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Sample records for wac slurry sample

  1. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M

    2011-02-22

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (3) There is an estimated concentration of trimethylbenzene (2.25 mg/L). This is not a WAC analyte, but it is the first time this organic compound has been detected in a quarterly WAC sample from Tank 50. (4) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  2. Results for the Fourth Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

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    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).1 Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The concentration of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC Limits and Targets, unless noted in this section. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits5 compared with the Saltstone WAC1. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Diisooctyl adipate (or diisooctyl hexanedioate) was measured at 1.30E+00 mg/L in one of two replicate measurements conducted on an at-depth sample.a The organic analysis of the at-depth sample was conducted at the request of SRR.4 This analyte was below the detection limit in the surface sample. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  3. Results for the Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

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    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section. 59Ni, 94Nb, 247Cm, 249Cf, and 251Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations.2 However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL.3 Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits4 compared with the Saltstone WAC.1 The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Finally, the low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  4. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2013 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

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    Bannochie, C.

    2014-04-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminants unless noted in this section. {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility of these materials in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species. The semivolatile organic analysis (SVOA) method employed in the measurement of Norpar 13 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) has resulted in the erroneous reporting of a variety of small chain alcohols, including 4-methyl-3-hexanol and 5-methyl-3-hexanol, in previous quarterly sample reports. It has now been determined that these alcohols are an artifact of the sample preparation. Further work is being conducted in SRNL to delineate the conditions that produce these alcohols, and these findings will be reported separately.

  5. Results For The Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample

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    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-11-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  6. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

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    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  7. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

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    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  8. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  9. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

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    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  10. Results for the First, Second, and Third Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H WAC slurry samples chemical and radionuclide contaminants

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    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-18

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2015 First, Second, and Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering (D&S-FE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50H Waste Characterization System. Previous memoranda documenting the WAC analyses results have been issued for these three samples.

  11. Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  12. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

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    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  13. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

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    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  14. Vintage WAC: Improving the Learning Impact of WAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thew, Neill; Gustafsson, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    This article is a report on the 2006 WAC Conference at Clemson University, written from the perspective of two international "critical friends." We use our reflections on the conference as a springboard for exploring the current state of play of the WAC movement, and for suggesting future areas for development. We noted three common sets…

  15. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

    1999-12-06

    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values.

  16. Determination of copper in powdered chocolate samples by slurry-sampling flame atomic-absorption spectrometry

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    Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Silva, Erik G.P. da; Fernandes, Marcelo S.; Araujo, Rennan G.O.; Costa, Anto' ' enio C.S.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Nucleo de Excelencia em Quimica Analitica da Bahia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Vale, M.G.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2005-06-01

    Chocolate is a complex sample with a high content of organic compounds and its analysis generally involves digestion procedures that might include the risk of losses and/or contamination. The determination of copper in chocolate is important because copper compounds are extensively used as fungicides in the farming of cocoa. In this paper, a slurry-sampling flame atomic-absorption spectrometric method is proposed for determination of copper in powdered chocolate samples. Optimization was carried out using univariate methodology involving the variables nature and concentration of the acid solution for slurry preparation, sonication time, and sample mass. The recommended conditions include a sample mass of 0.2 g, 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution, and a sonication time of 15 min. The calibration curve was prepared using aqueous copper standards in 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid. This method allowed determination of copper in chocolate with a detection limit of 0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} and precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), of 2.5% (n=10) for a copper content of approximately 30 {mu}g g{sup -1}, using a chocolate mass of 0.2 g. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1568a rice flour and NIES CRM 10-b rice flour. The proposed method was used for determination of copper in three powdered chocolate samples, the copper content of which varied between 26.6 and 31.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The results showed no significant differences with those obtained after complete digestion, using a t-test for comparison. (orig.)

  17. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.

    2000-08-31

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the ''clear'' layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm.

  18. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM 183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

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    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2000-09-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm-with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the "clear" layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm.

  19. Slurry sampling techniques for the determination of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a metal tube atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Katsumata, Hideyuki; Ohta, Kiyohisa

    2005-05-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a metal tube atomizer has been applied to the determination of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples. The slurry sampling conditions, such as slurry stabilizing agent, slurry concentration, pyrolysis temperature for the slurried fish samples, particle size and ultrasonic agitation time, were optimized for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with the Mo tube atomizer. Thiourea was used as the chemical modifier for the interference of matrix elements. The detection limit was 53 fg (3S/N). The determined amount of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples was consistent with those measured in the dissolved acid-digested samples. The advantages of the proposed methods are easy calibration, simplicity, low cost and rapid analysis.

  20. Handling complex effects in slurry-sampling-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by multivariate calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cal-Prieto, M.J. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Gomez-Carracedo, M.P. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Andrade, J.M. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: andrade@udc.es; Carlosena, A. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Prada, D. [Dept. Analytical Chemistry. University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-07

    Analysis of solid samples by slurry-sampling-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-ETAAS) can imply spectral and chemical interferences caused by the large amount of concomitants introduced into the graphite furnace. Sometimes they cannot be solved using stabilized temperature platform furnace (STPF) conditions or typical approaches (previous sample ashing, use of chemical modifiers, etc.), which are time consuming and quite expensive. A new approach to handle interferences using multivariate calibrations (partial least squares, PLS, and artificial neural networks, ANN) is presented and exemplified with a real problem consisting on determining Sb in several solid matrices (soils, sediments and coal fly ash) as slurries by ETAAS. Experimental designs were implemented at different levels of Sb to develop the calibration matrix and assess which concomitants (seven ions were considered) modified the atomic signal mostly. They were Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} and they induced simultaneous displacement, depletion (enhancement) and broadening of the atomic peak. Here it is shown that these complex effects can be handled in a reliable, fast and cost-effective way to predict the concentration of Sb in slurry samples of several solid matrices. The method was validated predicting the concentrations of five certified reference materials (CRMs) and studying its robustness to current ETAAS problems. It is also shown that linear PLS can handle eventual non-linearities and that its results are comparable to more complex (non-linear) models, as those from ANNs.

  1. River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead

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    Alves Flávia L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental procedure for direct sediment analysis was developed. Using this procedure, copper, zinc and lead were determined and quantitative recoveries for these metals were accomplished at a low cost and with minimal sample manipulation. The influence of the nitric acid concentration on the slurry preparation, as well as the sediment particle size was investigated. Sediment slurries were treated with 6.0 mol L-1 nitric acid and 2% (m/v ammonium chloride, and sonicated for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath before quantification by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Using these conditions for a certified reference material, the percentage of recovery for copper, zinc and lead were 96.4 ± 4.9, 97.0 ± 4.0 and 99.7 ± 4.0, respectively.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic slurry sampling procedures for cobalt determination in geological samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M; Carlosena, A; Fernández, E; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui, S; Prada, D

    2004-06-17

    Slurry sampling is compared to microwave-assisted acid digestion for cobalt determination in soil/sediment samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Furnace temperature programs and appropriate amounts of three chemical modifiers were optimised in order to get the highest signals and good separations between the atomic and background signals. Using nitric acid (0.5% (v/v)) as liquid medium, no chemical modifier was needed. The detection limit, based on integrated absorbance, was 0.04mugg(-1) for digests and slurries. Within-batch precision and analytical recoveries were satisfactory for both procedures. Accuracy was tested by analysing a reference soil and a sediment from IRMM. The methods were further compared employing a set of roadside soils and estuarine sediments. As no significant differences (95% confidence) were found, practical analytical properties were suggested in order to select one of them.

  3. Hepatitis E Virus (Genotype 3) in Slurry Samples from Swine Farming Activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, G; Della Libera, S; Brambilla, M; Bisaglia, C; Pisani, G; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Iaconelli, M

    2017-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emergent causative agent of acute hepatitis, transmitted by fecal-oral route. Infection with HEV is a global cause for morbidity and mortality throughout the world: it mainly causes large outbreaks in endemic areas and sporadic autochthonous cases in industrialized countries where HEV infections seem to be an emergent zoonotic disease. Infection of porcine livestock and its relationship with the human cases have been demonstrated. The present study describes an investigation on the prevalence and diversity of HEV in pig slurry in Italy. Slurry samples (24) were collected from ten farms located in North Italy during 2015 and analyzed for HEV, using four broad-range nested PCR assays targeting ORF1 (MTase), ORF2 (capsid) genes, and ORF2/3 regions. Overall, 18 samples (75%) were positive for HEV RNA, and characterized as genotype 3. Nine samples could be subtyped by ORF2 sequencing: Eight belonged to subtype 3f, while one sequence could not be characterized by blast analysis and phylogenetic analysis and may actually represent a new subtype. Furthermore, similarity of 99% was found between 3f Italian HEV sequences of human and swine origins. Real-Time PCR assay was also performed, in order to obtain quantitative data on positive samples. Two swine slurry samples were positive, containing 600 and 1000 UI per mL of sewage. The results of this study show that HEV strains belonging to zoonotic genotype 3 are widely present in swine excreta, and have high degree of identity with strains detected in autochthonous HEV cases. Improving swine farming operations safety and increasing operators' awareness of the zoonotic potential connected with the handling of swine effluents turn out to be key points in order to reduce the environmental and sanitary problem represented by the possible dissemination of HEV to water bodies.

  4. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, Pedro R. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: paranda@unsl.edu.ar; Gil, Raul A. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: ragil@unsl.edu.ar; Moyano, Susana [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: smoyano@unsl.edu.ar; De Vito, Irma [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: devito@unsl.edu.ar; Martinez, Luis D. [Departmento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Quimica San Luis (INQUISAL-CONICET), Chacabuco y Pedernera, P.O. Box 375, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)], E-mail: ldm@unsl.edu.ar

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg.

  5. Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

    2001-01-02

    A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates.

  6. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  7. Determination of cadmium, mercury and lead in coal fly ash by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.C.; Jiang, S.J. [National Sun Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-08-09

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) was used to the determine Cd, Hg and Pb in coal fly ash samples. Thioacetamide (TAC) was the modifier. Since the sensitivities of the elements studied in coal fly ash slurry and aqueous solution were quite different, isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in the coal fly ash samples. The isotope ratios of each element were calculated from the peak areas of each injection peak. This method was applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash reference material and a coal fly ash sample collected from Kaohsiung area. Detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were in the range of 24-58, 6-28 and 108-110 ng g{sup -1} for Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  8. X-ray fluorescent emission analysis of slurried samples of particulate solids: application to thorium and uranium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgens, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Problems of sample preparation can be avoided by analyzing the solids as slurries. A sealed sample cell with a belt-driven stirrer was constructed for use with the GE XRD-3 spectrometer. A problem arose owing to radiolytic gas; an open, bottom-window cell would solve the problem. A ThO/sub 2/ analysis was carried out; the ThO/sub 2/ assay was observed to increase with prolonged x-ray exposure. (DLC)

  9. WAC: Closing Doors or Opening Doors for Second Language Writers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Written by a WAC program director and second language writing studies scholar, this article raises questions about how second language writers are faring in WAC programs and the extent to which the fields of second language writing and WAC are informed by each other's scholarship. In this article, Cox draws from her review of 26 journal articles…

  10. Slurry micro-sampling technique for use in argon-helium microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślachciński, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    The Flow Focusing Pneumatic Nebulizer (FFPN) working at low liquid flow rates was evaluated for the elemental analysis in slurried samples by argon-helium microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES). The obtained results achieved were compared with commercially available V-groove Babington type nebulizer (VBPN). A univariate approach and the simplex optimization procedure were used to achieve optimized conditions and derive analytical figures of merit. Analytical performance of the micro nebulization system was characterized by a determination of the limits of detection (LODs), the precision (RSDs) and the wash-out times for Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb and Sr. The experimental concentration detection limits for simultaneous determination, calculated as the concentration giving a signal equal to three times of the standard deviation of the blank (LOD, 3σblank criterion, peak height) were 0.9, 0.2, 0.3, 0.2, 0.3, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3ngmL(-1) for Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb and Sr, respectively. The method offers relatively good precision (RSD ranged from 5% to 8%) for micro-slurry sampling analysis. Analyses of the certified reference materials (NRCC DOLT-2, GBW 07302 and SRM 2710) were performed in order to determine the accuracy available with the presented nebulization systems. The measured contents of elements in the reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values. In addition, these elements were determined in two real samples. Slurry concentration up to 3% m/v (particles technique. An ultrasonic probe was used to homogenize the slurry in the polypropylene bottle just before its introduction into the nebulizer. The nebulizers exhibited no clogging problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct determination of silicon in powdered aluminium oxide by use of slurry sampling with in situ fusion graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, H; Yoshida, T; Okutsu, K; Zhang, Q; Inoue, S; Atsuya, I

    2001-08-01

    A direct method for determination of silicon in powdered high-purity aluminium oxide samples, by slurry sampling with in situ fusion graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), has been established. A slurry sample was prepared by 10-min ultrasonication of a powdered sample in an aqueous solution containing both sodium carbonate and boric acid as a mixed flux. An appropriate portion of the slurry was introduced into a pyrolytic graphite furnace equipped with a platform. Silicon compounds to be determined and aluminium oxide were fused by the in situ fusion process with the flux in the furnace under optimized heating conditions, and the silicon absorbance was then measured directly. The calibration curve was prepared by use of a silicon standard solution containing the same concentration of the flux as the slurry sample. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysis of certified reference materials. The proposed method gave statistically accurate values at the 95% confidence level. The detection limit was 3.3 microg g(-1) in solid samples, when 300 mg/20 mL slurry was prepared and a 10 microL portion of the slurry was measured. The precision of the determination (RSD for more than four separate determinations) was 14% and 2%, respectively, for levels of 10 and 100 microg g(-1) silicon in aluminium oxide.

  12. Determination of cadmium, mercury and lead in coal fly ash by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsien-Chung; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in coal fly ash samples. Thioacetamide (TAC) was used as the modifier. Since the sensitivities of the elements studied in coal fly ash slurry and aqueous solution were quite different, isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in these coal fly ash samples. The isotope ratios of each element were calculated from the peak areas of each injection peak. This method has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash reference material and a coal fly ash sample collected from Kaohsiung area. Analysis results of reference sample NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash agreed satisfactorily with the certified values. The other sample determined by isotope dilution and method of standard additions was agreed satisfactorily. Precision was better than 6% for most of the determinations and accuracy was better than 4% with the USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS method. Detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were in the range of 24-58, 6-28 and 108-110 ng g-1 for Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  13. Direct determination of trace elements in boron nitride powders by slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amberger, Martin A.; Hoeltig, Michael [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.d [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The use of slurry sampling total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SlS-TXRF) for the direct determination of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ti in four boron nitride powders has been described. Measurements of the zeta potential showed that slurries with good stabilities can be obtained by the addition of polyethylenimine (PEI) at a concentration of 0.1 wt.% and by adjusting the pH at 4. For the optimization of the concentration of boron nitride in the slurries the net line intensities and the signal to background ratios were determined for the trace elements Ca and Ti as well as for the internal standard element Ga in the case of concentrations of boron nitride ranging from 1 to 30 mg mL{sup -1}. As a compromise with respect to high net line intensities and high signal to background ratios, concentrations of 5 mg mL{sup -1} of boron nitride were found suitable and were used for all further measurements. The limits of detection of SlS-TXRF for the boron nitride powders were found to range from 0.062 to 1.6 mug g{sup -1} for Cu and Ca, respectively. Herewith, they are higher than those obtained in solid sampling and slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SoS-GFAAS, SlS-GFAAS) as well as those of solid sampling electrothermal evaporation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (SoS-ETV-ICP-OES). For Ca and Fe as well as for Cu and Fe, however, they were found to be lower than for GFAAS and for ICP-OES subsequent to wet chemical digestion, respectively. The universal applicability of SlS-TXRF to the analysis of samples with a wide variety of matrices could be demonstrated by the analysis of certified reference materials such as SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, powdered bovine liver and borate ore with a single calibration. The correlation coefficients of the plots for the values found for Ca, Fe and Ti by SlS-TXRF in the boron nitride powders as well as in the before mentioned samples versus the reference values for the respective

  14. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine samples after dispersive solid-liquid extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Méndez, J.; Barciela García, J.; García Martín, S.; Peña Crecente, R. M.; Herrero Latorre, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of Cd and Pb in urine samples has been developed. The method involves dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE), slurry sampling (SS), and subsequent electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the sorbent material. The isolated MWCNT/analyte aggregates were treated with nitric acid to form a slurry and both metals were determined directly by injecting the slurry into the ETAAS-atomizer. The parameters that influence the adsorption of the metals on MWCNTs in the DSPE process, the formation and extraction of the slurry, and the ETAAS conditions were studied by different factorial design strategies. The detection and quantification limits obtained for Cd under optimized conditions were 9.7 and 32.3 ng L- 1, respectively, and for Pb these limits were 0.13 and 0.43 μg L- 1. The preconcentration factors achieved were 3.9 and 5.4. The RSD values (n = 10) were less than 4.1% and 5.9% for Cd and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed in recovery studies, with values in the range 96-102% obtained for Cd and 97-101% for Pb. In addition, the analysis of certified reference materials gave consistent results. The DSPE-SS-ETAAS method is a novel and useful strategy for the determination of Pb and Cd at low levels in human urine samples. The method is sensitive, fast, and free of matrix interferences, and it avoids the tedious and time-consuming on-column adsorption and elution steps associated with commonly used SPE procedures. The proposed method was used to determine Cd and Pb in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained.

  15. A novel slurry sampling analysis of lead in different water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Calisir, F. [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-10-30

    A preconcentration/separation technique based on the coprecipitation of lead with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex (Co(PDC){sub 2}) and subsequently its direct slurry sampling determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was coprecipitated with cobalt/pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex formed using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as a chelating agent and cobalt as a carrier element. The supernatant was then separated and the slurry of the precipitate prepared in Triton X-100 was directly analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with respect to lead concentration. The effects of experimental conditions on coprecipitation of lead with gathering precipitate as well as homogeneity and stability of the slurry were investigated. After the optimization of experimental parameters, a 100-fold enrichment of the analyte with quantitative recovery (>90%) and high precision (<10% R.S.D.) were obtained. By using the proposed technique, the lead concentrations in heavy matrices of Certified Sea-water and wastewater samples could be practically and rapidly determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The detection limit of the described method for lead using sample-matching blanks was 1.5 ng/L (3{sigma}, N = 10)

  16. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine samples after dispersive solid–liquid extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Méndez, J.; Barciela García, J.; García Martín, S.; Peña Crecente, R.M.; Herrero Latorre, C., E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of Cd and Pb in urine samples has been developed. The method involves dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE), slurry sampling (SS), and subsequent electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the sorbent material. The isolated MWCNT/analyte aggregates were treated with nitric acid to form a slurry and both metals were determined directly by injecting the slurry into the ETAAS-atomizer. The parameters that influence the adsorption of the metals on MWCNTs in the DSPE process, the formation and extraction of the slurry, and the ETAAS conditions were studied by different factorial design strategies. The detection and quantification limits obtained for Cd under optimized conditions were 9.7 and 32.3 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, and for Pb these limits were 0.13 and 0.43 μg L{sup −1}. The preconcentration factors achieved were 3.9 and 5.4. The RSD values (n = 10) were less than 4.1% and 5.9% for Cd and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the method was assessed in recovery studies, with values in the range 96–102% obtained for Cd and 97–101% for Pb. In addition, the analysis of certified reference materials gave consistent results. The DSPE–SS–ETAAS method is a novel and useful strategy for the determination of Pb and Cd at low levels in human urine samples. The method is sensitive, fast, and free of matrix interferences, and it avoids the tedious and time-consuming on-column adsorption and elution steps associated with commonly used SPE procedures. The proposed method was used to determine Cd and Pb in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained. - Highlights: • Cd and Pb determination based on the combination of DSP, SS and ETAAS • Urine matrix was eliminated using DSPE based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. • Slurry sampling technique permitted the direct injection of sample into the ETAAS atomizer.

  17. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires near global coverage on a monthly basis. The WAC is a push frame sensor with a 90° field of view (FOV) in BW mode and 60° FOV in 7-color mode (320 nm to 689 nm). WAC images are acquired during each orbit in 10° latitude segments with cross track coverage of ~50 km. Before mosaicking, WAC images are radiometrically calibrated to remove instrumental artifacts and to convert at sensor radiance to I/F. Images are also photometrically normalized to common viewing and illumination angles (30° phase), a challenge due to the wide angle nature of the WAC where large differences in phase angle are observed in a single image line (±30°). During a single month the equatorial incidence angle drifts about 28° and over the course of ~1 year the lighting completes a 360° cycle. The light scattering properties of the lunar surface depend on incidence(i), emission(e), and phase(p) angles as well as soil properties such as single-scattering albedo and roughness that vary with terrain type and state of maturity [1]. We first tested a Lommel-Seeliger Correction (LSC) [cos(i)/(cos(i) + cos(e))] [2] with a phase function defined by an exponential decay plus 4th order polynomial term [3] which did not provide an adequate solution. Next we employed a LSC with an exponential 2nd order decay phase correction that was an improvement, but still exhibited unacceptable frame-to-frame residuals. In both cases we fitted the LSC I/F vs. phase angle to derive the phase corrections. To date, the best results are with a lunar-lambert function [4] with exponential 2nd order decay phase correction (LLEXP2) [(A1exp(B1p)+A2exp(B2p)+A3) * cos(i)/(cos(e) + cos(i)) + B3cos(i)]. We derived the parameters for the LLEXP2 from repeat imaging of a small region and then corrected that region with excellent results. When this correction was applied to the whole Moon the results were less than optimal - no surprise given the

  18. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuefei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China); Jiang Zucheng [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China); He Man [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China)]. E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2007-07-15

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m{sup -3}(Eu) to 6.7 pg m{sup -3}(Nd) with the precisions of 4.1%(Yb) to 10%(La) (c = 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, n = 9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. - A new method for direct determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by fluorination ETV-ICP-MS with slurry sampling.

  19. Evaluation of a synergetic effect between Rh as permanent chemical modifier and acetylacetone as complexing agent in Sc determination in sediment slurry samples by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Araceli Veronica [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084 971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, P.O. Box 6192, 13084 971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arruda, Marco Aurelio Zezzi [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084 971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: zezzi@iqm.unicamp.br

    2005-02-14

    In the present work, scandium was determined in sediment slurry samples (from three different rivers) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Slurries were prepared by weighting 100 mg of dry sediment samples ({<=}53 {mu}m particle sizes) and adding 6 ml of HCl:HNO{sub 3}:HF (3:1:2, v/v). Accurate results were only possible due to the synergetic effect between Rh as permanent chemical modifier and acetylacetone (Acac) as complexing agent. The same platform was used for 400 heating cycles. The performance of the chemical modification was evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and some figures of merit (precision and detectability). The best analytical conditions were attained using 1500 and 2550 deg. C as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures. The scandium content in the liquid phase of the slurries ranged from 61 to 73%, thus indicating, in this study, that both liquid and solid phases play an important role in slurry analyses. An amount of 5.0-20.0 {mu}g l{sup -1} Sc linear range as well as LOD and LOQ of 0.19 and 0.62 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively, were obtained under these conditions. The accuracy was checked by using microwave-assisted decomposition, and the results compared to those obtained with the proposed methodology (slurry analysis). By checking both sets of the results, there is no statistical difference at the 95% confidence levels.

  20. A novel method for simultaneous determination of selected elements in dolomite and magnesia by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy with slurry sample introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok-Badura, Joanna; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Turek, Marian; Szczerba, Jacek; Lemanowicz, Marcin; Karoń, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    The slurry nebulization ICP-AES method for simultaneous determination of selected elements in dolomite and magnesia was proposed. Based on the investigation results the optimal conditions for this analysis were as follows: particle size CRM 782-1 and High Purity Magnesia BCS-CRM 389/1 were analyzed. Student's t-test proved that there were no statistically significant differences between determined values and the certified ones. This proves that the slurry sample introduction into plasma in ICP-AES technique can be applied for simultaneous determination of elements in dolomite and magnesia.

  1. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Jiang, Z.C.; He, M.; Hu, B. [Wuhan University, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-15

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m{sup -3} (Eu) to 6.7 Pg m{sup -3} (Nd) with the precisions of 4.1% (Yb) to 10% (La) = 1 {mu} g L{sup -1}, n = 9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition.

  2. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuefei; Jiang, Zucheng; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2007-07-01

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m(-3)(Eu) to 6.7 pg m(-3)(Nd) with the precisions of 4.1%(Yb) to 10%(La) (c=1 microg L(-1), n=9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition.

  3. Determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laiana O B; Leao, Danilo J; dos Santos, Debora C; Matos, Geraldo D; de Andrade, Jailson B; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the determination of copper in airborne particulate matter using slurry sampling and chemical vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG AAS). Chemometric tools were employed to characterize the influence of several factors on the generation of volatile copper species. First, a two-level full factorial design was performed that included the following chemical variables: hydrochloric acid concentration, tetrahydroborate concentration, sulfanilamide concentration and tetrahydroborate volume, using absorbance as the response. Under the established experimental conditions, the hydrochloric acid concentration had the greatest influence on the generation of volatile copper species. Subsequently, a Box-Behnken design was performed to determine the optimum conditions for these parameters. A second chemometric study employing a two-level full factorial design was performed to evaluate the following physical factors: tetrahydroborate flow rate, flame composition, alcohol volume and sample volume. The results of this study demonstrated that the tetrahydroborate flow rate was critical for the process. The chemometric experiments determined the following experimental conditions for the method: hydrochloric acid concentration, 0.208 M; tetrahydroborate concentration, 4.59%; sulfanilamide concentration, 0.79%; tetrahydroborate volume, 2.50 mL; tetrahydroborate flow rate, 6.50 mL min(-1); alcohol volume, 200 µL; and sample volume, 7.0 mL. Thus, this method, using a slurry volume of 500 µL and a final dilution of 7 mL, allowed for the determination of copper with limits of detection and quantification of 0.30 and 0.99 µg L(-1), respectively. Precisions, expressed as RSD%, of 4.6 and 2.8% were obtained using copper solutions at concentrations of 5.0 and 50.0 µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material of urban particulate matter. The copper concentration

  4. Direct determination of fluorine in niobium oxide using slurry sampling electrothermal high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Okruss, Michael; Geisler, Sebastian; Florek, Stefan; Richter, Silke; Meckelburg, Angela

    Aiming for a round-robin test, a new method for the direct determination of fluorine in niobium oxide has been developed. It is based on the use of high-resolution molecular absorption spectra of calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) generated in the graphite tube, combined with the slurry sampling technique. The absorption measurement was performed at the 606.44 nm CaF rotational line. By using graphite tubes with zirconium carbide (ZrC) modified platform, the molecular absorption sensitivity of CaF has been improved by a factor of 20, and no additional chemical modifier was necessary. Generally, non-spectral interferences were observed in the presence of HCl, H2SO4, and H3PO4. For HCl, additional spectral interference occurred due to an overlap of the absorption spectra of CaF and CaCl. However, due to the absence of these mentioned substances in the current material, such interferences do not exist for this application. The characteristic mass found for the CaF 606.44 nm line was 0.1 ng; the limit of detection was 5 mg fluorine per kg solid sample (3σ criterion). The results obtained by the method were within the range of certified values. Comparing to the classical method such as the pyrohydrolysis-photometric method, the developed new method showed clear advantages regarding sensitivity and specificity. The time requirement for one sample analysis was strongly shortened from several hours to only some minutes.

  5. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  6. Simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by slurry-sampling graphite furnace AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hirotsugu; Yada, Masako; Yoshida, Tomomi; Zhang, Qiangbin; Inoue, Sadanobu; Atsuya, Ikuo

    2004-03-01

    A fast and accurate analytical method was established for the simultaneous direct determination of aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a slurry sampling technique and a Hitachi Model Z-9000 atomic absorption spectrometer. The slurry samples were prepared by the ultrasonication of silicon carbide or silicon nitride powders with 0.1 M nitric acid. Calibration curves were prepared by using a mixed standard solution containing aluminum, calcium, iron and 0.1 M nitric acid. The analytical results of the proposed method for aluminum, calcium and iron in silicon carbide and silicon nitride reference materials were in good agreement with the reference values. The detection limits for aluminum, calcium and iron were 0.6 microg/g, 0.15 microg/g and 2.5 microg/g, respectively, in solid samples, when 200 mg of powdered samples were suspended in 20 ml of 0.1 M nitric acid and a 10 microl portion of the slurry sample was then measured. The relative standard deviation of the determination of aluminum, calcium and iron was 5 - 33%.

  7. Study of matrix effects and spectral interferences in the determination of lead in sediments, sludges and soils by SR-ETAAS using slurry sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Marianela; Cerutti, Soledad; Martinez, Luis D; Smichowski, Patricia; Gil, Raúl A

    2010-07-15

    An interference-free, fast, and simple method is proposed for Pb determination in environmental solid samples combining slurry sampling and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were ground to an adequate particle size and slurries were prepared by weighing from 0.05 g to 0.20 g of dry sediment, adding nitric acid, and a solution containing 0.1% Triton X-100. Ultrasonic agitation was employed for slurries homogenization. Analytical variables including acid pre-treatment conditions, particle size, slurry stability, temperature program of the graphite furnace, and type and concentration of the chemical modifier were studied. The undesirable effects of potential non-specific and spectral interferences on Pb signal were also taken into account. Continuum source and self-reversal methods for background correction were evaluated and compared. For calibration, synthetic acid solutions of Pb were employed. Calibration was linear within the range 1-30 microg L(-1) and 5-30 microg L(-1) when the 217.0 nm and 283.3 nm analytical lines were used. Correlation coefficients of 0.9992 and 0.9997 were obtained. Using optimized conditions, limits of detection (3sigma) of 0.025 microg g(-1) and 0.1 microg g(-1) were achieved for the 217.0 nm and 283.3 nm analytical lines, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in soil, contaminated soil, municipal sludge, and sediment samples. The accuracy was assessed by the analysis of two certified reference materials: municipal sludge (QC MUNICIPAL SLUDGE A) and lake sediment (TRAP-LRM from IJS). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid determination of lead and cadmium in sewage sludge samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sample introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garcia, I.; Vinas, P.; Arroyo-Cortez, J.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [Dept. of Analytical Chem., Univ. of Murcia (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Lead and cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge samples are determined by suspending the ground samples in a solution containing 10% (v/v) concentrated hydrofluoric acid, 1% (v/v) concentrated nitric acid, 0.5% (m/v) dihydrogen ammonium phosphate and 0.1% (m/v) sodium hexametaphosphate. Aliquots of 20 {mu}L of these suspensions (4 mg/mL) are diluted to 1000 {mu}L with the same solution and then injected into the electrothermal atomizer. The drying stage is performed by programming a 400 C temperature, a ramp time of 20 s and a hold time of 15 s on the power supply of the atomizer. No ashing step is used. Platform atomization is carried out at 1600 and 1800 C for Pb and Cd, respectively. Calibration is performed using aqueous standards in the 5-75 and 0.2- 5 {mu}g/L Pb and Cd ranges, respectively. Results obtained for three certified reference materials and four samples demonstrate the reliability of the procedures described. (orig.)

  9. Slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for direct beryllium determination in soil and sediment samples after elimination of SiO interference by least-squares background correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husáková, Lenka; Urbanová, Iva; Šafránková, Michaela; Šídová, Tereza

    2017-12-01

    In this work a simple, efficient, and environmentally-friendly method is proposed for determination of Be in soil and sediment samples employing slurry sampling and high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-ETAAS). The spectral effects originating from SiO species were identified and successfully corrected by means of a mathematical correction algorithm. Fractional factorial design has been employed to assess the parameters affecting the analytical results and especially to help in the development of the slurry preparation and optimization of measuring conditions. The effects of seven analytical variables including particle size, concentration of glycerol and HNO3 for stabilization and analyte extraction, respectively, the effect of ultrasonic agitation for slurry homogenization, concentration of chemical modifier, pyrolysis and atomization temperature were investigated by a 2(7-3) replicate (n = 3) design. Using the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed method allowed the determination of Be with a detection limit being 0.016mgkg(-1) and characteristic mass 1.3pg. Optimum results were obtained after preparing the slurries by weighing 100mg of a sample with particle size acid was found satisfactory for the analyte stabilization. Accurate data were obtained with the use of matrix-free calibration. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials (NIST SRM 2702 Inorganics in Marine Sediment and IGI BIL-1 Baikal Bottom Silt) and by comparison of the results obtained for ten real samples by slurry sampling with those determined after microwave-assisted extraction by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-ICP-MS). The reported method has a precision better than 7%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ni [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL{sup −1} Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g{sup −1} for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  11. Using Bloom To Bridge the WAC/WID Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Geoffrey; Wills, Katherine

    A longitudinal study combined Stephen Tsuchdi's Workaday activities with Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives to bridge the WAC/WID (writing across the curriculum/writing in the disciplines) divide. The researchers hoped that by combining concrete activities that can be applied across disciplines with a Bloomian conceptual framework of…

  12. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks. These wastes must be retrieved, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed for disposal. Before removal from the storage tanks, the sludge and liquid wastes will typically be combined to create a mixture of suspended solids, generally referred to as a slurry; the slurry is then pumped from the tank to the treatment facilities by pipelines. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the slurries are transported safely and successfully. The consequences of pipeline plugging are unacceptable from the perspectives of schedule, cost, and safety. The baseline method of ensuring that the transport properties of the slurries are correct is to sample the slurry in the tank and analyze the sample in the laboratory. This method has some problems. First, there is a delay between the time that the sample is taken and the time that the analytical results are reported. For some types of analysis, this delay could be from 24 to 48 hours. Second, although the tank is being mixed to keep tile solids in suspension during this period, there is no way to determine whether the contents of the tank are homogenous unless multiple samples are collected at various depths and locations. Therefore, an on-line system that monitors slurry transport properties in real time is needed to evaluate the slurry prior to and during transfer.

  13. ANALYSES OF HTF-48-12-20/24 (FEBRUARY, 2012) AND ARCHIVED HTF-E-05-021 TANK 48H SLURRY SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Peters, T.

    2012-08-02

    Personnel characterized a Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) archived sample of Tank 48H slurry (HTF-E-05-021) in addition to the composite of samples HTF-48-12-20 and HTF-48-12-24, which were both retrieved in February 2012. The combined February 2012 sample is referred to as HTF-48-12-20/24 in this report. The results from these analyses are compared with Tank 48H samples analyzed in 2003, 2004, and 2005. This work supports the effort to demonstrate copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) of organic content in this material. The principal findings with respect to the chemical and physical characteristics of the most recent sample are: (1) The measured potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) solid concentration is 1.76 wt %; (2) Titanium was in line with 2004 and 2005 slurry measurements at 897 mg/L, it represents 0.1535 {+-} 0.0012 wt % monosodium titanate (MST); (3) The measured insoluble solids content was 1.467 wt %; (4) The free hydroxide concentration in the Tank 48H filtrate sample (1.02 {+-} 0.02 M) is close to the Tank 48H limit (1.0 M); (5) Carbonate reported by total inorganic carbon (TIC, 1.39 {+-} 0.03 M) is more than double the concentrations measured in past (2003-2005) samples; (6) The soluble potassium content (measured at 286 {+-} 23 mg/L) in the filtrate is in line with all past measurements; and (7) The measured {sup 137}Cs concentration is 7.81E + 08 {+-} 3.9E + 07 dpm/mL of slurry (1.33 {+-} 5% Ci/gallon or 3.18E + 05 {+-} 5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank) in the slurry which is in agreement with the 2005 report of 3.14E + 05 {+-} 1.5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank. The filtrate {sup 137}Cs concentration is 2.57E + 07 {+-} 2.6E + 05 dpm/mL. This result is consistent with previous results. Significant analytical data are summarized in Table 1.

  14. Use of slurry sampling for the direct determination of zinc in yogurt by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Geovani C; de Jesus, Raildo M; da Silva, Erik G P; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents an analytical procedure for the direct determination of zinc in yogurt employing sampling slurry and high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). The step optimization established the experimental conditions of: 2.0molL(-1) hydrochloric acid, a sonication time of 20min and a sample mass of 1.0g for a slurry volume of 25mL. This method allows the determination of zinc with a limit of quantification of 0.32microgg(-1). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) were 0.82 and 2.08% for yogurt samples containing zinc concentrations of 4.85 and 2.49microgg(-1), respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of a certified reference material of non-fat milk powder furnished by the National Institute of Standard and Technology. The proposed method was applied for the determination of zinc in seven yogurt samples. The zinc content was varied from 2.19 to 4.85microgg(-1). These results agreed with those reported in the literature. The samples were also analyzed after acid digestion and zinc determination by FAAS. No statistical difference was observed between the results obtained by both of the procedures performed.

  15. Method development for the determination of cadmium in fertilizer samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Aline R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq-INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker, Emilene M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lequeux, Celine [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Vale, Maria Goreti R., E-mail: mgrvale@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq-INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq-INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq-INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    The determination of cadmium (Cd) in fertilizers is of major interest, as this element can cause growth problems in plants, and also affect animals and humans. High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) with charge-coupled device (CCD) array detection overcomes several of the limitations encountered with conventional line source AAS, especially the problem of accurate background measurement and correction. In this work an analytical method has been developed to determine Cd in fertilizer samples by HR-CS GF AAS using slurry sampling. Both a mixture of 10 {mu}g Pd + 6 {mu}g Mg in solution and 400 {mu}g of iridium as permanent modifier have been investigated and aqueous standards were used for calibration. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 600 {sup o}C and 1600 {sup o}C for the Pd-Mg modifier, and 500 deg. C and 1600 deg. C for Ir, respectively. The results obtained for Cd in the certified reference material NIST SRM 695 (Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer) of 16.7 {+-} 1.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 16.4 {+-} 0.75 {mu}g g{sup -1} for the Pd-Mg and Ir modifier, respectively, were statistically not different from the certified value of 16.9 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1} on a 95% confidence level; however, the results obtained with the Ir modifier were significantly lower than those for the Pd-Mg modifier for most of the samples. The characteristic mass was 1.0 pg for the Pd-Mg modifier and 1.1 pg Cd for the Ir modifier, and the correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of the calibration were > 0.99. The instrumental limits of detection were 7.5 and 7.9 ng g{sup -1}, and the limits of quantification were 25 and 27 ng g{sup -1} for Pd-Mg and Ir, respectively, based on a sample mass of 5 mg. The cadmium concentration in the investigated samples was between 0.07 and 5.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cd, and hence below the maximum value of 20 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cd permitted by Brazilian legislation.

  16. Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shih-Yi [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in several cereal samples. Thioacetamide was used as the modifier to enhance the ion signals. The background ions at the masses of interest were reduced in intensity significantly by using 1.0 mL min{sup −1} methane (CH{sub 4}) as reaction cell gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Since the sensitivities of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in different matrices were quite different, standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in these cereal samples. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were about 1, 10, 4, 12 and 2 ng g{sup −1} for Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se, respectively, in original cereal samples. This procedure has been applied to the determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se whose concentrations are in μg g{sup −1} (except Cr and Se) in standard reference materials (SRM) of National institute of standards and technology (NIST), NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour and two cereal samples purchased from a local market. The analysis results of reference materials agreed with certified values at 95% confidence level according to Student's T-test. The results for the real world cereal samples were also found to be in good agreement with the pneumatic nebulization DRC ICP-MS results of the sample solutions. - Highlights: • Determination of Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in cereal samples • Ultrasonic slurry sampling in combination with DRC-ICP-MS • Better sensitivity with thioacetamide modifier in ETV • Decreased sample preparation time with solid sampling • Validation with NIST SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NIST SRM 1567a Wheat Flour.

  17. Use of constrained mixture design for optimization of method for determination of zinc and manganese in tea leaves employing slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Bezerra, Marcos, E-mail: mbezerra47@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, 45200-190, Jequie, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira Castro, Jacira [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, 44380-000, Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Coelho Macedo, Reinaldo; Goncalves da Silva, Douglas [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, 45200-190, Jequie, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-06-18

    A slurry suspension sampling technique has been developed for manganese and zinc determination in tea leaves by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of liquid-phase of the slurries composed by HCl, HNO{sub 3} and Triton X-100 solutions have been optimized applying a constrained mixture design. The optimized conditions were 200 mg of sample ground in a tungsten carbide balls mill (particle size < 100 {mu}m), dilution in a liquid-phase composed by 2.0 mol L{sup -1} nitric, 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid and 2.5% Triton X-100 solutions (in the proportions of 50%, 12% and 38% respectively), sonication time of 10 min and final slurry volume of 50.0 mL. This method allowed the determination of manganese and zinc by FAAS, with detection limits of 0.46 and 0.66 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The precisions, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), are 6.9 and 5.5% (n = 10), for concentrations of manganese and zinc of 20 and 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of the certified apple leaves (NIST 1515) and spinach leaves (NIST 1570a). The proposed method was applied for the determination of manganese and zinc in tea leaves used for the preparation of infusions. The obtained concentrations varied between 42 and 118 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 18.6 and 90 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively, for manganese and zinc. The results were compared with those obtained by an acid digestion procedure and determination of the elements by FAAS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a paired t-test (at 95% confidence level).

  18. Determination of macro and trace elements in multivitamin dietary supplements by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    In this research, three different commercially available multivitamin dietary supplements were analyzed by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS) with slurry sampling. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se were determined and compared to the amounts stated by producers. The safety of multivitamin dietary supplements depends on various factors including the manufacturing process and the purity and origins of the raw ingredients. For this reason, this research determined concentrations of several toxic elements (As, Cd, and Pb). Microwave-assisted high pressure Teflon bomb digestion was used to determine total amounts of elements in samples. Samples were prepared as slurries at a concentration of 0.1% (m/v) for macro elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Se) and at a concentration of % (m/v) for trace elements (As, Cd, and Pb) in acidic media (3M HNO3). The influence of acid concentration, Triton X-100 addition, sonication time, and sonication power on absorbance was investigated. The accuracy of this method was validated by analyses of NRCC LUTS-1 (Lobster hepatopancreas), NRCC DORM-1 (Dogfish Muscle), NRCC DOLT-2 (Dogfish Liver), NBS SRM 1570 (Spinach Leaves) and NBS SRM 1573 (Tomato Leaves) certified reference materials. The measured elements contents in these reference materials (except NRCC DOLT-2) were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl(-1), respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Traumatyczna pamięć Wacława Iwaniuka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rydz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the term “trauma” has recently been a bit abused, it is very well justified with regard to the poetry of Wacław Iwaniuk. Literary transformation of the biography of the author of “The Mirror” (World War II soldier serving on the front, prisoner of war and liberator of concentration camps in Germany is realised within the “autobiographic space” of Ph. Lejeune. The war trauma is revealed in Iwaniuk’s literary output in the flashes of memory. Persistent reappearance of war scenes has been conveyed by the poet in a series of oneiric images. The metaphor of “a wound” (P. Ricoeur, R. Nycz refers also to the post-war experience of a political exile. Wacław Iwaniuk lived outside Poland since 1939 and in 1948 he settled in Canada where he stayed till his death in 2001.

  1. Women Content in the Army - REFORGER 77 (REF WAC 77)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-30

    physically located in communities in close proximity to their respective units. The exercise area in which REF WAC 77 observations generally were made was...participating in the field training exercise did not seem to have any significant impact on opinions tapped by this questionnaire item. C. Sex Role...76. Do you consider yourself an athletic person? -1) Yes 2) No 77. When you were 13 to 17 years old, how often did you take part in physical activities

  2. Opposition effect of the Moon from LROC WAC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikodsky, Yu. I.; Korokhin, V. V.; Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Kaydash, V. G.; Videen, Gorden

    2016-09-01

    LROC WAC images acquired in 5 bands of the visible spectral range were used to study the opposition effect for two mare and two highland regions near the lunar equator. Opposition phase curves were extracted from the images containing the opposition by separating the phase-curve effect from the albedo pattern by comparing WAC images at different phase angles (from 0° to 30°). Akimov's photometric function and the NASA Digital Terrain Model GLD100 were used in the processing. It was found that phase-curve slopes at small phase angles directly correlate with albedo, while at larger phase angles, they are anti-correlated. We suggest a parameter to characterize the coherent-backscattering component of the lunar opposition surge, which is defined as the maximum phase angle for which the opposition-surge slope increases with growing albedo. The width of the coherent-backscattering opposition effect varies from approximately 1.2° for highlands in red light to 3.9° for maria in blue light. The parameter depends on albedo, which is in agreement with the coherent-backscattering theory. The maximum amplitude of the coherent opposition effect is estimated to be near 8%. Maps of albedo and phase-curve slope at phase angles larger than those, at which the coherent-backscattering occurs, were built for the areas under study. Absolute calibration of WAC images was compared with Earth-based observations: the WAC-determined albedo is very close to the mean lunar albedo calculated using available Earth-based observations.

  3. A simple method for the multi-elemental analysis of organic fertilizer by slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Luciene V; Nascentes, Clésia C

    2016-01-15

    A simple and fast method for the multi-elemental determination of 18 inorganic constituents (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb) in organic fertilizers employing slurry sampling and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. A 2(3) factorial design with a central point was employed to optimize the slurry sampling procedure. The internal standard and instrumental conditions were optimized by univariate studies. The selectivity of the method to determining Se, As, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd was assessed. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of four standard reference materials (SRM). The recoveries varied from 72% to 114%. For most of the elements, good agreement was achieved between the certified value and the value measured in the SRM. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) ranged from 0.5% to 14%. The evaluated method was applied to the determination of analytes in the press cake of palm, castor, curcas, sunflower, fodder turnip, white lupin, rapeseed and pequi, and their potential to be used as organic fertilizer was evaluated in accordance with Brazilian legislation.

  4. Slurry sampling fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry for the direct determination of metal impurities in aluminium oxide ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T; Chang, G; Wang, L; Jiang, Z; Hu, B

    2001-03-01

    A new analytical procedure for the direct determination of metal impurities (Cr, Cu, Fe and V) in aluminium oxide ceramic powders by slurry sampling fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP-AES) is reported. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) emulsion was used as a fluorinating reagent to promote the vaporization of impurity elements in aluminium oxide ceramic powders from the graphite tube. A vaporization stage with a long ramp time and a short hold time provided the possibility of temporal analyte-matrix separation. The experimental results indicated that a 10 microL 1% m/v slurry of aluminium oxide could be destroyed and vaporized completely with 600 micrograms PTFE under the selected conditions. Two aluminium oxide ceramic powder samples were used without any additional pretreatment. Analytical results obtained by using standard addition method with aqueous standard solution were checked by comparison of the results with pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-AES based on the wet-chemical decomposition and analyte-matrix separation. The limits of detection (LODs) between 0.30 microgram g-1 (Fe) and 0.08 microgram g-1 (Cu) were achieved, and, the repeatability of measurements was mainly better than 10%.

  5. Determination of trace elements in medicinal activated charcoal using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with low vaporization temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in medicinal activated charcoal by ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) was described. EDTA was used as the modifier to enhance the volatility of elements studied. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were studied. A relatively low vaporization temperature of 1000°C was used, which separated the analyte from the major matrix components that improved ion signals. The method has been applied to determine Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in an NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash reference material and three brands of medicinal activated charcoal capsules using isotope dilution and standard addition calibration methods. The concentrations that are in ng g(-1) levels were in good agreement between different calibration methods. The precision between sample replicates was better than 7% with USS-ETV-ICP-MS technique. The method detection limit estimated from standard addition curves was 0.4, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.04 and 0.9 ng g(-1) for Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb, respectively, in original medicinal activated charcoal.

  6. Use of sodium tungstate as a permanent chemical modifier for slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of indium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Rivas, Ricardo E.; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    A number of chemical modifiers have been assessed for the direct determination of indium in soils using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and slurry sampling. The best results were obtained when the graphite atomizer was impregnated with sodium tungstate, which acts as a permanent chemical modifier. Slurries were prepared by suspending 100 mg sample in a solution containing 1% (v/v) concentrated nitric acid and 10% (v/v) concentrated hydrofluoric acid and then 15-{mu}L aliquots were directly introduced into the atomizer. Standard indium solutions prepared in the suspension medium in the range 4-80 {mu}g L{sup -1} indium were used for calibration. The relative standard deviation for ten consecutive measurements of a 40 {mu}g L{sup -1} indium solution was 2.8%. The limit of detection in soils was 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The reliability of the procedures was confirmed by analysing two standard reference materials and by using an alternative procedure. (orig.)

  7. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  8. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  9. Notes from the Margins: WAC, WID, and the Politics of Place(ment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    This institutional autoethnography (IAE) explores the political and pedagogical dynamics of WPA and WAC/WID work within an exceedingly small, resolutely single-sex, and assuredly rural liberal arts campus ecology. Working within a theoretical framework informed by WAC/WID's historical commitment to increasing literacy in students from diverse…

  10. Implementation of Writing across the Curriculum (WAC) Learning Approaches in Social Work and Sociology Gerontology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the goals and methods of the international Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) movement in higher education, and WAC-enriched learning approaches that the author used in teaching a social work gerontology practice course and a sociological theories of aging course. The author's in-class, low-stakes, nongraded writing…

  11. Implementation of Writing across the Curriculum (WAC) Learning Approaches in Social Work and Sociology Gerontology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the goals and methods of the international Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) movement in higher education, and WAC-enriched learning approaches that the author used in teaching a social work gerontology practice course and a sociological theories of aging course. The author's in-class, low-stakes, nongraded writing…

  12. Determination of As, Cd, Pb and Tl in coal by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using slurry sampling and external calibration against aqueous standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, D.L.G.; Welz, B.; Curtius, A.J. [University of Federal Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    A method was developed for the determination of As, Cd, Pb and Tl by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) with slurry sample introduction using certified reference coal samples. The As-75, Cd-111, Pb-208 and Tl-205 isotopes were monitored, considering the lower probabilities of these isotopes in suffering interferences. The carrier and modifier effect of Ru added in solution was evaluated, demonstrating that sensitivity for all elements is considerably improved by the addition of 15 mg of Ru to each individual measurement. This confirms its ability to act as a physical carrier particularly for the analytes in aqueous solution. After optimization of the operational parameters, the determination of the four elements in six certified reference coal samples was carried out by external calibration against aqueous standards in 5% v= v HNO{sub 3}, resulting in good agreement between the certified or given values and the determined ones. For Tl, due to the absence of certified values, a comparison was established considering previously published data using solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Detection limits ({mu} g g{sup -1}) of 0.1, 0.004, 0.045 and 0.001 were achieved for As, Cd, Pb and Tl, respectively, and the precision was typically better than 10%.

  13. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SALTSTONE FORMULATED USING 1Q11, 2Q11 AND 3Q11 TANK 50 SLURRY SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Nichols, R.

    2012-06-27

    As part of the Saltstone formulation work requested by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing Saltstone samples for fresh property analysis and hydraulic conductivity measurements using actual Tank 50 salt solution rather than simulated salt solution. Samples of low level waste salt solution collected from Tank 50H during the first, second, and third quarters of 2011 were used to formulate the Saltstone samples. The salt solution was mixed with premix (45 wt % slag, 45 wt % fly ash, and 10 wt % cement), in a ratio consistent with facility operating conditions during the quarter of interest. The fresh properties (gel, set, bleed) of each mix were evaluated and compared to the recommended acceptance criteria for the Saltstone Production Facility. ASTM D5084-03, Method C was used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of the Saltstone samples. The hydraulic conductivity of Saltstone samples prepared from 1Q11 and 2Q11 samples of Tank 50H is 4.2E-9 cm/sec and 2.6E-9 cm/sec, respectively. Two additional 2Q11 and one 3Q11 sample were not successfully tested due to the inability to achieve stable readings during saturation and testing. The hydraulic conductivity of the samples made from Tank 50H salt solution compare well to samples prepared with simulated salt solution and cured under similar conditions (1.4E-9 - 4.9E-8 cm/sec).

  14. Comparison of action of mixed permanent chemical modifiers for cadmium and lead determination in sediments and soils by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Otto, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Slurry sampling atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization was used to the determination of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in soils and sediments using permanent modifiers. Comparison of action of mixed permanent modifiers niobium (Nb)/iridium (Ir) and tungsten (W)/iridium (Ir) were studied in detail. The effect of amount of Ir, W and Nb on analytical signals of Cd and Pb was examined. The optimal amounts of modifiers for Cd and Pb determination were stated. Niobium carbide formation on graphite surface was studied for different pyrolysis temperatures. Finally for Cd determination in sediments and soils 200 microg of Nb mixed with 5 microg of Ir was used as permanent modifiers and 15 microg of Nb mixed with 200 microg of Ir for Pb determination. Suspensions were prepared in 5% HNO(3). The analytical procedure was optimized carefully basing on data from pyrolysis and atomization curves studies. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was used additionally as matrix modifier during Cd determination in samples in order to prevent interferences coming from matrix components. The analysis of CRMs confirmed the reliability of the proposed approach. The precision and accuracy of Cd and Pb determination by the described method for soils and sediments were acceptable.

  15. Slurry sampling of sediments and coals for the determination of Sn by HG-GF AAS with retention in the graphite tube treated with Th or W as permanent modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Curtius, Adilson Jose [Departamento de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-10-01

    A method for the determination of Sn in slurry samples of sediment and coal by hydride generation graphite furnace electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-GF AAS) is proposed. The slurries were prepared by mixing the ground sample (particle size {<=}50 {mu}m) with 2.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl for the sediment samples or with 2.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl+1.0% v/v HF in a saturated boric acid medium for the coal samples. The slurry was placed in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min, before and after standing for 24 h, with occasional manual stirring. The graphite tube was treated with 0.5 mg of Th or W as a permanent modifier. Sn determination was carried out by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry at the optimized retention temperatures of 450 and 300 C for Th and W treatment, respectively. With this coupling, kinetic interference in the formation of the hydrides is avoided, and excellent detection limits can be obtained by using peak height. For the chemical vapor generation device, an optimized volume of 2 mL of sample slurry and an optimized NaBH{sub 4} concentration of 5% m/v were employed. The vapor produced was transported and retained on the graphite tube surface, which was further heated for Sn atomization. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing five certified sediments and three coals. By using the external calibration against aqueous standard solutions, the results obtained were in agreement with the certified values only for the sediment samples. For the coal samples, an addition calibration curve, obtained for one certified coal, was necessary to achieve accurate results. The obtained limits of detection were 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1} for sediment and 0.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} for coal with Th as permanent modifier. The relative standard deviations were lower than 15%, demonstrating an adequate precision for slurry analysis. Sediment and coal samples from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were also analyzed. (orig.)

  16. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  17. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

  18. Freon (CHF3)-assisted atomization for the determination of titanium using ultrasonic slurry sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-GFAAS): a simple and advantageous method for solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2004-06-01

    A simple and advantageous method for the determination of titanium using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling has been developed. Titanium is one of the refractory elements that form thermally stable carbides in the graphite tube, which leads to severe memory effects. Trifluoromethane (Freon-23) was applied in the purge gas during the atomization step or alternatively just prior to the atomization to successfully eliminate the problems of carbide formation and increase the lifetime of the furnace tube which could be used for more than 600 heating cycles. A flow rate of 40 mL min(-1) (5% of Freon in argon) was used to obtain symmetrical peaks with no tailing. However, when the gas flow rate was too high (250 mL min(-1)) the peak-tailing and memory effects reappeared. Ti was determined in various materials covering a wide range of concentrations, from 2.8 microg g(-1) to 12% (m/m) Ti. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) or by comparing the results with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after decomposition of the samples. The materials analyzed were soil, plant, human hair, coal, urban particulate matters, toothpaste, and powdered paint.

  19. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  20. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  1. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  2. Lessons for WAC/WID from Language Learning Research: Multicompetence, Register Acquisition, and the College Writing Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Navarro, Nela

    2011-01-01

    This article is a collaboration between WAC/WID and second language acquisition (SLA) specialists. It examines alternate disciplinary notions of the place of writing among other skills and adapts concepts from SLA theory and pedagogy with the goal of providing new interdisciplinary options for WAC/WID research and classroom practice.

  3. Beyond the L2 Metaphor: Towards a Mutually Transformative Model of ESL/WAC Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Jablonski, Jeffrey

    A metaphor sometimes used in teaching discipline-based academic writing is that the experience of learning to write in various academic contexts is like learning a new language (L2). This approach is critically examined here, and its implications for "writing across the curriculum" (WAC) programs at the college level are discussed. It is argued…

  4. Peer Response to Low Stakes Writing in a WAC Literature Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, M. Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    College courses which use writing across the curriculum (WAC) principles encourage students to write about assigned readings and to respond to each other's writings, resulting in better learning of course concepts and the experience of participating in a discipline's ongoing conversation. Guidelines for setting up peer response groups in both…

  5. Pairing WAC and Quantitative Reasoning through Portfolio Assessment and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Carol; Grawe, Nathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Writing across the curriculum has been a pedagogy associated with faculty development since the earliest days of the movement. Carleton College, an early adopter of WAC pedagogy and faculty development, has, in the last decade, added portfolio assessment to the combination with positive results. Among the unexpected consequences has been a…

  6. WAC at Century's End: Haunted by the Ghost of Fred Newton Scott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Susan H.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses two danger signs for writing across the curriculum (WAC) program survival, dealing with their cross-curricular structure, and their heavy dependence on just one person for their health and continuation. Outlines two cases from the history of writing instruction at the University of Michigan providing a precautionary tale for both kinds…

  7. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  8. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  9. Flashing Slurry Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  10. Heavy cement slurries; Pastas pesadas de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Avelar da; Conceicao, Antonio C. Farias [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Tecnicas de Perfuracao; Marins, Carlos Cesar Silva [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Revestimento e Cimentacao

    1989-12-31

    When going deeper in a high pressure well, the only way to successfully cement your casing or linear is through the use of heavy cement slurry. In 1987 PETROBRAS geologists presented to the Drilling Department a series of deep, hot and high pressure wells to be drilled. The Casing and Cement Division of this department then started a program to face this new challenge. This paper introduces the first part of this program and shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. We present the slurry formulations tested in laboratory, the difficulties found in mixing them in the field, rheology measurements, API free water and API fluid loss from both laboratory and field samples. (author) 3 tabs.

  11. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  12. Thinning of kaolin slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    After mixing kaolin with water attractive and repulsive forces between kaolin particles initiate process of coagulation and peptisation, respectively. The coagulation process in the kaolin slurry gives rise to voluminous aggregates of kaolin particles, where a great deal of water is fixed.

  13. Slurry transport medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

    1980-06-03

    This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

  14. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    of cattle slurry, contained too little P to be suitable for fertilizer production, as did pig slurry, to which sulphuric acid had been added prior to separation. Low solubility of P means the ashes should be treated before being used as a fertilizer. The acid consumption in a simple fertilizer production......The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...... from slurry separation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer production from recycling of the ash. Manure fibre has a positive calorific value and may be used as a CO2-neutral fuel for combustion. The ashes from combustion are rich in P, an essential fertilizer compound. The study is based on samples of animal...

  16. An experimental technique for studying the dynamic stability of slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, S.K.; Chu, M.L.; Reddy, N.P.; Yazdani, S.

    1987-01-01

    In coal slurry transportation, repeated vertical accelerations larger than the gravitational acceleration are encountered. The sedimentation behavior of the slurry fuels under these conditions is an area of concern in fuel transportation. A laboratory-scale technique has been developed that can be used to study the sedimentation behavior of coal slurry fuels under conditions of repeated vertical accelerations. A coal slurry sample contained in a settling column is subjected to repeated vertical movement using a mechanical shaker. The coal concentration profile along the height of the settling column can be used to quantify the sedimentation behavior of the slurry.

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffeld, M.; Wang, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers ...

  19. ¿Qué pasa con el wac? arqueología y “compromiso” en un mundo globalizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Shepherd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El año 2011 marca el vigésimo quinto  del Congreso Arqueológico  (WAC, por sus siglas en inglés.  WAC marcó una audaz intervención  la política del en el contexto de mediados de los años ochentas. Más, ¿cómo le fue en los mundos contemporáneos de la ? En este artículo, dos antiguos  del WAC adoptan una mirada  y crítica sobre las cambiantes , significados y contextos de.Centralmente, es un relato  controvertido encuentro entre el Ejecutivo  WAC y Rio Tinto minera, en Melbourne en 2007. Otras partes del artículo nociones de lo indígena, y discuten  supuestos que integran el programa del WAC Sin Fronteras”.  como un desafío, este artículo  respuestas y comentarios,  una de abrir un debate que  permita entrever futuros alternativos  la disciplina, más allá de la banal  de una “Arqueología Ltda.”

  20. WAC Lighting 2014靳产品路演圆满落幕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    责任照明引领持久创新,自8月22日至9月2日,WAC Lighting路演覆盖了上海、北京、深圳、成都4个城市,吸引了近600名业内人士及媒体的参与和支持。BEACON线条灯、FIREFLY点光源、FUEGO埋地灯PANTHER泛光灯等室外产品系列的推出,

  1. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  2. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  3. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  4. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  5. Medical ice slurry production device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  6. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    . In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...

  7. Conducting Research in the Gray Space: How Writing Associates Negotiate between WAC and WID in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstein, Jill

    2008-01-01

    With more frequency, writing associates (WA) are being placed into courses where the goals for writing include learning to write for a particular discipline. As WAC directors we negotiate the different expectations from professors and students that exist within this context. This article introduces a two-year case study of an introductory biology…

  8. "A Way to Talk about the Institution as Opposed to Just My Field": WAC Fellowships and Graduate Student Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Michael J.; Hall, Jonathan; Robinson, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    The teaching assistantship is a venerable model for funding graduate studies, staffing undergraduate courses, and providing pedagogical support for emerging college and university instructors. In this article, we present a variation of this model of graduate student support: the WAC Fellowship at the City University of New York. Using survey data…

  9. Slurry Injection Schemes on the Extent of Slurry Mixing and Availability during Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bahr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, slurry availability and the extent of the slurry mixing (i.e., among fresh slurry, spent slurry, and residual rinse-water were varied via three different injection schemes. An ultraviolet enhanced fluorescence technique was employed to qualitatively indicate slurry availability and its flow on the pad during polishing. This study investigated standard pad center area slurry application and a slurry injection system (SIS that covered only the outer half of the wafer track. Results indicated that the radial position of slurry injection and the alteration of fluid mechanics by the SIS played important roles in slurry mixing characteristics and availability atop the pad. Removal rates were found to decrease with slurry availability, while a higher degree of slurry mixing decreased the fraction of fresh slurry and consequently lowered the removal rate. By using a hybrid system (i.e., a combination of slurry injection via SIS and standard pad center slurry application, the polishing process benefited from higher slurry availability and higher fraction of fresh slurry than the conventional pad center slurry application and the shorter SIS, individually. This work underscores the importance of optimum slurry injection geometry and flow for obtaining a more cost-effective and environmentally benign chemical mechanical planarization process.

  10. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  11. Photometric parameter maps of the Moon derived from LROC WAC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Spatially resolved photometric parameter maps were computed from 21 months of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images. Due to a 60° field-of-view (FOV), the WAC achieves nearly global coverage of the Moon each month with more than 50% overlap from orbit-to-orbit. From the repeat observations at various viewing and illumination geometries, we calculated Hapke bidirectional reflectance model parameters [1] for 1°x1° "tiles" from 70°N to 70°S and 0°E to 360°E. About 66,000 WAC images acquired from February 2010 to October 2011 were converted from DN to radiance factor (I/F) though radiometric calibration, partitioned into gridded tiles, and stacked in a time series (tile-by-tile method [2]). Lighting geometries (phase, incidence, emission) were computed using the WAC digital terrain model (100 m/pixel) [3]. The Hapke parameters were obtained by model fitting against I/F within each tile. Among the 9 parameters of the Hapke model, we calculated 3 free parameters (w, b, and hs) by setting constant values for 4 parameters (Bco=0, hc=1, θ, φ=0) and interpolating 2 parameters (c, Bso). In this simplification, we ignored the Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE) to avoid competing CBOE and Shadow Hiding Opposition Effect (SHOE). We also assumed that surface regolith porosity is uniform across the Moon. The roughness parameter (θ) was set to an averaged value from the equator (× 3°N). The Henyey-Greenstein double lobe function (H-G2) parameter (c) was given by the 'hockey stick' relation [4] (negative correlation) between b and c based on laboratory measurements. The amplitude of SHOE (Bso) was given by the correlation between w and Bso at the equator (× 3°N). Single scattering albedo (w) is strongly correlated to the photometrically normalized I/F, as expected. The c shows an inverse trend relative to b due to the 'hockey stick' relation. The parameter c is typically low for the maria (0.08×0.06) relative to the

  12. Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II

    2013-12-04

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  13. Characterization Results for the March 2016 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-09

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on March 16, 2016. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  14. Characterization Results for the January 2017 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-11

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on January 19, 2017. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  15. Effects of cattle slurry acidification on ammonia and methane evolution during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid J; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH(3) emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH(4) emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH(4) from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid. In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH(3) and CH(4) evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH(4) by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH(4) production than fresh slurry. Sulfate and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH(4) emission during storage of cattle slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  17. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becaccia, A.; Ferrer, P.; Ibañez, M.A.; Estellés, F.; Rodríguez, C.; Moset, V.; Blas, C. de; Calvet, P.; García-Rebollar, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter) from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean). Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p<0.001) and ash (p=0.02) concentration than those located at the Centre of Spain. Also, type of farm affected ether extract content of the slurry (p=0.02), with highest values obtained for the youngest animal facilities. Results suggested a buffer effect of dietary fibre on slurry pH and a direct relationship (p<0.05) with fibre constituents of manure. Dietary protein content did not affect slurry nitrogen content but decreased (p=0.003) total and volatile solids concentration. Prediction models of potential NH3 emissions (R2=0.89) and CH4 yield (R2=0.61) were obtained from slurry composition. Predictions from NIRS showed a high accuracy for most slurry constituents (R2>0.90) and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively) to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production. (Author)

  18. Lunar textural analysis based on WAC-derived kilometer-scale roughness and entropy maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, XueQiang; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Ling, Zongcheng

    2016-06-01

    In general, textures are thought to be some complicated repeated patterns formed by elements, or primitives which are sorted in certain rules. Lunar surfaces record the interactions between its outside environment and itself, thus, based on high-resolution DEM model or image data, there are some topographic features which have different roughness and entropy values or signatures on lunar surfaces. Textures of lunar surfaces can help us to concentrate on typical topographic and photometric variations and reveal the relationships between obvious features (craters, impact basins, sinuous rilles (SRs) and ridges) with resurfacing processes on the Moon. In this paper, the term surface roughness is an expression of the variability of a topographic or photometric surface at kilometer scale, and the term entropy can characterize the variability inherent in a geological and topographic unit and evaluate the uncertainty of predictions made by a given geological process. We use the statistical moments of gray-level histograms in different-sized neighborhoods (e.g., 3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 pixels) to compute the kilometer-scale roughness and entropy values, using the mosaic image from 70°N to 70°S obtained by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). Large roughness and entropy signatures were only found in the larger scale maps, while the smallest 3-pixel scale map had more disorderly and unsystematic textures. According to the entropy values in 10-pixel scale entropy map, we made a frequency curve and categorized lunar surfaces into three types, shadow effects, maria and highlands. A 2D scatter plot of entropy versus roughness values was produced and we found that there were two point clusters corresponding to the highlands and maria, respectively. In the last, we compared the topographic and photometric signatures derived from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data and WAC mosaic image. On the lunar surfaces, the ridges have obvious multilevel

  19. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION IN SANITIZATION OF PIG SLURRY AND BIOMASS IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Grudziński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry is one of the production manure, which should be managed properly because of environmental threats it can cause. Pig slurry contains a wide range of microorganisms, most of which are opportunistic or obligatory pathogens for people and animals. Spreading it on fields without control can cause microbial contaminations of water and soil. Use of pig slurry as substrate in anaerobic digestion can be an effective way of sanitization. In this work role of methanogenic fermentation in pig slurry sanitization was laboratory examined. Study materials were biological samples: 1 sample of raw slurry and 3 samples of fermented biomass from different stages of fermentation. Total number of coliforms was determined by MPN (most probable number method, and presence of enterococci was verified in each sample. Study have shown that anaerobic digestion reduced total number of coliforms from initial amount of 7.0 x 106 [MPN/ml] in raw slurry to 3.7 x 104 [MPN/ml]. Total reduction was 99.47%. Moreover, after first fermentation, enterococci in the sample were undetectable. Results of this study proved anaerobic fermentation to be an affective way to neutralize microbial threat, that is pig slurry.

  20. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in......-house storage can reduce NH3 emissions, and also may influence other emissions. In this study, emissions of NH3 were quantified by measuring continuously during three complete finishing pig production periods of about 10 weeks each, and emissions of CH4 and H2S less frequently. Emissions were determined from...... sections with 30-32 pigs with or without daily adjustment of slurry pH to below 6. Ammonia losses from reference sections with untreated slurry were between 9.5 and 12.4% of N excreted, and from sections with acidified slurry between 3.1 and 6.2%. Acidification reduced total emissions of NH3 by 66 and 71...

  1. Results of Hg speciation testing on tank 39 and 1Q16 tank 50 samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The seventeenth shipment of samples was designated to include two Tank 39 samples and the 1Q16 Tank 50 Quarterly WAC sample. The surface Tank 39 sample was pulled at 262.1” from the tank bottom, and the depth Tank 39 sample was pulled at 95” from the tank bottom. The 1Q16 Tank 50 WAC sample was drawn from the 1-L variable depth sample received by SRNL.

  2. Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

    2013-10-01

    Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

  3. Characterization of aerosol and cloud water at a mountain site during WACS 2010: secondary organic aerosol formation through oxidative cloud processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble fractions of aerosol filter samples and cloud water collected during the Whistler Aerosol and Cloud Study (WACS 2010 were analyzed using an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. This is the first study to report AMS organic spectra of re-aerosolized cloud water, and to make direct comparison between the AMS spectra of cloud water and aerosol samples collected at the same location. In general, the mass spectra of aerosol were very similar to those of less volatile cloud organics. By using a photochemical reactor to oxidize both aerosol filter extracts and cloud water, we find evidence that fragmentation of water-soluble organics in aerosol increases their volatility during photochemical oxidation. By contrast, enhancement of AMS-measurable organic mass by up to 30% was observed during the initial stage of oxidation of cloud water organics, which was followed by a decline at the later stages of oxidation. These observations are in support of the general hypothesis that cloud water oxidation is a viable route for SOA formation. In particular, we propose that additional SOA material was produced by functionalizing dissolved organics via OH oxidation, where these dissolved organics are sufficiently volatile that they are not usually part of the aerosol. This work demonstrates that water-soluble organic compounds of intermediate volatility (IVOC, such as cis-pinonic acid, produced via gas-phase oxidation of monoterpenes, can be important aqueous-phase SOA precursors in a biogenic-rich environment.

  4. Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination...

  6. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  7. Acceptance testing of the Lasentec focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitor for slurry transfer applications at Hanford and Oak Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymo, Eric A.; Hylton, Tom D.; May, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    The Lasentec M600F FBRM particle size and population monitor (Lasentec, Redmond, WA) was selected for deployment on radioactive slurry transfer systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hanford after extensive testing with `physical simulants.' These tests indicated that the monitor is able to measure the change in particle size distribution of concentrated (up to 35 vol.%) slurries at flow rates greater than 2 m/sec. As well, the monitor provided relatively stable mean particle size values when air bubbles were introduced to the slurry pipe test loop and when the color of the slurry was altered. Slurry samples taken during each test were analyzed with a laboratory particle size monitor. For kaolin slurry samples (length-cubed weighted mean of around 55 micrometers ), the Lasentec M600F FBRM in-line monitor measured length-cubed weighted mean particle sizes within 25% of those measured by a laboratory Lasentec M500LF monitor. This difference is thought primarily to be the result of sample handling issues. Regardless, this accuracy is acceptable for radioactive slurry transfer applications. Once deployed, the in-line Lasentec monitor is expected to yield significant cost savings at Hanford and Oak Ridge through the possible reduction in risk of pipeline blockage. In addition, fewer samples of radioactive slurries will need to be measured in the laboratory, further reducing costs and increasing safety.

  8. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  9. Al slurry coatings for molten carbonate fuel cells separator plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Garcia, M.C.; Muelas, R.; Sanchez, A. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial, Madrid (Spain); Perez, F.J.; Duday, D.; Hierro, M.P.; Gomez, C. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia de los Materiales

    2001-07-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Al slurry coated AISI 310 stainless steel, with and without diffusion heat treatment, was investigated as a wet seal material for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) at 650 C. The results were compared with IVD Al coated AISI 310. Characterization of the samples before and after exposure to the eutectic 62 mol% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38 mol% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture at 650 C for 1000 h by SEM-EDS and XRD was carried out. The presence of LiAlO{sub 2} on the coated samples was confirmed by XRD. The slurry Al-coated stainless steels performed at least as well as the IVD Al coating. (orig.)

  10. Retreatment of silicon slurry by membrane processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, F. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Coetsier, C.; Carretier, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France); Ennahali, M.; Laborie, B. [KEMESYS, 125 ZA Verdalai, 13790 Peynier (France); Serafino, C.; Bulgarelli, F. [Rockwood Wafer reclaim France, ZI des Pradeaux, 13850 Greasque (France); Moulin, P., E-mail: philippe.moulin@univ-cezanne.fr [Universite Paul Cezanne Aix Marseille, Laboratoire de Mecanique, Modelisation et Procedes Propres (M2P2 - UMR-CNRS 6181), Europole de l' Arbois, BP. 80, Batiment Laennec, Hall C, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04 (France)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Membrane processes were used to regenerate Silicon CMP slurry effluent {yields} A two-step ultrafiltration process was performed at laboratory and industrial scales {yields} A new hybrid process (membrane ultrafiltration and chemical addition) is developed {yields} A ratio of 0.65 of dissolved chemicals allows RR and TTV to be within specifications {yields} At industrial scale, the hybrid process enables the reuse of electronic effluents. - Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to develop a process to regenerate the polish liquid used in Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (CMP), called 'slurry', and more specifically Silicon CMP slurry. Physico-chemical analyses show a considerable dilution of slurry through washing waters used in polishing. Thus, this effluent has been characterised for a better identification of the deviations from the slurry of reference (Point Of Use). Hence, the principle is to regenerate this effluent by membrane processes. The ultrafiltration results obtained at laboratory scale have led to the development of an industrial prototype. An optimal utilisation of this treatment allows completing a two-step process: the reconcentration by ultrafiltration and a chemical adjustment by addition of concentrated slurry. A stable behaviour of the slurry at the different steps of the process has been observed. Polishing results are similar with retreated and POU slurries. Furthermore, the functioning at industrial scale permits to maintain the performances obtained on the laboratory pilot.

  11. Properties of slurries made of fast pyrolysis oil and char or beech wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The properties of slurries made of pyrolysis oil mixed with wood, char or ground char were investigated with respect to phase transitions, rheological properties, elemental compositions, and energy density. Also the pumping properties of the slurries were investigated at temperatures of 25, 40...... and 60 C and solid loadings from 0 to 20 wt%. The phase transitions of the wood slurry samples were observed at lower solid loadings compared to the char slurry samples. The apparent viscosity of the slurry samples was found to be considerably impacted by solid loading (0e20 wt%) and temperature (25e60 C......), especially in the phase transition region. The slurry viscosities with 20 wt% char loading, 20 wt% ground char loading and 15 wt% wood loading (at a shear rate of 100 s1) are 0.7, 1.0 and 1.7 Pa.s, respectively at 60 C and these values increases 1.2e1.4 times at 40 C and 3e4 times at 25 C. The wood, char...

  12. [Professor Wacław Kuśnierczyk (1908-1997)--Pro Memoria in the century of birthday].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Krzysztof; Kozakiewicz, Jacek; Kierzek, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Wacław Kuśnierczyk was born in 1908 in Sniatyń. He received the degree in medicine at Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów in 1932. He did his PhD degree under Professor Zaleski supervision in 1938 at Jan Kazimierz University. At that time he concentrated his scientific activity on research on tuberculosis. In 1953 he obtained the title of second degree specialist in ear, nose and throat diseases. He became a chief of Otolaryngology at Urban Hospital No 4 in Katowice in 1960. Since then this eminent physician was working on tumours located in upper respiratory tract and the possibility of its endoscopic diagnosis at Silesian Academy of Medicine in Katowice. As one of the first he pointed out the negative influence of smoking cigarettes on cancer of larynx. It was Wacław Kuśnierczyk who implemented new priorities for integrated programs in patient care, research, education and cancer prevention. He has published widely in peer reviewed journals and has edited or contributed to many books. He has given many major lectures and is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards for his scientific accomplishments. The achievement of Professor Kuśnierczyk were the valuable source of information for the physicians. In 1997, on the 31st of January he died in Katowice.

  13. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  14. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  15. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2017-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  16. Relationships among slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions at different types of commercial Spanish pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Beccaccia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse several factors of variation of slurry composition and to establish prediction equations for potential methane (CH4 and ammonia (NH3 emissions. Seventy-nine feed and slurry samples were collected at two seasons (summer and winter from commercial pig farms sited at two Spanish regions (Centre and Mediterranean. Nursery, growing-fattening, gestating and lactating facilities were sampled. Feed and slurry composition were determined, and potential CH4 and NH3 emissions measured at laboratory. Feed nutrient contents were used as covariates in the analysis. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS was evaluated as a predicting tool for slurry composition and potential gaseous emissions. A wide variability was found both in feed and slurry composition. Mediterranean farms had a higher pH (p0.90 and similar accuracy of prediction of potential NH3 and CH4 emissions (R2=0.84 and 0.68, respectively to models using slurry characteristics, which can be of interest to estimate emissions from commercial farms and establish mitigation strategies or optimize biogas production.

  17. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  18. Microbial and Oligosaccharides Treatments of Feces and Slurry in Reducing Ammonia of the Poultry Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yusrizal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of Lactobacillus sp and fructooligosaccaride (FOS to reduce the volatile ammonia formation from chicken excreta and layer slurry. For each treatment-replication, 150 g of fecal material were collected from the poultry farm and placed in 500 ml beaker glass. The fecal sample was then treated with 2% Lactobacillus sp (2.6x106 cfu/g and 2% FOS and covered with plastic wraps. The volatile ammonia contents and pH were measured after one hour of standing (0 d and repeated at 48 h intervals for 6 d. For the dropping slurry study, 300 g of each layer dropping slurry sample were used. Results indicated that 2% Lactobacillus sp or FOS supplementations in the feces and dropping slurry after 1 h up to 6 d reduced the ammonia odor formation, fecal pH, and moisture content. The Lactobacillus sp and FOS treated manure resulted in increasing Lactobacillus sp count and reducing in E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter in 6 days for both feces and layer dropping slurry. In addition, reducing moisture content was observed in treated manure. It is concluded that Lactobacillus sp and FOS reduced the volatile ammonia formation and pathogenic bacteria from chicken excreta and layer slurry.

  19. Performance of a Centrifugal Slurry Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawas Yahya Bajawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of speed, concentration and size of slurry on the performance of a centrifugal pump. For this purpose a facility was built where the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump was examined using aggregate slurry. Three sizes of slurry with three concentrations and at three impeller speeds were used for the performance investigations of a centrifugal slurry pump. As a reference performance the performance of centrifugal slurry pump was also tested with clean water. The performance of pump has been reported as variations of head, power and efficiency at various flow rates along with the system characteristics of the pump. The results reveal that the pump performance is grossly affected by the type of slurry, its concentration and size. Besides this the variation in speed also affects the performance as is observed in pumps with water. The maximum decrease in the head, with respect to clear water, at the operating point was found to be 47% for aggregate for size 20 mm, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm. The maximum decrement in efficiency at operating point for aggregate was found to be 47% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and at 2200 rpm. The power increment requirement for aggregate was 9% for 4 mm size, 15% concentration and 2600 rpm.

  20. Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ζ of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ζ is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.

  1. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  2. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P milk analyzed.

  3. Experimental measurements of turbulent slurry jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted in which a fibre optic probe system was used to measure turbulent slurry jets. This presentation outlined the experimental setup and included an illustration of a probe schematic and measurements as well as calibrations. The probe schematic had a large range, high sensitivity and minimal flow disturbance. Probe calibration had the advantage of even concentration distribution, but it had the disadvantage of having a different reflective index from water. Slurry jet results were discussed with particular reference to parameters; concentration profile; velocity profile; spreading; and momentum flux. It was concluded that the probe is effective for a wide range of measurements in high concentration slurry jets. Future studies will focus on slurry jets impinging onto a non-Newtonian fluid (laponite). tabs., figs.

  4. Accurate Registration of the CHANG'E-1 Iim Data Based on Lro Lroc-Wac Mosica Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Kang, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In the detection of the moon, the visible and near-infrared reflectance data of the lunar material are important information sources for lunar chemical substances and mineral inversion. The Interferometer Imaging Spectrometer (IIM) aboard the Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter is the first multispectral imaging spectrometer for Chinese lunar missions. In this paper, we use the mosaic image of global moon acquired by the Wide-angle Camera (WAC) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) to realize the accurate registration of Chang'E-1 IIM hyperspectral images. Due to the lack of GCPs, the emphasis of this work is to find a huge number of homologous points. The method proposed in this paper is to obtain several homologous points by manually matching, and then we utilize those points to calculate the initial homography matrix of LROC-WAC image and IIM image. This matrix is used to predict the area on IIM image where homologous points may be located, and the locations of the homologous points are determined by the orientation correlation in frequency domain. Finally we save the parts of homologous points which satisfied the conversion relationship of initial homography matrix to calculate homography matrix again. We use this iterative way to obtain a more accurate location of the homologous points. In this process, we take into account that the geometric deformations of different regions on IIM image are quite different. Therefore, we added image threshold segmentation based on the initial homography matrix in the experiment, and completed the above work of finding the homologous points on the segmented images. The final realization of registration accuracy of IIM images are in 1-2 pixels (RMSE). This provides a reliable data assurance for the subsequent study of using IIM images to inverse the lunar elements.

  5. ACCURATE REGISTRATION OF THE CHANG’E-1 IIM DATA BASED ON LRO LROC-WAC MOSICA DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the detection of the moon, the visible and near-infrared reflectance data of the lunar material are important information sources for lunar chemical substances and mineral inversion. The Interferometer Imaging Spectrometer (IIM aboard the Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter is the first multispectral imaging spectrometer for Chinese lunar missions. In this paper, we use the mosaic image of global moon acquired by the Wide-angle Camera (WAC of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC to realize the accurate registration of Chang'E-1 IIM hyperspectral images. Due to the lack of GCPs, the emphasis of this work is to find a huge number of homologous points. The method proposed in this paper is to obtain several homologous points by manually matching, and then we utilize those points to calculate the initial homography matrix of LROC-WAC image and IIM image. This matrix is used to predict the area on IIM image where homologous points may be located, and the locations of the homologous points are determined by the orientation correlation in frequency domain. Finally we save the parts of homologous points which satisfied the conversion relationship of initial homography matrix to calculate homography matrix again. We use this iterative way to obtain a more accurate location of the homologous points. In this process, we take into account that the geometric deformations of different regions on IIM image are quite different. Therefore, we added image threshold segmentation based on the initial homography matrix in the experiment, and completed the above work of finding the homologous points on the segmented images. The final realization of registration accuracy of IIM images are in 1–2 pixels (RMSE. This provides a reliable data assurance for the subsequent study of using IIM images to inverse the lunar elements.

  6. Combustion Behavior of Free Boron Slurry Droplets,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    weak disruptive behavior while pure JP-1t burn quiescently, except for a flash extinction which occurs at the termination of combustion. The...I AD-R158 628 COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS(U) i/i I PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENINEERIN., F TAKAHASHI...COMBUSTION BEHAVIOR OF FREE BORON SLURRY DROPLETS TAM by F. Takahashi, F.L. Dryer, and F.A. Williams Department of M~echanical and keyosase Engineering

  7. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  8. Determination of cadmium in coal by low temperature ashing-slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry%低温灰化-悬浮液进样石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定煤中镉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙安应; 刘全亨; 吴胜金; 王士魁; 李悦

    2016-01-01

    The composition of coal is complicated .The content of cadmium in coal is low ,and it is easily volatile .According to these characteristics ,the coal was firstly pretreated by oxygen plasma low tempera‐ture ashing .Then ,the palladium nitrate was added as matrix modifier to make cadmium form non‐dissoci‐ative substance in ashing process .The determination method of cadmium in coal by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(GFAAS) with slurry sampling was established .The influence of sample matrix was mainly studied .The samples before and after low temperature ashing were compared and analyzed . The results indicated that the analytical sensitivity and precision could be significantly improved by low temperature ashing treatment .T he ashing temperature and atomization temperature of slurry sample and the dosage of matrix modifier were optimized .The ashing temperature and atomization temperature was 650 ℃ and 2 200 ℃ ,respectively .T he optimal mass concentration of matrix modifier (i .e .,palladium ni‐trate) was 1.0 g/L .Under the optimized conditions ,the standard slurry sample showed good linear in range of 0.1‐2.0 μg/L for cadmium .The linear correlation coefficient was 0.999 5 .The detection limit was 0.012 mg/kg .The actual sample and certified reference material of coal were analyzed according to the experimental method .The relative standard deviation (RSD ,n=5) was between 2.9% and 5.9% .The found results were consistent with those obtained by airtight digestion method or the certified values .%针对煤质复杂,而煤中的镉元素具有低含量且易挥发的特点,提出了采用氧等离子体低温灰化技术对煤进行预处理,再加入硝酸钯作为基体改进剂使镉在灰化过程中生成难离解物质,建立了悬浮液进样石墨炉原子吸收光谱法(GFAAS)测定煤中镉的方法。研究过程中主要探讨了样品基质的影响,通过对比分析低温灰化前后的样品,发现低

  9. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles S.

    1988-08-01

    A transducer is developed to measure particle pressures independently from fluid pressure. Initially it was thought that particle pressure was the only path by which the fluidization mechanism could be determined. The particle pressure transducer has been described in previous reports. A secondary project was developed to test these transducers and use them to measure the particle pressures generated against the side walls of gas-fluidized beds. This was a way to gain experience with the particle pressure transducer while awaiting the delivery of the pump and other components for the slurry pipe loop. Earlier this year, there was great difficulty in gaining repeatable results from the experiments. The culprit turned out to be static charge buildup in the granular mass. Hence, steam was injected into the air stream to help dissipate the charge buildup. This produced a further source of error that was eventually traced to the fiberoptic displacement transducer inside the probe. It developed that the transducer was sensitive to humidity. It has been suggested that this reaction might be a byproduct of the absorption of water onto the sensing surface changes its optical properties and hence its output signal.

  10. Studies of coal slurries property; Slurry no seijo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, M.; Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Hirosue, H. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously found that the increase of slurry temperature provides a significant effect of slurry viscosity reduction for the coal slurry with high concentration of 50 wt%. To investigate the detailed influence of slurry temperature for the coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt%, influence of temperature on the successive change of apparent viscosity was observed at the constant shear rate. When the concentration of coal was increased from 45 wt% to 50 wt%, viscosity of the slurry was rapidly increased. When heated above 70{degree}C, the apparent viscosity decreased during heating to the given temperature, but it increased successively after reaching to the given temperature. The apparent viscosity showed higher value than that of the initial viscosity. The coal slurry with concentration of 50 wt% showed the fluidity of Newtonian fluid at the lower shear rate region, but showed the fluidity of pseudo-plastic fluid at the higher shear rate region. The slurry having high apparent viscosity by the successive change showed higher apparent viscosity with increasing the higher even by changing the shear rate. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  11. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  12. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    . Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI/PI) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r=0...

  13. Characterization Results for the 2014 HTF 3H & 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-11

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H and 2H evaporator overhead samples for 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  14. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  15. Comparison of Paper Molding and Slurry Processes for Manufacture of 60- mm M204 and 81-mm M205 Propelling Charge Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    and 81-mm M205 propelling charge increment containers manufactured by INNOVA , Inc. with increment container assemblies made by the ARMTEC slurry...charge and specification MIL-C-48882 for the M205 propelling charge. The test program used samples from the INNOVA paper process and the ARMTEC slurry

  16. Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in Danish farmland as a result of treatment with pig manure slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Agersø, Yvonne; Halling-Sørensen, B.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides and streptomycin was measured for a period of 8 months in soil bacteria obtained from farmland treated with pig manure slurry. This was done by spread plating bacteria on selective media (Luria Bertani (LB) medium supplemented with antibiotics). To account...... for seasonal variations in numbers of soil bacteria, ratios of resistant bacteria divided by total count on nonselective plates were calculated. Soil samples were collected from four different farms and from a control soil on a fifth farm. The control soil was not amended with animal manure. The occurrence...... of tetracycline-resistant bacteria was elevated after spread of pig manure slurry but declined throughout the sampling period to a level corresponding to the control soil. Higher load of pig manure slurry yielded higher occurrence of tetracycline resistance after spreading; however, the tetracycline resistance...

  17. Direct determination of impurities in high purity silicon carbide by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry using slurry nebulization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Qiu, Deren; Ni, Zheming; Tao, Guangyi; Yang, Pengyuan

    2006-09-08

    A novel method for the determination of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Ti in high purity silicon carbide (SiC) using slurry introduction axial viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was described. The various sizes of SiC slurry were dispersed by adding dispersant polyethylene imine (PEI). The stability of slurry was characterized by zeta potential measurement, SEM observation and signal stability testing. The optimal concentration of PEI was found to be 0.5 wt% for the SiC slurry. Analytical results of sub-mum size SiC by the slurry introduction were in good accordance with those by the alkaline fusion method which verified that determination could be calibrated by aqueous standards. For mum size SiC, results of most elements have a negative deviation and should be calibrated by the Certified Reference Material slurry. Owing to a rather low contamination in the sample preparation and stability of the slurry, the limits of detection (LODs), which are in the range of 40-2000 ng g(-1), superior to those of the conventional nebulization technique by ICP-OES or ICP-MS.

  18. Rheologicai properties of tailing paste slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新民; 李建雄; 肖智政; 肖卫国

    2004-01-01

    The initial shear stress (τ) and plastic cohesion (η) are the most important parameters reflecting the rheological properties of the paste slurry. The rheological parameters as well as the quantitative relationship among the consumption of different fill materials were obtained through the experiment and research on these parameters.They can be used to predict the scope of the values of τ and η in production for a given ratio, which can reduce the conveying resistance of fill slurry along the pipelines and avoid the blockage of the pipelines. It is found that the rheological model of the total tailing slurry belongs to the Bingham type, which has a feature of strong internal structure and large initial shear stress. The calculation formula for the resistance loss of pipelines conforms nicely to the field test and the actual production in Jinchuan Nickel Mine.

  19. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.......Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...

  20. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  1. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  2. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  3. Effect of coal slurry on the corrosion of coal-mine equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi; Xie Jingxuan; Zhao Wei; Bai Shasha; Zhong Shiteng; Chu Zhenfeng

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of coal mine equipment immersed in coal slurry is addressed.The corrosion of low carbon steel samples immersed in coal slurries of different concentrations (80,130,and 180g/L) prepared from coals of different rank (long-flame coal,meager lean coal,and anthracite) and different granularity (0.25-0.5 mm,0.074-0.25 mm,and less than 0.074 mm particle size) was studied by the electrochemical method of polarization curve measurement,controlled potential sweeping,and continuous scanning.The results show that the corrosion rate in an anthracite slurry,where the coal has high coalification,is far greater than corrosion in a long-flame or a meager lean coal slurry.Furthermore the corrosion current,polarization current,and corrosion rate of low carbon steel become larger,and the polarizability becomes smaller,as the coal particle size decreases.The same trend is seen as the concentration of the coal slurry increases.

  4. Observations on microbial activity in acidified pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard; Nielsen, Daniel Aagren;

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of pig slurry to pH 5.5 is used as a measure to reduce ammonia emission from pits and storages. The slurry is acidified with sulphuric acid in a process tank and pumped back to the slurry pits or to a storage tank. We investigated the effect of acidification on microbial activity...

  5. Denitrification in nitric-acid-treated cattle slurry during storage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Velthof, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Lowering the pH of cattle slurry with HNO3 was used to reduce NH3 volatilization during storage and after application. Incubation studies were carried out to examine possible NO3 losses and N2O emission from HNO3 treated slurry during storage. Batches of cattle slurry were treated with various

  6. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  7. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  8. Biovailability of copper and zinc in pig and cattle slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubus, M.; Dach, J.; Starmans, D.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Slurry is an important source of macronutrients, micro-nutrients and organic matter. Despite the considerable fertilizer value of slurry, it may be abundant in amounts of copper and zinc originating from dietary. The study presents quantitative changes in copper and zinc in individual slurries (pig

  9. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1993-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research we intend to collect cores of unconsolidated material and sample pore gases from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. The data gathered will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the generation and migration of acid in a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. A conceptual model for the oxidation of pyrite at near-neutral conditions is being developed. This report includes our first approximation of the model. The model is subject to change.

  10. Effects of fractal surface on rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of modified brown coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Gao; Shuquan Zhu; Mingdong Zheng; Zhaojin Wu; Huihong Lu; Weiming Liu

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of surface fractal structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of raw brown coal and three modified coal water slurries (CWSs). The results show that the fractal structures and physicochemical properties of samples are dependent on various modification processes. The apparent viscosities of the coal water slurries increase with increasing surface fractal dimensions (D), especially with decreasing shear rates. Fur-thermore, it has been proved that the ignition temperatures and apparent activation energies of modified CWSs are lower than that of raw coal water slurry. Compared with the traditional qualitative analysis of the effect of pore structures on CWSs properties, D can more efficiently indicate the quantificational effect of pore structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of CWSs.

  11. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Forslund, Anita;

    2013-01-01

    . coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE...... types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.......A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish...

  12. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  13. Slurry wear characteristics of zinc-based alloys: Effects of sand content of slurry, silicon addition to alloy system and traversal distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K. PRASAD; O.P. MODI

    2009-01-01

    This investigation deals with the observations pertaining to the effects of specimen and slurry compositions as well as traversal distance on the slurry wear response of a zinc-based alloy. The composition of the alloy was altered by adding 4% silicon to it. The slurry composition was varied through changing the concentration of the sand particles in the range of 0-60% that were suspended in the (liquid) electrolyte. The electrolyte contained 4 g sodium chloride and 5 mL concentrated sulphuric acid dissolved in 10 L of water. The slurry wear tests were conducted at a speed of 7.02 m/s over the traversal distance range of 15-500 km. The wear rate increased initially with traversal distance, attained a maximum and decreased thereafter irrespective of the specimen and test environment. However, the wear rate peaks were less prominent in the liquid plus sand environments than the liquid-only medium. Further, the wear rate peak in the liquid-only medium appeared at a shorter traversal distance than the one in the sand containing slurries. Addition of sand particles to the electrolyte reduced the wear rate of the samples to 5%-15% depending on the sand concentration of the slurry. Moreover, intermediate (40%) sand content led to a maximum wear rate when compared with in the liquid plus sand media. However, this maximum was still less than in the liquid-only medium. The silicon containing alloy suffered from higher wear rates than the silicon free alloy samples when tested in the liquid-only medium. On the contrary, the trend reversed in liquid plus 20% and 40% sand environments whereas a mixed response was noted in the slurry containing 60% sand. In the latter case, the presence of silicon proved deleterious initially while an opposite trend was observed at longer traversal distances. The wear response of the samples was discussed in terms of specific features of their microconstituents like silicon and the predominant material removal mechanism in a given set of

  14. Methane oxidation in pig and cattle slurry storages, and effects of surface crust moisture and methane availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.O.; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study......2 during incubation, while intact subsamples were used to characterize CH4 oxidation as a function of CH4 availability and moisture content. Methane oxidation was observed in all materials except for an expanded clay product (Leca) sampled from a pig slurry storage. Despite significant variation...... content, each time followed by determination of CH4 fluxes. Only one surface crust material showed a relationship between CH4 fluxes and moisture content that would implicate gas diffusivity in the regulation of CH4 oxidation. The occurrence of inducible CH4 oxidation activity in slurry storage surface...

  15. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  16. Determination of As, Mn, Pb and Se in coal by slurry electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, S.M. da; Silva, J.B.B. Da; Curtius, A.J.; Weiz, B.

    2000-07-01

    A method for the determination of trace elements in coal by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS), introducing the sample as a slurry, is proposed. The slurry was prepared by mixing the powdered coal ({lt} 45 {mu}m) with aqueous 5% v/v nitric acid solution in an ultrasonic bath. An ultrasonic probe was used to homogenize the slurry in the autosampler cup just before its introduction into the graphite tube. By introducing 10{mu}L of 4.0 mg mL{sup -1} coal slurry, using 3{mu}g of Pd as a modifier, and a pyrolysis temperature of 600{degree}C, most of the obtained values for four coal reference materials were well within the certified range, using external calibration with aqueous solutions. No carrier had to be added in addition to the palladium modifier. Using a lower slurry concentration of 1.3 mg mL{sup -1} and 2{mu}g of Pd as the modifier, the values obtained for lead were significantly lower than the certified ones. This problem could be solved in part by adding NaCl as a physical carrier, in addition to the palladium, showing that this carrier reduces the differences in the analyte transport from the sample and from the calibration solutions. However, results for most elements, except for arsenic, tended to be a little low even under these conditions, hence, preference was given to the higher slurry concentration.

  17. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  18. Determination of trace amount of iron and copper in titanium oxide by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer with slurry sampling%悬浮进样石墨炉原子吸收法测定氧化钛中痕量元素铁和铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽晖; 张虹; 李辉; 董园园; 李爱民

    2012-01-01

    The determination of trace amount of iron and copper was studied by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Slurry sampling was adopted, which simplified the operation precesses and samples were not contaminated and lossed. 10 g/L Ni(N0s)2was used as chemical modifiers, which improved ashing temperature of iron and stabilized the signal. The recovery rate of Fe and Cu is 103% and 98% , respectively. The relative standard deviation of Fe and Cu is 4.46% and 3.24%. The calibration graph is in the range of 2 to 80 p-g/L for Fe, and 0.5 to 20 |xg/Lfor Cu. The character mass of Fe is 0.47 μg/L, and Cu is 0.63 μg/L.%采用石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定氧化钛中痕量元素铁、铜,采用悬浮进样,样品不用消化,简化操作步骤,避免样品的沾污和损失.10 g/LNi(NO3)2作基体改进剂,提高铁的灰化温度,检测信号得到扩大.回收率Fe为103%,Cu为98%,相对标准偏差Fe为4.46%,Cu为3.24%.Fe的线性范围为2~80 μg/L,Cu的线性范围为0.5~20 μg/L.Fe的特征质量浓度为0.47 μg/L,Cu为0.63 μg/L.结果表明,该方法简便、快速、稳定、准确度高.

  19. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  20. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  1. Thickening and rheological properties of slurries as functions of the oxidized nickel ore composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, N. V.; Olyunina, T. V.; Lysykh, M. P.; Ermishkin, V. A.; Smirnova, V. B.

    2016-07-01

    The thickening and rheological properties of ore slurries and pulps after autoclave sulfuric acid leaching are analyzed as a function of the phase composition of oxidized nickel ore. Experiments have been carried out with samples of ferrous, silicate and combined ores. The initial concentration of the ore slurries is ˜28%. Higher values of thickening properties (thickening rate of 1.3 m/day, thickened layer concentration of 54%) are exhibited by the ferrous ore slurry and the pulp after its leaching (thickening rate of 0.9 m/day, thickened layer concentration of 42%). The thickening rate of silicate ore slurry is 0.15-0.2 m/day, the thickened layer concentration is 40-45%. The thickening properties of the pulp after autoclave sulfuric acid leaching of silicate ore strongly depend on the consumption of sulfuric acid. The thickening properties of combined ore and pulps after its leaching deteriorate with increase in the content of silicon dioxide in the ore. In terms of the rheological properties, all slurries are pseudoplastic systems. Poorly thickening slurries are characterized by a high dynamic yield stress (up to 7 Pa) and apparent plastic and effective viscosities. The effective viscosity at the equivalent shear rate corresponding to the mixer rotation rate in laboratory autoclave reaches 34 × 10-3 Pa s. Boundary values are determined in rheological constants with regard to the thickening properties. For instance, if the dynamic yield point is 1.0 Pa, the thickening rate decreases from 0.075 m/day to zero. The thickening and rheological properties are found to depend on the particle size of solid phase and its surface properties.

  2. HIGH PRESSURE TREATMENT OF SWISS CHEESE SLURRIES (I):INACTIVATION OF SELECTED MICROORGANISMS AFTER TREATMENT AND DURING ACCELERATED RIPENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cheese slurries ,made from fresh Swiss cheese curd, were treated at 345 or 550 MPa for 10 or 30 minutes in an isostatic press at 25 ℃. The slurries were ripened at 30 ℃ for 0, 3 and 5 days . The growths of coliforms, yeasts and molds, starter bacteria (Lactococci and Streptococci), non-starter lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacilli), and presumptive coagulase-positive Staphylococcus were determined. An electronic nose was used to evaluate aroma development of the cheese slurries. Commercial Swiss cheeses with different ages were used as aroma references.The degree of inactivation of organisms was found to be a function of pressure intensity, exposure time, type of organism, and cheese slurry pH. In general, slurries treated at a higher pressure and with a longer exposure time showed a greater reduction in numbers and had less out-growth of organisms during ripening. Coliforms, yeasts and molds were completely inactivated at the pressures and time used. Starter bacteria appeared to be more resistant to being inactivated by high pressure treatment and had a greater out-growth rate than Lactobacilli and Staphylococci.Based on canonical analysis, nineteen samples for each batch were assigned to three groups. In general, higher intensity of pressure or longer exposure time caused less aroma development in the cheese slurries. When the cheese curd was incubated overnight prior to making the cheese slurries, stronger slurries with stronger aroma were observed. This study provided an explanation of the relative importance of relationships among high pressure treatment, starter bacteria, and aroma development during accelerated ripening.

  3. MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINA-ZIRCONIA COMPOSITE BY SLURRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTI PRAKASH

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina has got some excellent properties like chemical inertness, thermal and mechanical strength against hazardous environment. Alumina is a good ceramic material which is being used for structuralapplications. To enhance the toughness and strength of the body some Zirconia is also used with it. The use of Zirconia in alumina is known as toughening of alumina. One difficulty arises, when alumina and alumina toughened composite are sintered , because the low sinterability of Alumina-Zirconia forced the compact to give very low density body. To overcome this problem alumina and alumina composites are made from slurry method which gives nearly theoretical density. The combined effect of alumina and Zirconia on the phase transformation and microstructure development of heat-treated Alumina-Zirconia composites has been studied. Slurry is prepared by adding water, dispersant, binder and anti-foaming agent. In the present study, Sintering schedule is optimized and kept constant for all samples. After sintering, mechanical behaviour of the composite has been studied.

  4. Analytical services: 222-S characterization of 242-A Evaporator Slurry, Campaign 94-1. Addendum 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-13

    During the 242-A Evaporator`s 94-1 campaign, five process samples were collected from the slurry stream for waste characterization. The five samples were collected over a 36 day time span, respectively on May 4, May 9, May 16, May 23, and June 9, 1994. Sample collections were performed per the protocol described in 242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan, WHC-SD-WM-EV-060, Rev. 3 and in 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-009, Rev. 0. Slurry waste was characterized chemically and radiochemically by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory as directed.

  5. Low frequency aeration of pig slurry affects slurry characteristics and emissions of greenhouse gases and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Salvador; Hunt, John; Misselbrook, Tom H

    2017-07-01

    Low frequency aeration of slurries may reduce ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions without increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The aim of this study was to quantify this potential reduction and to establish the underlying mechanisms. A batch experiment was designed with 6 tanks with 1 m(3) of pig slurry each. After an initial phase of 7 days when none of the tanks were aerated, a second phase of 4 weeks subjected three of the tanks to aeration (2 min every 6 h, airflow 10 m(3) h(-1)), whereas the other three tanks remained as a control. A final phase of 9 days was established with no aeration in any tank. Emissions of NH3, CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O were measured. In the initial phase no differences in emissions were detected, but during the second phase aeration increased NH3 emissions by 20% with respect to the controls (8.48 vs. 7.07 g m(-3) [slurry] d(-1), P effect was detected for CO2, and no relevant N2O emissions were detected during the experiment. Our results demonstrate that low frequency aeration of stored pig slurry increases slurry pH and increases NH3 emissions.

  6. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  7. Microencapsulated paraffin in phase-change-slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwander, S.; Schossig, P.; Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Phase-Change-Slurries (PCS) are mixtures of a Phase-Change-Material (PCM) and a carrier-.uid. Such PCS of microencapsulated paraf.n as PCM and water as carrier-.uid are investigated at Fraunhofer ISE. The shell of the microcapsule prevents an interaction between the paraf.n and the water. At ISE a test-facility was built to study the stability of the capsules while pumped with conventional pumps through common used heating components like pipes, heat exchangers, volume-.ow measurement instruments, pressure relief valves etc. To analyze the stability of the capsules SEM-pictures are taken after pumping them several weeks to control the optical state of the capsules. The speci.c heat of fusion is checked by DSC-Measurements. Thermal measurements are carried out to investigate the thermal behavior of the Slurry while pumped through heat exchangers. The results show that the PC-Material can be melted and frozen while.owing through the heat exchangers. The presented results illustrate that microencapsulated PC-Slurries can enhance the heatcapacity of a heat-carrier-.uid and they are also stable enough to be used with common heating or cooling devices. (orig.)

  8. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  9. Hydrodynamic Characteristics in an External Loop Airlift Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Qing; Tang Xiaojin; Hu Lifeng; Wang Shaobing; Zhang Zhanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Three different types of gas distributors were used in an external loop airlift slurry reactor to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics. To predict the important hydrodynamic parameters, such as the total gas holdup, the slurry circulating velocity, the bubble size distribution, and the slip velocity between the gas phase and the slurry phase, the cor-relations are developed. The calculated results fit the experimental data very well. According to the influence of the solid holdup on the bubble size, the fluid flow in the reactor can be divided into two regimes, while a 10% value is regarded as the critical solid holdup value. Whenεs is≤10%, the bubble size is determined by both the gas phase and the slurry phase. Whenεs is ≥10%, the bubble size is determined mainly by the slurry phase. By analyzing the relationship between the slip velocity and the gas holdup, the bubble coalescence plays a key role in the slurry reactor.

  10. Microstructure Formation and Degradation Mechanism of Cementitious Plugging Agent Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Peiyu; ZHOU Yongxiang; YANG Zhenjie; QIN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The hydration products and microstructure of class G oil well cement and a newly developed plugging agent (YLD) slurries cured in the simulated temperature and pressure environment, which was of similar temperature and pressure with those at the bottom of oil well in a normal depth, were investigated using XRD, TG and SEM. Severe leakage is confirmed at the interface between hardened slurries and steel tube during the dynamically curing process, which induces the quick loss of cementing property of slurries. This should be the dominating cause of degradation of class G oil well cement slurry. A secondary hydration process can take place at the eroded interface of hardened YLD plugging agent slurry. Newly formed C-S-H gel has a self-healing effect to repair the damaged interface, which unceasingly maintains the cementing property of the YLD plugging agent slurry. Therefore, the effective using period of YLD plugging agent can be prolonged.

  11. Injection of Aqueous Slurry for Making Zirconia Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shun'ai; LI Maoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Zirconia aqueous slurry was prepared with fine zirconia powder.Injection process for making zirconia fiber was demonstrated,including preparation of aqueous slurry,injection of slurry,fiber setting in acetone,and fiber firing.The principle of the process was discussed.The effects of solid loading in the zirconia slurry,addition of dispersant in the slurry,and ball milling time on the rheological properties of the slurry,especially yield stress,were illustrated.The role of acetone as curing agent was discussed.Zirconia poly-crystalline fber with at 1 530 ℃ for 5 h.Microstructure of the sintered zirconia fiber was investigated.

  12. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L...distribution is unlimited. Basic Research/Military Construction ERDC TR-08-4 March 2008 Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change... microencapsulated PCM (MPCM) slurries is enhanced significantly, even when using low volume fractions. MPCM slurries have potential to decrease costs and improve

  13. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with addition...... of sulfate and methionine (P production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral...

  14. Combustion and economics of coal slurry fuels: a look at coal-fuel oil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, T.; Matsuoka, H.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of reducing dependence on petroleum, research has been going ahead into the development of various alternative fuels. Of these, coal slurry fuels are regarded as being first in line for commercialization. The authors discuss the combustion of coal-oil fuels. The combustion of fuel oil, pulverized coal and coal-water slurry is also examined. In each case, combustion properties and associated problems are discussed. Finally, the economics of these fuels are examined and trends in research and development surveyed. 23 references.

  15. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap

  16. Continuous in-house acidification affecting animal slurry composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Cocolo, Giorgia; Jonassen, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    . A full-scale study was therefore performed, comparing pig slurry from normal in-house slurry management with pig slurry from housing with daily in-house acidification to pH 5.5. The effect on organic, inorganic and particles was evaluated. Increasing dissolved P, Mg and Ca contents indicated mineral...... dissolution in acidified slurry. Acceleration of carbohydrate hydrolysis was indicated, while deceleration of microbial acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and sulphate reduction was indicated. The particles were larger following acidification treatment causing a lower viscosity, likely due...

  17. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  18. Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

    2012-03-12

    Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved.

  19. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  20. System and method for continuous solids slurry depressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Thomas Frederick; Steele, Raymond Douglas; Cordes, Stephen Michael

    2017-07-11

    A system includes a first pump having a first outlet and a first inlet, and a controller. The first pump is configured to continuously receive a flow of a slurry into the first outlet at a first pressure and to continuously discharge the flow of the slurry from the first inlet at a second pressure less than the first pressure. The controller is configured to control a first speed of the first pump against the flow of the slurry based at least in part on the first pressure, wherein the first speed of the first pump is configured to resist a backflow of the slurry from the first outlet to the first inlet.

  1. Determination of 241Pu in nuclear waste slurries: a comparative study using LSC and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, M; Röllin, S; Alvarado, J A Corcho; Eikenberg, J

    2012-02-01

    (241)Pu was determined in slurry samples from a nuclear reactor decommissioning project at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). To validate the results, the (241)Pu activities of five samples were determined by LSC (TriCarb and Quantulus) and ICP-MS, with each instrument at a different laboratory. In lack of certified reference materials for (241)Pu, the methods were further validated using the (241)Pu information values of two reference sediments (IAEA-300 and IAEA-384). Excellent agreement with the results was found between LSC and ICP-MS in the nuclear waste slurries and the reference sediments.

  2. Jet slurry erosion performance of composite clad and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    B, Lohit R.; Horakeri, Gururaj S.; Bhovi, Prabakhar M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, development of composite cladding consists of Cr23C6 (chromium carbide) as reinforcement particles 20 wt. % in Ni-based matrix 80 wt. % on austenitic stainless steel through exposure of microwave radiation has been carried out. The jet slurry erosion test was performed on microwave composite clad. The functional performance of composite clad has been evaluated for different parametric conditions like varying impingement velocity and impact angle. The increasing weight loss trend was observed with time for the first 30 min. after that the individual trend decreased; at high impingement velocity and maximum impact angle. SEM micrographs of eroded clad samples at various impact angle and impingement velocity were discussed. The maximum weight loss occurred at 90° angle and velocity of 60 m/s, and minimum at 30° angle and velocity of 20 m/s.

  3. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  4. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    (OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

  5. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  6. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In

  7. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone. It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    2012-01-01

    and resistance in this oxide scale. Slurry coated ferritic alloy samples were oxidized long term in air containing 1% water at 900˚C to measure the oxidation rate of the coated samples. The ferritic alloys included in the study were Crofer 22APU and Sandvik 1C44Mo20. Some complementary experiments were also.......85Sr0.15)CoO3 + 10% Co3O4, LSC, coatings were found to be relatively successful in decreasing the oxidation rate, the chromium content in the outermost part of ii the dense scale, and the electrical resistance in the growing oxide scales when applied onto Crofer 22APU. But, the positive effects...... on Crofer 22APU alloy samples and their failure on Sandvik 1C44Mo20 samples are believed to depend on the manganese access in the coating/alloy system. It appeared that a certain amount of manganese was acquired to stabilize the oxide growth on the alloy samples coated with cobalt rich coatings...

  9. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, Tina B.; Forslund, Anita

    2014-01-01

    and entrapment. The redistribution of E. coli was more affected by site-specific conditions compared to phage 28B, possibly due to the larger cell size of E. coli. The overall recovery of phage 28B was 0.8-4%, and of E. coli 0.0-1.3% in different samples, by the end of the study. Nine different steroid hormones...... were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence...... the potential for subsequent leaching....

  10. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  11. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients

  12. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  13. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  14. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  15. Why is acidification of slurry a success only in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    . Several technologies have been used in the buildings, in the storage and when applying manure. One technology now used widely in Denmark (20% of all slurry) is acidification of slurry where the application of sulphuric acid reduces the ammonia emission. However, the technology has hardly been used...

  16. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at

  17. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  18. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  19. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  20. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  1. Impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel - an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Schwerzmann, Martina; Sener, Beatrice; Magalhaes, Ana Carolina; Roos, Malgorzata; Ziebolz, Dirk; Imfeld, Thomas; Attin, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Toothbrush abrasion is significant in the development of tooth wear, particularly when combined with erosion. This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the impact of toothpaste slurry abrasivity and toothbrush filament stiffness on abrasion of eroded enamel. Eroded enamel samples (hydrochloric acid, pH: 2.6, 15 s) were brushed with 40 strokes in an automatic brushing machine using manual toothbrushes with different filament stiffness (filament diameter: 0.15, 0.20, or 0.25 mm). A paste-free control slurry (relative enamel abrasion (REA) value 2) and toothpaste slurries with different abrasivity (REA values 6 or 9) were used for brushing. Erosion and abrasion were followed by storing the enamel samples in artificial saliva for 3 h. After each 4th cycle, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 15 h. After 60 cycles, enamel loss was measured by profilometry and statistically analyzed by two-way and one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni/Dunn post-hoc tests. Loss of enamel (mean, microm) was influenced mainly by the abrasivity of the slurry and increased along with REA value (REA 2: 0.0-0.2, REA 6: 2.1-3.3, REA 9: 2.9-3.7). Abrasion of eroded enamel was also affected by filament stiffness of the toothbrush, but only groups brushed with toothpaste slurry of REA 6 showed any significant difference between the different toothbrushes. Thereby, toothbrushes with 0.2 mm filament diameter caused higher enamel loss than 0.15 and 0.25 mm filaments. Toothbrush abrasion of eroded enamel is influenced mainly by the abrasivity of the toothpaste slurry, but is also modified by toothbrush filament stiffness.

  2. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.

    2016-11-01

    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  3. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  4. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  5. Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical properties, fuel characteristics and P-fertilizer production related to animal slurry and products from separation of animal slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Johnsen, Tina; Triolo, Jin Mi

    The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly to examine the relationship between dry matter content (DM) and specific gravity (SG) and viscosity in slurry and the liquid fraction from slurry separation, and secondly to investigate the potential of energy production from combustion of manure fibre...

  7. Sorption of 17b-Estradiol to Pig Slurry Separates and Soil in the Soil-Slurry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM...

  8. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  9. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-plant system amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Lv, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Biogas slurry is a product of anaerobic digestion of manure that has been widely used as a soil fertilizer. Although the use for soil fertilizer is a cost-effective solution, it has been found that repeated use of biogas slurry that contains high heavy metal contents can cause pollution to the soil-plant system and risk to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of biogas slurry on the soil-plant system and the human health. We analyzed the heavy metal concentrations (including As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd) in 106 soil samples and 58 plant samples in a farmland amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China. Based on the test results, we assessed the potential human health risk when biogas slurry containing heavy metals was used as a soil fertilizer. The test results indicated that the Cd and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded the contamination limits and Cd exhibited the highest soil-to-root migration potential. Among the 11 plants analyzed, Kalimeris indica had the highest heavy metal absorption capacity. The leafy vegetables showed higher uptake of heavy metals than non-leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic risks mainly resulted from As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn through plant ingestion exposure. The integrated carcinogenic risks were associated with Cr, As and Cd in which Cr showed the highest risk while Cd showed the lowest risk. Among all the heavy metals analyzed, As and Cd appeared to have a lifetime health threat, which thus should be attenuated during production of biogas slurry to mitigate the heavy metal contamination.

  10. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  11. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  12. Microstructural evaluation of oil well cementing slurries using alternative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Maria D.M.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Martinelli, Antonio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    n this work, cementing slurries were prepared with densities between 12.2 and 13.8 lb/gal with addition of clay materials (vermiculite and paligorskite) and pozzolans (metakaolin), comparing with neat reference slurries, from 15.6 to 15.8 lb/gal. The cements employed were the Portland G and ordinary Portland. These mixes were evaluated microstructurally through microhardness testing and acquisition of electronic images by ESEM and X-ray maps by EDS. A semi-quantitative analysis software was developed to identify phase distributions from the X-ray maps. It was found that the addition of metakaolin generated slurries with microhardness comparable to or superior to neat slurries, although a new phase was introduced in the hardened material. On the other hand, clay materials generated slurries with lower microhardness. It was observed in these cases a lower hydration degree, possibly due to water absorption by the clays' grains. One exception was the light slurry with paligorskite, which has an excess of water compared to the others. However, the higher water-cement ratio produced a lower microhardness due to the presence of voids, visible by ESEM. Clay inclusions also decreased the microhardness of the slurries. Based on these results, we can recommend metakaolin as the best performing addition to be further evaluated in the field. (author)

  13. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  14. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  15. Synthesis, biological evaluation, WAC and NMR studies of S-galactosides and non-carbohydrate ligands of cholera toxin based on polyhydroxyalkylfuroate moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Niss, Ulf; Angulo, Jesús; Angulo, Manuel; Moreno-Vargas, Antonio J; Carmona, Ana T; Ohlson, Sten; Robina, Inmaculada

    2013-12-23

    The synthesis of several non-carbohydrate ligands of cholera toxin based on polyhydroxyalkylfuroate moieties is reported. Some of them have been linked to D-galactose through a stable and well-tolerated S-glycosidic bond. They represent a novel type of non-hydrolyzable bidentate ligand featuring galactose and polyhydroxyalkylfuroic esters as pharmacophoric residues, thus mimicking the GM1 ganglioside. The affinity of the new compounds towards cholera toxin was measured by weak affinity chromatography (WAC). The interaction of the best candidates with this toxin was also studied by saturation transfer difference NMR experiments, which allowed identification of the binding epitopes of the ligands interacting with the protein. Interestingly, the highest affinity was shown by non-carbohydrate mimics based on a polyhydroxyalkylfuroic ester structure.

  16. Egyptian diatomite as high fluid loss squeeze slurry in sealing fractures and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation is the most costly mud related drilling problem, and induced fracture. Water slurry of diatomite is used as the high fluid loss squeeze slurry in the treatment of lost circulation and in decreasing fluid loss. Egypt has diatomite deposits, especially in El-Fayuom Depression. Fourteen samples were collected from Qasr El-Sagha at the northern shore of Birket Qarun. Samples were examined to identify the diatom species then subjected to X-ray fluorescence, XRD and grain size distribution tests. A total of 38 species related to 13 diatom genera were identified. Cocconeis, Epithemia and Rhopalodia were the predominant genera. The diatomaceous earth which acts as a filter aid material was tested with different additives; bentonite, lime, finely divided paper, polymer, barite and different concentrations with different types of lost circulation materials (LCM to form a high fluid loss squeeze slurry. As a result the required time for collecting the filtrate was decreased to be in the range of 50 s to 1 min and 49 s comparing with the international standard which recommended the filtrate should be collected maximum within 2–3 min.

  17. Effects of slurry pre-treatment and application technique on short-term N2O emmissions as determind by a new non-linear approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid K; Pedersen, Asger R; Nyord, Tavs

    2010-01-01

    method, and N2O emissions from untreated, digested and separated slurry were similar, although higher N2O emissions from treated slurry were indicated. A conceptual model to explain the observed patterns of N2O is discussed. Accounting for the indirect emissions of N2O associated with NH3 volatilization...... or straight tines. In 2008, three slurry types (digested, separated or untreated) were applied by straight tine injection. In both years band spreading of the slurries by trail-hose application was included as reference. Nitrous oxide emissions were quantified using static chambers for up to 44 days after...... slurry application. A new flux calculation method (HMR) was applied. With HMR, flux estimation is based on non-linear regression using a single-parameter criterion. In connection with gas samplings, soil cores were collected to 20-cm depth within and between bands for analysis of mineral N. Short...

  18. Latex migration in battery slurries during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Yamamura, Masato

    2013-07-02

    We used real-time fluorescence microscopy to investigate the migration of latex particles in drying battery slurries. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals revealed that the migration of the latex particles was suppressed above the entanglement concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while it was significantly enhanced when CMC fully covered the surfaces of the graphite particles. In particular, a two-step migration was observed when the graphite particles flocculated by depletion attraction at high CMC/graphite mass ratios. The transient states of the nonadsorbing CMC and graphite particles in a medium were discussed, and the uses of this novel measurement technique to monitor the complex drying processes of films were demonstrated.

  19. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  20. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  1. Load directly from railcar to slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

  2. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  3. Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

  4. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... with a reference scenario. The treatment scenarios were field acidification, in-house acidification, screw press separation with and without composting of the solid fraction, decanter centrifuge separation with and without ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction, and four anaerobic digestion scenarios...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  5. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, D.P.

    1981-02-15

    This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

  6. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  7. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  8. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis; Sintese e caracterizacao de pastas de cimento aditivadas com resinas epoxi - analises cineticas, termodinamicas e calorimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S., E-mail: macleybiane@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  10. A simplified method for the measurement of insoluble solids in pretreated biomass slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Noah D; Stickel, Jonathan J; Wolfe, Jeffrey L; Nguyen, Quang A

    2010-10-01

    The biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels includes the breakdown of biomass into its soluble, fermentable components. Pretreatment, the initial step in the conversion process, results in heterogeneous slurry comprised of both soluble and insoluble biomass components. For the purpose of tracking the progress of the conversion process, it is important to be able to accurately measure the fraction of insoluble biomass solids in the slurry. The current standard method involves separating the solids from the free liquor and then repeatedly washing the solids to remove the soluble fraction, a laborious and tedious process susceptible to operator variations. In this paper, we propose an alternative method for calculating the fraction of insoluble solids which does not require a washing step. The proposed method involves measuring the dry matter content of the whole slurry as well as the dry matter content in the isolated liquor fraction. We compared the two methods using three different pretreated biomass slurry samples and two oven-drying techniques for determining dry matter content, an important measurement for both methods. We also evaluated a large set of fraction insoluble solids data collected from previously analyzed pretreated samples. The proposed new method provided statistically equivalent results to the standard washing method when an infrared balance was used for determining dry matter content in the controlled measurement experiment. Similarly, in the large historical data set, there was no statistical difference shown between the wash and no-wash methods. The new method is offered as an alternative method for determining the fraction of insoluble solids.

  11. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  12. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  13. Optimization of a 0.69PZT-0.31PZNN thick film by controlling slurry viscosity and tape-casting blade height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daniel; Woo, Min Sik; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Sung, Tae Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Bum

    2014-12-01

    We investigated how the viscosities of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate/lead zirconate nickel niobate (PZT-PZNN) slurry samples affect the laminated-film densities based on various conditions of degassing time for 0, 30, and 60 min. PZT-PZNN slurries with different viscosities were tape casted into green sheets by adjusting the comma blade height to 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm. As a result the slurry viscosity linearly increased with increasing slurry degassing time, and the thickness of the green sheet increased with increasing comma blade height. The density and the dielectric properties of piezoelectric ceramic films with the same thicknesses, but composed of different numbers of layers, were compared. The laminated-film density and the dielectric property d33 × g33 increased with decreasing number of laminated layers. However, when the viscosity of the slurry was too high (degassing time > 60 min) and the comma blade height was too high (comma blade height > 300 μm), the tape-casted green sheet was too thick to have enough time to dry. By controlling the slurry viscosity by adjusting the degassing time and the comma blade height, we were able to optimize the thickness of the green sheet in a tape-casting. The optimal green sheet thickness was < 70 μm, and the number of sheets laminated should be minimized to increase the film's density and dielectric constant.

  14. Optimization of a 0.69PZT-0.31PZNN thick film by controlling slurry viscosity and tape-casting blade height

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Daniel; Woo, Minsik; Ahn, Junghwan; Sung, Taehyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoungbum [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We investigated how the viscosities of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate/lead zirconate nickel niobate (PZT-PZNN) slurry samples affect the laminated-film densities based on various conditions of degassing time for 0, 30, and 60 min. PZT-PZNN slurries with different viscosities were tape casted into green sheets by adjusting the comma blade height to 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm. As a result the slurry viscosity linearly increased with increasing slurry degassing time, and the thickness of the green sheet increased with increasing comma blade height. The density and the dielectric properties of piezoelectric ceramic films with the same thicknesses, but composed of different numbers of layers, were compared. The laminated-film density and the dielectric property d{sub 33} x g{sub 33} increased with decreasing number of laminated layers. However, when the viscosity of the slurry was too high (degassing time > 60 min) and the comma blade height was too high (comma blade height > 300 μm), the tape-casted green sheet was too thick to have enough time to dry. By controlling the slurry viscosity by adjusting the degassing time and the comma blade height, we were able to optimize the thickness of the green sheet in a tape-casting. The optimal green sheet thickness was < 70 μm, and the number of sheets laminated should be minimized to increase the film's density and dielectric constant.

  15. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    The current research deals with the development of slurry erosion resistant materials by the laser-based direct metal deposition (LBDMD) process for different industrial applications. The work started with the development of functionally graded materials using nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-Tung) powders and finally produced a better erosion resistant materials system by reinforcing nano-tungsten carbide particles with nickel-tungsten carbide powders. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) consisting of Ni-Tung) powders with different concentrations of tungsten carbide particles are successfully deposited by the LBDMD process on 4140 Steel substrates. The slurry erosion behavior of the Ni-Tung FGMs is studied at different impingement angles. The slurry erosion tests are performed at Southern Methodist University's Center for Laser Aided Manufacturing using a centrifugal force driven erosion testing machine. For the purpose of comparison, Ni-Tung 40 depositions and 4140 steel samples are also tested. The results indicate that the LBDMD process is able to deposit defect-free Ni-Tung FGMs with a uniform distribution of tungsten carbide particles in a nickel-based matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is observed to be much better than that of the Ni-Tung 40 and 4140 steels. The superior slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is attributed to the presence of large amounts of very hard tungsten carbide particles. The material removal rate (MRR) from erosion decreases with a decrease in the impingement angle, except at a 45 degree impingement angle on 4140 steel. The relationship among the material removal rates, the craters depth of penetration, the areas of the craters formed, the average surface roughness values, and the impingement angles is established for Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. The surface profiles of the eroded samples are analyzed by measuring the depth of penetration of the craters formed by the slurry jet using a needle

  16. Packing and viscosity of concentrated polydisperse coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veytsman, B.; Morrison, J.; Scaroni, A.; Painter, P. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Inst.

    1998-09-01

    The viscosity of polydisperse slurries close to the packing limit is discussed. It is shown that the divergence of the viscosity at the close packing limit causes the dependence of the slurry viscosity on loading to be universal. Ways of increasing the maximal loading of polydisperse slurries are described. A new theory of packing of powders based on a generalization of the Furnas telescopic tube method is proposed. Unlike the original Furnas model, this theory allows the calculation of the maximal packing for powders with an arbitrary size distribution of particles. The application of the theory to the problem of reducing the viscosity of coal-water slurries is discussed. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    of water and therefore transport costs can be reduced by separating the P from a high volume of slurry into a small dry-matter- and P-rich solid fraction. This study tested different combinations of coagulants (ferric salts) and flocculants (polyacrylamide polymers) that can contribute to an efficient...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...... irrespective of the amounts added (12% to 18%). The cost of an efficient separation of slurry using coagulants and flocculants and including the cost of screw press separation was estimated to be $2.4 m(-3) slurry....

  18. Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-03-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate...

  20. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  1. Characterization Results for the March 2016 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on March 16, 2016. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits. Revision 1 of this document corrects the cumulative beta count initially reported for 90Sr content with the sole 90Sr count obtained after recharacterization of the sample. The initial data was found to be a cumulative beta count rather than the 90Sr count requested.

  2. Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

    2001-01-01

    Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period.

  3. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  4. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-06-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

  5. Chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil after nine years of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the pig slurry application effects on chemical attributes of a Hapludox soil managed under no-tillage system. Treatments consisted of 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 per year of pig slurry application, and a control with replacement of P and K exported through harvested grains. Attributes related to soil chemical reaction, exchange complex, and nutrient contents were determined in soil samples collected in the ninth year of experimentation from 0 - 0.025, 0.025 - 0.05, 0.05 - 0.10, 0.10 - 0.20, 0.20 - 0.40 and 0.40 - 0.60 m soil depths. The continuous application of high doses of pig slurry on the Oxisol surface under no-tillage acidifies the soil and increases Al, P, Cu, and Zn contents down to 0.2-m depth, and K levels down to 0.6-m depth.

  6. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1994-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal. slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research project we retrieved five drill cores from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment, and installed three samplers in one of the core holes. The solids were chemically and mineralogically analyzed. Display of the mineralogical data on a cross section showed that pyrite was randomly distributed through much of the length of the coal slurry impoundment. Trace concentrations of heavy metals were correlated with pyrite in the core solids. Water samples were collected and analyzed. The water analyses showed that nutrients are insufficient to support plant growth without supplemental fertilization. The analytical data will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the kinetics of pyrite oxidation at near-neutral pH conditions. Programming of a computerized model to simulate pyrite oxidation under near-neutral pH conditions was begun. The program includes ideas from Morel and Hering (1993) and species are calculated in terms of 7 components of known concentrations. The ionic strength of the solution, the species activity coefficients, and the activities are calculated iteratively.

  7. Extractability of slurry and fertilizer phosphorus in soil after repeated freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SOINNE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of freezing on phosphorus (P chemistry in Finnish soils are not well known. We studied the effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on soil P chemistry in a laboratory incubation experiment with one organic and one mineral surface soil. The soils were incubated at +5°C or at alternating +5/–20°C temperatures for 24 weeks, either without amendment or amended with pig slurry or with commercial compound fertilizer (NPK 20–3–9. After incubation, the soils were analyzed for water-soluble reactive and unreactive P, and acid ammonium acetate soluble P (PAAA. Freezing and thawing of soils during the incubation had no significant effect on any of the water-soluble P fractions or PAAA. The outcome was most likely a consequence of the good P status of the soils, which masked the gentle effects of freezing. According to these results, the time of soil sampling (fall vs. spring has no effect on P test results on soils with a good P status. Concentrations of soluble P after incubation were roughly twice as high in the slurry treatments than in the fertilizer treatments, demonstrating potentially better long-term availability of slurry P.;

  8. Slurry analysis after lead collection on a sorbent and its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, Asli; Tokman, Nilgun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey); Akman, Suleyman [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Chemistry, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akmans@itu.edu.tr; Ozeroglu, Cemal [Istanbul University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, 34320 Avcilar-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, in order to eliminate the drawbacks of elution step and to reach higher enrichment factors, a novel preconcentration/separation technique for the slurry analysis of sorbent loaded with lead prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was described. For this purpose, at first, lead was collected on ethylene glycol dimethacrylate methacrylic acid copolymer (EGDMA-MA) treated with ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) by conventional batch technique. After separation of liquid phase, slurry of the sorbent was prepared and directly pipetted into graphite furnace of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Optimum conditions for quantitative sorption and preparation of the slurry were investigated. A 100-fold enrichment factor could be easily reached. The analyte element in certified sea-water and Bovine-liver samples was determined in the range of 95% confidence level. The proposed technique was fast and simple and the risks of contamination and analyte loss were low. Detection limit (3{delta}) for Pb was 1.67 {mu}g l{sup -1}.

  9. Characterization methodology for re-using marble slurry in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Graziella; Careddu, Nicola; Peretti, Roberto; Bortolussi, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    In the effort towards waste minimization and circular economy, natural stone waste is one of the foremost parameter to turn scientific community attention. At this time, calcium carbonate has a great importance in industrial fields and currently there is the necessity of appreciate the potential value of marble waste and convert it into marketable products. A large amount of residues is produced in ornamental stone sector with different dimension and particle size. The research focused on marble slurry, recovered at the end of the treatment plant in the filter-press section. The aim of this paper is to propose a defined way to characterize marble slurry, primarily composed of micronized particles, in order to obtain useful data to make a comparison with market specifications. In particular the proposed characterization methodology follows the indicated steps: Leaching test (TCLP) - Grain size distribution and bulk density - Mineralogical analyses - X-Ray diffraction - Chemical analysis - Loss on ignition - SEM determination - Colorimetric and bright analysis. Marble slurry samples, collected by different dimension stone treatment plants in Orosei marble district (Sardinia - Italy), were analyzed by physical, mineralogical and chemical determinations and the obtained data were evaluated for compatibility with the CaCO3 specifications required by a definite industrial sector, seeing as how CaCO3 product specifications vary depending on the utilization. The importance of this investigation is to characterize completely the "waste" that must apply for further uses and to identify the feasibility to substitute marketable micronized CaCO3 with marble slurry. Further goal is to enhance the environmental advantages of re-using stone waste by reducing marble waste landfills and by applying raw material substitution, in accordance with regulatory requirements, thus pursuing the objective to convert natural stone waste into by-product with a renewed environmental and economic

  10. Experimental study on the rheological behaviour of coal ash slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa K.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the rheological behaviour of fly ash (FA slurry without and with the addition of bottom ash (BA and BA slurry without and with the addition of FA. The FA slurries exhibited Bingham behaviour at solid mass concentrations ranging from 60–65% and mixing proportions from 10– 40%. A substantial reduction in yield stress was observed except for mixing proportion of 40% on which the yield stress and viscosity were increased drastically for all solid concentrations. Hence, it can be concluded that the yield stress and viscosity of FA slurry were very much influenced by adding BA up to the mixing proportion of 30%. The rheological behaviour of BA slurries with and without the addition of FA in proportions of 10–50% was investigated and exhibited Newtonian behaviours for solid mass concentrations ranging from 30–50% without and with the addition of FA. The viscosity increases with increasing the solid concentrations and proportion of FA. Based on these experimental data, a correlation was developed to predict the relative viscosity of BA slurries as a function of solid volume fraction and FA mass proportion of 0–50% and the RMSE and R2 values showed good agreement between the experimental and the predicted data.

  11. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youzhi Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  12. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  13. Effect of Storage Period on the Changes of Odorous Compound Concentrations and Bacterial Ecology for Identifying the Cause of Odor Production from Pig Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ok Hwa; Cho, Sung Back; Han, Deug Woo; Lee, Sang Ryoung; Kwag, Jeong Hoon; Park, Sung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Odor from buildings where pigs are housed is generated by anaerobic fermentation of undigested materials in pig slurry stored for several weeks in pit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage period on the level of odorous compounds in pig slurry and on its bacterial community. A slurry sample (15 L) was taken from the pit of a finisher pig building and incubated in acryl chambers for six- weeks. Slurry for analysis was sampled every two-week. Levels of odorous compounds in the slurry sample were drastically changed after two weeks of storage period; levels of phenols and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were decreased (P<0.05), whereas indoles and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were increased (P<0.05). Among dominant bacteria, Bacteroides and Porphyromonadacese_uc_g revealed a strong positive correlation with the levels of phenols and SCFAs. Populations of AC160630_g, Acholeplasmatales_uc_g, Mollicutes_uc_g and Cloacamonas_f_uc_g positively correlated with indole and BCFAs content. Taken together, levels of odorous compounds were increased after two weeks of storage, possibly because of changes in the predominant bacterial groups to those that use protein as a carbon source in the hypo-carbohydrate conditions. PMID:27642752

  14. Slurry and processing technique of CLBO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng-li; LIU Yu-ling; NIU Xin-huan; TAN Bai-mei

    2006-01-01

    CsLiB6O10(CLBO) is a new-type nonlinear optical crystal material. CLBO has many good performances,especially the frequency multiplication performance in deep ultraviolet band. CLBO has important application prospect on solid-state UV laser,broad band tunable laser and laser nucleus flame igniter. Though,CLBO will be air slaking and cracking when the ambient humidity is more than 40%,which brings more difficult on CLBO surface finishing. According to the performance and structure characteristic of CLBO crystal,a new water-free slurry applying for CLBO crystal chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) was investigated. The abrasive is SiO2. The influence of polishing processing parameter on polishing process for CLBO crystal was discussed,and the parameter optimal value of polishing plate speed,pressure,pH value and abrasive concentration were determined. Through such parameters,high efficiency and precision plane polishing was gotten. The CLBO CMP process was studied,the results show that low pressure and high speed can improve the CLBO crystal surface removal rate and flatness.

  15. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  16. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies.

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  18. Influence of the individual or combined application of biochar and slurry on soil macro-aggregate formation under varying moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Michael; Grunwald, Dennis; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Rauber, Rolf; Ludwig, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The formation of aggregates is of large importance for the structure and the storage of organic matter (OM) in soil. Although positive effects of organic soil additives on the formation of macro-aggregates (> 250 µm) have been reported, the influence of biochar especially applied in combination with other organic amendments remains unclear. Furthermore, studies on the effect of varying soil moisture conditions in form of drying-rewetting cycles on soil aggregate dynamics in the presence of biochar are almost missing. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of biochar and slurry applied to the soil individually or in combination on the formation of macro-aggregates under constant and under varying moisture conditions. We sampled four silty loam soils, carefully crushed the soil macro-aggregates, and incubated the soil at 15 °C for 60 days with the following additions: (i) none (control), (ii) biochar (12 % of dry soil mass), (iii) slurry (150 kg N ha-1), (iv) biochar (6 %) + slurry (75 kg N ha-1), (v) biochar (12 %) + slurry (75 kg N ha-1), (vi) biochar (6 %) + slurry (150 kg N ha-1) and (vii) biochar (12 %) + slurry (150 kg N ha-1). The samples were further subdivided into two groups that were incubated under conditions of constant soil moisture and of three drying-rewetting cycles. The CO2 fluxes were continuously measured during the incubation period and the samples were analyzed for microbial biomass C, macro-aggregate yields and macro-aggregate-associated C after finishing the experiment. We found the application of biochar to result in lower macro-aggregate yields with or without slurry compared to the control or the individual slurry application. In contrast, similar or higher C contents in the macro-aggregate fraction of the biochar treatments as compared to the control or slurry treatments were found indicating an occlusion of biochar in macro-aggregates. Due to the sorption characteristics of biochar, we assume the aggregate formation to

  19. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  20. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  1. Microbiota analysis of environmental slurry and its potential role as a reservoir of bovine digital dermatitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    to the indigenous microbiota of the dairy herd environment, we used deep amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in 135 slurry samples collected from different sites in 22 dairy farms, with and without DD-infected cows. Both the general bacterial populations as well as digital dermatitis-associated Treponema were...... targeted in this study. The results revealed significant differences in the bacterial communities between the herds, with only 12 bacterial taxa shared across at least 80% of all the individual samples. These differences in the herd microbiota appeared to reflect mainly between-herd variation......, the DD-associated Treponema spp. were only detected in samples from herds with reported problems of DD. These data indicate that treponemes involved in the pathogenesis of DD are not part of the normal environmental microflora in dairy herds without clinical DD and, consequently, that slurry...

  2. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry.

  3. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  4. Application of cattle slurry containing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to grassland soil and its effect on the relationship between MAP and free-living amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M; Alfaro, M; Salazar, F; Badilla, X; Troncoso, E; Zambrano, A; González, M; Mitchell, R M; Collins, M T

    2015-01-30

    Slurry from dairy farms is commonly used to fertilize crops and pastures. This mixture of manure, urine and water can harbor multiple microbial pathogens among which Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a major concern. Persistence of MAP in soil and infection of soil Acanthamoeba was evaluated by culture, real-time IS900 PCR, and by staining of amoeba with acid-fast and vital stains comparing soils irrigated with MAP-spiked or control dairy farm slurry. MAP DNA was detected in soil for the 8 month study duration. MAP was detected by PCR from more soil samples for plots receiving MAP-spiked slurry (n=61/66) than from soils receiving control slurry (n=10/66 samples). Vital stains verified that intracellular MAP in amoeba was viable. More MAP was found in amoeba at the end of the study than immediately after slurry application. There was no relationship between MAP presence in soil and in amoeba over time. Infection of amoeba by MAP provides a protected niche for the persistence and even possibly the replication of MAP in soils. As others have suggested, MAP-infected amoeba may act like a "Trojan horse" providing a means for persistence in soils and potentially a source of infection for grazing animals.

  5. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located in the municipality of Teutônia, inside the area of swine husbandry in the state. Pooled fecal samples from the floor of pig barns from 9 wean-to-finish farms and liquid manure samples were collected from the slurry lagoons from 8 of these farms. From the pooled fecal samples, 8/9 were positive for the HEV ORF1 gene by RT-PCR; all the slurry lagoon samples were positive for HEV RNA (100%. The identity of the HEV ORF1 amplicons was confirmed by sequencing belonging to HEV genotype 3, which was previously shown to be circulating in South America.

  6. Effect of Annealing Treatment on Erosion-Corrosion of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass in Saline-Sand Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiulin; Shan, Yiping; Chen, Yueyue; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Bulk metallic glass (BMG) may be a good candidate to solve the erosion-corrosion (E-C) problems of marine pumps in sand-containing seawater. Since annealing treatment is an effective way to improve plasticity of BMGs, the effect of annealing treatment on E-C wear of Zr-based BMG in saline-sand slurry was investigated. All of the annealed BMG samples were crystallized and the quantity of (Zr, Cu) phase increased but that of Al4Cu9 phase decreased with the increase of annealing temperature from 360 to 480 °C. Accordingly, annealing treatment enhances plasticity of the as-cast BMG at the cost of hardness and corrosion resistance. Moreover, 480 °C annealed BMG sample possesses the highest hardness and the lowest corrosion current density in all of the annealed BMG samples. Using a slurry pot erosion tester, the E-C wear of the as-cast and annealed BMG samples was studied under different impingement angles, impact velocities, and concentrations in saline-sand slurry. With the improvement of plasticity, 480 °C annealed BMG sample exhibits the best E-C wear resistance under high impingement angle, high impact velocity, and high sand concentration.

  7. A comparative investigation of the properties of coal-water slurries prepared from Australia and Shenhua coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zengjie; Wu Guoguang; Meng Xianliang; Zhang Yuliang; Shi Frank; He Yaqun; Luo Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Two coal samples of similar rank were chosen from Australia and China to investigate the differences in Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) made from them.The effect of ash content and particle size gradation on these properties was also studied.Different grinding times were used when grinding the two coals and particle size analysis of these ground coals was used to select samples with a "double-peak" particle size distribution.All the "double-peak" samples were used to prepare a CWS.The concentration,viscosity,fluidity,and stability of each CWS were measured.The results show that the properties ofa CWS prepared from a coal sample with a "double-peak" size distribution are better than those CWS prepared from samples with a mono-modal particle distribution.The ash content of Australian coal is 21.72% higher than the ash content of Shenhua coal.The highest coal concentration in slurry from the Australia coal is 11.01%higher than in CWS from the Shenhua coal.The fluidity and stability of the CWS prepared from the Australian coal are both better than the fluidity and stability of slurry prepared from Shenhua coal.High ash content in the Australian coal improves the pulping results of a CWS made from it.

  8. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  9. Gas migration through cement slurries analysis: A comparative laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Velayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is an essential part of every drilling operation. Protection of the wellbore from formation fluid invasion is one of the primary tasks of a cement job. Failure in this task results in catastrophic events, such as blow outs. Hence, in order to save the well and avoid risky and operationally difficult remedial cementing, slurry must be optimized to be resistant against gas migration phenomenon. In this paper, performances of the conventional slurries facing gas invasion were reviewed and compared with modified slurry containing special gas migration additive by using fluid migration analyzer device. The results of this study reveal the importance of proper additive utilization in slurry formulations. The rate of gas flow through the slurry in neat cement is very high; by using different types of additives, we observe obvious changes in the performance of the cement system. The rate of gas flow in neat class H cement was reported as 36000 ml/hr while the optimized cement formulation with anti-gas migration and thixotropic agents showed a gas flow rate of 13.8 ml/hr.

  10. Improvements of marine clay slurries using chemicalephysical combined method (CPCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Wu; Wenyu Xu; Romy Tjuar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness, applicability and validity of chemicalephysical combined methods (CPCMs) for treatment of marine clay (MC) slurries were evaluated. The method CPCM1 combines chemical stabilization and vacuum preloading (VP), while CPCM2 is similar to CPCM1 but includes both the application of surcharge and use of geo-bags to provide confinement during surcharge preloading. The key advantage of CPCM2 using geo-bags is that the surcharge can be immediately applied on the chemically stabilized slurries. Two types of geo-bags were investigated under simulated land filling and dyke conditions, respectively. The test results show that the shear strength (cu) of treated slurry by CPCM2 is generally much higher than that by CPCM1. Besides, the use of CPCM2 can significantly reduce the treatment time due to the short drainage paths created by geo-bags. Overall, CPCM2 allows faster consolidation and higher preloading that help to achieve higher mechanical properties of the stabilized slurry. There are consistent relationships between cU and water content of slurries treated by CPCM2. Several important observations were also made based on comparisons of experimental data.

  11. Contamination of lettuce with antibiotic resistant E. coli after slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2011-01-01

    was therefore performed to assess the survival and transfer of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animal manure to lettuces, with E. coli serving as an indicator of bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied to 3 Danish fields prior to planting of lettuce seedlings, then 5-8 weeks later at the normal...... slurry (field 2 and 3). E. coli was found in 36-54% of the pooled lettuce samples at the three fields with a detection limit of 10 CFU/g and 10-18% and 0-2% of pools had streptomycin and ampicilin resistant E. coli, respectively. Unexpectedly, the highest percentage of lettuce pools with antibiotic....../g. The numbers of resistant E. coli for both antibiotics were approximately 10-fold lower than the sensitive E. coli. At the time of harvest, the numbers of E. coli in 5 of 15 soil samples were reduced below the detection limit and no samples exceeded 100 CFU/g, which was in contrast to the lettuce samples...

  12. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution, locally and to the wider environment. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, but there is a need for methodologies to precisely quantify emissions. This paper describes and evaluates a novel......) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH4 independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol...

  13. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

    2012-12-30

    Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 ± 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated

  15. Gaseous emissions and modification of slurry composition during storage and after field application: Effect of slurry additives and mechanical separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Twum, Maxwell Yeboah; Polastre, Adele; Subedi, Raghunath; Santos, Ana Sofia; Mendes Ferreira, Luis Miguel; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2017-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of slurry treatment by additives (EU200(®) (EU200), Bio-buster(®) (BB), JASS(®) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4)) and mechanical separation on the physical-chemical characteristics, gaseous emissions (NH3, CH4, CO2 and N2O) during anaerobic storage at ∼20 °C (experiment 1) and NH3 losses after field application (experiment 2). The treatments studied in experiment 1 were: whole slurry (WS), WS+H2SO4 to a pH of 6.0, WS+EU200 and WS+BB. Treatments for experiment 2 were: WS, slurry liquid fraction (LF), composted solid fraction (CSF), LFs treated with BB (LFB), JASS(®) (LFJ), H2SO4 to a pH of 5.5 (LFA) and soil only (control). The results showed an inhibition of the degradation of organic materials (cellulose, hemicellulose, dry matter organic matter and total carbon) in the WS+H2SO4 relative to the WS. When compared to the WS, the WS+H2SO4 increased electrical conductivity, ammonium (NH4(+)) and sulphur (S) concentrations whilst reducing slurry pH after storage. The WS+H2SO4 reduced NH3 volatilization by 69% relative to the WS but had no effect on emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O during storage. Biological additive treatments (WS+EU200 and WS+BB) had no impact on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions relative to the WS during storage. After field application, the cumulative NH3 lost in the LF was almost 50% lower than the WS. The losses in the LFA were reduced by 92% relative to the LF. The LFB and LFJ had no impact on NH3 losses relative to the LF. A significant effect of treatment on NH4(+) concentration was found at the top soil layer (0-5 cm) after NH3 measurements with higher concentrations in the LF treatments relative to the WS. Overall, the use of the above biological additives to decrease pollutant gases and to modify slurry characteristics are questionable. Reducing slurry dry matter through mechanical separation can mitigate NH3 losses after field application. Slurry acidification can increase the

  16. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites` typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass.

  17. Rheological behavior of molten Al-SiC slurries and comparison of their behavior with metallic slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, D. Sohrabi Baba; Akhlagh, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study a new precise rotational viscometer was developed and used to measure the viscosity of molten A356 alloy containing 5, 15, and 25vol.% of 90-106 μm SiC particles at 650 and 690 °C. Three types of typical curves viscosity (η) versus volume fraction of SiC particles, shear time (t), and shear rate (γ) were derived advantage from the results of viscosity measurements. It would present the viscosity got lowered by decreasing particle volume fraction and by increasing the amounts of shear time and shear rate. In the next step, the influence of the number of aggregates on apparent viscosity was studied by the special tests, developed in this research. Also the formation of aggregates in Al-SiC composite slurries was explained and compared with metallic slurries. It concluded that the origin of aggregation in Al-SiC slurries was long range electrical forces while in metallic slurries it was micro welds between particles. it would show the rheological behavior of Al-SiC slurries could be justified according to the nature and the numbers of their aggregates. At the end, the implications of findings in order to predict the gradient of particles in functionally graded Al-SiC composites, produced by casting, were discussed.

  18. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  19. Semisolid Slurry Preparation of Die Steel with High Chromium Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHAO Ai-min; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHONG Xue-you

    2004-01-01

    The semisolid slurry preparation of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV with high chromium content was studied. The results show that the semisolid slurry of both steels with solid of 40 %-60 % can be made by electromagnetic stirring method and is easy to be discharged from the bottom little hole of the stirring chamber. The sizes of the spherical primary austenite in the slurry of die steels Cr12 and Cr12MoV are 50-100 μm and 80-150 μm, respectively. The homogeneous temperature field and solute field for both steel melts are obtained. The strong temperature fluctuation in the melt with many fine primary austenite grains occurs and the remelting of the secondary arm roots at the same time is accelerated because of the electromagnetic stirring. These are the most important reasons for deposition of spherical primary austenite grains.

  20. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

  1. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  2. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, M. G. Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita;

    2016-01-01

    macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect...... and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns...... of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils...

  3. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  4. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  5. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  6. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  7. An advanced alkaline slurry for barrier chemical mechanical planarization on patterned wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Niu Xinhuan; Tian Jianying; Gao Baohong; Zhang Xiaoqiang

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an alkaline barrier slurry (named FA/O slurry) for barrier removal and evaluated its chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance through comparison with a commercially developed barrier slurry.The FA/O slurry consists of colloidal silica,which is a complexing and an oxidizing agent,and does not have any inhibitors.It was found that the surface roughness of copper blanket wafers polished by the FA/O slurry was lower than the commercial barrier slurry,demonstrating that it leads to a better surface quality.In addition,the dishing and electrical tests also showed that the patterned wafers have a lower dishing value and sheet resistance as compared to the commercial barrier slurry.By comparison,the FA/O slurry demonstrates good planarization performance and can be used for barrier CMP.

  8. Numerical simulation of slurry jets using mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xin HUAI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slurry jets in a static uniform environment were simulated with a two-phase mixture model in which flow-particle interactions were considered. A standard k-ε turbulence model was chosen to close the governing equations. The computational results were in agreement with previous laboratory measurements. The characteristics of the two-phase flow field and the influences of hydraulic and geometric parameters on the distribution of the slurry jets were analyzed on the basis of the computational results. The calculated results reveal that if the initial velocity of the slurry jet is high, the jet spreads less in the radial direction. When the slurry jet is less influenced by the ambient fluid (when the Stokes number St is relatively large, the turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent dissipation rate ε, which are relatively concentrated around the jet axis, decrease more rapidly after the slurry jet passes through the nozzle. For different values of St, the radial distributions of streamwise velocity and particle volume fraction are both self-similar and fit a Gaussian profile after the slurry jet fully develops. The decay rate of the particle velocity is lower than that of water velocity along the jet axis, and the axial distributions of the centerline particle streamwise velocity are self-similar along the jet axis. The pattern of particle dispersion depends on the Stokes number St. When St = 0.39, the particle dispersion along the radial direction is considerable, and the relative velocity is very low due to the low dynamic response time. When St = 3.08, the dispersion of particles along the radial direction is very little, and most of the particles have high relative velocities along the streamwise direction.

  9. Experimental investigation of ice slurry heat transfer in horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per; Palm, Bjoern; Melinder, Aake [Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Heat transfer of ice slurry flow based on ethanol-water mixture in a circular horizontal tube has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethanol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The heat transfer tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 22% depending on test performed. Measured heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry are found to be higher than those for single phase fluid, especially for laminar flow conditions and high ice mass fractions where the heat transfer is increased with a factor 2 in comparison to the single phase flow. In addition, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry flow were compared to the analytical results, based on the correlation by Sieder and Tate for laminar single phase regime, by Dittus-Boelter for turbulent single phase regime and empirical correlation by Christensen and Kauffeld derived for laminar/turbulent ice slurry flow in circular horizontal tubes. It was found that the classical correlation proposed by Sieder and Tate for laminar forced convection in smooth straight circular ducts cannot be used for heat transfer prediction of ice slurry flow since it strongly underestimates measured values, while, for the turbulent flow regime the simple Dittus-Boelter relation predicts the heat transfer coefficient of ice slurry flow with high accuracy but only up to an ice mass fraction of 10% and Re{sub cf} > 2300 regardless of imposed heat flux. For higher ice mass fractions and regardless of the flow regime, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  10. Representative process sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, Lars Petersen; Esbensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Process sampling of moving streams of particulate matter, fluids and slurries (over time or space) or stationary one-dimensional (1-D) lots is often carried out according to existing tradition or protocol not taking the theory of sampling (TOS) into account. In many situations, sampling errors (s...

  11. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  12. Technical report on treatment of radioactive slurry liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gyeong Hwan; Jo, Eun Sung; Park, Seung Kook; Jung, Ki Jung

    1999-06-01

    By literature survey, this report deals with the technology on typical pre-treatment and filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste, produced during the operation of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor, and produced during the decommission/decontamination of TRIGA Mark-II, III research reactor. It is reviewed pre-treatment procedure, both physical and chemical that optimise the dewatering characteristics, and also surveyed types of dewatering devices based on centrifuges, vacuum and pressure filters with particular reference to various combined field approaches using two or more complementary driving forces to achieve better performance. Dewatering operations and devises on filtration of radioactive slurry liquid waste are also analysed. (author)

  13. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Managing phosphorus (P) losses in soil leachate following land application of manure is key to curbing eutrophication in many regions. We compared P leaching from columns of variably textured, intact soils (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) subjected to surface application or injection of dairy cattle (Bos...... retention of particulate P and dissolved organic P, caused by placing slurry away from active flow paths in the fine-textured soil columns, as well as to chemical retention of dissolved inorganic P, caused by better contact between slurry P and soil adsorption sites. Dissolved organic P was less retained...

  14. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  15. Electrochemical behaviors of silicon wafers in silica slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolan Song; Haiping Yang; Xunda Shi; Xi He; Guanzhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of n-type silicon wafers in silica-based slurry were investigated, and the influences of the pH value and solid content of the slurry on the corrosion of silicon wafers were studied by using electrochemical DC polarization and AC impedance techniques. The results revealed that these factors affected the corrosion behaviors of silicon wafers to different degrees and had their suitable parameters that made the maximum corrosion rate of the wafers. The corrosion potential of (100) surface was lower than that of (111), whereas the current density of (100) was much higher than that of (111).

  16. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songré-Ouattara, Laurencia T; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, Bréhima; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a sample obtained from spontaneously fermented traditional pearl millet slurry obtained from a small scale processing unit in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). Starter cultures thrived on the slurry as shown by counts on MRS agar, TTGE fingerprints, and fermentation patterns. The fermentation of precooked slurries inoculated by back slopping or with mixed cultures containing the amylolytic strain Lb. plantarum A6 enabled partial starch hydrolysis. Corresponding gruels had a suitable consistency for young child feeding at high dry matter content, and a high energy density: 88.7 +/- 4.2 and 75.8 +/- 5.1 kcal/100 g of sweetened gruel, for the gruels inoculated by back slopping or with Lb. plantarum A6, respectively. Unexpectedly, no decrease in phytates was observed in any of the experiments, suggesting the presence of one or more inhibitory compounds in soybean. Furthermore, preprocessing conditions before fermentation affect the carbohydrate composition of slurry and have a more profound effect than fermentation on the reduction of the alpha-GOS content.

  17. Rapid determination of zinc and iron in foods by flow-injection analysis with flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and slurry nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J C; Strong, F C; Martin, N J

    1990-07-01

    A rapid method of determining zinc and iron in food by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with slurry nebulization into an air-acetylene flame has been developed. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer, coupled to a single-line flow-injection analysis (FIA) system, was employed to introduce the slurry into the spray chamber. Under the FIA conditions described, an injection frequency of 120/hr is possible, with negligible carry-over and memory effects. The calibration graphs were obtained by using various concentrations (up to 0.1 g/ml) of white bean homogenate as standards, rather than solutions. The method has been applied to various kinds of foods, including grains, vegetables, fruits and sausage. Homogenization of semi-prepared samples to form slurries took only 4 min. Relative deviations between results by the slurry and solution methods for both elements averaged 2-3%. Detection limits by the slurry method were 0.3 mug/ml Zn and 0.6 mug/ml Fe.

  18. THE RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STOWING SLURRY WITH HIGH-WATER MATERIAL SOLIDIFYING TAILINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨本生; 刘文永

    1996-01-01

    High-water material, tailings from goldmine and water are mixed into a new slurry.Testing of rheological properties of stowing slurries A and B is made to determine type and rheo-logical parameters of the slurry. The main factors influencing rheological properties of the slurryare analyzed and the rational concentration and empirical resistance calculating formula of pipeline transportation are presented.

  19. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  20. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  1. Measurement of ion speciation in animal slurries using the Donnan Membrane Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of nutrients in animal slurry for plant uptake depends on the total content as well as on the forms in which these nutrients are present in slurry manure. A DMT-manure cell was developed which can help to determine the speciation of nutrients in animal slurries. The cell consists of

  2. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  3. Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective i

  4. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  5. Slurry Erosion Performance Study of Detonation Gun-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings on CF8M Steel Under Hydro-Accelerated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sanjeev; Singh, Harpreet; Kumar, Harmesh; Rastogi, Vikas

    2012-09-01

    In the current investigation, cermet coatings (WC-10Co-4Cr) were deposited on CF8M steel by detonation gun (D-gun) thermal spraying process. Subsequently, the slurry erosion behaviors of the coated and bare steels were investigated using a high-speed erosion test rig. Slurry collected from an actual hydro power plant was used as the abrasive media. Effects of concentration (ppm), average particle sizes and rotational speed on the slurry erosion behaviors of coated and bare steels under different experimental conditions were studied. The analysis of eroded samples was done using SEM and stylus profilometry. Signatures of microcutting, fracture of well-bonded WC grains, and fragmentations were observed on the eroded surface of WC-10Co-4Cr coating, while signatures of formation of plowing, lips, shearing of platelet, formation of crater, and micro-cutting were observed on the eroded surface of CF8M steel.

  6. Chemical aspects of coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, R.; Caprio, V.; Insola, A.

    1988-03-01

    Coal liquefaction by oxygen in alkaline slurries is reviewed from the chemical point of view. Available information is considered in the light of questions relating to coal liquefaction. A lack of chemical knowledge in this area is noted, especially on model compounds. 72 refs.

  7. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  8. Coal slurry - a problem of the brown coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H.; Hielscher, R.; Mohry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Technological and economic aspects are examined for processing coal-containing waste water from brown coal preparation plants in the German Democratic Republic. In 1979, 106.8 Mm/sup 3/ of coal slurry were produced by the GDR brown coal industry, with a coal fine content ranging between 7.8 g/l and 20.4 g/l. This amounts to 2.6 Mt/y of coal which is 1% of the annual brown coal production. Technological variants of processing and utilizing coal slurry are discussed. At a number of major coal preparation plants, coal slurry is flushed into sedimentation lakes. After a 2 to 3 year drying period, a 6 to 10 m thick layer of coal is recovered. Technologies of coal slurry processing with the aim of recovering coal fines are enumerated. Equipment for these processes include, filters, centrifuges, dryers, etc. Recovered coal can be used as fuel or processed into fertilizer in combination with fly ash and other waste products. 12 references.

  9. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  10. Effects of cattle slurry manure management on grass yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Kok, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of application method, cattle slurry manure type and use of additives on grassland performance were studied in a 3-year field experiment on two farms on sandy soils in the northern part of the Netherlands. The objectives were to determine the effects on (1) nitrogen (N) utilization, (2)

  11. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  12. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors ispresented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, productdistribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Someimportant aspects of further research are proposed for improving both theories andproduction.

  13. Overview of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in Slurry Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁百全; 李涛; A.A.C.M.Beenackers; G.P.vanderLaan

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis specially in slurry reactors is presented, covering reaction kinetics, activity and selectivity of catalysts, product distribution, effects of process parameters, mass transfer and solubility of gas. Some important aspects of further research axe proposed for improving both theories and production.

  14. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  15. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  16. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  17. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  18. Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact.

  19. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  20. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops....

  1. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH4 by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH4 production than fresh slurry. Sulfate...... and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH4 emission during storage of cattle...

  2. Effect of increased manganese addition and mould type on the slurry erosion characteristics of Cr–Mn iron systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sampathkumaran; C Ranganathaiah; S Seetharamu; Kishore

    2008-12-01

    The wear resistance of high chromium iron is well recorded. However, the same is not the case as regards the use of manganese at higher percentages in high chromium irons and its influence on wear behaviour. Hence, this work highlights the slurry wear characteristics of chromium ($\\Box$ 16–19%) iron following the introduction of manganese at two levels i.e. 5 and 10%. It is known that the wear properties are dictated by the microstructural features. To alter the structure, the cooling rate of casting has been varied by adopting two different types of moulds (i.e. sand and metal) and subsequently subjecting to thermal treatment. The as-cast and heat treated samples are examined for microstructure and then evaluated for hardness and slurry erosion properties. As the manganese content is increased from 5 to 10%, the hardness showed a decrease in value both in the as-cast and heat treated conditions. The slurry erosion loss, expectedly, showed an increase irrespective of the sample condition (i.e. mould type/heat treatment adopted). The findings are corroborated with the microstructural features obtained through optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Kwon; Kang, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Gon; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited a contact angle of 50° in solution with BTA and H2O2. The dynamic etching rate, i.e., the Cu polishing rate using abrasive-free slurry, also decreased when BTA was added to the slurry at pH 2, 4, and 6. The removal rate of Cu in slurry without BTA was strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and pH. In slurry with BTA, Cu-BTA on the Cu surface prevented the etching of Cu. At pH 2 and 4, the removal rates were lower in slurry with BTA than in slurry without BTA. However, slurries of pH 6 or higher with BTA showed higher removal rates at higher concentrations of H2O2 than 10%, which was explained by the thick passivating oxide layer formed at higher pH and H2O2 concentrations.

  4. Nitrous-Oxide Flux from Nitric-Acid-Treated Cattle Slurry Applied to Grassland under Semi-Controlled Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from cattle slurry after surface application to grassland were measured under semi-controlled environmental conditions during three periods in 1991. Three types of cattle slurry were examined; untreated slurry and slurries treated with nitric acid (HNO3) to pH 6.0 and 4.5.

  5. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  6. Development of rapid slurry methods for flame and direct current plasma emission and graphite furnace atomic absorption analysis of solid animal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies are presented describing developments in the rapid, direct atomic spectrochemical analysis of meat samples by the technique of slurry atomization. The number of elements that can be determined in meat slurry samples has been increased and the concentration range that can be detected extended to included analysis at the part per billion as well as the percent level. Slurry atomization involves the rapid preparation procedure whereby the sample is simple homogenized with deionized distilled water prior to analysis. In this manner, rapid, quantitative analysis of hot dogs (processed meat) for dietary salt (Na, K) was achieved by premixed air-natural gas flame emission spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of mechanically separated meat for residual bone fragments (as Ca) was attained using a simple photometer when the premixed air-acetylene flame was used. The phosphate interference of the Ca emission signal was overcome by placing an insert in the spray chamber which decreased the droplet size of the aerosol reaching the flame. Slight matrix modification in the form of 2% nitric acid was necessary to solubilize the Ca from the bone fragments. Determining elements present at very low concentrations i.e. part per billion levels, in homogenized beef liver was evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption and shown to be viable for determinations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni. Qualitative multielement analysis of several types of meat slurries by direct current plasma (DCP) emission spectrometry using both photographic and electronic modes of detection was reported for the first time.

  7. Effects of some material and experimental variables on the slurry wear characteristics of zinc-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Modi, O. P.; Jha, A. K.; Patwardhan, A. K.

    2001-02-01

    In this study, the slurry wear behavior of a zinc-based alloy has been examined by the sample rotation method over a range of traversal speeds and distances. The influence of adding silicon to the alloy system on its wear characteristics has also been examined. The wear rate of the samples increased with increasing traversal distance initially, attained a peak, and then tended to decrease at longer distances. The initial increase in wear rate with distance was attributed to the indenting effect of the slurry constituents ( i.e., liquid droplets and the erodant particles) associated with the corrosive action of the liquid in slurry. On the contrary, factors such as entrapment of the erodant mass as well as the corrosion products in the cavities formed on the specimen surfaces could lead to the decrease in wear rate at longer traversal distances. The existence of silicon particles in the alloy microstructure led to improved wear resistance of the alloy system. This was due to the resistance offered by the hard silicon particles against the impinging action of the slurry constituents. Attainment of the wear rate peak at longer traversal distances in the case of the silicon-containing alloy over the one without the element further substantiated the superior wear resistance offered by the silicon particles. Traversal speed led to higher wear rates irrespective of the test conditions and material composition due to the more severe attack of the medium on the specimen surface. However, the presence of silicon particles in the alloy microstructure offered improved wear resistance (inverse of wear rate).

  8. Results from tests of TFL Hydragard sampling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    When the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is operational, processed radioactive sludge will be transferred in batches to the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), where glass frit will be added and the contents concentrated by boiling. Batches of the slurry mixture are transferred from the SME to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). Hydragard{reg_sign} sampling systems are used on the SME and the MFT for collecting slurry samples in vials for chemical analysis. An accurate replica of the Hydragard sampling system was built and tested in the thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) to determine the hydragard accuracy. It was determined that the original Hydragard valve frequently drew a non-representative sample stream through the sample vial that ranged from frit enriched to frit depleted. The Hydragard valve was modified by moving the plunger and its seat backwards so that the outer surface of the plunger was flush with the inside diameter of the transfer line when the valve was open. The slurry flowing through the vial accurately represented the composition of the slurry in the reservoir for two types of slurries, different dilution factors, a range of transfer flows and a range of vial flows. It was then found that the 15 ml of slurry left in the vial when the Hydragard valve was closed, which is what will be analyzed at DWPF, had a lower ratio of frit to sludge as characterized by the lithium to iron ratio than the slurry flowing through it. The reason for these differences is not understood at this time but it is recommended that additional experimentation be performed with the TFL Hydragard loop to determine the cause.

  9. "Z prawd najprostszych" - księdza Wacława Buryły wiersze z lat 1991-1997 w aspekcie współczesnej poezji kapłańskiej

    OpenAIRE

    Dworakowska, Dominika

    2002-01-01

    Der Artikel zeigt dichterisches Schaffen vom Priester Wacław Buryła unter dem Gesichtspunkt die moderne Priesterpoesie. Der Text bespricht auch diese Richtung der Priesterpoesie als ungewöhnliches Literaturphänomen im Weltmaßstab. Zadanie pt. „Digitalizacja i udostępnienie w Cyfrowym Repozytorium Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego kolekcji czasopism naukowych wydawanych przez Uniwersytet Łódzki” nr 885/P-DUN/2014 zostało dofinansowane ze środków MNiSW w ramach działalności upowszechniającej naukę...

  10. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  11. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  12. Slurry Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Some Engineering Polymers Applied by Low-Pressure Flame Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto Camello; Mojena, Miguel Angel Reyes; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della; de Souza, Natalia Ferraresso Cardoso; Fals, Hipolito Domingo Carvajal

    2016-11-01

    The erosive wear and corrosion resistance of three types of flame spray-deposited polymer coatings was analyzed. The erosive wear test was performed in slurry pot tester with rotational movement using distilled water and mix quartz particles (300 g/l). Two impact angles of the particles were used, reaching 4.15 m/s average impact velocity. Corrosion resistance of the polymer coatings and degradation behavior were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a solution of 0.5 M sodium chloride at room temperature for a total immersion time of 1 year. The interpretation of the results was made according to the Bode plot. It is proven a better slurry erosion wear performance for PEEK and PA12 coatings when the particles impact at 90° angle. For impact angle of 30°, there is no significant difference in the erosion performance of PEEK, PEI, and PA12 coatings. No major changes occurred in the impedance module for PA12 and PEEK samples, indicating that these coatings can protect the steel substrate for extended periods of time. The lower PEI performance is believed to be related to the improper choice of spraying parameters, as the spray conditions were kept constant for the three feedstock materials.

  13. A new cement slurry modified with chitosan/alginate interpenetrating networks and hydroxyapatite: structural characteristics after long-term contact with hyper-saline produced water from oil well operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ivory Marcos Gomes dos; Santos, Danilo Oliveira; Cestari, Antonio Reinaldo, E-mail: ivorymarcos@hotmail.com, E-mail: danilo.quimico@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rcestari@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais; Ribeiro, Joenesson Filip Santos, E-mail: joenesson.joe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Lab, Materiais e Calorimetria; Alves, Jose do Patrocinio Hora; Ferreira, Angelica Baganha, E-mail: jphalves@uol.com.br, E-mail: angelica.bferreira@itps.se.gov.br [Instituto Tecnologico e de Pesquisas do Estado de Sergipe (ITPS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Oil is an important source of energy, mainly in developing countries. Important research has been conducted to find cementing procedures that guarantee safe and cost-effective oil exploration below pre-salt layers. This work aimed to make a new cement paste with cement, seawater, silica, biopolymers (chitosan and sodium alginate) and hydroxyapatite (HA), found in nature. For comparison purposes, slurry without additives was prepared and characterized. The HA used was extracted from fish scales (Cynoscion acoupa) in optimized condition NaOH concentration, temperature and reaction time. Both slurry were prepared with ratios water/cement (w/c) and silica/cement (s/c) equal to 0.50 and 0.35, respectively. The new cement slurry was obtained with proportions of 5% of each biopolymer and HA with respect to the total weight of the cement. In the immersion tests, specimens were immersed in samples of hyper production of saline water by 35°C for 15 days. Thereafter, they were washed, dried and its surface layers were scraped. Before, the resulting materials were characterized. The values of the ratios Ca/Si of new cement slurry (3.38 ± 0.06) were superior compared to standard (2.58 ± 0.05). The new slurry had high thermal stability and low amounts of small crystallite-type portlandite (35.70 nm). Conversely, a slurry standard formed larger crystals of about 50.3 nm. Significantly, after continuous long-term contact of both slurries with hyper-saline produced water from oil well fields operations, in comparison with standard slurry structural characteristics, the new slurry has practically maintained its pristine chemical structure, as well as has shown crystallite-type particles of NaCl and Friedel’s/Kuzel’s salts with lower proportion. The presence of the biopolymers and HA has driven the improved the self-healing properties observed in the new cement slurry. In this first study, the new slurry has shown adequate characteristics to contribute to cost effective and

  14. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry: effects of acidification and sulfur addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik V; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Petersen, Søren O

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (HS) with addition of sulfate and methionine ( slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral conditions, in contrast to acidic conditions where the degradation was inhibited and both MT and DMS accumulated. Based on odor activity values, untreated slurry had little odor development from S compounds, especially the aged slurry. Acidification did not significantly increase odor contribution from any of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from HS dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the HS contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than untreated slurry. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

    1989-06-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

  16. Determination of sulfur in coal and ash slurry by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadi, Flávio V.; Rosa, Lilian R.; da Veiga, Márcia A. M. S.

    2013-10-01

    We propose a procedure for the determination of sulfur in coal slurries by high resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry. The slurry, whose concentration is 1 mg mL- 1, was prepared by mixing 50 mg of the sample with 5% v/v nitric acid and 0.04% m/v Triton X-100 and was homogenized manually. It sustained good stability. The determination was performed via CS molecular absorption at 257.592 nm, and the optimized vaporization temperature was 2500 °C. The accuracy of the method was ensured by analysis of certified reference materials SRM 1632b (trace elements in coal) and SRM 1633b (coal fly ash) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, using external calibration with aqueous standards prepared in the same medium and used as slurry. We achieved good agreement with the certified reference materials within 95% confidence interval, LOD of 0.01% w/w, and RSD of 6%, which confirms the potential of the proposed method.

  17. [The role of Wacława Moszyński in the development of the Polish School of Machine and Mechanism Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Janusz; Pylak, Konrad; Schabowska, Krystyna

    2005-01-01

    The end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries saw the emergence and intensive development of many disciplines in the technical sciences, and the laying of a groundwork for those disciplines in their current form. In Poland, a country deprived of independent statehood until 1918, this was additionally a period when native research centres and scientific schools came into being, and when Polish-language specialist literatures emerged as well. Many of the eminent personages whose activities contributed to those trends have already been described in biographical notes and articles. There are still, however, not enough studies dealing with the substance of their scientific and professional achievements. One of the personages in question was Wacława Moszyński, professor of the Warsaw Technical University, a pioneer of machine construction and mechanism theory, author of the first academic textbook in the field to be published in Poland. The current article discusses Moszyński's contribution to the development of mechanism and machine theory. The first part of the article gives an outline of the history of the discipline until 1945, presents the context of the after-war activities of the author, and evaluates his influence on the development of machine and mechanism theory in Poland; it also carries a short biography of Moszyński. The rest of the article is devoted to Moszyński's scientific achievements, and describes his approach to matters of structure, kinematics and dynamics, with special focus on those of his formulations and solution to problems that appear particularly innovative and original. The article also points out those proposals by Moszyński which made him a precursor of other disciplines, such as vibroacoustics, biomechanics and ergonomics. The paper also presents the role of Moszyński's work as a foundation for the development of the Warsaw research-and-teching centre in the field. The achievements and methods of the Warsaw school

  18. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  19. The effects of composition and sintering temperature on the silica foam fabricated by slurry method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharom, Syazwani; Ahmad, Sufizar; Taib, Hariati; Muda, Rizamarhaiza

    2016-07-01

    Reticulated ceramic or open pore ceramic foam is a well-known material which exhibits extremely high porosities, with a significant degree of interconnectivity that makes them desirable in a wide range of applications. There were broad types of ceramic foam fabrication method such as polymeric sponge method, direct foaming, and starch consolidation. In this study, the slurry method has been chosen to fabricate Silica (SiO2) foam. In this process, Polyurethane (PU) foam template was dipped into ceramic slurry and followed by drying and sintering to obtain foam which contains porosity in the range of 50% to 70%. The compositions of SiO2 were varied starting from 55 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 65 wt.% and 70 wt.%. The samples of SiO2 that have been dipped and dried were sintered at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1250°C. The sintered SiO2 ceramic foam samples were characterized to observe their morphology, and physical properties. Thus, the microstructure of the SiO2 ceramic foams samples was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Meanwhile, the physical properties of the SiO2 ceramic foam samples such as the total porosity (%) and bulk density were determined using Archimedes method. It was found that the density of ceramic foam produced was in the range of 0.25 g/cm3 up to 0.75 g/cm3, whereas the level of porosity percentage was in the range of 61.81% to 82.18% with the size of open pore or window cells were in between 141 µm up to 626 µm.

  20. The effects of composition and sintering temperature on the silica foam fabricated by slurry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharom, Syazwani, E-mail: hd140001@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Ahmad, Sufizar, E-mail: sufizar@uthm.edu.my; Taib, Hariati, E-mail: hariati@uthm.edu.my; Muda, Rizamarhaiza, E-mail: hd130013@siswa.uthm.edu.my [Department of Material and Design Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Reticulated ceramic or open pore ceramic foam is a well-known material which exhibits extremely high porosities, with a significant degree of interconnectivity that makes them desirable in a wide range of applications. There were broad types of ceramic foam fabrication method such as polymeric sponge method, direct foaming, and starch consolidation. In this study, the slurry method has been chosen to fabricate Silica (SiO{sub 2}) foam. In this process, Polyurethane (PU) foam template was dipped into ceramic slurry and followed by drying and sintering to obtain foam which contains porosity in the range of 50% to 70%. The compositions of SiO{sub 2} were varied starting from 55 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 65 wt.% and 70 wt.%. The samples of SiO{sub 2} that have been dipped and dried were sintered at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1250°C. The sintered SiO{sub 2} ceramic foam samples were characterized to observe their morphology, and physical properties. Thus, the microstructure of the SiO{sub 2} ceramic foams samples was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Meanwhile, the physical properties of the SiO{sub 2} ceramic foam samples such as the total porosity (%) and bulk density were determined using Archimedes method. It was found that the density of ceramic foam produced was in the range of 0.25 g/cm{sup 3} up to 0.75 g/cm{sup 3}, whereas the level of porosity percentage was in the range of 61.81% to 82.18% with the size of open pore or window cells were in between 141 µm up to 626 µm.

  1. Recovery of clean coal from polymer flocculated raw coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, B.K.; Chen, Z. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (US)

    2004-11-01

    The recovery of fine clean coal from waste streams using column flotation is recognized as an efficient and economical technique. However, due to the low percent solids (around 3% by weight) found in these fine waste slurries, the flotation columns have low capacities and are, thus, underutilized. In this study, a 3% (by weight) solids suspension of Upper Freeport coal was flocculated with polymers and concentrated to 10% (by weight) solids. The flocculated slurry was then floated using 250 g/t No. 2 fuel oil and 250 g/t MIBC, which provided a clean coal with 12% ash at an 80% yield. The results showed that flocculated coal could be floated effectively. Zeta potential and contact-angle data showed that the presence of polymer on the surface of the coal did not affect its hydrophobicity, and in some cases it improved the hydrophobicity as indicated by larger contact angles.

  2. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  3. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  4. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  5. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  6. Combustion tests of coal-water slurry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G.A. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1982-03-01

    The results of an experimental test program to determine the combustion characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels (65 to 75 percent dry coal by weight and exhibiting room temperature viscosities of about 1000 cp) are presented. The slurry tested contained 66 percent solids by weight and was produced from a beneficiated high volatile eastern bituminous coal. The CWS and its parent coal were each fired in B and W's 4.0 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr Basic Combustion Test Unit. Each fuel was also subjected to extensive laboratory analysis work. No burner or atomizer development work was done - the primary objective of the study being to demonstrate that the CWS could be fired with existing fuel oil handling equipment.

  7. Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

    1999-12-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

  8. Selection of design parameters for a slurry injection tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    selected through applying the optimization approach. The four sweeps were tested at different working depths (75, 100, and 125 mm below soil surface) in a field with loamy sandy soil. The results showed that draft force and soil cross-sectional area tilled had similar trends as predicted......Injection has been recognized as an effective method for land application of liquid slurry. Optimization design is essential for developing higher-performance injection tools and identifying potential improvement of existing tools. In this study, design parameters of an injection tool were...... in the optimization in terms of the effects of sweep width and working depth. Among all the combinations of sweep width and working depth, the 180 mm sweep working at 100 mm depth had the best performance, as indicated by its lowest draft force and most favorable soil surface profile for covering injected slurry....

  9. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  10. Summary of rheological studies related to HWVP slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, D.D.; Smith, P.A.; Terrones, G.; Larson, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous studies (Section 8) have,addressed the Theological properties of simulated process slurries at the Savannah River Laboratory for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`(PNL) for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). These studies were reviewed to summarize existing data applicable to HWVP design. The reviewers determined that the existing data provide important information on the effects of feed variability, solids loading, temperature, formating, pH, and scale-up. However, these data cannot serve as a basis for fundamental slurry transport calculations because data are not reported in sufficient detail over a range of shear rates and in appropriate terms to be sufficient for transport calculations.

  11. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  12. Preparation of coal slurries deposited in ground settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Blaschke

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the hard coal washing process, considerable quantities of coal slimes are generated. They belong to grain size classes below 1, 0 mm (with the majority of grains below 0,035 mm and are often sold in order to prepare blends for the power generation. It is assessed that in Poland about 11 mln tons of such slimes were deposited. The slimes of a low ash content can be exploited and sold. The slime of high ash content must be washed. In Poland there is one coal preparation plant for slurries. The article describes the technology and presents the results of a simplified economic analysis of exploitation of the slurries and their washing.

  13. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  14. Catalytic oxidation of calcium sulfite in solution/aqueous slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qin; WU Zhong-biao; WANG Da-hui

    2004-01-01

    Forced oxidation of calcium sulfite aqueous slurry is a key step for the calcium-based flue gas desulfurization(FGD) residue. Experiments were conducted in a semi-batch system and a continuous flow system on lab scales. The main reactor in semi-batch system is a 1000 ml volume flask. It has five necks for continuous feeding of gas and a batch of calcium sulfite solution/aqueous slurry. In continuous flow system, the main part is a jacketed Pyrex glass reactor in which gas and solution/aqueous slurry are fed continuously. Calcium sulfite oxidation is a series of complex free-radical reactions. According to experimental results and literature data, the reactions are influenced significantly by manganese as catalyst. At low concentration of manganese and calcium sulfite, the reaction rate is dependent on 1.5 order of sulfite concentration, 0.5 order of manganese concentration, and zero order of oxygen concentration in which the oxidation is controlled by chemical kinetics. With concentrations of calcium sulfite and manganese increasing, the reactions are independent gradually on the constituents in solution but are impacted by oxygen concentration. Manganese can accelerate the free-radical reactions, and then enhances the mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid. The critical concentration of calcium sulfite is 0.007 mol/L, manganese is 10-4 mol/L, and oxygen is of 0.2-0.4 atm.

  15. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  16. Treatment of brewery slurry in thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Straziscar, Matej; Ros, Milenko

    2007-10-01

    Treatment of brewery slurry in a thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was studied using conventional fully mixed semi-continuous digestion as a control. The process phases were adapted to fit the brewery slurry discharge schedule. ASBR experiments were conducted under different organic loading rates (OLR) from 3.23 to 8.57 kg of COD/m(3)day of reactor and control was conducted with OLR of 3.0 kg of COD/m(3)day. The ASBR COD degradation efficiency was from 79.6% to 88.9%, control experiment efficiency was 65%. ASBR VSS removal efficiency was from 78.5% to 90.5%, control experiment efficiency was 54%. The ASBR methane production yield was from 371 to 418 L/kg COD inserted, control experiment methane yield was 248 L/kg COD inserted. The ASBR process was superior to conventional fully mixed digestion, and is fully adaptable to brewery slurry discharge, needs no additional collection and settling pools and experiences no solids settling problems.

  17. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Three-Phase Airlift Loop Slurry Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 王金福; 王铁峰; 金涌

    2002-01-01

    A novel fiber optic probe system and a set of commercial ultrasonic Doppler velocimeters have been used to study the hydrodynamic behavior of a three-phase airlift loop (TPAL) slurry reactor. Experiments have been carried out in a loop reactor with 100 mm inner diameter and 2.5 m height, in which air, tap water and silica gel particles are used as the gas, liquid and solid phase, respectively. The radial profile of gas holdup, bubble size, bubble rising velocity, liquid circulating velocity, and the influence of the main operating conditions such as superficial gas velocity and solids concentration have been studied experimentally in the TPAL slurry reactor. The experimental results show that the bubble characteristics are different in various flow regimes and the radial profiles of some hydrodynamic parameters in the TPAL slurry reactor are more uniform than those in traditional three-phase reactors. The distribution of the bubble size and bubble rising velocity can be described by a lognormal function. The influence of superficial gas velocity on the hydrodynamic parameters is more remarkable than that of the solids concentration.

  18. Improved techniques for hyperbaric filtration of fine coal slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Wang, X.H.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-07-01

    Dewatering of fine clean coal slurry is one of the most important unit operations of a coal-cleaning circuit. However, an efficient and economic dewatering method is still eluding the coal industry. In this study hyperbaric (high pressure) filtration studies were conducted on a froth flotation product obtained from a coal preparation plant processing Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal. The fine coal slurry (42 weight percent minus 25 {mu}m) could be dewatered to a low moisture (24%) using 482kPa (70psi) pressure. This article describes two novel approaches for improving dewatering of the fine coal slurry using hyperbaric filtration, such as using a modified filter support and split-size dewatering. The modified filter support system and the split-sizing at 25 {mu}m (500mesh) provided 21.5% and 15.9% moisture filter cake, which was about 10% and 34% improvement in moisture reduction in the filter cake moisture, respectively. Combining both the approaches with the addition of a nonionic flocculant provided a filter cake with 10.5% moisture, which was about a 56% improvement in moisture reduction.

  19. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  20. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  1. Using /sup 15/N tracer technique to determine the nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in pot experiments with Festuca pratensis. 1. Nitrogen effect of slurry fractions in comparison with raw slurry in different soil substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, P. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig-Potsdam. Inst. fuer Duengungsforschung)

    1983-08-01

    Rising amounts of cattle and pig slurry dimensioned on the basis of its nitrogen content, and liquid and solid slurry fractions obtained after mechanical fractionation were tested on sandy, loess and low-bog soils. The dry matter yields and nitrogen utilization rates determined in a 2-years test show clear correlations with the soil class and the nitrogen amount, but also with the form of slurry nitrogen bond, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of the organic manures and their content of mineral substances. The nitrogen utilization rates are influenced and vary considerably in the variants under review. On the average of the variants 'soil' and 'nitrogen increase' more than 50% of the mineral nitrogen were utilized by the plants. About 30 to 40% of the raw slurry and liquid slurry nitrogen were taken up by the plants. About 18% of the nitrogen from the solid cattle slurry fraction was utilized on the average, the figure for solid pig slurry fraction was 32%.

  2. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  3. Effects of Main Parameters on Rheological Properties of Oil-Coal Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; HAO Li-fang; XIONG Chu-an; SUN Xiu-ying

    2006-01-01

    Oil-coal slurry prepared in coal direct liquefaction is a dispersed solid-liquid suspension system. In this paper, some factors such as solvent properties, solid concentrations and temperatures, which affect viscosity change of oil-coal slurry, were studied. The viscosity of coal slurry was measured using rotary viscometer, and the rheological properties have been investigated. The viscosity and rheological curves were plotted and regressed, respectively. The results show that the coal slurry behaves a pseudoplastic and thixotropic property. The rheological type of coal slurry was ascertained and its rheological equations were educed. The oil-coal slurry changes to non-Newtonian fluid from Newtonian fluid with the increasing of solid concentration.

  4. In-situ study of the thermal properties of hydrate slurry by high pressure DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Brun, F.; Erbeau, N. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2008-07-01

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is possible to deliver the hydrate slurry to the high pressure DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) directly from the production tank or pipes. Thermal data acquisition will be performed afterwards by DSC. The investigated conditions were at pressure of 30 bar and temperature of {approx}+7 {sup o}C. The dissociation enthalpy of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was about 54 kJ/kg, corresponding 10.8% of solid fraction. The on-line measurement results for CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry give a good tendency to apply this phase change slurry to the industrial refrigeration process. (author)

  5. 2D and 3D stability analysis of slurry trench in frictional/cohesive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-yu HAN; Jin-jian CHEN; Jian-hua WANG; Xiao-he XIA

    2013-01-01

    A 2D and 3D kinematically admissible rotational failure mechanism is presented for homogeneous slurry trenches in frictional/cohesive soils.Analytical approaches are derived to obtain the upper bounds on slurry trench stability in the strict framework of limit analysis.It is shown that the factor of safety from a 3D analysis will be greater than that from a 2D analysis.Compared with the limit equilibrium method,the limit analysis method yields an unconservative estimate on the safety factors.A set of examples are presented in a wide range of parameters for 2D and 3D homogeneous slurry trenches.The factor of safety increases with increasing slurry and soil bulk density ratio,cohesion,friction angle,and with decreasing slurry level depth and trench depth ratio,trench width and depth ratio.It is convenient to assess the safety for the homogeneous slurry trenches in practical applications.

  6. Rheological behavior of Shengli coal-solvent slurry at low-temperatures and atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-gang; YAN Yan; GUO Xiang-kun; Xu De-ping

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from systematic studies of Shengli lignite coal-solvent slurries. Solvent type, temperature, coal to solvent ratio, particle granularity, shear rate and shear time were investigated. The viscosity of the solvents is time independent. However, the slurries are thixotropic. A change from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian behavior occurs as the temperature, or as the solvent to coal ratio, increases. The solvent used in the slurry affects the point at which the theology changes from pseudo-plastic to Newtonian. The REC slurry changes at 1 : 1.2 coal to solvent ratio and at 40 ℃. The HAR slurry changes at a 1:1.5 ratio and at 60 ℃. The theology of the slurries is pseudo-plastic at low shear rates but Newtonian at high shear rates.

  7. Chemical roles on Cu-slurry interface during copper chemical mechanical planarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yuhong; Pan, Yan; Lu, Xinchun

    2014-02-01

    In order to optimize the existing slurry for low down-pressure chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP), copper CMP was conducted in H2O2 based slurries with benzotriazole (BTA) and glycine at different pH values. The film composition was investigated by the Nano Hardness Tester and XPS tests. Furthermore, the film structure forming on the copper surface at different pH values was investigated by adopting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. In the acidic slurry, discontinuous and porous BTA film covering the Cu/Cu2O surface enhanced the mechanical effect during Cu CMP process, resulted in highest CMP removal rate. In neutral slurry, the lowest CMP removal rate and static corrosion rate were resulted from compacted passivation film on the copper surface. In the alkaline slurry, the mechanical effect was limited by the rapid chemical dissolution. The results will benefit optimization of the slurry and operate conditions during low down-pressure CMP process.

  8. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Ertuan; Kong Fantao; Chen Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and streng...

  9. Uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms from pulverised fuel ash (PFA) leachates and slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, K.B.; Mehra, A.; Farago, M.E.; Banerjee, D.K. [University of Derby, Derby (United Kingdom). School of Environmental and Applied Science

    2000-12-01

    The main solid waste product from coal-fired power stations is pulverised fuel ash (PFA). This study investigates the uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn by the aquatic plant E-crassipes grown in leachates and slurries prepared from two different PFA samples. PFA samples were obtained from Indraprastha Power Station (IPP stn.) in New Delhi, India and the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station in the UK. Results show that E. crassipes has a high accumulation capacity for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from leachates and slurries generated from two different PFAs and uptake of these metals is stronger in the roots than in the tops of the plant. As the metal concentrations in the growth medium increase in the 1:5 PFA:DIW ratio as compared to the 1:50 ratio, metal accumulation (as indicated by accumulation factor (AF) values) from both leachates and slurries is higher for plants grown in the 1:50 (PFA:DIW) ratios than in the 1:5 ratios. Lower metal accumulation in the plants grown in slurries than in leachates is related to the high turbidity of growth medium in slurries resulting in ash particles adhering to the root surfaces thus reducing the surface area of metal absorption. In terms of neutralisation capacity of the pH of the growth medium, Eichhornia is seen to be able to reduce the pH of all leachates. Accumulation of Cd and Zn by the plant is higher from the lower pH IPP leachates than the Ratcliffe leachates, indicating that these metals are more soluble and bioavailable in the acidic medium. Accumulation of Cu and Ni is independent of the pH of the leachates; indicating that there may be other contributory factors. 78 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Application technique and slurry co-fermentation effects on ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions after spreading: II. Greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, S; Maeting, M; Clemens, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different application techniques on greenhouse gas emission from co-fermented slurry. Ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) emissions were measured in two field experiments with four different application techniques on arable and grassland sites. To gather information about fermentation effects, unfermented slurry was also tested, but with trail hose application only. Co-fermented slurry was applied in April at a rate of 30 m3 ha(-1). Measurements were made every 4 h on the first day after application and were continued for 6 wk with gradually decreasing sampling frequency. Methane emissions were application and are discussed in the preceding paper. We evaluated the climatic relevance of the measured gas emissions from the different application techniques based on the comparison of CO2 equivalents. It was evident that NH3 emission reduction, which can be achieved by injection, is at least compensated by increased N2O emissions. Our results indicate that on arable land, trail hose application with immediate shallow incorporation, and on grassland, trail shoe application, bear the smallest risks of high greenhouse gas emissions when fertilizing with co-fermented slurry.

  11. Recovery of Cerium Dioxide from Spent Glass-Polishing Slurry and Its Utilization as a Reactive Sorbent for Fast Degradation of Toxic Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Janoš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of cerium (and possibly other rare earth elements from the spent glass-polishing slurries is rather difficult because of a high resistance of polishing-grade cerium oxide toward common digestion agents. It was shown that cerium may be extracted from the spent polishing slurries by leaching with strong mineral acids in the presence of reducing agents; the solution may be used directly for the preparation of a ceria-based reactive sorbent. A mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was effective in the digestion of partially dewatered glass-polishing slurry. After the removal of undissolved particles, cerous carbonate was precipitated by gaseous NH3 and CO2. Cerium oxide was prepared by a thermal decomposition of the carbonate precursor in an open crucible and tested as reactive sorbent for the degradation of highly toxic organophosphate compounds. The samples annealed at the optimal temperature of approximately 400°C exhibited a good degradation efficiency toward the organophosphate pesticide fenchlorphos and the nerve agents soman and VX. The extraction/precipitation procedure recovers approximately 70% of cerium oxide from the spent polishing slurry. The presence of minor amounts of lanthanum does not disturb the degradation efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20°C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant...... not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile...

  14. Numerical simulation of the preparation of semi-solid metal slurry with damper cooling tube method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In semi-solid forming process, preparing the slurry with rosette or globular microstructure is very important. A new approach named the damper cooling tube method (DCT), to produce the semi-solid metal slurry, has been introduced. To optimize the technical parameters in designing the apparatus, the finite volume method was adopted to simulate the flow process. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries were also considered. The effects of the technical parameters on the slurry properties were studied in detail.

  15. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry.

  16. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can

  17. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro De Conti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the experimental unit of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, Santa Maria (RS. The soil was an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Typic Hapludalf, subjected to applications of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha-1 pig slurry. Soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm, before and after black oat and maize grown in a greenhouse, for the determination of available P, total P and P in the soil solution. In the solution, the concentration of the major cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and pH were determined. The distribution of chemical P species was determined by software Visual Minteq. The 21 pig slurry applications increased the total P content in the soil to a depth of 40 cm, and the P extracted by Mehlich-1 and from the solution to a depth of 30 cm. Successive applications of pig slurry changed the balance between the solid and liquid phases in the surface soil layers, increasing the proportion of the total amount of P present in the soil solution, aside from changing the chemical species in the solution, reducing the percentage complexed with Al and increasing the one complexed with Ca and Mg in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Black oat and maize cultivation increased pH in the solution, thereby increasing the proportion of HPO42- and reducing H2PO4- species.

  18. The CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry; Le coulis de glace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Brun, F. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Sari, O.; Hu, J. [Clean Cooling Solutions, spin off of University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec Ltd, Vevey (Switzerland); Logel, J.-C. [Axima Refrigeration, Bischheim (France)

    2007-12-15

    A new, very promising refrigerant was developed, which could be used in industrial processes as well as air conditioners: the CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry. Replacing hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC refrigerants has a high priority, due to the strong negative environmental impact of these fluids. New refrigerants have to be environment friendly, non-inflammable, cheap and made of natural materials. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries and/or a mixture of ice slurry and CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry meet these requirements. The University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in Yverdon, together with industrial partners, investigated the properties of such slurries. The slurries were created using the Coldeco process: the refrigerating fluid is directly injected into the liquid brine. The evaporation of the refrigerating fluid cools the liquid down to its freezing point and homogeneously distributed small crystals appear in the liquid. A test rig was built to measure the physical and chemical properties of the slurries obtained in this way. CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries have a higher energy storage capacitance (500 kJ/kg) than ice slurries (333 kJ/kg). The production of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurries in large quantities in a continuous process was demonstrated. The solid particle concentration was 10%, the pressure amounted to 30 bar and the temperature 2 to 4 {sup o}C. Such slurries can be pumped and circulated in pipe networks. Stainless steel is the appropriate material for such networks. However, the main advantage of the new refrigerant will be, according to the authors, a reduced energy consumption compared to traditional refrigerating cycles: the difference between the temperature required by the user and the refrigerant temperature is reduced, thanks to the use of the latent heat in the new process.

  19. Surface characteristics of ruthenium in periodate-based slurry during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Jiang, Liang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The Ru surface chemical and mechanical property varies with KIO{sub 4} slurry pH. • In alkaline slurry, the corrosion proceeds uniformly like a direct dissolution. • In neutral and acidic slurries, Ru exhibits passivation behavior. • MRR is highest in neutral slurry due to inhomogeneous RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} passivation. • Weak alkaline slurry is preferred to get good MRR and avoid toxic RuO{sub 4} formation. - Abstract: When the feature size of integrated circuit continues to shrink below 14 nm, ruthenium (Ru) has become one of the most promising candidates for the application of novel barrier layer. To reveal the material removal mechanism of Ru during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), surface characteristics of Ru in KIO{sub 4}-based slurry were investigated. The corrosion behavior of ruthenium was measured by the surface chemistry and morphology analysis. Then the mechanical properties of the passivated/corroded surface were evaluated by AES and tribocorrosion experiments. CMP experiments were carried out to make clear the effects of surface property during polishing. It was found that the Ru surface chemistry and mechanical properties vary obviously as a function of slurry pH. In neutral slurries, the Ru surface is covered with RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} inhomogeneous passivation films, with the highest material removal rate obtained during the CMP process. It could be concluded that the material removal mechanism largely depends on the slurry pH values. In near neutral slurries, Ru is passivated with thick and heterogeneous oxides film, which proves the easiest to be mechanically removed during polishing. The weak alkaline slurry is preferred in order to achieve desirable polishing rate as well as avoid the formation of toxic RuO{sub 4}.

  20. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  1. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in slurry applied to clay soil on a Danish swine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boes, J.; Alban, L.; Bagger, J.

    2005-01-01

    soil followed by ploughing and harrowing; (2) hose applicator on black soil followed only by harrowing; (3) hose applicator on a field with winter-wheat seedlings without further soil treatment; (4) slurry injector on a field with winter-wheat seedlings without further soil treatment. E. coli...... CFU g(-1)) would fall below the detection limit within 10 or 5 days, respectively. Analysis of samples from 62 Danish MRDT104-infected swineherds showed that nearly 75% of these herds had low levels of MRDT104 (ploughing and harrowing of soil...

  2. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  3. Deep conversion of black oils with Eni Slurry technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, Nicoletta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2010-09-15

    Eni Slurry Technology represents a significant technological innovation in residue conversion and unconventional oils upgrading. EST allows the almost total conversion of heavy feedstocks into useful products, mainly transportation fuels, with a great major impact on the economic and environmental valorization of hydrocarbon resources. The peculiar characteristics of EST in terms of yields, products quality, absence of undesired by-products and feedstock flexibility constitute its superior economic and environmental attractiveness. The first full scale industrial plant based on this new technology will be realized in Eni's Sannazzaro refinery (23,000 bpd). Oil in is scheduled by 4th quarter 2012.

  4. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... for syngas production. Experiments have shown that CBS can be successfully processed and gasified in the entrained flow reactor to produce syngas with almost no tar content and low residual carbon formation. High reactor temperature and steam/carbon ratio is favourable for H2 production. At 1400 °C...

  5. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  6. Enhanced nucleation and post-growth investigations on HFCVD diamond films grown on silicon single crystals pretreated with Zr:diamond mixed slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dua, A.K.; Roy, M.; Nuwad, J.; George, V.C.; Sawant, S.N

    2004-05-15

    Two sets, one deposited for {approx}20 min and other for {approx}1 h of diamond thin film samples are prepared following pretreatment of silicon substrates using mixed slurry containing different weight ratio of zirconium and diamond particles. The films are characterized ex situ using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and atomic force microscopy (AFM). As evidenced from AFM topography, nucleation density as high as 2.5x10{sup 9} particles/cm{sup 2} could be achieved in spite of posttreatment cleaning of the substrates with methanol. It has been found that the nucleation density increases, while particle size and RMS surface roughness subsides with increasing metal concentration in the mixed slurry. Raman and PL spectra of both the 20 min and 1 h samples have been recorded to check the quality of the deposits. Although a significant amount non-diamond carbon impurities is found to be present mostly at the grain boundaries of the films, the concentration of defects due to [Si-V]{sup 0} complex reduces substantially for full-grown samples and also for 20 min samples pretreated with metal-rich slurries. The plausible role of the intermediate layers behind these effects has been explored.

  7. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems stud

  8. Apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, P.J.; Vreeken, V.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for measuring the permeability of crystal particles suspended in a slurry, comprising a filtering element (3) and driving means (4, 5, 6) for driving the slurry into the filtering element. The filtering element is connected with discharge means (8, 9) for the

  9. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or... water, sediment, or slurry impoundment which meets the requirements of § 77.216(a) shall adopt a program... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...

  10. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification. 77.216-4 Section 77.216-4 Mineral...

  11. Semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy prepared by electromagnetic stirring and Sc, Zr additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-wen Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Slurry preparation is one of the most critical steps for semisolid casting, and its primary goal is to prepare slurry with uniformly distributed fine globules. In this work, electromagnetic stirring (EMS and the addition of Sc and Zr elements were used to prepare semisolid slurry of 7A04 aluminum alloy in a large diameter slurry maker. The effects of different treatments on the microstructure, composition and their radial homogeneity were investigated. The results show that, compared to the slurry without any treatment, large volume slurry with finer and more uniform microstructure can be obtained when treated by EMS, Sc, or Zr additions individually. EMS is more competent in the microstructural and chemical homogenization of the slurry while Sc and Zr additions are more excellent in its microstructural refinement. The combined treatment of EMS, Sc and Zr produces premium 7A04 aluminum alloy slurry with uniformly distributed fine α-Al globules and composition. The interaction mechanism between EMS and Sc and Zr additions was also discussed.

  12. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  13. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  14. Erosion Characteristics of Aluminum-based Metal Matrix Composites in Slurry Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Jiangping

    2000-01-01

    The erosion resistance of the Al18B4O33 whisker reinforced AC4C Al composites in water and saline slurry were investigated using a jet-in-slit rig. Erosion tests were performed at slurry velocities between 6.4 m/s to 15.2 m/s and at normal impact angle. The detachment of flake and dislodgement of whisker were identified as the major mechanisms of material removal in slurry environments. The composites showed better erosion resistance due to the protection of the matrix by the whisker at low slurry velocities. Because of reduced fracture strain, the erosion rates of the composites were generally greater than that of the unreinforced alloy at high slurry velocities. Owing to interfacial reaction which resulted in decrease in hardness and fracture strain,the T6 treatment for the composites had a deleterious influence on the erosion resistance. By considering the material removal processes in the water slurry, a simple rationalization of the inverse dependence of slurry erosion rate on Hεf was obtained. In the saline slurry, there exists a strong synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion. The volume loss of the composites was enhanced through cracking of flakes and detaching of whisker induced by stress and corrosion.

  15. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the N

  16. Effects of DCD addition to slurry on nitrate leaching in sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Zwart, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to cattle slurry, applied in autumn to an arable sandy soil, were investigated in a three-year field experiment in the Netherlands. Treatments included application of slurry with DCD in November and December, application

  17. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  18. Evaluation of solar photocatalysis using TiO2 slurry in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeledo-Lameiro, María Jesús; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium is a genus of enteric protozoan parasites of medical and veterinary importance, whose oocysts have been reported to occur in different types of water worldwide, offering a great resistant to the water treatment processes. Heterogeneous solar photocatalysis using titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry was evaluated on inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water. Suspensions of TiO2 (0, 63, 100 and 200mg/L) in distilled water (DW) or simulated municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent spiked with C. parvum oocysts were exposed to simulated solar radiation. The use of TiO2 slurry at concentrations of 100 and 200mg/L in DW yielded a high level of oocyst inactivation after 5h of exposure (4.16±2.35% and 15.03±4.54%, respectively, vs 99.33±0.58%, initial value), representing a good improvement relative to the results obtained in the samples exposed without TiO2 (51.06±9.35%). However, in the assays carried out using simulated MWTP effluent, addition of the photocatalyst did not offer better results. Examination of the samples under bright field and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the existence of aggregates comprising TiO2 particles and parasitic forms, which size increased as the concentration of catalyst and the exposure time increased, while the intensity of fluorescence of the oocyst walls decreased. After photocatalytic disinfection process, the recovery of TiO2 slurry by sedimentation provided a substantial reduction in the parasitic load in treated water samples (57.81±1.10% and 82.10±2.64% for 200mg/L of TiO2 in DW and in simulated MWTP effluent, respectively). Although further studies are need to optimize TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection against Cryptosporidium, the results obtained in the present study show the effectiveness of solar photocatalysis using TiO2 slurry in the inactivation of C. parvum oocysts in distilled water.

  19. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  20. Performance comparison of MOF and other sorbent materials in removing key odorants emitted from pigpen slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ezaz; Deep, Akash; Kwon, Eilhann E; Brown, Richard J C; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-08-11

    A batch-type dynamic headspace (HS) system was used to generate vapor-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a pigpen slurry sample. Sorptive removal capability of MOF-199 and other sorbents (zeolite (ZL) and activated carbon (AC)) was assessed against a total of 13 slurry-borne odorants ((methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isobutyl alcohol (i-BuAl), benzene (B), toluene (T), p-xylene (p-X), m-xylene (m-X), o-xylene (o-X), styrene (S), o-cresol (o-C), phenol (PhAl), p-cresol (p-C), indole (ID), and skatole (SK)). Adsorption capacity of MOF-199 and two sorbents, when assessed for the 13 odorants at a 10% breakthrough volume (BTV), was 22.6  ±  42.3, 0.70  ±  1.08, and 11.0  ±  18.3 μg g(-1), respectively. The adsorption capacity (μg g(-1)) assessed at 10% BTV showed the superiority of MOF-199 towards phenolic and indolic compounds (such as o-C (0.31  ±  0.04), PhAl (61.6  ±  4.98), p-C (140  ±  7.95), ID (27.8  ±  2.23), and SK (63.9  ±  1.55)), demonstrating the feasibility of MOF as sorption media for treating certain nuisance components.

  1. In-situ precipitation of ultra-stable nano-magnetite slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira, E-mail: amira_bagheri@um.edu.my; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, we prepared water-based magnetic fluids of iron oxide nanoparticles using an in-situ precipitation method. The effect of dodecanoic acid addition as a surfactant on the physico-chemical and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated as well. The quantity of the surfactant was varied between 3 and 5 g. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized to confirm the presence of spinel phase magnetites (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the resulting magnetic nanoparticles' size and morphology. The results showed polydispersed hexagonal nanoparticles (average diameter of ca. 70 nm) as a result of the protocol. Moreover, the pH-dependent stability of the samples confirms that magnetite nanofluids were highly stable in the wide range of pH, from 4–12. The optimal amount of dodecanoic acid to produce ultra-stable nano-magnetite slurry with the highest saturation magnetization of 8.6 emu g{sup −1} was determined to be 4.5 g. - Highlights: • Ultra-stable aqueous colloidal suspension of nano-magnetite was prepared. • Different concentrations of dodecanoic acid were used as surfactant. • Addition of surfactant led to polysidpersity reduction and stability in a wide range of pH. • Magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in water show superparamagnetic behavior and saturation magnetization as high as 8.6 emu g{sup −1}. • The optimum amount of saturated fatty acid to prepare highly-dispersed nano-magnetic slurry is 4.5 g.

  2. Performance comparison of MOF and other sorbent materials in removing key odorants emitted from pigpen slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ezaz; Deep, Akash; Kwon, Eilhann E.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    A batch-type dynamic headspace (HS) system was used to generate vapor-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a pigpen slurry sample. Sorptive removal capability of MOF-199 and other sorbents (zeolite (ZL) and activated carbon (AC)) was assessed against a total of 13 slurry-borne odorants ((methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isobutyl alcohol (i-BuAl), benzene (B), toluene (T), p-xylene (p-X), m-xylene (m-X), o-xylene (o-X), styrene (S), o-cresol (o-C), phenol (PhAl), p-cresol (p-C), indole (ID), and skatole (SK)). Adsorption capacity of MOF-199 and two sorbents, when assessed for the 13 odorants at a 10% breakthrough volume (BTV), was 22.6  ±  42.3, 0.70  ±  1.08, and 11.0  ±  18.3 μg g‑1, respectively. The adsorption capacity (μg g‑1) assessed at 10% BTV showed the superiority of MOF-199 towards phenolic and indolic compounds (such as o-C (0.31  ±  0.04), PhAl (61.6  ±  4.98), p-C (140  ±  7.95), ID (27.8  ±  2.23), and SK (63.9  ±  1.55)), demonstrating the feasibility of MOF as sorption media for treating certain nuisance components.

  3. Isobutane/2-butene alkylation over potential heterogeneous catalysts in a slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, T.

    1996-12-31

    The trend towards more effective use of fossil fuels and reduced environmental pollution represents a major task of improvement within the refinery processes. The highly isomerized and high octane paraffins produced from isobutane and light olefins by alkylation fulfill all the requirements for reformulated gasoline. This doctoral thesis discusses new catalyst systems because of their potential in alkylation. A slurry reactor apparatus for solid-acid catalysed isobutane/butene alkylation was developed and used to investigate the performance of various heterogeneous catalysts. The selected materials were mainly zeolite types with faujasite structures. The samples were characterized by various methods before alkylation. In general, the order of decreasing catalyst activity after 3 h of reaction at 80{sup o}C was found to be: H-EMT >> H-FAU, dealuminated H-FAU >> NS.500, TA-Y, CeY-98 > Nafion-H. The order of decreasing alkylate selectivity of the catalysts was: H-EMT >> dealuminated H-FAU > H-FAU >> Nafion-H > CeY-98 > TA-Y > H-SAPO-37, NS.500. H-EMT was the most promising system for further development, also because of the very low formation of the undesirable isooctenes and a high selectivity towards isooctanes among the alkylates. A high density of accessible strong acid sites was found to be essential for a high alkylation activity and selectivity. Open structure, like hexagonal faujasite, was advantageous. The distribution of trimethylpentanes formed in zeolites was ascribed to pore restrictions as a major factor. The effect of operating conditions on catalyst performance was investigated statistically, and a high dilution of butene in the slurry reactor was found to be very important. 153 refs., 40 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. 泥浆雾化电感耦合等离子体光谱法用于水泥和石膏的分析%Slurry Nebulization for the Analysis of Gypsum and Cement by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertIMccrindle; LjiljanaMarjanovic

    2002-01-01

    本文详细地论述了用泥浆雾化电感耦合等离子光谱法分析水泥和石膏.%The usual form of presentation for a sample to be analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer is in the form of a liquid.For the analysis of solids,this involves a dissolution step and in the case of complex matrices this may be long and difficult.Should it be possible to analyse the sample without prior dissolution, then the problems associated with obtaining a solution would be resolved.A method for analyzing samples is to make use of slurry nebulization.Samples with complex matrices, such as cement and gypsum were selected and analysed as in the form of a slurry.Using different concentrations of slurry of a certified reference materials,calibration curves were obtained,from which the unknown samples could be determined directly.Use of aqueous solutions for calibration was also investigated.The method was evaluated using other reference materials or results obtained by an independent laboratory using different technique for the analysis.The slurry method was found to be accurate and precise.

  5. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  6. Relevance of a perchloric acid extraction scheme to determine mineral and organic phosphorus in swine slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumer, Marie-Line; Béline, Fabrice; Spérandio, Mathieu; Morel, Christian

    2008-03-01

    To increase the phosphorus recycling potential from swine slurry, mineral phosphorus products which could be used as fertilizers should be obtained and new processes need to be investigated. A routine method is needed to better evaluate the dissolved and solid mineral phosphorus in swine slurry. Cold perchloric acid extraction method previously developed for wastewater or sludge analysis was adapted. Ionic chromatography was used to measure orthophosphate in extracts. Only one extraction step was needed to distinguish between mineral and organic phosphorus in slurry. Reproducibility of the method was high (less than 5% of variation on the measured fractions). Selectivity was assessed by adding several organic and mineral phosphorus sources in the slurry. Cold perchloric extraction followed by ionic chromatography was very selective in quantifying both the mineral and organic forms of phosphorus in swine slurry.

  7. Ultrasound stimulus effect on hydrogen bonding in networked alumina and polyacrylic acid slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Ngo Le; Takaomi, Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound (US) on the viscosity of aqueous slurry composing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and alumina was studied. For exposure to an aqueous slurry solution, US waves emitted at three different frequencies of 28, 45, and 100 kHz were used. Results show that the stimulus effect of US on viscosity change was a breakage of the hydrogen bonding networks of alumina and PAA in the slurry solution. That decrease in viscosity was enhanced strongly by US exposure as the output power was increased from 175 to 300 W. In addition, a lower US frequency was effective for slurry viscosity reduction. The reduced viscosity of the slurry also depended on the solution pH. After US was stopped, the viscosity increased gradually and recovered to its original value within about 15 min. The stimulus effect on the viscosity change was cycled by US.

  8. Planarization properties of an alkaline slurry without an inhibitor on copper patterned wafer CMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenwei; Liu Yuling; Tian Jianying; Niu Xinhuan; Zheng Weiyan; Yue Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP) performance of an inhibitor-free alkaline copper slurry is investigated.The results of the Cu dissolution rate (DR) and the polish rate (PR) show that the alkaline slurry without inhibitors has a relatively high copper removal rate and considerable dissolution rate.Although the slurry with inhibitors has a somewhat low DR,the copper removal rate was significantly reduced due to the addition of inhibitors (Benzotriazole,BTA).The results obtained from pattern wafers show that the alkaline slurry withoutinhibitors has a better planarization efficacy; it can planarize the uneven patterned surface during the excess copper removal.These results indicate that the proposed inhibitor-free copper slurry has a considerable planarization capability for CMP of Cu pattern wafers,it can be applied in the first step ofCu CMP for copper bulk removal.

  9. Coating system of hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry; Suiso kyuzo gokin funmatsu surari no tofu sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, J.

    1995-03-31

    As the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry has a high density and a high viscosity, it is necessary to apply a considerably high tension to the current collector sheet when the current collector sheet is continuously coated with the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry. This invention provides a method of continuously coating the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry on the running current collector sheet. In order to keep the viscosity of alloy powder slurry constant and to reduce the tension to be applied to the sheet during coating, a stirring jig is installed facing to the front surface and back surface of the current collector sheet and rotating in the sheet running direction and in the opposite direction. In this way, the thixotropic structure of the hydrogen storage alloy powder slurry is constantly broken, so that a gradual increase in viscosity does not take place. Resultingly, the homogeneous hydrogen storage alloy electrode can be continuously produced. 6 figs.

  10. Annulus electromagnetic stirring for preparing semisolid A357 aluminum alloy slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yue-long; XU Jun; ZHANG Zhi-feng; SHI Li-kai

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pouring temperature and annulus gap width on the microstructure of the semi-solid A357 aluminum alloy slurry prepared by annulus electromagnetic stirring(AEMS) technology were investigated. The results show that low pouring temperature and narrow annulus gap are advantageous to obtaining the small spherical primary α(Al) phase. The lower the pouring temperature is and the smaller the annulus gap width is, the more uniform, the smaller and the more spherical the microstructure is. The microstructures obtained by the ordinary electromagnetic stirring and AEMS were compared. The results indicate that the primary α(Al) particles are globular, small and distribute homogeneously in the slurry obtained by AEMS. But in the slurry obtained by the ordinary electromagnetic stirring, the primary α(Al) particles are small dendrites in the edge of the slurry and they are large and rosette-like or dendritic in the inner of the slurry.

  11. The Influence of Clinoptilolite on Technological Properties of Fresh and Set Slag-Alkaline Slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wiśniowski

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990 the AGH-UST scientists have been working on more efficient recipes of slag-alkaline slurries for sealing the soil and rock mass with hole injection methods.A special attention has been paid to the increasing efficiency of geoengineering works on a rational shaping of technological parameters of fresh and set slag-alkaline slurries.The properties of slurries containing clinoptiolite zeolites from the Košice area are presented in the paper.An addition of zeolites to the slurries increases the tightness of the set slurries. Zeolites favorably influence the course of crystallization of sodium zeolite and the hydroparameters in the slag-alkaline matrix.

  12. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  13. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  14. Continuous production of CO2 hydrate slurry added antifreeze proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Ota, M.; Murakami, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ferdows, M. [Dhaka Univ., Dhaka (Bangladesh). Dept. of Mathematics; Endou, H. [Technova Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Ocean storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrate is possible in deep seas where low temperature and high pressure conditions exist. However, when hydrates are produced in large quantities, they can plug pipelines. The addition of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can prevent hydrate crystals from forming. The hydrate may then behave like a slurry which can be transported from a production place to a place of storage with minimal pressure loss. This study developed a production method for a CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry and presented the prospect of the inhibition effect for CO{sub 2} hydrate formation by adding AFPs. It revealed the shift in induction time, the formation rate and the torque of the agitator under conditions of AFPs at 0.01 mg/ml. It was concluded that compared to pure water, the induction time for hydrate production increased 244 per cent, the formation rate decreased 76 per cent and the ratio of the torque decreased 48 per cent by adding AFPs. The AFPs rendered the hydrate particles small and well dispersed. It was concluded that type 3 AFPs can effectively inhibit the production of structure s1 type hydrates. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Fractal Geometry of Particle Aggregates Formed in Calcium Sulfite Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪伟敏; 吴忠标; 官宝红; 赵伟荣; 郑平

    2007-01-01

    The solid-liquid separation is an important operation for the regenerated slurry of dual-alkali FGD system, and calcium sulfite could predominate in particle aggregates of the slurry. The settling velocity of calcium sulfite particles is a key parameter for the solid-liquid separation design. However, the settling velocity predicted by Stokes' Law could be suitable only for a spherical aggregate, but not for the irregular one. In this work, fractal geometry was introduced in order to characterize highly irregular geometric shapes. The sizes of calcium sulfite particle aggregates were analyzed using a metallographic phase microscope and image analysis. The results showed that particle aggregate had fractal features. The fractal dimensions could reveal the characteristics of the aggregates' geometry and aggregation process. An exponential relation between the fractal dimension D2 and the particle size l was determined as AμlD2. According to fractal theory, a parameter can be used to modify Stokes settling velocity close to actual settling velocity. The results could be valuable for the design of solid-liquid separation process.

  16. Slurry-phase Biological Treatment of Nitrophenol Using Bioaugmentation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; GANG ZHAO; LI-BO WU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the performance of soil-slurry bioreactor used for remediating contaminated soil with 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Methods The slurry bioreactor was used to degrade different concentrations of 4-nitrophenol with or without inoculating the acclimated activated sludge. HPLC system (Hewlett-Packard model 5050 with a UV detector) was used for the quantification of 4-nitrophenol. Results The indigenous microorganisms exhibited a little activity for simulated soil with 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil. However, at the concentration of 10 mg 4-NPkg soil, a considerable degradation occurred within two weeks. It appeared that high concentrations of 4-nitrophenol apparently produced an inhibitory effect on microbial activity. For system receiving 50 mg 4-NP/kg soil, the maximum rate of 4-NP degradation measured in the reactor inoculated with 25 g sludge/kg soil was approximately 10 times higher than the uninoculated reactor, suggesting that the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol could be enhanced greatly by means of inoculating acclimated sludge. Conclusion The addition of sludge capable of degrading 4-nitrophenol can result in enhance the degradation rate of 4-nitrophenol.

  17. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  18. Effect of chemical additives on flow characteristics of coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Mosa; A.-H. M. Saleh; T.A. Taha; A.M. El-Molla [Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt). Mining & Petroleum Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, the effect of chemical additives or reagents on rheological characteristics of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The power-law model was applied to determine the non-Newtonian properties of coal slurries. Three types of dispersants namely, sulphonic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium carbonate were studied and tested at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight from total solids. Sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) and xanthan gum were tested as stabilizers at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 0.25% by weight from total solids. It was found that apparent viscosity and flow properties of CWS are sensitive to the use of chemical additives (dispersants and stabilizers). Among studied dispersing agents, sulphonic acid recorded the best performance in modification and reducing CWS viscosity. The best dosage of all tested dispersants was found to be 0.75% by wt of solids. With regard to studied stabilizers, Na-CMC recorded better performance than xanthan gum. The best dosage of investigated stabilizers was found to be as 0.1 % by wt. from total solids. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  1. Methanogenic community changes, and emissions of methane and other gases, during storage of acidified and untreated pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Højberg, Ole; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    and Results: Pig slurry from two farms, acidified by different techniques, and untreated slurry were stored for 83 d in a pilot-scale facility. Methanogens were characterized before and after storage by TRFLP and qPCR targeting mcrA. Emissions of NH3 and CH4 during storage were quantified. Acidified slurry p...

  2. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  3. Use of a simplified generalized standard additions method for the analysis of cement, gypsum and basic slag by slurry nebulization ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Ljiljana; McCrindle, Robert I; Botha, Barend M; Potgieter, Herman J

    2004-05-01

    The simplified generalized standard additions method (GSAM) was investigated as an alternative method for the ICP-OES analysis of solid materials, introduced into the plasma in the form of slurries. The method is an expansion of the conventional standard additions method. It is based on the principle of varying both the sample mass and the amount of standard solution added. The relationship between the sample mass, standard solution added and signal intensity is assumed to be linear. Concentration of the analyte can be found either geometrically from the slope of the two-dimensional response plane in a three-dimensional space or mathematically from the ratio of the parameters estimated by multiple linear regression. The analysis of a series of certified reference materials (CRMs) (cement CRM-BCS No 353, gypsum CRM-Gyp A and basic slag CRM No 382/I) introduced into the plasma in the form of slurry is described. The slurries contained glycerol and hydrochloric acid and were placed in an ultrasonic bath to ensure good dispersion. "Table curve 3D" software was used to fit the data. Results obtained showed that the method could be successfully applied to the analysis of cement, gypsum and slag samples, without the need to dissolve them. In this way, we could avoid the use of hazardous chemicals (concentrated acids), incomplete dissolution and loss of some volatiles. The application of the simplified GSAM for the analysis did not require a CRM with similar chemical and mineralogical properties for the calibration of the instrument.

  4. Development of a correlaton between slurry oil composition and process performance: analyses of slurry recycle oils from H-Coal PDU runs 5, 8 and 9. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Pochapsky, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Daily samples of slurry recycle oils from three thirty-day H-Coal PDU runs (5, 8 and 9) were analyzed by /sup 1/H-NMR, GC/MS and various liquid chromatographic techniques. These data were interpreted in light of process performance to investigate the relationship between recycle oil composition and process performance. The data were also used to determine the approach of each PDU run to steady state operation. The results show that the composition of the non-distillate recycle components (resid) is much more sensitive to space velocity than the recycle distillate composition. At high space velocity the low recycle resid quality may be a significant factor, contributing to operability problems and rapid catalyst deactivation. Recycle composition depends more on space velocity than feed coal when comparing operations with Illinois 6 and Kentucky 11 coals. The recycle distillates in H-Coal operation are good hydrogen donors relative to, for example, SRC-I distillates. However, catalyst deactivation with respect to distillate composition appears to proceed at a slower pace than deactivation with respect to resid composition. This suggests that steady state performance may not have been achieved in these 30-day PDU runs, even though gross product distributions were at apparent steady state.

  5. Development of a correlation between slurry oil composition and process performance. Topical report 1. Analyses of slurry recycle oils from H-Coal PDU Run 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F. P.; Winschel, R. A.; Pochapsky, T. C.

    1980-04-01

    Daily samples of the slurry recycle oil from the 30-day H-Coal PDU Run 5 (Syncrude mode, Illinois 6 coal) were analyzed by /sup 1/H-NMR spectroscopy GS/MS, and liquid chromatographic techniques. The recycle oils composition in PDU Run 5 reached an initial steady-state at about day 12, but this was upset when the hydrogen partial pressure was increased on day 20. The recycle oil composition was again approaching a steady-state by the end of the run. The distillates increased in aromaticity during the first 12 days of the run, as catalyst activity declined. The more aromatic distillates are better liquefaction media. Therefore, the solvent quality of the recycle distillates improved as the run progressed. The recycle distillates boiling below phenanthrene consist largely of cracking and isomerization products of hydrophenanthrenes. The relative ratios of reactants and products may be useful in establishing catalyst activity during the run. The start-up solvent had little effect on the run, because it was rapidly replaced by coal-derived recycle oils. The molecular weight distribution of the recycle resid (975/sup 0/F/sup +/, THF soluble) was relatively unchanged during the run although the ratio of benzene solubles to insolubles first decreased as catalyst activity declined, then increased with the increased hydrogen partial pressure during the last ten days of the run.

  6. Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venglovsky, J; Sasakova, N; Vargova, M; Pacajova, Z; Placha, I; Petrovsky, M; Harichova, D

    2005-01-01

    A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7 degrees C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55 degrees C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8 degrees C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105 degrees C (DM), ash (550 degrees C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH(4)(+)), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO(3)(-)), total nitrogen (N(t)), total phosphorus (P(t)); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates.

  7. Effects of pH on rheological characteristics and stability of petroleum coke water slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the effects of pH on slurrying properties of petroleum coke water slurry (PCWS were investigated. The slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS were studied with four different types of additives at pH varying from 5 to 11. The results showed that the slurrying concentration, rheological characteristics and stability of PCWS all increased at first and then decreased with increasing pH from 5 to 11, and a pH of around 9 was found to be the most favorable acid–alkali environment to all these three slurrying properties. It was also indicated that only in a moderate alkaline environment can the additives be active enough to react with particle surfaces sufficiently to obtain good slurrying concentration and form a stable three-dimensional network structure, which can support strong pseudoplastic characteristics and good stability. An acid environment was a very unfavorable factor to the slurrying properties of PCWS.

  8. Hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Peng, Chenliang; Lu, Fangqin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic aggregation of fine particles in high muddied coal slurry water in the presence of four quaternary ammonium salts of 1231(dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1431(tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride), 1631(cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) and 1831(octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) was investigated through the measurement of contact angles, zeta potentials, aggregation observation, adsorption and sedimentation. The results show that quaternary ammonium salts can enhance the hydrophobicity and reduce the electronegativity of particle surface, and thus induce a strong hydrophobic aggregation of slurry fine particles which promotes the settlement of coal slurry water. The adsorption of quaternary ammonium salts on slurry particles increases with the increase of alkyl chain length and reagent dosage, and will reach equilibrium when the dosage reaches a certain value. Weak alkaline conditions also can promote quaternary ammonium salts to be adsorbed on the coal slurry fine particles. In addition, reasonable energy input and a chemical environment of weak alkaline solution are conducive to hydrophobic aggregation settlement of high muddied coal slurry water with quaternary ammonium salts. The main mechanism of hydrophobic aggregation of coal slurry particles with quaternary ammonium salts is 'adsorption charge neutralization' and hydrophobic interaction.

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, L.; Ascue, J.; Nordberg, Å.

    2009-11-01

    Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored manure corresponded to 14% of overall GHG emissions from Swedish agriculture in 2006 according to calculations using standard values for a cool climate. The present study identified storage conditions for cattle slurry in different regions of Sweden, developed methodology for measuring GHGs from slurry stored under similar conditions to full-scale storage, and determined annual GHG emissions (methane and nitrous oxide) from stored cattle slurry under Swedish conditions. Temperature measurements in full-scale storage of cattle slurry on farms showed a mean annual slurry temperature of 9.7°C in south-west Sweden and 5.6°C in the north. The closed chamber methodology and equipment developed for measuring GHG emissions were implemented for one year in a pilot-scale plant with similar conditions to full-scale storage as regards slurry temperature, climate and filling/emptying routines. During winter (Oct-April), methane emissions from stored cattle slurry were 3.6 g CH4-C per kg VS, while during summer (May-Sept) they were 6.5 g CH4-C per kg VS. This corresponded to an annual methane conversion factor (MCF) of 2.7%. Losses of nitrous oxide were close to zero.

  10. Coal waste slurries as a fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutynski Marcin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes recent development in integrated gasification combined cycle technology and lists existing and planned IGCC plants. A brief outlook on the IGCC gasification technology is given with focus on entrained-flow gasifiers where the low-quality coal waste slurry fuel can be used. Desired properties of coal and ash for entrained-flow gasifiers are listed. The coal waste slurries, which were deposited at impoundments in Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were considered as a direct feed for such gasifiers. The average ash content, moisture content and lower heating value were analysed and presented as an average values. Entrained-flow commercial gasifiers can be considered as suitable for the coal slurry feed, however the ash content of coal slurries deposited in impoundments is too high for the direct use as the feed for the gasifiers. The moisture content of slurries calculated on as received basis meets the requirements of entrained-flow slurry feed gasifiers. The content of fines is relatively high which allow to use the slurries in entrained-flow gasifiers.

  11. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  12. Hydrogen absorption of slurry system composed of different MgNi alloy and benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡官明; 陈长聘; 安越; 徐国华; 陈立新; 王启东

    2003-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption amount and kinetics of the slurry formed by suspending the MgNi alloy powderin liquid benzene were studied. It is discovered that hydrogen is absorbed by both the solid phase(alloy) and liquidphase(C6 H6) and the hydrogen absorption rate varies with the temperature and the content of the Mg-Ni in the slur-ry. Most hydrogen absorption curves of the slurry fall into two regions, in which the mechanism of hydriding reac-tion in the slurry system is different. In the former region, the hydriding of the alloy proceeds with hydrogen diffu-sing through C6 H6. The part in the second region is the outcome of the hydrogenation of C6 H6. At 548 K and underthe hydrogen pressure of 4.5 MPa the saturation capacity for the slurry of 80% C6 H6 (mass fraction)+20% MgNi(mass fraction) is 5.9% (mass fraction) hydrogen, which is 97% of the theoretic capacity of the slurry system.The hydride of the alloy MgNi, which is only the hydride of Mg2Ni phase, Mg2NiH4, is an efficient catalyst for thehydrogenation of C6 H6 into C6 H12 (C6 H6 +3H2→C6 H12 ) in the slurry system.

  13. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. T.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Morrow, T. B.

    1988-05-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and full turbulent pipe flow regimes is the primary objective of this research. Measurements include rheological characterization of the fluid and local fluid velocity measurements with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Optical access to the flow is gained through a test section and model slurry which are both transparent. The model slurry is formulated from silica gel particles and hydrocarbon liquid mixture whose indices of refraction are matched so that light is not scattered from the particles. Experiments are being conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry. Flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress were measured with a two-component two-color LDV. The present research indicates that non-Newtonian slurries are possible with concentrations of a few percent by weight of small particles whose sizes are two microns or less. A non-Newtonian slurry from small particles could maintain large particles (one millimeter size) at high concentrations in suspension almost indefinitely. Such a slurry would prevent particle fallout and its associated problems.

  14. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  15. Slurry analysis of cadmium and copper collected on 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid modified TiO2 core-Au shell nanoparticles by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, S; Akman, S; Kahraman, M

    2011-02-15

    Separation/preconcentration of copper and cadmium using TiO(2) core-Au shell nanoparticles modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and their slurry analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry were described. For this purpose, at first, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were coated with gold shell by reducing the chloroauric acid with sodium borohydride and then modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. The characterization of modified nanoparticles was performed using ultra-violet spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Copper and cadmium were then collected on the prepared sorbent by batch method. The solid phase loaded with the analytes was separated by centrifugation and the supernatant was removed. Finally, the precipitate was slurried and directly aspirated into the flame for the determination of analytes. Thus, elution step and its all drawbacks were eliminated. The effects of pH, amount of sorbent, slurry volume, sample volume and diverse ions on the recovery were investigated. After optimization of experimental parameters, the analytes in different certified reference materials and spiked water samples were quantitatively recovered with 5% RSD. The analytes were enriched up to 20-fold. Limits of detection (N=10, 3σ) for copper and cadmium were 0.28 and 0.15 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  17. Shape forming of ceramics via gelcasting of aqueous particulate slurries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dhara; R K Kamboj; M Pradhan; P Bhargava

    2002-11-01

    Gelcasting is a promising technique for shape forming of bulk dense or porous ceramic, metal structures. The process offers a number of advantages over processes such as slip casting, injection molding in forming complex ceramic shapes. It is shown here that the optimization of slurry rheology, choice of mold material, mold design and the drying conditions have a significant role in the overall success of the process. In this process, components of simple or complex shapes can be produced to near net shape by direct casting. If required complex shapes can also be produced by machining the green gelcast bodies. The process of gelcasting also has a lot of potential in forming highly porous ceramic shapes.

  18. Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toseland, B.A.

    1998-10-29

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  19. Coal water slurry in 0.25 MW furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Cao, X.; Zhou, Z. (and others) [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Thermal state comparative test between the normal coal water slurry (CWS)and black liquor CWS from Xinwen was performed in 0.25 MW furnace for the purpose of investigating the industrial application feasibility of black liquor CWS. Performances of flow, atomization, kindling, burning, fouling, slagging, and pollutant emission were studied. The fouling and slagging tendency for two CWSs were analyzed using a self-made heat flux meter. The results show that the black liquor CWS is a fuel with good flowability and atomization, easy firing, stable burning, low pollutant emission, low ash fusion point, and strong slagging tendency, in contrast with the normal CWS. So it is feasible for the black liquor CWS to be used in industrial boilers. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  1. Effects of pig slurry application on soils and soil humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, César; Senesi, Nicola; García-Gil, Juan C; Brunetti, Gennaro; D'Orazio, Valeria; Polo, Alfredo

    2002-08-14

    The effect of three annually consecutive additions of pig slurry at two rates (90 and 150 m3 x ha(-1) x year(-1) on soils and soil humic acids (HAs) was investigated in a field experiment under semiarid conditions. Soils and pig slurries were analyzed by standard methods. The HAs were isolated from soils and pig slurry by a conventional procedure based on alkaline extraction, acidic precipitation to pH 1, purification by repeated alkaline dissolutions and acidic precipitations, water washing, dialysis, and final freeze-drying. The HAs obtained were analyzed for elemental (C, H, N, S, and O) and acidic functional group (carboxylic and phenolic) composition, and by UV-vis, FT-IR, fluorescence, and ESR spectroscopies. With respect to the control soil, the pig slurry amended soils had greater pH and electrical conductivity, slightly larger total N content, and smaller values of C/N ratio. A decrease of total organic C was observed only in soils amended for 2 and 3 years at the higher slurry rate. With respect to control soil HA, pig slurry HA was characterized by larger contents of S- and N-containing groups, smaller acidic functional group and organic free radical contents, a prevalent aliphatic character, extended molecular heterogeneity, and smaller aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees. Amendment with pig slurry HA determines a number of modifications in soil HAs, including increase of C, S, and COOH contents, C/N ratios, and aliphaticity and decrease of extraction yields and N, O, phenolic OH, and organic free radical contents. These effects are generally more evident after the first year of slurry application and tend to disappear with increasing number of treatments. Most probably, over the years the slightly humified slurry HA is mineralized through extended microbial oxidation, whereas only the most recalcitrant components, such as S-containing, phenolic, and aliphatic structures, are partially accumulated by incorporation into soil HA.

  2. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  3. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-12-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

  4. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  5. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2004-10-01

    In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.

  6. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  7. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  8. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M. [Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland Pando, Canelones (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas

    1996-11-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  9. Algorithms of Optimum Slurry Selection for Soil and Rock Sealing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryczek Stanis³aw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Technical problems, usually caused by complex geological and hydrogeological conditions, are often encountered in mining, drilling and geoengineering operations, as well as in hydrotechnical and underground construction.Natural hazards in the above engineering operations are frequently liquidated by reinforcement and sealing of the ground with the use of injection methods with pre-selected sealing slurries.The authors present methods for slurry technological parameters normalization, depending on the scope and target of sealing operations, and algorithm of slurry selection of soil and rock sealing.

  10. Influence of Mineral Additives on the Technological Properties of Sealing Slurries for Geoengineering Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Gonet

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing the efficiency of sealing and reinforcing the ground and rock mass with geoengineering methods is a proper selection of respective technological parameters in view of existing hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions.Selected mineral additives increase the sealing properties of fresh and set slurries. They also decrease the cost of the slurry, provide a method for utilizing the stored materials (additives, and consequently, lessen the risk of environmental pollution.The results of laboratory tests on the influence of selected mineral additives on technological properties of sealing slurries are presented in the paper.

  11. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  12. Inhibition of methane oxidation in slurry surface crust by inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun-Feng; Elsgaard, Lars; Petersen, Søren O

    2013-01-01

    Livestock slurry is an important source of methane (CH4). Depending on dry matter content, a floating crust may form where methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and CH4 oxidation activity have been found, suggesting that surface crusts may reduce CH4 emissions from slurry. However, it is not known how...... MOB in this environment interact with inorganic nitrogen (N). We studied inhibitory effects of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3–) and nitrite (NO2–) on potential CH4 oxidation in a cattle slurry surface crust. Methane oxidation was assayed at salt concentrations up to 500 mM at 100 and 10,000 ppmv...

  13. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Leaf tissues proportion and chemical composition of Axonopus jesuiticus x A. scoparius as a function of pig slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and anatomical attributes of leaves of giant missionary grass to application of 0, 62, 124, 186, 248 and 310m³ ha-1 of pig slurry. At 83 days after the last application of fertilizer, the leaf blades were collected, fixed in FAA 70%, sectioned, stained, photographed and digitalized. The transversal section of leaf blades were evaluated for proportion of epidermis, lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma, non-lignified vascular tissue and parenchyma with an image-processing system calibrated to 1mm pixel-1. Leaf samples were analyzed for crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The pig slurry application up to 310m³ ha-1 significantly increased the percentage of crude protein, parenchyma, epidermis, non-lignified vascular tissue and hemicellulose, while decreasing the percentage of acid detergent fiber and lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma. The Pearson's correlation was positive between crude protein and non-lignified vascular tissue, and between acid detergent fiber and lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma. The percentage of hemicellulose was positively correlated with epidermis, parenchyma and non-lignified vascular tissue. A negative correlation between acid detergent fiber and epidermis, parenchyma and non-lignified vascular tissue was observed.

  15. ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS AND STOCKS IN PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS OF A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY AND SOLUBLE FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Heberle Mafra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of pig slurry (PS as fertilizer can affect the soil quality and increase total stocks of soil organic carbon (TOC. However, the effects of PS on TOC amount and forms in the soil are not fully understood, particularly in areas under no-tillage (NT. The purpose of this study was to determine TOC contents and stocks in the particulate (POC and mineral-associated C fractions (MAC of an Oxisol after nine years of maize-oat rotation under NT, with annual applications of PS, soluble fertilizer and combined fertilization (pig slurry + soluble fertilizer. The experiment was initiated in 2001 in Campos Novos, Santa Catarina, with the following treatments: PS at rates of 0 (without fertilization - PS0; 25 (PS25; 50 (PS50; 100 (PS100; and 200 m3 ha-1yr-1 (PS200; fertilization with soluble fertilizer (SF; and mixed fertilization (PS + SF. The TOC content was determined in samples of six soil layers to a depth of 40 cm, and the POC and MAC contents in four layers to a depth of 20 cm. From the rate of 50 m3 ha-1yr-1 and upwards, the soil TOC content and stock increased according to the PS rates in the layers to a depth of 10 cm. The POC and MAC contents and stocks were higher in the surface layers, with a clear predominance of the second fraction, but a greater relative amplitude in the contents of the first fraction.

  16. Evaluation of planarization capability of copper slurry in the CMP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kangda; Wang Shengli; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Li Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation methods of planarization capability of copper slurry are investigated.Planarization capability and material removal rate are the most essential properties of slurry.The goal of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is to achieve a flat and smooth surface.Planarization capability is the elimination capability of the step height on the copper pattern wafer surface,and reflects the passivation capability of the slurry to a certain extent.Through analyzing the planarization mechanism of the CMP process and experimental results,the planarization capability of the slurry can be evaluated by the following five aspects:pressure sensitivity,temperature sensitivity,static etch rate,planarization efficiency and saturation properties.

  17. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.

    are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...

  18. SYSTEM OF CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF THE MORTAR SLURRY PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological schema of automatic flow line allowing to prepare with minimum charges of manual labor the refined from solid additives mortar slurry with stable density is presented in the article.

  19. Modeling of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor with Water Permeable Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an important chemical process for the production of liquid fuels and olefins. In recent years, the abundant availability of natural gas and the increasing demand of olefins, diesel, and waxes have led to a high interest to further develop this process. A mathematical model of a slurry membrane reactor used for syngas polymerization was developed to simulate and compare the maximum yields and operating conditions in the reactor with that in a conventional slurry reactor.The carbon polymerization was studied from a modeling point of view in a slurry reactor with a water permeable membrane and a conventional slurry reactor. Simulation results show that different parameters affect syngas conversion and carbon product distribution, such as the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio,and the membrane parameters such as membrane permeance.

  20. A new procedure for treatment of oily slurry using geotextile filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M B; Cammarota, M C; Freire, D D C; Ehrlich, M

    2004-07-05

    A new procedure to mitigate the environmental impacts and reduce the cost of disposal of oil slurry is present in this paper. Waste from the petroleum industry has a high environmental impact. Systems for oil-water separation have been used to mitigate the contamination potential of these types of effluents. At the outlet of these systems, the oil is skimmed-off the surface, while the slurry is removed from the base. Due to the high concentration of contaminants, the disposal of this slurry is an environmentally hazardous practice. Usually this type of waste is disposed of in tanks or landfills after removal from the industrial plant. Basically, the proposed procedure utilizes drying beds with geotextile filters to both reduce the water content in the slurry and obtain a less contaminated effluent. Laboratory tests were carried out to simulate the drying system. Four types of filters were analyzed: two non-woven geotextiles, one woven geotextile, and a sand filter.

  1. Rheological properties of algae slurries for minimizing harvesting energy requirements in biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wileman, Angel; Ozkan, Altan; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Rheological properties of microalgae slurries were measured as a function of biomass concentration from 0.5 to 80 kg/m(3) for Nannochloris sp., Chlorella vulgaris, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. At biomass concentrations smaller than 20 kg/m(3), all slurries displayed a Newtonian fluid behavior with less than 30% increase in the effective viscosity from that of the nutrient medium. However, at biomass concentrations larger than 60 kg/m(3), the slurries of the green algae, Nannochloris sp. and C. vulgaris, displayed a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with varying degrees of sensitivity to shear rate while that of the diatom, P. tricornutum, was still a Newtonian fluid up to 80 kg/m(3). Moreover, bioenergy pumping effectiveness showed significant deviation among different species in the non-Newtonian regime. Finally, dewatering the slurries to concentration factors larger than 80 did not further increase the total bioenergy harvest effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

    2015-02-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

  3. Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Seiichi; Sakuma, Noriyuki; Homma, Yoshio; Ohashi, Naofumi

    2000-11-01

    Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical corrosion more effectively than adding it to the slurry. On the other hand, galvanic corrosion occurs at the interface between Cu and the barrier metal, and it can be prevented by selecting appropriate barrier metals. Because the difference between the electrochemical potentials of Cu and the barrier metal is small in the slurry, refractory metals such as Ta, TaN, and TiN were found to be appropriate barrier metals. On the other hand, W, WN, and Ti have large potential differences, so galvanic corrosion was clearly observed when Cu/W damascene interconnects were fabricated.

  4. Settlement prediction model of slurry suspension based on sedimentation rate attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie GUO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a slurry suspension settlement prediction model for cohesive sediment in a still water environment. With no sediment input and a still water environment condition, control forces between settling particles are significantly different in the process of sedimentation rate attenuation, and the settlement process includes the free sedimentation stage, the log-linear attenuation stage, and the stable consolidation stage according to sedimentation rate attenuation. Settlement equations for sedimentation height and time were established based on sedimentation rate attenuation properties of different sedimentation stages. Finally, a slurry suspension settlement prediction model based on slurry parameters was set up with a foundation being that the model parameters were determined by the basic parameters of slurry. The results of the settlement prediction model show good agreement with those of the settlement column experiment and reflect the main characteristics of cohesive sediment. The model can be applied to the prediction of cohesive soil settlement in still water environments.

  5. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O.;

    , but environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, during storage and after field application should take into account. Mainly, methane (CH4) is produced during storage and nitrous oxide (N2O) after field application. Currently, direct (CH4, N2O) and indirect (NH3) GHG emissions during storage...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...... slurry/digestates when incubated in soil under aerobic conditions. The experimental treatments included untreated pig slurry, sugarbeet root pulp, or pig slurry co-digested with 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 90% sugarbeet pulp. Proportions of VSd ranged from 25 to 67%. Methane emissions during storage...

  6. Redistribution of contaminants from pig slurry after direct injection into soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Bech, T B; Forslund, A;

    2010-01-01

    The redistribution of pig manure-borne contaminants after direct injection to soil was investigated in a field study. The spatial distribution of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B and other slurry components in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0.15, 1, 6......, 18, and 46/49 at Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), Denmark. Transport of the slurry components away from the slit was slower at Silstrup in comparison to Estrup, probably because of a higher slurry dry matter content and soil clay content. Slurry NH4-N dissipated and....../or was nitrified gradually at Silstrup and more rapidly at Estrup, but had disappeared completely at both sites within 49 days. The rate of disappearance of E. coli at Estrup was lower than at Silstrup. Survival of E. coli was high in the upper soil layer at both sites. The overall persistence of the bacteriophage...

  7. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...... treatments were banded next to the seed row. Plants were harvested on nine dates with 4-6 days interval and an exponential growth function was fitted to the recordings. The P-uptake from acidified cattle slurry was clearly increased compared to raw slurry, and comparable to the mineral P-reference treatment......Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...

  8. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  9. A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of lithium-ion battery electrodes with beneficial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Dittmann, Jens; Schmitt, Marcel; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    A novel slurry concept for the fabrication of Li-ion battery electrodes focusing on water based formulations is presented. Taking advantage of capillary forces inferred by adding a small fraction of a second fluid immiscible with the bulk continuous phase the low shear viscosity can be varied in a wide range without conventional polymeric rheology control agents disturbing the electric properties of the dry electrode. The new slurries provide superior storage stability and excellent shape accuracy of the final dry film. This reduces waste cut-off at the edges and increases the density of active ingredients, thus improving cost-efficiency. The viscosity at high shear rates remains unaffected, thus the slurries can be processed and coated using established equipment and process parameters. Adhesion to the conductor foil and electrochemical properties of the electrode layers and corresponding cells are similar to those made from conventional slurries.

  10. ANALYSIS OF TANK 28F SALTCAKE CORE SAMPLES FTF-456 - 467

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C; Daniel McCabe, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Ralph Nichols, R

    2007-02-28

    Twelve LM-75 core samplers from Tank 28F sampling were received by SRNL for saltcake characterization. Of these, nine samplers contained mixtures of free liquid and saltcake, two contained only liquid, and one was empty. The saltcake contents generally appeared wet. A summary of the major tasks performed in this work are as follows: (1) Individual saltcake segments were extruded from the samplers and separated into saltcake and free liquid portions. (2) Free liquids were analyzed to estimate the amount of traced drill-string fluid contained in the samples. (3) The saltcake from each individual segment was homogenized, followed by analysis in duplicate. The analysis used more cost-effective and bounding radiochemical analyses rather than using the full Saltstone WAC suite. (4) A composite was created using an approximately equal percentage of each segment's saltcake contents. Supernatant liquid formed upon creation of the composite was decanted prior to use of the composite, but the composite was not drained. (5) A dissolution test was performed on the sample by contacting the composite with water at a 4:1 mass ratio of water to salt. The resulting soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed. Analysis focused on a large subset of the Saltstone WAC constituents.

  11. Microstructure and rheological properties of semi-solid 7075 slurries using SEED rheocasting process

    OpenAIRE

    Bolouri, A.; Zhao, Q. F.; Côté, P.; X. G. Chen

    2016-01-01

    The SEED rheocasting process was used to produce semisolid slurries of high strength 7075 aluminum wrought alloys. The effects of the SEED processing parameters on the microstructure of semisolid slurries were studied. The impact of grain refinement on the grain morphology and size was investigated. The rheological properties of semisolid 7075 alloys were characterized at different solid fractions using a parallel plate compression viscometer. Results indicated that the grain refinement could...

  12. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; Novák, P.; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK

    2013-01-01

    The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...

  13. Improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of γTiAl alloys by slurry coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Musallam, Nicolás Fashho

    2014-01-01

    This research document aims to deepen the understanding of slurry coatings as an effective barrier against the oxidation of promising Titanium-aluminide intermetallic alloys. For that purpose, the research is carried out with a Titanium- Aluminum alloy substrate {(Ti 45Al 2Nb 2Mn + 0.8%vol TiB2){ which was manufactured by means of two different techniques: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Centrifugal Casting (CC). Additionally, two different slurry coatings have been applied...

  14. Microchannel Heat Sink with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Material (MEPCM) Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    beds or fluidized beds , depending on the concentration of the slurry. The authors assumed local thermal equilibrium for both liquid and solid...simulating MEPCM slurry flows assumed homogeneous distribution of particles. The model proposed by Tao et al. [16] use fluidized bed correlations to solve...directly fabricated in a silicon substrate and had direct circulation of water. It is so compact that heat is efficiently carried from the substrate

  15. Study and application of plasticity plaster-slurry for preventing coal spontaneous combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai-hua(刘爱华); CAI Kang-xu(蔡康旭); GUO Da(郭达); ZHANG Fu-sheng(张复胜)

    2003-01-01

    Introduced the modulation scheme, function and mechanism of plasticity plaster-slurry preventing coal spontaneous combustion. The applications show that the plasticity plaster-slurry has good hygroscopicity and adsorptivity. To spray it on the coal wall of tunnel can shut off leakage wind fast and effectively. To press it into the coal body can absorb the heat and descend the temperature, surround the coal pieces, eliminate the possibility of the fiery district resuming combustion.

  16. The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2008-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry.

  17. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Cattle Slurry with Maize Stalk at Mesophilic Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adebayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion from batch digester containing varying ratio of mixture of cow slurry and maize stalk was studied at mesophilic temperature (37oC. Cattle slurry and maize stalks were co-digested at ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 using the percentage volatile solid of each substrate. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory scale batch digester. The digester was fed with cattle slurry-maize stalks mixtures calculated for the selected ratios based on the volatile solid (VS concentration of the selected substrates. Co-digestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks at ratios 3:1, 1:1 and 3:1 at mesophilic temperature gave biogas yields of 0.426, 0.385 and 0.391m3 /kgoDM respectively while the methane yields were 0.297, 0.270 and 0.262m3CH4/kgoDM respectively. From the fresh mass of the substrate, biogas yields of 0.052, 0.059 and 0.090 m3 /kgFM were obtained for cattle slurry-maize stalks ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively while the methane yields from the fresh mass for the same ratios were 0.036, 0.043 and 0.060 CH4/kgFM respectively. Co-digestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks was found to have methane concentrations of 69.66, 70.24 and 66.98% at cattle slurry/maize stalks combinations of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 respectively. The highest biogas yields (oDM of 0.426 m3 /kgoDM was obtained at the mixing ratio of 3:1; therefore the mixing ratio of 3:1 is recommended as the optimal for the codigestion of cattle slurry with maize stalks at mesophilic temperature.

  18. Effects of Several Factors on Viscosity of Alumina-spinel Slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Jianmin; LIU Kaiqi; LIU Zuocai

    2004-01-01

    The effects of several commercial dispersants, including AN- 2000, ammonium polyacrylate , sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and of solids loading and of electro-fused magnesia on rheological propertiesof aqueous alumina-spinel slurries were studied.The results reveal that AN- 2000 is the most effective one among the selected dispersants for alumina-spinel slurries.With 0.5% weight of AN-2000, the 57vol% solids loadobtained at shear rate of 50s-1 .

  19. Flow resistance reduction of coal water slurry through gas phase addition

    OpenAIRE

    Robak Jolanta; Ignasiak Karina

    2016-01-01

    One of the main advantages of coal water slurry fuel (CWS) is a physical form that allows, among others, their transfer by pipelines over long distances. For this form of transport actions towards reducing the flow resistance of the transmitted medium are important. One of the treatments leading to reduction in the flow resistance of suspensions is to introduce gas into the stream of flowing slurry. The goal of that action is to either loosen the structure of densely packed grains or increase...

  20. Research on semi-solid slurry of a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The semi-solid slurry of a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy was manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The effects of pouring temperature and stirring power on the semi-solid slurry were investigated. The results indicated that the semi-solid slurry to satisfy rheocasting can be manufactured by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. The pouring temperature (or superheat) and the stirring power remarkably affected the morphology of primary α-Al and the size of primary α-Al, and there is no obvious effect of stirring time on primary α-Al. Compared with the samples made by low superheat pouring with no stirring, the nucleation rate, particle morphology and grain size of primary α-Al in A356 were markedly improved by low superheat pouring and weak electromagnetic stirring. On the condition of weak electromagnetic stirring, the pouting temperature with low superheat can be suitably raised to reach the effectiveness obtained from the lower pouring temperature without stirring.