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Sample records for wad grades 1-2

  1. Acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Khushnum Pastakia, Saravana KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Date of preparation: 27th January 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredBackground: Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD is the term given for the collection of symptoms affecting the neck that are triggered by an accident with an acceleration–deceleration mechanism such as a motor vehicle accident. The incidence of whiplash injury varies greatly between different parts of the world with significant monetary burden on the individual as well as the wider community.Objective: Which treatments are best for reducing pain and disability experience in acute WADs?Level of evidence: Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials.Search sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, AUST health, AMED.Outcomes: From the patient perspective the main outcomes considered are pain and disability.Consumer summary: Whiplash-associated disorders include a range of symptoms related to the neck and head. They commonly occur after motor vehicle accidents or diving mishaps. There is good evidence to suggest that active exercise, acting as usual and combination therapy are the most effective treatment choices in an acute presentation.Keywords: whiplash, neckpain, pain levels, multimodel therapy

  2. Creative Prescriptions Unlimited, Grades 1-2. Evaluation Program Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Whittier City School District, CA.

    The document provides lesson plans for strengthening the thought processes, including problem solving and creative abilities, of first and second grade mentally gifted children. The lessons are organized within the five operations of the mind as defined by J. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SOI): cognition (10 lessons), memory (3 lessons),…

  3. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 3 – interventions for subacute WAD

    OpenAIRE

    Teasell, Robert W; J Andrew McClure; David Walton; Jason Pretty; Katherine Salter; Matthew Meyer; Keith Sequeira; Barry Death

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to ...

  4. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas at dynamic enhanced CT: comparison between grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma and grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumour

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    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, Kyung Won; Byun, Jae Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ki Byung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon; Hong, Seung-Mo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    To identify the CT features in differentiating grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas from grade 1/2 neuroendocrine tumours. This study included 161 patients with surgically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the tumour grade. CT image analysis included size, pattern, calcification, margin, pancreatic duct dilatation, bile duct dilatation, vascular invasion, arterial enhancement ratio, and portal enhancement ratio. We used 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm as cutoff values of tumour size and 0.9 and 1.1 of enhancement ratio to determine the sensitivity and specificity. Pathology analysis identified 167 lesions in 161 patients. 154 lesions (92 %) were grade 1/2 and 13 (8 %) were grade 3. Portal enhancement ratio (< 1.1) showed high sensitivity and specificity 92.3 % and 80.5 %, respectively in differentiating grade 3 from grade 1/2. It showed the highest odds ratio (49.60), followed by poorly defined margin, size (> 3 cm), bile duct dilatation, and vascular invasion. When at least two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing grade 3 were 92.3 % (12/13) and 87.7 % (135/154), respectively. By using specific CT findings, grade 3 can be differentiated from grade 1/2 with a high diagnostic accuracy leading to an appropriate imaging staging. (orig.)

  5. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 3 – Interventions for Subacute WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  6. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): part 3 - interventions for subacute WAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasell, Robert W; McClure, J Andrew; Walton, David; Pretty, Jason; Salter, Katherine; Meyer, Matthew; Sequeira, Keith; Death, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks), subacute (two to 12 weeks) or chronic (longer than 12 weeks) WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with 'good' overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6). Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature.

  7. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 3 – interventions for subacute WAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasell, Robert W; McClure, J Andrew; Walton, David; Pretty, Jason; Salter, Katherine; Meyer, Matthew; Sequeira, Keith; Death, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks), subacute (two to 12 weeks) or chronic (longer than 12 weeks) WAD. The present article, the third in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for interventions initiated during the subacute phase of WAD. Thirteen studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodology (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6). Although some evidence was identified to support the use of interdisciplinary interventions and chiropractic manipulation, the evidence was not strong for any of the evaluated treatments. There is a clear need for further research to evaluate interventions aimed at treating patients with subacute WAD because there are currently no interventions satisfactorily supported by the research literature. PMID:21038009

  8. Less medical intervention after sharp demarcation of grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia smears by neural network screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, MR; Boon, ME; Schreiner-Kok, PG; Hermans, J; Grobbee, DE; Kok, LP

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Neural network technology has been used for the daily screening of cervical smears in The Netherlands since 1992. The authors believe this method might have the potential to demarcate diagnoses of Grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1-2). METHODS. Of 133,196 women who were

  9. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  10. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 4 – Noninvasive Interventions for Chronic WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens.

  11. Haemogram and hormonal profile of WAD bucks treated with leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348034098179; E-mail: drabimbola2002@yahoo.com. Abstract. Twelve post pubertal West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks of average age of 1.8 ± 0.19 years and average weight of. 8.76 ± 0.72 kg were experimentally treated orally with 800mg/kgBW of ethanol extract of Spondias ...

  12. Assessment of serum biochemistry in West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... and cycling ewes (Wildeus, 2004; Daniel et al., 2001) and does (Imasuen and Ikhimioya, 2009) has been well documented by several authors. However, its potential application on goats is yet to be fully explored, especially in our local breeds of goats such as West African Dwarf. (WAD) does. Furthermore ...

  13. Haemogram and hormonal profile of WAD bucks treated with leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve post pubertal West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks of average age of 1.8 ± 0.19 years and average weight of 8.76 ± 0.72 kg were experimentally treated orally with 800mg/kgBW of ethanol extract of Spondias mombin. Experiment was carried out in the month of August at Abeokuta, South West Nigeria with temperature ...

  14. Physiotherapy Management, Coping and Outcome Prediction in Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD)

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Anne

    2001-01-01

    The aims of the present thesis were to evaluate the management of acute WAD and to develop, describe and evaluate a cognitive behavioural approach for the physiotherapy management of long-term WAD as well as to study the predictors and mediating factors for long-term disability and pain after a whiplash injury. Two approaches for acute and chronic WAD were evaluated in experimental studies. Fifty-nine patients with acute whiplash injury (study I) and 33 patients with chronic WAD (study V), w...

  15. Mean diffusivity discriminates between prostate cancer with grade group 1&2 and grade groups equal to or greater than 3

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    Nezzo, M., E-mail: marco.nezzo@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, PTV Foundation, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy); Di Trani, M.G. [Physics Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome (Italy); Caporale, A. [Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Locomotor System Science, Morfogenesis and Tissue Homeostasis, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); CNR ISC, UOS Roma Sapienza, Physics Department Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Miano, R. [Urology Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, PTV Foundation, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy); Mauriello, A. [Anatomic Pathology, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, PTV Foundation, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy); Bove, P. [Urology Unit, Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, PTV Foundation, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy); Capuani, S. [CNR ISC, UOS Roma Sapienza, Physics Department Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Manenti, G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, PTV Foundation, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To test the potential ability of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in discriminating between PCa of grade group (GG) 1&2, and GGs ≥ 3. Material and methods: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) experiments at 3T in a cohort of 38 patients with PCa (fifty lesions in total) were performed, by using different diffusion weights (b values) up to 2500 s/mm{sup 2}. Gleason score (GS) and GG data were correlated with DTI parameters (MD and FA) estimated in PCa. The relation between DTI measures and GS was tested by the linear correlation analysis (Pearson's coefficient). One-way analysis of variance to check the statistical significance of the difference between GG 1&2 and GGs 3, 4, 5, ≥3 was used. Results were reported for each of the three b-values ranges: 0–800 s/mm{sup 2}, 0–1500 s/mm{sup 2}, 0–2500 s/mm{sup 2}. Results: A negative correlation was found between MD and GS. The highest linear correlation was observed when the fit was performed with data acquired in the b-values range 0–2500 s/mm{sup 2}. MD values were significantly different between GG 1&2 and GG = 3 and between GG 1&2 and GG ≥3. Moreover this difference is better defined when high b values (higher than b = 800 s/mm{sup 2}) are used. The specificity, sensitivity and accuracy in the discrimination between GG 1&2 and GG = 3 were: 90%, 66.7% and 82.4%, respectively when MD was estimated in the b-values range 0–2500 s/mm{sup 2} while these values were 85%, 58.3% and 78.4% when MD was estimated in the b-values range 0–800 s/mm{sup 2}. Conversely FA did not discriminate between GG 1&2 and GG ≥3, at any investigated b-values range. Conclusion: This study suggests that MD estimation in PCa, obtained from DTI acquired at high b-values, can contribute to the diagnosis and grading of prostate cancer while FA is not a useful parameter for this purpose.

  16. Intake and digestibility of nutrients by wad goats fed diets containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CNSL) was included at four levels (0, 5, 10 and 15ml/kg DM). The concentrates in combination with Panicum maximum (40% concentrate and 60% grass) was fed to WAD goats at 5% of their metabolic weight. 12 WAD goats weighing 8.5 ...

  17. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 5 – Surgical and Injection-Based Interventions for Chronic WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific support regarding their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence associated with various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any well-defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (more than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the fifth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for surgical and injection-based interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-five studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, six of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 7.5. For the treatment of chronic WAD, there was moderate evidence supporting radiofrequency neurotomy as an effective treatment for whiplash-related pain, although relief is not permanent. Sterile water injections have been demonstrated to be superior to saline injections; however, it is not clear whether this treatment is actually beneficial. There was evidence supporting a wide range of other interventions (eg, carpal tunnel decompression with each of these evaluated by a single nonrandomized controlled trial. There is contradictory evidence regarding the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections, and cervical discectomy and fusion. The evidence is not yet strong enough to establish the effectiveness of any of these treatments; of all the invasive interventions for chronic WAD, radiofrequency neurotomy appears to be supported by the strongest evidence. Further

  18. [Objective assessment of school-time physical activity of a grade 1-2 junior school students in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjuan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhengzhen; Wang, Juan; Chen, Yinkang

    2013-07-01

    To quantify the physical activity (PA) level during school time, especially in PE class, among Beijing junior school students. 81 healthy adolescents (37 boys and 44 girls) aged 11-15 were recruited from grade 1-2 of a junior school, and a hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer was used to measure students' PA. Accelerometer-determined steps, moderate-and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) and MET-mins at school time and physical education (PE) class were assessed. During school time, girls spent (47.2 +/- 16.0) mins performing, and boys (67.3 +/- 20.5) mins per day (P time and MVPA MET-min than girls (P class, boys spent 53.6% +/- 10.2% of time in MVPA, as compared to girls' 35.2% +/- 7.2%. Boys with normal BMI had the highest VPA time during PE than other groups (P time was objectively qualified in Beijing junior school students. Girls were less active than boys. PE class provided a major portion of the VPA time and MVPA MET-min in school time PA for boys and girls. Boys with normal BMI had the highest PA level during PE classes.

  19. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF ORIGINAL AND GENERIC BISOPROLOL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION 1-2 GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tolpygina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a clinical equivalence of two medications of bisoprolol in patients with arterial hypertension (AH 1-2 grades.Methods. Efficacy and tolerability of original (Concor, NYCOMED, Merck KGaA and generic (Bisogamma, WORWAG PHARMA GmbH & Co bisoprolol were investigated in open-label cross-over randomized comparative study. 32 patients (15 males and 17 females with AH of 1 (66% and 2 (34% grades aged of 60 y.o. on average were involved. After 2 weeks of wash-out period original or generic bisoprolol 5 mg daily was prescribed. If necessary a dose of drug was doubled in two weeks. In patients with significant bradycardia (heart rate <55 bp/min or atrioventricular block (1-2 degree hydrochlorothiazide (HCT 12.5-25 mg per day was added. There was another 2-week wash-out period between two active treatment periods.Results. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP as well as heart rate (HR were decreased significantly after two weeks of treatment with original bisoprolol (∆SBP=13.8±8.9, ∆DBP=8.5±8.6 mmHg and ∆HR=9.9±13.7 bp/min. Generic medication also significantly reduced SBP, DBP and HR (∆SBP=10.1±10.3, ∆DBP=7.1±7.2 mmHg and ∆HR=9.3±9.4 bp/min. Target SBP/DBP levels were achieved in 62.5%/71.9% of patients in Concor group and in 43.7%/62.5% of patients in Bisogamma group. There was a tendency to additional SBP decrease in patients treated with bisoprolol at a dose of 10 mg and with HCT in Concor group (–5.1±7.4 mmHg; p<0.09 and in Bisogamma group (–5.2±7.9 mmHg; p<0.06. After 4 weeks of treatment target SBP/DBP levels were achieved in 90.1%/96.9% of patients in Concor group and 75%/84.4% patients in Bisogamma group. The investigated parameters did not change significantly in a period between the 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Monotherapy with Concor and Bisogamma was effective in 84.4% in 62% of patients, respectively (p<0.05. After 6 weeks of treatment target SBP and DBP levels were achieved in 96.9% of patients

  20. Milk Yield and Composition of West African Dwarf (WAD) Does fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve individually housed West African Dwarf (WAD) does in their mid-lactation were used to study the effect of Bambara nut meal on milk yield, composition and mineral content of goat milk. Four experimental diets designated A, B, C and D were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20 and 30% Bambara nut meal (BM), ...

  1. Impact of gross total resection in patients with WHO grade III glioma harboring the IDH 1/2 mutation without the 1p/19q co-deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Shibahara, Ichiyo; Saito, Ryuta; Kanamori, Masayuki; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-09-01

    The prognosis of patients with WHO grade III gliomas is highly dependent on their genomic status such as the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutation and1p/19q co-deletion. However, difficulties have been associated with determining which tumors have certain genomic profiles by preoperative radiographical modalities, and the role of surgical resection in achieving better outcomes remains unclear. This retrospective study included 124 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed grade III gliomas. The genomic status of IDH1/2 and 1p/19q was analyzed in these patients. Tumors were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their genomic status; the IDH 1/2 mutation with the 1p/19q co-deletion (1p/19q co-del), the IDH 1/2 mutation without the 1p/19q co-deletion (non-1p/19q co-del), and the IDH 1/2 wild type (IDH wt). Survival times were compared between patients who underwent gross total resection and those who did not (GTR versus non-GTR). The relationships between genomic statuses and MR imaging characteristics such as ring-like or nodular enhancements by gadolinium, and very low intensity on T1-weighted images with blurry enhancements (T1VL) were also examined. Among all patients with grade III gliomas, GTR patients had longer median survival and progression-free times than those of non-GTR patients (undefined versus 87 months, p = 0.097, and 124 versus 34 months, p = 0.059, respectively). No significant differences were observed in survival between GTR and non-GTR patients in the 1p/19q co-del group (p = 0.14), or between GTR and non-GTR patients in the IDH wt group (26 and 27 months, p = 0.29). On the other hand, in non-1p/19q co-del group, survival was significantly longer in GTR patients than in non-GTR patients (undefined versus 77 months, p = 0.005). Radiographically, T1VL was detected in most tumors in the non-1p/19q co-del group (78.2 %), but only 6 (21.4 %) and 17 (41.5 %) tumors in the 1p/19q co-del and IDH wt groups

  2. Analiza występowania wad stóp u dzieci w wieku 6-10 lat

    OpenAIRE

    Klimczak, Karolina; Kochański, Bartosz; Plaskiewicz, Anna; Kałużny, Krystian; Smuczyński, Wojciech; Ratuszek-Sadowska, Dorota; Woźniak, Kamila; Zukow, Walery

    2014-01-01

    Wstęp. Wady stóp są powszechnie występującym zjawiskiem zwłaszcza u dzieci i stanowią poważny problem medyczno - społeczny. Do rozwoju wad stóp może przyczynić się brak wiedzy i świadomości rodziców na temat profilaktyki wad postawy ciała. Cel pracy. Celem pracy była analiza występowania wad stóp u dzieci w wieku 6-10 lat oraz ocena wiedzy i świadomości rodziców na temat wad stóp. Materiał i metody. Badania przeprowadzono na grupie 80 dzieci ( 45 dziewczyn i 35 chłopców) w wieku 6-10...

  3. Laparoscopic decortication of simple renal cyst with omental wadding technique: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Mohamed; Allam, Adel; Hathout, Badawy

    2012-11-01

    What is the impact of the omental wadding technique on decreasing the incidence of recurrence after laparoscopic decortication of the symptomatic simple renal cyst? This is the question we are trying to answer through this study. This is a cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic decortication of a symptomatic simple renal cyst with the omental wadding technique between November 2007 and November 2011. The indication for surgery was for relief of pain in all cases. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 1 month and every 6 months postoperatively using a pain numerical rating scale. Only simple cysts (Bosniak I and II) more than 10 cm in their greatest dimension were included in this study. Patients with complicated cysts (Bosniak III and IV) and those with cysts less than 10 cm in their greatest dimension were excluded from this study. Patients were 7 men and 7 women with a mean age of 47 years (range, 35-63 years), and the mean body mass index was 27 kg/m(2). Laparoscopic decortication was the primary treatment in 11 cases and the secondary treatment in 3 cases after sclerotherapy. We used the omental wadding technique to try to fill the cavity after decortication to decrease the incidence of recurrence with simple laparoscopic decortication reported in other series. We reviewed the preoperative and postoperative data. The operation was successfully completed laparoscopically in all cases with a mean operative time of 97 minutes without major perioperative complications. Hospital stay was 2.4 days (range, 2-4 days). All cases improved significantly after operation in a mean follow-up of 1.5 years. Using this technique, we did not have any recurrence after surgery. Laparoscopic decortication with omental wadding is helpful to decrease the incidence of simple renal cyst recurrence after laparoscopic decortication.

  4. Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.

  5. Cytological Study of Grade 3 Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of Endometrial Origin: Cytoarchitecture and Features of Cell Clusters Assessed With Endometrial Brushing Cytology--Focusing on a comparison with endometrioid adenocarcinoma Grade 1, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Naruaki; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Morishita, Akihiro; Tsukada, Hitomi; Nakazawa, Kazumi; Miyazawa, Masaki; Mikami, Mikio; Nakamura, Naoya; Sato, Shinkichi

    2015-06-20

    Aim of study was to clarify the cytological characteristics of grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrial origin (G3 EA) by endometrial brushing cytology. The subjects were 11 patients in whom G3 EA was diagnosed by review of preoperative cytological specimens obtained at our hospital and related institutions between 2000 and 2010. These patients were investigated with respect to the preoperative cytological diagnosis, background changes, cell cluster patterns, and individual cellular findings. Background changes were classified as inflammatory or tumorous, while cell clusters were classified as overlapping cell cluster, sheet-like cell cluster, clump of high dense gland, papillary, or other cell cluster. Cellular findings were investigated by comparing the incidence of squamous and clear cell metaplasia, the nuclear rounding rate, and the nuclear area with the findings in a control group (35 patients with G1-2 EA). Background changes were classified as inflammatory in 63.6% and necrotic in 36.4%. The cell clusters were classified as overlapping cell cluster in 44.8%, cell cluster in 21.7%, clump of high dense gland in 10.0%, papillary in 4.0%, and other cell cluster in 19.5%. The incidence of squamous and clear cell metaplasia was 27.2% and 18.1%, respectively. The mean nuclear rounding rate was 0.97, and the mean nuclear area was 55.98 µm2. Investigation of the cytoarchitecture of G3 EA with endometrial brushing cytology revealed overlapping cell cluster and tumor cells of a relatively uniform size. These findings suggest that it is necessary to recognize that there are differences between the cytological findings of G3 EA and the usual features of G1-2 EA.

  6. Correlation between Exposure to Bomechanical Stress and Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William HM Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most discussed questions in WAD is: can an injury of the cervical spine occur in low velocity collisions? Before this question can be answered, the term 'low velocity' and the kind of collisions must first be defined. From the study of Meyer et al. (1994 it is known that the speed change due to collision, Dv, is a suitable parameter to express the biomechanical stress acting on a person in a car collision. This study also showed that from a biomechanical point of view, a bumper car collision is comparable to a normal car collision. In the case of a rear-end collision, Meyer et al. found that the biomechanical stress acting on persons exposed to bumper car collisions (Dv at a fun fair in Germany can be as high as 15 km/h. In literature, one case could be found of an 8-year-old girl with 'whiplash' after being exposed to a bumper car collision at a fun fair (Kamieth 1990. In the Netherlands, a 13-year survey of persons who were admitted to emergency units of hospitals by the 'Consument en Veiligheid' foundation, showed 14 persons with WAD complaints after being exposed to bumper car collisions at a fun fair. In comparison to the enormous amounts of bumper car collisions, these figures are negligible. With regard to these data, one could argue that low velocity collisions can be defined as those where Dv is below 15 km/h. However, it should be noted that the kind of collision is important. From the work of Becke et al. (1999 and Becke and Castro (2000, we know that in side collisions with a Dv of just 3 km/h, head contact with the side window of the car is possible; it can be expected that in such cases the cervical spine will also be exposed to some biomechanical stress (notice however, that not every head contact is automatically equal to an injury of the cervical spine!. In conclusion, before using expressions like 'low velocity collisions', its definition with regard to Dv as well as the kind of collision, has to be discussed. With

  7. The Relation between the Fear-Avoidance Model and Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory in Acute WAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandborgh, Maria; Johansson, Ann-Christin; Söderlund, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the fear-avoidance (FA) model social cognitive constructs could add to explaining the disabling process in whiplash associated disorder (WAD). The aim was to exemplify the possible input from Social Cognitive Theory on the FA model. Specifically the role of functional self-efficacy and perceived responses from a spouse/intimate partner was studied. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Data from 64 patients with acute WAD were used. Measures were pain intensity measured with a numerical rating scale, the Pain Disability Index, support, punishing responses, solicitous responses, and distracting responses subscales from the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Catastrophizing subscale from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Bivariate correlational, simple linear regression, and multiple regression analyses were used. In the statistical prediction models high pain intensity indicated high punishing responses, which indicated high catastrophizing. High catastrophizing indicated high fear of movement, which indicated low self-efficacy. Low self-efficacy indicated high disability, which indicated high pain intensity. All independent variables together explained 66.4% of the variance in pain disability, p social environment, perceived punishing responses from a spouse/intimate partner, pain intensity, and catastrophizing. Further, results support a mediating role of self-efficacy between fear of movement and disability in WAD.

  8. The Relation between the Fear-Avoidance Model and Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory in Acute WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sandborgh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fear-avoidance (FA model social cognitive constructs could add to explaining the disabling process in whiplash associated disorder (WAD. The aim was to exemplify the possible input from Social Cognitive Theory on the FA model. Specifically the role of functional self-efficacy and perceived responses from a spouse/intimate partner was studied. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Data from 64 patients with acute WAD were used. Measures were pain intensity measured with a numerical rating scale, the Pain Disability Index, support, punishing responses, solicitous responses, and distracting responses subscales from the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Catastrophizing subscale from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Bivariate correlational, simple linear regression, and multiple regression analyses were used. In the statistical prediction models high pain intensity indicated high punishing responses, which indicated high catastrophizing. High catastrophizing indicated high fear of movement, which indicated low self-efficacy. Low self-efficacy indicated high disability, which indicated high pain intensity. All independent variables together explained 66.4% of the variance in pain disability, p<0.001. Results suggest a possible link between one aspect of the social environment, perceived punishing responses from a spouse/intimate partner, pain intensity, and catastrophizing. Further, results support a mediating role of self-efficacy between fear of movement and disability in WAD.

  9. COMPARISON OF ANTIPLATELET EFFECT AND SAFETY OF ORIGINAL DRUG «ASPIRIN CARDIO» AND GENERIC«ACECARDOL» IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION 1-2 GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Belolipetskiy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare antiplatelet effect of two acetylsalicylic acid medicines, Acecardol ("Synthesis Co. Ltd", Russia and Aspirin cardio («Bayer AG», Germany, in patients with arterial hypertension (AH 1-2 stage with increased risk of cardiovascular events.Material and methods. The study was double-blind, randomized, cross-over one. 32 hypertensive patients (12 men and 20 women aged 59,4±14,4 y.o. were included in the study. They took investigated ASA medicines one after another during 4 weeks each. Antiplatelet efficacy of ASA medicines were estimated by effects on spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation at every visit.Results. 4-week therapy with both ASA medicines did not have significant effects on spontaneous platelet aggregation and the aggregation induced with low ADP concentrations (0,5 and 1,0 µM. However platelet aggregation induced with ADP in concentration of 2 µM was significantly reduced by therapies. There were not significant inter-group differences.Conclusion. ASA generic medicine Acecardol ("Synthesis Co.Ltd.", Russia and original medicine Aspirin cardio («Bayer AG», Germany are equivalent on antiplatelet effect.

  10. Radiocarbon dating of the Early Natufian at el-Wad Terrace, Mount Carmel, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Yeshurun, R.; Weinstein-Evron, M.; Mintz, E.; Boaretto, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Natufian culture (15-11.5 kyr BP) of the Levant played an integral role in the transition from nomadic hunter-gatherers to the establishment of sedentism and, finally, to food producing societies of the Neolithic. The Natufian sites in the Southern Levant are characterised by a lack of macrobotanical remains, including charcoal, and a poor preservation of bone collagen. A result of the scarcity of radiocarbon dateable material is that only about 30 reliable radiocarbon dates from the Natufian are available for constructing a chronology of this period, which would enable a better synchronisation of archaeological and environmental data. A key question of Natufian research is if and to what extent past climate changes influenced the lifestyle of the Natufian communities, but the prerequisite for the correlation of cultural and environmental events in time are accurate chronologies. Therefore, a chronological framework with dates from well-defined contexts and samples of good quality is essential for the investigation of the Natufian. We present new C-14 data from the site of el-Wad Terrace, one of the major Natufian hamlets of the 'core area' of this culture. The samples (12 charcoals and 34 bones, of which 6 charcoals and 5 bones were suitable for dating) were derived from Early Natufian (15-13 kyr BP) living surfaces, dwellings and burials. Using FTIR, we investigated the environmental factors that influenced the preservation of material for radiocarbon dating of the site, and we tested a modified pre-treatment method for poorly preserved charcoal samples. We found that the usual pre-treatment protocol for C-14 samples (W-ABA) removed more charcoal material than the method modified by Rebollo et al. (2008) which omits the first acid treatment (W-BA). This first acid step enhanced the extraction of humic substances during the subsequent base step. The modified W-BA method is a promising tool for dating poorly preserved charcoals which needs further testing with

  11. The Effectiveness of Conservative Management for Acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD II: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Wiangkham

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of conservative management (except drug therapy for acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD II.Systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs using a pre-defined protocol. Two independent reviewers searched information sources, decided eligibility of studies, and assessed risk of bias (RoB of included trials. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by the other. A third reviewer mediated any disagreements throughout. Qualitative trial and RoB data were summarised descriptively. Quantitative syntheses were conducted across trials for comparable interventions, outcome measures and assessment points. Meta-analyses compared effect sizes with random effects, using STATA version 12.PEDro, Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library with manual searching in key journals, reference lists, British National Bibliography for Report Literature, Center for International Rehabilitation Research Information & Exchange, and National Technical Information Service were searched from inception to 15th April 2015. Active researchers in the field were contacted to determine relevant studies.RCTs evaluating acute (10 days interventions, there were no statistically significant differences in all outcome measures between interventions at any time.Conservative and active interventions may be useful for pain reduction in patients with acute WADII. Additionally, cervical horizontal mobility could be improved by conservative intervention. The employment of a behavioural intervention (e.g. act-as-usual, education and self-care including regularly exercise could have benefits for pain reduction and improvement in cervical movement in the coronal and horizontal planes. The evidence was evaluated as low/very low level according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.

  12. A Combination of Gestalt Therapy, Rosen Body Work, and Cranio Sacral Therapy did not help in Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD - Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic state of whiplash-associated disorder (WAD might be understood as a somatization of existential pain. Intervention aimed to improve quality of life (QOL seemed to be a solution for such situations. The basic idea behind the intervention was holistic, restoring quality of life and relationship with self, in order to diminish tension in the locomotion system, especially the neck. A psychosomatic theory for WAD is proposed. Our treatment was a short 2-day course with teachings in philosophy of life, followed by 6 to 10 individual sessions in gestalt psychotherapy and body therapy (Rosen therapy and Cranio Sacral therapy, followed by a 1-day course approximately 2 months later, closing the intervention. Two independent institutions did the intervention and the assessments. In a randomized, clinically controlled setting, 87 chronic WAD patients were included with a median duration of 37 months from their whiplash accidents. One patient never started. Forty-three had the above intervention (female/male = 36/7, ages 22–49, median 37 years and another 43 were assigned to a nontreated control group (female/male = 35/8, ages 1848, median 38. Six had disability pension and 27 had pending medicolegal issues in each group. Effect variables were pain in neck, arm, and/or head; measures of quality of life and daily activities; as well as general physical or mental health. Wilcoxon test for between-groups comparisons with intention-to-treat analyses was conducted; the square curve paradigm testing for immediate improvements of health and quality of life was also used. The groups were comparable at baseline. From the intervention group, 11 dropped out during the intervention (4 of those later joined the follow-up investigation, 22 of the remaining 32 graduated the course, and 35 of the 43 controls did as well. Approximately 3 months later, we found no clinically relevant or significant increase in any effect measure. The above version of a quality

  13. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3 4...

  14. Using a commercially available DNA extraction kit to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for PCR and genotyping from 11-year-old saliva saturated cotton spit wads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudziak James J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to describe the integrity of human genomic DNA extracted from saliva saturated cotton spit wads stored at -20°C for approximately 11 years. 783 spit wad samples were collected from an ADHD sample population (Vermont Family Study during 1996–2000. Human genomic DNA was extracted from the spit wads using a commercially available kit; QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, CA. with a few modifications. Results The resulting DNA yield was more than adequate for genetic analysis and ranged from approximately 1 μg to a total of 80 μg (mean 17.3 μgs ± 11.9 μgs. A260/A280 ratios for the human genomic DNA extracted from the spit wads was consistently within the generally acceptable values of 1.7–2.0, with the lowest purity being 1.70, and a mean value of 1.937 ± 0.226 for the 783 samples. The DNA also was suitable for PCR reactions as evidenced by the amplification of the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region, 5HTTLPR. 5HTTLPR is a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (HTT, SLC6A4, or SERT, consisting of two intensively studied alleles. 770 of the 783 samples (98.3% produced fragments after PCR of the expected size with primers specific for 5HTTLPR. Conclusion High quality and abundant genomic DNA can be successfully retrieved from saliva saturated cotton spit wads using the commercially available kit, QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit from Qiagen, Inc. Furthermore, the DNA can be extracted in less than 3 hours and multiple samples can be processed simultaneously thus reducing processing time.

  15. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 1--2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons covering surface tension in water, the life cycle of plants, the protective function of the skeletal system, functions and behavior of the circulatory system and how to measure its activities, structure and functions of the digestive system, simple food chains, how that many foods come from different plant parts, importance of a good diet, distinguishing living and non-living things, and the benefits of composting. 8 figs.

  16. Convulxin, a C-type lectin-like protein, inhibits HCASMCs functions via WAD-motif/integrin-αv interaction and NF-κB-independent gene suppression of GRO and IL-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin [Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wen-Jeng, E-mail: wjwang@mail.cgust.edu.tw [Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurological Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-15

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern. A Trp-Ala–Asp (WAD)-containing octapeptide, MTWADAEK, was thereafter synthesized and analyzed in functional assays. In the case of specific integrin antagonists as positive controls, the anti-angiogenic effects of CVX on HCASMCs were investigated by series of functional analyses. CVX showed to exhibit multiple inhibitory activities toward HCASMCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion with a dose- and integrin αvβ3-dependent fashion. However, the WAD-octapeptide exerting a minor potency could also work as an active peptidomimetic. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated both the intact CVX and synthetic peptide can specifically interact with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and CVX was shown to have a down-regulatory effect on the gene expression of CXC-chemokines, such as growth-related oncogene and interleukin-8. According to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation assay and Western blotting analysis, the NF-κB activation was not involved in the signaling events of CVX-induced gene expression. In conclusion, CVX may act as a disintegrin-like protein via the interactions of WAD-motif in CVX-β with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and it also is a gene suppressor with the ability to diminish the expression of two CXC-chemokines in a NF-κB-independent manner. Indeed, more extensive investigations are needed and might create a new avenue for the development of a novel angiostatic agent. - Highlights: • The tetrameric convulxin (CVX) with WAD

  17. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to grade prostate cancer ( 1 ). The Gleason score is based on biopsy samples taken from the ... two grades are then added to give a Gleason score. The American Joint Committee on Cancer recommends grouping ...

  18. Grade Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hugh

    Grade inflation is discussed, and some solutions are offered for the grade inflation problem which exists in the Faculty of Education at the University of Victoria, British Columbia. Examples illustrate the existence of grade inflation at several colleges and universities, as well as at the high school level. Various reactions--involving college…

  19. Grade Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia A. Renaud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic accountability is of great concern, therefore grade retention is being considered for both students with and without disabilities who are not meeting end-of-the-year achievement benchmarks. The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher attitudes toward grade retention and whether practices differ when recommending retention of students with or without disabilities. This mixed-methods study utilized a paper-and-pencil questionnaire using a Likert-type scale, as well as two open-ended questions and a checklist. Teacher interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicate that teachers are considering a multitude of factors when considering grade retention for their struggling students. Academic performance was the factor that teachers (77% indicated the most frequently. Although teachers felt pressure and accountability from high stakes testing, they felt test results should be one of many factors considered in the retention decision.

  20. TEACHERS’ GRADING DECISION MAKING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ida Isnawati; Ali Saukah

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered...

  1. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  2. The Manifestations and the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-associated Disorders Grades 2 and 3

    OpenAIRE

    Klobas, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to encircle the subtype of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) present in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and study the debut of TMD symptoms, the provoking factors and the outcome of conservative TMD treatments. The results could add to the aetiological discussion about TMD mainly as being part of chronic WAD pain or not. The subjects were referred patients with chronic WAD at a specialized rehabilitation centre where they were diagnos...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  4. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.2 Definitions. (a) Rule or regulation means the... effect on the economy of $100 million or more; (2) A major increase in costs or prices for consumers...

  5. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements. 810.105 Section 810.105... GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.105 Grades and grade requirements. The grades and grade requirements for each grain (except mixed grain) and shown in the grade...

  6. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  7. Grading More Accurately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2011-01-01

    Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

  8. University Competition, Grading Standards and Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.; Bernhardt, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We develop a model of strategic grade determination by universities distinguished by their distributions of student academic abilities. Universities choose grading standards to maximize total wages of graduates. Job placement and wages hinge on a firm’s productivity assessment given a student’s university, grade and productivity signal. We identify conditions under which better universities set lower grading standards, exploiting the fact that firms cannot distinguish between “good” and “bad” “...

  9. Different Luminosity Correlation of GRBs ZB Zhang1,2,∗, HC Liu1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different Luminosity Correlation of GRBs. Z. B. Zhang1,2,∗, H. C. Liu1,2, L. Y. Jiang1,2 & D. Y. Chen1,2. 1College of Science, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China. 2The Joint Research Center for Astronomy between National Astronomical Observatories,. Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guizhou University, ...

  10. Grade and Prognosis in Localized Primary Angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manjari; Sutton, Gregory R; Giri, Smith; Martin, Mike G

    2015-08-01

    Primary angiosarcoma of the breast (PAOB) is rare and institutional series have provided conflicting data on the effect of grade on prognosis. Using a case listing session of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 (1973-2010) we examined outcomes for patients with PAOB. Analyses were conducted with SEER*Stat 8.1.2, Microsoft Excel 2007, and GraphPad Prism 6. Comparisons were made using the Fisher exact test and log rank test (Mantel-Cox); P values were 2-sided. Two hundred twenty-six women with PAOB were identified; median age was 49 (range, 15-107) years and 82% (185) were white. Seventy-two percent (162) had localized disease, 15% (34) regional disease, 7% (16) distant disease, and 6% (14) had unknown staging. Fourteen percent (32) had Grade 1, 24% (55) Grade 2, 30% (68) Grade 3 disease, and grade was unknown in 32% (72) of patients. Median overall survival (OS) for patients with localized, regional, and distant disease was 172, 24, and 16 months, respectively (P OS for patients with localized Grade 1 and 2 disease was not reached versus 36 months for Grade 3 disease (P OS was 89% (78) versus 47% (32). There was a strong trend for patients with Grade 3 disease to undergo mastectomy (44%, n = 30 vs. 23%, n = 20; P = .070) and 24% (55) of all patients received radiation. Radiation did not improve survival for localized Grade 1 and 2 disease (P = .676), or Grade 3 disease (P = .589); surgery and grade subgroups were too small for meaningful comparisons regarding radiation. Histologic grade is a significant predictor of survival for patients with localized PAOB. Regardless of grade, adjuvant radiation did not confer a survival benefit for patients with localized disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Open Wide and Trek Inside. Grades 1-2. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This document, an inquiry-based curriculum supplement that includes materials for both teachers and students, is designed to develop an understanding among students about oral health. Contents include: (1) "About the National Institutes of Health"; (2) "About the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research"; (3) "Introduction to Open…

  12. UNIPORM WAD COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS IN REINFORCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    derived coefficients with ela.Jtic analysis of single span beam.s, the total panel loading with the total load the four .tupporting beams carry. Under these three aspects investigation has been made on the recommendation of the new Building Code Standards. {11) which i.t to be launched in the near future. INTRODUCTION.

  13. UNIPORM WAD COEFFICIENTS FOR BEAMS IN REINFORCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems. It has also been tried to verify some of the results by comparing the recommended side ratio of the slab loadings with the yield line analysis of slabs, the derived coefficients with ela.Jtic analysis of single span beam.s, the total panel loading with the total load the four .tupporting beams carry. Under these three.

  14. Grading for Understanding--Standards-Based Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I…

  15. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The national policy relating to the regulation of outdoor advertising declared in title 23 U.S.C. 131... Transportation. State. Any State of the United States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Urban area. An... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.2 Definitions. (a...

  16. Excess molar volumes and viscosities of binary mixtures of 1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dichloromethane (Qualigens, HPLC grade, minimum assay 99⋅8%) and 1,2- diethoxyethane (Lancaster ... by the method of least squares with equal weights assigned to each point. The values of coefficients ai ... where the additivity law in logarithmic form on mole fraction average was taken into account for ideal mixtures.

  17. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  18. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  19. Redesigning Grading--Districtwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

  20. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venâncio, Mateus F. [Laboratório de Química Computacional e Modelagem Molecular, Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Universitário, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dos Santos, Hélio F. [Núcleo de Estudos em Química Computacional (NEQC), Departamento de Química, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Campus Universitário, Martelos, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); De Almeida, Wagner B., E-mail: wbdealmeida@gmail.com [Laboratório de Química Computacional (LQC), Departamento de Química Inorgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus do Valonguinho, Centro, Niterói, RJ CEP: 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Contribution of internal rotation to Gibbs free energy estimated using the quantum pendulum model. • Theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. • The predicted populations are in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available. • QPM model account for low vibrational frequency modes effect on thermodynamic calculation. • Caution is needed when the RR–HO approach has to be used in conformational analysis studies. - Abstract: The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  1. Expecting Immediate Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of expecting immediate grades on numerical and verbal reasoning performance and the moderating role of achievement goals. Anticipated grade proximity (immediate vs. 1 week later and goal orientation (approach vs. avoidance were manipulated with instructions. Experiment 1 showed that expecting immediate grades yielded lower numerical performance than expecting delayed feedback, regardless of participants’ goal orientation. Neither grade proximity nor goal orientation impacted verbal performance. In Experiment 2, we used a stronger goal manipulation and included measures of motivation. Expecting immediate grades increased task anxiety, lowered task involvement, and lowered task effort among participants with avoidance goals, compared with expecting delayed grades. The effects on performance were not replicated in Experiment 2, however. The findings demonstrate that expecting immediate grades may have negative consequences under certain conditions, including demotivation and performance impairment.

  2. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...

  3. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  4. ShiftNMFk 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-19

    The ShiftNMFk1.2 code, or as we call it, GreenNMFk, represents a hybrid algorithm combining unsupervised adaptive machine learning and Green's function inverse method. GreenNMFk allows an efficient and high performance de-mixing and feature extraction of a multitude of nonnegative signals that change their shape propagating through the medium. The signals are mixed and recorded by a network of uncorrelated sensors. The code couples Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) and inverse-analysis Green's functions method. GreenNMF synergistically performs decomposition of the recorded mixtures, finds the number of the unknown sources and uses the Green's function of the governing partial differential equation to identify the unknown sources and their charecteristics. GreenNMF can be applied directly to any problem controlled by a known partial-differential parabolic equation where mixtures of an unknown number of sources are measured at multiple locations. Full GreenNMFk method is a subject LANL U.S. Patent application S133364.000 August, 2017. The ShiftNMFk 1.2 version here is a toy version of this method that can work with a limited number of unknown sources (4 or less).

  5. Nutritional Evaluation of Graded Levels of Aspergillus-treated Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) goats were fed untreated (control diet A with 30% inclusion level) and Aspergillus treated diet, B (10%) and diet C (20%) in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake, digestibility, BW and growth rate. Fungus-treated rice husk appeared to be well ...

  6. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, nutrient digesti==bility and nitrogen utilization studies were carried out on Moringa oleifera (M) and Oxytenanthera abysinnica (bamboo) (B) leaves as follows; 100M, 75M:25B, 50M:50B 25M:75B and 100B, with 20 WAD goats, using a randomized complete block design. Moringa inclusion at all levels ...

  7. PRIze{sup TM} 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    PRIze{sup TM} 1.2 is a computer program that evaluates the improved oil recovery (IOR) potential of petroleum reservoirs including the use of horizontal wells. It was created in 1992 and has since been used in over 800 reservoir evaluations. The tool provides information on the feasibility of IOR processes based on reservoir parameters. PRIze{sup TM} makes predictions for chemical, gas injection and thermal IOR processes based on both vertical and horizontal wells. The program provides a uniform data entry screen that allows the user to input 42 average values of geological parameters, fluid properties and oil production mechanism information into a data file. The data can be used to provide a production forecast, and enable the user to establish, to a first order approximation, the economic viability of a given process.

  8. On a directed variation of the 1-2-3 and 1-2 Conjectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barme, Emma; Bensmail, Julien; Przybyło, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the following question, which stands as a directed analogue of the well-known 1-2-3 Conjecture: Given any digraph D with no arc uv verifying d+(u) = d¯(v) = 1, is it possible to weight the arcs of D with weights among ⟨1; 2; 3⟩ so that, for every arc uv of D, the sum...

  9. Ocena występowania wad stóp u dzieci w wieku 9-10 lat w środowisku miejskim i wiejskim = Estimate the prevalence the feet defects in children aged 9-10 years in the urban and rural environment

    OpenAIRE

    Plaskiewicz, Anna; Kałużny, Krystian; Kochański, Bartosz; Wołowiec, Łukasz; Hagner, Wojciech; Zukow, Walery

    2015-01-01

    Plaskiewicz Anna, Kałużny Krystian, Kochański Bartosz, Wołowiec Łukasz, Hagner Wojciech, Zukow Walery. Ocena występowania wad stóp u dzieci w wieku 9-10 lat w środowisku miejskim i wiejskim = Estimate the prevalence the feet defects in children aged 9-10 years in the urban and rural environment. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(4):325-334. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.17211 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%284%29%3A325-334 https://...

  10. 3-(4-Amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Pagoria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1 was synthesized by: (1 by reaction of 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1 with gaseous ammonia in toluene and (2 by partial oxidation of 3,4-bis(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BAFF-1 with 35% H2O2 in concentrated H2SO4.

  11. 3-(4-Amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Pagoria; Maoxi Zhang; Ana Racoveanu; Alan DeHope; Roman Tsyshevsky; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound 3-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4-(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (ANFF-1) was synthesized by: (1) by reaction of 3,4-bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BNFF-1) with gaseous ammonia in toluene and (2) by partial oxidation of 3,4-bis(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole (BAFF-1) with 35% H2O2 in concentrated H2SO4.

  12. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...

  13. Learning from Graded Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul

    1988-01-01

    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  14. Pallet part grading trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah F. Cook; Philip A. Araman; Matthew F. Winn

    2000-01-01

    A computerized pallet grading training system was developed to facilitate the production of higher quality pallets. Higher quality pallets would be more durable and could be re-used many times, resulting in long-term savings. Schmoldt et al. (1993) evaluated the economic impact of grading and sorting pallet parts. They determined that higher quality pallets produced by...

  15. Hexaaquamanganese(II 4,4′-(1,2-dihydroxyethane-1,2-diyldibenzoate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jun Hao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Mn(H2O6](C16H12O6·H2O, the [Mn(H2O6]2+ complex cation lies on a mirror plane, the 4,4′-(1,2-dihydroxyethane-1,2-diyldibenzoate anion is located on an inversion center and the solvent water molecule also lies on a mirror plane. Extensive O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the cations, anions and water molecules stabilize the three-dimensional network.

  16. Extended Graded Modalities in Strategy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Aminof

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategy Logic (SL is a logical formalism for strategic reasoning in multi-agent systems. Its main feature is that it has variables for strategies that are associated to specific agents with a binding operator. We introduce Graded Strategy Logic (GradedSL, an extension of SL by graded quantifiers over tuples of strategy variables, i.e., "there exist at least g different tuples (x_1,...,x_n of strategies" where g is a cardinal from the set N union {aleph_0, aleph_1, 2^aleph_0}. We prove that the model-checking problem of GradedSL is decidable. We then turn to the complexity of fragments of GradedSL. When the g's are restricted to finite cardinals, written GradedNSL, the complexity of model-checking is no harder than for SL, i.e., it is non-elementary in the quantifier rank. We illustrate our formalism by showing how to count the number of different strategy profiles that are Nash equilibria (NE, or subgame-perfect equilibria (SPE. By analyzing the structure of the specific formulas involved, we conclude that the important problems of checking for the existence of a unique NE or SPE can both be solved in 2ExpTime, which is not harder than merely checking for the existence of such equilibria.

  17. Linear Measurements in west African dwarf (wad) wad x red sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RS) kids were compared for efficiency of growth in skeletal dimensions. Genotype (P < 0.01) affected all the . measurements studied. Halfbred kids were superior in all body parts from birth till 150 days of age. Maternal effect did not significantly ...

  18. Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

  19. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available grading of store separation trajectories Kevin Jamison, Pieter Rossouw & Elizna Miles Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Pretoria, South Africa Ankara International Aerospace Conference September 2017 2 Outline • Background... - MIL-HDBK-244A §5.1.1.2.3.1(g) ; MIL-HDBK 1763: 271.4 – Verify that stores can be released safety over full employment & jettison envelopes • Includes all perturbations of: – store mass and physical properties – ejector rack performance...

  20. Quantitative grading of store separation trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jamison, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace Conference 9th ANKARA INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE CONFERENCE AIAC-2017-153 20-22 September 2017 - METU, Ankara TURKEY QUANTITATIVE GRADING OF STORE SEPARATION TRAJECTORIES Kevin Jamison1, Pieter Rossouw2 and Elizna... task grows when compliance is required with the MIL-HDBK-244A §5.1.1.2.3.1(g) requirement that all reasonable perturbations of store mass and physical properties, ejector rack 1 Principal...

  1. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  2. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  3. Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Testing: Opportunities to improve clinical care and disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eKarakasis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Without prevention or screening options available, ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive tract. High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC is the most common histologic subtype, and the role of germline BRCA1/2 mutation in predisposition and prognosis is established. Given the targeted treatment opportunities with PARP inhibitors, a predictive role for BRCA1/2 mutation has emerged. Despite recommendations to provide BRCA1/2 testing to all women with histologically confirmed HGSOC, uniform implementation remains challenging. The opportunity to review and revise genetic screening and testing practices will identify opportunities where universal adoption of BRCA1/2 mutation testing will impact and improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Improving education and awareness of genetic testing for women with cancer, as well as the broader general community, will help focus much needed attention on opportunities to advance prevention and screening programs in ovarian cancer. This is imperative not only for women with cancer, those at risk of developing cancer, but also for their first-degree relatives. In addition, BRCA1/2 testing may have direct implications for patients with other types of cancers, many which are now being found to have BRCA1/2 involvement.

  4. Dichlorido{N-[1-(2-pyridylethylidene]ethane-1,2-diamine}copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [CuCl2(C9H13N3], is mononuclear and contains a five-coordinate CuII atom. The geometry of the CuII atom can be described as tetragonal-pyramidal derived from the calculation of the value τ = 0.102. The three N atoms of the pyridine and ethane-1,2-diamine ligands and one Cl atom belong to the basal plane and the other Cl atom represents the axial position of the pyramid. The Cu atom is displaced by 0.2599 (2 Å from the basal plane towards the axial Cl atom. In the crystal, molecules are linked into chains by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  5. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  6. Study of hypercharge exchange processes 0{sup -}1/2+{yields}1{sup -} 1/2+; Estudio de procesos 0-1/2+{yields}1-1/2+ con intercambio de hipercarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar Molera, M. c.; Aguilar Beniter de Lugo, M.

    1981-07-01

    In this work we present a formalism for the reconstruction of the transitivity amplitudes governing the processes of the type 0-1/2+{yields}1-1/2+. The formalism uses the information contained in the decay angular correlations and takes into account the existence of mixed spin configurations in the final state 0-1/2+{yields}(0{down_arrow}, 1-)1/2+ (Author) 10 refs.

  7. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  8. American Megalopolises, Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Judy

    This is a third-grade teaching unit on large cities (megalopolises) in the United States. The components of the unit are: (1) a content outline, (2) unit goals, (3) unit objectives, (4) activities, (5) unit evaluation, and (6) bibliography. The content of the unit focuses on defining a megalopolis, noting what can be found in it, its special…

  9. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  10. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  11. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  12. Grading hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Brisbin

    1989-01-01

    Tree grading provides a way to evaluate the quality characteristics and value of standing hardwood trees. This is important because the differences in price between high-quality and low-quality end products can be very large. Since hardwood timber varies greatly in quality and value among species, within species, and even within specific geographic areas, timber...

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  15. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 16B. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Unclassified 15. OECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for Public Release; Distribution is unlimited. 17...43* 2 UI3L, 29.1 2 §CT;:It’:iLL 1.12 2 ACCA 97.1 55.1 43.1 2 2 4,CITUI L 1.1 521 21l 9i 9 P ~ 1.2 2 hA~T)U h 24.1 10-.2 58.1 2.1. 2 A.;aifl U95. 2591

  16. Lyn is involved in CD24-induced ERK1/2 activation in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim CD24 expression is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. Our previous data indicated that CD24 promoted the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells through the activation of ERK1/2. Since Src family kinases are frequently deregulated in CRC and closely related to the MAPK signaling pathway, we investigated the impact of Lyn, an important member of SFKs, on CD24-induced ERK1/2 activation in CRC. Methods and Results The interaction of CD24 and Lyn was identified by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP and ectopic expression of CD24-induced Lyn activation. Inhibition of Lyn activation by phosphatase PP2 in SW480CD24cells abrogated CD24-induced invasion. The results of the Co-IP and immunofluorescence assay revealed that overexpression of CD24 enhanced the interaction of Lyn and ERK1/2 and induced the nuclear translocation of Lyn. However, inhibition of Lyn activity attenuated CD24-induced ERK1/2 activation, and depletion of CD24 disrupted Lyn-ERK1/2 interaction. Immunohistochemistry analysis for 202 cases of CRC showed that the expression of both CD24 and Lyn was positively correlated with tumor grade, stage, lymph node and distant metastasis. Patients with lower expression of CD24 or Lyn had a higher survival rate. The Cox multivariate analysis showed that CD24 expression, but not Lyn expression, was an independent prognostic factor of CRC. Conclusions Our results suggest that Lyn is involved in CD24-induced ERK1/2 activation in CRC. The expression of CD24 is associated with activation of Lyn and ERK1/2, which might be a novel mechanism related to CD24-mediated regulation of CRC development.

  17. Rigorous Grading Does Not Raise Standards: It Only Lowers Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Discusses "grade inflation," and the pressure on instructors to "play grade roll politics to save their own professional hides." Argues that the grade deflation movement works at cross purposes with its goal of elevating academic standards, and that it is at odds with composition theory and its process pedagogy. Suggests…

  18. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  19. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral...

  20. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination grades. 51.304 Section 51.304 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent...

  1. Performance Of Growing Rabbits Fed Graded Levels Of Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to assess the biological and economic performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of goat rumen content (GRC). The GRC which contained 27.25% crude protein and 28.33% crude fibre were included at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively to ...

  2. Synthesis of 9H-Indeno [1, 2-b] Pyrazine and 11H-Indeno [1, 2-b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Synthesis of 9H-Indeno [1, 2-b] Pyrazine and. 11H-Indeno [1, 2-b] Quinoxaline Derivatives in. One-step Reaction from 2-Bromo-4-chloro-1-indanone. S. Jasouri1,2, J. Khalafy1,*, M. Badali2 and R.H. Prager3. 1Department of Chemistry, Urmia University, Urmia 57154, Iran. 2Daana Pharmaceutical Co., P.O. Box 5181, Tabriz ...

  3. Genetics and biochemistry of 1,2-dichloroethane degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Ploeg, Jan R. van der; Pries, Frens

    1994-01-01

    Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) is a synthetic compound that is not known to be formed naturally. Nevertheless, several pure microbial cultures are able to use it as a sole carbon source for growth. Degradation of 1,2-DCE proceeds via 2-chloroethanol, chloroacetaldehyde and chloroacetate to glycolate. The

  4. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of Na1/2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, was synthesized using the two-stage calcination method and depolarization temperatures and piezoelectric properties were also investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the ceramics system had a morphotropic ...

  5. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access to opt...

  6. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades, U.S. Nos...

  7. Utilization of graded levels of corn cobs and cowpea husk on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corncob (CC) and cowpea husk (CH) are by – products of maize and cowpea production respectively. They can be used as alternative feed resources for ruminants especially during the dry season. A 70d study was conducted to determine the effects of CC and CH based diets on performance of WAD rams. Sixteen ewes ...

  8. Regridded Harmonized World Soil Database v1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set describes select global soil parameters from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) v1.2, including additional calculated parameters such...

  9. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  10. 1-[2-(4-Methyl-7-coumarinyloxyethyl]-4-(5-{1-[2-(4-methyl-7-coumarinyloxyethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl}pentyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cidade Torres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nature often produces compounds with a high degree of symmetry to reduce structural information and complexity. Synthesis of identical twin drugs, through the linkage of two identical pharmacophoric entities, is a classical strategy to produce more potent and/or selective drugs. Herein, two units of the privileged core of the coumarin hymecromone were linked together using “click chemistry”. Synthesis of 1-[2-(4-Methyl-7-coumarinyloxyethyl]-4-(5-{1-[2-(4-methyl-7-coumarinyloxyethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl}pentyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole was achieved by coupling of two identical units of an azido coumarin with a symmetrical alkine using copper(I-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction, in good yields and with complete regioselectivity.

  11. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties;

  12. Regridded Harmonized World Soil Database v1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set describes select global soil parameters from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) v1.2, including additional calculated parameters such as area...

  13. Lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis: MRI grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borre, Daniel G. [Department of MRI, RM-Hastings, Clinica Monte Grande, Monte Grande, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of MRI, Oncologic Center of Excellence, Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sociedad Argentina de Radiologia, Arenales 1985 P.B., Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires C1124AAC (Argentina); Borre, Guillermo E. [Department of MRI, RM-Hastings, Clinica Monte Grande, Monte Grande, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of MRI, Oncologic Center of Excellence, Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aude, Flavio [Department of MRI, Oncologic Center of Excellence, Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, Gladys N. [Department of MRI, RM-Hastings, Clinica Monte Grande, Monte Grande, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis (LEL) is characterized by excessive deposition of epidural fat (EF). The purpose of our retrospective study was to quantify normal and pathologic amounts of EF in order to develop a reproducible MRI grading of LEL. In this study of 2528 patients (1095 men and 1433 women; age range 18-84 years, mean age 47.3 years) we performed a retrospective analysis of MRI exams. We obtained four linear measurements at the axial plane parallel and tangent to the superior end plate of S1 vertebral body: antero-posterior diameter of dural sac (A-Pd DuS), A-Pd of EF, located ventrally and dorsally to the DuS, and A-Pd of the spinal canal (Spi C). We calculated (a) DuS/EF index and (b) EF/Spi C index. We developed the following MRI grading of LEL: normal, grade 0: DuS/EF index {>=}1.5, EF/Spi C index {<=}40%; LEL grade I: DuS/EF index 1.49-1, EF/Spi C index 41-50% (mild EF overgrowth); LEL grade II: DuS/EF index 0.99-0.34, EF/Spi C index 51-74% (moderate EF overgrowth); LEL grade III: DuS/EF index {<=}0.33, EF/Spi C index {>=}75% (severe EF overgrowth). The MRI exams were evaluated independently by three readers. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities were obtained by calculating Kappa statistics. The MRI grading showed the following distribution: grade 0, 2003 patients (79.2%); LEL grade I, 308 patients (12.2%); LEL grade II, 165 patients (6.5%); and LEL grade III, 52 patients (2.1%). The kappa coefficients for intra- and interobserver agreement in a four-grade classification system were substantial to excellent: intraobserver, kappa range 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-0.93] to 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95); interobserver, kappa range 0.76 (95% CI, 0.62-0.91) to 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-0.97). In LEL grade I, there were no symptomatic cases due to fat hypertrophy. LEL grade II was symptomatic in only 24 cases (14.5%). In LEL grade III, all cases were symptomatic. A subgroup of 22 patients (42.3%) showed other substantial spinal pathologies (e

  14. Asymptotic estimation of xi^{(2n)}(1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    We verify a very recent conjecture of Farmer and Rhoades on the asymptotic rate of growth of the derivatives of the Riemann xi function at s=1/2 . We give two separate proofs of this result, with the more general method not restricted to s=1/2 . We briefly describe other approaches to our results, give a heuristic argument, and mention supporting numerical evidence.

  15. 1,2-Bis(2-methoxy-6-formylphenoxyethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: 3,3′-dimethoxy-2,2′-(ethane-1,2-diyldioxydibenzaldehyde], C18H18O6, prepared from 1,2-dibromoethane and ortho-vanillin in the presence of sodium carbonate, the two vanillin units are linked via a CH2–CH2 bridge. The two benzene rings are inclined at a dihedral angle of 41.6 (5°.

  16. CMMI (Trademark) Version 1.2, Training Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    exercises, and SEI instructor presentations will be intermixed throughout the week to provide a better balance. TOEFL * requirements will now be...used as part of the registration process. * Test of English as a Foreign Language © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University CMMI v1.2: Training Changes...construction and format of examinations have changed. v1.1 tests were largely short answer tests that were the same for all students. For v1.2, tests

  17. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  18. 1,2-β-Oligoglucan phosphorylase from Listeria innocua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakajima

    Full Text Available We characterized recombinant Lin1839 protein (Lin1839r belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 94 from Listeria innocua. Lin1839r catalyzed the synthesis of a series of 1,2-β-oligoglucans (Sopn: n denotes degree of polymerization using sophorose (Sop2 as the acceptor and α-D-glucose 1-phosphate (Glc1P as the donor. Lin1839r recognized glucose as a very weak acceptor substrate to form polymeric 1,2-β-glucan. The degree of polymerization of the 1,2-β-glucan gradually decreased with long-term incubation to generate a series of Sopns. Kinetic analysis of the phosphorolytic reaction towards sophorotriose revealed that Lin1839r followed a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. The kinetic parameters of the phosphorolysis of sophorotetraose and sophoropentaose were similar to those of sophorotriose, although the enzyme did not exhibit significant phosphorolytic activity on Sop2. These results indicate that the Lin1839 protein is a novel inverting phosphorylase that catalyzes reversible phosphorolysis of 1,2-β-glucan with a degree of polymerization of ≥3. We propose 1,2-β-oligoglucan: phosphate α-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and 1,2-β-oligoglucan phosphorylase as the short name for this Lin1839 protein.

  19. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1).

  20. PROTHROMBIN FRAGMENT 1.2 (F1.2 IN RELATION WITH PLASMA LEAKAGE DAN THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN DENGUE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santy Pudjianto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Manifestasi klinis demam berdarah Dengue (DBD adalah kebocoran plasma dan trombositopenia. Salah satu teori penyebab kedua hal tersebut adalah kadar trombin yang meningkat akibat aktivasi koagulasi. Kadar trombin dapat diwakili oleh kadar F1.2. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kadar F1.2 dengan kebocoran plasma dan trombositopenia pada infeksi Dengue. Metode: Desain penelitian ini adalah potong lintang, mengggunakan plasma EDTA dari pasien terinfeksi virus Dengue. Subyek penelitian adalah 10 subyek dengan kebocoran plasma dan 10 subyek tanpa kebocoran plasma pada infeksi Dengue, 6 sampel berpasangan untuk perbandingan fase kritis dan fase konvalesen, 26 sampel untuk uji korelasi antara kadar F1.2 dengan jumlah trombosit. Hasil: Penelitian menunjukkan kadar F1.2 pada pasien terinfeksi virus Dengue dengan kebocoran plasma (rerata ± 2SD 147,4 ± 105,82 pg/mL  lebih tinggi secara bermakna dibanding tanpa kebocoran plasma 51,3 ±39,92 pg/mL. Kadar F1.2 pada fase kritis dengan median 186,3 (108,6-223,2  pg/mL lebih tinggi secara bermakna dibanding fase konvalesen 46,5 (27,4-51,9 pg/mL. Terdapat korelasi negatif yang bermakna dengan kekuatan sedang antara kadar F1.2 dengan jumlah trombosit, nilai  r = - 0,609. Kesimpulan: Terdapat peningkatan aktivasi koagulasi yang ditunjukkan dengan peningkatan kadar F1.2 pada fase kritis, berkaitan dengan kebocoran plasma dan trombositopenia pada pasien terinfeksi virus Dengue. Kata kunci: infeksi Dengue, kebocoran plasma, trombin, fragmen protrombin (F1.2, trombositopenia Background: Clinical manifestations of Dengue hemorrhagic fever are plasma leakage and thrombocytopenia. Both manifestations are thought to be caused by an increased thrombin level due to activation of coagulation. The aim of this study is to look for any association between F1.2 level and plasma leakage and also between F1.2 level and thrombocytopenia in Dengue infected patients. Methods: This

  1. Intraobserver and Interobserver Variability of Fuhrman and Modified Fuhrman Grading Systems for Conventional Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Bektas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most widely used grading system for renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver variability of the Fuhrman and modified Fuhrman grading systems for conventional renal cell carcinoma. In this study, five pathologists independently classified 110 cases of conventional renal cell carcinoma according to the Fuhrman and modified (three- and two-tiered Fuhrman grading systems. The intraobserver and interobserver variability of these systems were assessed using κ statistics. The associations between the Fuhrman and modified Fuhrman grades, pathologic stage and tumor size were determined by correlation analysis. The intraobserver and interobserver combined mean κ values for four-tiered Fuhrman grading were 0.48 and 0.41, respectively. The highest agreement was detected in two-tiered modification (including grades 1 + 2 and 3 + 4; the intraobserver and inter-observer combined mean κ values were 0.67 and 0.62, respectively. Correlations between pathologic stage and tumor size with two-tiered modification (including grades 1 + 2 and 3 + 4 were greater than those in three- and four-tiered Fuhrman grading. Collapsing the Fuhrman grading into a two-tiered scheme improved the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.

  2. Synthesis, chemical reactivity and fungicidal activity of pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Magdy A.; Abdel-Rahman, Reda M.; Abdel-Halim, Ali M.; Ibrahim, Salah S.; Allimony, Hassan A. [Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Education. Dept. of Chemistry], e-mail: magdy_ahmed1977@yahoo.com

    2009-07-01

    The synthesis of some new pyrido[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazines (2-12) was achieved by cyclocondensation of 4-aryl-1,6-diamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitriles (1a,b) with {alpha},{beta}-bifunctional compounds. Pyrido[1,2:2'3']triazino[5'6'-f]triazines (13-14) were also prepared. The behavior of 1a,b toward interactions with indole-2,3-dione and its N-acetyl analogue have been studied under different reaction conditions. The structures of the new products have been deduced from elemental analysis and spectral data (UV, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectra). The new synthesized compounds were screened for their antifungal activities. (author)

  3. PROTHROMBIN FRAGMENT 1.2 (F1.2 IN RELATION WITH PLASMA LEAKAGE DAN THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN DENGUE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santy Pudjianto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical manifestations of Dengue haemorrhagic fever are plasma leakage and thrombocypenia. Both manifestations are thought to be caused by an increased thrombin level due to activation of coagulation. The aim of this study is to look for any association between F1.2 level and plasma leakage and also between F1.2 level and thrombocytopenia in Dengue infected patients. This study used EDTA plasma from patients infected with Dengue virus. The study design was cross sectional. The thrombin level was measured by the prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2 level. In this study, it was found that the F1.2 level in patients with plasma leakage  (mean ± 2 SD 147.4 ± 105.82 pg/mL is significantly higher compared to patients without plasma leakage 51.3 ±39.92 pg/mL, and the F1.2 level in critical phase has a median of 186.3 (108.6-223.2 pg/mL which is significantly higher compared to convalescent phase 46.5(27.4-51.9 pg/mL. Also it was found that a medium negative correlation between F1.2 level and the thrombocyte count existed, r = - 0.609. The results of the study suggest that there was increased coagulation activation at critical phase in patients infected with Dengue virus associated with plasma leakage and thrombocytopenia. Keywords: Dengue infection; plasma leakage; thrombin;  prothrombin fragment (F1.2; trombocytopenia

  4. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonates as Contrast Agents for Magnetic ResonanceImaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jocher, Christoph J.; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-05-08

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence allow direct measurement of the number if water molecules in the metal complex. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that in solution two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (K{sub A} = 82.7 {+-} 6.5 M{sup -1}). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2); pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  5. Concentration effects of 1,2-dichlorobenzene on soil microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, I.P.; Bailey, M.J.; Boyd, E.M.; Maguire, N.; Meharg, A.A.; Ellis, R.J.

    1999-09-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) on the microbial biomass, metabolic potential, and diversity of culturable bacteria was investigated using soil microcosms. All doses caused a significant decrease in viable hyphal fungal length. Bacteria were more tolerant, only direct total counts in soils exposed to 3,250 {micro}g/g were significantly lower than untreated controls, and estimates of culturable bacteria showed no response. Pseudomonads counts were stimulated by 1,2-DCB concentration of up to 325 {micro}g/g; above this level counts were similar to controls. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis of taxonomic bacterial composition reflected the differential response of specific genera to increasing 1,2-DCB concentrations, especially the tolerance of Bacillus to the highest concentrations. The shifts in community composition were reflected in estimates of metabolic potential assessed by carbon assimilation (Biolog) ability. Significantly fewer carbon sources were utilized by communities exposed to 1,2-DCB concentrations greater than 130 {micro}g/g than control soils; the ability to assimilate individual carbohydrates sources was especially compromised. The results of this study demonstrate that community diversity and metabolic potential can be used as effective bioindicators of pollution stress and concentration effects.

  6. Should I repeat my 1:2s QC rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Curtis A; Kuchipudi, Lakshmi; Yundt-Pacheco, John C

    2012-05-01

    Repeating a QC that is outside 2SD from the mean (1:2s rule) appears to be a common practice. Although this form of repeat sampling is frowned on by many, the comparative power of the approach has not been formally evaluated. We computed power functions mathematically and by computer simulation for 4 different 1:2s repeat-sampling strategies, as well as the 1:2s rule, the 1:3s rule, and 2 common QC multirules. The false-rejection rates for the repeat-sampling strategies were similarly low to those of the 1:3s QC rule. The error detection rates for the repeat-sampling strategies approached those of the 1:2s QC rule for moderate to large out-of-control error conditions. In most cases, the power of the repeat-sampling strategies was superior to the power of the QC multirules we evaluated. The increase in QC utilization rate ranged from 4% to 13% for the repeat-sampling strategies investigated. The repeat-sampling strategies provide an effective tactic to take advantage of the desirable properties of both the 1:2s and 1:3s QC rules. Additionally, the power of the repeat-sampling strategies compares favorably with the power of 2 common QC multirules. These improvements come with a modest increase in the average number of controls tested.

  7. Gleason Grade Progression Is Uncommon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Flavin, Richard; Rider, Jennifer R.; Finn, Stephen; Giovannucci, Edward; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2013-01-01

    Gleason grade is universally used for pathologic scoring the differentiation of prostate cancer. However, it is unknown whether prostate tumors arise well-differentiated and then progress to less differentiated forms or if Gleason grade is an early and largely unchanging feature. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening has reduced the proportion of tumors diagnosed at advanced stage, which allows assessment of this question on a population level. If Gleason grade progresses as stage does, one would expect a similar reduction in high grade tumors. We studied 1,207 Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants diagnosed with prostate cancer 1982–2004 and treated with prostatectomy. We compared the distribution of grade and clinical stage across the pre-PSA and PSA screening eras. We re-reviewed grade using the ISUP 2005 revised criteria. The proportion of advanced stage tumors dropped more than six-fold, from the earliest period (12/1982–1/1993), 19.9% stage ≥T3, to the latest (5/2000–12/2004), 3% stage T3, none T4. The proportion of Gleason score ≥8 decreased substantially less, from 25.3% to 17.6%. A significant interaction between stage and diagnosis date predicting grade (p=0.04) suggests the relationship between grade and stage varies by time period. As the dramatic shift in stage since the introduction of PSA screening was accompanied by a more modest shift in Gleason grade, these findings suggest grade may be established early in tumor pathogenesis. This has implications for the understanding of tumor progression and prognosis, and may help patients diagnosed with lower grade disease feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. PMID:23946472

  8. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 13E. Skill Level 1 & 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Dr. Alexander A. Longo 9. PERFOWSING ORGANIZATION NAMS AND ADDRESS to. PROGRMEEET PROJECT . TASK AREA S ORKC UNIT HNMBEM Training Developments Institute...1 GRID 2-132,3 2-129,2 2-13094 2-136.4 2-131,5 2-14191 2-140,2 2-115 2 2-133,1 2-326,4 2-310,5 2-325,4 2-321,1 2-320,2 2-319,! 2-311,S 2-314,6 2-316.3...PANE &I 5 _______ 3- 209 3- 19 5 SPECIFIED 2- 55.1 C S ofti.113 2-160,1.0 9, ST SMARD 2-14?, 1 2- Se.3 2- 51,2 2- $6,13-09 153 49 2214 22@ e - 5 SUU

  9. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.804 Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. (a) U.S. Mixed Grain (grade). Mixed grain...

  10. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. 810.604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Flaxseed Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.604 Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. Grade Minimum test weight per bushel (pounds...

  11. Nonpunitive Grading Practices and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Paul A.; Brydon, Charles W.

    Information pertaining to the overall grading standards and practices within the five Peralta Colleges is compiled and analyzed here. The report is presented in three parts. The first part deals with the historical background of traditional and non-punitive grading, the national trends toward innovation and experimentation with various forms of…

  12. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  13. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  14. Multicomponent Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives of Dihydropyrimidinones as Acidic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo González-Olvera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydropyrimidinones has been developed using two multicomponent reactions. The aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles were obtained in good yields from in situ-generated organic azides and O-propargylbenzaldehyde. The target heterocycles were synthesized through the Biginelli reaction in which the aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles reacted with ethyl acetoacetate and urea in the presence of Ce(OTf3 as the catalyst. The corrosion inhibition of steel grade API 5 L X52 in 1 M HCl by the synthesized compounds was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The measurements revealed that these heterocycles are promising candidates to inhibit acidic corrosion of steel.

  15. [Hydrogen bis(1,2,4-triazole] 1,2,4-triazolium bis(3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate 1,2,4-triazole disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-qiang Qiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H4N3+·[H(C2H3N32]+·2C7H5O6S−·2C2H3N3, consists of two types of 1,2,4-triazole monocation, one protonated at the 2-site lying across a twofold axis and the other protonated at the 4-site with the H atom disordered over a center of symmetry, a 5-sulfosalicylate anion and a neutral 1,2,4-triazole molecule. The component ions are linked into a three-dimensional network by a combination of N—H...O, N—H...N, O—H...O, O—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds. In addition, benzene–benzene π–π interactions of 3.942 (2 Å [interplanar spacing = 3.390 (2 Å] and C—O...π (3.331 Å interactions are observed.

  16. 3-[Chloro(phenylmethyl]-6-methyl-1,2-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kayalvizhi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H12ClNO, is a functionalized 1,2-benzoxazole with a chloro(phenylmethyl substituent. The molecule is V-shaped, the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the 1,2-benzoxazole system [maximum deviation = 0.023 (3 Å for the N atom] and the phenyl ring being 70.33 (14°. There are no hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystal structure, which is stabilized by van der Waals interactions only.

  17. Substituted 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippione, Agnese C.; Dosio, Franco; Ducime, Alex

    2015-01-01

    the distal (S)-glutamic acid carboxyl group using the 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazole moiety is applied, to obtain two promising glutamate analogs. In the second example, a scaffold hopping approach is applied, replacing the phenolic moiety present in MDG-1-33A, a potent inhibitor of Onchocerca volvulus chitinase...

  18. Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines as NNRTIs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bode, ML

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available -house library of compounds, a sub-set of substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines were found to be allosteric inhibitors of RT. A much larger library of these compounds was prepared in order to find compounds with improved RT activity. These compounds were prepared...

  19. Acid-base strengths in 1,2-dichloroethane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1973-01-01

    The pKa value of hydriodic acid in 1,2-dichloroethane was determined from conductivity measurements. A glass electrode was calibrated for dichloroethane in the potentiometric titration of hydriodic acid with tetramethylguanidine. From potentiometric titrations, the pKa values in dichloroethane of

  20. Biochemical activities of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) degrading bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most widely produced industrial solvents is 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), a known carcinogen, toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Annual production in the United States, Japan and Europe alone are in excess of thirteen thousand metric tons. Entry into the environment is mainly due to poor handling, ...

  1. Ghana Library Journal - Vol 21, No 1-2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management styles in libraries of University of Maiduguri and Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria: A comparative analysis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Haruna. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/glj.v21i1-2.69497 ...

  2. Tydskrif vir letterkunde - Vol 36, No 1-2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metacognitive reading skills in academic support: A transactionist perspective of the relationship between reading and learning · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MS Evans. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tvl.v36i1-2.53825 ...

  3. Characterization of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) degrading bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,2-Dichloroethane (DCA), a potential carcinogen that is toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the modern world. It is used as a metal degreaser, solvent, chemical intermediate and fuel additive. Contamination of the environment with DCA results from accidental ...

  4. Synthesis of Poly(m-pyridylene-1,2-diphenylvinylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana S. Montani

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis by dehalogenating polycondensation and characterization of a new soluble conjugated polymer, poly(m-pyridylene-1,2-diphenylvinylene, DP-PPyV, is reported here. It shows good mechanical properties and a λmax = 330 nm. The maximum intensity peak of MALDI-TOF corresponds to 1.800 Da.

  5. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2 - Fee policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the clauses of the contract entitled “Security” and “Laws, Regulations, and DOE Directives,” as... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-2 Fee policy. (a) DOE... Department, when work elements cannot be fixed price, incentive fees (including award fees) tied to objective...

  6. An efficient synthesis of 3'-indolyl substituted pyrido [1, 2- ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient synthesis of 3'-indolyl substituted pyrido[1,2-]benzimidazoles as potential antimicrobial and antioxidant agents ... In vitro antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds were investigated against a representative panel of pathogenic strains specifically three Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus ...

  7. Making sense out of suffering: James 1:2-4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The logic of James 1:2-4 is examined. The argument is viewed as a syllogism, with the demonstrandum: 'The believer who experiences trials must be happy.' The proof of the argument runs as follows: If there are trials, then there is testing ( = refining) of faith. If there is testing ( = refining) of faith, then there is.

  8. Nigerian Hospital Practice - Vol 3, No 1-2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Amongst Doctors and Nurses in Benin City, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. WE Sadoh, W Osariogiagbon. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nhp.v3i1-2.45616 ...

  9. Abundances of the planetary nebula Hu 1-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Hyung, S; Aller, LH; Beintema, DA; Bernard-Salas, J; Feibelman, WA; Klockner, HR

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the "elliptical" nebula Hu 1-2 are presented. These spectra are combined with new, high resolution spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebula is then calculated and compared to

  10. Chiral amide from (1, 2)-(+)-norephedrine and furoic acid: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral amide derived from (1, 2)-(+)-norephedrine and 2-furoic acid was found to catalyse the asymmetric Reformatsky reaction between prochiral aldehydes and α-bromo ethylacetate with diethylzinc as zinc source. The corresponding chiral -hydroxy esters were formed in 99% yield with over 80% enantiomeric excess ...

  11. Discovery and Innovation - Vol 21, No 1-2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On Rotor-Blade Deterioration and Pressure Losses in a Gas-Turbine Plant · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BT Lebele-Alawa. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v21i1-2.48189 ...

  12. Transformation and biodegradation of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samin, Ghufrana; Janssen, Dick B.

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a persistent groundwater pollutant and a suspected human carcinogen. It is also is an industrial chemical waste that has been formed in large amounts during epichlorohydrin manufacture. In view of the spread of TCP via groundwater and its toxicity, there is a need for

  13. Nigerian Hospital Practice - Vol 7, No 1-2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Errata: Reasons For Tooth Extraction Among Nigerian Children Attending A General Dental Practice Clinic · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CD Odai, CC Azodo, ON Obuekwe, EB Ezeja. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nhp.v7i1-2.67121 ...

  14. Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity of 1-[(2-Chlorophenylcarbamoyl]- and 1-[(2-Nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl Alkylcarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gonec

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight 1-[(2-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl alkylcarbamates and eight 1-[(2-nitrophenylcarbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl alkylcarbamates were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. The PET-inhibiting activity of the compounds was relatively low; the corresponding IC50 values ranged from 0.05 to 0.664 mmol/L; and the highest activity within the series of compounds was observed for 1-[(2-chlorophenyl-carbamoyl]naphthalen-2-yl propylcarbamate. It has been proven that the compounds are PET-inhibitors in photosystem II. Despite rather low PET-inhibiting activities, primary structure-activity trends can be discussed.

  15. The integrable quantum group invariant A2n−1(2 and Dn+1(2 open spin chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael I. Nepomechie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A family of A2n(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Cn symmetry was recently identified in arXiv:1702.01482. We identify here in a similar way a family of A2n−1(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Dn symmetry, and two families of Dn+1(2 integrable open spin chains with Uq(Bn symmetry. We discuss the consequences of these symmetries for the degeneracies and multiplicities of the spectrum. We propose Bethe ansatz solutions for two of these models, whose completeness we check numerically for small values of n and chain length N. We find formulas for the Dynkin labels in terms of the numbers of Bethe roots of each type, which are useful for determining the corresponding degeneracies. In an appendix, we briefly consider Dn+1(2 chains with other integrable boundary conditions, which do not have quantum group symmetry.

  16. Glassy aging in the relaxor-like ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Eugene V.; Sullivan, Kevin; Weissman, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric susceptibility of the lead-free relaxor-like perovskite ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 is shown to exhibit the same complicated spinglass-like aging behavior found in several cubic relaxors deep in the glassy state, in contrast to some uniaxial relaxors. The effects include rejuvenation and memory, including the ability to support multiple memories in parallel. Weak dependence of aging memories on changes in the electric field indicates that the aging is associated with relatively non-polar degrees of freedom, not with ferroelectric domains.

  17. Regioselective Synthesis of 1-(2,6-Dichloro-4-Trifluoromethylphenyl- 4-Alkyl-1H-[1,2,3]-Triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Zhang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new and efficient method for the synthesis of 1-(2,6-dichloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-4-alkyl-1H-[1,2,3]-triazoles by the room temperature 1,3-dipolarcycloaddition of (2-azido-1,3-dichloro-5-trifluoromethylbenzene with terminal alkynes inthe presence of Cu (I salt as catalyst is reported. All the reactions gave 1,4-disubstitutedproducts with high regioselectivity, as no 1,5-disubstituted product was formed. Thestructures of all the title compounds have been confirmed by elemental analysis, 1H- and13C-NMR and in addition, the structure of compound 5a was investigated by X-raycrystallography.

  18. Measuring grade inflation and grade divergence accounting for student quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Matos-Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a rich longitudinal data-set of 13,202 full-time students belonging to 11 cohorts over 22 consecutive semesters (Fall 1995 to Spring 2006 to model the determinants of the grade inflation rates prevailing at the University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón. The following new interesting findings are reported: (1 Estimated rates vary significantly among and within the academic programs, implying grade divergence, depending on the time reference used: cohort time dummies or semesters since admission to the institution. (2 The rates are significantly related to the proportions of female students, students who switch from their original academic programs, and students from private schools. (3 Results suggest that, under determinate circumstances, average- and low-quality students consider higher grades as normal goods; conversely, high-quality students consider higher grades as inferior goods.

  19. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Energetic isomers of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-bis-1,2,4-triazoles with low toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomovich, A; Pechersky, T; Cohen, A; Yan, Q L; Kosa, M; Petrutik, N; Tal, N; Aizikovich, A; Gozin, M

    2017-05-09

    A series of nitrogen-rich "green" Energetic Materials (EMs), some with improved sensitivity, thermostability, and very low toxicity, were synthesized on the basis of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) and 1,2,4,5-tetrazine building blocks. Since DAT contains several nucleophilic reactive sites, obtaining selective reactivity and specific isomeric products with 1,2,4,5-tetrazine precursors is a challenging task. We developed reaction conditions under which specific isomers could be prepared. On evaluating these compounds for their energetic properties, we found that N(5),N(5)'-(1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diyl)-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diamine) 1 has very high thermostability (onset of decomposition temperature at 357 °C) and it is insensitive to impact (Im > 98 J), friction (>360 N) and electrostatic discharge (2512 mJ). A detonation velocity (Vod) of 8180 m s(-1) was calculated for compound 1 and it was found to have extremely low toxicity in human cells (normal dermal fibroblasts) and in environmental bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). In combination with oxidants, compound 1 can generate 1225 L of gases (per kg of energetic mixture of an oxidant and compound 1), which makes this material a prospective component in solid propellants and a very good candidate for the development of solid state gas generators for clean fire-extinguishing systems and for a broad range of other civil and defense applications that require the use of "green" and insensitive EMs.

  1. Standard specification for Nuclear-Grade aluminum oxide powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification provides the chemical and physical requirements for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide powder intended for fabrication into shapes for nuclear applications. Two specific uses for which this powder is intended are Al2O3 pellets and Al2O 3 − B4C composite pellets for use as thermal insulator or burnable neutron absorbers, respectively. 1.2 The material described herein shall be particulate in nature.

  2. Beam current transformer (BCT) for experiment WA1/2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In experiment WA1/2, a 400 GeV proton beam from the SPS was directed at a target, downstream of which a hadron line selected, in several narrow momentum bands, a beam of either pi+ and K+ or pi- and K-. These neutrino-parent particles, before entering a 292 m long decay tunnel, passed through a set of 2 BCTs of a design seen here. They measured the hadron intensity (10^10 to 10^11 particles/pulse) with a precision of the order of 1%. There were 2 of them, for enhanced precision and confidence. After the discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle-experiment, WA1/2 was the first follow-up, high-precision experiment (Z.Phys.C35, 443-452, 1987 and Z.Phys.C45, 361-379, 1990). See also 7706516X.

  3. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions.

  4. Studies of the Beetle 1.2 Pipeline Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Schmelling, M; Hofmann, W; Schwingenheuer, B; Pugatch, V; Volyanskyy, D; Jiménez-Otero, S; Tran, M T; Voss, H; Bernhard, R P; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Lois, C; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A

    2003-01-01

    The pipeline homogeneity in general and the behaviour of the edge channels of the Beetle 1.2 readout chip [1] were studied with data taken during the Silicon Tracker test beam period in May 2003. A contribution of roughly 10\\% from pipeline inhomogeneities to the strip noise was observed. All channels including the first and the last one were found to be fully functional.

  5. Wheeler-Feynman dynamics of spin-1/2 particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Alstine, P.; Crater, H.W.

    1986-02-15

    By combining a supersymmetric description of a spinning particle in an external field with an appropriate modification of the ''adjunct field'' of Wheeler and Feynman, we construct a many-time relativistic dynamics for arbitrary numbers of spin-(1/2) and spinless particles in mutual scalar or vector interaction. Quantization of the slow-motion approximation to the dynamics of two spinning particles reproduces the corresponding field-theoretic (Bethe-Salpeter) dynamics through order U.

  6. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % of body weight DM or 900 g of fresh feed per day. Result indicated lack of signiicant (P > 005) differences in the final body weight, although there were significant differences (P < 005) on feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency among the ...

  7. (WAD) goats in an agrarian agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in goats was carried out in six different agrarian agroecosystems of Ikwo L.G.A of Ebony State, Nigeria. The objectives o the study were to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of the parasites and to identify the gastrointestnal helminths ...

  8. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to reports emanating from Veterinary Clinic Awka to the Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University concerning the emergence and re-emergence of coccidiosis in small ruminants at Mgbakwu, this study was initiated and carried out between April and July 2007 to ascertain the current ...

  9. Performance Evaluation of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of replacing Pennisetum purpureum with unripe plantain peels on the performance of West African Dwarf Goats. Thirty buck kids with an average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups with ten bucks per treatment in a completely randomized ...

  10. (WAD) GOATS IN NSUKKA, NIGERIA: A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vulvar sutures were removed a week later in the surviving pluriparous goat. Post operatively, the patient was placed on procaine penicillin (10,000. IU/kg) and streptomycin (l0mg/kg) intra muscularly for seven days. _The improvised prolapse retainer in situ-. Plate II: Showing the animal after reduction of the Rectal prolapse.

  11. Haematology and Serum analysis of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forage is of good quality when it can meet the nutrient requirements of ruminants all year round without deleterious effects on the health status of animals. Ruminants in the tropics are mostly sustained on native pastures, which are not available in the dry season. Scarcity of native pasture during the dry season predisposes ...

  12. Body measurement characteristics of the West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... be predicted accurately from heart girth, sacral pelvic width, body length, wither height and rump height. ... conditions of nutrition, climate and disease and might be ... Goats primarily produce meat, skins and milk are likely to ...

  13. (zp) antibodies in west african dwarf (wad) goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Olaleye

    °C. On the second day, the fluid was decanted and the antigen fixed using 50µ 0.1% gluteraldehyde in. PBS-Tween 20 (Sigma) for 5 minutes. The plates were then washed three times in PBS before incubating overnight with 100 1%.

  14. Body measurement characteristics of the West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... very evident and yet, even, the basic taxonomy of goat family is to date an issue being widely ... optimum production and value-based trading system. This ability will also adequately reward ... goats comprising 160 female goats and 84 male goats classified as shown in Table 1 below. The system of ...

  15. 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Julia; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2012-07-18

    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), and methylglyoxal (MGO) together with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 173 food items like bakery products, pasta, nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages, sweet spreads, and condiments was performed. Following suitable cleanup procedures, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds were quantitated after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine via RP-HPLC with UV detection. 3-DG proved to be the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with concentrations up to 410 mg/L in fruit juices, 2622 mg/L in balsamic vinegars, and 385 mg/kg in cookies, thus exceeding the corresponding concentrations of HMF. 3-DGal was found to be of relevance in many foods even in the absence of galactose. MGO was only of minor quantitative importance in all foods studied, except for manuka honey. Dietary intake was estimated to range between 20 and 160 mg/day for 3-DG and 5 and 20 mg/day for MGO, respectively.

  16. Chirality Recognition in Camphor - 1,2-PROPANEDIOL Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Fatima, Mariyam; Krin, Anna; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    The molecular interactions in complexes involving chiral molecules are of particular interest, because the interactions change in a subtle way upon replacing one of the partners by its mirror image. This is based on the fact that chiral molecules are sensitive probes for other chiral objects and chiral interactions. In this particular case, we will concentrate on molecule-molecule interactions and investigate them with broadband rotational spectroscopy. When two chiral molecules form complexes, the homochiral and heterochiral forms have different structures (and thus rotational constants and spectra) and different energies. They are diastereomers, which can easily be differentiated, for example via molecular spectroscopy. This is often exploited in chemical synthesis for identifying and separating enantiomers. The phenomena involving chirality recognition are relevant in the biosphere, in organic synthesis and in polymer design. We use chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy to study the structures and the underlying interactions of camphor-1,2-propanediol complexes. This system is also interesting because the complex formation can be expected to be ruled by an interplay between hydrogen bonding to the polar carbonyl group in camphor and dispersion interactions. The spectra are extremely rich because of the high number of conformers for 1,2-propanediol. We started out with racemic mixtures of both camphor and 1,2-propanediol. Using enantiopure samples of different handedness of the two partners nicely simplifies the spectra and guides the assignment. In the talk, we will report on the latest results for this chiral complex.

  17. James Lee Byars 1/2 an autobiography, sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Byars, James Lee; Eleey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    "I see my autobiography as an arbitrary segment of so many pages of time, of things that I have paid attention to at this point in my life," wrote James Lee Byars (1932-1997) in 1969. He was then 37, about half the average male lifespan at the time, and accordingly thought it appropriate to write his "1/2 autobiography." Byars' art ranged from highly refined objects to extremely minimal performance and events, and books, ephemera and correspondence that he distributed widely among friends and colleagues. Today, more than 15 years after his death, assessments of his art must negotiate Byars' performance of his charismatic self in his life and art. For his first major posthumous survey in the US, exhibition curators Magalí Arriola and Peter Eleey decided to produce a catalogue in two "halves," playing on his "1/2 autobiography": a catalogue of the exhibition itself, including new scholarship, and a sourcebook of primary documents. 1/2 an Autobiography, Sourcebook constitutes the latter volume--a reference guid...

  18. State Grade Crossing Programs : A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    This report reviews the California Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Program, analyzing the factors influencing the reduction in grade crossing accidents. The repor concludes that the greater than average success in grade crossing installation and main...

  19. Poor Sleep Habits = Poor Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166509.html Poor Sleep Habits = Poor Grades Study of college students finds ... socialize, college life seems geared toward an erratic sleep schedule. But new research suggests that an unpredictable ...

  20. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  1. Mucositis Grades and Yeast Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjenović, Marina; Milatić, Katja; Parat, Katica; KOVAČIĆ, IVAN; Ježina Bušelić, Marina A.; Božić, Joško

    2013-01-01

    Surgically treated patients with oral, head and neck cancer commonly develop mucositis during additional irradiation therapy. Oral mucosa inflammation other than irradiation is mostly caused by Candida albicans, yeast of Candida genus. This study evaluated possible connection between grades of oral mucositis and oral yeast profile in irradiated patients before, during and after irradiation. In 25 examined patients mucosits grades »0« to »2« before irradiation with 20% positive smears and o...

  2. Graded sets, points and numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Herencia González, José Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The basic tool considered in this paper is the so-called "graded set", defined on the analogy of the family of α-cuts of a fuzzy set. It is also considered the corresponding extensions of the concepts of a point and of a real number (again on the analogy of the fuzzy case). These new "graded concepts" avoid the disadvantages pointed out by Gerla (for the fuzzy points) and by Kaleva and Seikkala (for the convergence of sequences of fuzzy numbers).

  3. The Accuracy of Axillary Ultrasonography for Patients with T1-2 Breast Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Boo Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Lim, Hyo K.; Cho, Eun Yoon; Choi, Yoon La; Nam, Seok Jin; Yang, Jung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    We wanted to investigate the accuracy of axillary ultrasonography for detecting axillary nodal metastasis in patients with T1-2 breast cancer and we also wanted to determine the factors affecting the sensitivity. Two radiologists performed axillary ultrasonography in 119 consecutive patients with T1-2 breast cancer and clinically uninvolved axillae. We analyzed the accuracy of ultrasonography for detecting axillary nodal metastasis with the histologic results being used as a reference standard. We evaluated the number of involved lymph nodes, T staging and the histologic grade of the tumors. Axillary nodes were involved in 39% of total patients (46/119): 30% of the patients with T1 cancer and 55% of the patients with T2 cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were for 52%, 92%, 80% and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity was significantly lower for the cases with one to two lymph nodes metastasis and T1 cancer than in those cases with 3 or more lymph nodes metastasis and T2 cancer (35% and 75% in the cases with 1-2 cancer and the cases with > 3 lymph nodes metastasis, respectively, p = 0.009: 38% and 68% in the cases with T1 and the cases with T2 cancer, respectively, p = 0.045). The ultrasonographic sensitivity for detecting axillary lymph node metastasis is low, especially in the cases with one to two lymph nodes metastasis and the cases with T1 cancer. Detailed analysis and adoption of cytologic examination of the axillary lymph nodes are necessary to improue the accuracy of ultrasonography

  4. 1,2-Indanedione - A winning ticket for developing fingermarks: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Elad, Michal; Liptz, Yakir; Bar-Or, Karni L; Almog, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    1,2-Indanedione has been extensively researched since the discovery of its fluorogenic reaction with amino acids in 1997 by Joullié et al. [1]. This current study compares the development of fingermarks on used train tickets by the three leading reagents for amino acids-ninhydrin, DFO and 1,2-indanedione. The train tickets are ideal for the task due to their high abundance and frequent use by a diverse population. However, their unique double-layer composition of a cellulose-based regular paper on one side and a thermally sensitive layer on the other requires an adjustment of the traditional development procedures. Heat, which is normally applied after dipping the specimens in the reagents solutions, had to be avoided due to darkening of the sensitive thermal layer. Instead, it has been replaced by air-drying in a fume-hood 24h prior to the recording of the results. Three groups, each containing 500 used train tickets had been treated by each of the three reagents. The results were expressed in terms of percentage of both comparable and partial fingermarks. In this study we controlled neither the quality of the fingerprint donors nor the conditions under which the latent fingermarks had been deposited or stored. However, the large number of similar exhibits which are randomly chosen allows tentative conclusions on the potential of each reagent, hence, a new criterion for the potential of fingermark development (PFD) is proposed. The PFD combines all the partial fingermarks and identifiable fingermarks (graded 1 and 2) thus, highlighting the sensitivity of the reagents. In this work, the superiority of 1,2-indanedione is demonstrated using both the traditional comparison tests as well as the suggested "PFD". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  6. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades U.S...

  8. [N,N-Bis(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine](ethane-1,2-diaminenickel(II thiosulfate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Seidlhofer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni(C2H8N2(C6H18N4]S2O3·3H2O, was accidentally synthesized under solvothermal conditions applying [Ni(en3]Cl2 (en is ethane-1,2-diamine as the Ni source. The asymmetric unit consists of one discrete [Ni(tren(en]2+ complex [tren is N,N-bis(2-aminoethylethane-1,2-diamine] in which the Ni2+ cation is sixfold coordinated within a slightly distorted octahedron, one thiosulfate anion and three water molecules. In the crystal, the complex cations, anions and water molecules are linked by an intricate hydrogen-bonding network. One C atom of the tren ligand, as well as one O atom of a water molecule, are disordered over two sites and were refined using a split model (occupancy ratios = 0.85:15 and 0.60:0.40, respectively.

  9. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.)

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling (SDM) of the Simpevarp subarea are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations on a continuous basis. The modelling work is based on primary data available at the time of the data freeze for Simpevarp 1.2, April 1, 2004. The local scale model area (24 km{sup 2}) for the Simpevarp 1.2 modelling encompasses both the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. The local model area is located in the centre of a regional scale model area (273 km{sup 2}). Surface ecosystem models in terms of pools and fluxes of carbon have been developed for the terrestrial (e.g. plants and animals) and limnic (e.g. algae and fish) systems using the Lake Frisksjoen drainage area. Furthermore, a first marine ecosystem model has been developed for the Basin Borholmsfjaerden. Three principal lithological domains have been defined in the subarea, an A domain that is dominated by the Aevroe granite, a domain B that is dominated by the fine-grained dioritoid, a C domain that is characterised by a mixture of of Aevroe granite and quartz monzodiorite. A fourth domain is made up a few scattered domains of diorite to gabbro. In total, 22 deformation zones with high confidence of occurrence have been interpreted in the local scale model area. The understanding of the interpreted deformation zones of the Simpevarp subarea is considered adequate to make a preliminary assessment of available storage volumes for a deep repository. High rock stresses do not appear to be a major concern for the Simpevarp subarea. The magnitude of the maximum principal stress at 500 m in the Simpevarp subarea is estimated at 10-22 MPa. The analysis of the thermal conductivity has developed considerably since Simpevarp 1.1. In terms of interpreted mean values for the identified lithological

  10. Propane-1,2-diammonium chromate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Trabelsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, (C3H12N2[CrO4], each chromate anion accepts six N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds from nearby propane-1,2-diammonium cations. Three of the four O atoms of the chromate anion accept these bonds; the remaining Cr—O bond length is notably shorter than the others. In the crystal, the anions and cations stack in layers lying parallel to (100: the hydrogen-bonding pattern leads to a three-dimensional network.

  11. a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 trial

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia, Scott J.; López-Martin, José A.; Bendell, Johanna; Ott,Patrick A.; Taylor,Matthew; Eder, Joseph Paul; Jäger, Dirk; Pietanza, M. Catherine; Le, Dung T.; de Braud, Filippo; Morse, Michael A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Horn, Leora; Amin, Asim; Pillai, Rathi N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatments for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy are limited. We assessed safety and activity of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with SCLC who progressed after one or more previous regimens. Methods The SCLC cohort of this phase 1/2 multicentre, multi-arm, open-label trial was conducted at 23 sites (academic centres and hospitals) in six countries. Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, had limited-stage or exte...

  12. Properties of the Lambda(1670)(1-)/2 resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, D M; Abaev, V V; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D D; Kulbardis, A A; Kozlenko, N G; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I V; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M K; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D C; Phaisangittisakul, N; Prakhov, S; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Strakovsky, I I; Supek, I; Tippens, W B

    2002-01-07

    Recently the Crystal Ball Collaboration measured precise new data for the near-threshold reaction K(-)p-->etaLambda, which is dominated by formation of the Lambda(1670)1 / 2(-). In this Letter, we present results of a unitary, multichannel analysis that incorporates the new Crystal Ball data. For our preferred fit, we obtain mass M = 1673+/-2 MeV, width Gamma = 23+/-6 MeV, and elasticity x = 0.37+/-0.07. This elasticity is significantly larger than previously recognized. Resonance parameters of our preferred fit are in striking agreement with the quark-model predictions of Koniuk and Isgur.

  13. Coulombic quantum liquids in spin-1/2 pyrochlores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Lucile; Balents, Leon

    2012-01-20

    We develop a nonperturbative gauge mean field theory (gMFT) method to study a general effective spin-1/2 model for magnetism in rare earth pyrochlores. gMFT is based on a novel exact slave-particle formulation, and matches both the perturbative regime near the classical spin ice limit and the semiclassical approximation far from it. We show that the full phase diagram contains two exotic phases: a quantum spin liquid and a Coulombic ferromagnet, both of which support deconfined spinon excitations and emergent quantum electrodynamics. Phenomenological properties of these phases are discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society

  14. Empirical Study of the 1-2-3 Trend Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizogullari, Yasemin; Maier-Paape, Stanislaus; Platen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study automatically recognized trends and investigate their statistics. To do that we introduce the notion of a wavelength for time series via cross correlation and use this wavelength to calibrate the 1-2-3 trend indicator of Maier-Paape [Automatic One Two Three, Quantitative Finance, 2013] to automatically find trends. Extensive statistics are reported for EUR-USD, DAX-Future, Gold and Crude Oil regarding e.g. the dynamic, duration and extension of trends on different time ...

  15. Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} modified (Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} relaxor ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitish, E-mail: nitishkumar.iitk@gmail.com; Ansell, Troy Y.; Cann, David P. [Materials Science, School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Lead-free Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 10{sup 6} cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.

  16. LBNF 1.2 MW Target: Conceptual Design & Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, C. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  17. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, Cory F. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  18. Battle brewing over the BRCA1/2 gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovic, Amina

    2010-01-01

    The revolutionary discovery of the DNA and the successful mapping of the human genome have allowed scientists worldwide to engage in an unprecedented research on the cutting-edge biomedical technology such as the genetic engineering (gene-splicing or recombinant DNA). However, as is often the case with modern bio-technologies, genes related innovation is heavily dependent on strong patent protection primarily due to high costs of research and commercialisation in this area. The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the District Court Ruling in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology et al v United States Patent and Trademark Office et al (ACLU v Myriad). In doing so, the article provides information on the relevant background at issues, including a brief introduction to general patentability requirements in relation to genes and the controversy surrounding the patentability of genetic material. The analysis of the complaint filed in the ACLU v Myriad case and the details of the District Court Ruling follows. The paper concludes with an outlook of the future legal actions involving Myriad's BRCA1/2 and the assessment of the potential impact that the BRCA1/2 District Court Ruling and subsequent appeal(s) may have on the American patent law.

  19. Clinical outcomes for T1-2N0-1 oral tongue cancer patients underwent surgery with and without postoperative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Eun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the results of curative surgery with and without radiotherapy in patients with T1-2N0-1 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and to evaluate survival and prognostic factors. Methods Retrospective analysis of 86 patients with T1-2N0-1 OSCC who received surgery between January 2000 and December 2006. Fourteen patients (16.3% received postoperative radiotherapy (PORT. Patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, treatment modality, failure patterns, and survival rates were analyzed. Results The median follow-up was 45 months. The five-year overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates were 80.8% and 80.2%, respectively. Higher tumor grade and invasion depth ≥ 0.5 cm were the significant prognostic factors affecting five-year OS and DFS (OS rate; 65% vs. 91%, p = 0.001 for grade; 66% vs. 92%, p = 0.01 for invasion depth: DFS rate; 69% vs. 88%, p = 0.005 for grade; 66% vs. 92%, p = 0.013 for invasion depth. In the risk group, there was no local failure in patients with postoperative radiotherapy. Conclusions In T1-2N0-1 OSCC, factors that affected prognosis after primary surgery were higher tumor grade and deep invasion depth over 0.5 cm. Postoperative radiotherapy should be considered in early oral tongue cancer patients with these high-risk pathologic features.

  20. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain.......Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  1. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid–1,10-phenanthroline–water (1/2/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-lin Zhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C12H8N2·C8H10O8·2H2O, contains one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule, one half-molecule of butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BTC and a water molecule, with the complete tetra-acid generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.672 (2 and 3.708 (2 Å form an extensive three-dimensional network, which consolidates the crystal packing.

  2. Dichlorido{N-[1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]ethane-1,2-diamine}copper(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Wang; Cai-Feng Bi; Da-Qi Wang; Yu-Hua Fan

    2009-01-01

    The title complex, [CuCl2(C9H13N3)], is mononuclear and contains a five-coordinate CuII atom. The geometry of the CuII atom can be described as tetragonal-pyramidal derived from the calculation of the value τ = 0.102. The three N atoms of the pyridine and ethane-1,2-diamine ligands and one Cl atom belong to the basal plane and the other Cl atom represents the axial position of the pyramid. The Cu atom is displaced by 0.2599 (2) Å from the basal plane towa...

  3. A study of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and COX-2 in early stage (T1-T2) oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søland, Tine M; Husvik, Camilla; Koppang, Hanna Strømme; Boysen, Morten; Sandvik, Leiv; Clausen, Ole Petter Fraas; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Bryne, Magne

    2008-10-01

    Histomorphological grading at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) may provide useful prognostic information. In the present study, we investigated the presence and prognostic value of activated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) both at the invasive front and in central/superficial parts of OSCCs. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed the presence of p-ERK1/2 and COX-2 in 53 early stage OSCCs. Clinical data were recorded prospectively. The end point was disease-free survival. p-ERK1/2 staining was present in almost all tumours. The staining was mostly nuclear in the cells of the invasive front and either nuclear or nuclear/cytoplasmic in central/superficial tumour parts. COX-2 was observed in almost all tumours (98%) and the staining was often restricted to focal areas. Most tumours were COX-2 negative at the invasive front. The lowest P-value in survival analyses was P = 0.06 for p-ERK1/2 at the invasive front. COX-2, the histomorphological grading systems and TNM stage were of no prognostic value. p-ERK1/2 was present in almost all tumours and p-ERK1/2 may be a prognostic marker at the invasive front of OSCCs. In early stage OSCCs, most tumours did not express COX-2 at the invasive front.

  4. 7 CFR 29.80 - Announcing grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Announcing grades. 29.80 Section 29.80 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.80 Announcing grades. The grade of each lot of tobacco as... waive the requirement of announcing grades in the auction if he finds it impractical for the...

  5. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  6. 7 CFR 946.14 - Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading. 946.14 Section 946.14 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.14 Grading. Grading is synonymous with preparing for market which means the sorting or separating of potatoes into grades and sizes for market purposes. ...

  7. 7 CFR 959.10 - Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 959.10 Grading. Grading is synonymous with preparation for market and means the sorting or separation of onions into grades, sizes, and packs for market purposes. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading. 959.10 Section 959.10 Agriculture Regulations...

  8. 7 CFR 958.8 - Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.8 Grading. Grading is synonymous with prepare for market and means the sorting or separation of onions into grades and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading. 958.8 Section 958.8 Agriculture Regulations...

  9. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 966.9 Grading. Grading is synonymous with preparation for market and means the sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading. 966.9 Section 966.9 Agriculture Regulations...

  10. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. An Exact Fluctuating 1/2-BPS Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This work explores the role of thermodynamic fluctuations in the two parameter giant and superstar configurations characterized by an ensemble of arbitrary liquid droplets or irregular shaped fuzzballs. Our analysis illustrates that the chemical and state-space geometric descriptions exhibit an intriguing set of exact pair correction functions and the global correlation lengths. The first principle of statistical mechanics shows that the possible canonical fluctuations may precisely be ascertained without any approximation. Interestingly, our intrinsic geometric study exemplifies that there exist exact fluctuating 1/2-BPS statistical configurations which involve an ensemble of microstates describing the liquid droplets or fuzzballs. The Gaussian fluctuations over an equilibrium chemical and state-space configurations accomplish a well-defined, non-degenerate, curved and regular intrinsic Riemannian manifolds for all physically admissible domains of black hole parameters. An explicit computation demonstrates t...

  12. Monoreduced 1,2-dihydrocorannulene versus the parent corannulene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Sarah N; Hoover, Gabrielle C; Wei, Zheng; Zabula, Alexander V; Filatov, Alexander S; Petrukhina, Marina A

    2015-08-01

    The monoanion of dihydrogenated corannulene isolated in the form of its potassium salt, namely tris(diglyme-κ(3)O,O',O'')potassium hexacyclo[11.5.2.0(4,17).0(7,16).0(10,15).0(14,18)]icosa-1,3,5,7(16),8,10(15),11,13,17-nonaenide, [K(C6H14O3)3](C20H12), has been structurally characterized for the first time. The X-ray study confirms the previous NMR spectroscopic prediction that the two H atoms are attached to the same six-membered ring to form 1,2-dihydrocorannulene, thus destroying the aromaticity of only one arene ring of the corannulene core. The direct comparison of (C20H12)(-) with the parent corannulene anion, (C20H10)(-), is provided to illustrate the geometry perturbations caused by rim hydrogenation.

  13. Deliverable 1.2.1 Market Analysis and Business Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2009-01-01

    Deliverable 1.2.1 - Market Analysis and Business Plan The main objective of this deliverable is to provide a short overview of 4 communities involved in the pilots, envisaged type of solutions and architectures to be deployed (chapter 2) and market analysis at regional level (chapter 3......) with related business cases. The Market analysis will provide an overview of market requirements, current status and opportunities for the pilot service that will be provided in the context of ISISEMD. This will be realised by performing detailed studies on various sources. Proposals for business modelling...... and business cases (chapter 4) will rely on the concept of value chains. Value chains typically consist of several providers, which together produce a complex product or service....

  14. Asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes with universal horizons in (1 +2 ) dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sayandeb; Bhattacharyya, Jishnu; Mattingly, David; Roberson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Hořava gravity theory possesses global Lifshitz space as a solution and has been conjectured to provide a natural framework for Lifshitz holography. We derive the conditions on the two-derivative Hořava gravity Lagrangian that are necessary for static, asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes with flat transverse dimensions to contain a universal horizon, which plays a similar thermodynamic role as the Killing horizon in general relativity. Specializing to z =2 in 1 +2 dimensions, we then numerically construct such regular solutions over the whole spacetime. We calculate the mass for these solutions and show that, unlike the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the first law applied to the universal horizon is straightforwardly compatible with a thermodynamic interpretation.

  15. Adiabatic regularization for spin-1/2 fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, Aitor; Navarro-Salas, José; Torrentí, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    We extend the adiabatic regularization method to spin-1/2 fields. The ansatz for the adiabatic expansion for fermionic modes differs significantly from the WKB-type template that works for scalar modes. We give explicit expressions for the first adiabatic orders and analyze particle creation in de Sitter spacetime. As for scalar fields, the adiabatic method can be distinguished by its capability to overcome the UV divergences of the particle number operator. We also test the consistency of the extended method by working out the conformal and axial anomalies for a Dirac field in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime, in exact agreement with those obtained from other renormalization prescriptions. We finally show its power by computing the renormalized stress-energy tensor for Dirac fermions in de Sitter space.

  16. Green synthesis and characterization of Ag1/2Al1/2TiO3 nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Single phase silver aluminum titanate (Ag1/2Al1/2TiO3, later called AAT, nanoceramic powder (particle size 2 to 7.5 nm was synthesized by a low-cost, green and reproducible tartaric acid gel process. X-ray, FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to ascertain the formation of AAT nanoceramics. X-ray diffraction data analysis indicated the formation of monoclinic structure having the space group P2/m(10. UV-Vis study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 296 nm. Dielectric study revealed that AAT nanoceramics could be a suitable candidate for capacitor applications and meets the specifications for “Z7R” of Class I dielectrics of Electronic Industries Association. Complex impedance analyses suggested the dielectric relaxation to be of non-Debye type. To find a correlation between the response of the real system and idealized model circuit composed of discrete electrical components, the model fittings were performed using the impedance data. Electric modulus studies supported the hopping type of conduction in AAT. The correlated barrier hopping model was employed to successfully explain the mechanism of charge transport in AAT. The ac conductivity data were used to evaluate the density of states at Fermi level and minimum hopping length of the compound.

  17. Peculiar charging effects on titania in aqueous 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and mixed electrolyte suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenholm, Jarl B; Kosmulski, Marek

    2012-11-01

    Charging of particles in aqueous suspensions is primarily related to potential determining ions, such as silver and iodide ions at silver halide particle surfaces. Proton is considered as a (secondary) potential determining ion at hydrated metal oxide surfaces. Indifferent electrolytes neutralize at increased concentration the surface charge but do not reverse it. However, in the presence of a non-Coulombic interaction the surface charge may be enhanced or reversed at increased ionic strength. Such interaction is denoted specific which may be due to enhanced van der Waals dipolar, Lewis acid-base, solvation (Hofmeister) and/or Born solvation effects. Alternatively, these interactions have been characterized in terms of (semi) empirical ion and surface properties, such as hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) interaction. Within the Stern layer closest to the particle surface truly specific effects are related to the inner Helmholtz plane (IHP) in order to distinguish them from the charge and solvation related effects occurring within the outer Helmholtz plane (OHP). We review some recent observations on the particular influence of ions on the charging of titania particles in aqueous 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and mixed electrolyte suspensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic utility of IDH1/2 mutations to distinguish dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxiong; Fritchie, Karen; Wei, Shi; Ali, Naser; Curless, Kendra; Shen, Tiansheng; Brini, Anna T; Latif, Farida; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri; Siegal, Gene P; Cheng, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Histologically, it is nearly impossible to distinguish the dedifferentiated component of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of bone when the low-grade cartilaginous component is absent. Previous studies have revealed that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations are present in a significant number of cartilaginous tumors including most conventional chondrosarcomas and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These mutations have not been studied in UPSs of bone. We sought to investigate whether an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation signature could be used as a clinically diagnostic marker for the distinction of dedifferentiated component of chondrosarcoma from UPS of bone. Sixty-eight bone tumor cases, including 31 conventional chondrosarcomas, 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, and 14 UPSs of bone, were collected for IDH1/2 mutation analysis either using the Qiagen IDH1/2 RGQ PCR Kit or using whole-exome sequencing. IDH1/2 mutations were detected in 87% (20/23) of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas and 30% (6/20) of conventional chondrosarcomas. No mutations were detected in the IDH1/2 codon 132 or codon 172 among 14 UPSs of bone. Identification of IDH1 or IDH2 mutations supports the diagnosis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma rather than UPS of bone while also providing some insight into the pathogenesis of these 2 lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. spo(2|2-Equivariant Quantizations on the Supercircle S^{1|2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Mellouli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the space of differential operators $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ acting between$lambda$- and $mu$-densities defined on $S^{1|2}$ endowed with its standard contact structure.This contact structure allows one to define a filtration on $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ which is finerthan the classical one, obtained by writting a differential operator in terms of the partial derivativeswith respect to the different coordinates.The space $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ and the associated graded space of symbols $mathcal{S}_{delta}$($delta=mu-lambda$ can be considered as $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-modules, where $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$ isthe Lie superalgebra of contact projective vector fields on $S^{1|2}$.We show in this paper that there is a unique isomorphism of $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-modules between$mathcal{S}_{delta}$ and $mathcal{D}_{lambdamu}$ that preserves the principal symbol (i.e.an $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-equivariant quantization for some values of $delta$ called non-critical values.Moreover, we give an explicit formula for this isomorphism, extending in this way the resultsof [Mellouli N., SIGMA 5 (2009, 111, 11 pages] which were established for second-order differential operators.The method used here to build the $mathfrak{spo}(2|2$-equivariant quantization is the same as the oneused in [Mathonet P., Radoux F., Lett. Math. Phys. 98 (2011, 311-331] to prove the existence of a $mathfrak{pgl}(p+1|q$-equivariant quantization on$mathbb{R}^{p|q}$.

  20. Definitive Radiotherapy for T1-2 Hypopharyngeal Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Aya, E-mail: anakajima-kyt@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji; Morimoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miyagi, Ken [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Fujii, Takashi; Yoshino, Kunitoshi [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome in T1-2 hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) patients treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with T1-2 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical RT between March 2000 and June 2008 at our institution were analyzed. Pre-RT neck dissection (ND) was performed in 26 patients with advanced neck disease. Chemotherapy was used concurrently with RT in 14 patients. Sixty patients were associated with synchronous or metachronous malignancies. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. Results: The 3-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 70% and 79%, respectively. The 3-year local control rates were 87% for T1 and 83% for T2 disease. The ultimate local control rate was 89%, including 7 patients in whom salvage was successful. The ultimate local control rate with laryngeal preservation was 82%. Tumors of the medial wall of the pyriform sinus tended to have lower control rates compared with tumors of the lateral or posterior pharyngeal wall. Among patients with N2b-3 disease, the 3-year regional control rates were 74% for patients with pre-RT ND and 40% for patients without ND. The 3-year locoregional control rates were as follows: Stage I, 100%; Stage II, 84%; Stage III, 67%; Stage IVA, 43%; Stage IVB, 67%. Forty-two patients developed disease recurrence, with 29 (70%) patients developing recurrence within the first year. Of the 103 patients, 6 developed late complications higher than or equal to Grade 3. Conclusions: Definitive RT accomplished a satisfactory local control rate and contributed to organ preservation.

  1. A population-based study of high-grade gliomas and mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke H; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    High-grade gliomas have a dismal prognosis, and prognostic factors are needed to optimize treatment algorithms. In this study we identified clinical prognostic factors as well as the prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) status in a population-based group of patients with high......-grade gliomas. Using the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Pathology Databank we identified 359 patients: 234 had WHO grade IV gliomas, 58 had WHO grade III gliomas, and 67 were diagnosed clinically. Mutated IDH1 was predominantly observed in oligodendroglial tumors (WHO grade III). Patients with mutated...... IDH1 had a significantly better outcome than patients with wildtype IDH1: 2-year OS 59% and 18%, respectively (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.68). However, when adjusting for other prognostic factors, IDH1 status was not a significant independent prognostic factor (HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.32-1.07). Young age...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  3. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  4. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of— Test...

  5. Male breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: pathology data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Valentina; Barrowdale, Daniel; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Neuhausen, Susan L; Fox, Stephen; Karlan, Beth Y; Mitchell, Gillian; James, Paul; Thull, Darcy L; Zorn, Kristin K; Carter, Natalie J; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ramus, Susan J; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Rantala, Johanna; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Caligo, Maria A; Spugnesi, Laura; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Kramer, Gero; Vijai, Joseph; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Machackova, Eva; Foretova, Lenka; Navratilova, Marie; Vasickova, Petra; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Sharma, Priyanka; Kim, Sung-Won; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pinto, Pedro; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Arason, Adalgeir; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Izquierdo, Angel; Pujana, Miguel Angel; Balmaña, Judith; Diez, Orland; Ivady, Gabriella; Papp, Janos; Olah, Edith; Kwong, Ava; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Perez Segura, Pedro; Caldes, Trinidad; Van Maerken, Tom; Poppe, Bruce; Claes, Kathleen B M; Isaacs, Claudine; Elan, Camille; Lasset, Christine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Hahnen, Eric; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wand, Dorothea; Godwin, Andrew K; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Perkins, Jo; Adlard, Julian; Izatt, Louise; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Ellis, Steve; Hamann, Ute; Garber, Judy; Fostira, Florentia; Fountzilas, George; Pasini, Barbara; Giannini, Giuseppe; Rizzolo, Piera; Russo, Antonio; Cortesi, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Palli, Domenico; Zanna, Ines; Savarese, Antonella; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pensotti, Valeria; Tommasi, Stefania; Peterlongo, Paolo; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Hansen, Thomas V O; Steele, Linda; Ding, Yuan Chun; Tung, Nadine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Bane, Anita; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Ottini, Laura

    2016-02-09

    BRCA1 and, more commonly, BRCA2 mutations are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). However, only a paucity of data exists on the pathology of breast cancers (BCs) in men with BRCA1/2 mutations. Using the largest available dataset, we determined whether MBCs arising in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers display specific pathologic features and whether these features differ from those of BRCA1/2 female BCs (FBCs). We characterised the pathologic features of 419 BRCA1/2 MBCs and, using logistic regression analysis, contrasted those with data from 9675 BRCA1/2 FBCs and with population-based data from 6351 MBCs in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Among BRCA2 MBCs, grade significantly decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (P = 0.005). Compared with BRCA2 FBCs, BRCA2 MBCs were of significantly higher stage (P for trend = 2 × 10(-5)) and higher grade (P for trend = 0.005) and were more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive [odds ratio (OR) 10.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 5.15-21.80] and progesterone receptor-positive (OR 5.04; 95 % CI 3.17-8.04). With the exception of grade, similar patterns of associations emerged when we compared BRCA1 MBCs and FBCs. BRCA2 MBCs also presented with higher grade than MBCs from the SEER database (P for trend = 4 × 10(-12)). On the basis of the largest series analysed to date, our results show that BRCA1/2 MBCs display distinct pathologic characteristics compared with BRCA1/2 FBCs, and we identified a specific BRCA2-associated MBC phenotype characterised by a variable suggesting greater biological aggressiveness (i.e., high histologic grade). These findings could lead to the development of gender-specific risk prediction models and guide clinical strategies appropriate for MBC management.

  6. Dichlorido{N-[1-(2-pyrid-yl)ethyl-idene]ethane-1,2-diamine}copper(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Bi, Cai-Feng; Wang, Da-Qi; Fan, Yu-Hua

    2009-03-25

    The title complex, [CuCl(2)(C(9)H(13)N(3))], is mononuclear and contains a five-coordinate Cu(II) atom. The geometry of the Cu(II) atom can be described as tetra-gonal-pyramidal derived from the calculation of the value τ = 0.102. The three N atoms of the pyridine and ethane-1,2-diamine ligands and one Cl atom belong to the basal plane and the other Cl atom represents the axial position of the pyramid. The Cu atom is displaced by 0.2599 (2) Å from the basal plane towards the axial Cl atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. [1-(2,5-Dichloroanilino-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Cunha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H10Cl2N4O, the hydroxy group and benzene ring are disposed to opposite sides of the central 1,2,3-triazolyl ring. The dihedral angle between the five- and six-membered rings is 87.51 (12°, and the C—O bond of the hydroxy group lies almost normal to the plane of the 5-membered ring [N—C—C—O = −93.2 (2°]. An intramolecular amino-N—H...Cl hydrogen bond is noted. In the extended structure, supramolecular layers in the ab plane are formed via hydroxy-O—H...N(ring and amine-N—H...O(hydroxy hydrogen bonds. The layers are connected along the c axis by π–π contacts between benzene rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.7789 (13 Å] and by C—Cl...π interactions.

  8. A computational study of base-catalyzed reactions of cyclic 1,2-diones: cyclobutane-1,2-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Sultana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of cyclobutane-1,2-dione with hydroxide was studied by a variety of ab initio (MP2, SCS-MP2, CCSD(T, CEPA/1 and density functional (M06-2X methods. Three possible reaction paths of the initially formed tetrahedral adduct leading to either 1-hydroxycyclopropane-1-carboxylate (benzilic acid type rearrangement, path A, α-oxobutanoate (path B or γ-oxobutanoate (path C were considered. Although the latter two products show similar or even more negative Gibbs free energies of reaction than calculated for the benzilic acid type rearrangement, the Gibbs free energies of activation are substantially higher. According to the calculations, the only feasible reaction appears to be the formation of 1-hydroxycyclopropane-1-carboxylate, which is corroborated by previous experimental observations.

  9. School Grading and Institutional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

    2011-01-01

    We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

  10. Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Mhaske

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare, malignant salivary gland tumor commonly affecting the minor salivary glands, histologically showing morphological diversity and a low metastatic potential. Hereby reporting a case of PLGA in a 58-year-old male patient showing involvement of antral floor.

  11. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  12. The Reliability of College Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  13. Woodworking: Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    The woodworking collection is composed of 55 objectives and related evaluation items for use in grades 7 through 12. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and criteria for judging the adequacy of the response. Woodworking categories being measured include sharpening, adjusting, using and caring for tools; reading a working drawing; stock…

  14. Clinical grading of vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Stefano; Sacchetti, Marta; Mantelli, Flavio; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview on the clinical features of vernal keratoconjunctivitis on the basis of cases series presented in the literature. Furthermore, a new grading system of vernal keratoconjunctivitis based on the severity of the disease is proposed. Different treatment options are discussed based on the clinical grade of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Recent epidemiological studies on the demographic, clinical and immunologic features of vernal keratoconjunctivitis are presented. The efficacy and complications of treatments are described. Diagnosis and treatment of patients is a challenge for ophthalmologists as no precise diagnostic criteria have been established, the pathogenesis is unclear, and antiallergic treatments are often unsuccessful. This review describes old and new concepts of vernal keratoconjunctivitis diagnosis and treatment: the clinical features, the diagnostic criteria, the common features between this and other ocular allergies and the therapeutic strategies. On the basis of this knowledge, a new grading system is introduced based on clinical signs and symptoms of ocular surface inflammation. This new grading of vernal keratoconjunctivitis may help clinicians and researchers to classify disease activity and to establish a common agreement for treatments.

  15. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  16. Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers Modified with 1,2-Epoxyhexane or 1,2-Epoxydodecane for Enhanced Gene Delivery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tongyu; Cao, Xueyan; Hou, Wenxiu; Peng, Chen; Qiu, Jieru; Shi, Xiangyang

    2015-12-01

    We report a new non-viral gene delivery system based on hydrophobically modified poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers. In this study, the periphery of amine-terminated generation 5 (G5) PAMAM dendrimers was partially reacted with 1,2-epoxyhexane and 1,2-epoxydodecane, respectively. The formed hydrophobically modified G5 dendrimers (denoted as G5.NH2-C6 or G5.NH2-C12) were used to complex two different plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) encoding luciferase (Luc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively for gene transfection studies. The polyplexes formed between vectors and pDNA were characterized by gel retardation assay, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. We show that the G5.NH2-C6 and G5.NH2-C12 vectors are able to effectively compact the pDNA, allowing for highly efficient gene transfection into a model cell line (HeLa cells) as demonstrated by both Luc assay and confocal microscopic imaging of the EGFP expression. Under the studied N/P ratios (the molar ratio of primary amines of the dendrimers to phosphates in the pDNA backbone) at 2.5 or 5, the transfection efficiency of the dendrimer-based vectors followed the order of G5.NH2-C12 > G5.NH2-C6 > G5.NH2. This enhanced gene transfection capacity is believed to be associated with the enhanced hydrophobic interaction between the vector/pDNA complexes and the relatively hydrophobic cell membranes. The developed hydrophobically modified dendrimers may be used as a promising non-viral vector for enhanced gene delivery applications.

  17. The Beetle Reference Manual chip version 1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, D; Schmelling, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the electrical specifications, operating conditions and port definitions of the readout chip Beetle 1.2. The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and fulfils the requirements of the silicon vertex detector (VELO, VETO), the silicon tracker and the RICH detector in case of multi-anode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. The pulse shape can be chosen such that it complies with LHCb specifications: a peaking time of 25 ns with a remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns of less than 30%. A comparator per channel with configurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought off chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analog pipeline. This ring buffer has a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervals and an integrated derandomising buffer of 16 stages. For analog readout d...

  18. Kinetic analysis of human homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Alphonso A; Brzezinski, Kotanee T; Farrington, Natasha; Moran, Graham R

    2004-01-01

    Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) is a mononuclear Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase that catalyzes the third step in the pathway for the catabolism of tyrosine, the conversion of homogentisate (HG) to maleylacetoacetate (MAA). We have heterologously expressed and purified native human HGD in the apo form. Steady-state analysis varying the concentration of both HG and molecular oxygen shows that the purified enzyme has a turnover number of 16 s(-1). Our data suggest that HG binds to the apo-enzyme and that the apo-HGD.HG complex does not bind Fe(II) and dissociates slowly at approximately 0.028 s(-1). The rate constant for the dissociation of Fe(II) from the holo-enzyme as measured under anaerobic conditions is 0.00004 s(-1) and indicates that this process is not relevant in steady-state turnover. The addition of HG and molecular oxygen to the holo-enzyme is formally random as the holo-enzyme reduces molecular oxygen at a rate of 1.35x10(3) M(-1) s(-1) at 4 degrees C. The term ordered with respect to the addition of substrates is most descriptive as the rate of reduction of molecular oxygen must increase in the presence of HG to sustain the observed turnover number.

  19. Identification of ballast grading for rail track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grading has long been recognised to critically influence the mechanical behaviour of ballast. To identify the ballast grading for heavy-haul rail track, monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to assess the performances of different gradings. Permanent deformations, aggregates degradation, resilience, shear resistance, maximum and minimum densities are recorded and analysed. The grading is found to affect the behaviour of ballast in that coarser gradings exhibit relatively better strength, resilience and therefore less permanent deformation. However, ballast degradation increases with the overall aggregate size. Therefore, to identify the grading for ballast with different performance objectives, a grey relational theory is used to convert the multi-objective into single-objective, i.e. grey relational grade. A relatively optimal grading that provides the highest grey relational grade is thus suggested for the improved ballast performance.

  20. Using R in Taverna: RShell v1.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breit Timo M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background R is the statistical language commonly used by many life scientists in (omics data analysis. At the same time, these complex analyses benefit from a workflow approach, such as used by the open source workflow management system Taverna. However, Taverna had limited support for R, because it supported just a few data types and only a single output. Also, there was no support for graphical output and persistent sessions. Altogether this made using R in Taverna impractical. Findings We have developed an R plugin for Taverna: RShell, which provides R functionality within workflows designed in Taverna. In order to fully support the R language, our RShell plugin directly uses the R interpreter. The RShell plugin consists of a Taverna processor for R scripts and an RShell Session Manager that communicates with the R server. We made the RShell processor highly configurable allowing the user to define multiple inputs and outputs. Also, various data types are supported, such as strings, numeric data and images. To limit data transport between multiple RShell processors, the RShell plugin also supports persistent sessions. Here, we will describe the architecture of RShell and the new features that are introduced in version 1.2, i.e.: i Support for R up to and including R version 2.9; ii Support for persistent sessions to limit data transfer; iii Support for vector graphics output through PDF; ivSyntax highlighting of the R code; v Improved usability through fewer port types. Our new RShell processor is backwards compatible with workflows that use older versions of the RShell processor. We demonstrate the value of the RShell processor by a use-case workflow that maps oligonucleotide probes designed with DNA sequence information from Vega onto the Ensembl genome assembly. Conclusion Our RShell plugin enables Taverna users to employ R scripts within their workflows in a highly configurable way.

  1. 7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204... Application of Standards § 810.1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per... 49.0 6.0 10.0 3.0 15.0 U.S. Sample grade— U.S. Sample grade is rye that: (a) Does not meet the...

  2. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the ‘increases in grade point average’ definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling pow...

  3. [1,2-Bis(diisopropylphosphanylethane-κ2P,P′]dichloridonickel(II–9H-carbazole (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Cañavera-Buelvas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [NiCl2(C14H32P2]·2C12H9N, the neutral [Ni(dppeCl2] complex [dppe is 1,2-bis(diisopropylphosphanylethane] consists of a tetracoordinated Ni2+ cation and has a crystallographic twofold axis passing through the metal atom and the mid-point of the CH2—CH2 bond of the dppe ligand. The metal atom shows slight tetrahedral distortion from an ideal square-planar coordination geometry, as reflected in the dihedral angle between NiCl2 and NiP2 planes of 15.32 (2°. The 9H-carbazole ring system is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.022 Å. In the crystal packing, there are two symmetry-related 9H-carbazole molecules between two adjacent NiII complexes, with an angle between the carbazole mean planes of ca 77°.

  4. The Benefits of Graded Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Albay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Doing large amounts of extensive reading at suitable levels of understanding is a productive tool to increase reading rate, vocabulary, motivation, attitude and general language proficiency. The amount of vocabulary and grammar learners has determines their language proficiency. Extensive reading enables learners to attain competencies in language skills. Graded readers are essential materials for doing extensive reading. They are particularly designed to enable learners practice reading skills and provide an opportunity to reinforce known vocabulary. Through multiple exposures learners become familiar with grammatical structures and vocabulary. Moreover, learners experience how they function in texts and they are motivated to use the vocabulary and structures they have learnt in their communication. Graded readers motivate learners, help them gain reading fluency, enhance their vocabulary and grammar knowledge development. This article defines extensive reading, emphasizes its contributions to language proficiency development and finally stresses out the role of grader readers in language learning.

  5. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William Eugene; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) is a suite of open source software tools that can be used by water utilities to create response strategies to reduce the impact of contamination in a water distribution network . WST includes hydraulic and water quality modeling software , optimizati on methodologies , and visualization tools to identify: (1) sensor locations to detect contamination, (2) locations in the network in which the contamination was introduced, (3) hydrants to remove contaminated water from the distribution system, (4) locations in the network to inject decontamination agents to inactivate, remove, or destroy contaminants, (5) locations in the network to take grab sample s to help identify the source of contamination and (6) valves to close in order to isolate contaminate d areas of the network. This user manual describes the different components of WST , along w ith examples and case studies. License Notice The Water Security Toolkit (WST) v.1.2 Copyright c 2012 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, there is a non-exclusive license for use of this work by or on behalf of the U.S. government. This software is distributed under the Revised BSD License (see below). In addition, WST leverages a variety of third-party software packages, which have separate licensing policies: Acro Revised BSD License argparse Python Software Foundation License Boost Boost Software License Coopr Revised BSD License Coverage BSD License Distribute Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License EPANET Public Domain EPANET-ERD Revised BSD License EPANET-MSX GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.3 gcovr Revised BSD License GRASP AT&T Commercial License for noncommercial use; includes randomsample and sideconstraints executable files LZMA SDK Public Domain nose GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 ordereddict MIT License pip MIT License PLY BSD License PyEPANET Revised BSD License Pyro MIT License PyUtilib Revised BSD License Py

  6. Academic Achievements: Grades versus Duration

    OpenAIRE

    BRUGIAVINI, Agar; CARRARO, Carlo; Kovacic, Matija

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of academic achievements of post-reform undergraduate students of Ca’ Foscari University of Venice. Academic achievements are measured with the students’ grade point averages and time to graduation. The set of independent variables contains information on students’ personal characteristics, prior academic achievements, family background, academic track at university, and several “peer-group” effects. The novelty of this paper is threefold: i) we use a ...

  7. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  8. A one-pot catalyst-free synthesis of functionalized pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives from benzene-1,2-diamine, acetylenedicarboxylates and ethyl bromopyruvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Piltan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The catalyst-free multicomponent reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzene, dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, and ethyl bromopyruvate forms pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives in good yields. Ethylenediamine also reacts under similar conditions to produce new pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives.

  9. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  10. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  11. [Prognostic differences of phenotypes in pT1-2N0 invasive breast cancer: a large cohort study with cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Wang, W H; Wang, S L; Jin, J; Song, Y W; Liu, Y P; Ren, H; Fang, H; Tang, Y; Chen, B; Qi, S N; Lu, N N; Li, N; Tang, Y; Liu, X F; Yu, Z H; Li, Y X

    2016-06-23

    To find phenotypic subgroups of patients with pT1-2N0 invasive breast cancer by means of cluster analysis and estimate the prognosis and clinicopathological features of these subgroups. From 1999 to 2013, 4979 patients with pT1-2N0 invasive breast cancer were recruited for hierarchical clustering analysis. Age (≤40, 41-70, 70+ years), size of primary tumor, pathological type, grade of differentiation, microvascular invasion, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) were chosen as distance metric between patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using Ward's method. Cophenetic correlation coefficient (CPCC) and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to validate clustering structures. The CPCC was 0.603. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.617 (P40 years, smaller primary tumor, lower histologic grade, positive ER and PR status, and mainly negative HER-2. Patients in the cluster 1 and 11 had the worst prognosis, The cluster 1 was characterized by a larger tumor, higher grade and negative ER and PR status, while the cluster 11 was characterized by positive microvascular invasion. Patients in other 7 clusters had a moderate prognosis, and patients in each cluster had distinctive clinicopathological features and recurrent patterns. This study identified distinctive clinicopathologic phenotypes in a large cohort of patients with pT1-2N0 breast cancer through hierarchical clustering and revealed different prognosis. This integrative model may help physicians to make more personalized decisions regarding adjuvant therapy.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2556 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades. 51.2556 Section 51.2556 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2556 Grades. (a) “U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” and... very well dried when specified in connection with the grade. (2) Free from: (i) Foreign material...

  13. BRCA1/2 genetic background-based therapeutic tailoring of human ovarian cancer: hope or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliaferri Pierosandro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian epithelial tumors are an hallmark of hereditary cancer syndromes which are related to the germ-line inheritance of cancer predisposing mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Although these genes have been associated with multiple different physiologic functions, they share an important role in DNA repair mechanisms and therefore in the whole genomic integrity control. These findings have risen a variety of issues in terms of treatment and prevention of breast and ovarian tumors arising in this context. Enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based anticancer drugs has been related to BRCA1/2 functional loss. Retrospective studies disclosed differential chemosensitivity profiles of BRCA1/2-related as compared to "sporadic" ovarian cancer and led to the identification of a "BRCA-ness" phenotype of ovarian cancer, which includes inherited BRCA1/2 germ-line mutations, a serous high grade histology highly sensitive to platinum derivatives. Molecularly-based tailored treatments of human tumors are an emerging issue in the "era" of molecular targeted drugs and molecular profiling technologies. We will critically discuss if the genetic background of ovarian cancer can indeed represent a determinant issue for decision making in the treatment selection and how the provocative preclinical findings might be translated in the therapeutic scenario. The presently available preclinical and clinical evidence clearly indicates that genetic background has an emerging role in treatment individualization for ovarian cancer patients.

  14. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades. 52.772 Section 52.772 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772...

  15. Convergence in graded ditopological texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Ekmekçi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Graded ditopological texture spaces have been presented and discussed in categorical aspects by Lawrence M. Brown and Alexander Sostak (see bibliography. In this paper, the authors generalize the structure of difilters in ditopological texture spaces defined in (see bibliography to the graded ditopological texture spaces and compare the properties of difilters and graded difilters.

  16. 7 CFR 51.3410 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades. 51.3410 Section 51.3410 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes for Processing 1 § 51.3410 Grades. (a) “U.S. No. 1 Processing” consists of...

  17. 46 CFR 164.003-2 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grades. 164.003-2 Section 164.003-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Kapok, Processed § 164.003-2 Grades. (a) Processed kapok shall be of but one grade as in...

  18. Grade Inflation from a Career Counselor's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ik-Whan G.; Kendig, Nancy L.; Bae, Mueun

    1997-01-01

    Explores possible reasons for grade inflation by examining two sets of business graduates (N=300) from McKendree College. Results indicate that grade inflation apparently continued throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. However, if other statistically significant variables, such as age and ACT scores, were considered, then grade inflation seemed…

  19. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  20. Grade Inflation: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Donald L.; Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: (1) student evaluations of professors; (2) student teacher…

  1. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  2. Student Perspectives of Grading in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Recent state and federal legislations on educational accountability push evaluation and grading to the frontline. This study examined students' perspectives of grading in physical education. The participants included students (N = 39) from two middle schools. Data were collected through observation, student profile grading sheets and interviews.…

  3. Hardwood log grading scale stick improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. D. Ostrander; G. H. Englerth

    1953-01-01

    In February 1952 the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station described ( Research Note 13) a new log-grading scale stick developed by the Station for use as a visual aid in grading hardwood factory logs. It was based on the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory's log-grade specifications.

  4. 7 CFR 51.1575 - U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., other diseases, wireworm, other insects, or mechanical or other means. Potatoes of these grades shall... Potatoes Grades § 51.1575 U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; U.S. Grade A Large. Potatoes of each of these grades shall be of one variety or similar varietal...

  5. Forecasts of the Grade Sizes in a Markovian Manpower Model in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forecasts of the Grade Sizes in a Markovian Manpower Model in Continuous Time. Charles CO Iwunor. Abstract. No Abstract Available Discovery and Innovation Vol.16(1&2) 2004: 37-40. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  6. Stop Giving in to Higher Grades: Ten Suggestions on How to Fight Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Grade inflation has been a consistently ignored problem in the public schools and universities for over fifty years. Grades keep getting higher and higher for a multitude of reasons. Students expect high grades. Parents demand high grades of their children and teachers. Some administrators implicitly or explicitly require that their teachers give…

  7. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  8. The effect of various grading scales on student grade point averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Buring, Shauna M

    2012-04-10

    To investigate changes in and the impact of grading scales from 2005 to 2010 and explore pharmacy faculty and student perceptions of whole-letter and plus/minus grading scales on cumulative grade point averages (GPAs) in required courses. Grading scales used in 2010 at the University of Cincinnati College of Pharmacy were retrospectively identified and compared to those used in 2005. Mean GPA was calculated using a whole-letter grading scale and a plus/minus grading scale to determine the impact of scales on GPA. Faculty members and students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of plus/minus grading. Nine unique grading scales were used throughout the curriculum, including plus/minus (64%) and whole-letter (21%) grading scales. From 2005 to 2010 there was transition from use of predominantly whole-letter scales to plus/minus grading scales. The type of grading scale used did not affect the mean cumulative GPA. Students preferred use of a plus-only grading scale while faculty members preferred use of a plus/minus grading scale. The transition from whole-letter grading to plus/minus grading in courses from 2005 to 2010 reflects pharmacy faculty members' perception that plus/minus grading allows for better differentiation between students' performances.

  9. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: charlottedai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  10. Antifungal agents. Part 4: Synthesis and antifungal activities of novel indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazine derivatives against phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Fan, Ling-Ling

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazine derivatives were obtained by a modified Sandmeyer reaction in the presence of tert-butylnitrite (t-BuONO). As compared with hymexazol, a commercially available agricultural fungicide, at the concentration of 50 μg/mL, two indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazines, 5h and 5k, exhibited the more promising and pronounced antifungal activities in vitro against five phytopathogenic fungi. It clearly demonstrated that introduction of appropriate substituents on the indolyl ring of indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazine (5a) would lead to the more potent derivatives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Graded bandgap perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Onur; Gilbert, S. Matt; Pham, Thang; Turner, Sally J.; Tan, Mark Tian Zhi; Worsley, Marcus A.; Zettl, Alex

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials have emerged as attractive alternatives to conventional solar cell building blocks. Their high light absorption coefficients and long diffusion lengths suggest high power conversion efficiencies, and indeed perovskite-based single bandgap and tandem solar cell designs have yielded impressive performances. One approach to further enhance solar spectrum utilization is the graded bandgap, but this has not been previously achieved for perovskites. In this study, we demonstrate graded bandgap perovskite solar cells with steady-state conversion efficiencies averaging 18.4%, with a best of 21.7%, all without reflective coatings. An analysis of the experimental data yields high fill factors of ~75% and high short-circuit current densities up to 42.1 mA cm-2. The cells are based on an architecture of two perovskite layers (CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx), incorporating GaN, monolayer hexagonal boron nitride, and graphene aerogel.

  12. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Hazari, Arnab

    2015-11-12

    III-nitride nanowirediodeheterostructures with multiple In0.85Ga0.15N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ∼3 × 1010 cm−2. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of Jth, T0, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm2, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10−17 cm2, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ∼1.2 μm.

  13. Adult IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas should be further stratified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibaidula, Abudumijit; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Rui; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liangfu; Wu, Jinsong; Chen, Hong; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2017-10-01

    Astrocytoma of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type gene is described as a provisional entity within the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Some groups believe that IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas, when interrogated for other biomarkers, will mostly turn out to be glioblastoma. We hypothesize that not all IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas have very poor outcomes and the group could be substratified prognostically. Seven hundred and eighteen adult WHO grades II and III patients with gliomas from our hospitals were re-reviewed and tested for IDH1/2 mutations. One hundred and sixty-six patients with IDH wild-type cases were identified for further studies, and EGFR and MYB amplifications, mutations of histone H3F3A, TERT promoter (TERTp), and BRAF were examined. EGFR amplification, BRAF, and H3F3A mutations were observed in 13.8%, 6.9%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively, in a mutually exclusive pattern in IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas. TERTp mutations were detected in 26.8% of cases. Favorable outcome was observed in patients with young age, oligodendroglial phenotype, and grade II histology. Independent adverse prognostic values of older age, nontotal resection, grade III histology, EGFR amplification, and H3F3A mutation were confirmed by multivariable analysis. Tumors were further classified into "molecularly" high grade (harboring EGFR, H3F3A, or TERTp) (median overall survival = 1.23 y) and lower grade (lacking all of the 3) (median overall survival = 7.63 y) with independent prognostic relevance. The most favorable survival was noted in molecularly lower-grade gliomas with MYB amplification. Adult IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas are prognostically heterogeneous and do not have uniformly poor prognosis. Clinical information and additional markers, including MYB, EGFR, TERTp, and H3F3A, should be examined to delineate discrete favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups.

  14. Non-invasive tryptophan fluorescence measurements as a novel method of grading cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Jesper Høiberg; Mensah, Aurore; Kessel, Line

    2017-12-01

    Development of non-invasive treatments for cataract calls for a sensitive diagnostic assay. We conducted a study to test whether the ratio of folded tryptophan to non-tryptophan fluorescence emission (F-factor) may be used for grading cataracts in human lenses. The F-factor was measured on aspirated lens material from eyes undergoing femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and was compared to a preoperative optical grading of cataract using Scheimpflug imaging. The preoperative optical grading allocated the cataracts to 1 of 4 categories according to the density of the cataract. All cataracts were age-related. Lens material from 16 eyes of 14 patients was included in the study. Cataracts were preoperatively graded in categories 1, 2 and 3. No lenses were category 4. For nuclear cataracts mean values of F-factor were 52.9 (SD 12.2), 61.7 (SD 5.3) and 75.7 (SD 8.9) for categories 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Linear regression on F-factor as a function of preoperative grading category showed increasing values of F-factor with increasing preoperative grading category, R2 = 0.515. Our experiment showed that preoperative optical grading of cataracts by Scheimpflug imaging may correlate to measures of tryptophan and non-tryptophan fluorescence in human lenses. Based on our results we find that measuring the ratio between tryptophan- and non-tryptophan fluorescence may be a future tool for grading cataracts, but further research is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frustrated mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, M; Bobák, A

    2015-05-01

    Mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice with sublattices A, B, and C are studied for two spin-value distributions (S(A),S(B),S(C))=(1/2,1/2,1) and (1/2,1,1) by Monte Carlo simulations. The nonbipartite character of the lattice induces geometrical frustration in both systems, which leads to the critical behavior rather different from their ferromagnetic counterparts. We confirm second-order phase transitions belonging to the standard Ising universality class occurring at higher temperatures, however, in both models these change at tricritical points (TCP) to first-order transitions at lower temperatures. In the model (1/2,1/2,1), TCP occurs on the boundary between paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (±1/21/2,∓1) phases. The boundary between two ferrimagnetic phases (±1/21/2,∓1) and (±1/2,∓1/2,0) at lower temperatures is always first order and it is joined by a line of second-order phase transitions between the paramagnetic and the ferrimagnetic (±1/2,∓1/2,0) phases at a critical endpoint. The tricritical behavior is also confirmed in the model (1/2,1,1) on the boundary between the paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (0,±1,∓1) phases.

  16. [Bladder transitional cell carcinoma rating, systematization of grading and value of DNA ploidy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro Martín, I; Alvarez Pérez, M; Blanes Berenguel, A; Quiñonero Díaz, A; Díaz Cano, S; García González, I; Matilla Vicente, A

    1999-06-01

    TCCs are an heterogenous group of tumors with an uncertain biologic behaviour, especially intermediate grade (G2). Histologic grade and pathologic stage have revealed only partially useful on predicting the outcome. Search and statement of objective and cuantitative parameters able to define prognostic subgroups to TCCs. We studied consecutive 106 patients with TCC in order to: 1) Identify every variable with independent predictive value in classifying cases of TCC in a three (1,2,3) or two (high/low) grades systems. 2) Make a correlation between DNA ploidy obtained by image analysis and DNA ploidy and S-phase obtained by flow cytometry. Every variable used to define the histologic grade showed significative correlation with both gradation systems. In multivariate analysis, the presence of superficial cells and the mitotic counts revealed us the most valuable variables in predicting the histologic grade. DNA-ploidy (both obtained by static an flow cytometry) correlated well with grade, stage, growth pattern and necrosis, whereas S-phase did so with grade, mitotic index and DNA ploidy. Image cytometry showed similars results to those of flow cytometry and also was able to detect aneuploidy when an situ carcinoma or dysplasia were present in the adyacent mucosa.

  17. Low-grade central osteosarcoma in proximal humerus: a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan Tang,1,2 Li Min,1,2 Yong Zhou,1 Yi Luo,1 Chongqi Tu1 1Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Sarcoma Biology Laboratory, Center for Sarcoma and Connective Tissue Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Low-grade central osteosarcoma is a rare subtype of tumor with low-grade malignancy. Currently, wide resection with negative resection margin is the standard treatment for this disease. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in low-grade central osteosarcoma was controversial and was mostly considered for tumors containing high-grade focal areas. Local tumor recurrences often exhibited a tumor with higher histologic grade or differentiation with the potential for metastases. In low-grade central osteosarcoma, timely wide resection after definite diagnosis can result in 5-year survival for almost 90%. However, the relatively nonspecific radiological and pathological findings make diagnosis very difficult. MDM2 and CDK4 are specific and provide sensitive markers for the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma, helping to differentiate low-grade central osteosarcoma from some benign lesions, including fibrous dysplasia, bone giant cell tumor, and chondrosarcoma. Here, we report the case of a 19-year-old woman with low-grade central osteosarcoma located at the proximal humerus. The affected site was rare, but the sensitive biomarkers CDK4 and MDM2 were positive. The patient recovered well after wide tumor resection following a proximal humerus endoprosthesis replacement. Our case highlighted the management strategies in low-grade central osteosarcoma. Being familiar with radiographic features, understanding the biological characteristics, and mastering diagnostic biomarkers can help oncologists avoid embarrassing situations in treatment when this rare tumor is highly suspected, even when located at an uncommon site. The discussion in this report

  18. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  19. Experimental Fracture Measurements of Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ray Douglas

    The primary objective of this research was to extend established fracture toughness testing methods to a new class of engineering materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs). Secondary goals were to compare experimental results to those predicted by finite element models and to provide fracture test results as feedback toward optimizing processing parameters for the in-house synthesis of a MoSi2/SiC FGM. Preliminary experiments were performed on commercially pure (CP) Ti and uniform axial tensile tests resulted in mechanical property data including yield strength, 268 MPa, ultimate tensile strength, 470 MPa and Young's modulus, 110 GPa. Results from 3-point bending fracture experiments on CP Ti demonstrated rising R-curve behavior and experimentally determined JQ fracture toughness values ranged between 153 N/mm and 254 N/mm. Similar experimental protocols were used for fracture experiments on a 7- layered Ti/TiB FGM material obtained from Cercom in Vista, California. A novel technique for pre-cracking in reverse 4-point bending was developed for this ductile/brittle FGM material. Fracture test results exhibited rising R-curve behavior and estimated JQ fracture toughness values ranged from 0.49 N/mm to 2.63 N/mm. A 5- layered MoSi2/SiC FGM was synthesized using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Samples of this material were fracture tested and the results again exhibited a rising R-curve with KIC fracture toughness values ranging from 2.7 MPa-m1/2 to 6.0 MPa-m1/2. Finite Element Models predicted rising R-curve behavior for both of the FGM materials tested. Model results were in close agreement for the brittle MoSi2/SiC FGM. For the relatively more ductile Ti/TiB material, results were in close agreement at short crack lengths but diverged at longer crack lengths because the models accounted for fracture toughening mechanisms at the crack tip but not those acting in the crack wake.

  20. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  1. Bioavailability of Clindamycin From a New Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%-Benzoyl Peroxide 3% Combination Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry M; Jasper, Stacy; Alió Sáenz, Alessandra B

    2013-01-01

    A new topical fixed-dose combination product containing clindamycin (1%, formulated as 1.2% clindamycin phosphate, CLNP 1.2%) with low strength (3%) benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in a methylparaben-free gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF) has been developed for the treatment of acne. The objective of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide from CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF compared with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 5% in a methylparaben-preserved gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP) and clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 5% in a methylparaben-free gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF), and to determine whether exposure is affected by BPO concentration (3% vs. 5%) when applied topically. Seventy-two subjects with moderate-severe acne were randomized to receive CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF, CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP, or CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF in a 5-day, open-label, and parallel-group study. Cmax and AUC values for clindamycin were highest for CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP, followed by CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF and CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF, but differences were not statistically significant. Systemic exposure to clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide was low and comparable between the formulations. Results indicate that differences in BPO concentration do not influence clindamycin bioavailability. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II–III diffuse gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Diefes, Kristin; Heathcock, Lindsey E.; van Thuijl, Hinke F.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Armstrong, Terri S.; Sulman, Erik P.; Cahill, Daniel P.; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Yuan, Ying; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Ylstra, Bauke; Wesseling, Pieter; Aldape, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse gliomas are up till now graded based upon morphology. Recent findings indicate that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status defines biologically distinct groups of tumors. The role of tumor grade and mitotic index in patient outcome has not been evaluated following stratification by IDH mutation status. To address this, we interrogated 558 WHO grade II–III diffuse gliomas for IDH1/2 mutations and investigated the prognostic impact of WHO grade within IDH-mutant and wild-type tumor subsets independently. The prognostic impact of grade was modest in IDH-mutant [hazard ratio (HR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.91–1.61] compared to IDH-wild type tumors (HR=1.74, 95% CI=0.95–3.16). Using a dichotomized mitotic index cut-off of 4/1000 tumor cells, we found that while mitotic index was significantly associated with outcome in IDH-wild type tumors (log-rank pIDH-mutant tumors (log-rank p=0.5157, HR=1.10, 95% CI=0.80–1.51), and could demonstrate a statistical interaction (pIDH mutation and mitotic index (i.e. suggesting that the effect of mitotic index on patient outcome is dependent on IDH mutation status). Patient age, an established prognostic factor in diffuse glioma, was significantly associated with outcome only in the IDH-wild type subset, and consistent with prior data, 1p/19q co-deletion conferred improved outcome in the IDH-mutant cohort. These findings suggest that stratification of grade II–III gliomas into subsets defined by the presence or absence of IDH mutation leads to subgroups with distinct prognostic characteristics. Further evaluation of grading criteria and prognostic markers is warranted within IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild type diffuse grade II–III gliomas as independent entities. PMID:25701198

  3. IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II-III diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Alfaro-Munoz, Kristin D; Heathcock, Lindsey E; van Thuijl, Hinke F; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S; Sulman, Erik P; Cahill, Daniel P; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Yuan, Ying; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Ylstra, Bauke; Wesseling, Pieter; Aldape, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse gliomas are up till now graded based upon morphology. Recent findings indicate that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status defines biologically distinct groups of tumors. The role of tumor grade and mitotic index in patient outcome has not been evaluated following stratification by IDH mutation status. To address this, we interrogated 558 WHO grade II-III diffuse gliomas for IDH1/2 mutations and investigated the prognostic impact of WHO grade within IDH-mutant and IDH-wild type tumor subsets independently. The prognostic impact of grade was modest in IDH-mutant [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.21, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.91-1.61] compared to IDH-wild type tumors (HR = 1.74, 95 % CI = 0.95-3.16). Using a dichotomized mitotic index cut-off of 4/1000 tumor cells, we found that while mitotic index was significantly associated with outcome in IDH-wild type tumors (log-rank p IDH-mutant tumors (log-rank p = 0.5157, HR = 1.10, 95 % CI = 0.80-1.51), and could demonstrate a statistical interaction (p IDH mutation and mitotic index (i.e., suggesting that the effect of mitotic index on patient outcome is dependent on IDH mutation status). Patient age, an established prognostic factor in diffuse glioma, was significantly associated with outcome only in the IDH-wild type subset, and consistent with prior data, 1p/19q co-deletion conferred improved outcome in the IDH-mutant cohort. These findings suggest that stratification of grade II-III gliomas into subsets defined by the presence or absence of IDH mutation leads to subgroups with distinct prognostic characteristics. Further evaluation of grading criteria and prognostic markers is warranted within IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild type diffuse grade II-III gliomas as independent entities.

  4. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  5. Dielectric behavior and phase transition in perovskite oxide Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)1?xTixO3 single crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y.; Luo, H.; Or, S.W.; Wang, Y.; Chan, H.L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite oxide Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)0.52Ti0.48O3 crystals, which were grown using a modified Bridgman method, show a high low-frequency dielectric constant response at room temperature. The Curie phase transition occurs at 523 K. The characteristic frequency of the dielectric dispersion versus the

  6. Genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes food isolates and pathogenic potential within serovars 1/2a and 1/2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Paula; Correia, Sónia; Ferreira-Dias, Suzana; Brito, Luisa

    2004-08-01

    A total of 39 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from raw milk, smoked meat, chicken carcass and reference strains, belonging to serovars 1/2a, 4a, 1/2b, 3b and 4b, were analysed by RAPD and by polymorphisms of the virulent genes inlAB and iap. Ten isolates, belonging to serovars 1/2a and 1/2b and, collected from raw milk and smoked meat, were further tested for pathogenicity by IP injection into mice. The clustering of the 39 L. monocytogenes strains in 3 groups at 0.45 similarity level, based on molecular typing, was observed. Distribution of serovars in these clusters was in agreement with the proposed three Listeria monocytogenes lineages. Within serovar 1/2b, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) ranged from 8.4 x 10(4) to 1.7 x 10(6) cfu.ml(-1). One of the serovar 1/2b strains, isolated from smoked meat, exhibited the lowest virulence potential evaluated by LD50 and by mean time to death (MTD) and, from this point of view, was completely different from the other strains. Our results suggest the existence of heterogeneity in virulence levels within serovars 1/2a and 1/2b. However, when comparing the isolates based on genotyping, virulence indicators and food origin, no relation could be assessed.

  7. Does Learning-Centered Teaching Promote Grade Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostrom, Alison M.; Blumberg, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    When the grade distribution within a course shifts towards higher grades, it may be due to grade inflation or grade improvement. If the positive shift is accompanied by an increase in achievement or learning, it should be considered grade improvement, "not" grade inflation. Effective learning-centered teaching is designed to promote student…

  8. 46 CFR 164.006-2 - Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grades. 164.006-2 Section 164.006-2 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPROVAL MATERIALS Deck Coverings for Merchant Vessels § 164.006-2 Grades. (a) Deck coverings shall be of but one grade as specified in this subpart, and shall be known as “an approved deck covering.” (b) ...

  9. Adsorption of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in nano- and microsized crystals of MIL-101(Cr): static and dynamic gravimetric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullot, Laetitia; Vieira-Sellaï, Ludivine; Chaplais, Gérald; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Daou, Toufic Jean; Patarin, Joël; Fiani, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to highlight the promising adsorption capacity and kinetic of (poly)chlorobenzene pollutants in the hybrid MIL-101(Cr) type material for technological uses in industrial waste exhaust decontamination. The influence of the MIL-101(Cr) crystal size (nano- and microcrystals) on the adsorption behavior was studied in static and dynamic modes. For this purpose, crystals of MIL-101(Cr) in nano- and micrometric sizes were synthesized and fully characterized. Their sorption properties regarding 1,2-dichlorobenzene were examined using gravimetric method in dynamic (p/p° = 0.5) and static (p/p° = 1) modes at room temperature. 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene adsorption was only performed under static mode because of its too low vapor pressure. 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were used to mimic 2,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, respectively, and more largely dioxin compounds. Adsorptions of these probes were successfully carried out in nano- and microcrystals of MIL-101(Cr). Indeed, in static mode (p/p° = 1) and at room temperature, nanocrystals adsorb 2266 molecules of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 2093 molecules of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene per unit cell, whereas microcrystals adsorb 1871 molecules of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1631 molecules of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene per unit cell. In dynamic mode, the 1,2-dichlorobenzene adsorbed amounts are substantially similar to those obtained in static mode. However, the adsorption kinetics are different because of a different scheme of diffusivity of the adsorbate between the two modes. To the best of our knowledge, these adsorption capacities of MIL-101(Cr) as adsorbent for polychlorobenzenes trapping have never been referenced. MIL-101(Cr) appears as a promising material for technological uses in industrial waste exhaust decontamination.

  10. Improving Student's Lab Practices: the Performance Grade

    CERN Document Server

    Lippi, G L

    2015-01-01

    Instilling good laboratory working attitudes in students is a difficult but very important task, especially in the first level courses. The introduction of a grade, based on the observation of work practices during laboratory sessions, can be strongly beneficial towards the acquisition of positive skills covering not only the technical aspects, but also the acquisition of both independence and team work. Explicit suggestions are given for basing the grade on specific observations and a quantitative analysis is performed to guarantee that the higher intrinsic volatility of the Performance Grade does not affect the final laboratory grade.

  11. Does Relative Grading help Male Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph

    The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most...... commonly used grading practices: the absolute (i.e., criterion-referenced) and the relative (i.e., norm-referenced) grading schemes in a large-scale field experiment at a university. We hypothesize that relative grading, by creating a rank-order tournament in the classroom, provides stronger incentives...

  12. Functional outcomes following robotic prostatectomy using athermal, traction free risk-stratified grades of nerve sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ashutosh K; Ali, Adnan; Metgud, Sheela; Theckumparampil, Nithin; Srivastava, Abhishek; Khani, Francesca; Robinson, Brian D; Gumpeni, Naveen; Shevchuk, Maria M; Durand, Matthieu; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Li, Jinyi; Leung, Robert; Peyser, Alexandra; Gruschow, Siobhan; Asija, Vinita; Harneja, Niyati

    2013-06-01

    To report our unique approach for individualizing robotic prostate cancer surgery by risk stratification and sub classification of the periprostatic space into 4 distinct compartments, and thus performing 4 precise different grades of nerve sparing based on neurosurgical principles and to present updated potency and continence outcomes data of patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) using our risk-stratified approach based on layers of periprostatic fascial dissection. (1) Between January 2005 and December 2010, 2,536 men underwent RALP by a single surgeon at our institution. (2) Included patients were those with ≥ 1-year follow-up and were preoperatively continent and potent, defined as having a SHIM questionnaire score of >21; thus, the final number of patient in the study cohort was 1,335. (3) Postoperative potency was defined as the ability to have successful intercourse (score of ≥ 4 on question 2 of the SHIM); continence was defined as the use of no pads per 24 h. (1) The potency and continence for NS grades 1, 2, 3, and 4 were found to be 90.6, 76.2, 60.5, and 57.1 % (P grades 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 10.5, 7, 5.8, and 4.8 %, respectively (P = 0.064). The study found a correlation between risk-stratified grades of NS technique and continence and potency. Patients with lesser grades of NS had higher rates of potency and continence.

  13. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  14. Low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: A National Cancer Database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Shilpi, Arunima; Buchanan, Samuel; Goodman, Chelain; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2017-08-01

    To provide refined prognostic information from large cohorts of women with low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). We performed an observational retrospective cohort analysis of women diagnosed with low-grade or high-grade ESS from the 1998-2013 National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable accelerated failure time survival analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors after multiple imputation of missing data. Recursive partitioning methods were used to rank prognostic factors in high-grade ESS. Matched cohort analyses were performed to hypothesis-test effects of adjuvant treatments. We identified 2414 and 1383 women with low-grade or high-grade ESS, respectively. Women with high-grade ESS had markedly decreased survival compared to women with low-grade ESS (five-year survival (95% CI): 32.6 (30.1-35.3%) versus 90.5% (89.3-91.8%), P<0.001). Among women with high-grade ESS, median survival (95% CI) was only 19.9 (17.1-22.1) months. Increased age and tumor size were associated with decreased survival in low-grade ESS. In high-grade ESS, additional negative prognostic factors were distant or nodal metastasis, omission of lymphadenectomy, and pathologically-positive surgical margins (all P<0.001). Use of adjuvant chemotherapy (time ratio (TR) (95% CI): 1.36 (1.17-1.58), P<0.001) and radiotherapy (TR (95% CI): 1.57 (1.32-1.87), P<0.001) were associated with increased survival for high-grade ESS. The contrasting excellent versus poor prognosis of low-grade versus high-grade ESS, respectively, was confirmed. The best treatment of high-grade ESS is early and complete surgical resection including lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may increase survival of women with high-grade ESS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI differentiation of low-grade from high-grade appendicular chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, Hassan; Singh, Leanne; Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    To identify magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features which differentiate low-grade chondral lesions (atypical cartilaginous tumours/grade 1 chondrosarcoma) from high-grade chondrosarcomas (grade 2, grade 3 and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma) of the major long bones. We identified all patients treated for central atypical cartilaginous tumours and central chondrosarcoma of major long bones (humerus, femur, tibia) over a 13-year period. The MRI studies were assessed for the following features: bone marrow oedema, soft tissue oedema, bone expansion, cortical thickening, cortical destruction, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length. The MRI-features were compared with the histopathological tumour grading using univariate, multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. One hundred and seventy-nine tumours were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 atypical cartilaginous tumours, 79 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, 36 grade 2 chondrosarcomas, 13 grade 3 chondrosarcomas and 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that bone expansion (P = 0.001), active periostitis (P = 0.001), soft tissue mass (P < 0.001) and tumour length (P < 0.001) were statistically significant differentiating factors between low-grade and high-grade chondral lesions with an area under the ROC curve of 0.956. On MRI, bone expansion, active periostitis, soft tissue mass and tumour length can reliably differentiate high-grade chondrosarcomas from low-grade chondral lesions of the major long bones. (orig.)

  16. Peer Victimization in Fifth Grade and Health in Tenth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Klein, David J.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Mrug, Sylvie; Peskin, Melissa F.; Davies, Susan L.; Schink, Elizabeth T.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who experience bullying, a type of peer victimization, show worse mental and physical health cross-sectionally. Few studies have assessed these relationships longitudinally. We examined longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health from elementary to high school, comparing effects of different bullying histories. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4297 children surveyed at 3 time points (fifth, seventh, and tenth grades) in 3 cities. We used multivariable regressions to test longitudinal associations of bullying with mental and physical health by comparing youth who experienced bullying in both the past and present, experienced bullying in the present only, experienced bullying in the past only, or did not experience bullying. RESULTS: Bullying was associated with worse mental and physical health, greater depression symptoms, and lower self-worth over time. Health was significantly worse for children with both past and present bullying experiences, followed by children with present-only experiences, children with past-only experiences, and children with no experiences. For example, 44.6% of children bullied in both the past and present were at the lowest decile of psychosocial health, compared with 30.7% of those bullied in the present only (P = .005), 12.1% of those bullied in the past only (P bullied (P bullying are associated with substantially worse health. Clinicians who recognize bullying when it first starts could intervene to reverse the downward health trajectory experienced by youth who are repeated targets. PMID:24534401

  17. Early childhood precursors and adolescent sequelae of grade school peer rejection and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Kalvin, Carla B; Heinrichs, Brenda S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with grade school peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. A central goal was to better understand the common and unique developmental correlates associated with these two types of peer adversity. There were 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male; average age=5.65 at kindergarten entry) followed into seventh grade. Six waves of data were included in structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior, emotion dysregulation, and internalizing problems in kindergarten and Grade 1 (Waves 1-2); peer sociometric nominations tracked "least liked" and victimization in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (Waves 3-5); and youth reported on social problems, depressed mood, school adjustment difficulties, and delinquent activities in early adolescence (Grade 7, Wave 6). Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to grade school peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to grade school victimization. Early internalizing problems and grade school victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and grade school peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer rejection and victimization, and these two types of peer adversity had distinct as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research.

  18. A Review of The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryo Grading System and Proposed Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Amjad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART method of embryo grad- ing is unique, simple, and widely practiced, and its use has been mandatory for SART membership programs since 2010. Developed by SART in 2006, the current embryo grading system categories, “good, fair, and poor,” are limited because they do not describe the best 1-2 embryos in the interest of keeping pace with the shift in clinical practice to be more selective and to transfer fewer embryos. This inspired us to conduct a review on the SART embryo grading system. In this retrospective study, the literature on evaluation of human embryo quality in gen- eral, and the SART method of evaluation in particular, were reviewed for the period of 2000 to 2014. A multifaceted search pertaining to methods of embryo grading and trans- fer using a combination of relevant terms [embryo, mammalian, embryo transfer, grade, grading, morphology, biomarkers, SART, and in vitro fertilization (IVF] was performed. The inclusion and exclusion in this review were dictated by the aim and scope of the study. Two investigators independently assessed the studies and extracted information. A total of 61 articles were reviewed. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of the SART embryo grading method. The present study suggests the necessity for revision of the current SART grading system. The system, as it is now, lacks criteria for describing the cohort specific best embryo and thus is of limited use in single embryo transfer. The study foresees heightened descriptive efficiency of the SART system by implementing the proposed changes. Strengths and weaknesses of the SART embryo grading were identified. Ideas for selecting the best cohort-specific embryo have been discussed, which may trigger methodological improvement in SART and other embryo grading systems.

  19. Cerebral inflammatory response and predictors of admission clinical grade after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Khalid A; Morgan Stuart, R; Fernandez, Luis; Schmidt, J Michael; Claassen, Jan; Lee, Kiwon; Sander Connolly, E; Mayer, Stephan A; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Poor admission clinical grade is the most important determinant of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH); however, little attention has been focused on independent predictors of poor admission clinical grade. We hypothesized that the cerebral inflammatory response initiated at the time of aneurysm rupture contributes to ultra-early brain injury and poor admission clinical grade. We sought to identify factors known to contribute to cerebral inflammation as well as markers of cerebral dysfunction that were associated with poor admission clinical grade. Between 1997 and 2008, 850 consecutive SAH patients were enrolled in our prospective database. Demographic data, physiological parameters, and location and volume of blood were recorded. After univariate analysis, significant variables were entered into a logistic regression model to identify significant associations with poor admission clinical grade (Hunt-Hess grade 4-5). Independent predictors of poor admission grade included a SAH sum score >15/30 (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.6), an intraventricular hemorrhage sum score >1/12 (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.1-4.8), aneurysm size >10mm (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6), body temperature 38.3 degrees C (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.4), and hyperglycemia >200mg/dL (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.5). In a large, consecutive series of prospectively enrolled patients with SAH, the inflammatory response at the time of aneurysm rupture, as reflected by the volume and location of the hemoglobin burden, hyperthermia, and perturbed glucose metabolism, independently predicts poor admission Hunt-Hess grade. Strategies for mitigating the inflammatory response to aneurysmal rupture in the hyper-acute setting may improve the admission clinical grade, which may in turn improve outcomes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. To Grade or Not to Grade: Student Perceptions of the Effects of Grading a Course in Work-Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddan, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of introducing the typical course grading process to a work-integrated learning course in exercise science in order to motivate students to produce their best efforts in assessment tasks relevant to their future employability. The course had incorporated a non-graded pass/fail system of assessment since…

  1. Absence of HTLV-1/2 infection and dermatological diseases in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Leny Nascimento da Motta; Moraes, Márcia Poinho Encarnação de; Tamegão-Lopes, Bruna; Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues de; Machado, Paulo Roberto de Lima; Mira, Marcelo Távora; Talhari, Sinésio

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) infection is heterogeneous across different populations. We tested the hypothesis that HTLV-1/2 infection occurs more often in dermatological patients. A total of 1,091 patients from a tropical dermatology clinic were tested for HTLV-1/2. In parallel, 6865 first-time blood donors from the same geographic area were screened for HTLV-1/2; HTLV-1/2 positive blood donors underwent dermatological examinations. The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in first-time blood donors was 0.14%. No co-occurrence of HTLV-1/2 infection and dermatological conditions was observed. Our results challenge the hypothesis that HTLV-1/2 infection occurs more often in dermatological patients.

  2. Phenotyping of Nod1/2 double deficient mice and characterization of Nod1/2 in systemic inflammation and associated renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Stroo

    2012-10-01

    It is indispensable to thoroughly characterize each animal model in order to distinguish between primary and secondary effects of genetic changes. The present study analyzed Nod1 and Nod2 double deficient (Nod1/2 DKO mice under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Nod1 and Nod2 are members of the Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat containing Receptor (NLR family. Several inflammatory disorders, such as Crohn's disease and asthma, are linked to genetic changes in either Nod1 or Nod2. These associations suggest that Nod1 and Nod2 play important roles in regulating the immune system. Three-month-old wildtype (Wt and Nod1/2 DKO mice were sacrificed, body and organ weight were determined, and blood was drawn. Except for lower liver weight in Nod1/2 DKO mice, no differences were found in body/organ weight between both strains. Leukocyte count and composition was comparable. No significant changes in analyzed plasma biochemical markers were found. Additionally, intestinal and vascular permeability was determined. Nod1/2 DKO mice show increased susceptibility for intestinal permeability while vascular permeability was not affected. Next we induced septic shock and organ damage by administering LPS+PGN intraperitoneally to Wt and Nod1/2 DKO mice and sacrificed animals after 2 and 24 hours. The systemic inflammatory and metabolic response was comparable between both strains. However, renal response was different as indicated by partly preserved kidney function and tubular epithelial cell damage in Nod1/2 DKO at 24 hours. Remarkably, renal inflammatory mediators Tnfα, KC and Il-10 were significantly increased in Nod1/2 DKO compared with Wt mice at 2 hours. Systematic analysis of Nod1/2 DKO mice revealed a possible role of Nod1/2 in the development of renal disease during systemic inflammation.

  3. Discovery of ‘click’ 1,2,3-triazolium salts as potential anticancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Ivana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment, new compounds with potential anticancer activities are synthesized and screened. Here we present the screening of a new class of compounds, 1-(2-picolyl-, 4-(2-picolyl-, 1-(2-pyridyl-, and 4-(2-pyridyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium salts and ‘parent’ 1,2,3-triazole precursors.

  4. MCAT Scores to Grade Point Ratio: An Index of College Grade Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, David A.; Wagner, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    In an investigation of trends in grade inflation, the grade point averages and Medical College Admission Tests scores for medical school applicants in all undergraduate colleges with at least five such applicants were compared over four years. (MSE)

  5. Economic Organization Module. Test Booklet. Test Items for Booklets 1, 2, 3=Libro de prueba. Modulo de organizacion economica. Itemes de prueba para los libros 1, 2, 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  6. Personality Module. Test Booklet. Test Items for Booklets 1, 2, 3=Modulo de personalidad. Libro de prueba. Itemes de prueba para los libros 1, 2, 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to improve…

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types. Consideration... sites for characterization shall have different types of host rock. ...

  8. The Impact of Early Exposure of Eighth Grade Math Standards on End of Grade Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tonjai E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Cumberland County Schools district-wide issue surrounding the disproportional performance of eighth grade Math I students' proficiency scores on standardized end-of-grade and end-of-course assessments. The study focused on the impact of the school district incorporating eighth grade math standards in…

  9. How Minimal Grade Goals and Self-Control Capacity Interact in Predicting Test Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The present research examined the prediction of school students' grades in an upcoming math test via their minimal grade goals (i.e., the minimum grade in an upcoming test one would be satisfied with). Due to its significance for initiating and maintaining goal-directed behavior, self-control capacity was expected to moderate the relation between…

  10. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  11. What's in a Grade? Grading Policies and Practices in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Miller, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Survey results from a national sample of economics instructors describe the grading policies and practices in principles of economics courses. The survey results provide insights about absolute and relative grading systems used by instructors, the course components and their weights that determine grades, and the type of assessment items used for…

  12. The USDA quality grades may mislead consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVuyst, E A; Lusk, J L; DeVuyst, M A

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to explore consumers' perceptions about and knowledge of USDA beef quality grades. Data were collected from over 1,000 consumers in online surveys in November and December 2013, and estimates were weighted to force the sample to mirror the U.S. population in terms of age, gender, education, and region of residence. When asked to rank Prime, Choice, and Select grades in terms of leanness, only 14.4% provided the correct ranking with 57.1% of respondents incorrectly indicating steaks grading Prime were the leanest. Despite perceptions that the Prime name indicated the leanest product, in a subsequent question, 55.6% of respondents thought Prime grade to be the juiciest of the 3 grades. In addition to inquiring about perceptions of the grade names, respondents also indicated perceptions of pictures of steaks. Only 14.5% of respondents correctly matched the steak pictures with their corresponding USDA quality grade name, an outcome that is statistically worse than would have occurred through pure random matching (P = 0.03). When asked to match pictures of steaks with expected prices, 54.8% of respondents incorrectly matched the picture of the Prime steak with the lowest price level. More highly educated consumers with greater preferences for steak consumption were more likely to provide correct answers. Results reveal substantial confusion over quality grading nomenclature and suggest the need for more education or for a transition toward more descriptive terminology at the retail level.

  13. Improving Reading in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Nell K.; Block, Meghan K.

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report "Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children," which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in pre-kindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by…

  14. Can Business Students Forecast Their Own Grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines grade expectations of two groups of business students for their final course mark. We separate students that are on average "better" forecasters on the basis of them not making significant forecast errors during the semester from those students that are poor forecasters of their final grade. We find that the better…

  15. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  16. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  17. Correlates of College Students' Attitudes toward Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Changhwan; And Others

    This study describes the development of the Attitude Toward Grades (ATG) survey instrument, a brief internally consistent measure of college student attitude toward grades and reports on selected behavioral correlates of that attitude. An initial item pool of approximately 50 attitude statements was created and the Thurstone equal appearing…

  18. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  19. Zp-graded charge coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang

    2014-06-01

    A new kind of charge coherent state called a Zp-graded charge coherent state is constructed by using the complex solution of the equation qp = 1. The p-1 charge operators are also explicitly constructed. We explicitly investigate some nonclassical properties for the Z3-graded charge coherent state.

  20. Florida's Intuitive Letter Grades Produce Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeb Bush

    2017-01-01

    .... An analysis of the eight states with multiple years of implementation of the A-F grading system found they were making faster improvements on NAEP 4th- and 8th-grade reading and math tests than the nation as a whole...

  1. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Glaros, A.G.; Kato, T.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Manfredini, D.; Svensson, P.; Winocur, E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined

  2. Middle Grades: Misconceptions in Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Kulm, Gerald; Capraro, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 134 sixth-grade students who were using the Connected Mathematics curriculum were administered an open-ended item entitled, Vet Club (Balanced Assessment, 2000). This paper explores the role of misconceptions and naive conceptions in the acquisition of statistical thinking for middle grades students. Students exhibited misconceptions…

  3. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  4. Economics of Grading and Sorting Pallet Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; John A. McLeod; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Before trying to develop an automated inspection system for pallet part grading we analyzed the economics of such a system. Our results suggest that higher quality pallets produced by grading and sorting pallet parts would be attractive to both manufacturers and their customers, who would have to pay increased prices for higher quality pallets. Reductions in cost-per-...

  5. Sawlog grades for eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Robert L. Brisbin; Robert L. Brisbin

    1971-01-01

    In 1957, the USDA Forest Service Log Grade Committee recommended a service-wide action program in log- and tree-grade research. Approval of the program in 1958 resulted in the establishment of five species-oriented timber-quality research projects covering several groups of commercially important timber species. The eastern softwood timber-quality project was activated...

  6. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  7. Synthesis of the New Ring System Bispyrido[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo [1,2-a:1',2'-d]pyrazine and Its Deaza Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Parrino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Derivatives of the new ring systems bispyrido[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a:1',2'-d] pyrazine-6,13-dione and its deaza analogue pyrido[4'',3'':4',5']pyrrolo-[1',2':4,5]pyrazino [1,2-a]indole-6,13-dione were conveniently synthesized through a four-step sequence. Symmetrical derivatives of the former ring system were obtained through self condensation. On the other hand, condensation of 6-azaindole carboxylic acid with indole 2-carboxylic acid afforded the deaza analogue ring system. Derivatives of the title ring system were tested by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA and four of them exhibited modest activity against MCF7 (a breast cancer cell line and/or UO-31 (a renal cancer cell line.

  8. Survival and low grade glioma: the emergence of genetic information

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Elizabeth B.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Wiencke, John; Molinaro, Annette M.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Berger, Mitchel; Jenkins, Robert; Wrensch, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in our understanding of the causes and clinical management of glioma. One of the biggest gaps is how best to manage low grade (World Health Organization (WHO) grade II) glioma patients. Low grade glioma is a uniformly fatal disease of young adults (mean age 41 years) with survival averaging approximately 7 years. Although low grade glioma patients have better survival than patients with high grade (WHO grade III/IV) glioma, all low grade gliomas eventually progress to h...

  9. Adaptive L1/2 Shooting Regularization Method for Survival Analysis Using Gene Expression Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ying; Liang, Yong; Xu, Zong-Ben; Zhang, Hai; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2013-01-01

    A new adaptive L1/2 shooting regularization method for variable selection based on the Cox's proportional hazards mode being proposed. This adaptive L1/2 shooting algorithm can be easily obtained by the optimization of a reweighed iterative series of L1 penalties and a shooting strategy of L1/2 penalty. Simulation results based on high dimensional artificial data show that the adaptive L1/2 shooting regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than Lasso and adaptive Lasso methods. The results from real gene expression dataset (DLBCL) also indicate that the L1/2 regularization method performs competitively. PMID:24453861

  10. Tailoring the piezoelectric and relaxor properties of (Bi1/2 Na1/2) TiO3- BaTiO3 via zirconium doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Acosta, Matias

    2013-01-01

    This article details the influence of zirconium doping on the piezoelectric properties and relaxor characteristics of 94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (BNT-6BZT) bulk ceramics. Neutron diffraction measurements of BNT-6BZT doped with 0%-15% Zr revealed an electric-field-induced transition...

  11. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mc Spirit

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares grade inflation rates among different ability students at a large, open admissions public University. Specifically, this study compares trends in graduating grade point average (GPA from 1983 to 1996 across low, typical and higher ability students. This study also tests other explanations for increases in graduating GPA. These other explanations are changes in 1 ACT score 2 gender 3 college major and 4 vocational programs. With these other explanations considered, regression results still report an inflationary trend in graduating GPA. Time, as measured by college entry year, is still a significant positive predictor of GPA. More directly, comparisons of regression coefficients reveal lower ability students as experiencing the highest rate of grade increase. Higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students.

  12. Grading of evidence for bladder pain syndrome: a comparative review of study quality assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlapur, S A; Khan, K S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical guidelines on bladder pain syndrome (BPS) report quality ratings for evidence based on study design. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system takes into account several domains in addition to limitations of study design for assigning quality ratings. We compared the quality of evidence described in current BPS literature. All existing systematic reviews and guidelines on BPS management were reviewed, and included evidence was rated according to GRADE on a four-point scale (1-4, from very low to high). These ratings were compared to the two reported quality assessments that assigned levels or strengths to evidence; both had a four-point scale: level of evidence 1-4 from meta-analysis of randomised studies to expert opinion; and strength of evidence 1-4 from very low to high. Of the 19 treatments for BPS with GRADE ratings, comparison with level of evidence ratings showed that, on average, the latter overestimated quality by 1.8 points [1.1 v 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3; p = GRADE ratings with strength of evidence ratings showed that, on average, the latter overestimated quality by 1.7 points (1.1 v 2.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.1; p = GRADE, a refined method of assigning quality to evidence, provided a more conservative gauge, giving a realistic assessment of the value of recommendations for consideration in practice.

  13. Dielectric relaxation in 0-3 PVDF-Ba(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, K. P., E-mail: kpchandra23@gmail.com [Department of Physics, S.M. College, Bhagalpur 812001 (India); Singh, Rajan; Kulkarni, A. R., E-mail: ajit2957@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prasad, K., E-mail: k.prasad65@gmail.com [University Department of Physics, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur 812007 (India); Aryabhatta Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Aryabhatta Knowledge University, Patna, 800001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    (1-x)PVDF-xBa(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} ceramic-polymer composites with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 were prepared using melt-mixing technique. The crystal symmetry, space group and unit cell dimensions were determined from the XRD data of Ba(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} using FullProf software, whereas crystallite size and lattice strain were estimated using Williamson-Hall approach. The distribution of Ba(Fe{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} particles in the PVDF matrix were examined on the cryo-fractured surfaces using a scanning electron microscope. Cole-Cole and pseudo Cole-Cole analysis suggested the dielectric relaxation in this system to be of non-Debye type. Filler concentration dependent real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant as well as ac conductivity data followed definite trends of exponential growth types of variation.

  14. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis suggest that the soluble forms of FGF1-2 and FGFR1-2 sustain tail regeneration in the lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factors 1-2 (FGF1-2) stimulate tail regeneration in lizards and therefore the distribution of their receptors, FGFR1-2, in the regenerating tail of the lizard. Podarcis muralis has been studied using immunofluorescence and western blotting. Immunoreactive protein bands at 15-16kDa for FGF1-2 in addition to those at 50-65kDa are detected in the regenerating epidermis, but weak bands at 35, 45 and 50kDa appear from the regenerating connective tissues. Strongly immunolabeled bands for FGFR1 at 32, 60, and 80kDa and less intense for FGFR2 only appear in the regenerating tail. In normal tail epidermis and dermis, higher MW forms are present at 80 and 115-140kDa, respectively, but they disappear in the regenerating epidermis and dermis where low MW forms of FGFR1-2 are found at 50-70kDa. Immunolocalization confirms that most FGFR1-2 are present in the wound epidermis, Apical Epidermal Peg, ependymal tube while immunolabeling lowers in regenerating muscles, blastema cells, cartilage and connectives tissues. The likely release of FGFs from the Apical Epidermal Peg and ependyma and the presence of their receptors in these tissues may determine the autocrine stimulation of proliferation and a paracrine stimulation of the blastema cells through their FGF Receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of 1,2-indanedione and 5,6-dimethoxy-1,2-indanedione for the detection of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C; Jones, N; Lennard, C; Stoilovic, M

    2000-07-01

    The ability of 1,2-indanedione and 5,6-dimethoxy-1,2-indanedione to detect latent prints on porous surfaces, as compared to DFO and ninhydrin, has been evaluated. Comparisons of prints developed under various conditions determined the optimum development conditions for the new reagents. The indanediones tested were found to have lower detection limits for glycine. The carrier solvent used was found to affect the quality of the prints developed. In Arklone, the new reagents developed prints that displayed superior luminescence to those developed with DFO. In HFE 7100, 1,2-indanedione and 5,6-dimethoxy-1,2-indanedione gave superior luminescence to DFO after zinc salt treatment and cooling with liquid nitrogen, both of which improve the luminescence of prints developed with 1,2-indanediones. 1,2-Indanediones could offer less expensive but effective alternatives to DFO. With further optimization, the new reagents may supersede DFO as the method of choice for the detection of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces.

  16. Triethylammonium (indane-1,2,3-trione 1,2-dioximato-κ2N1,O2(indane-1,2,3-trione 2-oximato 1-oxime-κ2N1,O2nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C6H16N[Ni(C9H4N2O3(C9H5N2O3], the NiIIion is four-coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two indane-1,2,3-trione-1,2-dioxime ligands. The two organic ligands are linked by an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen-bonds.

  17. Selective Oxidation of Soft Grade Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecevic, N.

    2007-12-01

    into granules, and the most famous are the wet, semi-wet, and the dry process. In the oil-furnace process, the wet process of granulation is the most acceptable, in which the "fluffy" carbon black is mixed with water in an approximate ratio. After granulation, the carbon black is dried in a rotary drum at temperatures ranging between 180 to 210 °C. The period of drying is various, and depends on the production capacity and moisture fraction.The described laboratory procedure improvised successfully industrial conditions of granulating soft grade carbon black, and it is applicable to the conventional industrial method of producing soft grade oil-furnace carbon black at the Kutina plant, which is shown in Tables 1-7, and Figures 1-2.

  18. Performance characteristics and blood profile of West African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve week trial was investigated to evaluate performance and blood profile of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed malted sorghum sprout with pineapple waste (MSPW) based diet. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste was at ratio 1:2 (weight/weight) respectively. Sixteen WAD goats with average initial ...

  19. Strain characterization of West African Dwarf Goats of Ogun State I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of West African Dwarf goat is an approach to a sustainable use of its great potentials. In this study, strains of WAD goat were characterized using linear body measurement. The WAD goat included the gold (brown), black, buckskin and chaimose of ages 1, 2, 3 and 4 years,raised under extensive system of ...

  20. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4% patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11 on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women, 38 (34.2% had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5% had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1% reported disability (NDI > 8 and 23 (20.7% neck pain (NRS-11 > 4. Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007 and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005. Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients

  1. Are MRI high-signal changes of alar and transverse ligaments in acute whiplash injury related to outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Upper neck ligament high-signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been found in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) but also in non-injured controls. The clinical relevance of such changes is controversial. Their prognostic role has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine if alar and transverse ligament high-signal changes on MRI immediately following the car accident are related to outcome after 12 months for patients with acute WAD grades 1-2. Methods Within 13 days after a car accident, 114 consecutive acute WAD1-2 patients without prior neck injury or prior neck problems underwent upper neck high-resolution proton-weighted MRI. High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments were graded 0-3. A questionnaire including the impact of event scale for measuring posttraumatic stress response and questions on patients' expectations of recovery provided clinical data at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 111 (97.4%) patients completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS-11) on last week neck pain intensity. Factors potentially related to these outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Among the 111 responders (median age 29.8 years; 63 women), 38 (34.2%) had grades 2-3 alar ligament changes and 25 (22.5%) had grades 2-3 transverse ligament changes at injury. At 12 months follow-up, 49 (44.1%) reported disability (NDI > 8) and 23 (20.7%) neck pain (NRS-11 > 4). Grades 2-3 ligament changes in the acute phase were not related to disability or neck pain at 12 months. More severe posttraumatic stress response increased the odds for disability (odds ratio 1.46 per 10 points on the impact of event scale, p = 0.007) and so did low expectations of recovery (odds ratio 4.66, p = 0.005). Conclusions High-signal changes of the alar and transverse ligaments close after injury did not affect outcome for acute WAD1-2 patients without previous

  2. Activity of the protector chlorophyllin or promoter of the genetic damage induced by the 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine; Actividad de la clorofilina protectora o promotora del dano genetico inducido por la 1,2 dimetil hidrazina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero M, M.G

    2004-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) it is a porphyrin of soluble nutritious grade in water, derived of the chlorophyll that includes in their structure a copper atom. It has been reported that this pigment can act as anti mutagen, reducing the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogen action has also been studied during the initiation phase induced for carcinogen as the aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. In contrast the reports have increased on a probable promoter activity of the CHLN on the induced genetic damage. This effect was seen for the first time before the damage induced by alkylating agents in Salmonella. Recently it has been observed with the damage induced by gamma radiation, ENU and CrO{sub 3} in somatic cells of the wing of Drosophila and in the induction of tumors for 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice. Presently study is evaluated the protective effect or promoter of the CHLN before the genetic damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, by means of the bioassay mutation and somatic recombination (SMART) in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Its were pretreated with CHLN or SAC to transheterocygotes larvas for two locus of the chromosome three mwh+/+flr{sup 3}; later on they are retarded the chronic treatment with DMH 0, 1, 2 and 3 days. It was measured the toxicity and the speed of development of the treated individuals. The wings of those adults that emerged were analyzed to register the number and the size of stains. The results indicated: differences in the viability of the individuals of the groups SAC + DMH vs CHLN + DMH only in the treated immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) that the CHLN doesn't modify the rate of the treated individuals development. The results of somatic mutation indicated that the CHLN has a protective effect only immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) however in DRT-1, 2 and 3 showed a promoter effect of genetic damage. (Author)

  3. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per.... No. 3 43.0 0.5 8.0 3.0 7.0 12.0 12.0 U.S. No. 4 41.0 3.0 15.0 4.0 10.0 20.0 20.0 U.S. Sample grade— U...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004... Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test weight....S. No. 3 1 30.0 90.0 1.0 4.0 5.0 U.S. No. 4 2 27.0 80.0 3.0 5.0 10.0 U.S. Sample grade— U.S. Sample...

  5. The impact of grade ceilings on student grades and course evaluations: evidence from a policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Gorry, Devon

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of a grade ceiling policy on grade distributions and course evaluations. Results show that the effects vary based upon the level of the grade ceiling. A ceiling set at 2.8 decreased overall grade point average (GPA) by reducing the number of As and Bs and increasing the number of lower grades given. This low ceiling also increased the number of withdrawals and significantly lowered course evaluations. A ceiling set at 3.2 decreased overall GPA by reducing the n...

  6. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2014-01-01

    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of

  7. GRADE INFLATION: An Issue for Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. CARUTH,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation impacts university credibility, student courses of study, choices of institution, and other areas. There has been an upward shift in grades without a corresponding upward shift in knowledge gained. Some of the most frequently mentioned causes of grade inflation are: Ø student evaluations of professors, Ø student teacher dynamics, Ø merit-based financial aid, and Ø student expectations. Ø Among the reasons for higher student grades on the part of professors are: Ø fear of student evaluations, Ø avoidance of bad relations with students, Ø below average teaching skills,Ø lack of experience, Ø a lack of clearly stated objectives, and Ø job security. While grades are not a perfect answer to assessing student performance in a course they are still the best answer we have for evaluating students. In order to evaluate students more accurately, universities must identify the problems in grading and grading practices. Once this is accomplished new practices can be designed and policies implemented.

  8. Grades and Ranking: When Tenure Affects Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Filetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how a faculty member's status-'either tenured or tenure-track-'might affect the grades assigned to students in a writing class. We begin with a brief review of the research surrounding faculty to student assessment practices and follow with specific controversies regarding faculty motivation pertaining to grading practices. We interpret the grade distributions of tenured and tenure-track faculty members teaching a sophomore-level writing course in an English Department at a small, public liberal arts university in Virginia, examine the relationship between grade distributions and faculty rank, and conclude that tenure-track faculty grade more leniently than their tenured colleagues, primarily in the number of - A- grades assigned. The results of this study suggest that tenured professors tend to award fewer - As- than tenure-track professors. We posit that at universities where emphasis is placed upon teaching, two specific patterns emerge: reciprocity may be an unspoken agreement between some faculty and students with regard to the exchange of good grades for good evaluations, or with experience comes rigor.

  9. Graded contrast echocardiography in pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J A; Bueno, J; Zarauza, J; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Cuesta, J M; Ortiz, P; Zarrabeitia, R; Pérez del Molino, A; Bustamante, M; Botella, L M; Delgado, M T

    2010-06-01

    To compare the results of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (TTCE) adding a grading scale with the results of thoracic computed tomography (CT) in order to optimise the use of both techniques. 95 patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) were examined with TTCE and thoracic CT to detect pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). According to previous studies, TTCE was divided into a four grade scale depending on the degree of opacification of the left ventricle after the administration of a contrast agent. Of the 95 patients (50.5% female; mean age 46 yrs), none with normal or grade 1 TTCE had detectable PAVMs on thoracic CT. Shunts of grades 2, 3 and 4 were associated with PAVMs according to thoracic CT in 25, 80, and 100% of the cases. There was a statistically significant association between the TTCE grade and the detection of a PAVM by thoracic CT. There were also statistically significant associations between TTCE grade and the cardiac cycle when the contrast was first visible in the left atrium, and size of the feeding artery. Graded TTCE and timing of left atrium opacification may be useful techniques in selecting HHT patients for PAVM screening with thoracic CT scans.

  10. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than Good...

  11. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than Leaf...

  12. The Quantitative Meaning of Fractions for Mexican Sixth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cortina Morfín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted in the application of questionnaires to 297 sixth-grade students from 13 different elementary schools in Mexico. Pupils were asked to identify the quantity represented by common fractions (e.g., 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 3/4. Findings suggest that many students are finishing elementary school in Mexico with a very limited understanding of fractions. Some seem not to have developed basic quantitative concepts that would allow them to readily and correctly recognize the quantitative meaning of the most common fractions, including “1/2”. We explain the implications of such findings for students’ future mathematical development.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF 1,2 FUSED SYSTEMS BASED ON THE 3-ARYLIDENE-5-PHENYL-1,2-DIHYDRO-3H-1,4- BENZODIAZEPINE-2-ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pavlovsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the reaction of 7-bromo-5-aryl-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones with Lawesson reagent, 7-bromo-5-aryl-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-tiones were synthesized from which 3-arylidene-7-bromo-2-hydrazino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepines were obtained by the reaction with hydrazine hydrate. The condensation of 3-arylidene-7-bromo-2-hydrazino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepines with triethylorthoformate (triethylorthoacetate or formic acid (acetic acid gave 4-arylidene-8-bromo-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-а][1,4]-benzodiazepines. Latter were also synthesized by the reaction of 7-bromo-5-aryl-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-tiones with acetylhydrazine. 4-Arylidene-8-bromo-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,3,4] tetrazolo[1,5-а][1,4]-benzodiazepines were obtained by the reaction of 3-arylidene-7-bromo-2-hydrazino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepines with sodium nitrite.

  14. Dyslexia from Grade 3 through university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dorthe Klint; Elbro, Carsten; Juul, Holger

    to university in Denmark. Oversampling of 300 students who received special support in reading allowed for comparisons with current practice for referral to special support. Results and conclusions: Decoding skills increased from Grade 3 to 9. There was limited evidence for further age-based growth beyond Grade...... this possibility by asking whether students who receive special support in reading differ from other students on the same scale of decoding across all educational levels. Method: Decoding and spelling measures from a newly developed, web-based Danish dyslexia test were taken from 1564 students from Grade 3...

  15. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in graded beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li, E-mail: lj94172350@hotmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Wu, Jiu Hui, E-mail: ejhwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guan, Dong; Lu, Kuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Gao, Nansha [School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Songhua, Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate the dynamic effective material parameters and vibration performance of a graded beam. The structure of the beam was composed of several unit cells with different fill factors. The dispersion relations and energy band structures of each unit cell were calculated using the finite element method (FEM). The dynamic effective material parameters in each unit cell of the graded beam were determined by the dispersion relations and energy band structures. Longitudinal wave propagation was investigated using a numerical method and FEM. The results show that the graded beam allows asymmetric acoustic transmission over a wide range of frequencies.

  16. Colour grading video files in Adobe Lightroom

    OpenAIRE

    Tommiska, Tarina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to instruct the reader how to colour grade video files in a way that would be best suitable for photographers. This thesis suggests why video content should be colour graded in order to make an impact on the viewer and stand out in a meaningful way. I go through the very basics of colour theory to help the reader better understand the emotional impact of colour when observed. Colour theory sets the base for all colour grading and correction related work. ...

  17. New highlights of the syntheses of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Georgescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot three-component reactions of 1-substituted benzimidazoles with ethyl bromoacetate and electron-deficient alkynes, in 1,2-epoxybutane, gave a variety of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4-ones and pyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazoles. The influence of experimental conditions on the course of reaction was investigated. A novel synthetic pathway starting from benzimidazoles unsubstituted at the five membered ring, alkyl bromoacetates and non-symmetrical electron-deficient alkynes in the molar ratio of 1:2:1, in 1,2-epoxybutane at reflux temperature, led directly to pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4-ones in fair yield by an one-pot three-component reaction.

  18. Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Antifungal Activity and DFT Theoretical Study of Some Novel 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives Containing the 1,2,3-Thiadiazole Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xia Tan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the biological activity of 1,2,4-triazole compounds, seventeen novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing 1,2,3-thiadiazole moieties were synthesized by multi-step reactions under microwave assisted conditions. The structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The target compounds were evaluated for their in vivo fungicidal activities against Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudomonas syringae pv. Lachrymans, and Pseudoperonospora cubensis, and the results indicated that some of the title compounds displayed good fungicidal activities. Theoretical calculations on the title compounds were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p. level. The full geometry optimization was carried out using the 6-31G(d,p basis set, and the frontier orbital energy, atomic net charges were discussed, and the structure-activity relationships were also studied.

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis, antifungal activity and DFT theoretical study of some novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing the 1,2,3-thiadiazole moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na-Bo; Fu, Jian-Qun; Weng, Jian-Quan; Jin, Jian-Zhong; Tan, Cheng-Xia; Liu, Xing-Hai

    2013-10-15

    In order to investigate the biological activity of 1,2,4-triazole compounds, seventeen novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing 1,2,3-thiadiazole moieties were synthesized by multi-step reactions under microwave assisted conditions. The structures were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The target compounds were evaluated for their in vivo fungicidal activities against Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudomonas syringae pv. Lachrymans, and Pseudoperonospora cubensis, and the results indicated that some of the title compounds displayed good fungicidal activities. Theoretical calculations on the title compounds were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p). level. The full geometry optimization was carried out using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set, and the frontier orbital energy, atomic net charges were discussed, and the structure-activity relationships were also studied.

  20. Neutron irradiation behavior of ITER candidate beryllium grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Nikolaev, G.N. [A.A.Bochvar All-Russia Scientific Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), Moscow (Russian Federation); Melder, R.R.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium is one of the main candidate materials both for the neutron multiplier in a solid breeding blanket and for the plasma facing components. That is why its behaviour under the typical for fusion reactor loading, in particular, under the neutron irradiation is of a great importance. This paper presents mechanical properties, swelling and microstructure of six beryllium grades (DshG-200, TR-30, TshG-56, TRR, TE-30, TIP-30) fabricated by VNIINM, Russia and also one - (S-65) fabricated by Brush Wellman, USA. The average grain size of the beryllium grades varied from 8 to 25 {mu}m, beryllium oxide content was 0.8-3.2 wt. %, initial tensile strength was 250-680 MPa. All the samples were irradiated in active zone of SM-3 reactor up to the fast neutron fluence (5.5-6.2) {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} (2.7-3.0 dpa, helium content up to 1150 appm), E > 0.1 MeV at two temperature ranges: T{sub 1} = 130-180degC and T{sub 2} = 650-700degC. After irradiation at 130-180degC no changes in samples dimensions were revealed. After irradiation at 650-700degC swelling of the materials was found to be in the range 0.1-2.1 %. Beryllium grades TR-30 and TRR, having the smallest grain size and highest beryllium oxide content, demonstrated minimal swelling, which was no more than 0.1 % at 650-700degC and fluence 5.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Tensile and compression test results and microstructure parameters measured before and after irradiation are also presented. (author)

  1. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  2. Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

  3. Marijuana Use Among 10th Grade Students - Washington, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy

    2016-12-30

    Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.

  4. Inductive Reasoning in Third Grade: Intervention Promises and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers; de Koning E; Sijtsma

    1998-04-01

    The results of two evaluation studies with respect to a programme for enhancing inductive reasoning ability of third grade students are presented. The programme is a classroom version of the German programme 'Denktraining für Kinder 1' (Cognitive training for children; Klauer, 1989). In the first formative evaluation study, two experimental groups with 30 students in total and one control group with 9 students were involved. Observations during the lessons, and teachers' reports showed that teachers were able to implement the programme. Both experimental groups significantly outperformed the control group on a posttest immediately after the programme and on a follow-up test 3 1/2 months later. Further analyses of the data revealed tentative evidence of the superiority of a direct teaching method. In the second summative evaluation study, the same programme was applied to a larger sample (experimental groups: n = 99 in total; and control groups: n = 232 in total) of third grade students. On the basis of Study 1, the programme instructions were slightly changed. The experimental groups scored significantly higher on a posttest three months after completion of the programme. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. (4R-4-(2-Allyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-l-threose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Watkin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available X-ray crystallography unequivocally confirmed the structure of the title compound, C12H17N3O4, as (4R-4-(2-allyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-l-threose. The absolute configuration was determined by the use of d-glucorono-3,6-lactone as the starting material. The crystal structure consists of hydrogen-bonded chains of molecules running parallel to the a axis. There are no unusual packing features.

  6. Spin-phonon coupling in Gd(Co{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R. X. [Curso Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus VII, 65400-000 Codó-MA (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luis-MA (Brazil); Reichlova, H. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Marti, X. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 12116 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Barbosa, D. A. B. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luis-MA (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States); Lufaso, M. W. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States); Araujo, B. S.; Ayala, A. P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici, P.O. Box 6030, 60455-970 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-21

    We have investigated the temperature-dependent Raman-active phonons and the magnetic properties of Gd(Co{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} perovskite ceramics in the temperature range from 40 K to 300 K. The samples crystallized in an orthorhombic distorted simple perovskite, whose symmetry belongs to the Pnma space group. The data reveal spin-phonon coupling near the ferromagnetic transition occurring at around 120 K. The correlation of the Raman and magnetization data suggests that the structural order influences the magnitude of the spin-phonon coupling.

  7. Vanadium(III chloride complexes of 1,2-bis-(5-H/methyl/chloro/nitro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-1,2-ethanediols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDIN TAVMAN

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of 1,2-bis-(5-H/methyl/chloro/nitro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-1,2-ethanediols (L1-L4 with VCl3 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The ligands act as bidentate coordinating through both of the hydroxyl group oxygen atoms in the complexes. The ionic and diamagnetic complexes have the empirical formula [V(L2]Cl3. The [V(L42]Cl3 complex has two isomeric structures according to the 1H-NMR spectral data.

  8. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ordóñez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  9. Backbone-Fluorinated 1,2,3-Triazole-Containing Dipeptide Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel-Andreasen, Jens; Wellhöfer, Isabelle; Wich, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    The 1,2,3-triazole moiety can be incorporated as a peptide bond bioisostere to provide protease resistance in peptidomimetics. Herein, we report the synthesis of peptidomimetic building blocks containing backbone-fluorinated 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole moieties. Synthetic protocols for the p......The 1,2,3-triazole moiety can be incorporated as a peptide bond bioisostere to provide protease resistance in peptidomimetics. Herein, we report the synthesis of peptidomimetic building blocks containing backbone-fluorinated 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole moieties. Synthetic protocols...

  10. "Making the grade:" noncognitive predictors of medical students' clinical clerkship grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katherine B; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev N; Lau, Steven K M; Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B

    2007-10-01

    Because clinical clerkship grades are associated with resident selection and performance and are largely based on residents'/attendings' subjective ratings, it is important to identify variables associated with clinical clerkship grades. U.S. medical students who completed > or =1 of the following required clinical clerkships--internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, neurology and psychiatry--were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey, which inquired about demographics, degree program, perceived quality of clerkship experiences, assertiveness, reticence and clerkship grades. A total of 2395 medical students (55% women; 57% whites) from 105 schools responded. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors independently associated with receiving lower clerkship grades (high pass/pass or B/C) compared with the highest grade (honors or A). Students reporting higher quality of clerkship experiences were less likely to report lower grades in all clerkships. Older students more likely reported lower grades in internal medicine (P = 0.02) and neurology (P < 0.001). Underrepresented minorities more likely reported lower grades in all clerkships (P < 0.001); Asians more likely reported lower grades in obstetrics/gynecology (P = 0.007), pediatrics (P = 0.01) and neurology (P = 0.01). Men more likely reported lower grades in obstetrics/gynecology (P < 0.001) and psychiatry (P = 0.004). Students reporting greater reticence more likely reported lower grades in internal medicine (P = 0.02), pediatrics (P = 0.02) and psychiatry (P < 0.05). Students reporting greater assertiveness less likely reported lower grades in all clerkships (P < 0.03) except IM. The independent associations between lower clerkship grades and nonwhite race, male gender, older age, lower quality of clerkship experiences, and being less assertive and more reticent are concerning and merit further investigation.

  11. Criterion related validity of 1/2 mile run-walk test for estimating VO2peak in children aged 6-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Mora, J; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the criterion related validity of 1/2 mile run/walk (1/2MRW) test for estimating VO2peak in children aged 6-17 years. The criterion related validity of the Fernhall's equation in a sub-group of children aged 10-17 years was also examined. A total of 86 children completed a maximal graded treadmill test and the 1/2MRW test. The cohort was randomly divided into either validation (n=47) or a cross-validation (n=39) group. A regression equation was computed and assessed through several error measures, and the Bland and Altman method. There was no systematic bias in the validation group nor in the cross-validation group (P > 0.1). The root mean sum of squared errors (RMSE), and the percentage error were 6.5 ml/kg/min, and 13.9%, respectively. These figures were very similar in the cross-validation group. The new equation had a lower RMSE and percentage error than the Fernhall's Equation (6.2 vs. 19.7 ml/kg/min, and 16% vs. 50.4%, respectively, Pvalid for estimating VO2peak from the 1/2MRW time, sex, and body mass index in healthy children aged 6-17 years, and is more accurate than Fernhall's equation in the sample studied.

  12. Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Mild, Moderate, Severe Asthma: What Do Grades Mean? Page Content Article Body After confirming an asthma diagnosis, your pediatrician will grade the severity of your child’s condition. This grading ...

  13. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Tire Quality Grading Standards AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... Tire Quality Grading Standards (UTQGS) contain detailed testing procedures for generating consumer.... Regulatory Analyses and Notices I. UTQGS and the Treadwear Test Course The Uniform Tire Quality Grading...

  14. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children ( N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks - one narrative and two expository prompts. Children's written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications.

  15. Kindergarten Predictors of Third Grade Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Wanzek, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine the relations of kindergarten transcription, oral language, word reading, and attention skills to writing skills in third grade. Children (N = 157) were assessed on their letter writing automaticity, spelling, oral language, word reading, and attention in kindergarten. Then, they were assessed on writing in third grade using three writing tasks – one narrative and two expository prompts. Children’s written compositions were evaluated in terms of writing quality (the extent to which ideas were developed and presented in an organized manner). Structural equation modeling showed that kindergarten oral language and lexical literacy skills (i.e., word reading and spelling) were independently predicted third grade narrative writing quality, and kindergarten literacy skill uniquely predicted third grade expository writing quality. In contrast, attention and letter writing automaticity were not directly related to writing quality in either narrative or expository genre. These results are discussed in light of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:25642118

  16. Vision Problems Can Harm Kids' Development, Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167475.html Vision Problems Can Harm Kids' Development, Grades Eye experts ... toll on children's school performance and well-being, vision experts say. If left untreated, certain eye-related ...

  17. What grades and achievement tests measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H H; Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric

    2016-11-22

    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ.

  18. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  20. Beef quality grading using machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyamkondan, S.; Ray, N.; Kranzler, Glenn A.; Biju, Nisha

    2000-12-01

    A video image analysis system was developed to support automation of beef quality grading. Forty images of ribeye steaks were acquired. Fat and lean meat were differentiated using a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Muscle longissimus dorsi (l.d.) was segmented from the ribeye using morphological operations. At the end of each iteration of erosion and dilation, a convex hull was fitted to the image and compactness was measured. The number of iterations was selected to yield the most compact l.d. Match between the l.d. muscle traced by an expert grader and that segmented by the program was 95.9%. Marbling and color features were extracted from the l.d. muscle and were used to build regression models to predict marbling and color scores. Quality grade was predicted using another regression model incorporating all features. Grades predicted by the model were statistically equivalent to the grades assigned by expert graders.

  1. Laboratory Characterization of Solid Grade SW Brick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of solid Grade SW brick...

  2. Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication...

  3. Pollination biology of basal angiosperms (ANITA Grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard B. Thien; Peter Bernhardt; Margaret S. Devall; Zhi-Duan Chen; Yi-bo Luo; Jian-Hua Fan; Liang-Chen Yuan; Joseph H. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The fi rst three branches of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree consist of eight families with ~201 species of plants (the ANITA grade). The oldest fl ower fossil for the group is dated to the Early Cretaceous (115 – 125 Mya) and identifi ed to the Nymphaeales. The fl owers of extant plants in the ANITA grade are small, and pollen is the edible reward (rarely nectar or...

  4. Modeling of vibration for functionally graded beams

    OpenAIRE

    Yiğit Gülsemay; Şahin Ali; Bayram Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a vibration problem of Euler-Bernoulli beam manufactured with Functionally Graded Material (FGM), which is modelled by fourth-order partial differential equations with variable coefficients, is examined by using the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM).The method is one of the useful and powerful methods which can be easily applied to linear and nonlinear initial and boundary value problems. As to functionally graded materials, they are composites mixed by two or more materials a...

  5. BRCA1/2-negative hereditary triple-negative breast cancers exhibit BRCAness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala, Pawel; Hybiak, Jolanta; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers are sensitive to poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum compounds mainly due to their deficiency in DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR). However, approximately only 15% of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are BRCA1/2-associated. TNBCs that exhibit BRCAness (a phenotype reflecting impaired HR in BRCA1/2-negative tumors) are also regarded sensitive to PARP inhibitors and platinum compounds. Thus, we hypothesized that hereditary BRCA1/2-negative TNBCs may exhibit BRCAness. To find a subset of hereditary BRCA1/2-negative TNBCs among 360 TNBCs, we first identified a group of 41 hereditary TNBCs by analyzing the family histories of the patients. Next, we tested this group for the presence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations, and finally, we compared the expression levels of 120 genes involved in HR and five other major mechanisms of DNA damage repair between BRCA1/2-associated and BRCA1/2-negative subgroups of hereditary TNBCs using real-time PCR arrays. Approximately 73% of the hereditary TNBCs were BRCA1/2-associated and 27% were BRCA1/2-negative. The expression levels of the analyzed genes showed no significant differences between these two subgroups indicating the BRCAness of the BRCA1/2-negative hereditary TNBCs and thereby distinguishing a novel subset of TNBCs as a potential target for PARP inhibitors or platinum-based therapy. The results show the significance of family history in selecting patients with TNBC for therapies directed at incompetent DNA repair (e.g., PARP inhibitors and/or platinum-based therapies) and indicate that a relatively simple strategy for broadening the target group for these modes of treatment is to identify patients with hereditary TNBCs. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-11-03

    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy.

  7. Systematic review of grading practice: is there evidence of grade inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jayne H; Gray, Morag

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a systematic review of literature pertaining to the grading of practice within nursing, midwifery, medicine and allied health professions. From a total of 215 papers, 147 were included and data were extracted using a systematic data extraction tool. The focus of this paper relates to one of the emerging themes: the issue of grade inflation. The paper examines the grade inflation phenomenon: it discusses the reasons for grade inflation from a variety of perspectives. The paper reports on the suggestions made within the literature on how to control grade inflation, but these, the authors conclude, are not fully evaluated and should be adopted only where rigorous evaluation can carried out. It is imperative that evaluations include the usefulness, reliability and validity testing of rubrics or any other solutions to grade inflation that are adopted by clinicians and educators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Salt Bath Nitriding of CP Titanium Grade-2 and TI-6AL-4V Grade-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, J. R.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Kumar, K. Arun; Varun Radhakrishnan, H.; Skariah Thomas, Sonu

    2017-05-01

    Titanium is known for its strong affinity towards nitrogen. The metal forms a nitride form case of high hardness when the salt bath nitriding is carried out. The selection of Grade 2 Titanium and Grade 5 Ti6Al4V Titanium alloy, stands with the fact that CP Grade 2 Titanium is the most formable and corrosion resistant amongst the pure grades of Titanium and grade 5 alloy is biocompatible and also has excellent tribological properties. This research work attempts to solve the problem of galling by comparing the morphology of the nitride case produced in Commercially Pure Grade 2 Titanium and the nitride formations produced in the Titanium Ti6Al4V alloy through Salt bath nitriding for a time span of 24 hours. Salt Bath Nitriding imparts unique improvements in Roughness, Hardness and Wear resistance of the samples thereby widening the applications of the material.

  9. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied.

  10. Fragmento 1+2 da protrombina em indivíduos submetidos à angiografia coronariana Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in subjects undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A trombina exerce um papel fundamental na conversão do fibrinogênio em fibrina, no processo de coagulação. O fator X ativado transforma a protrombina em trombina e fragmento 1+2 da protrombina (F1+2. Os níveis plasmáticos de F1+2 refletem a geração de trombina e podem ser usados como um marcador de hipercoagulabilidade in vivo, já que a trombina é uma substância instável e facilmente degradada, que não pode ser medida diretamente no plasma. O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os níveis plasmáticos do F1+2 de um grupo de indivíduos submetidos à angiografia coronariana, buscando estabelecer a possível correlação entre este parâmetro e a gravidade da doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Os níveis plasmáticos do F1+2 foram determinados em amostras de sangue de 17 indivíduos com ausência de ateromatose nas coronárias (controles, 12 indivíduos apresentando ateromatose leve/moderada e 28 indivíduos apresentando ateromatose grave, utilizando-se o conjunto diagnóstico Enzignost F1+2 (Behring® Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as médias dos três grupos para o parâmetro avaliado. Portanto, as médias obtidas nos três grupos para os níveis plasmáticos de F1+2 não sinalizam para a existência de um estado de hipercoagulabilidade na população estudada. Entretanto, 73,7% dos indivíduos faziam uso regular de ácido acetilsalicílico, o que pode ter influenciado nos resultados de F1+2, uma vez que este medicamento promove a inibição da enzima ciclooxigenase, diminuindo a liberação de tromboxane A2 e a agregação plaquetária. Portanto, presume-se que a redução da ativação plaquetária poderia estar contribuindo para uma menor formação de trombina e, conseqüentemente, diminuindo o potencial de hipercoagulabilidade.Thrombin plays a basic role in the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin in the coagulation process. Activated factor X

  11. Low-dose radiation activates Nrf1/2 through reactive species and the Ca2+/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human skin fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyeong Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we explored the effect of LDR on theactivation of Nrfs transcription factor involved in cellular redoxevents. Experiments were carried out utilizing 0.05 and 0.5 GyX-ray irradiated normal human skin fibroblast HS27 cells. Theresults showed LDR induced Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation andexpression of antioxidant genes HO-1, Mn-SOD, and NQO1.In particular, 0.05 Gy-irradiation increased only Nrf1 activation,but 0.5 Gy induced both Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation.LDR-mediated Nrf1/2 activation was accompanied by reactivespecies (RS generation and Ca2+ flux. This effect was abolishedin the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine and BAPTA- AM.Furthermore, Nrf1/2 activation by LDR was suppressed byPD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2. In conclusion, LDR inducesNrf1 and Nrf2 activation and expression of Nrf-regulatedantioxidant defense genes through RS and Ca2+/ERK1/2pathways, suggesting new insights into the molecularmechanism underlying the beneficial role of LDR in HS27cells. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5: 258-263

  12. Charged defects and ferroelectricity in (1-x)PbZrO3-x(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Kun; Youn, Hyuk-Jun; Hong, Kug Sun; Park, Seung-Eek

    1999-01-01

    The crystal structure, dielectric/ferroelectric properties, and domain configuration of (1-x) PbZrO3-x(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 solid solution with 0.14⩽x⩽0.4 were investigated using x-ray powder diffraction, D-E hysteresis, ɛr(T) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. A sluggish transition from normal ferroelectric to relaxor state was observed as a function of composition. With an increasing amount of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3, this transition was accompanied by changes in crystal structure (rhombohedral to pseudocubic), domain size and morphology (normal micron-size domain to polar nanodomain), and thermal phase transition behavior (normal ferroelectric transition to diffuse transition behavior with polarization relaxation). For intermediate compositions (i.e., x=0.25) between normal ferroelectric (x=0.16) and relaxor (x=0.4), a spontaneous relaxor-to-normal ferroelectric transition occurred at 80 °C in the ɛr(T) curve. It is suggested that this transition originates from the introduction of charged defects such as NaPb' and BiPb•, resulting in the disturbance of long-range interactions among polar ordered BO6-octahedra and short-range structural order of charged defects (i.e., NaPb'-BiPb•).

  13. MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CeO₂ DOPED (Na1/2Nd1/2TiO₃ CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures and microwave dielectric properties of (Na1/2Nd1/2TiO₃ (NNT ceramics with x wt. % CeO₂ dopants (x = 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.45 were investigated in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD results showed that all the samples fitted well with a single perovskite structure phase in a Pm-3m space group. The lattice parameters increased because of the replacement of Ce4+ at the B-site. The change of dielectric constant (εr was similar to that of ionic polarizabilities. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf value of samples displayed a decreasing tendency with increasing x. The quality factor (Qxf was found to have a maximum value of 8287 GHz at x = 0.3. As a result, when x = 0.3, the (Na1/2Nd1/2TiO₃ ceramics sintered at 1300 °C for 2 h has good microwave dielectric properties of εr = 105.36, high Qxf = 8287 GHz, and τf = 246.3 ppm/ °C.

  14. Predictors of Rectal Tolerance Observed in a Dose-Escalated Phase 1-2 Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.W. Nathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Straka, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Christie, Alana [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Lotan, Yair [Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pistenmaa, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Nanda, Akash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Health Cancer Center at Orlando Health, Orlando, Florida (United States); Kueplian, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Brindle, Jeffrey [Prairie Lakes Hospital, Watertown, South Dakota (United States); Cooley, Susan; Perkins, Alida [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Xie, Xian-Jin [Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert D., E-mail: robert.timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To convey the occurrence of isolated cases of severe rectal toxicity at the highest dose level tested in 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer; and to rationally test potential causal mechanisms to guide future studies and experiments to aid in mitigating or altogether avoiding such severe bowel injury. Methods and Materials: Clinical and treatment planning data were analyzed from 91 patients enrolled from 2006 to 2011 on a dose-escalation (45, 47.5, and 50 Gy in 5 fractions) phase 1/2 clinical study of SBRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: At the highest dose level, 6.6% of patients treated (6 of 91) developed high-grade rectal toxicity, 5 of whom required colostomy. Grade 3+ delayed rectal toxicity was strongly correlated with volume of rectal wall receiving 50 Gy >3 cm{sup 3} (P<.0001), and treatment of >35% circumference of rectal wall to 39 Gy (P=.003). Grade 2+ acute rectal toxicity was significantly correlated with treatment of >50% circumference of rectal wall to 24 Gy (P=.010). Conclusion: Caution is advised when considering high-dose SBRT for treatment of tumors near bowel structures, including prostate cancer. Threshold dose constraints developed from physiologic principles are defined, and if respected can minimize risk of severe rectal toxicity.

  15. Pathology of Breast and Ovarian Cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. METHODS: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze...... the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancers. RESULTS: There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (P-trend = 1.2 × 10(-5)), but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2, carriers (P......-trend = 6.8 × 10(-6)). The proportion of triple-negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histologic grade than ER-positive tumors (grade 3 vs. grade 1; P = 1...

  16. Phase 1/2 study of pacritinib, a next generation JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor, in myelofibrosis or other myeloid malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdan Verstovsek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacritinib (SB1518 is a highly selective kinase inhibitor with specificity for JAK2, FLT3, IRAK1, and CFS1R. This multicenter phase 1/2 study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD, safety, and clinical activity of pacritinib in patients with myelofibrosis (MF and other advanced myeloid malignancies. Methods In the phase 1 dose-escalation part of the study, 43 adults with advanced myeloid malignancies received pacritinib 100 to 600 mg once daily (QD. In the phase 2 part of the study, 31 adults with refractory or intermediate- or high-risk newly diagnosed MF and any degree of cytopenia received pacritinib 400 mg QD. The primary endpoint is a ≥35% reduction in spleen volume at week 24 as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Results Five patients (11.6% experienced a dose-limiting toxicity during cycle 1 of phase 1. The clinical benefit rate was 86.0% (13 patients achieving clinical improvement and 24 patients having stable disease. The MTD was established at 500 mg QD, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 400 mg QD. In phase 2, the primary endpoint was achieved by 23.5% of evaluable patients (4/17, with 47.4% (9/19 achieving a ≥50% spleen length reduction at week 24 as measured by physical examination. At week 24, 38.9% of evaluable patients (7/18 achieved a ≥50% decrease in MF Quality of Life and Symptom Assessment total score. Gastrointestinal toxicities were the most common adverse events and were predominantly grade 1/2 in severity. Grade 3/4 anemia was reported in 5/31 patients and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia was reported in 3/31 patients. The most frequent AEs considered to be treatment related were diarrhea (28/31, nausea (15/31, vomiting (9/31, and fatigue (4/31. Grade 3 treatment-related AEs were reported in seven patients (22.6%, four of whom had diarrhea. No grade 4/5 treatment-related AEs were reported. No leukopenia, neutropenia, or lymphopenia were reported. Conclusions Pacritinib was well

  17. Metallothionein-1+2 protect the CNS after a focal brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giralt, Mercedes; Penkowa, Milena; Lago, Natalia

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-1+2 (MT-1+2) in the CNS following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex. In comparison to normal mice, transgenic mice overexpressing the MT-1 isoform (TgMTI* mice) showed a significant decrease of the number of activa...

  18. Metallothionein 1+2 protect the CNS during neuroglial degeneration induced by 6-aminonicotinamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes; Camats, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    6-Aminonicotinamide (6-AN) is a niacin antagonist, which leads to degeneration of gray matter astrocytes. Metallothionein 1+2 (MT-1+2) are neuroprotective factors in the central nervous system (CNS), and to determine the roles for MT after 6-AN, we have examined transgenic mice overexpressing MT-...

  19. 75 FR 5354 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental Assessment... Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 (BFN), located in Limestone County, Alabama. In accordance with 10 CFR 51... Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch II-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear...

  20. 75 FR 13327 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3; Exemption 1.0... DPR-33, DPR-52 and DPR-68, which authorize operation of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2... industry requests to extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but noted...

  1. 1,2-naphthoquinone stimulates lipid peroxidation and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robert F; Aleo, Michael D; Self-Medlin, Yehudi; Doshna, Colleen M; Mason, R Preston

    2013-11-01

    Naphthalene induces cataract formation through the accumulation of its reactive metabolite, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), in the ocular lens. 1,2-NQ increases lens protein oxidation and disrupts fiber cell membrane function; however, the association of these effects with changes in membrane structure is not understood. The goal of this study was to determine the direct effects of 1,2-NQ on membrane lipid oxidation and structural organization. Iodometric approaches were used to measure the effects of naphthalene and 1,2-NQ on lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) formation in model membranes composed of cholesterol and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Membrane samples were prepared at various cholesterol-to-phospholipid mole ratios and subjected to autoxidation at 37°C for 48 hours in the absence or presence of either agent alone (0.1-5.0 μM) or in combination with vitamin E. Small-angle x-ray diffraction was used to measure the effects of naphthalene and 1,2-NQ on membrane structure before and after exposure to oxidative stress. 1,2-NQ increased LOOH formation by 250% (P lipid organization were observed with naphthalene under the same conditions. These data suggest a novel mechanism for naphthalene-induced cataract, facilitated by the direct effects of 1,2-NQ on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol domain formation.

  2. The influence of different rates of new synthesised 5-oxo-1,2,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAZWA UŻYTKOWNIKA

    Keywords: Amidrazone derivative, antioxidant status, FRAP, Index of rearing effectiveness ... newly-synthesised 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazyne and 1,2,4-triazole derivative have a multidirectional pharmacological activity. .... determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry on a UNICAM 939 spectrometer and the method of.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated (PMN...

  4. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activities of 3-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4-thiazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkirimli, Sumru; Kazan, Fusun; Tunali, Yağmur

    2009-04-01

    A new series of 3-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4-thiazolidinone derivatives has been synthesized by the reaction of Schiff bases of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazoles with mercaptoacetic acid and 2-mercaptopropionic acid. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, C. albicans and C. glabrata.

  5. Degradation of 1,2-Dibromoethane by Mycobacterium sp. Strain GP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, Gerrit J.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johannes; Marchesi, Julian R.; Freitas dos Santos, Luisa M.; Janssen, Dick B.

    The newly isolated bacterial strain GP1 can utilize 1,2-dibromoethane as the sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was identified as a member of the subgroup which contains the fast-growing mycobacteria, The first step in 1,2-dibromoethane

  6. Purification and characterization of an alcohol dehydrogenase from 1,2-propanediol-grown Desulfovibriostrain HDv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Jansen, Michael; Nienhuis-Kuiper, Manny E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Breemen, Jan F.L. van; Hansen, Theo A.

    1995-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio strain HDv (DSM 6830) grew faster on (S)- and on (R, S)-1,2-propanediol (µmax 0.053 h–1) than on (R)-propanediol (0.017 h–1) and ethanol (0.027 h–1). From (R, S)-1,2-propanediol-grown cells, an alcohol dehydrogenase was purified. The enzyme was

  7. One-pot tandem 1,4-1,2-addition of phosphites to quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blieck, Ann; Masschelein, Kurt G R; Dhaene, Fréderic; Rozycka-Sokolowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard; Drabowicz, Jozef; Stevens, Christian V

    2010-01-14

    Trialkyl and silylated dialkyl phosphites were evaluated as phosphorus nucleophiles for the addition to quinolines in a strong acidic medium allowing consecutive 1,4- and 1,2-addition breaking up the aromatic stabilisation, thereby leading to 2,4-diphosphono-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines in one single reaction step in moderate to good yields (2-84%).

  8. Deliverable 1.2.7: Cross-cultural benefit segmentation of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Berg, van den I.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Guardia, M.D.; Guerrero, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present report, deliverable D.1.2.7, gives a final view of the work done in ISAFruit Work Package (WP) 1.2. Average Europe fruit consumption is below the recommended level and moreover the consumption level is still decreasing in Europe. A large survey was carried out in four European countries

  9. Dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping semiconductor nanowires under local carrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjuan; Zou, Jijun; Peng, Xincun; Zhang, Jianbing; Wang, Weilu; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Daoli

    2016-10-17

    Scanning photocurrent microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating charge transfer and internal fields, which strongly influence carrier statics and dynamics in semiconductor nanowires. We performed comprehensive numerical modeling of the carrier dynamics of graded-composition and graded-doping AlGaAs nanowires to achieve a greater understanding of these nanowires. The simulation results indicated that the built-in electric field changes the shape of the scanning photocurrent microscopy profiles, which helped us to judge the dopant level, Al composition range and doping type of the material. The simulation results also assess the potential of the scanning photocurrent techniques in graded-doping and graded-composition nanowire properties.

  10. Histologic and inflammatory lamellar changes in horses with oligofructose-induced laminitis treated with a CXCR1/2 antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo R. de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the hypothesis that blocking chemokine signaling can ameliorate acute laminitis, the aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravenous DF1681B, a selective antagonist for CXCR1 and CXCR2 (chemokine receptors, in an oligofructose equine laminitis model. To twelve mixed breed clinically healthy hoses with no previous history of hoof-related lameness was administered oligofructose (10g/kg given by nasogastric tube and divided into two groups: treated (intravenous DF1681B at 30mg/kg 6, 12, 18, and 24h after oligofructose and non-treated groups. Laminar biopsies were performed before and 12, 36, and 72h after administering oligofructose. Samples were stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and scored from 0 to 6 according to epidermal cell and basal membrane changes. The IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL1 RNA expressions were determined by RT-PCR. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare times within each group (P<0.05. The PAS grades and IL-1β and IL-6 RNA expression increased in the non-treated group, but remained constant in the treated horses. In conclusion, DF1681B therapy reduced laminar inflammation and epidermal deterioration in treated horses. CXCR1/2 blockage should be considered therapeutically for equine acute laminitis.

  11. Dobesilate diminishes activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, P; Díaz-González, Diana; García-Martín-Córdova, C; Sánchez, I; Lozano, Rosa María; Giménez-Gallego, G; Dujovny, M

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors, regularly expressed at high levels in gliomas, are further upregulated during the transition of the tumor from low- to high-grade malignancy, and are essential for glioma progression. FGFs induce upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in cultured glioma cells, which suggests that MAPK pathway participates in the FGF-dependent glioma development. Recently, it has been shown that dobesilate, an inhibitor of FGF mitogenic activity, shows antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in glioma cell cultures. Accordingly, it should be expected this new synthetic FGF inhibitor to affect the activation levels of MAPK. Here we report that immunocytochemical and Western blot data unequivocally show that treatment of cell cultures with dobesilate causes a significant decrease of the intracellular levels of ERK1/2 activation, one of the components of the MAPK signalling cascade. This finding supports an important role for dobesilate in glioma growth, suggesting that dobesilate should be a treatment to be born in mind for glioma management.

  12. Extinction of Contextual Cocaine Memories Requires Cav1.2 within D1R-Expressing Cells and Recruits Hippocampal Cav1.2-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Caitlin E; Schierberl, Kathryn C; Lee, Anni S; Fischer, Delaney K; Van Kempen, Tracey A; Mudragel, Vladimir; Huganir, Richard L; Milner, Teresa A; Glass, Michael J; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-12-06

    Exposure to cocaine-associated contextual cues contributes significantly to relapse. Extinction of these contextual associations, which involves a new form of learning, reduces cocaine-seeking behavior; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. We report that extinction, but not acquisition, of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) in male mice increased Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channel mRNA and protein in postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions of the hippocampus, a brain region involved in drug-context associations. Moreover, viral-mediated deletion of Cav1.2 in the dorsal hippocampus attenuated extinction of cocaine CPP. Molecular studies examining downstream Cav1.2 targets revealed that extinction recruited calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaMK)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) to the hippocampal PSD. This occurred in parallel with an increase in phosphorylation of the AMPA GluA1 receptor subunit at serine 831 (S831), a CaMKII site, along with an increase in total PSD GluA1. The necessity of S831 GluA1 was further demonstrated by the lack of extinction in S831A GluA1 phosphomutant mice. Of note hippocampal GluA1 levels remained unaltered at the PSD, but were reduced near the PSD and at perisynaptic sites of dendritic spines in extinction-resistant S831A mutant mice. Finally, conditional knock-out of Cav1.2 in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing cells resulted in attenuation of cocaine CPP extinction and lack of extinction-dependent changes in hippocampal PSD CaMKII expression and S831 GluA1 phosphorylation. In summary, we demonstrate an essential role for the hippocampal Cav1.2/CaMKII/S831 GluA1 pathway in cocaine CPP extinction, with data supporting contribution of hippocampal D1R-expressing cells in this process. These findings demonstrate a novel role for Cav1.2 channels in extinction of contextual cocaine-associated memories.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Continued drug-seeking behavior, a defining characteristic of cocaine

  13. Evaluating Ureteral Wall Injuries with Endoscopic Grading System and Analysis of the Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tolga; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Demirbas, Arif; Hascicek, Ahmet Metin; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Yucel, Mehmet Ozgur; Resorlu, Berkan

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the predictive factors for intraoperative ureteral wall injury due to semirigid ureteroscopy (URS) used in the treatment of ureteral calculi. The data of 437 patients who had URS due to ureteral stones were prospectively analyzed. The ureteral wall injuries that occurred during URS were reviewed endoscopically at the end of surgery and divided into two groups as low grade (grades 0 and 1) and high grade (grades 2, 3, and 4) according to classification of ureteral wall injuries. Those two groups were compared for patient and stone characteristics and perioperative findings. Ureteral wall injury was seen in 133 (30.4%) patients after surgery. According to the endoscopic classification of the lesions after URS, grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 injury were seen in 69.5%, 16.4%, 11.2%, and 2.7% of the patients, respectively. There were no grade 4 injuries in our series. Two groups showed statistically significant differences for the location (prox- vs distal and mid-ureter) and size of the stone (9.9 mm vs 14.03 mm), presence of preoperatively urinary tract infection (UTI) (12% vs 50.8%), needed balloon dilatation (9.8% vs 36.1%), duration of surgery (33.6 min vs 43.3 min), and surgical success rate (90% vs 76%) (p = 0.01, for all). Stone size, location, duration of surgery, and presence of preoperative infection were determined as independent prognostic factors for mucosal injury. The ureteral wall injury grading system may be used for standardized reporting of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. Big, proximal ureteral stone, longer operation time, and presence of UTI are the risk factors for ureteral wall injury during URS.

  14. Age-Related Grade Inflation Expectancies in a University Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A. Loffredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade inflation is a recognized problem in higher education in the United States. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in discrepancies between student reports of their expected grade in each course and their expectations for general university grading practices were explored in a survey of 166 (mostly female participants at a small upper-division university. Results revealed that while a small minority of students agreed that grading systems in college should only include A or B grades, a large majority of students expected A or B grades. Thus, student discrepancies between their expectations for grading systems and their expected class grades were in line with expectations that they should receive inflated grades. Results also revealed statistically significant age differences in grade expectation with students older than the age of 55 expecting lower grades relative to their younger counterparts.

  15. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilekha Namala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronuclei (MN in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student′s t-test and Spearman′s correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells.

  16. Local polarization switching in epitaxial thin films of ferroelectric (Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Kitanaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the local polarization switching behaviors of epitaxial (Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3 (BNT thin films obtained by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD. Using ozone gas as a deposition atmosphere of PLD, epitaxial growth of BNT films was achieved on SrRuO3/SrTiO3(1 0 0 electrode substrates. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM revealed that BNT grains in the films have a single-domain structure without domain walls. These domain structures and the local polarization switching measured by PFM indicate that the oxidizing atmosphere of ozone gas is considered to suppress the generation of bismuth and oxygen vacancies in the deposited BNT layers. We propose that the PLD method using ozone is effective in obtaining high-quality single-phase BNT films with a less concentration of lattice vacancies.

  17. The Role of the Grain Boundary on the Room Temperature Resistivity of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bop; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Hwan

    2002-08-01

    The role of the grain boundary on the room temperature resistivity of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) was investigated using parameters such as temperature dependence of resistivity, complex impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The low resistivity of PFN has been reported to be due to the electron hopping between Fe2+ and Fe3+ driven by the reduction of PFN. However a reconsideration of the reduction equilibrium constant (KRe) revealed that this theory could not fully explain the effect of the sintering temperature on the room temperature resistivity. The role of the grain boundary on the total resistivity was introduced in order to account for this behavior, which was confirmed by complex impedence spectroscopy. Furthermore, the annealing data and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the grain boundary properties were irreversibly changed at 1423 K, which appeared to be due to Pb volatilization.

  18. Tandem [8 + 2] cycloaddition--[2 + 6 + 2] dehydrogenation reactions involving imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginagalde, Maialen; Vara, Yosu; Arrieta, Ana; Zangi, Ronen; Cebolla, Vicente L; Delgado-Camón, Arantzazu; Cossío, Fernando P

    2010-05-07

    The reaction between benzynes and imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines (pyrimidines) to form benzo[a]imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizines and 2,3,9c-triazocyclopenta[j,k]fluorenes has been studied computationally and experimentally. It is found that these reactions take place via tandem [(pi)8(s) + (pi)2(s)] and [(sigma)2(s) + (pi)6(s) + (sigma)2(s)] processes. The [8 + 2] cycloaddition steps are essentially barrierless, and the aromatization steps occur via highly synchronous aromatic transition structures. From an experimental standpoint, the reaction is feasible under microwave irradiation and using 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflates as benzyne precursors. Depending on the substitution pattern in the starting triflate a complete regiocontrol of the reaction can be achieved. The tetracyclic compounds thus prepared emitted blue light when excited at 365 nm and exhibited interesting photophysical properties.

  19. Factor analysis of the WISC-R (Spanish version) at 11 age levels between 6 1/2 and 16 1/2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, C S; Demsky, Y I; Martin, P C

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R, Wechsler, 1974)-the Escala de Inteligencia para Niños-Revision (EIWN-R, Wechsler, 1982)-has a potentially important role in the assessment of Hispanic children. However, little is known regarding its psychometric characteristics. This study used the normative data from the EIWN-R standardization sample (N = 532 Cuban Americans) to examine its factorial composition and general comparability with the WISC-R. Within each of the 11 age groups (ages 6 1/2 to 16 1/2), the correlation matrix of raw scores was subjected to a principal components analysis and varimax rotation. The results supported a 2-factor solution across age groups roughly corresponding with Wechsler's verbal and performance dimensions. The existence of a meaningful third factor, which has empirical support in the WISC-R literature, failed to emerge for the EIWN-R.

  20. The electrical properties and relaxation behavior of AgNb{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, K.Ganga, E-mail: kotagirigangaprasad@gmail.com; Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline AgNb{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} powder was prepared by solid state reaction method. Preliminary x-ray diffractogram analysis of some aspects of crystal structure showed that a single phase compound formed exhibiting a monoclinic system. Impedance spectroscopy showed the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The relaxation behavior was studied by fitting electric modulus with Bergman function confirms us the existence of non-Debye type of relaxation the material. The ac conductivity spectrum obeyed Funke's double power law and fitting in results, the hopping parameters n{sub 1},n{sub 2} were indicating the existence of small and large range polaron hopping in the material. The band gap of the material 3.02 eV measured by using UV visible spectroscopy.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and pharmacological studies of ferrocene-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ashanul; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Hassan, Syed Imran; Haque Faizi, Md. Serajul; Saha, Anannya; Dege, Necmi; Rather, Jahangir Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad S.

    2017-10-01

    A series of ferrocene-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids namely 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (1), 1-(4,4‧-dinitro-2-biphenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (2), 1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (3), 1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (4) and 1-(2-nitrophenyl)-4-ferrocenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (5) were designed and synthesized by copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. All the new hybrids were characterized by microanalyses, NMR (1H and 13C), UV-vis, IR, ESI-MS and electrochemical techniques. Crystal structure of the compound (3) was solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The structural (single crystal) and spectroscopic (UV-Vis. and IR) properties of the compound 3 have been analyzed and compared by complementary quantum modeling. Hybrids 1-5 exhibited low toxicity and demonstrated neuroprotective effect.

  2. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Krasimira T; Potewar, Taterao M; Correia-da-Silva, Paula; Barros, M Teresa; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćiric, Ana; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-11-19

    A library of 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles have been investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Most of the target compounds showed good inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically and food contaminant important microbial pathogens. In particular, 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-(4-pentylphenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (5) was highly active against all the tested bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 1.1 and 4.4 µM and bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) from 2.2 and 8.4 µM. The compound 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (3) showed antifungal activity with MICs from 0.6 to 4.8 µM and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranging between 1.2 and 8.9 µM. Furthermore, some of the compounds possessed moderate cytotoxicity against human breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, without showing toxicity for non-tumor liver cells. The above mentioned derivatives represent promising leads for the development of new generation of sugar-triazole antifungal agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Foxp1/2/4 regulate endochondral ossification as a suppresser complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Wenrong; Yao, Zhengju; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Zhou, Rujiang; Li, Baojie; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Zhenlin; French, Catherine A; Dekker, Joseph D; Yang, Yingzi; Fisher, Simon E; Tucker, Haley O; Guo, Xizhi

    2015-02-15

    Osteoblast induction and differentiation in developing long bones is dynamically controlled by the opposing action of transcriptional activators and repressors. In contrast to the long list of activators that have been discovered over past decades, the network of repressors is not well-defined. Here we identify the expression of Foxp1/2/4 proteins, comprised of Forkhead-box (Fox) transcription factors of the Foxp subfamily, in both perichondrial skeletal progenitors and proliferating chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Mice carrying loss-of-function and gain-of-function Foxp mutations had gross defects in appendicular skeleton formation. At the cellular level, over-expression of Foxp1/2/4 in chondroctyes abrogated osteoblast formation and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, single or compound deficiency of Foxp1/2/4 in skeletal progenitors or chondrocytes resulted in premature osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium, coupled with impaired proliferation, survival, and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Foxp1/2/4 and Runx2 proteins interacted in vitro and in vivo, and Foxp1/2/4 repressed Runx2 transactivation function in heterologous cells. This study establishes Foxp1/2/4 proteins as coordinators of osteogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing long bones and suggests that a novel transcriptional repressor network involving Foxp1/2/4 may regulate Runx2 during endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Phase 1/2 and Biomarker Study of Preoperative Short Course Chemoradiation With Proton Beam Therapy and Capecitabine Followed By Early Surgery for Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ryan, David P.; Borger, Darrell R.; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S.; Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Deshpande, Vikram; Shinagare, Shweta [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wo, Jennifer Y.; Boucher, Yves [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wadlow, Raymond C.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Allen, Jill N.; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Zhu, Andrew X. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ferrone, Cristina R. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Adams, Judith; Winrich, Barbara; Grillo, Tarin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and biomarkers of short-course proton beam radiation and capecitabine, followed by pancreaticoduodenectomy in a phase 1/2 study in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with radiographically resectable, biopsy-proven PDAC were treated with neoadjuvant short-course (2-week) proton-based radiation with capecitabine, followed by surgery and adjuvant gemcitabine. The primary objective was to demonstrate a rate of toxicity grade ≥3 of <20%. Exploratory biomarker studies were performed using surgical specimen tissues and peripheral blood. Results: The phase 2 dose was established at 5 daily doses of 5 GyE. Fifty patients were enrolled, of whom 35 patients were treated in the phase 2 portion. There were no grade 4 or 5 toxicities, and only 2 of 35 patients (4.1%) experienced a grade 3 toxicity event (chest wall pain grade 1, colitis grade 1). Of 48 patients eligible for analysis, 37 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Thirty of 37 (81%) had positive nodes. Locoregional failure occurred in 6 of 37 resected patients (16.2%), and distant recurrence occurred in 35 of 48 patients (72.9%). With median follow-up of 38 months, the median progression-free survival for the entire group was 10 months, and overall survival was 17 months. Biomarker studies showed significant associations between worse survival outcomes and the KRAS point mutation change from glycine to aspartic acid at position 12, stromal CXCR7 expression, and circulating biomarkers CEA, CA19-9, and HGF (all, P<.05). Conclusions: This study met the primary endpoint by showing a rate of 4.1% grade 3 toxicity for neoadjuvant short-course proton-based chemoradiation. Treatment was associated with favorable local control. In exploratory analyses, KRAS{sup G12D} status and high CXCR7 expression and circulating CEA, CA19-9, and HGF levels were associated with poor survival.

  5. Growth and characterization of pendeo-epitaxial GaN (1 1 2¯ 0) on 4H-SiC (1 1 2¯ 0) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B. P.; Reitmeier, Z. J.; Park, J. S.; Bachelor, D.; Zakharov, D. N.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Davis, R. F.

    2006-05-01

    Growth on AlN/4H-SiC (1 1 2¯ 0) substrates of coalesced, non-polar GaN (1 1 2¯ 0) films having volumes of material with reduced densities of dislocations and stacking faults has been achieved from etched stripes via the statistical and experimental determination of the effect of temperature and V/III ratio on the lateral and vertical growth rates of the GaN{0 0 0 1} faces combined with pendeo-epitaxy. AFM of the uncoalesced GaN(0 0 0 1) and GaN (0 0 0 1¯) vertical faces revealed growth steps with some steps terminating at dislocations on the former and a pitted surface without growth steps, indicative of decomposition, on the latter. Coalescence was achieved via (a) a two-step route and the parameters of (1) T=1100 °C and V/III=1323 for 40 min and (2) 1020 °C and V/III=660 for 40 min and (b) a one-step route that employed T=1020 °C and a V/III ratio=660 for 6 h. The densities of dislocations in the GaN grown vertically over and laterally from the (1 1 2¯ 0) stripes were ˜4×10 10 cm -2 and ˜2×10 8 cm -2, respectively; the densities of stacking fault in these volumes were ˜1×10 6 cm -1 and ˜2×10 4 cm -1, respectively. The defects in the wing material were observed primarily at the bottom of the film where lateral growth of the GaN occurred from the AlN and the SiC. Plan view AFM also revealed different microstructures and a reduction in the RMS roughness values from 1.2 to 0.95 nm in these respective regions.

  6. E7449: A dual inhibitor of PARP1/2 and tankyrase1/2 inhibits growth of DNA repair deficient tumors and antagonizes Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Sharon; Chen, Zhihong; Wu, Jiayi; Chang, Paul; Kolber-Simonds, Donna; Ackermann, Karen; Twine, Natalie C; Shie, Jue-Lon; Miu, Jingzang Tao; Huang, Kuan-Chun; Moniz, George A; Nomoto, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) impairs DNA damage repair, and early generation PARP1/2 inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, etc.) have demonstrated clinical proof of concept for cancer treatment. Here, we describe the development of the novel PARP inhibitor E7449, a potent PARP1/2 inhibitor that also inhibits PARP5a/5b, otherwise known as tankyrase1 and 2 (TNKS1 and 2), important regulators of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. E7449 inhibits PARP enzymatic activity and additionally traps PARP1 onto damaged DNA; a mechanism previously shown to augment cytotoxicity. Cells deficient in DNA repair pathways beyond homologous recombination were sensitive to E7449 treatment. Chemotherapy was potentiated by E7449 and single agent had significant antitumor activity in BRCA-deficient xenografts. Additionally, E7449 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cell lines, likely through TNKS inhibition. Consistent with this possibility, E7449 stabilized axin and TNKS proteins resulting in β-catenin de-stabilization and significantly altered expression of Wnt target genes. Notably, hair growth mediated by Wnt signaling was inhibited by E7449. A pharmacodynamic effect of E7449 on Wnt target genes was observed in tumors, although E7449 lacked single agent antitumor activity in vivo, a finding typical for selective TNKS inhibitors. E7449 antitumor activity was increased through combination with MEK inhibition. Particularly noteworthy was the lack of toxicity, most significantly the lack of intestinal toxicity reported for other TNKS inhibitors. E7449 represents a novel dual PARP1/2 and TNKS1/2 inhibitor which has the advantage of targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling addicted tumors. E7449 is currently in early clinical development.

  7. GABA(A) receptor pi (GABRP) stimulates basal-like breast cancer cell migration through activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Gina M; Sizemore, Steven T; Seachrist, Darcie D; Keri, Ruth A

    2014-08-29

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of distinct subtypes predictive of patient outcome. Tumors of the basal-like subtype have a poor prognosis due to inherent aggressiveness and the lack of targeted therapeutics. Basal-like tumors typically lack estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor and HER2/ERBB2, or in other words they are triple negative (TN). Continued evaluation of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) biology is essential to identify novel therapeutic targets. Expression of the pi subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABRP) is associated with the BLBC/TN subtype, and herein, we reveal its expression also correlates with metastases to the brain and poorer patient outcome. GABRP expression in breast cancer cell lines also demonstrates a significant correlation with the basal-like subtype suggesting that GABRP functions in the initiation and/or progression of basal-like tumors. To address this postulate, we stably silenced GABRP in two BLBC cell lines, HCC1187 and HCC70 cells. Decreased GABRP reduces in vitro tumorigenic potential and migration concurrent with alterations in the cytoskeleton, specifically diminished cellular protrusions and expression of the BLBC-associated cytokeratins, KRT5, KRT6B, KRT14, and KRT17. Silencing GABRP also decreases phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in both cell lines and selective inhibition of ERK1/2 similarly decreases the basal-like cytokeratins as well as migration. Combined, these data reveal a GABRP-ERK1/2-cytokeratin axis that maintains the migratory phenotype of basal-like breast cancer. GABRP is a component of a cell surface receptor, thus, these findings suggest that targeting this new signaling axis may have therapeutic potential in BLBC. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: Discovery of dicloromezotiaz as a lepidoptera insecticide acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors1,2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Cordova, Daniel; Leighty, Robert M; Tong, My-Hanh T; Hughes, Kenneth A; Lahm, George P; Pahutski, Thomas F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; McCann, Stephen F; Henry, Yewande T; Chen, Yuzhong

    2017-02-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species. In this communication, we report the part of the optimization program that led to the identification of dicloromezotiaz as a potent insecticide to control a broad range of lepidoptera. Our efforts in discovery, synthesis, structure-activity relationship elucidation, and biological activity evaluation are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  10. Effect of carbon sources on the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debolina; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2012-01-01

    The effect of two carbon sources namely sodium acetate and ethanol was studied in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors for the removal of chlorinated ethanes i.e., 1,1,2-Trichloroethane (TCA) and 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contained in the simulated wastewaters. The Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was maintained as 24 hours in all the reactors. The granular biomass in the test reactors R2 and R3 were acclimated to 40 mg/L of TCA and 20 mg/L of TeCA, respectively. The effluent TCA and TeCA concentrations were 0.03 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L, respectively, at the end of acclimation phase. Sodium acetate and ethanol both were found to be suitable as the primary substrates in the biodegradation of TCA and TeCA. However, lower concentrations of the toxic pollutants (TCA and TeCA) were obtained in the effluents with the use of sodium acetate. The COD removal efficiency in the test reactors (R2 and R3) varied in the range of 95 % to 98.2 % accompanied by the formation of 1,2-Dichloroethane (DCA) as the major intermediate.

  11. The 1,2,3-triazole ring as a bioisostere in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonandi, Elisa; Christodoulou, Michael S; Fumagalli, Gaia; Perdicchia, Dario; Rastelli, Giulio; Passarella, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    1,2,3-Triazole is a well-known scaffold that has a widespread occurrence in different compounds characterized by several bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antitumor effects. Moreover, the structural features of 1,2,3-triazole enable it to mimic different functional groups, justifying its wide use as a bioisostere for the synthesis of new active molecules. Here, we provide an overview of the 1,2,3-triazole ring as a bioisostere for the design of drug analogs, highlighting relevant recent examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Group divisible designs of four groups and block size five with configuration (1; 1; 1; 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Mwesigwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present constructions and results about GDDs with four groups and block size five in which each block has Configuration $(1, 1, 1, 2$, that is, each block has exactly one point from three of the four groups and two points from the fourth group. We provide the necessary conditions of the existence of a GDD$(n, 4, 5; \\lambda_1, \\lambda_2$ with Configuration $(1, 1, 1, 2$, and show that the necessary conditions are sufficient for a GDD$(n, 4, 5; \\lambda_1,$ $\\lambda_2$ with Configuration $(1, 1, 1, 2$ if $n \

  13. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-03-21

    This application describes a process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  14. BIN1 is reduced and Cav1.2 trafficking is impaired in human failing cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ting-Ting; Smyth, James W; Chu, Kevin Y; Vogan, Jacob M; Fong, Tina S; Jensen, Brian C; Fang, Kun; Halushka, Marc K; Russell, Stuart D; Colecraft, Henry; Hoopes, Charles W; Ocorr, Karen; Chi, Neil C; Shaw, Robin M

    2012-05-01

    Heart failure is a growing epidemic, and a typical aspect of heart failure pathophysiology is altered calcium transients. Normal cardiac calcium transients are initiated by Cav1.2 channels at cardiac T tubules. Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a membrane scaffolding protein that causes Cav1.2 to traffic to T tubules in healthy hearts. The mechanisms of Cav1.2 trafficking in heart failure are not known. To study BIN1 expression and its effect on Cav1.2 trafficking in failing hearts. Intact myocardium and freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from nonfailing and end-stage failing human hearts were used to study BIN1 expression and Cav1.2 localization. To confirm Cav1.2 surface expression dependence on BIN1, patch-clamp recordings were performed of Cav1.2 current in cell lines with and without trafficking-competent BIN1. Also, in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, surface Cav1.2 and calcium transients were studied after small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of BIN1. For a functional readout in intact heart, calcium transients and cardiac contractility were analyzed in a zebrafish model with morpholino-mediated knockdown of BIN1. BIN1 expression is significantly decreased in failing cardiomyocytes at both mRNA (30% down) and protein (36% down) levels. Peripheral Cav1.2 is reduced to 42% by imaging, and a biochemical T-tubule fraction of Cav1.2 is reduced to 68%. The total calcium current is reduced to 41% in a cell line expressing a nontrafficking BIN1 mutant. In mouse cardiomyocytes, BIN1 knockdown decreases surface Cav1.2 and impairs calcium transients. In zebrafish hearts, BIN1 knockdown causes a 75% reduction in calcium transients and severe ventricular contractile dysfunction. The data indicate that BIN1 is significantly reduced in human heart failure, and this reduction impairs Cav1.2 trafficking, calcium transients, and contractility. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind wi...

  16. Palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions of 4-bromo-6H-1,2-oxazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Zimmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of 4-aryl- and 4-alkynyl-substituted 6H-1,2-oxazines 8 and 9 have been prepared in good yields via cross coupling reactions of halogenated precursors 2, which in turn are easily accessible by bromination of 6H-1,2-oxazines 1. Lewis-acid promoted reaction of 1,2-oxazine 9c with 1-hexyne provided alkynyl-substituted pyridine derivative 12 thus demonstrating the potential of this approach for the synthesis of pyridines.

  17. Tritiated platinum antitumor agents containing the trans-(d,1)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane carrier ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, S.D.; Chaney, S.G.

    1988-04-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) is one of the most widely used anticancer drugs today. However, platinum compounds possessing the 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) carrier ligand offer advantages over cisplatin with regard to bioavailability, activity and decreased renal toxicity. The trans- (d, 1)-1,2- diaminocyclohexane derivatives are the isomeric forms recently chosen by the NCI for large animal studies and phase I/II clinical trials. Here we report the synthesis of four trans-(d,1)-1,2-diaminocyclo-hexane platinum derivatives labeled with tritium in the cyclohexane ring by catalytic reduction of a cyclohexene precursor with carrier-free tritium gas over 10% Pd/C.

  18. EPP Monitor, Volume 8, Issues 1&2, Spring/Summer 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, Martine

    2004-01-01

    This issue of EPP Monitor contains the following articles: "Countdown for Justice," Five Quick and Inexpensive Ways to End Overcrowding," "Third Grade Retention -- Deja Vu All Over Again," High-Need African-American and Latino Students Doing Better in Suburban Districts," "An Emerging Consensus on Facts, not…

  19. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences - Vol 22, No 1-2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in young obese and non- athletic Nigerian university students. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Does Grade Inflation Affect the Credibility of Grades? Evidence from US Law School Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurawat, Winai

    2009-01-01

    While the nature and causes of university grade inflation have been extensively studied, little empirical research on the consequence of this phenomenon is currently available. The present study uses data for 48 US law schools to analyze admission decisions in 1995, 2000, and 2007, a period during which university grade inflation appears to have…

  1. Grades and Incentives: Assessing Competing Grade Point Average Measures and Postgraduate Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael A.; Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Albert H.

    2016-01-01

    In many educational settings, students may have an incentive to take courses where high grades are easier to achieve, potentially corroding student learning, evaluation of student achievement, and the fairness and efficiency of post-graduation labor outcomes. A grading system that takes into account heterogeneity of teacher standards and student…

  2. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  3. The Grading Nemesis: An Historical Overview and a Current Look at Pass/Fail Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David

    1983-01-01

    A brief history of grading practices at American colleges and universities is given, along with results of a survey of the current uses of pass/fail grading. The pass/fail system is widely used for a limited number of elective courses. Its adoption peaked during the mid-1970s. (PP)

  4. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.205 Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley...

  5. Evaluating Sermons: The Function of Grades in Teaching Preaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, Carolyn Browning

    2017-01-01

    What are grades doing in a homiletics classroom? This article traces the function of grades through the broader history of the educational system in the United States and then makes suggestions for how grades can be used more effectively in teaching preaching. Beginning in the nineteenth century, teachers used grades to rank and motivate students,…

  6. 7 CFR 51.596 - U.S. Grade AA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA. 51.596 Section 51.596 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Grades § 51.596 U.S. Grade AA. U.S. Grade AA shall consist of stalks...

  7. What Is Wrong with Grade Inflation (If Anything)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finefter-Rosenbluh, Ilana; Levinson, Meira

    2015-01-01

    Grade inflation is a global phenomenon that has garnered widespread condemnation among educators, researchers, and the public. Yet, few have deliberated over the ethics of grading, let alone the ethics of grade inflation. The purpose of this paper is to map out and examine the ethics of grade inflation. By way of beginning, we clarify why grade…

  8. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  9. 7 CFR 28.513 - Leaf Grade No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 3. 28.513 Section 28.513 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.513 Leaf Grade No. 3. Leaf grade No. 3 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  10. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  11. 7 CFR 28.512 - Leaf Grade No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 2. 28.512 Section 28.512 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.512 Leaf Grade No. 2. Leaf grade No. 2 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  12. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  13. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  14. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  15. 7 CFR 28.511 - Leaf Grade No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 1. 28.511 Section 28.511 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.511 Leaf Grade No. 1. Leaf grade No. 1 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  16. 7 CFR 28.515 - Leaf Grade No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 5. 28.515 Section 28.515 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.515 Leaf Grade No. 5. Leaf grade No. 5 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  17. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  18. 7 CFR 28.516 - Leaf Grade No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 6. 28.516 Section 28.516 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.516 Leaf Grade No. 6. Leaf grade No. 6 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  19. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented by...

  20. 7 CFR 28.514 - Leaf Grade No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade No. 4. 28.514 Section 28.514 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Pima Cotton § 28.514 Leaf Grade No. 4. Leaf grade No. 4 shall be American Pima cotton which in...

  1. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  2. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower... United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade... www.regulations.gov Web site. The current United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower will be...

  3. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  4. 7 CFR 160.21 - Rosin not fit for grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... classification and grading in accordance with the standards provided for rosin, shall not be classified, graded... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rosin not fit for grading. 160.21 Section 160.21... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading § 160.21 Rosin not fit for...

  5. Study on service performance of 880 MPa-grade and 980 MPa-grade rail steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Xu, G.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, R. M.; Gan, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of economy in China, the requirement for railway passenger and cargo transportation becomes higher and higher. Increasing speed and developing heavy-haul transportation can effectively improve the transportation capacity of railway. The requirement for rail steels with higher ability of abrasion resistance becomes urgent. Two kinds of rails, i.e., 880 MPa-grade and 980 MPa-grade rail steels, were laid on cargo line with 500 m short radius curve. The service performances of the tested steels were continuously tracked and analyzed during operation of total 22.5 million tons loads. Macro morphology, light band width, surface hardness and profile of rails were investigated. The results show that the performance of 980 MPa-grade rail steel is superior to that of 880 MPa-grade rail steel at same circumstance. Therefore, 980 MPa-grade rail should be selected in the cargo line with small radius curve.

  6. Observer reproducibility in grading dysplasia in colorectal adenomas: comparison between two different grading systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, C; Bak, Martin; Kronborg, O

    1990-01-01

    The two most well known and well defined grading systems for dysplasia in colorectal adenomas were compared with regard to reproducibility. The Konishi-Morson system (KMS) operates with several histological and cytological variables and grades of mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia. The Kozuka...... system is based on the extent of nuclear pseudostratification and also has three grades of dysplasia (III-V). As the group of severe dysplasia is very large in this system, it was extended with two higher grades, similarly based on individual histological criteria, known hereafter as the extended Kozuka...... can be obtained, but this implies that all the original grades (III-V) for the EKS must be grouped together. It is therefore recommended that a simplified KMS is used for further studies on the biological importance of dysplasia and for comparison between histological changes and other markers...

  7. New malignancy grading is a better prognostic indicator than Broders' grading in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M; Koppang, H S; Lilleng, R; Stene, T; Bang, G; Dabelsteen, E

    1989-09-01

    The prognostic value of histopathologic grading of oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) has varied from not any to highly significant. We have retrospectively studied all (130) SCCs registered in Norway 1963-72 in the buccal and maxillary alveolar mucosa. From 68 of these cases biopsy specimens of acceptable quality were obtained. Broders' method of grading was compared with a modification of a recent malignancy grading system recommended by Anneroth et al. which was performed only within the histologically most invasive areas of the tumors. Cox's multivariate survival analyses showed that this grading in the invasive sites had highly significant prognostic value. Broders grade had no prognostic value. The stage of tumor had also prognostic value. These highly significant results indicate that the histologically invasive areas may be primarily responsible for the clinical behavior of the tumor, and this may be of importance for the choice of therapy for oral SCC.

  8. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments....... Explanatory notes are used to explain choices and judgments in these summaries, for example, on rating of the quality of evidence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic survey of the explanations in SoF tables in 132 randomly selected Cochrane Intervention reviews and in EPs of 10 guidelines. We analyzed...... the content of 1,291 explanations using a predefined list of criteria. RESULTS: Most explanations were used to describe or communicate results and to explain downgrading of the quality of evidence, in particular for risk of bias and imprecision. Addressing the source of baseline risk (observational data...

  9. Approaches to grading facial nerve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael J; Neely, J Gail

    2004-02-01

    Systematic evaluation of facial nerve paralysis allows the clinician to determine objectively the severity of disability, record and communicate this information to colleagues, and evaluate response to therapy. An ideal grading system would be precisely calibrated-at once accurate, reliable, and conducive to use in both the clinic and the research laboratory. Developing such a system has proved difficult, however. The complexity of facial nerve anatomy allows tremendous variation in clinical presentation, and assessments of facial expression are inherently subjective in nature. Carefully defined parameters are therefore crucial in performing objective and quantitative analyses. This article reviews the clinical considerations involved in grading facial function and traces the evolution of current approaches. Emphasis is placed upon advances in computer-based facial nerve grading.

  10. Synthesis of 4-aryl-4, 5-dihydro-1-indeno [1, 2-] pyrimidines by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -aryl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-indeno[1,2-]pyrimidine-2-thiones through Biginelli's one-pot multicomponent condensation reaction via microwave irradiations. Then, these thiones were converted to their S-alkylated/aralkylated derivatives.

  11. Role of 1,2-dehydroreticulinium ion in the biosynthetic conversion of reticuline to thebaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, P.R.; Horn, J.S.; Rapoport, H.

    1978-01-04

    The role previously assigned to 1,2-dehydroreticulinium ion as a precursor to the morphinan alkaloids in Papaver somniferum was based on feeding experiments with a synthetic compound of uncertain identity. We have now prepared authentic 1,2-dehydroreticulinium chloride and shown its efficient incorporation into the morphinan alkaloids, supporting the previous hypothesis. Moreover, using a double-label technique and steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ biosynthesis, we have determined that 1,2-dehydroreticulinium ion is a natural product whose native pool size is about one-fifth that of reticuline. These data clearly establish 1,2-dehydroreticulinium ion as an intermediate in morphinan alkaloid biosynthesis.

  12. The Nature of Acid-Catalyzed Acetalization Reaction of 1,2-Propylene Glycol and Acetaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chen; Chen, Hui; Li, Xia; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Baochen [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-08-15

    We investigated catalytic activity of ion-exchange resins in acetalization of 1,2-propylene glycol with acetaldehyde. The impacts of reaction variables, such as temperature, reaction time, catalyst loading and feedstock composition, on the conversion of 1,2-propylene glycol were measured. The life of the catalyst was also studied. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics of 1,2-propylene glycol acetalization was studied. It was found that reaction rate followed the first order kinetics to acetaldehyde and 1,2-propylene glycol, respectively. Therefore, overall acetalization reaction should follow the second-order reaction kinetics, expressed as r - kC{sup nA}{sub A}C{sup nB}{sub B} = 19.74e{sup -650/T}C{sup 1}{sub A}C{sup 1}{sub B}.

  13. Neutron/gamma coupled library generation and gamma transport calculation with KARMA 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. G. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee Univ., 446-701 Deogyeong-daero, GiHeung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. S.; Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 305-353 Duckjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    KAERI has developed a lattice transport calculation code KARMA and its multi-group cross section library generation system. Recently, the multi-group cross section library generation system has included a gamma cross section generation capability and KARMA also has been improved to include a gamma transport calculation module. This paper addresses the multi-group gamma cross section generation capability for the KARMA 1.2 code and the preliminary test results of the KARMA 1.2 gamma transport calculations. The gamma transport calculation with KARMA 1.2 gives the gamma flux, gamma smeared power, and gamma energy deposition distributions. The results of the KARMA gamma calculations were compared with those of HELIOS and they showed that KARMA 1.2 gives reasonable gamma transport calculation results. (authors)

  14. USGS 1:24000 (7 1/2 Minute) Quadrangle Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Mathematically generated grid representing USGS 7 1/2 Minute Quadrangle Map outlines. Quadrangle names and standard identifiers are included with the data set.

  15. Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG2016-3 Springston, G., 2016, Surficial geology of the Cabot 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Vermont:�Vermont Geological Survey Open File Report...

  16. 1:2,000,000-scale state boundaries of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage is of the state boundaries of the conterminous United States. It was derived from the Digital Line Graph (DLG) files representing the 1:2,000,000-scale...

  17. USGS 1:12000 (Quarter 7 1/2 Minute) Quadrangle Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a mathematically generated grid in which each polygon represents one quarter of a standard USGS 7 1/2 minute quadrangle. The result is a 3 3/4 minute...

  18. Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Franziska; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Spiga, Luisella; Byndloss, Mariana X; Litvak, Yael; Lawhon, Sara; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product.

  19. Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Faber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product.

  20. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some [1,2,4]-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimagouda S. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel [1,2,4]-triazolo piperidine (8, [1,2,4]-triazolo piperazine (9a-c, [1,2,4]-triazolo phenylether (10a-e, and [1,2,4]-triazolo aniline (11a-c derivatives have been synthesized. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LCMS. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. Among all the compounds tested, 11b (R4=4-MeO– showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and 9a (R1 and R2=Cl showed the highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  1. ERF1_2 -- Enhanced River Reach File 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digital segmented network based on watershed boundaries, ERF1_2, includes enhancements to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1)...

  2. Synthesis and biological activities of 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols with various aromatic carboxylic acids by cyclization in the presence of phosphorous oxychloride. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, mass spectroscopy and ...

  3. Fused 1,2,3-Dithiazoles: Convenient Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia S. Konstantinova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new general protocol for synthesis of fused 1,2,3-dithiazoles by the reaction of cyclic oximes with S2Cl2 and pyridine in acetonitrile has been developed. The target 1,2,3-dithiazoles fused with various carbocycles, such as indene, naphthalenone, cyclohexadienone, cyclopentadiene, and benzoannulene, were selectively obtained in low to high yields. In most cases, the hetero ring-closure was accompanied by chlorination of the carbocyclic moieties. With naphthalenone derivatives, a novel dithiazole rearrangement (15→13 featuring unexpected movement of the dithiazole ring from α- to β-position, with respect to keto group, was discovered. Molecular structure of 4-chloro-5H-naphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]dithiazol-5-one 13 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical properties of 13 were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a complex behavior was observed, most likely including hydrodechlorination at a low potential.

  4. Lie Symmetries of (1+2) Nonautonomous Evolution Equations in Financial Mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andronikos Paliathanasis; Richard M. Morris; Peter G. L. Leach

    2016-01-01

    We analyse two classes of ( 1 + 2 ) evolution equations which are of special interest in Financial Mathematics, namely the Two-dimensional Black-Scholes Equation and the equation for the Two-factor Commodities Problem...

  5. Hierarchical domain structure of lead-free piezoelectric (Na{sub 1/2} Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(K{sub 1/2} Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chengtao, E-mail: lchentao@vt.edu; Wang, Yaojin; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight [Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Delaire, Olivier [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Li, Xiaobin; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 215 Chengbei Road, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-05-07

    We report a unique hierarchical domain structure in single crystals of (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-xat. %(K{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} for x = 5 and 8 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A high density of polar nano-domains with a lamellar morphology was found, which were self-assembled into a quadrant-like configuration, which then assembled into conventional ferroelectric macro-domains. Studies by high resolution TEM revealed that the polar lamellar regions contained a coexistence of in-phase and anti-phase oxygen octahedral tilt regions of a few nanometers in size. Domain frustration over multiple length scales may play an important role in the stabilization of the hierarchy, and in reducing the piezoelectric response of this Pb-free piezoelectric solid solution.

  6. Platinum Catalyzed Ring-Opening of 1,2-Cyclopropanated Sugars with O-Nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jürgen; Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of Zeise's dimer 1,2-cyclopropanated sugars undergo regioselective ring-opening at C-1 with O-nucleophiles including alcohols, phenols and water to produce 2-C-branched carbohydrates....

  7. Overexpression of Eg5 correlates with high grade astrocytic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Liu, Xichun; Mare, Marcus; Dumont, Aaron S; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Dong; Xiong, Zhenggang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Eg5 and histopathological grade of astrocytoma, Eg5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical examination on 88 specimens including 25 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 22 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), 20 cases of diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), and 21 cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I). The histopathological characteristics and Eg5 expression level of each tumor were assessed and statistically analyzed. Astrocytic tumors exhibited significant correlation of expression of Eg5 with higher WHO histopathological grades (p neoplasm, and it may represent an independent diagnostic and prognostic factor in grading astrocytic tumors and predicting prognosis of astrocytic tumor patients.

  8. The Investment Performance of Low-Grade Bond Funds.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornell, Bradford; Green, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the pricing of low-grade bonds by examining the performance of low-grade bond funds. The findings reveal that over the long run low-grade bond fund returns are approximately equal to the returns provided by an index of high-grade bonds. The relative risks of high and low-grade bonds are more difficult to assess. Because of their shorter durations, low-grade bonds are less sensitive to movements in interest rates than high-grade bonds. On the other hand, lo...

  9. Purification and biochemica characterisation of endoplasmic reticulum α 1,2-mannosidase from Sporothrix schenckiil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor M Mora-Montes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpha 1,2-mannosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 47 participate in N-glycan biosynthesis. In filamentous fungi and mammalian cells, α1,2-mannosidases are present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi complex and are required to generate complex N-glycans. However, lower eukaryotes such Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain only one α1,2-mannosidase in the lumen of the ER and synthesise high-mannose N-glycans. Little is known about the N-glycan structure and the enzyme machinery involved in the synthesis of these oligosaccharides in the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Here, a membrane-bound α-mannosidase from S. schenckii was solubilised using a high-temperature procedure and purified by conventional methods of protein isolation. Analytical zymograms revealed a polypeptide of 75 kDa to be responsible for enzyme activity and this purified protein was recognised by anti-α1,2-mannosidase antibodies. The enzyme hydrolysed Man9GlcNAc2 into Man8GlcNAc2 isomer B and was inhibited preferentially by 1-deoxymannojirimycin. This α1,2-mannosidase was localised in the ER, with the catalytic domain within the lumen of this compartment. These properties are consistent with an ER-localised α1,2-mannosidase of glycosyl hydrolase family 47. Our results also suggested that in contrast to other filamentous fungi, S. schenckii lacks Golgi α1,2-mannosidases and therefore, the processing of N-glycans by α1,2-mannosidases is similar to that present in lower eukaryotes.

  10. Evaluation du test rapide oral aware™ omt HIV 1/2 pour le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaque participant a fourni un échantillon de fluide oral pour la réalisation du test Aware™ OMT HIV-1/2 et du sang testé suivant l'algorithme séquentiel de tests ELISAs Murex® HIV-1.2.0 (Laboratoires Abbott, Japon) et Test ELISA peptidique maison du CeDReS. Résultats : la sensibilité, la spécificité, la Valeur Prédictive ...

  11. Magnetic properties of a diluted spin-1/2 Ising nanocube

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamri, M.; Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Ahuja, R.

    2016-02-01

    The effective-field theory with correlations based on the probability distribution technique is used to investigate the magnetic properties of a diluted Ising nanocube consisting of a ferromagnetic spin-1/2 core which is interacting antiferromagnetically with a ferromagnetic spin-1/2 surface shell. The effect of the concentration of magnetic atoms is examined. A number of interesting phenomena have been found such as the existence of the compensation temperature and triple hysteresis loops.

  12. CMMI Version 1.2 and Beyond Systems and Software Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-29

    significantly: • Integrated Project Management +IPPD (IPM+IPPD) • Organizational Process Definition +IPPD (OPD+IPPD) • Organizational Process Focus ( OPF ...strengthened in IPM and OPF 57 CMMI Update: V1.2 and Beyond Phillips, January 15, 2008 © 2008 Carnegie Mellon University Topics Model Appraisals Training...nine Process Areas changed for v1.2: • IPM, OPD, OPF , RD, REQM, SAM, TS, VAL, VER Following are the remaining 13 without significant change: • CAR, CM

  13. 1, 2, 3-Triazole N (2)-coordinated CO coupling: Access to ortho ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CuI-catalyzed selective Ullmann C–O coupling of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole bromides with phenols were achieved through the coordination of N(2) atom. The ortho C–Br bond in N(1) aryl can be selectively coupled with phenols, while other C–Br bonds remain inert, generating ortho aryloxyl 1,4-diaryl1,2,3-triazoles.

  14. Antimalarial peroxides: the first intramolecular 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN A. SOLAJA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An intramolecular steroidal 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane has been synthesised in six steps starting from methyl 3-oxo-7a,12a-diacetoxy-5b-cholan-24-oate. The synthesised 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane has moderate in vitro antimalarial activity against P. falciparum strains (IC50 (D6 = 0.35 mg/mL; IC50 (W2 = 0.29 mg/mL.

  15. The LDA-1/2 method implemented in the exciting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Pela, Ronaldo; Gulans, Andris; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the LDA-1/2 method is an alternative to hybrid functionals, capable of reaching similar accuracy in electronic-structure calculations, but at the computational cost of semilocal functionals. In this manuscript, we report the implementation of the LDA-1/2 method in the all-electron full-potential code exciting. We exemplify the performance of our implementation by calculating band gaps of semiconductors and highest occupied energy levels of atoms.

  16. N-point and higher-genus osp(1|2) fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Jorgen

    2002-01-01

    We study affine osp(1|2) fusion, the fusion in osp(1|2) conformal field theory, for example. Higher-point and higher-genus fusion is discussed. The fusion multiplicities are characterized as discretized volumes of certain convex polytopes, and are written explicitly as multiple sums measuring those volumes. We extend recent methods developed to treat affine su(2) fusion. They are based on the concept of generalized Berenstein-Zelevinsky triangles and virtual couplings. Higher-point tensor pro...

  17. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  18. Transmisi Harga Teh Hitam Grade Dust Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Adinugroho, Muhammad Fadhil; Harmini, Harmini

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to analyze the relationship of “dust grade” tea price at Jakarta, Colombo and Guwahati Tea Auction Markets, and (2) to perform Vector Autoregression (VAR) models in order to forecast the “dust grade” tea price at Jakarta Tea Auction Market. Grade dust tea is used to make the tea bag. The average weekly price of dust grade tea from the third week of February 2009 until the second week of April 2011 was used in this analysis. The results showed that firstly,...

  19. ERα and ERK1/2 MAP kinase expression in microdissected stromal and epithelial endometrial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Abu Alkhair Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Total and phosphorylated levels for ERK1/2 and ERα were measured by quantitation of signals from Western blots using specific antibodies against the active and total forms of ERK1/2 and against ERα. When the level of the proteins was quantitated and normalized to β actin from microdissected stroma and epithelium, no significant difference was detected in the levels of these proteins between the two tissue compartments. There was a trend toward higher expression in the stroma vs. epithelium, respectively (active ERK1/2 0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.2 ± 0.65; total ERK1/2 0.54 ± 0.35 vs. 0.28 ± 0.23; ERα 0.82 ± 0.28 vs. 0.54 ± 0.18; n = 6. These data demonstrate that there are comparable levels of ERα (P = 0.41, total ERK1/2 (P = 0.18 and active ERK1/2 (P = 0.13 in the stroma and epithelium of proliferative phase endometrium with a trend toward higher expression of these proteins in the stromal compartment.

  20. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activities of novel 1,2,4-triazolium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Lu, Yi-Hui; Gan, Lin-Ling; Zhou, Cheng-He; Wu, Jun; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Yi

    2009-07-01

    A series of novel 1,2,4-triazolium derivatives was synthesized starting from commercially available 1H-1,2,4-triazole, 2,4-dichlorobenzyl chloride, or 2,4-difluorobenzyl bromide. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus proteus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans ATCC 76615, and Aspergillus fumigatus. All structures of the new compounds were confirmed by NMR, IR, and MS spectra, and elemental analyses. The antimicrobial tests showed that most of synthesized triazolium derivatives exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. 1-(2,4-Difluorobenzyl)-4-dodecyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium bromide and 1-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-4-dodecyl-1H-1,2,4- triazol-4-ium bromide were the most potent compounds against all tested strains with the MIC values ranging from 1.05 to 8.38 microM. They exhibited much stronger activities than the standard drugs chloramphenicol and fluconazole which are in clinical use. The results also showed that the antimicrobial activities of triazolium derivatives depend upon the type of substituent, the length of the alkyl chain, and the number of triazolium rings.