between the servicescape and customers during their wait time. This paper is based on the causal feedback loop. A system dynamics perspective was applied to construct a conceptual systems model showing the interaction between the servi¬cescape and the customer waiting experience.Estudios previos sobre la experiencia de espera de los clients suelen centrarse sobre todo en dos áreas: la gestión de la espera y la gestión de la experiencia de espera. Existen muy pocos estudios que hayan realizado análisis y discusiones en profundidad sobre cómo los factores ambientales externos afectan a la experiencia de espera de los clientes, que se ha considerado siempre como un factor negativo que reduce la satisfacción del cliente hacia el servicio. Sin embargo, la experiencia de espera puede incrementar en reali¬dad la satisfacción del cliente hacia el servicio. Este estudio pretende profundizar en la influencia potencial de los factores que surgen del “servicescape” durante el proceso de espera del cliente, así como la interacción entre el “servicescape” y los clientes durante el tiempo de espera. Ese artículo se basa en el bucle de retroa¬limentación causal. Desde la perspectiva de la dinámica de sistemas se construye un

  7. A study on iron ore transportation model with penalty value of transportation equipment waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailing Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As some steel enterprises are at a disadvantage in the choice of the mode of transportation, this paper made further studies of the characteristics of the iron ore logistics, taking comprehensive consideration of optimizing the waiting time under the conditions with limited loading capacity and setting up a procedural model of the iron ore logistics system with minimum cost of transportation, storage, loading, unloading, and transportation equipment waiting. Finally, taking the iron ore transport system of one steel enterprise as example, the solution and the validity of the model were analyzed and verified in this paper.

  8. In the queue for total joint replacement: patients' perspectives on waiting times. Ontario Hip and Knee Replacement Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Thomas, H A; Arshinoff, R; Bell, M; Williams, J I; Naylor, C D

    1998-02-01

    We assessed patients on the waiting lists of a purposive sample of orthopaedic surgeons in Ontario, Canada, to determine patients' attitudes towards time waiting for hip or knee replacement. We focused on 148 patients who did not have a definite operative date, obtaining complete information on 124 (84%). Symptom severity was assessed with the Western Ontario/McMaster Osteoarthritis Index and a disease-specific standard gamble was used to elicit patients' overall utility for their arthritic state. Next, in a trade-off task, patients considered a hypothetical choice between a 1-month wait for a surgeon who could provide a 2% risk of post-operative mortality, or a 6-month wait for joint replacement with a 1% risk of post-operative mortality. Waiting times were then shifted systematically until the patient abandoned his/her initial choice, generating a conditional maximal acceptable wait time. Patients were divided in their attitudes, with 57% initially choosing a 6-month wait with a 1% mortality risk. The overall distribution of conditional maximum acceptable wait time scores ranged from 1 to 26 months, with a median of 7 months. Utility values were independently but weakly associated with patients' tolerance of waiting times (adjusted R-square = 0.059, P = 0.004). After splitting the sample along the median into subgroups with a relatively 'low' and 'high' tolerance for waiting, the subgroup with the apparently lower tolerance for waiting reported lower utility scores (z = 2.951; P = 0.004) and shorter times since their surgeon first advised them of the need for surgery (z = 3.014; P = 0.003). These results suggest that, in the establishment and monitoring of a queue management system for quality-of-life-enhancing surgery, patients' own perceptions of their overall symptomatic burden and ability to tolerate delayed relief should be considered along with information derived from clinical judgements and pre-weighted health status instruments.

  9. Identification of the neutron-rich nuclides /sup 147; 148/Ba and half- life determination of the heavy isotopes of Rb, Sr, Y, Cs, Ba and La

    CERN Document Server

    Amiel, S; Nir-El, Y; Shmid, M

    1976-01-01

    The neutron nuclides /sup 147; 148/Ba were produced in the thermal neutron induced fission of /sup 235/U. A new surface ionization integrated target ion source operating at temperatures in the region of 1800 degrees C permits the measurement of half-lives of isotopes down to about 0.1 sec due to the very fast release of atoms from the target. Isotopes of Rb, Sr, Cs, and Ba were separated by positive surface ionization and their half-lives measured using beta activity detected by a silicon surface barrier detector with a depletion depth of 300 mu . The isotopes /sup 147/Ba and /sup 148/Ba were identified for the first time and their half-lives were found to be 0.72+or-0.07 sec and 0.47+or-0.20 sec, respectively. (0 refs).

  10. Minimizing makespan for a no-wait flowshop using genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper explains minimization of makespan or total completion time for -jobs, -machine, no-wait flowshop problem (NW-FSSP). A spread sheet based general purpose genetic algorithm is proposed for the NW-FSSP. The example analysis shows that the proposed approach produces results are comparable to the ...

  11. Waiting times for prostate cancer diagnosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is currently no evidence in the South African (SA) literature to suggest how long patients with clinically suspected prostate cancer (an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or abnormal findings on digital rectal examination) wait to have a prostate biopsy. Objectives. To improve the overall efficiency of ...

  12. Minimizing makespan for a no-wait flowshop using genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approaches cited in the literature. Additionally, it is .... literature. Pan et al (2008c) presented an improved iterated greedy algorithm to minimize makespan for the no-wait flowshop scheduling problem. The superiority .... one possible chromosome according to permutation representation would be A-C-D-E-B, while another ...

  13. Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations--The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalwell, Katy; Apple, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The documentary "Waiting for Superman" has become one of those rare things, a (supposed) documentary that generates a wider audience. It also is one of the more recent embodiments of what Nancy Fraser (1989) labels as the "politics of needs and needs discourses." Dominant groups listen carefully to the language and issues that…

  14. Waiting for Superman: Neoliberal Educational Reform and the Craft of Filmic Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jose; Montez de Oca, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Waiting for Superman (WFS) cultural project and its push to transform the public school system has had great appeal among those sympathetic and unsympathetic to the victims of exclusionary and exploitative school agendas. To address the workings of hegemony in the WFS cultural project the authors examine three general scenes in the WFS trailer…

  15. Popular Media Portrayals of Inequity and School Reform in "The Wire" and "Waiting for 'Superman'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Two popular media forms are examined--the documentary film "Waiting for 'Superman'" and the HBO television series, "The Wire"--that present distinct, and at times conflicting, depictions of how to address educational inequity. Qualitative media content analysis was used to analyze the two media documents and to situate them…

  16. School, Activism and Politics at the Movies: Educator Reactions to the Film "Waiting for 'Superman'"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel Powell, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Context: The documentary film about U.S. education reform, "Waiting for 'Superman'," was met with acclaim and controversy when released to theaters in 2010, and again when launching its grassroots "host a screening" campaign in 2011. The campaign ran concurrent with 2011 state legislative sessions, during which several states…

  17. Patients\\' response to waiting time in an out-patient pharmacy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the dispensing procedure at a pharmacy, investigate the possible operational problems that may lead to excessive patient waiting times as prescriptions are filled and to examine patient disposition to perceived delays at the pharmacy. Methods: The study was carried out in a 574-bed university teaching ...

  18. Stress reducing effects of real and artificial nature in a hospital waiting room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, C.J.; Langeveld, D.; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This field study investigated the potential stress-reducing effects of exposure to real or artificial nature on patients in a hospital waiting room. Additionally, it was investigated whether perceived attractiveness of the room could explain these effects. Design: In this

  19. A prospective study on the impact of waiting times for radiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Radiotherapy plays a vital role in the management of cervical cancer. However, because of high patient load and limited resources, waiting lists are unacceptably long. This is a highly curable malignancy that often occurs in economically active, relatively young women. The impact of treatment delays on society ...

  20. A delay discounting task produces a greater likelihood of waiting than a deferred gratification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; McCoy, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    A first-person-shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes to compare the behavioral patterns produced by deferred gratification (DG) and delay discounting (DD) tasks. Participants played a game in which they could either fire their weapon sooner and do a small amount of damage or wait a few seconds to fire their weapon and do a larger amount of damage. For the DD task, a failure to fire within one second committed the player to waiting for the larger later outcome thus removing the opportunity to defect during the delay that is present in the DG task. The incentive structure changed multiple times during game play so that at times the optimal decision was to choose the smaller sooner outcome whereas at other times the optimal decision was to wait for the larger later outcome. Players assigned to the DD task showed a greater tendency to wait and lower sensitivity to the changing incentives. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  2. Wait Time and Service Satisfaction at the Outpatient Clinic of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In February 2006, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Abeokuta launched the local charter of SERVICOM and promised the clients timely and quality services delivered with fairness, honesty, courtesy, and transparency. Implementation of this promise is yet to be evaluated. Objectives: To determine the wait time ...

  3. Corruption in The African Novels: A Study of Helon Habila's Waiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption in The African Novels: A Study of Helon Habila's Waiting for An Angel and Ayi Kwei Armah's The Beautyful One's Are Not Yet Born. ... generation of leaders will not emulate bad leadership style from older leaders. The study will be of benefit to students, politicians and other people. The study will sensitize students ...

  4. To Construction and Standardization of the Waiting Anxiety Questionnaire (WAQ in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodeh Tavakkoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to measure waiting anxiety.This was a cross-sectional study. Extensive review of literature and expert opinions were used to develop and validate the waiting anxiety questionnaire. A sample of 321 participants was recruited through random cluster sampling (n= 190 Iranian men and n= 131 women. The participants filled out WAQ, the Speilberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Burtner Rating scale (BRS and Eysenk Personality questionnaire (EPQ for adults.Internal consistency of WAQ was revealed, meaning that all the 20 items were highly correlated with the total score. The Cronbach alpha equaled 0.83 for the Waiting Anxiety Questionnaire. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the questionnaire with the STAI, BRS and extraversion and neuroticism subscales of EPQ was 0.65, 0.78, - 0.47 and 0.43, respectively, which confirmed its convergent and divergent validity. Factors analysis extracting four cognitive, behavioral, sentimental and physiological factors could explain 67% of the total variance with an Eigen value of greater than 1.Our findings suggest that WAQ possesses appropriate validity and reliability to measure the individuals' anxiety during the waiting time.

  5. 169 Trend and Style in Habila's Waiting for an Angel Anthony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The event of the mid 80's through the 90's in Nigeria is what Helon Habila captures in his novel Waiting for an Angel. The marriage of fiction with faction makes it a unique genre and attractive for literary scholars to explore the novel's mechanics and techniques. Consequently, this essay attempts to unravel some of ...

  6. Waiting as a determinant of store image and customer satisfaction: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several studies have proposed multi-dimensional conceptualisations of service quality, store image and consumers' satisfaction with service delivery in a retail context. Although waiting time is included in a hierarchical conceptualisation of perceived service quality and is explicitly considered in the literature on service ...

  7. Waiting to Move: Stress, Coping and the Meaning of Home in Anticipation of Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutman, Deborah L.; Freedman, Jonathan L.

    Research has examined the effects of relocation on the physical and psychological well-being of the elderly, but has usually neglected the pre-relocation or anticipatory period. A study was conducted to examine the experiences of older persons waiting to relocate to subsidized age-segregated apartments. Subjects were interviewed twice over a…

  8. Quantitative modelling for wait time reduction: A comprehensive simulation applied in general surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, Peter T.; Blake, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of operational research techniques to analyze the wait list for the division of general surgery at the Capital District Health Authority (CDHA) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. A comprehensive simulation model was developed to facilitate capacity planning decisions and

  9. A comprehensive simulation for wait time reduction and capacity planning applied in general surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Blake, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of operational research techniques to analyze the wait list for the Division of General Surgery at the Capital District Health Authority in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. A discrete event simulation model was developed to aid capacity planning decisions and to analyze the

  10. A prospective study on the impact of waiting times for radiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Radiotherapy plays a vital role in the management of cervical cancer. However, because of high patient load and limited resources, waiting lists are unacceptably long. This is a highly curable malignancy that often occurs in economically active, relatively young women. The impact of treatment delays on society ...

  11. Pregnancy chances on an IVF/ICSI waiting list: a national prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkemans, M.J.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Hunault, C.C.; Bouwmans, C.A.; Hakkaart, L.; Braat, D.D.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of IVF over expectant management has been proven only for bilateral tubal occlusion. We aimed to estimate the chance of pregnancy without treatment for IVF patients, using data on the waiting period before the start of IVF. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included

  12. Adult tonsillectomy – are long waiting lists putting patients at risk?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients had been booked for surgery between January 2000 and December 2003. Only those patients who had been waiting for at least 1½ years were included in the study. Patients were questioned on the following: (i) the number of episodes of tonsillitis per year at time of booking; (ii) number of episodes of tonsillitis per ...

  13. Hip and knee arthroplasty waiting list – how accurate and fair?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthopaedic surgery is an expensive procedure with high patient demand for reconstructive service. This mismatch between patient demand and available service results in the requirement for surgical waiting lists. Hip- and knee-joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty) is a life-changing procedure in terms of pain reduction ...

  14. Erosion rate study at the Allchar deposit (Macedonia) based on radioactive and stable cosmogenic nuclides (26 Al, 36 Cl, 3 He, and 21 Ne)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, V.; Niedermann, S.; Pejović, V.; Amthauer, G.; Boev, B.; Bosch, F.; Aničin, I.; Henning, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on constraining the erosion rate in the area of the Allchar Sb‐As‐Tl‐Au deposit (Macedonia). It contains the largest known reserves of lorandite (TlAsS2), which is essential for the LORanditeEXperiment (LOREX), aimed at determining the long‐term solar neutrino flux. Because the erosion history of the Allchar area is crucial for the success of LOREX, we applied terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides including both radioactive (26Al and 36Cl) and stable (3He and 21Ne) nuclides in quartz, dolomite/calcite, sanidine, and diopside. The obtained results suggest that there is accordance in the values obtained by applying 26Al, 36Cl, and 21Ne for around 85% of the entire sample collection, with resulting erosion rates varying from several tens of m/Ma to ∼165 m/Ma. The samples from four locations (L‐8 CD, L1b/R, L1c/R, and L‐4/ADR) give erosion rates between 300 and 400 m/Ma. Although these localities reveal remarkably higher values, which may be explained by burial events that occurred in part of Allchar, the erosion rate estimates mostly in the range between 50 and 100 m/Ma. This range further enables us to estimate the vertical erosion rate values for the two main ore bodies Crven Dol and Centralni Deo. We also estimate that the lower and upper limits of average paleo‐depths for the ore body Centralni Deo from 4.3 Ma to the present are 250–290 and 750–790 m, respectively, whereas the upper limit of paleo‐depth for the ore body Crven Dol over the same geological age is 860 m. The estimated paleo‐depth values allow estimating the relative contributions of 205Pb derived from pp‐neutrino and fast cosmic‐ray muons, respectively, which is an important prerequisite for the LOREX experiment. PMID:27587984

  15. Comparison of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression between primary non-small cell lung cancer and paired lymph node metastases: implications for targeted nuclide radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression in metastases of NSCLC was limited. In receptor-mediated targeted nuclide radiotherapy, tumor cells are killed with delivered radiation and therapeutic efficiency is mainly dependent on the receptor expression. Thus, the level and stability of receptor expression in both primary tumors and corresponding metastases is crucial in the assessment of a receptor as target. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether EGFR is suitable as target for clinical therapy. Methods Expression of EGFR was investigated immunohistochemically in paired samples of lymph node metastases and corresponding NSCLC primary lesions (n = 51. EGFR expression was scored as 0, 1+, 2+ or 3+. Results Positive (1+, 2+ or 3+ EGFR immunostaining was evident in 36 of 47 (76.6% analysed NSCLC primary tumors, and in 78.7% of the corresponding lymph node metastases. When EGFR expression is classified as positive or negative, discordance between the primary tumors and the corresponding metastases was observed in 5 cases (10.6%. EGFR overexpression (2+ or 3+ was found in 53.2% (25/47 of the NSCLC primary tumors and 59.6% of the corresponding metastases. Nine out of the 47 paired samples (19.2% were discordant: Only three patients who had EGFR overexpression in the primary tumors showed EGFR downregulation (0 or 1+ in lymph node metastases, while six patients changed the other way around. Conclusions The EGFR expression in the primary tumor and the corresponding metastasis is discordant in about 10% of the patients. When overexpression is considered, the discordance is observed in about 20% of the cases. However, concerning EGFR overexpression in the primary tumors, similar expression in the metastases could be predicted with a reasonably high probability, which is encouraging for testing of EGFR targeted nuclide radiotherapy.

  16. 77 FR 75253 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wait, Later This Will Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wait, Later This Will Be Nothing..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Wait, Later This Will Be...

  17. Determinants of treatment waiting times for head and neck cancer in the Netherlands and their relation to survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten, Michel C; Hoebers, Frank J P; Kross, Kenneth W; van Werkhoven, Erik D; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; van Dijk, Boukje A C

    2015-03-01

    Waiting to start treatment has been shown to be associated with tumor progression and upstaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). This diminishes the chance of cure and might lead to unnecessary mortality. We investigated the association between waiting times and survival in the Netherlands and assessed which factors were associated to longer waiting times. Patient (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), tumor (site, stage) and treatment (type, of institute of diagnosis/treatment) characteristics for patients with HNSCC who underwent treatment were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) for 2005-2011. Waiting time was defined as the number of days between histopathological diagnosis and start of treatment. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate survival. In total, 13,140 patients were included, who had a median waiting time of 37days. Patients who were more likely to wait longer were men, patients with a low SES, oropharynx tumors, stage IV tumors, patients to be treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and patients referred for treatment to a Head and Neck Oncology Center (HNOC) from another hospital. The 5-year overall survival was 58% for all patients. Our multivariable Cox regression model showed that longer waiting time, was significantly related to a higher hazard of dying (p<0.0001). This is the first large population-based study showing that longer waiting time for surgery, radiotherapy or chemoradiation is a significant negative prognostic factor for HNSCC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Queueing Theory to the Analysis of Changes in Outpatients' Waiting Times in Hospitals Introducing EMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Kim, Seong Min; Chae, Young Moon; Song, Yong Uk

    2017-01-01

    This research used queueing theory to analyze changes in outpatients' waiting times before and after the introduction of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. We focused on the exact drawing of two fundamental parameters for queueing analysis, arrival rate (λ) and service rate (µ), from digital data to apply queueing theory to the analysis of outpatients' waiting times. We used outpatients' reception times and consultation finish times to calculate the arrival and service rates, respectively. Using queueing theory, we could calculate waiting time excluding distorted values from the digital data and distortion factors, such as arrival before the hospital open time, which occurs frequently in the initial stage of a queueing system. We analyzed changes in outpatients' waiting times before and after the introduction of EMR using the methodology proposed in this paper, and found that the outpatients' waiting time decreases after the introduction of EMR. More specifically, the outpatients' waiting times in the target public hospitals have decreased by rates in the range between 44% and 78%. It is possible to analyze waiting times while minimizing input errors and limitations influencing consultation procedures if we use digital data and apply the queueing theory. Our results verify that the introduction of EMR contributes to the improvement of patient services by decreasing outpatients' waiting time, or by increasing efficiency. It is also expected that our methodology or its expansion could contribute to the improvement of hospital service by assisting the identification and resolution of bottlenecks in the outpatient consultation process.

  19. Changing Course: Exploring Impacts of "Waiting for Superman" on Future Teachers' Perspectives on the State of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Aaron; Janak, Edward; Slater, Timothy F.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial video documentary "Waiting for Superman," released in 2010, has helped to ignite a firestorm of national debate on current educational reforms in the United States. The purpose of this study is to determine the possible impacts of the video documentary "Waiting for Superman" potentially influencing pre-service…

  20. Guided online or face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia: A randomized wait-list controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; van Straten, A.; Morina, N.; Kaldo, V.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were

  1. Associations Between Waiting Times, Service Times, and Patient Satisfaction in an Endocrinology Outpatient Department: A Time Study and Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenzhen; Or, Calvin

    2017-01-01

    The issue of long patient waits has attracted increasing public attention due to the negative effects of waiting on patients' satisfaction with health care. The present study examined the associations between actual waiting time, perceived acceptability of waiting time, actual service time, perceived acceptability of service time, actual visit duration, and the level of patient satisfaction with care. We conducted a cross-sectional time study and questionnaire survey of endocrinology outpatients visiting a major teaching hospital in China. Our results show that actual waiting time was negatively associated with patient satisfaction regarding several aspects of the care they received. Also, patients who were less satisfied with the sociocultural atmosphere and the identity-oriented approach to their care tended to perceive the amounts of time they spent waiting and receiving care as less acceptable. It is not always possible to prevent dissatisfaction with waiting, or to actually reduce waiting times by increasing resources such as increased staffing. However, several improvements in care services can be considered. Our suggestions include providing clearer, more transparent information to keep patients informed about the health care services that they may receive, and the health care professionals who are responsible for those services. We also suggest that care providers are encouraged to continue to show empathy and respect for patients, that patients are provided with private areas where they can talk with health professionals and no one can overhear, and that hospital staff treat the family members or friends who accompany patients in a courteous and friendly way.

  2. Using administrative databases to measure waiting times for patients undergoing major cancer surgery in Ontario, 1993-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Marko; Thériault, Marc-Erick; Paszat, Lawrence; Coates, Angela; Whelan, Timothy; Holowaty, Eric; Levine, Mark

    2005-04-01

    To determine how long patients in Ontario waited for major breast, colorectal, lung or prostate cancer surgery in the years 1993-2000. "Surgical waiting time" was defined as the interval from date of preoperative surgeon consult to date of hospital admission for surgery. We created patient cohorts by linking appropriate diagnosis and procedure codes from Canadian Institutes of Health Information data. Scrambled unique surgeon identifiers were obtained from Ontario Health Insurance Plan data. Changes in median surgical waiting times were assessed with univariate time-trend analyses and multilevel models. Models were controlled for year of surgery and other patient (age, gender, comorbid conditions, income level, area of residence) and hospital level characteristics (teaching status, procedure volume status). Compared with 1993, median surgical waiting times in the year 2000 increased 36% for patients with breast cancer (to 19 d), 46% with colorectal (to 19 d), 36% with lung (to 34 d) and 4% with prostate cancer (to 83 d). Multilevel models confirmed significant increases in waiting times for all procedures. There were no concerning or consistent differences in waiting times among the categories of hospitals and patients examined. There were significant increases in surgical waiting times among patients undergoing breast, colorectal, lung or prostate cancer surgery in Ontario over years 1993-2000. Administrative databases can be used to efficiently measure such waits.

  3. Numeric determination and validation of neutron induced radioactive nuclide inventories for decommissioning and dismantling of light water reactors; Rechnerische Bestimmung und Validierung von Aktivierungsaktivitaeten fuer die Rueckbau- und Entsorgungsplanung von Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phlippen, Peter W.; Schloemer, Luc; Vallentin, Roger [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Lukas, Bernard [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany); Palm, Stefan [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The deconstruction of nuclear power plants requires project planning and budgeting both during the project and in advance, as well as the secured provision of financial and human resources. When a facility is free from irradiated fuel, the reactor pressure vessel with the nuclear components as well as the biological shield determine the activity inventory of the facility, which almost exclusively consists of activated radionuclides located in the respective structures. Knowledge of the activity distribution and nuclide vectors of the involved components is of vital importance for deconstruction planning. In this context, the development of a computation procedure is described coupling the Monte Carlo method for the determination of neutron flux densities with a procedure to perform activation calculations for the determination of nuclide vectors. For this purpose, detailed knowledge of the material composition, particularly the trace-element concentrations of nitrogen and cobalt in steel and additionally of europium and caesium in concrete structures, considerably impacts the accuracy of the calculated activities. Extensive validation using data collected from various reactor facilities, such as nuclide activities, neutron flux densities, and neutron and gamma dose rates, demonstrates the reliability of the computed nuclide distributions showing ratios of computed over measured values of typically between 0.9 and 3. The practicality of the developed method as well as the convenient use of the results have already been demonstrated analysing several German BWR and PWR facilities and developing packaging strategies based on the produced results.

  4. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral; Mesure de masse de noyaux a halo et refroidissement de faisceaux avec l'experience MISTRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelet, C

    2004-12-01

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li{sup 11}, a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be{sup 11} was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be{sup 14}, an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  5. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-06-10

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to

  6. Developmental changes in anger expression and attention focus: learning to wait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Pamela M; Tan, Patricia Z; Hall, Sarah E; Zhang, Yiyun; Crnic, Keith A; Blair, Clancy B; Li, Runze

    2011-07-01

    Being able to wait is an essential part of self-regulation. In the present study, the authors examined the developmental course of changes in the latency to and duration of target-waiting behaviors by following 65 boys and 55 girls from rural and semirural economically strained homes from ages 18 months to 48 months. Age-related changes in latency to and duration of children's anger expressions and attention focus (e.g., self-initiated distraction) during an 8-min wait for a gift were found. On average, at 18 and 24 months of age, children were quick to react angrily and slower to shift attention away from the desired object than they were at later ages. Over time, children were quicker to distract themselves. By 36 months, distractions occurred before children expressed anger, and anger expressions were briefer. At 48 months, children typically made a quick bid to their mothers about having to wait before distracting themselves; on average, they did not appear angry until the latter half of the wait. Unexpectedly, children bid to their mothers as much at age 48 months as they had at 18 months; however, bids became less angry as children got older. Developmental changes in distraction and bidding predicted age-related changes in the latency to anger. Findings are discussed in terms of the neurocognitive control of attention around age 30 months, the limitations of children's self-regulatory efforts at age 48 months, and the importance of fostering children's ability to forestall, as well as modulate, anger. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. How do Patients Trade-Off Surgeon Choice and Waiting Times for Total Joint Replacement: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Deal, Ken; Conner-Spady, Barbara; Bohm, Eric; Hawker, Gillian; Loucks, Lynda; MacDonald, Karen V; Noseworthy, Tom

    2018-02-06

    Patients face significant waiting times for hip and knee total joint replacement (TJR) in publicly funded healthcare systems. We aimed to assess how surgeon selection and reputation affect patients' willingness to wait for TJR. We assessed patient preferences using a discrete choice experiment questionnaire with 12 choice scenarios administered to patients referred for TJR. Based on qualitative research, pre- and pilot-testing, we characterized each scenario by five attributes: surgeon reputation, surgeon selection, waiting time to surgeon visit (initial consultation), waiting time to surgery, and travel time to hospital. Preferences were assessed using hierarchical Bayes analysis and evaluated for goodness-of-fit. We conducted simulation analyses to understand how patients value surgeon reputation and surgeon selection in terms of willingness to wait for surgeon visit and surgery. Of 422 participants, 68% were referred for knee TJR. The most important attribute was surgeon reputation followed by waiting times, surgeon selection process and travel time. Patients appear willing to wait 10 months for a visit with an excellent reputation surgeon before switching to a good reputation surgeon. Patients in the highest pain category were willing to wait 7.3 months before accepting the next available surgeon, compared to 12 months for patients experiencing the least pain. Our findings confirm that patients value surgeon reputation in the context of wait times and surgeon selection. We suggest opportunities to reduce wait times by explicitly offering the next available surgeon to increase patient choice, and by reporting surgeon performance to reduce potential misinformation about reputation. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    absolute' age of the boulder surfaces was needed to allow the construction of a dating curve by reliable fixed points to, radiocarbon (14C) dating could not provide those information because of the lack of organic material indisputable be related to the glacier advance forming the moraine ridges. On base on these considerations, this study comprises the first attempt to combine in situ (terrestrial) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology. Cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage of delivering an ‘absolute' age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer. One disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is, however, the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. From this background, a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique seems ideal as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. The Schmidt-hammer measurements can, on the other hand, help with the selection of representative boulders for cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating avoiding boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park and Hooker Glacier in Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park on large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges proof its potential. Three pre-‘Little Ice Age' moraine sequences each related to an individual Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type event unambiguously distinguished by Schmidt-hammer measurements provides cosmogenic (10Be) ages of 2,400/2,500 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP, and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP. The preliminary construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and confirms the successful

  9. A model to prioritize access to elective surgery on the basis of clinical urgency and waiting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santori Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prioritization of waiting lists for elective surgery represents a major issue in public systems in view of the fact that patients often suffer from consequences of long waiting times. In addition, administrative and standardized data on waiting lists are generally lacking in Italy, where no detailed national reports are available. This is true although since 2002 the National Government has defined implicit Urgency-Related Groups (URGs associated with Maximum Time Before Treatment (MTBT, similar to the Australian classification. The aim of this paper is to propose a model to manage waiting lists and prioritize admissions to elective surgery. Methods In 2001, the Italian Ministry of Health funded the Surgical Waiting List Info System (SWALIS project, with the aim of experimenting solutions for managing elective surgery waiting lists. The project was split into two phases. In the first project phase, ten surgical units in the largest hospital of the Liguria Region were involved in the design of a pre-admission process model. The model was embedded in a Web based software, adopting Italian URGs with minor modifications. The SWALIS pre-admission process was based on the following steps: 1 urgency assessment into URGs; 2 correspondent assignment of a pre-set MTBT; 3 real time prioritization of every referral on the list, according to urgency and waiting time. In the second project phase a prospective descriptive study was performed, when a single general surgery unit was selected as the deployment and test bed, managing all registrations from March 2004 to March 2007 (1809 ordinary and 597 day cases. From August 2005, once the SWALIS model had been modified, waiting lists were monitored and analyzed, measuring the impact of the model by a set of performance indexes (average waiting time, length of the waiting list and Appropriate Performance Index (API. Results The SWALIS pre-admission model was used for all registrations in the

  10. The Sit-and-Wait Hypothesis in Bacterial Pathogens: A Theoretical Study of Durability and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhanzhong; Dai, Shiyun; Yan, Jiawei; Wise, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The intriguing sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with their virulence. Since its first proposal in 1987, the hypothesis has been spurring debates in terms of its validity in the field of bacterial virulence. As a special case of the vector-borne transmission versus virulence tradeoff, where vector is now replaced by environmental longevity, there are only sporadic studies over the last three decades showing that environmental durability is possibly linked with virulence. However, no systematic study of these works is currently available and epidemiological analysis has not been updated for the sit-and-wait hypothesis since the publication of Walther and Ewald’s (2004) review. In this article, we put experimental evidence, epidemiological data and theoretical analysis together to support the sit-and-wait hypothesis. According to the epidemiological data in terms of gain and loss of virulence (+/-) and durability (+/-) phenotypes, we classify bacteria into four groups, which are: sit-and-wait pathogens (++), vector-borne pathogens (+-), obligate-intracellular bacteria (--), and free-living bacteria (-+). After that, we dive into the abundant bacterial proteomic data with the assistance of bioinformatics techniques in order to investigate the two factors at molecular level thanks to the fast development of high-throughput sequencing technology. Sequences of durability-related genes sourced from Gene Ontology and UniProt databases and virulence factors collected from Virulence Factor Database are used to search 20 corresponding bacterial proteomes in batch mode for homologous sequences via the HMMER software package. Statistical analysis only identified a modest, and not statistically significant correlation between mortality and survival time for eight non-vector-borne bacteria with sit-and-wait potentials. Meanwhile, through between-group comparisons, bacteria with higher host

  11. The Sit-and-Wait Hypothesis in Bacterial Pathogens: A Theoretical Study of Durability and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhanzhong; Dai, Shiyun; Yan, Jiawei; Wise, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The intriguing sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with their virulence. Since its first proposal in 1987, the hypothesis has been spurring debates in terms of its validity in the field of bacterial virulence. As a special case of the vector-borne transmission versus virulence tradeoff, where vector is now replaced by environmental longevity, there are only sporadic studies over the last three decades showing that environmental durability is possibly linked with virulence. However, no systematic study of these works is currently available and epidemiological analysis has not been updated for the sit-and-wait hypothesis since the publication of Walther and Ewald's (2004) review. In this article, we put experimental evidence, epidemiological data and theoretical analysis together to support the sit-and-wait hypothesis. According to the epidemiological data in terms of gain and loss of virulence (+/-) and durability (+/-) phenotypes, we classify bacteria into four groups, which are: sit-and-wait pathogens (++), vector-borne pathogens (+-), obligate-intracellular bacteria (--), and free-living bacteria (-+). After that, we dive into the abundant bacterial proteomic data with the assistance of bioinformatics techniques in order to investigate the two factors at molecular level thanks to the fast development of high-throughput sequencing technology. Sequences of durability-related genes sourced from Gene Ontology and UniProt databases and virulence factors collected from Virulence Factor Database are used to search 20 corresponding bacterial proteomes in batch mode for homologous sequences via the HMMER software package. Statistical analysis only identified a modest, and not statistically significant correlation between mortality and survival time for eight non-vector-borne bacteria with sit-and-wait potentials. Meanwhile, through between-group comparisons, bacteria with higher host-mortality are

  12. The Sit-and-Wait Hypothesis in Bacterial Pathogens: A Theoretical Study of Durability and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The intriguing sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with their virulence. Since its first proposal in 1987, the hypothesis has been spurring debates in terms of its validity in the field of bacterial virulence. As a special case of the vector-borne transmission versus virulence tradeoff, where vector is now replaced by environmental longevity, there are only sporadic studies over the last three decades showing that environmental durability is possibly linked with virulence. However, no systematic study of these works is currently available and epidemiological analysis has not been updated for the sit-and-wait hypothesis since the publication of Walther and Ewald’s (2004 review. In this article, we put experimental evidence, epidemiological data and theoretical analysis together to support the sit-and-wait hypothesis. According to the epidemiological data in terms of gain and loss of virulence (+/- and durability (+/- phenotypes, we classify bacteria into four groups, which are: sit-and-wait pathogens (++, vector-borne pathogens (+-, obligate-intracellular bacteria (--, and free-living bacteria (-+. After that, we dive into the abundant bacterial proteomic data with the assistance of bioinformatics techniques in order to investigate the two factors at molecular level thanks to the fast development of high-throughput sequencing technology. Sequences of durability-related genes sourced from Gene Ontology and UniProt databases and virulence factors collected from Virulence Factor Database are used to search 20 corresponding bacterial proteomes in batch mode for homologous sequences via the HMMER software package. Statistical analysis only identified a modest, and not statistically significant correlation between mortality and survival time for eight non-vector-borne bacteria with sit-and-wait potentials. Meanwhile, through between-group comparisons, bacteria with higher

  13. Assessing the impact of a waiting time survey on reducing waiting times in urban primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Daniels

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A waiting time survey (WTS conducted in several clinics in Cape Town, South Africa provided recommendations on how to shorten waiting times (WT. A follow-up study was conducted to assess whether WT had reduced. Using a stratified sample of 22 clinics, a before and after study design assessed changes in WT. The WT was measured and perceptions of clinic managers were elicited, about the previous survey’s recommendations. The overall median WT decreased by 21 minutes (95%CI: 11.77- 30.23, a 28% decrease from the previous WTS. Although no specific factor was associated with decreases in WT, implementation of recommendations to reduce WT was 2.67 times (95%CI: 1.33-5.40 more likely amongst those who received written recommendations and 2.3 times (95%CI: 1.28- 4.19 more likely amongst managers with 5 or more years’ experience. The decrease in WT found demonstrates the utility of a WTS in busy urban clinics in developing country contexts. Experienced facility managers who timeously receive customised reports of their clinic’s performance are more likely to implement changes that positively impact on reducing WT.

  14. Learning to wait for more likely or just more: greater tolerance to delays of reward with increasingly longer delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rung, Jillian M; Young, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on training greater tolerance to delays of rewards in the context of delayed gratification. In delayed gratification, waiting for a delayed outcome necessitates the ability to resist defection for a continuously available smaller, immediate outcome. The present research explored the use of a fading procedure for producing greater waiting in a video-game based, delayed gratification task. Participants were assigned to conditions in which either the reward magnitude, or the probability of receiving a reward, was a function of time waited and the delay to the maximum reward was gradually increased throughout this training. Waiting increased for all participants but less for those waiting for a greater reward magnitude than a greater reward probability. All participants showed a tendency to wait in a final testing phase, but training with probabilistic outcomes produced a significantly greater likelihood of waiting during testing. The behavioral requirements of delay discounting versus delay gratification are discussed, as well as the benefits of training greater self-control in a variety of contexts. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. The concept of a waiting period for preoperative patient consent: Prospective study of 51 shoulder arthroscopy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudane, H; Mangin, M; Karam, Y; Seivert, V; Mainard, D; Danan, J L; Py, B; Lighezzolo-Alnot, J

    2017-09-01

    The French Code of Public Health (CSP) does not explicitly require that patients should be given a certain amount of time to think about a procedure, except for cosmetic surgery, where 15 days is required (Art. L 6322-2 CSP). We hypothesized that patients require a waiting period during their decision-making process for scheduled shoulder arthroscopy procedure. This prospective observational study of 51 patients analysed the concept of a waiting period based on a 10-item questionnaire. A comparative statistical approach was used and the P values were calculated using a paired Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Of the 51 patients, 42 (82%) rejected the concept of a waiting period before the procedure and 37 patients (73%) did not want a mandatory waiting period imposed by law. This study looked at the decision-making process during scheduled orthopaedic surgery and differentiated between the conscious and unconscious approach corresponding to an active and passive waiting period. A waiting period does not allow patients to make a conceptually deliberative decision that conforms to the criteria defined by the French Health Authority. This study rejects the need for a mandatory waiting period imposed on surgeons and patients as it does not integrate itself into the informative model of ethical decision-making for scheduled shoulder arthroscopy. Prospective, observational; level of evidence IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific low back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallel-group pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Korea. In this context, we conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatment for PNSLBP. Methods We recruited 32 participants (21 in the wet-cupping group and 11 in the waiting-list group who had been having PNSLBP for at least 3 months. The participants were recruited at the clinical research centre of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korea. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to wet-cupping and waiting-list groups. Following the practice of traditional Korean medicine, the treatment group was provided with wet-cupping treatment at two acupuncture points among the BL23, BL24 and BL25 6 times within 2 weeks. Usual care, including providing brochures for exercise, general advice for PNSLBP and acetaminophen, was allowed in both groups. Separate assessors participated in the outcome assessment. We used the 0 to100 numerical rating scale (NRS for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire for pain intensity (PPI and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ, and we assessed acetaminophen use and safety issues. Results The results showed that the NRS score for pain decreased (-16.0 [95% CI: -24.4 to -7.7] in the wet-cupping group and -9.1 [-18.1 to -0.1] in the waiting-list group, but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p = 0.52. However, the PPI scores showed significant differences between the two groups (-1.2 [-1.6 to -0.8] for the wet-cupping group and -0.2 [-0.8 to 0.4] for the waiting-list group, p Conclusion This pilot study may provide preliminary data on the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatments for PNSLBP. Future full-scale randomised controlled trials will be needed to provide firm evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention

  17. Clinical Impact and Risk Factors of Portal Vein Thrombosis for Patients on Wait List for Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenovo, Martin; Rahnemai-Azar, Amir; Reyes, Jorge; Perkins, James

    2017-06-16

    The effect of portal vein thrombosis on the progression of liver disease is controversial, with no consensus on optimal treatment. We aimed to assess how portal vein thrombosis affects wait list outcomes, identify risk factors associated with its development while on a wait list, and assess its effects on patient and graft survival. This US-based retrospective cohort study analyzed 134 109 adult patients on wait lists for or undergoing primary orthotopic liver transplant between January 2002 and June 2014. Rate of portal vein thrombosis development, time from entry on wait list to transplant, comparisons of wait list drop-off rates between patients with versus those without portal vein thrombosis, risk factors associated with its development while on a wait list, and its effects on patient and graft survival were analyzed. We found that the rate of portal vein thrombosis at listing increased. Patients with the disease at listing were more likely to be removed from wait lists because of being too sick. Portal vein thrombosis at listing was an independent risk factor for being removed from a wait list. Of 63 265 patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplant, those with the disease were more likely to have higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores and incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetes mellitus. Portal vein thrombosis had a negative effect on patient and graft survival. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, body mass index, diabetes, and hepatocellular carcinoma were identified as risk factors for its development. Portal vein thrombosis represents an increasing management and outcome burden in liver transplant. Having this disease at listing and/or at time of transplant is associated with worse patient and graft survival. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma are among the biggest risk factors for its development while on a wait list.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Population-Wide Wait Times for Patients Seeking Medical vs. Cosmetic Dermatologic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta; Goldberg, Hanna R; Barense, Morgan D; Bell, Chaim M

    2016-01-01

    Though previous work has examined some aspects of the dermatology workforce shortage and access to dermatologic care, little research has addressed the effect of rising interest in cosmetic procedures on access to medical dermatologic care. Our objective was to determine the wait times for Urgent and Non-Urgent medical dermatologic care and Cosmetic dermatology services at a population level and to examine whether wait times for medical care are affected by offering cosmetic services. A population-wide survey of dermatology practices using simulated calls asking for the earliest appointment for a Non-Urgent, Urgent and Cosmetic service. Response rates were greater than 89% for all types of care. Wait times across all types of care were significantly different from each other (all P Cosmetic care was associated with the shortest wait times (3.0 weeks; Interquartile Range (IQR) = 0.4-3.4), followed by Urgent care (9.0 weeks; IQR = 2.1-12.9), then Non-Urgent Care (12.7 weeks; IQR = 4.4-16.4). Wait times for practices offering only Urgent care were not different from practices offering both Urgent and Cosmetic care (10.3 vs. 7.0 weeks). Longer wait times and greater variation for Urgent and Non-Urgent dermatologic care and shorter wait times and less variation for Cosmetic care. Wait times were significantly longer in regions with lower dermatologist density. Provision of Cosmetic services did not increase wait times for Urgent care. These findings suggest an overall dermatology workforce shortage and a need for a more streamlined referral system for dermatologic care.

  19. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Delayed gratification: A grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) will wait for a better reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Adrienne E; Gray, Suzanne L; Pepperberg, Irene M

    2015-11-01

    Delay of gratification, the ability to forgo an immediate reward to gain either better quality or quantity, has been used as a metric for temporal discounting, self-control, and the ability to plan for the future in both humans (particularly children) and nonhumans. The task involved can be parsed in several ways, such that the subjects can be required to wait, not only for a better or a larger reward, but also such that the rewards can either be in view or hidden during the delay interval. We have demonstrated that a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) trained in the use of English speech could respond to the label "wait" for up to 15 min, in a task that has many similarities to those used with young children, to receive a better quality reward, whether or not the better quality reward or the experimenter was in view. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Controlling synchrony in oscillatory networks via an act-and-wait algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratas, Irmantas; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2014-09-01

    The act-and-wait control algorithm is proposed to suppress synchrony in globally coupled oscillatory networks in the situation when the simultaneous registration and stimulation of the system is not possible. The algorithm involves the periodic repetition of the registration (wait) and stimulation (act) stages, such that in the first stage the mean field of the free system is recorded in a memory and in the second stage the system is stimulated with the recorded signal. A modified version of the algorithm that takes into account the charge-balanced requirement is considered as well. The efficiency of our algorithm is demonstrated analytically and numerically for globally coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators and synaptically all-to-all coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo as well as Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

  2. Act-and-wait time-delayed feedback control of autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyragas, Viktoras; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2018-02-01

    Recently an act-and-wait modification of time-delayed feedback control has been proposed for the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits in nonautonomous dynamical systems (Pyragas and Pyragas, 2016 [30]). The modification implies a periodic switching of the feedback gain and makes the closed-loop system finite-dimensional. Here we extend this modification to autonomous systems. In order to keep constant the phase difference between the controlled orbit and the act-and-wait switching function an additional small-amplitude periodic perturbation is introduced. The algorithm can stabilize periodic orbits with an odd number of real unstable Floquet exponents using a simple single-input single-output constraint control.

  3. Is Waiting the Hardest Part? Comparing the Emotional Experiences of Awaiting and Receiving Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Kate; Falkenstein, Angelica

    2015-11-01

    Awaiting uncertain news is stressful, but is it more stressful than receiving bad news? We compared these emotional experiences in two studies. Participants in Study 1 reflected on a personal experience awaiting news that ultimately turned out badly, and participants in Study 2 were law graduates awaiting their results on the bar exam who ultimately failed the exam. In Study 1, participants were ambivalent as to whether awaiting or receiving bad news was more difficult, and emotion ratings in both studies confirmed this ambivalence. Anxiety was higher in anticipation of bad news (at least at the moment of truth) than in the face of it, whereas other negative emotions were more intense following the news than during the waiting period. Thus, whether waiting is "the hardest part" depends on whether one prefers to be racked with anxiety or afflicted with other negative emotions such as anger, disappointment, depression, and regret. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Kidney transplantation: experience of men in hemodialysis entered on the waiting list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariele de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the experiences of men with chronic renal failure under hemodialysis treatment entered on the kidney transplant waiting list. Method: qualitative study based on the principles of the National Policy for Integral Attention to Men’s Health and Masculinity, conducted with 11 participants in a hemodialysis service, through serial semi-structured interviews and inductive data analysis. Results: the following categories emerged: Gaps between the health policies and the reality of the male population and Challenges and possibilities of change in the life process. Conclusion: although many of these men see hemodialysis as synonym of imprisonment, others understand it as the possibility of maintaining survival and this help them waiting for the kidney transplant.

  5. Outcome Probability versus Magnitude: When Waiting Benefits One at the Cost of the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E.; Webb, Tara L.; Rung, Jillian M.; McCoy, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a continuous impulsivity and risk platform (CIRP) that was constructed using a video game engine, choice was assessed under conditions in which waiting produced a continuously increasing probability of an outcome with a continuously decreasing magnitude (Experiment 1) or a continuously increasing magnitude of an outcome with a continuously decreasing probability (Experiment 2). Performance in both experiments reflected a greater desire for a higher probability even though the corresponding wait times produced substantive decreases in overall performance. These tendencies are considered to principally reflect hyperbolic discounting of probability, power discounting of magnitude, and the mathematical consequences of different response rates. Behavior in the CIRP is compared and contrasted with that in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). PMID:24892657

  6. Outcome probability versus magnitude: when waiting benefits one at the cost of the other.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Young

    Full Text Available Using a continuous impulsivity and risk platform (CIRP that was constructed using a video game engine, choice was assessed under conditions in which waiting produced a continuously increasing probability of an outcome with a continuously decreasing magnitude (Experiment 1 or a continuously increasing magnitude of an outcome with a continuously decreasing probability (Experiment 2. Performance in both experiments reflected a greater desire for a higher probability even though the corresponding wait times produced substantive decreases in overall performance. These tendencies are considered to principally reflect hyperbolic discounting of probability, power discounting of magnitude, and the mathematical consequences of different response rates. Behavior in the CIRP is compared and contrasted with that in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART.

  7. Outcome probability versus magnitude: when waiting benefits one at the cost of the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; Webb, Tara L; Rung, Jillian M; McCoy, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Using a continuous impulsivity and risk platform (CIRP) that was constructed using a video game engine, choice was assessed under conditions in which waiting produced a continuously increasing probability of an outcome with a continuously decreasing magnitude (Experiment 1) or a continuously increasing magnitude of an outcome with a continuously decreasing probability (Experiment 2). Performance in both experiments reflected a greater desire for a higher probability even though the corresponding wait times produced substantive decreases in overall performance. These tendencies are considered to principally reflect hyperbolic discounting of probability, power discounting of magnitude, and the mathematical consequences of different response rates. Behavior in the CIRP is compared and contrasted with that in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART).

  8. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    As the importance of glaciers as key indicators of global change has increased during recent years, investigating Holocene glaciers chronologies has gained higher attention accordingly. One reason is the need for a better understanding of the climate - glacier relationship. Comparative studies play a major role in this field of research owing to the natural diversity of glacier behaviour. Detailed Holocene glacier chronologies are, furthermore, necessary to verify and eventually adjust glacier models indispensable for many attempts to predict future glacier changes. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are one of the few key study areas on the Southern Hemisphere where, in general, evidence is still sparse compared to its Northern counterpart. Improvement and reassessment of the Late Holocene glacier chronology in this region is, therefore, an important goal of current research. Recently, terrestrial (in situ) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating has been increasingly applied to Holocene moraines in New Zealand and elsewhere. In the context of numerical ("absolute") dating techniques, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) seems to have been established as an alternative to the previously dominating radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within moraines. Precision and time resolution achieved by the newest laboratory standards and procedures (Schaefer et al. 2009) is truly a milestone and will promote future attempts of TCND in any comparable context. Maybe, TCND has the potential to at least partially replace radiocarbon (14C) dating in its dominating role for the "absolute" dating of Holocene glacial deposits. By contrast, field sampling for TCND often lacks appropriate consideration of geomorphological uncertainties. Whereas much effort is made with the high precision results achieved in the laboratory, the choice of boulders sampled on Holocene moraines is often purely made

  9. Glacial erosion of high-elevation low-relief summits on passive continental margins constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    , indicating that warm-based ice eroded the summits during the last glacial period. From the isotope concentrations we model denudation histories using a recently developed Monte Carlo Markov Chain inversion model (Knudsen et al, 2015). The model relies on the benthic d18O curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005...... important implications for the understanding of high-elevation low-relief summits in general, as these have often been interpreted as relict landforms inherited from pre-Quaternary times and thus indicating long periods of surface stability. Our results point instead to substantial modification...

  10. Not all waits are equal: An exploratory investigation of emergency care patient pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Swancutt, D; Joel-Edgar, S; Allen, M; Thomas, D.; Brant, H; Benger, J.; Byng, R.; Pinkney, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing pressure in the United Kingdom (UK) urgent care system has led to Emergency Departments (EDs) failing to meet the national requirement that 95% of patients are admitted, discharged or transferred within 4-h of arrival. Despite the target being the same for all acute hospitals, individual Trusts organise their services in different ways. The impact of this variation on patient journey time and waiting is unknown. Our study aimed to apply the Lean technique of Value Strea...

  11. Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Undergoing Watchful Waiting: Exploring Trajectories of Illness Uncertainty and Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Donald E.; Barroso, Julie; Muir, Andrew J.; Sloane, Richard; Richmond, Jacqui; McHutchison, John; Patel, Keyur; Landerman, Lawrence; Mishel, Merle H.

    2010-01-01

    We identified trajectories of illness uncertainty in chronic hepatitis C patients and examined their association with fatigue levels during 12 months of disease monitoring without treatment (watchful waiting). Sixty-two men and 63 women completed uncertainty and fatigue measures. Groups were formed by uncertainty scores (high, medium, low) at baseline. Baseline fatigue levels were higher in the high uncertainty group than in the medium and low groups. Over time, uncertainty levels did not cha...

  12. Waiting-time distributions of magnetic discontinuities: clustering or Poisson process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A; Matthaeus, W H; Servidio, S; Dmitruk, P

    2009-10-01

    Using solar wind data from the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft, with the support of Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulations, the waiting-time distributions of magnetic discontinuities have been analyzed. A possible phenomenon of clusterization of these discontinuities is studied in detail. We perform a local Poisson's analysis in order to establish if these intermittent events are randomly distributed or not. Possible implications about the nature of solar wind discontinuities are discussed.

  13. A marketing perspective on the influences of waiting time and servicescape on perceived value

    OpenAIRE

    Costinel DOBRE; Anca Cristina DRAGOMIR; Anca-Maria MILOVAN-CIUTA

    2013-01-01

    Customer’s value perception of products and services is a variable with important implications on the marketing performance of the organizations. In this article we intend to analyse influences of waiting time and servicescape perception on the perceived value of customers of a dental clinic. The empirical research carried out for the elaboration of this article is part of a wider research concerning the multidimensional approach of the service value perceived by clients. Survey findings show...

  14. The effects of music intervention on anxiety in the patient waiting for cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, W J

    2001-10-01

    Hospitalization causes anxiety for many patients. It increases when patients anticipate their turn for cardiac catheterization. Music therapy reduces the psychophysiologic effects of anxiety and stress through the relaxation response. To determine the effects of music therapy an anxiety, heart rate and arterial blood pressure in patients waiting for their scheduled cardiac catheterization. In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 101 subjects were randomly assigned to either the test group: those who listened to 20 minutes of preselected music, or the control group: those who received treatment as usual. Subject anxiety levels and physiological values were measured while waiting their turn for cardiac catheterization and just prior to departure to the cardiac lab. 63 males and 38 females participated in the study. There was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety in the test group alone (P = 0.003) and in comparing the test to the control group (P = 0.004). In comparing the initial and departure physiologic values, it was noted that both heart rate and systolic blood pressure dropped in the test group, but increased in the control group. Within gender groups, there were no statistically significant differences in hemodynamics or STAI scores, but between gender groups there were significantly higher diastolic blood pressure in males and STAI initial and departure scores for females. Patients waiting for their cardiac catheterization benefit from music therapy. Anxiety and the heightened physiological values elicited by the stress response are reduced. Results also suggest that women waiting for cardiac catheterization experience a higher level of anxiety than males.

  15. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about waiting time and patience distributions in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent and id...... and statistical tests, including a simple bootstrap two-sample test for comparing patience distributions. A small simulation study and a real data example are presented....

  16. Web-based stress management for newly diagnosed cancer patients (STREAM-1): a randomized, wait-list controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossert, Astrid; Urech, Corinne; Alder, Judith; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Hess, Viviane

    2016-11-03

    Being diagnosed with cancer causes major psychological distress, yet the majority of newly diagnosed cancer patients lack psychological support. Internet interventions overcome many barriers for seeking face-to-face support and allow for independence in time and place. We assess efficacy and feasibility of the first web-based stress management intervention (STREAM: STREss-Aktiv-Mindern) for newly diagnosed, German-speaking cancer patients. In a prospective, wait-list controlled trial 120 newly diagnosed cancer patients will be included within 12 weeks of starting anti-cancer treatment and randomized between an immediate (intervention group) or delayed (control group) 8-week, web-based intervention. The intervention consists of eight modules with weekly written feedback by a psychologist ("minimal-contact") based on well-established stress management manuals including downloadable audio-files and exercises. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy in terms of improvement in quality of life (FACT-F), as well as decrease in anxiety and depression (HADS), as compared to patients in the wait-list control group. A sample size of 120 patients allows demonstrating a clinically relevant difference of nine points in the FACT score after the intervention (T2) with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and 80 % power. As this is the first online stress management intervention for German-speaking cancer patients, more descriptive outcomes are equally important to further refine the group of patients with the largest potential for benefit who then will be targeted more specifically in future trials. These descriptive endpoints include: patients' characteristics (type of cancer, type of treatment, socio-demographic factors), dropout rate and dropout reasons, adherence and satisfaction with the program. New technologies open new opportunities: minimal-contact psychological interventions are becoming standard of care in several psychological disorders, where their efficacy is often

  17. Bridging and downstaging treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Francica, Giampiero; Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Iezzi, Roberto; Avolio, Alfonso Wolfango

    2013-11-21

    Several therapeutic procedures have been proposed as bridging treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT). The most used treatments include transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation. Surgical resection has also been successfully used as a bridging procedure, and LT should be considered a rescue treatment in patients with previous HCC resection who experience tumor recurrence or post-treatment severe decompensation of liver function. The aims of bridging treatments include decreasing the waiting list dropout rate before transplantation, reducing HCC recurrence after transplantation, and improving post-transplant overall survival. To date, no data from prospective randomized studies are available; however, for HCC patients listed for LT within the Milan criteria, prolonging the waiting time over 6-12 mo is a risk factor for tumor spread. Bridging treatments are useful in containing tumor progression and decreasing dropout. Furthermore, the response to pre-LT treatments may represent a surrogate marker of tumor biological aggressiveness and could therefore be evaluated to prioritize HCC candidates for LT. Lastly, although a definitive conclusion can not be reached, the experiences reported to date suggest a positive impact of these treatments on both tumor recurrence and post-transplant patient survival. Advanced HCC may be downstaged to achieve and maintain the current conventional criteria for inclusion in the waiting list for LT. Recent studies have demonstrated that successfully downstaged patients can achieve a 5-year survival rate comparable to that of patients meeting the conventional criteria without requiring downstaging.

  18. Improving the waiting list by using 75-year-old donors for recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales Campos, P A; Romero, P R; Gonzalez, R; Zambudio, A R; Martinez Frutos, I M; de la Peña, J; Bueno, F S; Robles Campos, R; Miras, M; Pons Miñano, J A; Sanmartin Monzo, A; Domingo, J; Bixquert Montagud, V; Parrilla Paricio, P

    2010-03-01

    The best treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with liver cirrhosis is liver transplantation and the best results are obtained when the tumors fulfill the Milan criteria. However, although the number of transplants is increasing, the organ deficit is growing, which lengthens time on the waiting list, increasing the risk of tumor progression of and exclusion from the list. The use of elderly donors is a valid option for patients on the transplant waiting list with HCC, reducing time on the waiting list. We report our experience with patients transplanted for HCC associated with hepatic cirrhosis using livers from donors >75 years of age. Our preliminary results supported the use of elderly suboptimal donors making it possible to give priority to these patients. All patients in the series achieved good graft function after a follow-up of 2 years with a 100% disease-free survival rate. More extensive long-term studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Patients' satisfaction and waiting time in oncology day care centers in Champagne-Ardenne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreuve-Theresette, A; Jovenin, N; Stona, A C; Kraïem-Leleu, M; Burde, F; Parent, D; Hettler, D; Rey, J B

    2015-12-01

    Quality of life of patients suffering from cancer may be influenced by the way healthcare is organized and by patient experiences. Nowadays, chemotherapy is often provided in day care centers. This study aimed to assess patient waiting time and satisfaction in oncology day care centers in Champagne-Ardenne, France. This cross-sectional survey involved all patients receiving ambulatory chemotherapy during a one-week period in day care centers of Champagne-Ardenne public and private healthcare institutions participating in the study. Sociodemographic, medical and outpatient data were collected. Patient satisfaction was measured using the Out-Patsat35 questionnaire. Eleven (out of 16) oncology day care centers and 441 patients participated in the study. Most of the patients were women (n=252, 57.1%) and the mean age was 61±12 years. The mean satisfaction score was 82±14 (out of 100) and the mean waiting time between the assigned appointment time and administration of chemotherapy was 97±60 min. This study has shown that waiting times are important. However, patients are satisfied with the healthcare organization, especially regarding nursing support. Early preparation of chemotherapy could improve these parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A Scheduling Method to Reduce Waiting Time for Close-Range Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Gotoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent popularization of digital broadcasting systems, close-range broadcasting using continuous media data, i.e. audio and video, has attracted great attention. For example, in a drama, after a user watches interesting content such as a highlight scene, he/she will watch the main program continuously. In close-range broadcasting, the necessary bandwidth for continuously playing the two types of data increases. Conventional methods reduce the necessary bandwidth by producing an effective broadcast schedule for continuous media data. However, these methods do not consider the broadcast schedule for two types of continuous media data. When the server schedules two types of continuous media data, waiting time that occurs from finishing the highlight scene to starting the main scene, may increase. In this paper, we propose a scheduling method to reduce the waiting time for close-range broadcasting. In our proposed method, by dividing two types of data and producing an effective broadcast schedule considering the available bandwidth, we can reduce the waiting time.

  1. Specific timely appointments for triage reduced waiting lists in an outpatient physiotherapy service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, K E; Bottrell, J

    2016-12-01

    Waiting lists with triage systems are commonly used in outpatient physiotherapy but may not be effective. Could an alternative model of access and triage reduce waiting times over a sustained period with no additional resources? Observational study comparing retrospective data for 11 months prior to the introduction of a new model of access compared with data for the equivalent 11 months afterwards. Patients referred to a physiotherapy outpatient department at an outer metropolitan hospital before (n=721) and after (n=707) the introduction of the new model. A model of access and triage known as 'specific timely appointments for triage' (STAT), in which appointment slots are preserved in advance specifically for new patients based on calculation of average demand. Time from referral to first assessment, number of appointments per patient, occasions of non-attendance and total length of stay in the service. Median time from referral to first appointment was 18 days [interquartile range (IQR) 11 to 33 days] in the pre-intervention group, compared with 14 days (IQR 9 to 21 days) in the post-intervention group (Pphysiotherapy appointments also reduced (IQR 2 to 6 vs IQR 1 to 4; Pphysiotherapy was 22% lower in the year following the introduction of the STAT model. While acknowledging the limitations of a pre- and post-measurement design, this model may have potential for reducing waiting times for outpatient physiotherapy without additional resources. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of walk-in counselling and the wait list model for delivering counselling services().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Carol A; Riemer, Manuel; Cait, Cheryl-Anne; Horton, Susan; Booton, Jocelyn; Josling, Leslie; Bedggood, Joanna; Zaczek, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    Walk-in counselling has been used to reduce wait times but there are few controlled studies to compare outcomes between walk-in and the traditional model of service delivery. To compare change in psychological distress by clients receiving services from two models of service delivery, a walk-in counselling model and a traditional counselling model involving a wait list. Mixed-methods sequential explanatory design including quantitative comparison of groups with one pre-test and two follow-ups, and qualitative analysis of interviews with a sub-sample. Five-hundred and twenty-four participants ≥16 years were recruited from two Family Counselling Agencies; the General Health Questionnaire-12 assessed change in psychological distress. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed clients of the walk-in model improved faster and were less distressed at the four-week follow-up compared to the traditional service delivery model. Ten weeks later, both groups had improved and were similar. Participants receiving instrumental services prior to baseline improved more slowly. The qualitative data confirmed participants highly valued the accessibility of the walk-in model, and were frustrated by the lengthy waits associated with the traditional model. This study improves methodologically on previous studies of walk-in counselling, an approach to service delivery not conducive to randomized controlled trials.

  3. The effect of superfluid hydrodynamics on pulsar glitch sizes and waiting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, B.

    2016-09-01

    Pulsar glitches, sudden jumps in frequency observed in many radio pulsars, may be the macroscopic manifestation of superfluid vortex avalanches on the microscopic scale. Small-scale quantum mechanical simulations of vortex motion in a decelerating container have shown that such events are possible and predict power-law distributions for the size of the events, and exponential distributions for the waiting time. Despite a paucity of data, this prediction is consistent with the size and waiting time distributions of most glitching pulsars. Nevertheless, a few object appear to glitch quasi-periodically, and exhibit many large glitches, while a recent study of the Crab pulsar has suggested deviations from a power-law distribution for smaller glitches. In this Letter, we incorporate the results of quantum mechanical simulations in a macroscopic superfluid hydrodynamics simulation. We show that the effect of vortex coupling to the neutron and proton fluids in the star naturally leads to deviations from power-law distributions for sizes, and from exponential distributions for waiting times, and we predict a cutoff in the size distribution for small glitches.

  4. Mean fission neutron spectrum energies for /sup 252/Cf and fissile nuclides, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu and /sup 241/Pu, are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. There have been many data sets produced in recent years which deal with the shape of these spectra, particularly at both the low energy and the high energy portions of the curve. However, our interest here is in the average neutron energies of these spectra. We have tabulated all measurements for the five nuclides of interest. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Fortunately, the measurements have been performed with a number of techniques, which allows one to estimate the systematic error from the spread in the results for the different techniques. An attempt has been made to renormalize results when the neutron spectrum used for normalization purposes has been given. In addition to the tables of mean energy measurements, we have also tabulated the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. The following items were considered, where possible, in the analysis of the mean energies of the neutron spectra: the energy scale of the measurement, the determination of the detector efficiency, the sample size and the sample thickness and the scattering corrections made. The recommended mean energies for the spectra considered are shown. The uncertainty listed attempts to estimate the systematic error as well as merely the precision in each of the experiments. The recommended values for /sup 233,235/U, /sup 239,241/Pu, and /sup 252/Cf are 2.02 +- 0.03 MeV, 1.98 +- 0.03 MeV, 2.06 +- 0.04 MeV, 2.05 +- 0.05 MeV, and 2.14 +- 0.03 MeV, respectively. 73 refs.

  5. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall reproductive performance of dairy herds is monitored by various indicators. Most of them do not consider all eligible animals and do not consider different management strategies at farm level. This problem can be alleviated by measuring the proportion of pregnant cows by specific intervals after their calving date or after a fixed time period, such as the voluntary waiting period. The aim of this study was to evaluate two reproductive performance indicators that consider the voluntary waiting period at the herd. The two indicators were: percentage of pregnant cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (PV30 and percentage of inseminated cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (IV30. We wanted to assess how PV30 and IV30 perform in a simulation of herds with different reproductive management and physiology and to compare them to indicators of reproductive performance that do not consider the herd voluntary waiting period. Methods To evaluate the reproductive indicators we used the SimHerd-program, a stochastic simulation model, and 18 scenarios were simulated. The scenarios were designed by altering the reproductive management efficiency and the status of reproductive physiology of the herd. Logistic regression models, together with receiver operating characteristics (ROC, were used to examine how well the reproductive performance indicators could discriminate between herds of different levels of reproductive management efficiency or reproductive physiology. Results The logistic regression models with the ROC analysis showed that IV30 was the indicator that best discriminated between different levels of management efficiency followed by PV30, calving interval, 200-days not-in calf-rate (NotIC200, in calf rate at100-days (IC100 and a fertility index. For reproductive physiology the ROC analysis showed that the fertility index was the indicator that best discriminated

  6. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-08-07

    Chronic pain places an enormous burden on health care systems. Multidisciplinary pain management services are well documented as an effective means to improve patient outcomes. However, waiting lists to access these services are long and outcomes deteriorate. Innovative solutions such as social media are gaining attention as a way to decrease this burden and improve outcomes. It is a challenge to design research that demonstrates whether social media are acceptable to patients and clinically effective. The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain. A 12-week study examined social media use by patients on the waiting list for the Royal Melbourne Hospital Pain Management Service. Selected social media resources were suggested for use by patients waiting for an appointment at the clinic. Patients filled out measures for pain interference and pain self-efficacy before and after the study. Follow-up was conducted at monthly intervals via telephone semistructured interviews to discuss engagement and garner individual perceptions towards social media use. A social media-use instrument was also administered as part of the after-study questionnaire. Targeted recruitment refined 235 patient referrals to 138 (58.7%) suitable potential participants. Contact was made with 84 out of 138 (60.9%) patients. After a further exclusion of 54 out of 84 (64%) patients for various reasons, this left 30 out of 84 (36%) patients fitting the inclusion criteria and interested in study participation. A final study cohort of 17 out of 30 (57%) was obtained. Demographics of the 17 patients were mixed. Low back pain was the primary condition reported as leading to chronic pain. Semistructured interviews collected data from 16 out of 17 (94%) patients who started the trial, and at final follow-up 9 out of 17 (53%) patients

  7. An Estimation Method of Waiting Time for Health Service at Hospital by Using a Portable RFID and Robust Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Akamatsu, Motoyuki

    Patients that have an health service by doctor have to wait long time at many hospitals. The long waiting time is the worst factor of patient's dissatisfaction for hospital service according to questionnaire for patients. The present paper describes an estimation method of the waiting time for each patient without an electronic medical chart system. The method applies a portable RFID system to data acquisition and robust estimation of probability distribution of the health service and test time by doctor for high-accurate waiting time estimation. We carried out an health service of data acquisition at a real hospital and verified the efficiency of the proposed method. The proposed system widely can be used as data acquisition system in various fields such as marketing service, entertainment or human behavior measurement.

  8. Individual and Regional Factors of Access to the Renal Transplant Waiting List in France in a Cohort of Dialyzed Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayat, S; Macher, M. A; Couchoud, C; Bayer, F; Lassalle, M; Villar, E; Caillé, Y; Mercier, S; Joyeux, V; Noel, C; Kessler, M; Jacquelinet, C

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that in addition to individual factors such as age and comorbidities, the accumulation of patients on the waiting list, likely related to regional variations in organ shortage...

  9. Improved functional outcome after hip fracture is associated with duration of rehabilitation, but not with waiting time for rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tonny Jaeger; Bogh, Louise Nicole Bie; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between “waiting time to onset of municipal rehabilitation”, “length of municipal rehabilitation” and the attained level of function four months after the hip fracture. METHODS: Among a consecutive series of 156 patients, the 116...... patients who were recommended a municipal rehabilitation sequence after discharge were included. The exposures were waiting time in days and duration in hours of the municipal rehabilitation. The outcome was lower-extremity functional level as measured with the Short Physical Performance Battery. Effects...... were assessed with non-parametric gamma coefficients. RESULTS: The median waiting time to initiation of rehabilitation was ten days. A weak and insignificant correlation was observed between waiting time and outcome at four months, and a statistically significant correlation was recorded between...

  10. Applying the Lean principles of the Toyota Production System to reduce wait times in the emergency department

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, David; Vail, Gord; Thomas, Sophia; Schmidt, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    ...) without adding any new funding or beds. In 2005 all staff in the ED at Hôtel-Dieu Grace Hospital began a transformation, employing Toyota Lean manufacturing principles to improve ED wait times and quality of care...

  11. ADAPTATION OF JOHNSON SEQUENCING ALGORITHM FOR JOB SCHEDULING TO MINIMISE THE AVERAGE WAITING TIME IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUVIK PAL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an emerging paradigm of Internet-centric business computing where Cloud Service Providers (CSPs are providing services to the customer according to their needs. The key perception behind cloud computing is on-demand sharing of resources available in the resource pool provided by CSP, which implies new emerging business model. The resources are provisioned when jobs arrive. The job scheduling and minimization of waiting time are the challenging issue in cloud computing. When a large number of jobs are requested, they have to wait for getting allocated to the servers which in turn may increase the queue length and also waiting time. This paper includes system design for implementation which is concerned with Johnson Scheduling Algorithm that provides the optimal sequence. With that sequence, service times can be obtained. The waiting time and queue length can be reduced using queuing model with multi-server and finite capacity which improves the job scheduling model.

  12. The association between waiting for psychological therapy and therapy outcomes as measured by the CORE-OM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison; Burdett, Mark; Lewis, Helen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of waiting for psychological therapy on client well-being as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) global distress (GD) score. Global distress scores were retrieved for all clients referred for psychological therapy in a secondary care mental health service between November 2006 and May 2013 and who had completed a CORE-OM at assessment and first session. GD scores for a subgroup of 103 clients who had completed a CORE-OM during the last therapy session were also reviewed. The study sample experienced a median wait of 41.14 weeks between assessment and first session. The relationship between wait time from referral acceptance to assessment, and assessment GD score was not significant. During the period between assessment and first session no significant difference in GD score was observed. Nevertheless 29.1% of the sample experienced reliable change; 16.0% of clients reliably improved and 13.1% reliably deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy. Demographic factors were not found to have a significant effect on the change in GD score between assessment and first session. Waiting time was associated with post-therapy outcomes but not to a degree which was meaningful. The majority of individuals (54.4%), regardless of whether they improved or deteriorated whilst waiting for therapy, showed reliable improvement at end of therapy as measured by the CORE-OM. The majority of GD scores remained stable while waiting for therapy; however, 29.1% of secondary care clients experienced either reliable improvement or deterioration. Irrespective of whether they improved, deteriorated or remained unchanged whilst waiting for therapy, most individuals who had a complete end of therapy assessment showed reliable improvements following therapy. There was no significant difference in GD score between assessment and first session recordings. A proportion of clients (29.1%) showed reliable change, either improvement or

  13. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege

    2016-08-15

    One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO4 existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxue [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Dong, Faqin, E-mail: fqdong@swust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Nie, Xiaoqin [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Sun, Shiyong [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A programmed gradient descent biosorption process was designed. • The adsorption and bioaccumulation quantity of strontium ions by yeast cell were measured. • The decrement of biosorbents after biosorption by ashing was analyzed. • A technological flow process of decrement solution for waste disposal was proposed. - Abstract: One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO{sub 4} existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields.

  15. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert; Riper, Kenneth Van; Lasche, George

    2017-09-01

    A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF ("Visual RobFit") which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  16. Uranium, radium and thorium in soils with high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, MCNP-generated efficiencies, and VRF non-linear full-spectrum nuclide shape fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzger Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for analysis of uranium and radium in soils by gamma spectroscopy has been developed using VRF (“Visual RobFit” which, unlike traditional peak-search techniques, fits full-spectrum nuclide shapes with non-linear least-squares minimization of the chi-squared statistic. Gamma efficiency curves were developed for a 500 mL Marinelli beaker geometry as a function of soil density using MCNP. Collected spectra were then analyzed using the MCNP-generated efficiency curves and VRF to deconvolute the 90 keV peak complex of uranium and obtain 238U and 235U activities. 226Ra activity was determined either from the radon daughters if the equilibrium status is known, or directly from the deconvoluted 186 keV line. 228Ra values were determined from the 228Ac daughter activity. The method was validated by analysis of radium, thorium and uranium soil standards and by inter-comparison with other methods for radium in soils. The method allows for a rapid determination of whether a sample has been impacted by a man-made activity by comparison of the uranium and radium concentrations to those that would be expected from a natural equilibrium state.

  17. Corrosion studies with high burnup light water reactor fuel. Release of nuclides into simulated groundwater during accumulated contact time of up to two years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, Hans-Urs (Zwicky Consulting GmbH, Remigen (Switzerland)); Low, Jeanett; Ekeroth, Ella (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    pellet surface than the bulk of the pellet in leaching experiments. Thus, formation of oxidising species and radicals by radiolysis is expected to be disproportionately high as well. Therefore, when discussing high burnup fuel dissolution, the effect of the increased radiation field with burnup, as well as of the influence of the smaller grain size and increased porosity at the rim are mentioned as factors which contribute to increased dissolution rates. A third factor, increased fission product and actinide doping with burnup, has been discussed extensively in connection with increased resistance to air oxidation of the fuel. Samples from four different fuel rods, all operated in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), are used in the new series of corrosion experiments. They cover a burnup range from 58 to 75 MWd/kgU. The nuclide inventory of all four samples was determined by means of a combination of experimental nuclide analysis and sample specific modelling calculations. More than 40 different nuclides were analysed by isotope dilution analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as other ICP-MS and gamma spectrometric methods. The content of roughly all fission products and actinides was also calculated separately for each sample. The experiments are performed under oxidising conditions in synthetic groundwater at ambient temperature. In order to make results as comparable as possible to those of the Series 11 experiments, the same procedure and the same leachant is used. At least nine consecutive contact periods of one and three weeks and two, three, six and twelve months are planned. The present report covers the first five contact periods up to a cumulative contact time of one year for all four samples and in addition the sixth period up to a cumulative contact time of two years for two of the samples. The samples, kept in position by a platinum wire spiral, are exposed to synthetic groundwater in a Pyrex flask. After the contact

  18. Improved functional outcome after hip fracture is associated with duration of rehabilitation, but not with waiting time for rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Tonny Jaeger; Bogh, Louise Nicole Bie; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between “waiting time to onset of municipal rehabilitation”, “length of municipal rehabilitation” and the attained level of function four months after the hip fracture. METHODS: Among a consecutive series of 156 patients, the 116 patients who were recommended a municipal rehabilitation sequence after discharge were included. The exposures were waiting time in days and duration in hours of the municipal rehabilitation. The out...

  19. Impact of Lean on patient cycle and waiting times at a rural district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Logandran

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged waiting time is a source of patient dissatisfaction with health care and is negatively associated with patient satisfaction. Prolonged waiting times in many district hospitals result in many dissatisfied patients, overworked and frustrated staff, and poor quality of care because of the perceived increased workload. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Lean principles techniques, and tools on the operational efficiency in the outpatient department (OPD) of a rural district hospital. Setting The study was conducted at the Catherine Booth Hospital (CBH) – a rural district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods This was an action research study with pre-, intermediate-, and post-implementation assessments. Cycle and waiting times were measured by direct observation on two occasions before, approximately two-weekly during, and on two occasions after Lean implementation. A standardised data collection tool was completed by the researcher at each of the six key service nodes in the OPD to capture the waiting times and cycle times. Results All six service nodes showed a reduction in cycle times and waiting times between the baseline assessment and post-Lean implementation measurement. Significant reduction was achieved in cycle times (27%; p Consulting Room node, there was a significant reduction in waiting times from 80.95 to 74.43 min, (p post-intervention). Conclusion The application of Lean principles, tools and techniques provides hospital managers with an evidence-based management approach to resolving problems and improving quality indicators. PMID:27543283

  20. Four shells atomic model to computer the counting efficiency of electron-capture nuclides; Modelo de cuatro capas para calcular la eficiencia de deteccion en nucleidos que se desintegran por captura electronica pura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Fernandez Martinez, A.

    1985-07-01

    The present paper develops a four-shells atomic model in order to obtain the efficiency of detection in liquid scintillation courting, Mathematical expressions are given to calculate the probabilities of the 229 different atomic rearrangements so as the corresponding effective energies. This new model will permit the study of the influence of the different parameters upon the counting efficiency for nuclides of high atomic number. (Author) 7 refs.