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Sample records for wa state historic

  1. Programmatic agreement among the USDOE/RL Operations Office, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the WA State Historic Preservation Office for the maintenance, deactivation, alteration and demolition of the built environment on the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    This Programmatic Agreement (PA) addresses the built environment (i.e., buildings and structures) constructed during the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era periods of Hanford`s operational history. As such it encompasses the years 1943 through 1990. The identification, evaluation, and treatment of buildings and historic archeological remains on the Hanford Site predating 1943 will be accomplished through Sections 800.4 through 800.6 of the Council`s regulations. This PA will be in effect from the date of signature until September 30, 2000. Completion of the Sitewide Treatment Plan established under this PA satisfies all Section 106 requirements for identification, evaluation, and treatment necessary for all undertakings, up to and including demolition which may affect Manhattan Project and Cold War Era properties. This PA may be extended if the Sitewide Treatment Plan has not been completed by the end of FY 2000. Identification, evaluation, and treatment of properties constructed on the Hanford Site after 1990 will be handled pursuant to the regulations in effect at the time such properties are eligible for review.

  2. 76 FR 73664 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology... University, Museum of Anthropology (WSU) has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary... Collins, Director, Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, telephone...

  3. 76 FR 28073 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary items in the possession and control of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human remains and...

  4. 76 FR 28076 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary items that were in possession of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. The human...

  5. 77 FR 23507 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains...

  6. 75 FR 58429 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... & Culture, aka Eastern Washington State Historical Society, Spokane, WA. The human remains and associated... venture involving the Eastern Washington State Historical Society (now Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA...

  7. 77 FR 25742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, formerly Eastern Washington State Historical Society, Spokane, WA. The... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture, Spokane, WA... paragraphs: Determinations Made by the Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture Officials of The Northwest Museum...

  8. Ushairi wa Kiswahili kama Chombo cha Ujenzi wa Utangamano wa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala haya yanafafanua dhima ya ushairi wa Kiswahili katika kujenga uwiano na utangamano katika jamii. Maendeleo na ustawi wa lugha huenda sambamba na fasihi yake. Ushairi wa Kiswahili kama utanzu wa fasihi, una historia ndefu. Aidha, umaarufu wa ushairi huu hautokani tu na vipengele vya lugha teule ...

  9. 76 FR 48177 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ..., in Skagit County, WA. This area falls within the Central Coast Salish cultural group (Suttles 1990... (Amoss 1978, Roberts 1975, Ruby and Brown 1986, Smith 1941, Suttles 1951, Swanton 1952) and Huckleberry... Reservation (Ruby and Brown 1986:179). Many Samish, however, also chose to remain in their old village sites...

  10. 76 FR 9051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...\\ mile southeast of Guemes Island, in Skagit County, WA. This area falls within the Central Coast Salish... traditionally occupied Guemes Island (Amoss 1978, Roberts 1975, Ruby and Brown 1986, Smith 1941, Suttles 1951... the Swinomish ] Reservation (Ruby and Brown 1986:179). However, many Samish chose to remain in their...

  11. WA18

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Front view. The target plates are cut from marble (3x3 m slabs surrounded by magnetized iron) and allow the use of the calorimeter as a muon polarimeter. WA18 was CHARM, the experiment of the CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome(INFN)-Moskow(ITEP) Collaboration

  12. At WA11

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Starting with february 1977 the WA5 spectrometer of the Indiana-Saclay Collaboration originally designed to study hadron backward scattering on protons, and later modified by the Indiana-Imperial College (London)-Saclay-Southampton Collaboration, was used (experiment WA11) to search for high mass states produced with the J/psi. On the left, Tom Marshall moves in a beam hodoscope. On the right, at the entrance of the Goliath magnet, one sees the 1 m long hydrogen target. (Later the set-up was reshuffled, and the hydrogen target was replaced by a set of Be targets located upstream of the magnet.)

  13. Extending the Coyote emulator to dark energy models with standard w0-wa parametrization of the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, L.; Bonometto, S. A.; Tessarotto, E.; Corasaniti, P.-S.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss an extension of the Coyote emulator to predict non-linear matter power spectra of dark energy (DE) models with a scale factor dependent equation of state of the form w = w0+(1-a)wa. The extension is based on the mapping rule between non-linear spectra of DE models with constant equation of state and those with time varying one originally introduced in ref. [40]. Using a series of N-body simulations we show that the spectral equivalence is accurate to sub-percent level across the same range of modes and redshift covered by the Coyote suite. Thus, the extended emulator provides a very efficient and accurate tool to predict non-linear power spectra for DE models with w0-wa parametrization. According to the same criteria we have developed a numerical code that we have implemented in a dedicated module for the CAMB code, that can be used in combination with the Coyote Emulator in likelihood analyses of non-linear matter power spectrum measurements. All codes can be found at https://github.com/luciano-casarini/pkequal.

  14. 78 FR 78379 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University... at Washington State University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the... the Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University. If no additional requestors come forward...

  15. Ubabedume katika Ushairi wa Kiswahili: Mfano wa Utenzi wa Fumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suala la uana limepewa kipaumbele miongoni mwa masuala yanayotafitiwa katika taaluma mbalimbali zinazohusu maisha ya binadamu. Majukumu ya jinsi ya kike na jinsi ya kiume ni suala ambalo linaendelea kuzua mgogoro miongoni mwa watu wa jamii mbalimbali. Hata hivyo, utafiti wa uana unaozingatia jinsi ya ...

  16. 78 FR 50099 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... linguistic heritage, overlapping trade networks, battle alliances, shared resource protection, cooperative... request with information in support of the request to the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in accordance with the Native...

  17. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... control of the Native American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the... American ancestry. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), a relationship of shared group identity cannot be... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission...

  18. At WA18

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    By July 1978 the CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moskow Collaboration (CHARM) has set up the experiment WA18, behind WA1 (on the right), in the neutrino wide-band (WBB) and narrow-band (NBB) beams, at the West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF)and started data taking data.

  19. Suicide in historic cities of a Brazilian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Faria Simões

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the suicide rate in historical regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: epidemiological study conducted in five historical regions of a Brazilian state. The data used were extracted from the Information Department of the National Health System. Results: the Historical Regions of Demonstrations and Wealth presented higher suicide rates when compared to the state’s rate. In 11 of the 15 years analyzed, the Region of Wealth had rates higher than that of Minas Gerais. Regarding age group, average levels of suicide were found in the age group 20-59 years in 14 years studied. We also identified higher suicide rates among men in the Historical Regions. The most used methods in the Historical Regions were hanging, strangulation and suffocation. Conclusion: the distribution of suicide cases has enabled to understand the epidemiological characteristics of suicide in the Historical Regions of Minas Gerais during the period analyzed.

  20. Top view of WA3

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The WA3 experiment by the Amsterdam-CERN-Cracow-Munich-Oxford-Rutherford (ACCMORE)Collaboration aimed to study exclusive pion and kaon interactions with protons. WA7 is seen on the backgound (top). The hut on the right is WA3, the hut on the left is WA2.

  1. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...

  2. At WA7

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The CERN-Genoa-Annecy(LAPP)- Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen-Oslo-University College,London Collaboration set-up the experiment WA7 to study two-body reactions at large transverse momentum. Here, Michel Yvert, Alberto Santronico, Per Carlson

  3. Preparing for WA34

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Following a proposal by a CERN-Florence-Genova Collaboration to study charmed particles photoproduced in emulsion plates tagged by the Omega apparatus triggers, WA34 was a test exposure to demonstrate the validity of the experimental method. Here (centre) Giordano Diambrini-Palazzi inside the Omega magnet. the validity of the experimental method.

  4. Mabadiliko Ya Kifonolojia Na Kimofolojia Wakati Wa Utohozi Wa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwingiliano wa lugha ya Kiswahili na Kiarabu una historia ndefu kidogo. Inasemekana Waarabu walianza muwasala na 'Waswahili' tangu karne ya kwanza (BK) (Polome 1967:9). Kutokana na muwasala huo wa muda mrefu, lugha hizi mbili (Kiarabu na Kiswahili) zimeathiriana sana. Lakini kuna maoni kwamba Kiarabu ...

  5. Utafiti Wa Lahaja Za Kiswahili: Uzoefu Wa Uwandani | Ismail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katika ujumla wake, historia ya utafiti, na hasa utafiti wa uwandani, ni historia ya jitihada za binadamu katika kujishughulisha kwake ili ayaelewe masuala mengi mtambuka katika mazingira fungamanishi. Hakuna mtafiti yeyote anayeweza kudai kuwa utafiti wa mada fulani katika eneo fulani umekamilika na ...

  6. The aesthetic interpretation on Wooden Drum Dancing of Wa people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wa nationality, a typical ethnic group in Yunnan province, is an ancient one lives across Yunnan. The main residences of it are border area beside northern Yunnan and the Wa States in Burma. Among all the Wa dances, Wooden Drum Dancing leads a vital position, and it is also a symbolic dancing in the culture of Wa people. The feature of Wooden Drum Dancing is that every action expending by the beats of wooden drum, namely, first the wooden drum, then the Wooden Drum Dancing. Dancing is an important content in the life of Wa people, and the aesthetics of life comes from dancing, so they present their value on worship by the form of dancing. This article is going to interpret the aesthetic standard on Wa people’s Wooden Drum Dancing by the view of aesthetics, and come into a conclude that the inspiration of such dancing came from practice and their worship to nature and ancestor. The Wooden Drum Dancing displays totally the tough air and solidarity of Wa people, which also presents the fair society of them. The Wooden Drum Dancing is an enriched art that Wa People took from particle life, so dancing of Wa is often classified into the aesthetic area of plain. The information of people’s living situation displayed by Wa dancing also conveys their rich emotions. The sense of beauty within Wooden Drum Dancing will give others a solemn feeling. The formal beauty is displayed by the rhythm of upper part of body, and the power beauty is displayed by the rhythm of the lower part of body.

  7. Updated population metadata for United States historical climatology network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.W.; Gallo, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Historical Climatology Network (HCN) serial temperature dataset is comprised of 1221 high-quality, long-term climate observing stations. The HCN dataset is available in several versions, one of which includes population-based temperature modifications to adjust urban temperatures for the "heat-island" effect. Unfortunately, the decennial population metadata file is not complete as missing values are present for 17.6% of the 12 210 population values associated with the 1221 individual stations during the 1900-90 interval. Retrospective grid-based populations. Within a fixed distance of an HCN station, were estimated through the use of a gridded population density dataset and historically available U.S. Census county data. The grid-based populations for the HCN stations provide values derived from a consistent methodology compared to the current HCN populations that can vary as definitions of the area associated with a city change over time. The use of grid-based populations may minimally be appropriate to augment populations for HCN climate stations that lack any population data, and are recommended when consistent and complete population data are required. The recommended urban temperature adjustments based on the HCN and grid-based methods of estimating station population can be significantly different for individual stations within the HCN dataset.

  8. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  9. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, National and State register of Historic Sites. Also maintained is a buffer of 500 feet from those historic sites. Data includes the site name, site address, and national or state registered., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia / Lyon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset current as of 2011. National and State register of Historic Sites. Also maintained is a buffer of 500...

  10. Historical issues concerning animal experimentation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechzer, Jeri A

    1981-01-01

    The use of animals for research and teaching has now become an issue of great concern in the United States. In contrast to the legislative systems in Britain, Scandinavia and many European countries, American scientists can pursue research projects with relative freedom. Recent activities in the United States may effect this practice and future animal experimentation may be subjected to restriction and control by legislation. Events leading to this possibility are similar in many ways to those in 19th century Britain prior to the passage of the Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876 (which licenses scientists, regulates experimentation and carries out inspections). Historically, it seemed that the immediate effect of the 1876 act was to decrease the number of scientists who could conduct experiments on live vertebrate animals in Great Britain and hence the number of experiments and animals. Yet, antivivisection activity in Britain did not decrease but continued toward its goal of abolishing all research with animals. By 1882, the medical scientific community established the Association for the Advancement of Medicine by Research which began to advise the Home Secretary on licensing scientists.... Although the first Humane Society in the United States was established in 1866, it was not until the end of the 19th century when scientific disciplines were necessary for the education of physicians that protests against the use of animals for experimentation became organized. Activities by American animal protection groups have increased since that time and have now culminated in proposed legislation which if passed would not only restrict the use of animals for research but would also interfere with the kinds of research that could be conducted. Legislation in Britain, Scandinavia and in many European countries appears to be efficient and effective because of the relatively small number of research institutions and scientists in those countries. Is legislation in the United

  11. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings...

  12. Titanium in Dentistry: Historical Development, State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge, Juliana Ribeiro Pala; Barão, Valentim Adelino; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    .... Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the different uses of titanium in Dentistry, reviewing its historical development and discoursing about its state of art and future perspective of its utilization...

  13. 76 FR 58032 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The State Historical Society... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural item may contact the State Historical Society...

  14. Undocumented migration in the United States: an overview of historical and current policy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; McEwen, Marylyn Morris; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this overview are to provide a brief historical review of federal, state, and local immigration policies and to examine the historical origin and current constructions of the undocumented immigrant. We discuss how past and current policies promote, regulate, restrict, and deter immigration into the United States and access to health services and draw implications for the profession of nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Current State of the Art Historic Building Information Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.

    2017-08-01

    In an extensive review of existing literature a number of observations were made in relation to the current approaches for recording and modelling existing buildings and environments: Data collection and pre-processing techniques are becoming increasingly automated to allow for near real-time data capture and fast processing of this data for later modelling applications. Current BIM software is almost completely focused on new buildings and has very limited tools and pre-defined libraries for modelling existing and historic buildings. The development of reusable parametric library objects for existing and historic buildings supports modelling with high levels of detail while decreasing the modelling time. Mapping these parametric objects to survey data, however, is still a time-consuming task that requires further research. Promising developments have been made towards automatic object recognition and feature extraction from point clouds for as-built BIM. However, results are currently limited to simple and planar features. Further work is required for automatic accurate and reliable reconstruction of complex geometries from point cloud data. Procedural modelling can provide an automated solution for generating 3D geometries but lacks the detail and accuracy required for most as-built applications in AEC and heritage fields.

  16. CURRENT STATE OF THE ART HISTORIC BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive review of existing literature a number of observations were made in relation to the current approaches for recording and modelling existing buildings and environments: Data collection and pre-processing techniques are becoming increasingly automated to allow for near real-time data capture and fast processing of this data for later modelling applications. Current BIM software is almost completely focused on new buildings and has very limited tools and pre-defined libraries for modelling existing and historic buildings. The development of reusable parametric library objects for existing and historic buildings supports modelling with high levels of detail while decreasing the modelling time. Mapping these parametric objects to survey data, however, is still a time-consuming task that requires further research. Promising developments have been made towards automatic object recognition and feature extraction from point clouds for as-built BIM. However, results are currently limited to simple and planar features. Further work is required for automatic accurate and reliable reconstruction of complex geometries from point cloud data. Procedural modelling can provide an automated solution for generating 3D geometries but lacks the detail and accuracy required for most as-built applications in AEC and heritage fields.

  17. Research on insect pests of tree fruits at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree fruit-related entomological research currently being conducted at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Wapato, WA is reviewed. Scientists at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) in Wapato, WA conduct research on insect pests of tree fruits and potato. Th...

  18. A Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in Rivers State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETIWISTIC

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... Sandwich programmes in Tertiary Institutions within the State and satellite campus of C.O.E., Ikere Ekiti as well as N.T.I. provided avenues for teacher education development. The State encouraged this development to cope with the demands at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education. At a.

  19. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  20. Direct photons in WA98

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bock, R; Bohne, E M; Böröcz, Z K; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kees, S; Klein-Bösing, C; Knoche, S; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Krümpel, T; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Pavlyuk, S; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petracek, V; Pinganaud, W; Plasil, F; Von Poblotzki, U; Purschke, M L; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sood, G; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stüken, D; Sumbera, M; Svensson, S; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of direct photon production in /sup 208/Pb+/sup 208/Pb collisions at 158 A GeV has been carried out in the CERN WA98 experiment. The invariant yield of direct photons was extracted as a function of transverse momentum in the interval 0.51.5 GeV/c. the result constitutes the first observation of direct photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (19 refs).

  1. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  2. Modeled historical land use and land cover for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Dornbierer, Jordan; Wika, Steve; Quenzer, Robert; Friesz, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of the conterminous United States has changed dramatically over the last 200 years, with agricultural land use, urban expansion, forestry, and other anthropogenic activities altering land cover across vast swaths of the country. While land use and land cover (LULC) models have been developed to model potential future LULC change, few efforts have focused on recreating historical landscapes. Researchers at the US Geological Survey have used a wide range of historical data sources and a spatially explicit modeling framework to model spatially explicit historical LULC change in the conterminous United States from 1992 back to 1938. Annual LULC maps were produced at 250-m resolution, with 14 LULC classes. Assessment of model results showed good agreement with trends and spatial patterns in historical data sources such as the Census of Agriculture and historical housing density data, although comparison with historical data is complicated by definitional and methodological differences. The completion of this dataset allows researchers to assess historical LULC impacts on a range of ecological processes.

  3. 36 CFR 60.6 - Nominations by the State Historic Preservation Officer under approved State Historic Preservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... official of the county (or equivalent governmental unit) and municipal political jurisdiction in which the... political jurisdiction in which the property or district is located. The State shall provide general notice to property owners concerning the State's intent to nominate. The general notice shall be published...

  4. A Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in Rivers State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher education is an essential component of the educational system because teachers, among others, help to develop human capacity and implement educational policies for the realization of the nation's objectives and goals. The development of teacher education in Rivers State, a chip of the then Eastern Nigeria that ...

  5. A Historical Perspective of Teacher Education in Rivers State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ETIWISTIC

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... One remarkable function of the staff committee of the S.M.B. was to advise the Board on a dynamic staff ..... Others included individual self-esteem and self- actualization motivational needs, the removal of ... A ―Kernel of Truth‖ Approach to the Evaluation of the. NCE Primary Programme in Rivers State ...

  6. Advancing environmental stewardship in New York state parks and historic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Cobb

    1995-01-01

    Ninety state park and historic site managers were engaged in a cooperative problem-solving training exercise to identify what they suggest needs to be done to more effectively manage and protect the natural and cultural resources of the New York State Park System. The QtP (Quality-through-Participation) management process was used for this purpose, and proved effective...

  7. Khmer as a Heritage Language in the United States: Historical Sketch, Current Realities, and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wayne E.

    2010-01-01

    Cambodian Americans are a fairly recent language minority group in the United States; most families arrived in the United States as refugees during the 1980s. Over the past 30 years, there has been great concern in the community regarding the maintenance loss of their native Khmer language. This article provides an historical and contemporary…

  8. HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF STATE INTERVENTION IN THE OFFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Tello García

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Water it´s one of the main factors involved in agriculturalproduction, this is way the users of this resource weredeveloping various ways of management that allow them tohave access to it in traditional way. After the greenrevolution, widespread during the second half of the XIXcentury, there is a break that modifies the economical formsof conceiving the water as resource for farmers as well asmanagers and technicians (Naredo, 1998: 65. In this sense,the present work has the objective to make a historicalreconstruction of how the state has been involve in theofficial control for the use and management of water in SanMiguel Xoxhitecatitla, Tlaxcala.

  9. Eugenics, sterilization, and historical memory in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2016-12-01

    From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and "suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited." Working with a unique resource - a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations - my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice.

  10. Higher education in the United States: Historical excursions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Schuster

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher education in the United States has been transformed in the last decade as never before in its three hundred years of history. Even though its origin is intimately linked to the religious groups of English settlers, nowadays it is characterized by increasing opportunities of access for students and by a decentralized system which allows institutional diversity. This paper is intended to explain both features by means of a retrospective journey along the main trends of current American higher education; and on the way, a critical review is done of its development, policies, similarities and differences when compared with other countries' higher education.

  11. Historical perspectives of bilingual education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel GARCÍA GARRIDO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} This article presents a revision of the evolution of bilingual education in the United States, focusing on the main movements that have been against and in favor of bilingualism. Respect for cultural and linguistic diversity started being jeopardized in 1750 when Benjamin Franklin tried to impose English as the official language of the United States. The strongest opposition to bilingualism took place in 1983 with a movement called U.S. English. Another movement, the so called English First, appeared in 1986 with the same objectives as U.S. English. However, bilingualism has also had its proposers, such as English Plus. The future of bilingualism has also been legally protected by three acts: (1 the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, (2 The Bilingual Education Act of 1968, and (3 the No Child Left Behind Act.

  12. Eugenics, sterilization, and historical memory in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Minna Stern

    Full Text Available Abstract From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and “suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited.” Working with a unique resource – a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations – my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice.

  13. Integrating Emergency Services: How WA is Merging Fire and Emergency Services Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bob, Mitchell

    1999-01-01

    Western Australia's emergency services like the Bush Fire Service, State Emergency Service and the Fire and Rescue Service is being brought together under the roof of the Fire and Emergency Services Authority (FESA) of WA...

  14. A Comparative Study of the Distance Education History in China and the United States: A Socio-Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of international distance education development through comparison of the distance education historical developments in China and the United States (U.S.). This study, utilizing a document analysis method, studied historical documents, explored the historical development of…

  15. Historical trends and projections of land use for the South-Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoEun Ahn; Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig

    2000-01-01

    This report presents historical trends and future projections of forest, agricultural, and urban and other land uses for the South-Central United States. A land use share model is used to investigate the relation between the areas of land in alternative uses and economic and demographic factors influencing land use decisions. Two different versions of the empirical...

  16. 77 FR 48538 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... agency that has control of the Native American human remains. The National Park Service is not... Native American. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), a relationship of shared group identity cannot be... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI...

  17. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  18. Durability and Wood Protection for Historic Covered Bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina W. Yang; Carol A. Clausen

    2014-01-01

    A majority of the covered wooden bridges in United States were built in the mid -1800’s. These structures represent a unique cultural and technological heritage from that era. Over time, these bridges have been deteriorated by microorganisms and insects or damaged by acts of vandalism and arson. The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program...

  19. Hebrew Education in the United States: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article sketches the trajectory of Hebrew education in the United States from the early 1900s to the present. Attending to the historiography of Hebrew education, it shows how current curricula and pedagogical approaches have been stamped by historical considerations and language ideologies, how goals and strategies have changed (or remained…

  20. Search activity of the passe of the Historical Faculty of Transbaikal State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University

    OpenAIRE

    Drobotushenko Evgeniy Viktorovich

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the specificity of historical and patriotic work in the Zabaykalsky region. The focus is on the attitudes towards activities and goals of the search party “Khingan – Khalkhin-Gol” which was established in early 2012 at the Department of History of Transbaikal State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University.

  1. Adult education and the State: Gramsci, the historical materialist tradition and relevant others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona M. English

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between adult education and the State within the context of hegemonic globalization and the all pervasive neoliberal ideology. It draws from a variety of sources and provides an overview of discussions concerning the State giving pride of place to the Historical Materialist tradition in the area. Using a Gramscian perspective, it argues that contrary to the widespread mantra that the state has receded into the background in this era of globalization, we argue that the State remains ever so present in this context and, if anything, remains central to the Neoliberal project.

  2. State and National Identity: Historical Analysis and Perspectives for the 21st Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Alves Lopes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the need to review the concept of “national identity” in a context of deepening structural changes and crisis of the Modern State model. Beginning with an analysis of the State constitutive elements and a historical perspective of de formation of national identity concept – conceived as representation of an imagined community – we present an evaluation of its use as a tool for State’s legitimacy. Thus, this work aims to determinate the current importance of national identities in contemporary State Theory.

  3. WaVPeak: Picking NMR peaks through wavelet-based smoothing and volume-based filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhi

    2012-02-10

    Motivation: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used as a powerful tool to determine the 3D structures of proteins in vivo. However, the post-spectra processing stage of NMR structure determination usually involves a tremendous amount of time and expert knowledge, which includes peak picking, chemical shift assignment and structure calculation steps. Detecting accurate peaks from the NMR spectra is a prerequisite for all following steps, and thus remains a key problem in automatic NMR structure determination. Results: We introduce WaVPeak, a fully automatic peak detection method. WaVPeak first smoothes the given NMR spectrum by wavelets. The peaks are then identified as the local maxima. The false positive peaks are filtered out efficiently by considering the volume of the peaks. WaVPeak has two major advantages over the state-of-the-art peak-picking methods. First, through wavelet-based smoothing, WaVPeak does not eliminate any data point in the spectra. Therefore, WaVPeak is able to detect weak peaks that are embedded in the noise level. NMR spectroscopists need the most help isolating these weak peaks. Second, WaVPeak estimates the volume of the peaks to filter the false positives. This is more reliable than intensity-based filters that are widely used in existing methods. We evaluate the performance of WaVPeak on the benchmark set proposed by PICKY (Alipanahi et al., 2009), one of the most accurate methods in the literature. The dataset comprises 32 2D and 3D spectra from eight different proteins. Experimental results demonstrate that WaVPeak achieves an average of 96%, 91%, 88%, 76% and 85% recall on 15N-HSQC, HNCO, HNCA, HNCACB and CBCA(CO)NH, respectively. When the same number of peaks are considered, WaVPeak significantly outperforms PICKY. The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Historical and Contemporary Factors Contributing to the Plight of Migrant Farmworkers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Thomas Donohoe; Safina Koreishi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Migrant farmworkers provide an essential service and perform jobs that many Americans are unwilling to do. Immigration practices and policies dictate the extent to which undocumented migrant farmworkers have access to governmental health and social services, and are ever-changing based on the political climate. This paper reviews historical and contemporary United States government policies relevant to migrant farmworkers. It refutes some of the common myths regarding documented and...

  5. Muundo wa Mashairi katika Diwani ya Mnyampala (1965) na Nafasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala hii pia inadadisi namna mbinu za kimuundo zilivyofanikisha usawiri na ubainishaji wa falsafa ya mtunzi kuhusu ushairi wa Kiswahili na nafasi ya ushairi katika jamii. Makala imeanza kwa kugusia usuli wa historia ya ushairi wa Kiswahili, historia fupi ya maisha ya Mathias Mnyampala na nadharia yake kuhusu ...

  6. Ubadilishaji Msimbo kama Mbinu ya Ukwezaji wa Staha Bungeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala hii inalenga kubainisha jinsi ubadilishaji msimbo unavyotumika katika mijadala ya Bunge la Tanzania kama mbinu ya ukwezaji wa staha. Data za makala hii zimekusanywa kwa kutumia mbinu ya uchambuzi wa nyaraka na ushuhudiaji. Uchambuzi na ufasiri wa data umetumia mkabala wa uchanganuzi kilongo, ...

  7. Propulsion Control Technology Development in the United States A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, Link C.a; Garg, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective of the advancement of control technologies for aircraft gas turbine engines. The paper primarily covers technology advances in the United States in the last 60 years (1940 to approximately 2002). The paper emphasizes the pioneering technologies that have been tested or implemented during this period, assimilating knowledge and experience from industry experts, including personal interviews with both current and retired experts. Since the first United States-built aircraft gas turbine engine was flown in 1942, engine control technology has evolved from a simple hydro-mechanical fuel metering valve to a full-authority digital electronic control system (FADEC) that is common to all modern aircraft propulsion systems. At the same time, control systems have provided engine diagnostic functions. Engine diagnostic capabilities have also evolved from pilot observation of engine gauges to the automated on-board diagnostic system that uses mathematical models to assess engine health and assist in post-flight troubleshooting and maintenance. Using system complexity and capability as a measure, we can break the historical development of control systems down to four phases: (1) the start-up phase (1942 to 1949), (2) the growth phase (1950 to 1969), (3) the electronic phase (1970 to 1989), and (4) the integration phase (1990 to 2002). In each phase, the state-of-the-art control technology is described and the engines that have become historical landmarks, from the control and diagnostic standpoint, are identified. Finally, a historical perspective of engine controls in the last 60 years is presented in terms of control system complexity, number of sensors, number of lines of software (or embedded code), and other factors.

  8. Increasing atmospheric CO2 overrides the historical legacy of multiple stable biome states in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, Glenn R; Scheiter, Simon; Bond, William J; Higgins, Steven I

    2014-02-01

    The dominant vegetation over much of the global land surface is not predetermined by contemporary climate, but also influenced by past environmental conditions. This confounds attempts to predict current and future biome distributions, because even a perfect model would project multiple possible biomes without knowledge of the historical vegetation state. Here we compare the distribution of tree- and grass-dominated biomes across Africa simulated using a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM). We explicitly evaluate where and under what conditions multiple stable biome states are possible for current and projected future climates. Our simulation results show that multiple stable biomes states are possible for vast areas of tropical and subtropical Africa under current conditions. Widespread loss of the potential for multiple stable biomes states is projected in the 21st Century, driven by increasing atmospheric CO2 . Many sites where currently both tree-dominated and grass-dominated biomes are possible become deterministically tree-dominated. Regions with multiple stable biome states are widespread and require consideration when attempting to predict future vegetation changes. Testing for behaviour characteristic of systems with multiple stable equilibria, such as hysteresis and dependence on historical conditions, and the resulting uncertainty in simulated vegetation, will lead to improved projections of global change impacts. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Apparent strength conceals instability in a model for the collapse of historical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Daniel John; Oak, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    An explanation for the political processes leading to the sudden collapse of empires and states would be useful for understanding both historical and contemporary political events. We examine political disintegration across eras, cultures and geographical scale to form a simple hypothesis that can be expressed verbally yet formulated mathematically. Factions within a state make choices described by game-theory about whether to accept the political status quo, or to attempt to better their circumstances through costly rebellion. In lieu of precise data we verify our model using sensitivity analysis. We find that a small amount of dissatisfaction is typically harmless to the state, but can trigger sudden collapse when there is a sufficient buildup of political inequality. Contrary to intuition, a state is predicted to be least stable when its leadership is at the height of its political power and thus most able to exert its influence through external warfare, lavish expense or autocratic decree.

  10. Apparent strength conceals instability in a model for the collapse of historical states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel John Lawson

    Full Text Available An explanation for the political processes leading to the sudden collapse of empires and states would be useful for understanding both historical and contemporary political events. We examine political disintegration across eras, cultures and geographical scale to form a simple hypothesis that can be expressed verbally yet formulated mathematically. Factions within a state make choices described by game-theory about whether to accept the political status quo, or to attempt to better their circumstances through costly rebellion. In lieu of precise data we verify our model using sensitivity analysis. We find that a small amount of dissatisfaction is typically harmless to the state, but can trigger sudden collapse when there is a sufficient buildup of political inequality. Contrary to intuition, a state is predicted to be least stable when its leadership is at the height of its political power and thus most able to exert its influence through external warfare, lavish expense or autocratic decree.

  11. Ruwaza za shujaa na uibuaji wa dhamira: mifano kutoka utendi Wa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel (2013:33) anatuambia kwamba, utendi ni utanzu wa dunia nzima na kwamba, tendi zote zinazojulikana huwa na matukio yanayofanana na yanaweza kuwa ya kihistoria na visakale au visasili. Kwa hali hiyo, tunashawishika kusema kuwa utendi wa Gilgamesh unahusu matukio ya kishujaa ambayo yanaweza ...

  12. State Traditions and Language Regimes: A Historical Institutionalism Approach to Language Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonntag Selma K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an elaboration of a theoretical framework we developed in the introductory chapter of our co-edited volume, State Traditions and Language Regimes (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015. Using a historical institutionalism approach derived from political science, we argue that language policies need to be understood in terms of their historical and institutional context. The concept of ‘state tradition’ focuses our attention on the relative autonomy of the state in terms of its normative and institutional traditions that lead to particular path dependencies of language policy choices, subject to change at critical junctures. ‘Language regime’ is the conceptual link between state traditions and language policy choices: it allows us to analytically conceptualize how and why these choices are made and how and why they change. We suggest that our framework offers a more robust analysis of language politics than other approaches found in sociolinguistics and normative theory. It also challenges political science to become more engaged with scholarly debate on language policy and linguistic diversity.

  13. WaVPeak: picking NMR peaks through wavelet-based smoothing and volume-based filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Abbas, Ahmed; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used as a powerful tool to determine the 3D structures of proteins in vivo. However, the post-spectra processing stage of NMR structure determination usually involves a tremendous amount of time and expert knowledge, which includes peak picking, chemical shift assignment and structure calculation steps. Detecting accurate peaks from the NMR spectra is a prerequisite for all following steps, and thus remains a key problem in automatic NMR structure determination. We introduce WaVPeak, a fully automatic peak detection method. WaVPeak first smoothes the given NMR spectrum by wavelets. The peaks are then identified as the local maxima. The false positive peaks are filtered out efficiently by considering the volume of the peaks. WaVPeak has two major advantages over the state-of-the-art peak-picking methods. First, through wavelet-based smoothing, WaVPeak does not eliminate any data point in the spectra. Therefore, WaVPeak is able to detect weak peaks that are embedded in the noise level. NMR spectroscopists need the most help isolating these weak peaks. Second, WaVPeak estimates the volume of the peaks to filter the false positives. This is more reliable than intensity-based filters that are widely used in existing methods. We evaluate the performance of WaVPeak on the benchmark set proposed by PICKY (Alipanahi et al., 2009), one of the most accurate methods in the literature. The dataset comprises 32 2D and 3D spectra from eight different proteins. Experimental results demonstrate that WaVPeak achieves an average of 96%, 91%, 88%, 76% and 85% recall on (15)N-HSQC, HNCO, HNCA, HNCACB and CBCA(CO)NH, respectively. When the same number of peaks are considered, WaVPeak significantly outperforms PICKY. WaVPeak is an open source program. The source code and two test spectra of WaVPeak are available at http://faculty.kaust.edu.sa/sites/xingao/Pages/Publications.aspx. The online server is under construction. statliuzhi

  14. Historical North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks - Major Storms with Landfall in the United States, 1851-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Historical North Atlantic Hurricane Tracks file of major storms with landfall in the United States contains the six-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center...

  15. The French state and the church: Socio-historical context, structural conditionality and character of laicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author deals with the political and social influences of the relationship between the state and religious communities in France. The first part of the paper is an analysis of historical context and the construction (evolution of laicism in France through its local characteristics, values and social strengths, contributing to its formation. The fact that Catholic Church was one of the main legitimizing pillars of „the old regime“, permanently determined the relationship between church and state, most importantly - it’s subsequent social exclusion under the Republic. The 1789 French revolution in conjunction with the 1905 law on the Separation of church and state, up until present time, have been seen as the most important events in defining the relationship between political and religious entities in France. The second part of the paper continues in outlining the founding logic and principles of the contemporary relationship between religious communities and the French state. The article concludes in suggesting that through its persistence of a purely Laicistic model of state-church affiliation, view of the nation as a community of citizens, Weberian definition of the State, and the acceptance of the public sphere as common space in which communal interests are negated, France today represents an isolated island on the European continent.

  16. Unveiling the geography of historical patents in the United States from 1836 to 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Sergio; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Rigby, David L.

    2016-01-01

    It is clear that technology is a key driver of economic growth. Much less clear is where new technologies are produced and how the geography of U.S. invention has changed over the last two hundred years. Patent data report the geography, history, and technological characteristics of invention. However, those data have only recently become available in digital form and at the present time there exists no comprehensive dataset on the geography of knowledge production in the United States prior to 1975. The database presented in this paper unveils the geography of historical patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 1836 to 1975. This historical dataset, HistPat, is constructed using digitalized records of original patent documents that are publicly available. We describe a methodological procedure that allows recovery of geographical information on patents from the digital records. HistPat can be used in different disciplines ranging from geography, economics, history, network science, and science and technology studies. Additionally, it is easily merged with post-1975 USPTO digital patent data to extend it until today. PMID:27576103

  17. Geophysical investigations in the territory of Bolgar state historical and architectural museum-reserve in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brednikov Konstantin I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of geophysical investigations which was carried out in 2014 in the territory of Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve are reviewed in the article. Territory of Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve is part of the UNESCO protected sites. The set of works included wide range of geophysical investigations: magnetometry, gravimetry, electrical prospecting and georadar. The main goal of investigations was detecting and localization of archaeological objects remnant (houses, mausoleums, kilns, etc.. Magnetometry was the basic method during carrying out the works. Magnetic measurements are used in the practice of archaeological investigations very widely due to the high informativeness and productiveness of this method. The major search objects are the brick bases and building walls, accumulation of fired ceramic, the remnants of furnace construction for various purposes. Georadar survey, gravity and electrical prospecting were used for localization of nonmagnetic objects. It is identified a line of objects differing in its properties and purpose as a result of research. There are furnaces, mausoleum bases, remains of domestic buildings. Methodology for conducting of field experiments has been refined and optimized in the process of carrying out of geophysical investigations.

  18. Historical Variable Star Catalogs

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Graur, Or; Murray, Zachary; Kruk, Julia; Christie-Dervaux, Lucien; Chen, Dong Yi

    2015-01-01

    Slides from my talk during one of the Historical Astronomy Division sessions at AAS 225 in Seattle, WA (January 2015). A brief history of the variable star catalogs Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin assembled at Harvard, and the update to them that some of our students at AMNH have done.(Figshare only previews the first few slides. Download the PDF to see all of them!)

  19. {Omega}{sup -} signal in WA85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antinori, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Abatzis, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Bravar, A.; Carney, J.N.; Cruz, B. de la; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Girone, M.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Navach, F.; Narjoux, J.L.; Penzo, A.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Vortruba, M.F. [Athens Univ., Nuclear Physics Dept. (Greece)]|[Dipt. di Fisica, Univ. Bari (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy)]|[Bergen Univ. (Norway)]|[Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)]|[CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[College de France, 75 - Paris (France)]|[IN2P3, 75 - Paris (France)]|[CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); WA85 Collaboration

    1994-01-03

    We have extracted from the full WA85 1990 data set a sample of 14 {Omega}{sup -}+anti {Omega}{sup -} candidates. We describe the selection criteria, and give a measurement of the anti {Omega}{sup -}/{Omega}{sup -} ratio at central rapidity and p{sub T}>1.6 GeV/c. (orig.)

  20. The early novels of Ngugi Wa Thiongo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gladys

    2006-05-06

    May 6, 2006 ... A dominant feature in the novels of Ngugi Wa Thiong‟o is the way he presents. Christians and Christianity ... visible; and to seek answers to questions about the whole spectre of human life. This, we ... Indeed the early African American writings, such the poetry of Phyllis Wheatley – who wrote as far back as.

  1. IKAR, a ionization chamber for WA9

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    This ionization chamber arrived at CERN from Leningrad for a high precision study of hadron elastic scattering by a CERN-Clermont-Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration in the H3 beam (WA9). G.A. Korolev (third from right) looks at the drawings.

  2. 2012 USGS Lidar: Elwha River (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Elwha River, WA LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01088 Woolpert Order No....

  3. Significant Historical and Projected Increases in Evaporative Demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, D. L.; Novick, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change will modify vapor pressure deficit (VPD) via increases in air temperature and changes in relative humidity. VPD is the difference between the water vapor the air can hold at saturation (es) and the actual amount of water vapor (ea) and is a critical determinant for the exchange of water vapor and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere. Over non-vegetated surfaces, increases in VPD will increase the evapotranspiration (ET) rate; however, over vegetated ecosystems, stomata close when VPD is high, modifying the rates of ET and reducing carbon uptake. This work assesses how VPD, es, ea, and their underlying climatic components (maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity) have been changing in the United States for the recent, observed past (1979-2013) and how these components may change in the future (2065-2099) using 18 downscaled General Circulation Models (GCMs). An increase in historic VPD was observed for all seasons, and was especially apparent in the southwestern United States. The increases in VPD are a result of directional or divergent changes in es and ea, where es is increasing for a large portion of the United States from increases in air temperature while ea is decreasing from decreases in relative humidity. GCM projections indicate similar, but stronger patterns into future. There is GCM agreement that VPD will increase compared to the historical time period due to temperature-driven increases in es that are not matched by concomitant increases in ea, reflecting a general pattern of declining relative humidity moving forward.

  4. Transvaginal mesh: a historical review and update of the current state of affairs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shilpa; Botros, Sylvia M

    2017-04-01

    Transvaginal mesh usage has been at the forefront of popular media and academic debate for the past 10 years. Several US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) communications, society statements, and research articles have been written in an attempt to define and articulate the classification system, safety data, and efficacy of this approach to transvaginal surgery. In this review, we explore the history of transvaginal mesh surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), review FDA and society statements, and research current practice in the United States. We searched the English language literature using PubMed for articles related to safety and monitoring of transvaginal mesh and reviewed all FDA publication and notices and gynecology and urogynecology society statements on its use in the United States. We then reviewed 22 articles and grouped them into several sections. Mesh used to augment transvaginal repair of POP was introduced in the United States in 2005 without clinical safety and efficacy data. In the subsequent years of use, both major and minor complications were increasingly reported, leading to several FDA notifications and warnings. The type of mesh used, reporting and classifications systems, and provider usage has varied widely over time. We present a historical review of transvaginal mesh use for pelvic organ prolapse in the United States from 2005 to 2016. There continues to be heated debate among practitioners about balancing the efficacy of mesh use to decrease recurrent prolapse and complications. Research into safety and efficacy, along with tighter FDA regulations, is ongoing.

  5. Riwaya ya Kiswahili katika ufundishaji wa historia | Mlaga | Kiswahili

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makala haya yanachunguza uwezekano wa riwaya ya Kiswahili kutumika katika ufundishaji wa historia. Makala yamejiegemeza katika kuonesha namna ambavyo riwaya kama utanzu mmojawapo wa fasihi unafaa kufundishia historia. Hivyo basi, hoja mbalimbali zinabainishwa ili kuonesha namna ambavyo riwaya ya ...

  6. Utayarishaji Wa Vitabu Vya Kufundishia Kiswahili Kama Lugha Ya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utayarishaji Wa Vitabu Vya Kufundishia Kiswahili Kama Lugha Ya Kigeni: Haja Ya Kuzingatia Mkabala Wa Mawasiliano. PCK Mtesigwa. Abstract. Makala haya yanakusudia kutoa misingi muhimu ya utayarishaji wa vitabu vya kufundishia lugha ya Kiswahili kama Lugha ya Kigeni. Kwanza yanataja kwa ufupi malengo ya ...

  7. 78 FR 15293 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is... swing span of the BNSF Railway Bridge across the Columbia River at Vancouver, WA will be disabled and...

  8. 75 FR 57375 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo, WA AGENCY... E airspace at Toledo, WA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... controlled airspace at Toledo, WA (75 FR 33559). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  9. MCHANGO WA MWALIMU J.K. NYERERE KATIKA TAFSIRI NA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kwa kuzingatia tafsiri mbili za J.K. Nyerere, Julius Kaizer (1963) na Mabepari wa Venus (1969), makala inaeleza: (i) kwa nini Mwalimu Nyerere alitafsiri maandishi ya Shakespeare, (ii) ufanisi wa tafsiri zake, na (iii) mchango wa tafsiri hizo. Makala inaonyesha kuwa tafsiri hizo zinazingatia mbinu za kisemantiki zaidi kuliko ...

  10. RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies): a tool for historical biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Harris, Alan J; Blair, Christopher; He, Xingjin

    2015-06-01

    We announce the release of Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP), a user-friendly software package for inferring historical biogeography through reconstructing ancestral geographic distributions on phylogenetic trees. RASP utilizes the widely used Statistical-Dispersal Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA), the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC) model (Lagrange), a Statistical DEC model (S-DEC) and BayArea. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify a phylogenetic tree or set of trees and geographic distribution constraints, draws pie charts on the nodes of a phylogenetic tree to indicate levels of uncertainty, and generates high-quality exportable graphical results. RASP can run on both Windows and Mac OS X platforms. All documentation and source code for RASP is freely available at http://mnh.scu.edu.cn/soft/blog/RASP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The historical origins of the vegetative state: Received wisdom and the utility of the text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zoe M; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is one of the most iconic and misunderstood phrases in clinical neuroscience. Coined as a diagnostic category by Scottish neurosurgeon Bryan Jennett and American neurologist Fred Plum in 1972, the phrase "vegetative" first appeared in Aristotle's treatise On the Soul (circa mid-fourth century BCE). Aristotle influenced neuroscientists of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, Xavier Bichat and Walter Timme, and informed their conceptions of the vegetative nervous system. Plum credits Bichat and Timme in his use of the phrase, thus putting the ancient and modern in dialogue. In addition to exploring Aristotle's definition of the "vegetative" in the original Greek, we put Aristotle in conversation with his contemporaries-Plato and the Hippocratics-to better apprehend theories of mind and consciousness in antiquity. Utilizing the discipline of reception studies in classics scholarship, we demonstrate the importance of etymology and historical origin when considering modern medical nosology.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Historic Places by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the total number of historic places located within each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC). The historic places data were compiled from...

  13. United States Historical Climatology Network (US HCN) monthly temperature and precipitation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Boden, T.A. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Easterling, D.R.; Karl, T.R.; Mason, E.H.; Hughes, P.Y.; Bowman, D.P. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)

    1996-01-11

    This document describes a database containing monthly temperature and precipitation data for 1221 stations in the contiguous United States. This network of stations, known as the United States Historical Climatology Network (US HCN), and the resulting database were compiled by the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina. These data represent the best available data from the United States for analyzing long-term climate trends on a regional scale. The data for most stations extend through December 31, 1994, and a majority of the station records are serially complete for at least 80 years. Unlike many data sets that have been used in past climate studies, these data have been adjusted to remove biases introduced by station moves, instrument changes, time-of-observation differences, and urbanization effects. These monthly data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP includes this document and 27 machine-readable data files consisting of supporting data files, a descriptive file, and computer access codes. This document describes how the stations in the US HCN were selected and how the data were processed, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, describes the format and contents of the magnetic media, and provides reprints of literature that discuss the editing and adjustment techniques used in the US HCN.

  14. A state-and-transition simulation modeling approach for estimating the historical range of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kori Blankenship

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reference ecological conditions offer important context for land managers as they assess the condition of their landscapes and provide benchmarks for desired future conditions. State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs are commonly used to estimate reference conditions that can be used to evaluate current ecosystem conditions and to guide land management decisions and activities. The LANDFIRE program created more than 1,000 STSMs and used them to assess departure from a mean reference value for ecosystems in the United States. While the mean provides a useful benchmark, land managers and researchers are often interested in the range of variability around the mean. This range, frequently referred to as the historical range of variability (HRV, offers model users improved understanding of ecosystem function, more information with which to evaluate ecosystem change and potentially greater flexibility in management options. We developed a method for using LANDFIRE STSMs to estimate the HRV around the mean reference condition for each model state in ecosystems by varying the fire probabilities. The approach is flexible and can be adapted for use in a variety of ecosystems. HRV analysis can be combined with other information to help guide complex land management decisions.

  15. The historical decline of tobacco smoking among United States physicians: 1949–1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use became an ingrained habit in the United States (US following the First World War and a large proportion of physicians, similar to the general population, were smokers. The period from 1949 to 1984 was a pivotal era of change however, as the medical profession, like the society it served, became increasingly aware of the dangers that tobacco incurred for health. Methods An extensive review targeted all manuscripts published in academic journals between 1949 and 1984 that related to tobacco smoking among US physicians. The study was undertaken in 2007–08 with an internet search of relevant medical databases, after which time the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to find additional articles. Results A total of 57 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. From a research perspective, the methodology and coverage of smoking surveys ranged from detailed national investigations, to local medical association surveys, and journal readership questionnaires. From a historical perspective, it can be seen that by the 1950s many US physicians had begun questioning the safety of tobacco products, and by the 1960s and 1970s, this had resulted in a continuous decline in tobacco use. By the 1980s, few US physicians were still smoking, and many of their younger demographic had probably never smoked at all. Conclusion Although the quality and coverage of historical surveys varied over time, a review of their main results indicates a clear and consistent decline in tobacco use among US physicians between 1949 and 1984. Much can be learned from this pivotal era of public health, where the importance of scientific knowledge, professional leadership and social responsibility helped set positive examples in the fight against tobacco.

  16. Members of the WA9 team celebrate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    WA9 was an experiment set up by the Clermont Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration to study with high precision elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region. Here: A.A. Vorobyov, M. Querrou, A.P. Kashchuk, I.I. Tkach, J.P. Martin, T. Ekelöf, G.A. Korolev, (?), V.A. Schegelsky, A.S. Denisov, S. Kullander, M. Chemarin, P. Grafström, S. Maury, E. Hagberg

  17. Recent results from the WA98 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peitzmann, T.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Baldine, A.; Barabach, L.; Barlag, C.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bohne, E.-M.; Bucher, D.; Buijs, A.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chalyshev, V.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherbatchev, R.; Chujo, T.; Claussen, A.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Delagrange, H.; Djordjadze, V.; Donni, P.; Doubovik, I.; Dutt, S.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; El Chenawi, K.; Eliseev, S.; Enosawa, K.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Gupta, S.K.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Higuchi, R.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kato, S.; Kim, H.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuzmin, N.; Langbein, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Loehner, H.; Luquin, L.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Martinez, G.; Maximov, A.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mgebrichvili, G.; Miake, Y.; Mikhalev, D.; Mir, Md.F.; Mishra, G.C.; Miyamoto, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Myalkovski, V.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Neumaier, S.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nilsson, P.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokonov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Pachr, M.; Parfenov, A.; Pavliouk, S.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Pinganaud, W.; Purschke, M.L.; Raeven, B.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Roy, C.; Rubio, J.M.; Sako, H.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Shah, T.H.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K. [and others

    1999-12-27

    Recent results of the WA98 experiment with Pb induced reactions at 158. A GeV are presented. The scaling properties of the transverse energy and the charged particle multiplicity at midrapidity with the number of participants is studied. Neutral pion spectra are compared to hydrodynamical parameterizations. The analysis of collective flow at target rapidity and at midrapidity is presented. The status of the study of direct photons and the search for isospin fluctuations is discussed.

  18. Recent results from the WA98 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peitzmann, Thomas; Agnihotri, A; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Baldin, A; Barabash, L; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bohne, E M; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S K; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Frolov, V; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S I A; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Sen-Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kim, H; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mehdiyev, R; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mikhalev, D; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Myalkovskii, V; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Parfenov, A; Pavlyuk, S; Petracek, V; Plasil, F; Pinganaud, W; Purschke, M L; Räven, B; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Sumbera, M; Svensson, T; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R

    1999-01-01

    Recent results of the WA98 experiment with Pb induced reactions at 158.A GeV are presented. The scaling properties of the transverse energy and the charged particle multiplicity at midrapidity with the number of participants is studied. Neutral pion spectra are compared to hydrodynamical parameterizations. The analysis of collective flow at target rapidity and at midrapidity is presented. The status of the study of direct photons and the search for isospin fluctuations is discussed. (30 refs).

  19. Experiment WA1 (CDHS Neutrino Experiment)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Experiment WA1, also known under CDHS (CERN, Dortmund, Heidelberg, Saclay; spokesman Jack Steinberger), was the first neutrino experiment on the SPS, in its West Area. Magnetized iron (with a toroidal field) forms the core of the detector. On its outside we see drift chambers and photomultipliers (detecting the light from the plastic scintillators further in). Peter Schilly is wearing a white coat. See also CERN Annual Report 1976, p.57.

  20. The historic data series on AIDS in the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Lima Pedrosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the historic records on AIDS in the Brazilian state of Ceará, with analysis by gender, age group and race. It is a descriptive, retrospective, ecological study, analyzing 7,896 notifications of cases of AIDS, of people aged 13 and above, resident in the Ceará, over the period 2001 through 2011. Percentage occurrences and other data were calculated based on the variables gender, age group and race. Average and comparison tests were made, considering p < 0.05 and the trend line. There is a progressive increase in the number of cases. The majority of cases are in men. The ratio between the sexes falls from 2003 through 2007, but the number of women is still lower overall in the period. Higher rates of occurrence were found between the ages of 30 and 39, and of those with black-white mixed-race skin color (80%. Based on the variables studied in the series that was analyzed, the results indicate a need for differentiated strategies in prevention and control of the disease in the state.

  1. 75 FR 72781 - Buckhorn Exploration Project 2010, Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Okanogan County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Forest Service Buckhorn Exploration Project 2010, Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Okanogan County, WA Joint Lead Agencies: Forest Service, Department of Agriculture; and Department of Natural Resources... of Ecology, Washington State. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement...

  2. Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills: Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Myers, Perry A; Millsap, Daniel; Regnier, Tamsen B; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    The Empire Mine, together with other mines in the Grass Valley mining district, produced at least 21.3 million troy ounces (663 tonnes) of gold (Au) during the 1850s through the 1950s, making it the most productive hardrock Au mining district in California history (Clark 1970). The Empire Mine State Historic Park (Empire Mine SHP or EMSHP), established in 1975, provides the public with an opportunity to see many well-preserved features of the historic mining and mineral processing operations (CDPR 2014a).A legacy of Au mining at Empire Mine and elsewhere is contamination of mine wastes and associated soils, surface waters, and groundwaters with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and other metals. At EMSHP, As has been the principal contaminant of concern and the focus of extensive remediation efforts over the past several years by the State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and Newmont USA, Ltd. In addition, the site is the main focus of a multidisciplinary research project on As bioavailability and bioaccessibility led by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Brownfields Program.This chapter was prepared as a guide for a field trip to EMSHP held on June 14, 2014, in conjunction with a short course on “Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology of Arsenic” held in Nevada City, California on June 15–16, 2014. This guide contains background information on geological setting, mining history, and environmental history at EMSHP and other historical Au mining districts in the Sierra Nevada, followed by descriptions of the field trip stops.

  3. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. Historical View of the Influences of Measurement and Writing Theories on the Practice of Writing Assessment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behizadeh, Nadia; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interactions among measurement theories, writing theories, and writing assessments in the United States from an historical perspective. The assessment of writing provides a useful framework for examining how theories influence, and in some cases fail to influence actual practice. Two research traditions…

  5. Historical and Contemporary Factors Contributing to the Plight of Migrant Farmworkers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas Donohoe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Migrant farmworkers provide an essential service and perform jobs that many Americans are unwilling to do. Immigration practices and policies dictate the extent to which undocumented migrant farmworkers have access to governmental health and social services, and are ever-changing based on the political climate. This paper reviews historical and contemporary United States government policies relevant to migrant farmworkers. It refutes some of the common myths regarding documented and undocumented immigrants and migrant farmworkers, such as "U.S. public health insurance programs are overburdened with immigrants," "undocumented immigrants are taking advantage of the American system by 'free riding' and are a 'drain on the economy,'" and "undocumented immigrants take American jobs." Even though their jobs involve significant occupational hazards, undocumented migrant farmworkers are ineligible for government services, and employers generally do not provide these workers with health insurance. Migrant farmworkers also face food insecurity, poor housing conditions, impaired access to education for their children, and even human rights violations. These conditions, as well as the nature of their work, affect the health of undocumented migrant farmworkers and their children. This paper analyzes these inequities and calls for a more just and equitable system that treats migrant farmworkers fairly and provides them and their families with social services and health care.

  6. Titanium in dentistry: historical development, state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juliana Ribeiro Pala; Barão, Valentim Adelino; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Titanium is a metallic element known by several attractive characteristics, such as biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and high mechanical resistance. It is widely used in Dentistry, with high success rates, providing a favorable biological response when in contact with live tissues. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the different uses of titanium in Dentistry, reviewing its historical development and discoursing about its state of art and future perspective of its utilization. A search in the MEDLINE/PubMed database was performed using the terms 'titanium', 'dentistry' and 'implants'. The title and abstract of articles were read, and after this first screening 20 articles were selected and their full-texts were downloaded. Additional text books and manual search of reference lists within selected articles were included. Correlated literature showed that titanium is the most used metal in Implantology for manufacturing osseointegrated implants and their systems, with a totally consolidated utilization. Moreover, titanium can be also employed in prosthodontics to obtain frameworks. However, problems related to its machining, casting, welding and ceramic application for dental prosthesis are still limiting its use. In Endodontics, titanium has been used in association to nickel for manufacturing rotatory instruments, providing a higher resistance to deformation. However, although the different possibilities of using titanium in modern Dentistry, its use for prostheses frameworks still needs technological improvements in order to surpass its limitations.

  7. Identification of historic apple trees in the Southwestern United States and implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity of landrace and heirloom fruit varieties has declined worldwide over the past century. Abandoned farmsteads and historic orchards harbor considerable agrobiodiversity, but the extent and location of that diversity is poorly understood. We assessed the genetic diversity of 280 historic ...

  8. Determination of the historical variation of the trophic state in lakes using sediment stratigraphies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic silica (BSi and phosphorous (P accumulation were investigated in sediment cores from Karlskärsviken, a bay of Lake Mälaren. The aim was to make use of BSi and P relations in sediment stratigraphies in order to investigate the historical nutrient trophy in a near shore lake environment since the Middle Ages, with focus on industrial times, and to evaluate anthropogenic influences on the bay's trophic state. The BSi accumulation in the sediments is a better indicator of former nutrient pelagic trophy than P accumulation in sediments and for this reason a BSi inferred P (BSi-P water concentration is calculated. This method enables the determination of the background total phosphorous (TP concentration (which is related to the reference conditions in the investigated bay; this background TP is determined equal to 0.020–0.022 mg L−1. There is an increasing trend of BSi-P concentration in the bay since the Middle Ages to the present, about 0.025 mg L−1, with a small decrease in the inner bay section during the last decades. The P accumulation rate is not found to have changed since the 1960s and 1970s, which indicates that the P loading to Karlskärsviken has not decreased. In Karlskärsviken, the shallow inner section of the bay, where the water quality is dominated by loading from the bay catchment area, is less nutritious than the water in the outer section, which is influenced by the main streams from the western part of Lake Mälaren.

  9. State-of-the-art of the historical seismology in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Salcedo Hurtado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia are available a discreet number of historical seismology investigations, dating back 50 years. This paper reviews basic information about earthquakes studies in Colombia, such as primary sources, compilation of descriptive catalogues and parametric catalogues. Father Jesús Emilio Ramírez made the main systematic study before 1975. During the last 20 years, great earthquakes hit Colombia and, as consequence, historical seismology investigation was developed in the frame of seismic hazard projects.

  10. Historical statistics for mineral and material commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas; Matos, Grecia; with Buckingham, David; DiFrancesco, Carl; Porter, Kenneth; Berry, Cyrus; Crane, Melissa; Goonan, Thomas; Sznopek, John

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information to the public and to policy-makers concerning the current use and flow of minerals and materials in the United States economy. The USGS collects, analyzes, and disseminates minerals information on most nonfuel mineral commodities.This USGS digital database is an online compilation of historical U.S. statistics on mineral and material commodities. The database contains information on approximately 90 mineral commodities, including production, imports, exports, and stocks; reported and apparent consumption; and unit value (the real and nominal price in U.S. dollars of a metric ton of apparent consumption). For many of the commodities, data are reported as far back as 1900. Each commodity file includes a document that describes the units of measure, defines terms, and lists USGS contacts for additional information End-use tables complement these statistics by supplying, for most of these commodities, information about the distribution of apparent consumption.This publication draws on more than 125 years of minerals information experience. At the request of the 47th Congress of the United States (1882; 22 Stat. 329), the U.S. Government began the collection and public distribution of these types of data. The Federal agencies responsible for the collection of the data have changed through time. For the years 1882-1924, the USGS collected and published these data; the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) performed these tasks from 1925-95; and in 1996, the responsibilities once again passed to the USGS (following the closure of the USBM) (Mlynarski, 1998).The USGS collects data on a monthly, quarterly, semiannual, and annual basis from more than 18,000 minerals-related producer and consumer establishments that cooperate with the USGS. These companies voluntarily complete about 40,000 canvass forms that survey production, consumption, recycling, stocks, shipments, and other essential information. Data are also gathered from

  11. The social construction of disasters in the United States: A historical and cultural phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaves, Tonya T; Wachhaus, T Aaron; Royer, Grace A

    Societal risks from hazards are continually increasing. Each year, disasters cause thousands of deaths and cost billions of dollars. In the first half of 2011, the United States endured countless disasters-winter snowstorms in the Midwest and Northeast; severe tornadic weather in the Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri; flash flooding in Nashville; flooding along the Mississippi River; an earthquake on the East Coast, wildfires in Texas, and Hurricane Irene. Fundamental disaster planning is regarded as an interdisciplinary approach to develop strategies and instituting policies concerned with phases of emergency management; as such, its needs are predicated on the identification of hazards and assessment of risks. Even if the probability or intensity of risks to disasters remains fairly constant, population growth, alongside economic and infrastructural development, will unavoidably result in a concomitant increase of places prone to such events. One of the greatest barriers to emergency management efforts is the failure to fully grasp the socially and politically constructed meaning of disasters. This article investigates the ways in which language has been used historically in the American lexicon to make sense of disasters in the United States in an effort to improve communal resiliency. Serving as both an idea and experience, the terminology used to convey our/the modern-day concept of disaster is a result of a cultural artifact, ie, a given time and specific place. Tools such as Google Ngram Viewer and CASOS AutoMap are used to explore the penetration, duration, and change in disaster terminology among American English literature for more than 200 years, from 1800 to 2008, by quantifying written culture. The language of disasters is an integral part of disaster response, as talking is the primary way that most people respond to and recover from disasters. The vast majority of people are not affected by any given disaster, and so it is through discussing a

  12. Asili na Chimbuko la Wazungumzaji wa Kimakunduchi: Hoja za ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wakati tukiwa tunasherehekea mafanikio ya lugha ya Kiswahili katika nyanja mbalimbali, hatuna budi kujiuliza katika mijadala yetu ni kwa kiwango gani tumezishirikisha lahaja za Kiswahili katika kubaini mambo mbalimbali ikiwemo historia ya lugha hii. Tukumbuke kwamba wakati wa uteuzi wa lahaja ya Kiunguja kuwa ...

  13. 77 FR 24146 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA..., Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River at Vancouver, Washington, bounded by a line commencing at the northern base of the Interstate 5 highway bridge...

  15. 77 FR 53141 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, OR and Vancouver, WA. This deviation is...

  16. Ujanibishaji wa Office 2003 na Windows XP kwa Kiswahili Sanifu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mradi wa ujanibishaji wa Office 2003 na Windows XP kwa Kiswahili sanifu ulitekelezwa katika kipindi 2004-2005. Malengo ya mradi yalikuwa: (1) kuandaa istilahi za kompyuta kwa Kiingereza-Kiswahili, na (2) kutafsiri programu nne za kawaida za Office (Outlook, Excel, Word na PowerPoint) na Windows XP. Makala hii ina ...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  18. Factors associated with death from dengue in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Kauara Brito; Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-02-01

    To analyse the clinical and epidemiological profiles of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and complicated dengue cases and deaths from 2008 to 2010 that occurred in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil, and to identify factors associated with death from dengue. Historical cohort study using data from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases. A descriptive analysis of the DHF, DSS and complicated dengue cases and deaths was performed; the incidence, mortality and case-fatality rates were estimated. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with death from dengue. Comorbidities were not included in the analysis because the information system does not contain such data. During the study period, 2214 DHF, DSS and complicated dengue cases were reported, including 156 deaths. The annual case-fatality rates for DHF/DSS and complicated dengue cases in the period of 2008-2010 were 7.3%, 4.8% and 7.9%, respectively. The factors associated with death from dengue included residence in a municipality with a population of fewer than 100,000 inhabitants [odds ratio (OR) 2.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-3.55], age over 65 years (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.99-4.68) and plasma leakage (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.16-2.46). The results support the importance of plasma leakage as a warning sign associated with death from dengue as well as the signs and symptoms that allow the diagnosis of DHF. Moreover, our findings suggest that increased attention is necessary for individuals over 65 years of age and in municipalities with populations under 100,000 inhabitants to ensure a better quality of care during the management of severe patients of dengue in these locations. Differences in the interpretation of the DHF definition have hindered the comparison of data from different countries; it can improve from the WHO 2009 dengue classification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Detection of Historical and Future Precipitation Variations and Extremes Over the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce T. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Problem: The overall goal of this proposal is to detect observed seasonal-mean precipitation variations and extreme event occurrences over the United States. Detection, e.g. the process of demonstrating that an observed change in climate is unusual, first requires some means of estimating the range of internal variability absent any external drivers. Ideally, the internal variability would be derived from the observations themselves, however generally the observed variability is a confluence of both internal variability and variability in response to external drivers. Further, numerical climate models—the standard tool for detection studies—have their own estimates of intrinsic variability, which may differ substantially from that found in the observed system as well as other model systems. These problems are further compounded for weather and climate extremes, which as singular events are particularly ill-suited for detection studies because of their infrequent occurrence, limited spatial range, and underestimation within global and even regional numerical models. Rationale: As a basis for this research we will show how stochastic daily-precipitation models—models in which the simulated interannual-to-multidecadal precipitation variance is purely the result of the random evolution of daily precipitation events within a given time period—can be used to address many of these issues simultaneously. Through the novel application of these well-established models, we can first estimate the changes/trends in various means and extremes that can occur even with fixed daily-precipitation characteristics, e.g. that can occur simply as a result of the stochastic evolution of daily weather events within a given climate. Detection of a change in the observed climate—either naturally or anthropogenically forced—can then be defined as any change relative to this stochastic variability, e.g. as changes/trends in the means and extremes that could only have occurred

  20. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  1. The Historical Development of the Relation Between the Church and the State in Great Britain: Key Milestones and Metamorphoses of the "State Church" in a Multicultural Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Špehar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses historical development of the relation between the Church and the State in Great Britain from the separation from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534 to contemporary changes. In accordance with the premises of historical institutionalism, the paper tries to identify milestones in the relation between the Church and the State which have decisively shaped the creation of the contemporary British model of the relation between the two. Since the British model has often been simplified to the model of the “State Church” in different overviews of the relation between the Church and the State in Europe, the paper aims to present some of the key characteristics of regulation of the Church-State relation and social changes which result in modifications to the ideal type of the “State Church”. In this respect, it is noteworthy to examine the debate on the multicultural society in Great Britain, as well as possibilities and limitations of the numerous theories of multiculturalism. Bearing in mind the fact that the British model of the relation between the Church and the State stands representative for similar models found in other Scandinavian countries, the application of this research can be extended to the European level in the process of finding a common approach to the dialogue with different Churches, religious communities and communities of atheistic and agnostic beliefs.

  2. Partnership Opportunities In Earth System Science Education Between Historically Black and Historically White Universities: Elizabeth City State University and the University of New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. E.; Hayden, L. B.; Wake, C. P.; Varner, R. K.; Graham, K.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Porter, W.; Blackmon, R.; Bryce, J. G.; Branch, B. D.; Johnson, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Federal efforts to promote the participation of underrepresented students in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines (STEM) in higher education have been in effect over several decades. The Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act of 1980 aimed to create equal opportunity in the STEM disciplines by promoting and broadening the participation of underrepresented talent in science and engineering. Since that time, federal agencies such as the National Science Foundation, NOAA and NASA, scientific organizations such as the American Geophysical Union, and other organizations such as the Educational Testing Service have created programs, diversity plans and cutting edge reports designed to further explicate the need to broaden the participation of underrepresented student talent in these disciplines. Despite increases in the degrees awarded to underrepresented students in the STEM disciplines, enhancing diversity in these disciplines continues to remain a significant challenge. This paper describes a strategic approach to this challenge via the development of a collaborative partnership model between two universities: the historically black Elizabeth City State University (ESCU) and the historically white University of New Hampshire (UNH). The alliance, built on a mutually-agreed upon set of partnership principles, strives to enhance opportunities for underrepresented students to pursue careers in STEM disciplines, specifically those in Earth system science and remote sensing. In examining the partnership, six promising practices that help advance its success come to the forefront. These practices include institutional commitment and faculty engagement, mutual respect and shared time commitment, identifying engaged leadership, engaging critical change agents, initiating difficult dialogues, and preparing for growth and evolution. Outcomes of the partnership to date include the successful submission and funding of four collaborative

  3. Mapping Depth to Argillic Horizon Using Electromagnetic Induction on Historically Farmed Soils within the Piedmont Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, R.; Markewitz, D.; Thompson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historic agricultural practices throughout the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States from 1820 to 1940 led to accelerated erosion. Practices, such as tilling, degraded soil quality altering hydrologic processes on the landscape by limiting infiltration and leading to overland flow and erosion. Erosion due to these practices has substantially redistributed sediment from upper to lower landscape positions, causing a change in the depth-to-argillic horizon along hillslopes. By mapping the depth to argillic horizon within watersheds that have a history of farming and watersheds with little evidence of agricultural disturbance, a better understanding of the effects of farming practices on erosion and sediment redistribution can be made. This study uses extensive soil sampling within historically farmed and unfarmed watersheds to map spatial variations in the depth to argillic horizon. In addition to sampling, Electro-magnetic Induction (EMI) is being tested and calibrated to clay content and other topographic characteristic (i.e. landscape position, aspect, percent slope) from which the depth to argillic horizon can be predicted. Current hillslope and watershed hydrologic models use characteristics from soil classification maps for parameterization, however, these soil maps may lack sufficient spatial detail and may not accurately represent landscapes that have been eroded from historical farming. The results from this study will improve understanding of previous erosion on sediment redistribution and will characterize the potential use of electromagnetic induction as an accurate and efficient means to predict the depth to the argillic horizon. This information will improve parameterization of hillslope and watershed hydrologic models.

  4. Leveraging spatial statistics in the development of an historical narrative for water resources in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, J. H.; Brideau, J. M.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The complexity of water resource issues in the Northeast United States is engendered by multiple causal factors and interdependent relationships. Here, we present research that utilized spatial statistics to identify coincident areas of statistically high values (spatial autocorrelation) for biophysical variables such as nutrient loading, population growth, water withdrawals and others in the Northeast United States. The goals of this project were to identify sub-regions in the Northeastern United States that were spatially autocorrelated for multiple variables, and to relate these hotspots to social movements in an historical context. The data employed in this research were point (e.g., wastewater treatment plant location) and county level information for socioeconomic, hydrologic, and water usage variables. We used Local Indicators of Spatial Association, a spatial statistic, to identify county clusters of positive spatial autocorrelation for the region. These clusters were simultaneously overlaid onto a single map to identify areas of positive spatial autocorrelation among multiple variables. Preliminary spatial analysis results suggest that, between 1970 and 2000, positive spatial autocorrelation occurred among nutrient loads, wastewater treatment plant construction, population growth, and dam construction in the Chesapeake Bay area. The New York/New Jersey corridor also showed positive spatial autocorrelation among groundwater withdrawals, thermoelectric power generation, population growth, and wastewater treatment plant construction. Additionally, evaluation of these spatial clusters within their historical context suggests a regional linkage between surface water pollution, environmental regulation, and wastewater treatment plant construction. The results of this project indicate that spatial autocorrelation metrics can be employed in the creation of an historical narrative to more comprehensively understand the interplay between regional socioeconomic

  5. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  6. Ki wa ja loodus / Martin Rünkla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rünk, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Ki wa näitus "Wildlife documentaries" ("Looduse valetõlked") Tallinnas Draakoni galeriis 23. jaanuarini 2010. Eksponeeritud mustvalged tekstimaalid. Kunstnik tõlgendab looduspilte ja helisid tekstina

  7. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  8. Preparation (in Hall 168)of the WA1 apparatus.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The neutrino experiment WA1 at the SPS consists of 19 modules of magnetized iron in which layers of scintillators are inserted. Drift chambers placed between the modules will complete the detector. On the left, Peter Schilly

  9. Physical and mechanical characterisation of historic mortars. Application to the evaluation of the state of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães, A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the physical and mechanical characteristics of historic mortars is of vital importance in the selection of repair mortars for historic buildings. As a result, a need has arisen for test methods that can be used to assess those characteristics in irregular, friable samples.The present paper discusses the results of the experimental characterization of historic Portuguese mortars. The test methods used to evaluate water resistance and compressive strength are described. The compressive strength values found for new mortars using the method proposed and the method specified in European standards are compared and the results used to draw conclusions on the potential of the new technique.The correlation between the initial degree of deterioration determined by visual inspection and the experimental data is discussed.El conocimiento de las características físicas y mecánicas de los morteros antiguos es muy importante a la hora de seleccionar morteros de reparación y de planear adecuadamente cualquier intervención de reparación. Así, se hace necesario definir los métodos de ensayo de caracterización aplicables a las muestras irregulares y friables para evaluar dichas características. En el presente trabajo se presentan y analizan algunos resultados de caracterización experimental de morteros antiguos portugueses, y se describen los métodos de ensayo utilizados para evaluar el comportamiento al agua y la resistencia a la compresión. Mediante la comparación con los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos con morteros nuevos, usando dichos métodos y también los métodos recomendados por la norma europea, se sacan conclusiones sobre el potencial de los métodos.Por último, se establece una correlación entre los resultados experimentales y el nivel de deterioro inicial atribuido a los morteros antiguos mediante inspección visual.

  10. Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 350 years, the eastern half of the United States experienced extensive land cover changes. These began with land clearing in the 1600s, continued with widespread deforestation, wetland drainage, and intensive land use by 1920, and then evolved to the present-day landscape of forest regrowth, intensive agriculture, urban expansion, and landscape fragmentation. Such changes alter biophysical properties that are key determinants of land-atmosphere interactions (water, energy, and carbon exchanges). To understand the potential implications of these land use transformations, we developed and analyzed 20-km land cover and biophysical parameter data sets for the eastern United States at 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 time slices. Our approach combined potential vegetation, county-level census data, soils data, resource statistics, a Landsat-derived land cover classification, and published historical information on land cover and land use. We reconstructed land use intensity maps for each time slice and characterized the land cover condition. We combined these land use data with a mutually consistent set of biophysical parameter classes, to characterize the historical diversity and distribution of land surface properties. Time series maps of land surface albedo, leaf area index, a deciduousness index, canopy height, surface roughness, and potential saturated soils in 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992 illustrate the profound effects of land use change on biophysical properties of the land surface. Although much of the eastern forest has returned, the average biophysical parameters for recent landscapes remain markedly different from those of earlier periods. Understanding the consequences of these historical changes will require land-atmosphere interactions modeling experiments.

  11. Native American Historic Context for the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane K

    2006-01-01

    The United States Military Academy (USMA) is required by Federal laws, Executive Orders, and implementing regulations to conduct consultations with Native American tribes under specific circumstances...

  12. Teen fertility in transition: recent and historic trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, John S; Melnikas, Andrea J

    2010-01-01

    After considerable declines in teen birth and pregnancy rates between 1991 and 2005, teen birth rates rose unexpectedly in 2006 and 2007. To understand these recent trends, we examined historical changes in fertility, trends in sexual behaviors, social forces, and public policies that may influence teen fertility. Although social forces such as poverty are critical in shaping adolescent reproductive choices, these do not explain rapid change in teen pregnancy risk since 1991. These recent changes, including increases in teen births since 2005, follow closely changes in teen contraceptive use. Likewise, contraceptive use is critical in explaining differences between U.S. and European fertility patterns. Public policies related to HIV prevention and sexuality education may have played a critical role in influencing teen pregnancy risk.

  13. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  14. Enlightened state versus millenarian vision: A comparison between two historical novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Roelofse-Campbell

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Two millenarian events, one in Brazil (Canudos Rebellion, 1897 and the other in South Africa (Bulhoek Massacre, 1921 have inspired two works of narrative fiction: Mario Vargas Llosa's The War of the End of the World (1981 and Mike Nicol’s This Day and Age (1992. In both novels the events are presented from the perspectives of both the oppressed landless peasants and the oppressors, who were the ruling élites. In both instances, governments which purported to be models of enlightenment and modernity resorted to violence and repression in order to uphold their authority. Vargas Llosa's novel was written in the Latin American tradition where truth and fiction mingle indistinguishably while in the South African novel fictional elements override historical truth.

  15. Theory of porous media. Historical development and current state. Theorie poroeser Medien. Historische Entwicklung und gegenwaertiger Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, R. de.

    1991-05-01

    Porous solids filled with liquid of gas play an important role in engineering, e.g. in material science, petroleum industry, chemical engineering or in soil mechanics. Although porous media are of considerable practical significance, the description of their thermodynamic behaviour has been very unsatisfactory for a considerable time. The theory for the description of the complex thermodynamical behaviour of such saturated porous solids has come to certain conclusions only recently. The aim of this report is to show the historical development of the theory of porous media, which in some areas has been formed by polemic disputes and tragic events in the lives of the scientists involved, and to discuss the current state of the research into this subject, whereby the state of the material independent basic equations as well as the constitutive theory is illustrated. (orig.).

  16. The North Carolina Capitol: Pride of the State. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Howard

    North Carolina's state capitol rises majestically on Union Square in downtown Raleigh, a city created in 1792 to serve as North Carolina's permanent capital. Built between 1833-40, the granite building is one of the finest and best preserved examples of civic Greek Revival architecture in the United States. This lesson is based on the National…

  17. ...Los U’wa todavía hablan U’wa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA SOLEDAD MONTERO G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1997 y el año 2000, los autores de este ensayo, tuvieron la oportunidad de conocer algunas comunidades indígenas de la familia U'wa. Esto les permitió hacer contactos, recorrer las zonas, visitar las comunidades, sus caminos, sus sitios de encuentro; investigar sobre su historia, su territorio, mitos, ritos y formas de organización. Sus prácticas de salud, de educación y de actividades económicas. Y dentro de esta lista incompleta de aspectos, se hizo una somera contextualización de su lengua, de cuyos elementos centrales hace parte este artículo. El artículo, que aquí se desarrolla, está sustentado en el resultado del estudio etnográfico realizado y que contó con la participación de las comunidades indígenas U'wa asentadas en las veredas de Uncasias, Tamarana y Santa Martha localizadas en el sur del municipio de Toledo - corregimiento de SamorÈ, departamento Norte de Santander.

  18. The Historical Impediments to Arab-Israeli Peace and the Role for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremaine, Robert

    1998-01-01

    .... Since the adoption of UN resolution 181 that divided British ruled Palestine into Jewish and Arab states and brought about conflict between them, a peaceful settlement has eluded Israel and its Arab...

  19. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  20. Fiscal Year 2003 Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003 contains the Budget Message of the President and information on the President's budget and management priorities, including assessments of agencies performance...

  1. Search activity of the passe of the Historical Faculty of Transbaikal State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drobotushenko Evgeniy Viktorovich

    2013-01-01

    .... The focus is on the attitudes towards activities and goals of the search party “Khingan – Khalkhin-Gol” which was established in early 2012 at the Department of History of Transbaikal State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University.

  2. V-FOR-WaTer - a new virtual research environment for environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Marcus; Azmi, Elnaz; Hassler, Sibylle; Mälicke, Mirko; Meyer, Jörg; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    The preparation of heterogeneous datasets for scientific analysis is still a demanding task. Data preprocessing for hydrological models typically involves gathering datasets from different sources, extensive work within geoinformation systems, data transformation, the generation of computational grids and the definition of initial and boundary conditions. V-FOR-WaTer, a standardized and scalable data hub with compatible analysis tools, will ease comprehensive studies and significantly reduce data preparation time. The idea behind V-FOR-WaTer is to bring together various datasets (e.g. point measurements, 2D/3D data, time series data) from different sources (e.g. gathered in research projects, or as part of regular monitoring of state offices) and to provide common as well as innovative scaling tools in space and time to generate a coherent data grid. Each dataset holds detailed standardized metadata to ensure usability of the data, offer a comprehensive search function and provide reference information for appropriate citation of the dataset creators. V-FOR-WaTer includes a basis of data and tools, but its purpose is to grow by users who extend the virtual research environment with their own tools and research data. Researchers who upload new data or tools can receive a digital object identifier, or protect their data and tools from others until publication. Access to data and tools provided from V-FOR-WaTer happens via an easy-to-use web portal. Due to its modular architecture the portal is ready to be extended with new tools and features and also offers interfaces to Matlab, Python and R.

  3. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  4. 78 FR 22289 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native... found the remains on the surface while ] looking for shells and took them home to Illinois. Initially... Museum. A physical anthropologist with the Illinois State Museum analyzed the remains and determined them...

  5. Historical accumulation of nonindigenous forest pests in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Aukema; D.G. McCullough; B. Von Holle; Andrew Liebhold; Kerry Britton; S.J. Frankel

    2010-01-01

    Nonindigenous forest insects and pathogens affect a range of ecosystems, industries, and property owners in the United States. Evaluating temporal patterns in the accumulation of these nonindigenous forest pests can inform regulatory and policy decisions. We compiled a comprehensive species list to assess the accumulation rates of nonindigenous forest insects and...

  6. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  7. Governing Rapid Growth in Asia: State-led Development in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-W. Ngo (Tak-Wing)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth in Asia has often been explained in terms of effective policies pursued by a “developmental state”. In particular, countries in East Asia are said to be characterized by the presence of a strong state with technocratic capacity and social embeddedness. This inaugural address

  8. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  9. Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States: 2016 Historical Trend Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Margaret; Perna, Laura; Yamashita, Mika; Ruiz, Roman; Franklin, Khadish

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this publication are: (1) to report the status of higher education equity in the United States and to identify changes over time in measures of equity; and (2) to identify policies and practices that promote and hinder progress; and to illustrate the need for increased support of policies, programs and practices that not only…

  10. Conservation State of Mural Paintings from a Historic House in Florianópolis-SC, Brazil. A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina ESCORTEGANHA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific approach to conservation and monitoring of mural paintings executed in a historic house with an eclectic style of the twentieth century, located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, is an example of interdisciplinary collaboration between conservators, historians, and scientists in planning and development actions for preventive maintenance as well as interventions of restoration. The mural paintings are recognized worldwide as an architectural element and property, which records the representations of the cultural landscape of an age. In this context, the painting technique found in this house and its state of conservation were investigated by evaluation of pigmented surfaces and then by optical and spectroscopic (IR and EDX techniques. These results were crucial for the record of the characteristic painting present in this building, showing a period marked by intense urban renewal in Brazilian cities.

  11. Historical volcanism and the state of stress in the East African Rift System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wadge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crustal extension at the East African Rift System (EARS should, as a tectonic ideal, involve a stress field in which the direction of minimum horizontal stress is perpendicular to the rift. A volcano in such a setting should produce dykes and fissures parallel to the rift. How closely do the volcanoes of the EARS follow this? We answer this question by studying the 21 volcanoes that have erupted historically (since about 1800 and find that 7 match the (approximate geometrical ideal. At the other 14 volcanoes the orientation of the eruptive fissures/dykes and/or the axes of the host rift segments are oblique to the ideal values. To explain the eruptions at these volcanoes we invoke local (non-plate tectonic variations of the stress field caused by: crustal heterogeneities and anisotropies (dominated by NW structures in the Protoerozoic basement, transfer zone tectonics at the ends of offset rift segments, gravitational loading by the volcanic edifice (typically those with 1-2 km relief and magmatic pressure in central reservoirs. We find that the more oblique volcanoes tend to have large edifices, large eruptive volumes and evolved and mixed magmas capable of explosive behaviour. Nine of the volcanoes have calderas of varying ellipticity, 6 of which are large, reservoir-collapse types mainly elongated across rift (e.g. Kone and 3 are smaller, elongated parallel to the rift and contain active lava lakes (e.g. Erta Ale, suggesting different mechanisms of formation and stress fields. Nyamuragira is the only EARS volcano with enough sufficiently well-documented eruptions to infer its long-term dynamic behaviour. Eruptions within 7 km of the volcano are of relatively short duration (<100 days, but eruptions with more distal fissures tend to have greater obliquity and longer durations, indicating a changing stress field away from the volcano. There were major changes in long-term magma extrusion rates in 1977 (and perhaps in 2002 due to major along

  12. Historic Properties Report: United States Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, Watertown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    cannon, 8 howitzers, and 8 mortars cleaned oiled and lacquered; 71 worms and ladles made; and 12 barrels powder proved.^- is^ iV.- Between 1835... ladles and castings. While the majority of 84 ^^maa^mas^^ WSSSSSMSBB^M^^MSS^M&iMmsmimssssmm & V . •-" ?•-■ Cv Cv ehe scruccure was laid out... refractory ceramics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the development of improved pyrometric quartz at Ohio State University; and the

  13. Separation of Church and State and the First Amendment: A Historical Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    says this division of religious and state powers in a country’s founding document is “the only original part of the Constitution.”3 Some scholars...Europe; in particular, John of Paris, a clergyman himself, who wrote On Royal and Papal Power in 1302 AD. John argued that God is supreme Lord in both...was beginning to be formulated in the most unlikely place, within the Church. The tension caused by increasing papal authority (and in some

  14. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

  15. THC therapeutic research by independent and state-sponsored investigators: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, J A

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the control and use of cannabis in the United States is presented. Essential to the discussion are the federal law: the Marihuana Tax Stamp Act of 1937; the Controlled Substances Act of 1970; and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1962. On mandate of Congress in 1968, initial studies were directed to determine effects of long-term use in man. The annual reporting of the status of "Marihuana and Health" was established. In the early 1970s, the scope of research was broadened to include evaluation of THC for use in certain medical conditions. Interest in therapeutic research may have been influenced by anecdotal reports of benefit for nausea and vomiting of cancer chemotherapy and for elevated intraocular pressure of glaucoma, by the lobbying for laws to legalize marihuana by special interest groups, and by the passage of state "Controlled Substances Therapeutic Research" acts (CSTRA). A listing of approved INDs in four therapeutic categories, a chart comparing the components of laws passed by 25 states, and a bibliography of suggested reading for further contact with the subject matter are included.

  16. Participation of the state in the economic development of Russia’s Arctic: privatization (historical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Olegovna Zalkind

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the processes and results of privatization of enterprises taking place in the Arctic regions of the Russian Federation in the period of 1991–2010. The authors study the aspect concerning the redistribution of influence (financial, political, etc. between companies and the state, and between different levels of power. A conclusion has been made that the 2000–2010 period faced the intensification of transition from the direct intervention model, when the government acts as a regulator and entrepreneur, to the principles of indirect management

  17. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005, and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions emissions agree well with the observed changes in

  18. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2013-08-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2, NO2

  19. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2012-11-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e. 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipments were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2 and NO2 concentrations, suggesting that the various controls on SO2 and NOx emissions implemented over the last two decades are

  20. Ecology, Planning, and River Management in the United States: Some Historical Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuss

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available River ecologists are also river-basin planners. However, their role in planning has developed slowly over the decades since the beginning of the 20th century. Three major factors explain this phenomenon. First, ecologists focused on plant and animal communities rather than on broader policy issues related to land settlement and water development. Second, the federal government, and most state and local governments as well, used mainly economic criteria to justify projects. Intangible benefits, including the value of species or an aesthetically pleasing landscape, drew relatively little attention. Third, the public generally favored development, especially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Only after World War II did the public's position shift in favor of more preservation, as ecologists developed the concept of the ecosystem, large dam projects forced basin inhabitants from their homes, and chemical and nuclear pollutants threatened the environment. Also, urbanization increased support for the preservation of recreation sites and of streams undisturbed by human intervention. Meanwhile, partly through important advances in geomorphology and hydrology, ecologists acquired new tools to understand the land-water relationship within river basins. Neverthless, benefit-cost analysis continued to dominate federal water-resources planning, and organizational culture and competing or overlapping bureaucracies hampered rational water resources administration. Environmental groups and physical, natural, and even social scientists began to promote alternative ways to develop rivers. Today, the ideas of integrated water resources management, sustainable development, and comprehensive river-basin management dominate much of the thinking about the future course of river planning in the United States. Any future planning must include ecologists who can help their planning colleagues choose from among rational choices that balance ecological and human

  1. West Nile Virus in the United States — A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Roehrig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 1999, West Nile virus (WNV was a bit player in the screenplay of global vector-borne viral diseases. First discovered in the West Nile District of Uganda in 1937, this Culex sp.-transmitted virus was known for causing small human febrile outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. Prior to 1995, the last major human WNV outbreak was in the 1950s in Israel. The epidemiology and ecology of WNV began to change in the mid-1990s when an epidemic of human encephalitis occurred in Romania. The introduction of WNV into Eastern Europe was readily explained by bird migration between Africa and Europe. The movement of WNV from Africa to Europe could not, however, predict its surprising jump across the Atlantic Ocean to New York City and the surrounding areas of the United States (U.S.. This movement of WNV from the Eastern to Western Hemisphere in 1999, and its subsequent dissemination throughout two continents in less than ten years is widely recognized as one of the most significant events in arbovirology during the last two centuries. This paper documents the early events of the introduction into and the spread of WNV in the Western Hemisphere.

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  3. Historical overview of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and estimates of fallout in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    From 1945 to 1980, over 500 weapons tests were conducted in the atmosphere at a number of locations around the world. These tests resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive debris to the environment. Local, intermediate, and global fallout deposition densities downwind from test sites depended on the heights of bursts, the yields, and the half-lives and volatilities of the particular fission or activation products, as well as on the meteorological conditions. A number of national and international monitoring programs were established to trace the fallout through the atmosphere and biosphere. These programs included continuous monitoring of ground-level air, exposure rates, and deposition as well as periodic sampling of food, bone, water, soil, and stratospheric air. Although data for specific high-yield tests are still classified, the fission and fusion yields of the various tests and test series have been estimated and from this information the quantities of specific fission and activation products released into the atmosphere have been determined. The geographic and temporal variations in the fallout deposition of specific radionuclides based on both actual measurements and model calculations are discussed in this paper. A feasibility study to estimate the deposition density (deposition per unit area) of particular radionuclides from both Nevada Test Site and "global" fallout on a county-by-county scale for the continental United States is described. These deposition estimates provide a basis for reconstructing population exposure and dose. They support the feasibility of a more detailed evaluation of the population doses that resulted from fallout from atmospheric tests to document the experience fully and to report results more systematically and completely to the world community. The impact of weapons fallout will continue to be felt for years to come since a contaminant baseline has been imposed on the ambient radiation environment that

  4. Seroepidemiologic Survey for Human Sparganosis in Mto wa Mbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sparganum is a plerocercoid of pseudophyllidean tapeworm of Spirometra species. Human sparganosis has been reported in Northern Tanzania. A seroepidemiologic survey was undertaken to detect anti-sparganum specific IgG antibodies in serum of normal inhabitants of Mto wa Mbu, Monduli District, Tanzania.

  5. View of the WA10 set-up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The WA10 experiment by the Geneva-Lausanne Collaboration was set-up in the H5 beam (unseparated, up to 50 GeV/c) to study K+-p --> K0pi+-p and other reactions of similar topology, and the energy dependence of resonance production.

  6. 76 FR 3922 - Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Pacific County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... managing the refuge for 15 years following approval of the final CCP. DATES: To ensure consideration, we... Stenvall, Project Leader, Willapa National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 3888 SR 101, Ilwaco, WA 98624. Web site..., Project Leader, (360) 484-3482. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction The Willapa National Wildlife...

  7. Raimo Pullat kohtus Lech Wałesaga / Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Harda, 1956-

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli emeriitprofessor Raimo Pullat kohtus Poola ekspresidendi Lech Wałesaga Gdanski tehnikakõrgkooli 110. aastapäeva pidustustel, kuhu ta oli kutsutud kui peatselt valmiva teose "Värav tulevikku. Ganzigi Tehnikakõrgkool Eesti haritlaskonna kujunemisloos 1904-1939" autor

  8. 77 FR 66714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has...

  9. 77 FR 38004 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation...

  10. 78 FR 23487 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation...

  11. Use of Mobile Phones to Support Coursework: Evidence from Wa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generated a lot of academic interest. What has even become more interesting is how the mobile phone and its usage can be adopted to respond to different educational environments as well as teaching and learning experiences. But there seems to be little research on how students of. Wa Polytechnic fully explore the ...

  12. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The Monotheism and Jihad Group, aka..., the Secretary of State concludes that there is a sufficient factual basis to find that al-Qa'ida in... People of the Levant. Therefore, the Secretary of State hereby amends the 2004 designation of al-Qa'ida...

  13. Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 5, Rotavirus WA and Male Specific Coliphage (MS2 in Biosolids by Lime Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Margolin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C and 4 ± 2°C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism.

  14. Mkabala Wa Ki-Korasi Katika Kuchambua Kazi Za Fasihi Ya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kwa wachambuzi na wahakiki wa fasihi ya Kiswahili, mtazamo umekuwa ni wa kugawa makundi mawili: fani na maudhui. Hata hivyo, karibu wote wanakubaliana kuwa mgawanyo huu ni wa kinadharia zaidi na unafanyika kwa ajili ya uchambuzi na uhakiki; kwani katika hali halisi maudhui huwezi kuyatenga kutoka katika ...

  15. Credible Leadership-In the Eyes of the Follower: A Historical Review of Leadership Theory throughout the Twentieth Century in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sharon C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review was to trace the credible leadership construct of trustworthiness, integrity, honesty, and consistency in leadership theory development during the last 100 years in the United States. Theory focus, key U.S. pivotal events, and follower importance influenced the construct's occurrence in leadership theory. …

  16. The microcomputer scientific software series 9: user's guide to Geo-CLM: geostatistical interpolation of the historical climatic record in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret R. Holdaway

    1994-01-01

    Describes Geo-CLM, a computer application (for Mac or DOS) whose primary aim is to perform multiple kriging runs to interpolate the historic climatic record at research plots in the Lake States. It is an exploration and analysis tool. Addition capabilities include climatic databases, a flexible test mode, cross validation, lat/long conversion, English/metric units,...

  17. A Historical Analysis of Attitudes toward the Use of Calculators in Junior High and High School Math Classrooms in the United States since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explored the history of calculator usage in mathematics classrooms in the United States since 1975 with a focus on the attitudes of parents, educators, and national organizations. The influence of historical events, people, organizations, research, and trends was explored in depth. Studying the changes that calculators have brought to…

  18. POINT CLOUD MAPPING METHODS FOR DOCUMENTING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES AT THE WORMSLOE STATE HISTORIC SITE, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Jordana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentation of the three-dimensional (3D cultural landscape has traditionally been conducted during site visits using conventional photographs, standard ground surveys and manual measurements. In recent years, there have been rapid developments in technologies that produce highly accurate 3D point clouds, including aerial LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetric data reduction from unmanned aerial systems (UAS images and hand held photographs using Structure from Motion (SfM methods. These 3D point clouds can be precisely scaled and used to conduct measurements of features even after the site visit has ended. As a consequence, it is becoming increasingly possible to collect non-destructive data for a wide variety of cultural site features, including landscapes, buildings, vegetation, artefacts and gardens. As part of a project for the U.S. National Park Service, a variety of data sets have been collected for the Wormsloe State Historic Site, near Savannah, Georgia, USA. In an effort to demonstrate the utility and versatility of these methods at a range of scales, comparisons of the features mapped with different techniques will be discussed with regards to accuracy, data set completeness, cost and ease-of-use.

  19. Satellite-based Water Use Dynamics Using Historical Landsat Data (1984-2014) in the Southwestern United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Historical (1984-2014) Landsat-based ET maps were generated for Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and eight other sub-basins in parts of Middle and Lower Central...

  20. Historic and projected changes in vapor pressure deficit suggest a continental-scale drying of the United States atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Novick, Kimberly A.

    2017-02-01

    Via air temperature increases and relative humidity changes, climate change will modify vapor pressure deficit (VPD), which is an important determinant of water vapor and CO2 exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. VPD is the difference between the water vapor the air can hold at saturation (es) and the actual amount of water vapor (ea). Here we assess changes in VPD, es, and ea in the United States (U.S.) for the recent past (1979-2013) and the future (2065-2099) using gridded, observed climate data and output from general circulation models. Historically, VPD has increased for all seasons, driven by increases in es and declines in ea. The spring, summer, and fall seasons exhibited the largest areal extent of significant increases in VPD, which was largely concentrated in the western and southern portions of the U.S. The changes in VPD stemmed from recent air temperature increases and relative humidity decreases. Projections indicate similar, amplified patterns into the future. For the summer, the general circulation model ensemble median showed a 51% projected increase (quartile range of 39 and 64%) in summer VPD for the U.S., reflecting temperature-driven increases in es but decreases or minimal changes in relative humidity that promotes negligible changes in ea. Using a simple model for plant hydraulic functioning, we also show that in the absence of stomatal acclimation, future changes in VPD can reduce stomatal conductance by 9-51%, which is a magnitude comparable to the expected decline in stomatal conductance from rising CO2.

  1. Characterization And State-Of-The-Art Modeling Of Extreme Precipitation Events Over Africa During The Historical Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibba, P.; Sylla, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of the state-of-the-art climate models to reproduce the mean spatial characteristics of extreme precipitation indices over Africa is evaluated. The ensembles of eight precipitation-based indices as defined by ETCCDI were extracted from seventeen CMIP5 GCMs and twelve CORDEX RCMs simulations based on absolute and percentile (95th) thresholds and computed from the 1975 to 2004 historical period. Daily precipitation indices calculated from GPCP and TRMM satellite-derived observation datasets during the period 1997 to 2012 and 1998 to 2011 respectively were also employed in this study for model validation. Results of spatial representation of the frequency of extreme precipitation events (R1mm, CDD, CWD and R95p) highlight a generally good consistency between the two observations. Equally, in the regional analysis some similarities exist in their median and interquartile (25th and 75th percentile) spread especially for CDD, CWD and R95p for most regions. In the associated intensities (SDII, RX5day, R95 and R95ptot), results indicate large spatial differences between the two observational datasets, with finer resolution TRMM generating higher rainfall intensities than the coarser resolution GPCP. TRMM has also demonstrated higher median and interquartile range as compared to GPCP. The CORDEX RCMs and CMIP5 GCMs simulations have estimated more number of extreme precipitation events, while underestimated the intensities. The differences between the models and observations can be as large as the typical model interquartile spread of the ensembles for some indices (R1mm, CWD, SDII and R95) in some regions. Meanwhile, CORDEX estimations are generally closer to the observations than CMIP5 in reproducing the frequency of extreme rainfall indices. For the estimation of rainfall intensities, CORDEX simulations are in most cases more consistence with TRMM observations whilst the CMIP5 GCMs simulations are closer to GPCP observations.

  2. Beam current transformer (BCT) for experiment WA1/2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In experiment WA1/2, a 400 GeV proton beam from the SPS was directed at a target, downstream of which a hadron line selected, in several narrow momentum bands, a beam of either pi+ and K+ or pi- and K-. These neutrino-parent particles, before entering a 292 m long decay tunnel, passed through a set of 2 BCTs of a design seen here. They measured the hadron intensity (10^10 to 10^11 particles/pulse) with a precision of the order of 1%. There were 2 of them, for enhanced precision and confidence. After the discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle-experiment, WA1/2 was the first follow-up, high-precision experiment (Z.Phys.C35, 443-452, 1987 and Z.Phys.C45, 361-379, 1990). See also 7706516X.

  3. Correlates and Barriers Associated with Motorcycle Helmet Use in Wa, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Yakubu, Ibrahim; Akanbang, Bernard Afiik Akanpabadai

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle-predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to determine the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward helmets. Cross-sectional surveys including both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at 6 randomly selected fuel stations and 4 motorcycle service centers within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' sociodemographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in binary logistic regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status, and occupation were significant sociodemographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5 times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet nonuse among nonusers were not traveling a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet nonuse were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa

  4. Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area

  5. Potential role of exoglucanase genes (WaEXG1 and WaEXG2) in the biocontrol activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of yeasts, including Wickerhamomyces anomalus, as biocontrol agents against fungi responsible for postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for the past two decades. Among a variety of killer mechanisms, the production of glucanases coded by the genes WaEXG1 and Wa...

  6. KONSELING PERNIKAHAN BERBASIS ASMARA ( As-Sakinah, Mawaddah, Wa Rahmah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keluarga merupakan sistem sosial yang alamiah dan keluarga berfungsi membentuk aturan-aturan, komunikasi serta negosiasi diantara para anggota keluarga. Ketiga fungsi keluarga ini mempunyai sejumlah implikasi terhadap perkembangan dan keberadaan para anggota keluarga. Keluarga melakukan suatu pola interaksi yang diulang-ulang melalui partisipasi seluruh anggota keluarga. Sehingga strategi konseling pernikahan yang dibangun akan membantu terpeliharanya hubungan-hubungan keluarga harmonis As-Sakinah, Mawaddah, Wa Rahmah juga dituntut untuk memodifikasi pola-pola transaksi dalam memenuhi kebutuhan keluarga yang mengalami perubahan yang didambakan. Membangun Keluarga bahagia melalui pendekatan konseling pernikahan pada dasarnya merupakan upaya untuk memperoleh kebahagiaan dan kesejahteraan hidup baik lahir maupun batin. Keluarga dibentuk untuk memadukan rasa kasih dan sayang diantara dua makhluk berlainan jenis, yang berlanjut untuk menyebarkan rasa kasih dan sayang keibuan dan keayahan terhadap seluruh anggota keluarga. Namun apa yang didambakan, apa yang diidealkan serta apa yang seharusnya dalam kenyataan tidak senantiasa berjalan mulus sebagaimana mestinya. Kebahagiaan yang diharapkan semoga dapat diraih dari bahtera kehidupan berumah tangga dan bukan sebaliknya yang kerapkali dirasakan justru kesedihan. Kata kunci : konseling pernikahan, sakinah mawaddah wa rahmah   MARRIAGE COUNSELING BASED ON AS-SAKINAH MAWADDAH WA RAHMAH. The family is the natural and social system functioning family formed the rules, communication and negotiations between members of the family. The three functions of this family has a number of implications for the development and the existence of the family members. Perform a family interaction patterns that are repeated through the participation of all members of the family. So the marriage counselling strategy built will help the nurturing harmonious family relationships, As-Sakinah, Mawaddah Wa Rahmah is also required

  7. Metatheatricalizing Communal Exploitation in Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ngugi wa Miriis’ I Will Marry When I want

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metatheatre often refers to the capability of a stage text and performance to ostensibly establish a gamut of commentaries needed to repudiate a pervading social and political quagmire, tellingly obtainable in societies under siege. Metatheatre is a long established theatre tradition which has been sufficiently calibrated in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, put into a utilitarian proclivity in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, and fully aestheticized in Jean Genet's The Balcony and The Blacks. It is also a tradition which has been successfully exploited in Wole Soyinka's Madmen and Specialists; Athol Fugard's Sizwe Bansi is Dead; Femi Osofisan's The Chattering and the Song and Segun Oyekunle's Katakata for Sofahead. Ngugi wa Thiong'o and Ngugi wa Mirii steeped a metatheatre into the interface of politics and religion in I Will Marry When I Want, in order to foreground the hypocrisy of Christianity as underscored by the exploitation of the downtrodden masses, by the land grabbing Christian elite of the Kenyan society. This paper will be examining how Ngugi wa Thiong'o and Ngugi wa Miriis' I Will Marry When I Want builds on the harvest of the oral, mimetic and metaphoric signification of myth, history and song, to launch a barrage of criticism against a backdrop of land theft. This appropriation is poignantly accentuated by a language of equivocation, usually associated with the Christian elite in Kenya. The paper will among other things emphasize that, the rapacious gluttony for land grabbing is indubitably faith driven, as clearly demonstrated by the Kenyan Christian elite in the play.

  8. Mechanisms of state terror in the case of lost children of the Francoist regime: history and the new historical novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judyta Wachowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms used by the Francoist regime to seize the children of its political opponents, as well as to discuss the problem as depicted in contemporary historical novels. In order to achieve these goals, the paper begins with an inquiry into eugenics, as interpreted by the infamous Spanish psychiatrist Antonio Vallejo Nágera. Further, the author reviews the processes through which biological parents (and/or family lost the legal control over their children, many of whom had their identities changed. Consequently, the analysis focuses on three new historical novels (La voz dormida by Dulce Chacón, Mala gente que camina by Benjamin Prado, and Si a los tres años no he vuelto by Any R. Cañil, which use the mediation of historical memory to recover the remembrance of the lost children of the Francoist regime.

  9. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  10. The Aristocrat of Bands: A Historical Investigation of the Tennessee State University Instrumental Music Program and Its Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Reginald A.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental music education, as it evolved in the segregated African American communities and their educational institutions, remains an under-investigated area of historical research. As a partial remedy to that circumstance, this study sought to document one of the more noteworthy of such accounts, the history of instrumental music ensembles at…

  11. Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and related factors of Wa ethnic minority in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, data on malaria treatment-seeking behaviours and related affecting factors are rare. The population of the Wa ethnic in Myanmar has difficulty in accessing formal health care. To understand malaria treatment-seeking behaviour and household-affecting factors of the Wa people, a cross-sectional study carried out in Shan Special Region II, Myanmar. Methods The two methods, questionnaire-based household surveys to household heads and in-depth interviews to key informants, were carried out independently. The proportion of treatment-seeking patterns was calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine affecting factors of treatment-seeking. Qualitative data were analysed by using Text Analysis Markup System. Results Overall, 87.5% of the febrile population sought treatment, but only 32.0% did so within 24 hours. The proportion accessing the retail sector (79.6% was statistically significant higher (P Conclusion Malaria treatment-seeking behaviour is not appropriate, and affecting factors include health service systems, social and cultural factors in Wa State of Myanmar.

  12. Review of strange particle production from the WA85 Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzis, S. [Athens University, Athens (Greece); Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Carney, J.N.; de la Cruz, B.; Di Bari, D.; Dufey, J.P.; Davies, J.P.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Lassale, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Manzari, V.; Navach, F.; Narjoux, J.L.; Quercigh, E.; Rossi, L.; Safarrik, K.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Storas, T.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; D. Evans for the WA85 Collaboration

    1995-07-20

    Strange and, especially, multistrange baryon and anti-baryon production is expected to be a useful probe in the search for Quark-Gluon Plasma formation. A review of WA85 results on strange and multistrange particle production in SW and pW interactions at 200 GeV/c per nucleons is presented. In particular, {ital m}{sub {ital T}} distributions and relative ratios are presented for {Xi}{sup {minus}}s, {bar {Xi}}{sup {minus}}s, {Lambda}s, {bar {Lambda}}s, and {ital K}{sup 0}s. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Satellite-based water use dynamics using historical Landsat data (1984-2014) in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel; Schauer, Matthew; Friedrichs, MacKenzie O.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Singh, Ramesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Historical (1984-2014) Landsat-based ET maps were generated for Palo Verde Irrigation District (PVID) and eight other sub-basins in parts of Middle and Lower Central Valley, California. A total of 3,396 Landsat images were processed using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy balance (SSEBop) model that integrates weather and remotely sensed images to estimate monthly and annual ET within the study areas over the 31 years. Model output evaluation and validation using gridded-flux data and water balance ET approaches indicated relatively strong association between SSEBop ET and validation datasets. Historical trend analysis of seven agro-hydrologic variables were done using the Seasonal Mann-Kendall test.

  14. 78 FR 50443 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... delta area. Historical and anthropological sources (Amoss 1978, Mooney 1896, Spier 1936, Swanton 1952... Washington, Box 35101, ] Seattle, WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY..., WA 98195, telephone (206) 685-3849, email [email protected] , by September 18, 2013. After that date, if...

  15. Effect of historical land-use and climate change on tree-climate relationships in the upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Simon J; Williams, John W

    2017-04-01

    Contemporary forest inventory data are widely used to understand environmental controls on tree species distributions and to construct models to project forest responses to climate change, but the stability and representativeness of contemporary tree-climate relationships are poorly understood. We show that tree-climate relationships for 15 tree genera in the upper Midwestern US have significantly altered over the last two centuries due to historical land-use and climate change. Realised niches have shifted towards higher minimum temperatures and higher rainfall. A new attribution method implicates both historical climate change and land-use in these shifts, with the relative importance varying among genera and climate variables. Most climate/land-use interactions are compounding, in which historical land-use reinforces shifts in species-climate relationships toward wetter distributions, or confounding, in which land-use complicates shifts towards warmer distributions. Compounding interactions imply that contemporary-based models of species distributions may underestimate species resilience to climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1406: OLYMPIA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  17. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1405: STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  18. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1002: PUDGET SOUND - WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  19. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  20. 75 FR 53572 - Safety Zone; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2010-0799] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA... temporary safety zone within the navigation channel in Budd Inlet, WA during Olympia Harbor Days tug boat... boat races. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 a.m. until 8 p.m. on September 5th, 2010. ADDRESSES...

  1. 77 FR 43513 - Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Local Regulation, Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA from 12 p.m. through 8 p.m. on... notice of enforcement of the Special Local Regulation for Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet...

  2. 75 FR 33559 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Toledo, WA, to accommodate aircraft using a... Ed Carlson Memorial Field- South Lewis County Airport, Toledo, WA. Controlled airspace is necessary...

  3. 75 FR 23804 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA. The human... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  4. 77 FR 21866 - Safety Zone; Sunken Vessel, Puget Sound, Everett, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... established a 100 yard safety zone around the Vigor Marine Dry Dock in Everett, WA. On March 22, 2012 it was... a 200 yard safety zone surrounding the dry dock. As salvage operations continue to recover the... waters within 200 yards of Vigor Marine Dry Dock in Everett, WA. Vessels wishing to enter the zone must...

  5. GENEALOGI DAN PENYEBARAN THARIQAH QADIRIYAH WA NAQSHABANDIYAH DI JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mashar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the geneology and spread of Thariqah Qadiriyah wa Naqshabandiyah in Java. Based on the previous literatures (Dhofier, Martin van Bruinessen, Zulkifli, and Mulyati, it was found out that in Java the genealogy of the thariqah formed by Syekh Ahmad Khatib Sambas directed to the three primary khalifah, i.e. Syekh Abdul Karim Banten, Syekh Ahmad Thalhah Cirebon, and Syekh Muhammad Hasbullah Madura, then spread out across Java Island through the four centers (on 1970s, such as Suryalaya, Rejoso, Mranggen, and Pangentongan. However, the writer found out that there were four khalifahs, including Syekhona Kholil Bangkalan Madura; with the nine dissemination centers (in 1970s including Berjan Purworejo, Sawah Pulo Surabaya, Cukir Jombang, Kencong Kediri, and Dawe Kudus.

  6. A Preshower Photon Multiplicity Detector for the WA98 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Chattopadhyay, S; Das, A C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Ganti, M S; Ghosh, T K; Sen-Gupta, S K; Gutbrod, H H; Kachru, S; Kolb, B W; Kumar, V; Langbein, I; Mahapatra, D P; Mishra, G C; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Purschke, M L; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Sambyal, S S; Sinha, B C; Trivedi, M D; Urbán, J; Viyogi, Y P

    1999-01-01

    A high granularity preshower detector has been fabricated and installed in the WA98 Experiment at the CERN SPS for measuring the spatial distribution of photons produced in the forward region in lead ion induced interactions. Photons are counted by detecting the preshower signal in plastic scintillator pads placed behind a 3 radiation length thick lead converter and applying a threshold on the scintillator signal to reject the minimum ionizing particles. Techniques to improve the imaging of the fibre and performance of the detector in the high multiplicity environment of lead-lead collisions are described. Using Monte-Carlo simulation methods and test beam data of pi- and e- at various energies the photon counting efficiency is estimated to be 68% for central and 73% for peripheral Pb+Pb collisions.

  7. A preshower photon multiplicity detector for the WA98 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Bhatia, V.S. [University of Panjab, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Agnihotri, A. [University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 Rajasthan (India); Ahammed, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, A.C.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghosh, T.K.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Nayak, T.K.; Sinha, B.C.; Trivedi, M.D.; Viyogi, Y.P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta 700064 (India); Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Kachroo, S.; Rao, N.K.; Sambyal, S.S. [University of Jammu, Jammu 180001 (India); Bhalla, K.B. [University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 Rajasthan (India); Gupta, S.K. [University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 Rajasthan (India); Gutbrod, H.H. [SUBATECH, Ecole de Mines, F-44070 Nantes (France); Kolb, B.W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Kumar, V. [University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 Rajasthan (India); Langbein, I. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Mahapatra, D.P. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Mishra, G.C. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Nandi, B.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Nayak, S.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Purschke, M.L. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany); Raniwala, S. [University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 Rajasthan (India); Ramamurthy, V.S. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Urbahn, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64220 Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-03-21

    A high granularity preshower detector has been fabricated and installed in the WA98 Experiment at the CERN SPS for measuring the spatial distribution of photons produced in the forward region in lead-ion-induced interactions. Photons are counted by detecting the preshower signal in plastic scintillator pads placed behind a 3 radiation length thick lead converter and applying a threshold on the scintillator signal to reject the minimum ionizing particles. Techniques to improve the imaging of the fibre and performance of the detector in the high multiplicity environment of lead-lead collisions are described. Using Monte-Carlo simulation methods and test beam data of {pi}{sup -} and e{sup -} at various energies the photon counting efficiency is estimated to be 68% for central and 73% for peripheral Pb+Pb collisions.

  8. Educator and Student Diversity in Washington State: Gaps and Historical Trends. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Theobald, Roddy; Tien, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented--including in recent reports from Washington State (Professional Educator Standards Board, 2014) and several large districts across the country (Albert Shanker Institute, 2015)--that the public teaching workforce is far less racially and ethnically diverse than the student body in U.S. public schools. Washington State,…

  9. State constitutional commitment to health and health care and population health outcomes: evidence from historical US data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    I investigated whether the introduction of health and health care provisions in US state constitutions can make health systems more equitable and improve health outcomes by urging state policymakers and administrative agencies to uphold their human rights obligations at state level. I constructed a panel of infant mortality rates from 50 US states over the period 1929 through 2000 to examine their association with the timing and details of introducing a constitutional right to health and health care provisions. The introduction of a stronger constitutional commitment that obligates state legislature to provide health care was associated with a subsequent reduction in the infant mortality rate of approximately 7.8%. The introduction of provisions explicitly targeting the poor was also associated with a reduction in the infant mortality rate of 6.5%. These health benefits are primarily evident in non-White populations. This empirical result supports Elizabeth Leonard's view that although state constitutional rights have been poorly enforced through the judiciary, a constitutional expression of health care duties has fueled the political and social process, ultimately allowing states to identify the best way to address citizens' health inequality concerns.

  10. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States.

  11. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  12. Malaria, Tarai Adivasi and the Landlord State in the 19th century Nepal: A Historical-Ethnographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Rai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interplay between malaria, the Tarai Adivasi and the extractive landlord state in the 19th century Nepal by focusing on Dhimal, one indigenous community from the easternmost lowlands. Throughout the 19th century, the Nepali state and its rulers treated the Tarai as a state geography of extraction for land, labor, revenue and political control. The malarial environment of the Tarai, which led to the shortage people (labor force, posed a major challenge to the 19th  century extractive landlord state and the landowning elites to materialize the colonizing project in the Tarai. The shortage of labor added pressure on the malaria resistant Tarai Adivasi to reclaim and cultivate land for the state. The paper highlights the need for ethnographically informed social history of malaria in studying the changing relations between the state and the ?div?si communities in the Tarai DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10438 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 87-112

  13. Shop 'till we drop: a historical and policy analysis of retail goods movement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewel, Laura B; Schipper, Lee J

    2012-09-18

    The movement of retail goods is central to modern economies and is a significant-but understudied-fraction of our overall energy footprint. Thus, we propose a new category for energy analysis called Retail Goods Movement (RGM) that draws its boundaries around the portion of freight dedicated to retail goods and the portion of driving dedicated to shopping. Historically, the components of RGM have not enjoyed policy priority. However, the net payoff from energy research and policy directed at RGM may now be high enough relative to other options to deserve increased investment. We combine a quantitative decomposition of the dynamics of RGM energy use with a qualitative discussion of what trends could have contributed to them. The RGM sector's energy use grew from 1.3 EJ (2.8% U.S.) in 1969 to 7.0 EJ (6.6% U.S.) in 2009. The major drivers were increases in population, freight tonnage (before 1990), distance freighted per tonne and driven per shopping trip (after 1990), and weekly shopping trips per household (before 1995). RGM energy intensity increased per capita (180%), per constant dollar GDP (60%), and per retail expenditure (140%). Finally, we describe policy recommendations that could become the basis of a sound RGM resource plan.

  14. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  15. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Matthew Rollins; Zhi-Liang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA....

  16. Historically Black

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black is a short documentary that looks at recruitment of non-black students at Texas Southern University, one of the nation’s largest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). By chronicling Texas Southern’s efforts to diversify and its impact on the campus community, the film explores the changing role of HBCUs in post-segregated America and addresses what this might mean for the future of these deep-rooted institutions. 

  17. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this year’s report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  18. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  19. Historical Paper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Historical Paper: On Simple Gas Reactions by H Eyring and M Polanyi. Classics Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 103-128. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0103-0128 ...

  20. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  1. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  2. 75 FR 14463 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... approximately 1/4 mile southeast of Guemes Island, in Skagit County, WA. This area falls within the Central... traditionally occupied Guemes Island (Amoss 1978, Roberts 1975, Ruby and Brown 1986, Smith 1941, Suttles 1951...

  3. 78 FR 21401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Central Washington University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian...

  4. 75 FR 8346 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In...

  5. 2010 King County (WA) Dept of Natural Resources and Parks Lidar: Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and true-color orthophotographs of King County, WA from March 18 to March 20, 2010....

  6. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  7. Contribution to the experimental study of charmed hadrons produced with hyperon beams (WA89 experiment); Contribution a l'etude experimentale des hadrons charmes produits avec un faisceau d'hyperons (experience WA89)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berat, C

    1996-10-15

    Since 1989 the author has been involved in the CERN WA89 experiment that is dedicated to the production of charmed hadrons with hyperon beams. The features and the experimental setting of WA89 are presented in the first chapter. The second chapter is dedicated to the on-line and off-line identification of {lambda}{sup 0} particles produced in charmed particles decay. The former is made through an adequate trigger and the latter is an event filter based on a fast identification criterion of a likely decay of {lambda}{sup 0}. The identification of {lambda}{sup 0} has required the development of algorithms to test the validity of the track reconstruction in the decay area between the target and the spectrometer and to check the validity of the identification of the decay vertex of {lambda}{sup 0}. The last chapter is dedicated to data analysis. The identification of D{sub S} mesons in K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi} final state is detailed. An accurate determination of the D{sub S} production cross-section is not yet possible because of the low statistics but it was possible to make a preliminary assessment that has given: {sigma} = (1.5 {+-} 0.7) {mu}b/nucleon with x{sub F} > 0. (A.C.)

  8. A water balance simulation model for teaching and learning – WaS

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Tim M.; Counsell, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Developed by HR Wallingford and Cranfield University (with support from the UK Department for International Development), WaSim is a computer-based training package for the teaching and demonstration of issues involved in irrigation, drainage and salinity management. WaSim is a daily water balance model that simulates the soil water / salinity relationships in response to different management strategies (e.g. drainage designs and water management practices) and environmental...

  9. State, military and violence on the Colombian Amazon frontier: Historical referents for the regional interpretation of the conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current Colombian conflict has had a particular manifestation in the Amazon region in the frontier area between Brazil and the Andean countries. This has been little studied and analyzed. The role and the possibilities of the region and its borders, as well as the design and implementation of public policies of the Colombian state (almost exclusively aimed at the exercise of sovereignty and territorial control, with an excessive emphasis in its military aspects, have been wrongly conceptualized. This has led to very poor outcomes in terms of the social, economic and political integration of Amazonia with the rest of the nation. The violence and social conflicts that the region and its border zones have suffered during the last decades have a lot to do with this situation. An eventual agreement within the current peace process could help to solve these problems, inasmuch as other conditions are fulfilled and simultaneously long due reforms are implemented.

  10. Historical milk production performance in São Paulo State municipalities between 2005 and 2015 using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Freitas Pelozo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of Artificial Intelligence on milk production chain, aiming at identifying patterns of their characteristics in 645 municipalities of the State of São Paulo taking into account produced milk categories. Using information from secondary sources, it was used the Optimum-Path Forest method (OPF to identify milk production characteristics clusters. The analyzed data were the amount of milk produced in the rural properties according to their categories regarding quality making possible to suggest training adequacies and public bodies actions regarding rural producers, more focused on the reality of each municipality and secondarily, it was possible to test the OPF use as a decision-making tool at the agroindustrial sector.

  11. A historical review of R.J. Reynolds' strategies for marketing tobacco to Hispanics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Parascandola, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds' marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February-July 2011 and April-August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities.

  12. A Historical Review of R. J. Reynolds’ Strategies for Marketing Tobacco to Hispanics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, and smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality among this population. We analyzed tobacco industry documents on R. J. Reynolds’ marketing strategies toward the Hispanic population using tobacco industry document archives from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February–July 2011 and April–August 2012. Our analysis revealed that by 1980 the company had developed a sophisticated surveillance system to track the market behavior of Hispanic smokers and understand their psychographics, cultural values, and attitudes. This information was translated into targeted marketing campaigns for the Winston and Camel brands. Marketing targeted toward Hispanics appealed to values and sponsored activities that could be perceived as legitimating. Greater understanding of tobacco industry marketing strategies has substantial relevance for addressing tobacco-related health disparities. PMID:23488493

  13. Hieracium sylvularum (Asteraceae in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve: invasive plant or historical heritage of the flora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy A. Khapugin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas are considered as one of the most appropriate tool for biodiversity conservation. However, invasion of alien species is one of the main and widely known problems of these territories. Therefore, the timely detection and prevention of the invasive species dispersal is one of the main tasks of researchers in Protected Areas. The European species Hieracium sylvularum was found in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve in 2012. In the following years, new locations have been discovered there. That is why the main traits of the ecology and biology, invasiveness level of the alien species were studied. An investigation of the five known H. sylvularum locations has been carried out in the Mordovia Reserve. Attention has been paid to the age-structure of the populations, the accompanying floras' composition and morphometrical parameters of the generative individuals. The environmental conditions of habitats were revealed and compared using phytoindication methods. The mass and germination of seeds, harvested on different locations, were studied. The results indicate that H. sylvularum is not an invasive species. This alien plant is able to reproduce primarily vegetatively. Probably, the population area can extend gradually on each location. Seed dispersal is difficult due to low germinability of seeds, despite of their significant number per plant. Based on obtained results, dry and semi-dry light lichen-moss-Pinus-forests have a higher invasibility by H. sylvularum. Therefore, perhaps, its new locations may be found especially in these habitats. Annual monitoring of the currently known locations of this alien plant is necessary in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve.

  14. A new snow-vegetation interaction extension for the Water Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Kristian; Meißl, Gertraud; Marke, Thomas; Pohl, Stefan; Garvelmann, Jakob; Schulla, Jörg; Strasser, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    The water balance in forested mountainous catchments is strongly influenced by the interaction of snow and vegetation. Especially coniferous forest canopies have a large storage capacity for snow, exceeding the one for rain by one order of magnitude. The snow intercepted by the trees is exposed to increased turbulence. Hence, the sublimation of intercepted snow can amount to a significant fraction of total precipitation and therefore represents an important component of the water balance in forested environments. The current version of the Water Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM 9.09.01) has been extended to consider snow hydrological processes in forest canopies with: (i) modified micro-meteorological conditions in the forest canopy, (ii) snow interception, melt unload, and sublimation of intercepted snow, and (iii) energy balance snowmelt computation on the ground, considering the modified micro-meteorological conditions. The study presents a detailed description of the new snow-vegetation extension in WaSiM. Internal state variables of the model have been compared to inside-forest measurements (meteorological variables and snow cover dynamics) from a low-cost sensor network established in the 9.2 km2 large alpine catchment of the Brixenbach, Tyrol/Austria. Results show the improvements achieved with the extended model version for forested areas in temperate mountain environments subject to seasonal snow cover.

  15. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including

  16. Coral-Derived Compound WA-25 Inhibits Angiogenesis by Attenuating the VEGF/VEGFR2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: WA-25 (dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol, a synthetic derivative of marine compound WE-2 suppresses atherosclerosis in rats by reducing neointima formation. Because angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the present study investigated the angiogenic function and mechanism of WA-25. Methods: The angiogenic effect of WA-25 was evaluated using a rat aortic ring assay and transgenic zebrafish models were established using transgenic Tg(fli-1:EGFPy1 and Tg(kdrl:mCherryci5-fli1a:negfpy7 zebrafish embryos. In addition, the effect of WA-25 on distinct angiogenic processes, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as tube formation, was studied using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The effect of WA-25 on the endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway was elucidated using qRT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analyses. Results: The application of WA-25 perturbed the development of intersegmental vessels in transgenic zebrafish. Moreover, WA-25 potently suppressed microvessel sprouting in organotypic rat aortic rings. Among cultured endothelial cells, WA-25 significantly and dose-dependently inhibited MMP-2/MMP-9 expression, proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs. Mechanistic studies revealed that WA-25 significantly reduced the VEGF release by reducing VEGF expression at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, WA-25 reduced surface VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2/Flk-1 expression by repressing the VEGFR2 mRNA level. Finally, an exogenous VEGF supply partially rescued the WA-25-induced angiogenesis blockage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: WA-25 is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that acts through the down-regulation of VEGF and VEGFR2 in endothelial cells. General Significance: WA-25 may constitute a novel anti-angiogenic drug that acts by targeting endothelial

  17. A Historical Analysis of Basic Air Force Doctrine Education within the United States States Air Force Air Command and Staff College, 1947-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    defense reform since 1980 was 0 Tne Pentagon ana tne Art of War oy EdwarJ L. Lutt~aK (71). LuttwaK’s primary contention was that the organizational...jresenteo arguments for all three points of view, but ne was particularly critical of tne educacional system within tae United States military. He said tnat...subjects typically found at civilian scnools, ana lacking in concentration on tne military arts and sciences. But the acaaemies that nowaaays proviae

  18. Policy and legislation affecting settlement of the Pacific region: an historical comparison of the United States and the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M

    1984-01-01

    -water subsidies to farmers and in the USSR by transportation subsidies and an elevated level of wages. Ethnic minorities felt to be subsersive were evacuated from both nations during World War II. These similarities in policy between the USSR and the US were not accidental and resulted, in the 1st place, because in both nations there was an imbalance between the distribution of the population and the distribution of natural resources. Secondly, they resulted because each nation has felt the need to extend its power and to defend its territory against other nation states. Yet, at the present time the Soviet government believes the national interest demands the continuation of a large flow of in-migrants to the Far Eastern Economic Region, while the US federal government has largely lost its interest in promoting the development of the Pacific Division since the natural attractiveness of the area (with the exception of Alaska) has served to entice sufficient migrants to develop its resources fully.

  19. Sensitivity of June near-surface temperatures and precipitation in the eastern United States to historical land cover changes since European settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, J.E.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes alter the near surface weather and climate. Changes in land surface properties such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and leaf area index alter the surface energy balance, leading to differences in near surface temperatures. This study utilized a newly developed land cover data set for the eastern United States to examine the influence of historical land cover change on June temperatures and precipitation. The new data set contains representations of the land cover and associated biophysical parameters for 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992, capturing the clearing of the forest and the expansion of agriculture over the eastern United States from 1650 to the early twentieth century and the subsequent forest regrowth. The data set also includes the inferred distribution of potentially water-saturated soils at each time slice for use in the sensitivity tests. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, equipped with the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF-2) land surface parameterization, was used to simulate the weather of June 1996 using the 1992, 1920, 1850, and 1650 land cover representations. The results suggest that changes in surface roughness and stomatal resistance have caused present-day maximum and minimum temperatures in the eastern United States to warm by about 0.3??C and 0.4??C, respectively, when compared to values in 1650. In contrast, the maximum temperatures have remained about the same, while the minimums have cooled by about 0.1??C when compared to 1920. Little change in precipitation was found. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: response to Williams and Baker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulé, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042–1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age–size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted ‘surprising’ heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate

  1. Dynamic formant extraction of wa language based on adaptive variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meijun; Dong, Huazhen; Pan, Wenlin

    2017-08-01

    Wa language is one of Chinese minority languages spoken by the Wa nationality who lives in Yunnan Province, China. Until now, it has not been studied from the perspective of Engineering Phonetics. In this paper, for the above reason, by the adaptive variational mode decomposition (AVMD) we have investigated the dynamic formant characteristics of Wa language. Firstly, more precisely, use the synthetic dimension to split Wa language isolated words into voiceless and voiced segment, initials and finals. Secondly, use Linear Prediction Coding to estimate the first three formant frequencies and their bandwidths roughly. Thirdly, select the appropriate equilibrium constraint parameter and the number of decomposed layers so that Adaptive Variational Mode Decomposition (AVMD) can decompose the signal into some intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) without pattern aliasing. Fourthly, use the estimated formant frequencies and bandwidths to determine precisely the required IMFs. Fifthly, use the Hilbert transform to calculate the instantaneous frequency of the above determinate IMFs. Further, we implement the weight average operation on instantaneous frequencies to obtain the first three formant frequencies for each frame. Finally, comparing the first three formant frequencies obtained by the adaptive variance modal decomposition and by Praat software respectively, so we have drawn the conclusion that the relative correct rate of the former to the latter can reach 86% averagely in terms of the selected isolated words, which has shown that our method is effective on Wa language.

  2. 75 FR 71142 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., 1000097 Lincoln Parish Grambling State University Historic District, Founders Ave., at College Ave... County Depression Era Work Relief Construction Features at Menoken State Historic Site, (Federal Relief...

  3. Comparative In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Porcine Rotavirus G9P[13] and Human Rotavirus Wa G1P[8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lulu; Fischer, David D; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Rauf, Abdul; Langel, Stephanie N; Wentworth, David E; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lam, Ham Ching; Marthaler, Douglas; Saif, Linda J; Vlasova, Anastasia N

    2015-10-14

    The changing epidemiology of group A rotavirus (RV) strains in humans and swine, including emerging G9 strains, poses new challenges to current vaccines. In this study, we comparatively assessed the pathogenesis of porcine RV (PRV) G9P[13] and evaluated the short-term cross-protection between this strain and human RV (HRV) Wa G1P[8] in gnotobiotic pigs. Complete genome sequencing demonstrated that PRV G9P[13] possessed a human-like G9 VP7 genotype but shared higher overall nucleotide identity with historic PRV strains. PRV G9P[13] induced longer rectal virus shedding and RV RNAemia in pigs than HRV Wa G1P[8] and generated complete short-term cross-protection in pigs challenged with HRV or PRV, whereas HRV Wa G1P[8] induced only partial protection against PRV challenge. Moreover, PRV G9P[13] replicated more extensively in porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) than did HRV Wa G1P[8]. Cross-protection was likely not dependent on serum virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies, as the heterologous VN antibody titers in the sera of G9P[13]-inoculated pigs were low. Thus, our results suggest that heterologous protection by the current monovalent G1P[8] HRV vaccine against emerging G9 strains should be evaluated in clinical and experimental studies to prevent further dissemination of G9 strains. Differences in the pathogenesis of these two strains may be partially attributable to their variable abilities to replicate and persist in porcine immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). Additional studies are needed to evaluate the emerging G9 strains as potential vaccine candidates and to test the susceptibility of various immune cells to infection by G9 and other common HRV/PRV genotypes. The changing epidemiology of porcine and human group A rotaviruses (RVs), including emerging G9 strains, may compromise the efficacy of current vaccines. An understanding of the pathogenesis and genetic, immunological, and biological features of the new emerging RV strains will

  4. Quest Trial Q348: Evaluation of WaMoS II Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    page 10 The trial area of operations is a relatively flat area at the southwest end of the Emerald Basin about 8 nm square (Figure 1), located...yielded valuable new insights in the capabilities of WaMoS II to measure individual wave heights in a remote area by means of radar. The set-up of this...for each individual buoy measurement. This allowed to prove the general match of WaMoS II sea surface to the buoy and important new insights in

  5. Historical stand age of vegetation for the state of Alaska. Dataset generated in 2010. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection, http://spatialreference.org/ref/epsg/3338/

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — These raster datasets represent historical stand age. The last four digits of the file name specifies the year represented by the raster. For example a file named...

  6. Beaver Evidence - Historical Range of Beaver in the State of California, with an emphasis on areas within the range of coho salmon and steelhead trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines historical, archaeological, and geological evidence to re-evaluate the existing management paradigm that beaver are non-native to most of...

  7. 78 FR 7395 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 129--Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting); Blaine, WA The Port of Bellingham, grantee of FTZ 129, submitted a notification of...

  8. Historical somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others.

  9. Dihydroaustrasulfone Alcohol (WA-25 Impedes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation by Regulating the Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is considered an inflammatory disease. However, clinically used anti-atherosclerotic drugs, such as simvastatin, have many side effects. Recently, several unique marine compounds have been isolated that possess a variety of bioactivities. In a previous study, we found a synthetic precursor of the marine compound (austrasulfone, which is dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol (WA-25, has anti-atherosclerotic effects in vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, to clarify the mechanisms through which WA-25 exerts anti-atherosclerotic activity, we used RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model to evaluate the effects of WA-25. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, WA-25 significantly inhibited expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. In contrast, simvastatin increased the COX-2 expression compared to WA-25. In addition, WA-25 impedes foam cell formation and up-regulated the lysosomal and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling pathway. We also observed that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 was up-regulated by WA-25 and simvastatin in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and the promising anti-atherosclerosis effects of WA-25 were disrupted by blockade of TGF-β1 signaling. Besides, WA-25 might act through increasing lipolysis than through alteration of lipid export. Taken together, these data demonstrate that WA-25 may have potential as an anti-atherosclerotic drug with anti-inflammatory effects.

  10. 77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... hour road traffic on State Routes 3 and 104 by allowing the draw of the bridge to remain closed to... rush hour road traffic by reducing bridge openings, thereby reducing traffic queues and delays due to... Bridge be changed to provide some relief to road traffic on State Routes 3 and 104. Traffic queues south...

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into WaSH Development Planning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Salley; Hadwen, Wade L

    2017-07-10

    Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. Despite awareness of climate change, adaptation measures have not been considered, and the immediate WaSH needs remain the priority. Overall, stakeholders felt the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.

  12. OK Remote WA, We're Listening...But Can You Hear Us? Part 2: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Elaine; Pagram, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a longitudinal study on the reliability of and access to ICT technologies in remote schools in north Western Australia [WA]. Part One was featured in the last issue of "AEC" ["Australian Educational Computing"]. It was an investigation into the access and practicalities of online opportunities…

  13. The Utility of the Lambert Function W[a exp(a - bt)] in Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian Wesley

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical Lambert function W[a exp(a - bt)] is used to find integrated rate laws for several examples, including simple enzyme and Lindemann-Christiansen-Hinshelwood (LCH) unimolecular decay kinetics. The results derived here for the well-known LCH mechanism as well as for a dimer-monomer reaction mechanism appear to be novel. A nonlinear…

  14. Ufundishaji wa Fasihi ya Watoto katika Shule za Msingi Nchini Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fasihi ya watoto imeendelea kukua na kupanuka katika tanzu zake mbalimbali katika miaka ya hivi karibuni nchini Kenya. Fasihi hii imepata mwamko mpya tangu ijumuishwe katika muhtasari wa masomo ya lugha shuleni. Makala haya yanatathmini hali ya vitabu vya ziada kwa kuzingatia upatikanaji na ufaafu wake na ...

  15. 78 FR 20852 - Safety Zones; Marine Week Air Ground Demonstration, Lake Washington; Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... applies, and provide a reason for each suggestion or recommendation. You may submit your comments and... on Lake Washington, Seattle, WA. The safety zone will help ensure the safety of the maritime public... that your message can be received without jeopardizing the safety or security of people, places or...

  16. 76 FR 30825 - Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat... boat races. This action is necessary to restrict vessel movement within the specified race area... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulation; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA in...

  17. Lech Wałęsa - kangelane või reetur? / Zygmunt Dzieciolowski ; intervjueerinud Taavi Minnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    Intervjuu Poola politoloogi ja ajakirjaniku Zygmunt Dzieciolowskiga Solidaarsuse liikumise juhi Lech Wałęsa elu tumedatest varjudest, käimasolevast skandaalist seoses tema sidemetega kommunistliku režiimi salapolitsei SBga ning kohast Poola ühiskonnas ja ajaloos

  18. Christianity in Early Kenyan Novels: Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's Weep Not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dominant feature in the novels of Ngugi Wa Thiong'o is the way he presents Christians and Christianity, at best as indifferent to the plight of the majority of the people, and at worst as accomplices in institutionalized exploitation, humiliation and dehumanization of the greater majority. Parts of the explanation for Ngugi's ...

  19. 77 FR 2992 - Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Adams and Grant Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Adams and Grant Counties, WA; Final..., wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and...

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BLCA-1S0WA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BLCA-1S0WA 1BLC 1S0W A A -----KELNDLEKKYNAHIGVYALDTKSG-KEVKFNSDKRFAYASTSKAINSAILL...1BLC A 1BLCA DTKSG-KEVKF ...1BLC A 1BLCA VPYNK--LNKKV...1BLC A 1BLCA KSGQAITYASR ...1BLC A 1BLCA VYPKGQSEPIV

  1. Streetism And Child Labour In The Wa Municipality Of Ghana A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge of child labor in Ghana, especially in Wa, has been given attention in recent times by various organizations within the country. An understudied dimension of these efforts at eradicating child labor is its gendered nature. This study was therefore conducted to unearth the gender dimension of the drivers of child ...

  2. 75 FR 60352 - Proposed Modification of the Seattle, WA, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ..., Burien, WA 98148. (3) The meeting on Thursday, December 16, 2010, will be held at The Theater at Auburn... asked to sign in and estimate the amount of time needed for such presentation. This will permit the... the docket. Agenda for the Meetings --Sign-in. --Presentation of meeting procedures. --FAA explanation...

  3. 77 FR 51563 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  4. 78 FR 25471 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  5. 78 FR 19297 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  6. 78 FR 19298 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Washington....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of...

  7. 78 FR 11673 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in...

  8. Yearly progress report on WA105/ProtoDUNE dual phase (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Balik, G

    2016-01-01

    WA105 aims at fully demonstrating the concept of a very large dual phase LAr TPC and calibrating it with a charged particles test beam. In this document we report the status of the construction and the general progress of the experiment.

  9. Analysis of EA-18G Growler Engine Maintenance at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    LCDR Will Gray , Ms. Kimberlee Haney, LCDR Josh Macmurdo, Mr. Steve Nickerson, Mr. John Senior, LT Will Shields, Mr. Rick Swankie, and Mr. Norm...AT3. His first duty assignment was with the Grey Wolves of VAQ- 35 at NAS Whidbey Island, WA. During this tour he qualified as an EA-6B Plane Captain

  10. 76 FR 9047 - Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Clark County, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ..., WA 98642. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bob Flores, Project Leader, (360) 887- 4109. SUPPLEMENTARY... developing a CCP is to provide refuge managers with a 15-year plan for achieving refuge purposes and..., and restore habitat for priority species are the same as those under Alternative 2. Current public use...

  11. 75 FR 63445 - Foreign-Trade Zone 86-Tacoma, WA; Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 86--Tacoma, WA; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone 86 was approved by the Foreign-Trade Zones Board on July 20, 1983 (Board Order 216), expanded on April [email protected]trade.gov or (202) 482-0862. Dated: September 30, 2010. Andrew McGilvray, Executive Secretary. BILLING...

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into WaSH Development Planning in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. Despite awareness of climate change, adaptation measures have not been considered, and the immediate WaSH needs remain the priority. Overall, stakeholders felt the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning. PMID:28698518

  13. An assessment of accessibility and utilisation of toilet facilities in Wa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-13

    Oct 13, 2009 ... hand-held global positioning system (GPS) receivers were used to pick geographic coordinates of various public toilets. ... Also, their impact on human and environmental health needs to be taken into account. .... Environmental Health Officers, Building Inspectorate Officers and the Wa Municipal. Assembly ...

  14. 77 FR 25079 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... accommodate the Beat the Bridge charity foot race scheduled for Sunday, May 20, 2012. This deviation allows... of participants of the Beat the Bridge charity event. Beat the Bridge is an annual foot race held in Seattle, WA to benefit diabetes research. The race course passes over the Montlake Bridge. The Montlake...

  15. 77 FR 25590 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... accommodate the Beat the Bridge charity foot race scheduled for Sunday, May 20, 2012. This deviation allows... participants of the Beat the Bridge charity event. Beat the Bridge is an annual foot race held in Seattle, WA to benefit diabetes research. The race course passes over University Bridge. University Bridge...

  16. Association of vWA and TPOX Polymorphisms with Venous Thrombosis in Mexican Mestizos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santana, Carla; Noris, Gino; Camacho-Mejorado, Rafael; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S.; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Magaña, Jonathan J.; Gómez, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disorder and, worldwide, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors play a critical role in its aetiology. Microsatellites are the most important source of human genetic variation having more phenotypic effect than many single nucleotide polymorphisms. Hence, we evaluate a possible relationship between VTE and the genetic variants in von Willebrand factor, human alpha fibrinogen, and human thyroid peroxidase microsatellites to identify possible diagnostic markers. Methods. Genotypes were obtained from 177 patients with VTE and 531 nonrelated individuals using validated genotyping methods. The allelic frequencies were compared; Bayesian methods were used to correct population stratification to avoid spurious associations. Results. The vWA-18, TPOX-9, and TPOX-12 alleles were significantly associated with VTE. Moreover, subjects bearing the combination vWA-18/TPOX-12 loci exhibited doubled risk for VTE (95% CI = 1.02–3.64), whereas the combination vWA-18/TPOX-9 showed an OR = 10 (95% CI = 4.93–21.49). Conclusions. The vWA and TPOX microsatellites are good candidate biomarkers in venous thromboembolism diseases and could help to elucidate their origins. Additionally, these polymorphisms could become useful markers for genetic studies of VTE in the Mexican population; however, further studies should be done owing that this data only show preliminary evidence. PMID:25250329

  17. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability of Nafion-SiO2/SiWA composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hui San; Chia, Min Yan; Cheah, Qiao Rou; Koo, Charlene Chai Hoon; Lai, Soon Onn; Chong, Kok Chung

    2017-04-01

    Proton exchange membranes for a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were prepared by incorporating silica/silicotungstic acid (SiO2/SiWA) inorganic composite into a Nafion polymer. The effects of SiO2/SiWA content on proton conductivity of membranes were investigated by using a four-probe conductivity cell. Methanol permeability of composite membrane was also determined by using a homemade diffusion cell and gas chromatography technique. It was found that proton conductivity of the composite membranes decreased with SiO2/SiWA content, however the highest proton conductivity achieved was 11% greater than the pure recast Nafion membrane. The methanol permeability of composite membrane was much lower than that of pure recast Nafion, in a reduction of 58% which indicated a better resistance to fuel crossover. Nafion-SiO2/SiWA composite membrane showed promising advantages over pure Nafion on electrochemical properties such as proton conductivity and fuel crossover and it is potentially attractive for use in DMFC.

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E0WA-2CNCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E0WA-2CNCA 1E0W 2CNC A A AESTLGAAAAQSGRYFGTAIASGR--LSDSTYTSIAGRE...> SER CA 191 THR CA 244 2CNC... A 2CNCA LNATIASGADERILE CA 468 2CNC A 2CNC...>CYS CA 412 LEU CA 412 GLY CA 476 2CNC

  19. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast... vessels while underway in the Puget Sound Captain of the Port (COTP) Area of Responsibility (AOR). These... remaining in the security zones unless authorized by the COTP, Puget Sound or Designated Representative...

  20. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY... Anthony P. LaBoy, Sector Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6323, email SectorPugetSound[email protected] . If you have questions on viewing the docket, call Renee V...

  1. 76 FR 73666 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Instructional Leadership, Puyallup School District, Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, 302 2nd Street SE... control of the Native American human remains. The National Park Service is not responsible for the... Fox, Director of Instructional Leadership, Paul H. Karshner Memorial Museum, Puyallup, WA, telephone...

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E0WA-2DEPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E0WA-2DEPA 1E0W 2DEP A A AESTLGAAAAQSGRYFGTAIASGRLSDSTYTSIAGREFNMVTAENEMKIDATEPQR...2DEP A 2DEPA SPWYQITGTEY ...2DEP A 2DEPA ALKENKDIVSA ...2DEP A 2DEPA PGYTT-GQIAE ...2DEP A 2DEPA NTDDP--VKRDI

  3. 77 FR 41977 - City of Seattle, WA; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Seattle, WA; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's... amendment of license for the Skagit River Project (FERC No. 553) and has prepared an Environmental...

  4. Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely…

  5. [Study on malnutrition status among Wa ethnicity children and adolescents in Lingcang prefecture, Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjuan; Chang, Litao; Chen, Lu; Wei, Xijing

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the malnutrition status among children and adolescents of Wa ethnicity in Lincang prefecture, Yunnan province from 2005 to 2014, and to provide evidence for the improvement of the situation. From 2005 to 2014, children and adolescents aged 7 to 18, from 19 primary and secondary schools in Cangyuan county of Lincang prefecture, Yunnan province, were chosen, using the multistage-stratified-random cluster sampling method, to receive physic examination. WHO-2006 standard was used. Situation related to the rate of growth retardation and malnutrition among students was analyzed, from 2005 to 2014. Data was from the National Student Physical Health Research Project. From 2000 to 2014, trends on nutrition development among these students were also studied. The rates related to growth retardation among 7-18 years-old Wa boys in 2005, 2010 and 2014 were 45.61%, 52.36% and 35.85%, with the rates of thinness as 1.44%, 0.76% and 1.36% , respectively. Rates on malnutrition were 52.35% , 56.01% and 41.13% , respectively. Rates related to growth retardation among 7-18 years-old Wa girls were 42.03%, 47.41% and 33.06%, respectively, with rates of thinness as 0.91%, 0.68% and 0.83%, respectively. The rates on malnutrition were 46.13%, 49.77% and 35.56%, respectively. From year 2005 to 2014, spurt on height growth of boys and girls were among the 13-14 years-old and 9-10 years-old, respectively. Girls were 4 years earlier, entering the sudden increase in the peak age than boys. Sex difference on height among the 18 years-old Wa youngsters were 11.99, 9.34 and 11.38 cm in 2005, 2010 and 2014, respectively. Malnutrition status of retardation on growth among Wa children and adolescents remained quite serious.

  6. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  7. The Experiences and Academic Successes of African American Post-9/11 Veterans at Martin R. Delaney State University (Pseudonym of an Actual Historically Black University)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Dymilah Luwanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the academic experiences of veterans attending historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Following World War II, enrollment at HBCUs was as high as 35%. Broader access at traditional colleges and the proliferation of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) have led to a decline in African…

  8. Two Centuries of State Involvement in the Dutch Agro sector: An Assessment of Policy in a Long-term Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of Dutch government policies on the agro sector in a long-term historical perspective. Agro policies touch upon a wide range of matters, from export, competitiveness and employment to sustainability, animal welfare and food security, Unsurprisingly, they are a

  9. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke...

  10. 78 FR 67027 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... vehicular traffic attending football games at Husky Stadium at the University of Washington, Seattle... football traffic. Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520) provides three navigational openings... television scheduling, the time for the game is not currently available. The deviation allows the floating...

  11. Wa Wa We Wa! / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Briti koomik Sacha Baron Cohen ja tema loodud peategelasega film "Borat - kultuurialased õppetunnid Ameerikast abiks suursuguse Kasahstani riigi ülesehitamisel", režissöör Larry Charles : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Lisaks "Seigad Coheni elust"

  12. The Ninth Circuit Court's treatment of the history of suicide by Ancient Jews and Christians in Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington: historical naivete or special pleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, D W

    1998-01-01

    In this article, Prof. Darrel Amundsen critiques Judge Reinhardt's comments regarding "Historical Attitudes Toward Suicide" in his Compassion in Dying opinion. Amundsen demonstrates that the court's characterization of ancient Jewish and Christian practices is inaccurate and misleading because it fails to acknowledge the complexities of the moral issue of suicide. Amundsen discusses martyrdom, suicide in general, suicide by the ill, and euthanasia in ancient Judaism. In contrast to the court's commentary, Amundsen demonstrates that regard for human life is a central feature of Jewish ethical monotheism. Furthermore, the author challenges the court's conclusions about early Christianity, and explains why its treatment of the issue of suicide in early Christianity is misleading and inaccurate. Amundsen's discussion of early Christianity includes suicide, martyrdom, and especially the Augustinian teaching on suicide. He concludes that the court's treatment of the issue of suicide in early Christianity is so historically and conceptually muddled as to be fundamentally inaccurate.

  13. Clinical evaluation of a single oral dose of human-bovine (UK) reassortant rotavirus vaccines Wa x UK (P1A[8],G6) and Wa x (DS-1 x UK) (P1A[8],G2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Maryna C; Sperber, Ellen; Wagner, Mariam; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Dudas, Robert; Hodgins, Vicki; Marron, Jennifer; Nehring, Pamela; Casey, Roberta; Burns, Barbara; Karron, Ruth; Clements-Mann, Mary Lou; Kapikian, Albert Z

    2002-03-01

    The safety, infectivity, and immunogenicity of two human-bovine reassortant rotavirus candidate vaccines were evaluated in adults, children, and infants. One of these, Wa x UK, contained a single human rotavirus gene from the Wa strain that encoded VP4 P1A specificity in a background of 10 bovine genes including the VP7 gene that encodes G6 specificity, whereas the other, Wa x (DS-1 x UK), possessed the human rotavirus VP4 gene from the Wa strain as well as the human VP7 gene from strain DS-1 that encoded G2 specificity. Each of these vaccines appeared to be well-tolerated and immunogenic in infants less than 6 months of age following a single oral dose, and therefore should be evaluated further as vaccine candidates. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Music and Astronomy: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The link between music and astronomy has deep historical roots. William Herschel, who is considered to be the father of modern astronomy, began his career as a musician. He was a composer, organist at a church in Bath, UK, and a major contributor to the musical life of that community. Like Herschel, I too am an organist and composer, and much of my creative work focuses on connections between music and astronomy. This presentation will explore briefly aspects of William Herschel's musical career, and will then focus on contemporary music inspired by astronomical phenomena. Emphasis will be placed on the use of music as a creative teaching tool in informal education environments. The University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, hosted at both Mt. Lemmon and Kitt Peak National Observatory, will be used as an example and case study. Examples from my creative activity as an organ performer and composer will be important features of this presentation. This presentation builds on the session exploring the life and work of the Herschels at the January 2011 AAS Historical Astronomy Division meeting in Seattle, WA.

  15. The ideological fragmentation of Indonesian Muslim students and da’wa movements in the postreformed era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of post-reformation religious organizations has influenced students’ ideology and movements. Thus, this study explains the processes of Muslim students’ ideological fragmentation and its implications to the future of students’ post-reformation movements. This study is conducted through observations and interviews to extracurricular organizational activists in Purwokerto. Reflective analysis is then conducted using primary and secondary data. Islamic ideology has many important roles, such as guidance, values, beliefs, and directions for da’wa (Islamic missionaryactivities. In its operation, Islamic ideology is fragmented into fundamental, modernist, liberal, and traditional ideology. The ideological processes are influenced by several factors, such as organization historical background, ideological relationship with social organizations, development of Islamic transnational organizations, students’ increasing demands and needs in modern era, as well as the presence of massive information media. The Implications of ideological fragmentation influence post-reformation activities performed by those Muslim students. They donot only perform religious activities by mentoring as previously performed in the new order, but also doing debate activities onIslamic theology, politics, community empowerment, global awareness,issues on humanities, and responses to the development of science and technology.The presence of ideological fragmentation may not be negatively faced andconsolidated in a single view. The most important one is how to critically and constructively maintain and develop the ideology. Munculnya berbagai organisasi keagamaan pasca reformasi memiliki dampak pada ideologi dan gerakan mahasiswa. Oleh karena itu, pada tulisan ini akan diuraikan tentang proses terjadinya fragmentasi ideologi pada mahasiswa muslim dan implikasinya terhadap masa depan gerakan mahasiswa muslim pasca reformasi. Kajian dilakukan dengan cara

  16. Peculiarities occurrence and microstrip gas chambers studied through experiment WA97; La production d`etrangete et les chambres gazeuses a micropistes dans le cadre de l`experience WA97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelhoffer, T.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents the studies on development of a Monte-Carlo type generator used for inclusive production of odd baryons and antibaryons through proton- proton and proton- nucleus collisions. Experiment WA97 consisted in designing simulation software for MSGCs (Micro-strips Gas Chambers) as well as the redefining of particle paths with the help of these chambers. This work made it possible to design the MSGC detector for experiment WA97. (TEC). 71 refs., 88 figs.

  17. Growing up the Religious Potential from Religious Community of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah Dawe Kudus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danusiri Danusiri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the congregation of the Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah in Piji, Dawe, Kudus, particularly on how they make any effort to make their potentials of religious observance can maximally grow. In order to find out their efforts, the writer applied participatory observation and was involved in their daily lives. The data were then organized in certain way according to the theme previously deter- mined. In order to achieve the maximum of religious observance which they call as wuṣūl dan wilāyah, the congregation of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah use a series of rituals namely baiat (allegiance, zikir (remembrance, khataman ratib (complet- ing ratib, muraqabah, khalwat (seclusion, fida’, manaqib, and performing pilgrim- age to the grave of wali (muslim saints.

  18. LBNO-DEMO (WA105): a large demonstrator of the Liquid Argon double phase TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2015-01-01

    LBNO-DEMO (WA105) is a large demonstrator of the double phase liquid argon TPC intended to develop and test the main elements of the GLACIER-based design for the purpose of scaling it up to the 10–50 kton size needed for Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation studies. The crucial components of the design are: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, and cold preamplifiers. The active volume of the demonstrator is 666 m3 (approximately 300t). WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to charged particle beams (0.5-20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide the necessary calibration of the detector performance and benchmark reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program, including projects like LBNO and DUNE.

  19. Study of charged particle production using Omega RICH in WA94 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abatzis, S. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Nuclear Physics Lab.; Andersen, E.; Andrighetto, A.; Antinori, F.; Barnes, R.P.; Bayes, A.C.; Benayoun, M.; Beusch, W.; Bohm, J.; Carney, J.N.; Carrer, N.; De la Cruz, B.; Davies, J.P.; Di Bari, D.; Elia, D.; Evans, D.; Fanebust, K.; Fini, R.; French, B.R.; Ghidini, B.; Helstrup, H.; Holme, A.K.; Jacholkowski, A.; Kahane, J.; Katchanov, V.A.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Knudson, K.; Kralik, I.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lassalle, J.C.; Lenti, V.; Leruste, P.; Lietava, R.; Loconsole, R.A.; Loevhoeiden, G.; Manzari, V.; Morando, M.; Navach, F.; Narjoux, J.L.; Pellegrini, F.; Quercigh, E.; Ricci, R.; Sandor, L.; Safarik, K.; Segato, G.; Singovsky, A.V.; Sene, M.; Sene, R.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Urban, J.; Vassiliadis, G.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Venables, M.; Volte, A.; Votruba, M.F.; Zavada, P. [Athens University, Nuclear Physics Department, GR-15771 Athens (Greece)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, Bari (Italy)]|[Universitetet i Bergen, N-5007 Bergen (Norway)]|[University of, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]|[CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[College de France, IN2P3, F-75231 Paris (France)]|[Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia)]|[Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)]|[CIEMAT, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita and Sezione INFN, Padua (Italy)]|[IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); The WA94 Collaboration

    1996-03-01

    We present preliminary results about charged particle production in S-S collisions at 200GeV/c per nucleon, obtained by WA94 experiment at CERN-SPS. The particle identification has been provided by the Omega RICH; a silicon telescope and an array of multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) have been used to track particles to the RICH detector. Details about particle tracking and identification procedure are also reported. (orig.).

  20. Yearly progress report on WA105/ProtoDUNE dual-phase (2017)

    CERN Document Server

    Aimard, B

    2017-01-01

    WA105/ProtoDUNE dual-phase aims at fully demonstrating the concept of a very large dual-phase LAr TPC and calibrating it with a charged particles test beam, in view of the application of this detector design for the construction of DUNE 10 kton far detector modules. In this document we report the general progress of the dual-phase experimental activities at CERN since the last SPSC yearly report.

  1. Wenatchee River steelhead reproductive success - Estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Wenatchee River, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project uses genetic parentage analysis to estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead spawning in the Wenatchee River, WA. The...

  2. Marcadores de tempo Apyãwa: a solidariedade entre os povos e o ambiente que habitam

    OpenAIRE

    Severino Filho,João

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the results of a Doctorate research on Mathematics Education carried out from an experience in Ethnography, with the Apyãwa Indigenous people, inhabitants of the Urubu Branco Indigenous Area, located in East Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The main goal was to compose a set of studies and reflections on Indigenous people knowledge and their epistemologies, interpreted from the flow of Apyãwa people's social speech, from the perspective of Ethnomathematics Program. The reflec...

  3. 262 Iwulite Amụmamụ Asụsụ Igbo site n'Usoro Ozi Ozuru Ụwa na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    -akpụ ndị ala a isi. N'aka nke ọzọ, gịnị ka a ga-eme na Naịjiria iji rite uru niile dị na ozuru ụwa na ICT. Olee etu a ga-esi hazie uru ndị a etu dị mma iji wulite amụmamụ asụsụ Igbo. Uru Ozuru Ụwa Bara na Naijiria. E nwere ọtụtụ ihe kpatara na ...

  4. Partners in International Research and Education: Student Contributions to the Collaborative Investigation of Bezymianny, Shiveluch, and Karymsky Volcanoes, Kamchatka, Russia and Mount St. Helens, WA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Kayzar, T. M.; Team, P.

    2008-12-01

    Undergraduate and graduate students as well as senior researchers from the U.S., Russia, and Japan are investigating volcanism as participants of the National Science Foundation initiative Partners in International Research and Education (PIRE). The goal of this study is to use the benefits of global comparisons to increase our understanding of explosive volcanism while at the same time developing international collaboration between scientists in the U.S., Russia, and Japan. International collaboration is established through field work in Kamchatka, Russia investigating the active systems of Bezymianny, Shiveluch, and Karymsky volcanoes with a specific focus on historic collapse-blast type eruptions. The Kamchatka volcanic arc provides unique access to multiple active volcanic systems that can be compared and contrasted to the well-studied behavior at Mount St. Helens, WA., USA. Conversely, Mount St. Helens also provides a field setting for Russian and Japanese students to be incorporated in U.S. research. Student participants employ their respective techniques in geochemistry, geophysics, petrology, and remote sensing to study the eruption response of Bezymianny and Shiveluch volcanoes, which have experienced edifice collapse. During the 2008 field season, the increased activity at Bezymianny volcano shortened a planned field expedition. In order to preserve the integrity of the program and provide a safer environment for researchers, alternative field studies began at Karymsky volcano. In July, an anonymously large eruption at Karymsky volcano permitted the collection of unique real-time data of the eruptive event. Here we present student research from three field seasons in the Kamchatka volcanic arc and associated workshops at Mount St. Helens, WA. Results include estimates of magma storage depth, gas emissions measurements, evidence for dynamic thermal regime changes in fresh volcanic deposits, and data constraining magma inputs and sources at each volcano. By

  5. Patriotic and Historical Plays for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerman, Sylvia E., Ed.

    The one-act, royalty-free plays in this book dramatize notable events in United States history. Historical selections include dramatizations of the Declaration of Independence, the Boston Tea Party, the Continental Army at Valley Forge, the birth of the Constitution, and George Washington crossing the Delaware and feature such historic figures as…

  6. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - BRIDGES_HISTORIC_IDNR_IN: Historic Bridge Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains point locations of historic bridges in Indiana. It includes buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects...

  7. 75 FR 41883 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, Washington State University Pullman, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... wood fragments, and 5 lots of leather fragments. The burial pattern recorded by the excavators and the... these remains with an unknown archeological site, the semi-flexed position of the skeletal remains, and...

  8. 78 FR 13887 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... information about generations of family members living in the area and ritual use of the area in vision quests... Native American ancestry. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a relationship of shared group identity...

  9. 78 FR 44593 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., of the Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, during the excavation of site 45-SJ-105... Juan County Sheriff's Department sent the remains to the Department of Anthropology, University of... material. No known individuals were identified. No associated funerary objects are present. Ethnographic...

  10. Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Note: This data set is now on FTP so references to CD-ROM are historic and no longer applicable. The Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive is on FTP, and it contains...

  11. Exploring Historical Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, L. Allen

    1992-01-01

    Finds that powerlessness, social isolation, dogmatic nationalism, age, and gender significantly predict historical illiteracy (unfamiliarity with historical facts) and that a completed college history course reduced the effects of the predicting factors. (SR)

  12. A historical context and archaeological research design for agricultural properties in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires that federal agencies take : into account the effects of their undertakings upon historic properties. Caltrans, in cooperation : with the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) ...

  13. 77 FR 71447 - Notice of Fee Schedule for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Fee Schedule for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications... for reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications in accordance with the schedule... applications received by State Historic Preservation Offices after the effective date of this fee schedule...

  14. The WA105-3x1x1 m3 dual phase LAr-TPC demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sebastien

    2016-11-15

    The dual phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) is the state-of-art technology for neutrino detection thanks to its superb 3D tracking and calorimetry performance. Its main feature is the charge amplification in gas argon which provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multiplier detectors provides amplification of the charges before its collection onto an anode with strip readout. The charge amplification enables constructing fully homoge- nous giant LAr-TPCs with tuneable gain, excellent charge imaging performance and increased sensitivity to low energy events. Following a staged approach the WA105 collaboration is con- structing a dual phase LAr-TPC with an active volume of 3x1x1m3 that will soon be tested with cosmic rays. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, la...

  15. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  16. Special Stamps:Historical Relic Beacons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In May 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of five stamps picturing historical relic beacons. They are the Mao Beacon, the Jiangxinyu Twin Beacon, the Huaniaoshan Beacon, the Laotieshan Beacon, and

  17. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in piñon-juniper vegetation of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, William H.; Allen, Craig D.; Bailey, John D.; Baker, William L.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Brown, Peter M.; Eisenhart, Karen S.; Floyd, M. Lisa; Huffman, David W.; Jacobs, Brian F.; Miller, Richard F.; Muldavin, Esteban H.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Tausch, Robin J.; Weisberg, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Piñon–juniper is a major vegetation type in western North America. Effective management of these ecosystems has been hindered by inadequate understanding of 1) the variability in ecosystem structure and ecological processes that exists among the diverse combinations of piñons, junipers, and associated shrubs, herbs, and soil organisms; 2) the prehistoric and historic disturbance regimes; and 3) the mechanisms driving changes in vegetation structure and composition during the past 150 yr. This article summarizes what we know (and don't know) about three fundamentally different kinds of piñon–juniper vegetation. Persistent woodlands are found where local soils, climate, and disturbance regimes are favorable for piñon, juniper, or a mix of both; fires have always been infrequent in these woodlands. Piñon–juniper savannas are found where local soils and climate are suitable for both trees and grasses; it is logical that low-severity fires may have maintained low tree densities before disruption of fire regimes following Euro-American settlement, but information is insufficient to support any confident statements about historical disturbance regimes in these savannas. Wooded shrublands are found where local soils and climate support a shrub community, but trees can increase during moist climatic conditions and periods without disturbance and decrease during droughts and following disturbance. Dramatic increases in tree density have occurred in portions of all three types of piñon–juniper vegetation, although equally dramatic mortality events have also occurred in some areas. The potential mechanisms driving increases in tree density—such as recovery from past disturbance, natural range expansion, livestock grazing, fire exclusion, climatic variability, and CO2 fertilization—generally have not received enough empirical or experimental investigation to predict which is most important in any given location. The intent of this synthesis is 1) to provide a

  18. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  19. Neotectonically controlled fluvial features, Wałbrzych Upland, Middle Sudeten Mts, southwestern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyszkowski, Dariusz; Stachura, Renata

    1998-02-01

    The landscape of the Wałbrzych Upland, Sudeten Mts, southwestern Poland, has developed over a long time involving three main stages: (I) the Oligocene-Early Pliocene, (II) the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, and (III) the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Stage III is neotectonically controlled and is discussed in detail. The entire Wałbrzych Upland was covered by a continuous ice cover during the early Saalian and at least in its marginal part during the Elsterian. The pre-early Saalian fluvial landscape shows no evidence of tectonic activity in contrast with that of post-early Saalian time. The post-early Saalian valleys have been formed during the intensive and short-term uplift of the mountain upland with simultaneous re-activation of fault zones. The main geomorphological effects of this uplift are: abandonment of valleys; formation of deep river valleys cut within bedrock; varying shapes of newly incised valleys; highly irregular longitudinal profiles of channels; varying numbers of terraces and their heights along the valleys; tilting of terraces; and formation of fault scarps at some fault lines. The main geological effects are: variable thicknesses of alluvial deposits caused by rotation of bedrock blocks; synsedimentary increases of thickness of alluvial deposits at some fault lines; and breaking of the continuity of some alluvial surfaces at the major fault lines. The uplift of the Wałbrzych Upland was controlled by glacio-isostatic rebound after the early Saalian glaciation supplemented by localised extensional tectonics. Total tectonic uplift was about 40-50 m.

  20. A Case Study of the Cultural Ecological Protection in Wa Ethnical Willage, Wengding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to survive in the context of new developments is a major problem confronting minority nationality cultures in the process of modernization. This paper is a case study of Wongding,an aboriginal Wa minority nationality culture village listed among the first group of intangible culture units in China’s Yunnan Province. The research emphasizes giving balanced attention to both protection and development, focusing on the living inheritance of culture in community life and the development of cultural tourism by utilizing the market platform and diverse forces to promote the development of minority nationality cultures.

  1. The data access infrastructure of the Wadden Sea Long Term Ecosystem Research (WaLTER) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Wadden Sea, North of The Netherlands, Germany and Danmark, is one of the most important tidal areas in the world. In 2009, the Wadden Sea was listed on the UNESCO World Heritage list. The area is noted for its ecological diversity and value, being a stopover for large numbers of migrating birds. The Wadden Sea is also used intensively for economic activities by inhabitants of the surrounding coasts and islands, as well as by the many tourists visiting the area every year. A whole series of monitoring programmes is carried out by a range of governmental bodies and institutes to study the natural processes occuring in the Wadden Sea ecosystems as well as the influence of human activities on those ecosystems. Yet, the monitoring programmes are scattered and it is difficult to get an overview of those monitoring activities or to get access to the data resulting from those monitoring programmes. The Wadden Sea Long Term Ecosystem Research (WaLTER) project aims to: 1. To provide a base set of consistent, standardized, long-term data on changes in the Wadden Sea ecological and socio-economic system in order to model and understand interrelationships with human use, climate variation and possible other drivers. 2. To provide a research infrastructure, open access to commonly shared databases, educational facilities and one or more field sites in which experimental, innovative and process-driven research can be carried out. This presentation will introduce the WaLTER-project and explain the rationale for this project. The presentation will focus on the data access infrastructure which will be used for WaLTER. This infrastructure is part of the existing and operational infrastructure of the National Oceanographic Data Committee (NODC) in the Netherlands. The NODC forms the Dutch node in the European SeaDataNet consortium, which has built an European, distributed data access infrastructure. WaLTER, NODC and SeaDataNet all use the same technology, developed within the Sea

  2. The More Extreme Nature of North American Monsoon Precipitation in the Southwestern United States as Revealed by a Historical Climatology of Simulated Severe Weather Events

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang M.

    2017-07-03

    Long-term changes in North American monsoon (NAM) precipitation intensity in the southwestern United States are evaluated through the use of convective-permitting model simulations of objectively identified severe weather events during

  3. Endothelial cell changes are associated with pulmonary edema and respiratory distress in mice infected with the WA1 human Babesia parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, R M; Wozniak, E J; Lowenstine, L J; Plopper, C G; Wong, V; Conrad, P A

    1999-06-01

    A C3H/HeN mouse model was established to study the pathogenesis of the human babesial parasites, WA1 and Babesia microti. To evaluate the course of parasitemia and the associated lesions, mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with either WA1-infected, B. microti-infected, or uninfected hamster red blood cells. WA1-infected mice developed dyspnea and moderate parasitemias, after which death occurred. Babesia microti-infected mice experienced low parasitemias with no apparent morbidity or mortality. WA1-infected mice were thrombocytopenic but not anemic. Hemograms for B. microti-infected mice were similar to controls. Postmortem examination of WA1-infected mice revealed prominent lesions in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and intravascular margination of leukocytes. No pulmonary changes were detected in B. microti-infected mice. Blood gas measurements of WA1-infected mice showed reduced oxygen saturation and pH, and increased carbonic acid compared to controls, indicating hypoxia and respiratory acidosis. Ultrastructure studies of WA1-infected lungs showed hypertrophied endothelial cells containing transcellular channels associated with protein-rich intra-alveolar fluid. Endothelial cell activation was demonstrated by an upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the lungs of WA1-infected mice. The results suggest that recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs in WA1-infected mice induces endothelial cell alterations, leading to pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure.

  4. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  5. Opportunities for Increased Physical Activity in the Workplace: the Walking Meeting (WaM) Pilot Study, Miami, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Hannah E; Yang, Xuan; Messiah, Sarah E; Arheart, Kristopher L; Brannan, Debi; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2016-06-23

    Despite the positive impact walking has on human health, few opportunities exist for workers with largely sedentary jobs to increase physical activity while at work. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of using a Walking Meeting (WaM) protocol to increase the level of work-related physical activity among a group of sedentary white-collar workers. White-collar workers at a large university were invited to participate in a newly developed WaM protocol. Workers who conducted weekly meetings in groups of 2 or 3 individuals were recruited for the pilot study (n = 18) that took place from January 2015 to August 2015. Seventeen participants wore an accelerometer to measure physical activity levels during 3 consecutive weeks (first week baseline, followed by 2 weeks of organized WaMs) and participated in focus groups conducted during week 3 to document experiences with the WaM protocol. The WaM protocol met study criteria on feasibility, implementation, and acceptability among study participants. The average number of minutes (standard deviation) participants engaged in combined work-related moderate/vigorous physical activity per week during the 3 weeks increased from an average of 107 (55) minutes during the baseline week to 114 (67) minutes at week 2 and to 117 (65) minutes at week 3. White- collar workers were supportive of transforming regular seated meetings into walking meetings and increased their work-related physical activity levels.

  6. 30 CFR 872.21 - What are historic coal funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION MONEYS AVAILABLE TO ELIGIBLE STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES § 872.21 What are historic coal funds? (a) “Historic coal funds” are moneys provided under section 402(g)(5) of... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are historic coal funds? 872.21 Section...

  7. Sunlight-induced inactivation of human Wa and porcine OSU rotaviruses in the presence of exogenous photosensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C.

    2013-10-01

    Human rotavirus Wa and porcine rotavirus OSU solutions were irradiated with simulated solar UV and visible light in the presence of different photosensitizers dissolved in buffered solutions. For human rotavirus, the exogenous effects were greater than the endogenous effects under irradiation with full spectrum and UVA and visible light at 25 C. For porcine rotavirus, the exogenous effects with UVA and visible light irradiation were only observed at high temperatures, >40 C. The results from dark experiments conducted at different temperatures suggest that porcine rotavirus has higher thermostability than human rotavirus. Concentrations of 3′-MAP excited triplet states of 1.8 fM and above resulted in significant human rotavirus inactivation. The measured excited triplet state concentrations of ≤0.45 fM produced by UVA and visible light irradiation of natural dissolved organic matter solutions were likely not directly responsible for rotavirus inactivation. Instead, the linear correlation for human rotavirus inactivation rate constant (kobs) with the phenol degradation rate constant (kexp) found in both 1 mM NaHCO3 and 1 mM phosphate-buffered solutions suggested that OH radical was a major reactive species for the exogenous inactivation of rotaviruses. Linear correlations between rotavirus kobs and specific UV254 nm absorbance of two river-dissolved organic matter and two effluent organic matter isolates indicated that organic matter aromaticity may help predict formation of radicals responsible for rotavirus inactivation. The results from this study also suggested that the differences in rotavirus strains should be considered when predicting solar inactivation of rotavirus in sunlit surface waters. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Flow analysis with WaSiM-ETH – model parameter sensitivity at different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cullmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available WaSiM-ETH (Gurtz et al., 2001, a widely used water balance simulation model, is tested for its suitability to serve for flow analysis in the context of rainfall runoff modelling and flood forecasting. In this paper, special focus is on the resolution of the process domain in space as well as in time. We try to couple model runs with different calculation time steps in order to reduce the effort arising from calculating the whole flow hydrograph at the hourly time step. We aim at modelling on the daily time step for water balance purposes, switching to the hourly time step whenever high-resolution information is necessary (flood forecasting. WaSiM-ETH is used at different grid resolutions, thus we try to become clear about being able to transfer the model in spatial resolution. We further use two different approaches for the overland flow time calculation within the sub-basins of the test watershed to gain insights about the process dynamics portrayed by the model. Our findings indicate that the model is very sensitive to time and space resolution and cannot be transferred across scales without recalibration.

  9. Historical Trends in Educational Decentralization in the United States and Developing Countries: A Periodization and Comparison in the Post-WWII Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; DeMatthews, Davis E.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we fill a gap in the writing on the decentralization of educational governance by periodizing and comparing trends that have fallen under this label in both the United States and developing countries in the post-WWII period (1945-present). The findings are informed by a review of 127 decentralization-related studies from seven…

  10. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The papers collected in this volume were originally presented at an Interna- tional Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology organized by. Julie Coleman, and meant to fill the gap created by the two International. Round Table Conferences in Florence and Leyden in 1971 and 1977 respec- tively. The purpose ...

  11. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  13. 78 FR 59963 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... members of Southern Coast Salish tribes. Historical and anthropological sources (Deur 2009, Mooney 1896...) 685-3849, email [email protected] , and Lourdes Henebry-DeLeon, Department of Anthropology, Central Washington University, 400 East University Way, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7544, telephone (509) 963-2671, email...

  14. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  15. Tracking the Sun V: An Historical Summary of the Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the deployment of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has increased, so too has the desire to track the installed price of these systems over time and by location, customer type, and system characteristics. This report helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected PV systems in the United States from 1998 through 2011, with preliminary data for 2012. The analysis is based on project-level data for more than 150,000 individual residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV systems, totaling more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) and representing 76% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2011. The report describes installed price trends for residential and commercial PV systems, and another set of trends for utility-scale PV. In all cases, installed prices are identified in terms of real 2011 dollars per installed watt (DC-STC), prior to receipt of any direct financial incentives or tax credits.

  16. O sistema médico Yawanáwa e seus especialistas: cura, poder e iniciação xamânica The Yawanáwa medical system and its specialists: healing, power, and shamanic initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pérez-Gil

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma das particularidades do xamanismo Yawanáwa é a multiplicidade de termos existentes para designar seus especialistas, bem como a associação com diversas técnicas de cura e agressão, característica que lhe dá aparência heterogênea e complexa. Contudo, uma unidade subjaz a esse aspecto, já que todas essas técnicas compartilham concepções idênticas a respeito da realidade e baseiam sua eficiência nos mesmos conceitos de poder e de conhecimento. Para pesquisar a forma como o poder e o conhecimento - alicerces das práticas relacionadas com a cura - são concebidos entre os Yawanáwa, o artigo explora e analisa o processo por meio do qual o especialista os adquire: a iniciação xamânica.A wide variety of terms are used in Yawanáwa shamanism to name both healers and the relations between these specialists and techniques of healing and aggression, a characteristic that appears heterogeneous and complex. However, there is unity behind this appearance, because all the techniques are based on the same concepts of power and knowledge. To show how these ideas are conceived by the Yawanáwa, this article explores the process by which power and knowledge are acquired: shamanic initiation.

  17. Measurements of Turbulence at Two Tidal Energy Sites in Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Durgesh, Vibhav; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2012-06-05

    Field measurements of turbulence are pre- sented from two sites in Puget Sound, WA (USA) that are proposed for electrical power generation using tidal current turbines. Rapidly sampled data from multiple acoustic Doppler instruments are analyzed to obtain statistical mea- sures of fluctuations in both the magnitude and direction of the tidal currents. The resulting turbulence intensities (i.e., the turbulent velocity fluctuations normalized by the harmonic tidal currents) are typically 10% at the hub- heights (i.e., the relevant depth bin) of the proposed turbines. Length and time scales of the turbulence are also analyzed. Large-scale, anisotropic eddies dominate the energy spectra, which may be the result of proximity to headlands at each site. At small scales, an isotropic turbulent cascade is observed and used to estimate the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. Data quality and sampling parameters are discussed, with an emphasis on the removal of Doppler noise from turbulence statistics.

  18. PERAN BAITUL MAAL WA TAMWIL (BMT DALAM MENINGKATKAN KINERJA USAHA RUMAH TANGGA DI PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyotoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is titled The Role of Baitul Maal Wa Tamwil (BMT in Improving Business Performance Scale Households in Purwokerto, it’s carried out in order to determine the role of BMT in improving business performance household scale, the potential of BMT in household-scale enterprises development, and the contribution BMT in household-scale enterprises development From the research result shows that BMT has a strategic role to improve the business performance scale household because the financing needs of TMB bridge between bussiness with financial institutions. BMT has a good potential for business development so that developing domestic scale becomes larger. BMT gives contribute the development of household scale so it can encourage economic growth, employment, and other follow-up impact

  19. Identification of WA-type three-line hybrid rice with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Gao, B D; Chen, H Y; Mao, J J; Cao, A X; Zhu, J G; Zhu, S F

    2012-02-01

    A real-time fluorescent PCR (RTF-PCR) was developed to detect and quantify wild abortive (WA)-type three-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). The mitochondrial R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene was reported to be closely related to male sterility in plants, and developed as a molecular maker to identify the cytoplasmic male sterility system of hybrid rice. First, we got the DNA sequence of R₂₋₆₃₀ WA gene in 17 rice species with traditional PCR. Then, a pair of specific primers (P₃, P₄) and TaqMan fluorescence probe (P₃₋₁₄) were designed based on the R₂₋₆₃₀ DNA sequence. The following RTF-PCR was performed on the 17 rice species finally. The results indicate that the probes used here are specific for three-line hybrid rice F₁ and male sterile lines. We can even identify a single hybrid seed using the probes, which confirmed that the probes can be applied to the identification and quantification of the WA-type three-line hybrid rice. In addition, the RFT-PCR system can be optimized when the annealing temperature is 60 °C and the Mg²⁺ concentration is 3.5 mmol/L.

  20. Wabanaki Youth in Science (WaYS): A Tribal Mentoring and Educational Program Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    tish carr; Laura S. Kenefic; Darren J. Ranco

    2017-01-01

    The Wabanaki Youth in Science (WaYS) program provides mentoring and training opportunities in the life sciences for Native American youth in Maine. This program, which was motivated by a shortage of young natural resource professionals to manage tribal lands, uses a multifaceted approach (i.e., camps, community outreach, and internships with cultural resource and...

  1. 78 FR 7265 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The... military cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is... Puget Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6045, email SectorPugetSound...

  2. 78 FR 11981 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The... military cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is... Ensign Nathaniel P. Clinger, Sector Puget Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard; telephone 206...

  3. 77 FR 32943 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., incidental to pile driving during construction of the Terminal 5 Bulk Potash Handling Facility. DATES... (Eumatopius jubatus) ] incidental to pile driving activities conducted during the construction of the Terminal...

  4. WA105: A large demonstrator of a liquid argon dual phase TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, L.; Murphy, S.; WA105 Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Liquid argon technology has been chosen for the DUNE underground experiment for the study of neutrino oscillations, neutrino astrophysics and proton decay. This detector has excellent tracking and calorimetric capabilities much superior to currently operating neutrino detectors. WA105 is a large demonstrator of the dual-phase liquid argon TPC based on the GLACIER design, with a 6×6×6 m3 (appr. 300t) active volume. Its construction and operation test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this detector: ultra-high argon purity in non-evacuable tanks, long drifts, very high drift voltages, large area MPGD, cold preamplifiers. The TPC will be built inside a tank based on industrial LNG technology. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multipliers (LEM’s) provides amplification before the charge collection onto an anode plane with strip readout. This highly cost effective solution provides excellent imaging capabilities with equal charge sharing on both views. PMTs located at the bottom of the tank containing the liquid argon provide the readout of the scintillation light. This demonstrator is an industrial prototype of the design proposed for a large underground detector. WA105 is under construction at CERN and will be exposed to a charged particle beam (0.5 - 20 GeV/c) in the North Area in 2018. The data will provide necessary calibration of the detector performances and benchmark sophisticated reconstruction algorithms. This project is a crucial milestone for the long baseline neutrino program DUNE.

  5. Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dias de Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico. Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural, direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança. A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil.This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural, directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments and regionalization features (institutionality and governance. The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were

  6. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  7. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  8. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  9. Water Accounting Plus (WA+ – a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coping with water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links depletion to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper, we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+, which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use and landscape evapotranspiration on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. WA+ presents four sheets including (i a resource base sheet, (ii an evapotranspiration sheet, (iii a productivity sheet, and (iv a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarise the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g., climate change and internal influences (e.g., infrastructure building can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used to acquire a vast amount of required data but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  10. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by the Federal Government as significant in American history and culture. These properties include districts, buildings, sites and objects of significance to the nation, etc., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset current as of 2007. National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by...

  11. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Archivist of the United States in writing of the claimed right, privilege, or defense within 30 days of the... Presidential Historical Materials must be sent to the Archivist of the United States, National Archives at...

  12. Use of Sound for Fish Protection at Power Facilities : A Historical Perspective of the State of the Art : Phase 1 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of the knowledge of fish hearing, i.e., what is known about fish response to sound, and provides a starting place for investigation into the use of sonic behavior modification to help solve pressing problems in the maintenance and recovery of anadromous and resident fish stocks of the Columbia River Basin. The challenge for scientists and engineers is to understand (1) how and what fish hear, and (2) how to use this knowledge to influence fish behavior or to factor fish sensory systems and behavior into the design of fish protection devices at power-production and water-control facilities. The sections that follow are a studied response to this challenge. In many respects, the search for effective and economical ways to modify fish behavior without physical intervention is one of the grails of fish management, particularly (although not exclusively), relative to electric power production. Within the Columbia River Basin and elsewhere, water is put to many uses not conducive to the health of indigenous fish. Irrigation, impoundment, and hydropower production frequently modify the riverine environment to the detriment of indigenous stocks while creating productive environments for competing or predatory species. The mechanisms of impact are numerous. Water project managers, when faced with the need to reduce impacts of their operations on fish health, generally attempt to divert fish from high-risk to lower-risk regions or manage the environment in such a way as to increase the survival prospects of impacted species. Almost without exception, risk reduction is accomplished by using physical barriers of one form or another. Unfortunately, physical barriers at water projects have several drawbacks, e.g., reducing available water flow for energy production and incurring high maintenance costs. In addition, recent studies (Sale et al. 1991) have documented that once these barriers are installed, they are rarely evaluated for

  13. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  14. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  15. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  16. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  17. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  18. Historical Analyses of Disordered Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiegg, Markus; Thorpe, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Handwritten texts carry significant information, extending beyond the meaning of their words. Modern neurology, for example, benefits from the interpretation of the graphic features of writing and drawing for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and disorders. This article examines how handwriting analysis can be used, and has been used historically, as a methodological tool for the assessment of medical conditions and how this enhances our understanding of historical contexts of writing. We analyze handwritten material, writing tests and letters, from patients in an early 20th-century psychiatric hospital in southern Germany (Irsee/Kaufbeuren). In this institution, early psychiatrists assessed handwriting features, providing us novel insights into the earliest practices of psychiatric handwriting analysis, which can be connected to Berkenkotter’s research on medical admission records. We finally consider the degree to which historical handwriting bears semiotic potential to explain the psychological state and personality of a writer, and how future research in written communication should approach these sources. PMID:28408774

  19. Historic center of Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available At the last General Assembly of the World Heritage Committee, held in Mérida, Mexico, the Historic Centre of Porto was included in the list of World Heritage ensembles. The architect Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, who presented the report submitted by Porto Municipal Corporation, makes some points about its historic, patrimonial and urbanistic value, putting special emphasis on the legal protection and management of the rehabilitation works

  20. Historic center of Oporto

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer

    1997-01-01

    At the last General Assembly of the World Heritage Committee, held in Mérida, Mexico, the Historic Centre of Porto was included in the list of World Heritage ensembles. The architect Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, who presented the report submitted by Porto Municipal Corporation, makes some points about its historic, patrimonial and urbanistic value, putting special emphasis on the legal protection and management of the rehabilitation works

  1. Historical Documents Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents are mostly accessible to scholars specialized in the period in which the document originated. In order to increase their accessibility to a broader audience and help in the preservation of the cultural heritage, we propose a method to modernized these documents. This method is based in statistical machine translation, and aims at translating historical documents into a modern version of their original language. We tested this method in two different scenarios, obtaining very encouraging results.

  2. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  3. Mayan Historical drought trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Hererra, V.; Mendoza, B. E.; García-Acosta, V.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present a more objective and general cycle-length determination of catalogues of past drought data for the Yucatan Peninsula between 1502 and 1900 coming from historical written documentation. We use the wavelet transformation based on the Morlet wavelet, and found that the most prominent frequencies of the historical drought series are ~ 3,4, 7, 12, 20, 43 and 70 years. We studied the relation between historical droughts and several large-scale climate phenomena represented by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Our results indicate that historical droughts and the cold phase of the AMO coincide, while the influence of the SOI is less clear. The strongest coincidences between historical droughts and AMO occurred around periodicities of 40 yrs. A further study of wavelet coherence shows that there are also common signal along time between droughts and various solar activity phenomena, in particular Be10, a proxy of cosmic rays. Comparing natural terrestrial and solar phenomena, we realize that the most sustained and strongest modulation of historical drought occurrence is at ~ 60-64 yrs and is between droughts and the solar proxy Be10.

  4. Tracing the historical and ideological roots of ISIS: Shi’ite or Sunni?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makrum Makrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a comprehensive study of ISIS (the Islamic States of Iraq and Syiria by examining both their historical and ideological roots, Shi’ite or Sunni – including their patterns and terror motives and also by mapping their doctrinal understanding that they adopt. The data stem from various studies, books and news that are widely spread in mass media by literature study (library research. This study was inspired by the emergence of ISIS which in recent years has shocked the world for their savagery and ferocity in committing the murder. Moreover, their leader (Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi has declared himself as the caliph and called on Muslims worldwide to join them. That issue has been a controversy across the Muslim world; many Muslim groups accepted and joined the ISIS, while others rejected its presence. Based on these library research results, it can be inferred that, historically ISIS has existed since 2004 and the origin of ISIS cannot be separated from the existence of Tawhid wa alJihad. In terms of doctrine, the concept of shared leadership of ISIS tends to lead to Sunnis, although al-Baghdadi himself does not meet the criteria to be appointed as caliph. Personally, al-Baghdadi does not posses the leadership capacity required as a caliph, based on one of the caliph’s criteria, that is ‘adalah (justice that he does not have. Artikel ini, dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, mengkaji akar sejarah dan ideologi ISIS, Syi’ah atau Sunni –termasuk di dalamnya pola dan motif teror–, kemudian memetakan paham doktrinal yang mereka anut agar diperoleh kajian yang komprehensif tentang ISIS. Data diperoleh dari studi kepustakaan (library research yang berasal dari berbagai hasil penelitian, buku, dan berita-berita di media massa. Penulisannya terinspirasi oleh kemunculan ISIS yang pada beberapa tahun terakhir telah menghebohkan masyarakat dunia, karena kebiadaban dan keganasannya dalam melakukan pembunuhan. Selain dari itu

  5. Red alder: a state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    In March 23-25, 2005, an international symposium on red alder was held at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture in Seattle, WA. The symposium was entitled "Red alder: A State of Knowledge" and brought together regional experts to critically examine the economic, ecological and social values of red alder. The primary goal of the symposium...

  6. Historical Museums in Israel: Semiotics of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiny by physical size, the State of Israel retains some of the world’s most important cultural treasures, along with many other great cultural institutions. Archeological treasures have yielded much information as far as biblical history and have been well adapted to a Zionist narrative by both the Jewish press and international news organizations, such as the New York Times whose archives are replete with reports of Jewish history being dug up by the Jewish people. Once the State of Israel gained independence in 1948, the course was set for the development of historical museums whose discourse would reflect the most significant events in Jewish history, most especially the Holocaust and the state of constant warfare that continues to imbue the cultural consciousness of its citizens. In this paper we outline, through categorization, the various historical museums, which are currently operating. Furthermore, this article hopes to shed some light upon the cultural sensibilities conveyed through these institutions. This paper is about Israeli culture, mythology, and collective needs, as formed by and informed through a variety of historical museums. The working assumption is that in a historical museum culture is partially formed and at the same time the culture is influencing the contents and narratives on display inside the museum. It should be clear from the start that the discussion is held about Israeli museums as viewed by a Jewish population and created by and for Jews. Notwithstanding the multifaceted collective of Israeli society, this work is confined to and circumscribed by this demarcation. In the following sections, I intend to provide an explanation for this viewpoint from a historical perspective and also provide a framework of what constitutes a historical museum and justify the methodology of its employ. This will be followed by a discussion of the main categorical types of historical museums present in Israel, and finally a

  7. Time and Space in W.A. Mozart's Ave Verum Corpus (1791)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    A discussion and interpretation of Mozart's famous motet contextualised through historical considerations of music, theology and aesthetics inspired by K.E. Løgstrup's notion of the fictive space of a melody.......A discussion and interpretation of Mozart's famous motet contextualised through historical considerations of music, theology and aesthetics inspired by K.E. Løgstrup's notion of the fictive space of a melody....

  8. Marco histórico y estado del arte de los modelos de evolución del paisaje y de erosión Historical framework and state of art of landscape evolution and erosion models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Montoya Monsalve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis del marco histórico de modelos de evolución del paisaje y de erosión, además se expone el estado del arte de cuyo análisis se derivan los aspectos fundamentales que deben ser tenidos en cuenta en la formulación de un modelo de erosión a escala de cuenca. Se introduce el tema con un breve recuento de la evolución del conocimiento de modelos geomorfológicos, los cuales constituyen el marco general de los modelos de erosión. De dicho análisis surgen las preguntas básicas que debe abordar un modelo de erosión. Posteriormente se efectúa un análisis del desarrollo histórico de modelos de erosión, se reseñan las características principales de los modelos de erosión actuales y se enumeran las potencialidades y limitaciones de estos. Este artículo corresponde a una revisión bibliográfica tendente a la definición del marco teórico del proyecto de investigación titulado "Desarrollo de un modelo conceptual de producción, transporte y depósito de sedimentos".This articles presents an analysis of the historical framework of landscape evolution models, specifically erosion models: it also refers to the current state of the art from which critical analysis derive the fundamental aspects which should be taken into account in the formulation of an erosion model in catchment scale. The theme is introduced with a brief review of the evolution of knowledge of landscape evolution models, which provide the overall framework of erosion models. From this analysis, basic questions to be addressed by an erosion model arise. Later, analysis of the historical development of erosion models is made; It also summarizes the main characteristics of the current erosion models and lists potentialities and limitations of erosion models. This paper corresponds to a literature review aimed at defining the theoretical framework of a research project entitled "Development of an Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation Conceptual Model."

  9. 41 CFR 102-173.50 - What is the naming convention for States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... second-level domain within dot-gov, State government entities must register the full State name or..., tennesseeanytime.gov, wa.gov, nmparks.gov, mysc.gov, emaryland.gov, and ne-taxes.gov. However— (1) Use of the State... conflicts arise between postal codes and existing domain names, States are encouraged to register URL's that...

  10. An automated sleep-state classification algorithm for quantifying sleep timing and sleep-dependent dynamics of electroencephalographic and cerebral metabolic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Rempe MJ; Clegern WC; Wisor JP

    2015-01-01

    Michael J Rempe,1,2 William C Clegern,2 Jonathan P Wisor2 1Mathematics and Computer Science, Whitworth University, Spokane, WA, USA; 2College of Medical Sciences and Sleep and Performance Research Center, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, USAIntroduction: Rodent sleep research uses electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) to determine the sleep state of an animal at any given time. EEG and EMG signals, typically sampled at >100 Hz, are segmented arbitrarily into ...

  11. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... East leads to the need for an evidence-based history of Palestine. This volume analyses the consequences of the question: “If the Bible is not history, what is it then?” The editors, Hjelm and Thompson are members of the Copenhagen School, which was formed in the light of this question...

  12. The WA Hospital Morbidity Data System: an evaluation of its performance and the impact of electronic data transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, E; Codde, J; Gill, L; Stevens, S; Nelson, T

    The paper evaluates the performance of the Hospital Morbidity Data System, maintained by the Health Statistics Branch (HSB) of the Health Department of Western Australia (WA). The time taken to process discharge summaries was compared in the first and second halves of 1995, using the number of weeks taken to process 90% of all discharges and the percentage of records processed within four weeks as indicators of throughput. Both the hospitals and the HSB showed improvements in timeliness during the second half of the year. The paper also examines the impact of a recently introduced electronic data transfer system for WA country public hospitals on the timeliness of morbidity data. The processing time of country hospital records by the HSB was reduced to a similar time as for metropolitan hospitals, but the processing time in the hospitals increased, resulting in little improvement in total processing time.

  13. Energy efficiency in historic buildings : new materials for traditional envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Monika

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The energy consumed by historical buildings is much higher comparing to the modern constructions. The law is mostly related with the newly built constructions, stating requirements and guidelines for the energy demand. However, regulating the law concerning historical buildings is very difficult because of the need for preserving the historical and cultural value they represent. Moreover, recently discovered technologies can support the transformation process providing the most effi...

  14. Mystical Experience from Religious Community of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah Dawe Kudus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Ulfia Adlina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to know: 1. Ahwal (mystical experience experienced by followers of Tarekat Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah in Piji, Dawe, Kudus; 2. The correlation between suluk and their kinds of ahwal; and 3. The different intensity of ahwal for the followers in each stage of the tarekat. This was a field reserch which used purpo- sive sampling tehnique. The data were then analysed qualitatively and phenomeno- logically. The findings of the research showed that there were some factors motivated people to join the Tarekat: the intention to be close to God, preparing themselves for death, charismatic figure, etc. Secondly, the classification of the mystical experi- ences was adjusted with the lataif dzikir stages, they were laţîfah al-qalb, laţîfah ar- rûh, laţîfah as-sirr, laţîfah khafiy, laţîfah akhfa, laţîfah an-nafsi dan laţîfah al-qâlib. There were same ahwal experienced by the followers in some stages. Therefore, it was concluded that there was a relationship between suluk and ahwal experienced by the followers of the tarekat in Piji Dawe Kudus.

  15. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: Topic particles wa, mo and tte for triggering categorization activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eTanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants’ online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte, by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action.

  16. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Streichert Laura C; Rehm Colin D; Moudon Anne V; Hurvitz Philip M; Drewnowski Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  17. Historical Review of Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the historical review of environmental education in China. As China's economy began to grow, environmental pollution and ecological destruction initially appeared locally in the early 1980s. These local environmental issues were primarily managed and controlled by state and local environmental protection agencies. In…

  18. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  19. Historicity in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyra, Maria C. D. P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Human development entails the establishment, widening, and abbreviation of new behavioural and psychological phenomena. This leads to the central role of historicity in developmental science—a look at presently happening events in terms of their constructive borrowing from the past and anticipati...

  20. Fort Monroe Historic Viewsheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    chives in Philadelphia, PA. During these visits, researchers collected ar- chival information such as historic photographs, art work, maps, and ar...John Johns of the Diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Virginia in 1858. The Chapel (Building 166) is a Carpenter Gothic structure expanded

  1. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    abstractDigitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new

  2. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  3. Lagos Historical Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions can be made by sending a word processing computer file in MS Word format by e-mail to sarlek@yahoo.com, or by mailing three paper copies to the Editorial Office. Authors should keep a computer file version of their manuscript, as Lagos Historical Review will require a disk version upon acceptance for ...

  4. How well has land-use planning worked under different governance regimes? A case study in the Portland, OR-Vancouver, WA metropolitan area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Paul Thiers; Connie P. Ozawa; J. Alan Yeakley; Sean N. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    We examine land use planning outcomes over a 30-year period in the Portland, OR-Vancouver, WA (USA) metropolitan area. The four-county study region enables comparisons between three Oregon counties subject to Oregon’s 1973 Land Use Act (Senate Bill 100) and Clark County, WA which implemented land use planning under Washington’s 1990 Growth Management Act. We describe...

  5. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-08-04

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making.

  6. Libraries, Policy, and Politics in a Democracy: Four Historical Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Sarin, Lindsay C.; Bertot, John Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the historical relationships between libraries, policy, and politics in the United States. Far too often, policy and political discussions related to libraries have little historical context. While libraries have long viewed themselves as a pillar of democracy by supporting informed, educated, and engaged citizenry, political…

  7. Conhecimento histórico e crianças pequenas: parques infantis e escola municipal de educação infantil Historical knowledge and small children: children's playgrounds and the state's primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Aparecida Gobbi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata a experiência com o projeto "Os parques infantis de Mário de Andrade ontem e hoje", empreendido por todos os profissionais e crianças de uma escola municipal de Educação Infantil da cidade de São Paulo. A preocupação com o conhecimento histórico e as crianças da primeira infância e suas especificidades, numa perspectiva não-escolarizante e não-antecipatória do Ensino Fundamental, foi a tônica e um desafio. Procura aliar história e memória, estabelecendo relações entre História da Educação, história da escolarização de crianças pequenas e formação docente.This article discusses an experience with the project "The children's playgrounds of Mario de Andrade, yesterday and today", undertaken by all the professionals and children of a state primary school in the city of São Paulo. The concern with historical knowledge and the children in the first years of primary school, with their specific qualities, their un-schooled perspective and their inability to predict the school's teaching approach, was the keynote of this study and the challenge faced. A link between history and memory is sought, establishing a relationship between the History of Education, the history of small children being schooled and teacher training.

  8. Resurrecting Thirty Years of Historical Insight about Kinesiology: A Supplement to "What Is Kinesiology? Historical and Philosophical Insights"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Twietmeyer (2012) reviews the historical and contemporary state of kinesiology and appraises what he calls unexamined philosophical commitments. He begins with a historical and philosophical review of the foundations of kinesiology, beginning with Aristotle's ancient influences and Polanyi's and C. P. Snow's modern influences. He then focuses on…

  9. Língua, poder e identidade em Ngugi wa thiongo e Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernival Venâncio Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, os teóricos denominados póscoloniais, como Edward Said (1995, Homi Bhabha (2001 e Stuart Hall (2003, para citar os mais conhecidos, têm se preocupado em problematizar os binarismos que geralmente vem à tona, quando o tema de discussões são as relações entre colonizadores e colonizados. A Língua é um objeto apropriadoa essa tentativa de superar estes binarismos, pois tem sido vista como um dos instrumentos de dominação colonial. Linguistas e antropólogos consideram a língua um instrumento que revela a identidade de um povo e promove a integração cultural, no presente e no passado. Neste trabalho, nos pautamos pelos argumentos de dois intelectuais póscoloniais que tratam dessa temática, o queniano Ngugi WaThiongo e o indiano Kanavillil Rajagopalan, tentando ler seus argumentos como projetos identitários. O primeiro um projeto de identidade étnico e nacional; o segundo, um projeto pós-nacional e cosmopolita. Pensamos que seus textos e posicionamentos são fundamentais para entendermos as relações entre língua, poder e cultura na segunda metade do século XX. O cenário é o contexto das relações entre as potências europeias, os povos colonizados e aqueles em processo de descolonização.

  10. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  11. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an introduction to the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This poster presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  12. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Papenfus, Michael; Byrd, Kristin; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE) models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  13. Interacting coastal based ecosystem services: recreation and water quality in Puget Sound, WA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler

    Full Text Available Coastal recreation and water quality are major contributors to human well-being in coastal regions. They can also interact, creating opportunities for ecosystem based management, ecological restoration, and water quality improvement that can positively affect people and the environment. Yet the effect of environmental quality on human behavior is often poorly quantified, but commonly assumed in coastal ecosystem service studies. To clarify this effect we investigate a water quality dataset for evidence that environmental condition partially explains variation in recreational visitation, our indicator of human behavior. In Puget Sound, WA, we investigate variation in visitation in both visitation rate and fixed effects (FE models. The visitation rate model relates the differences in annual recreational visitation among parks to environmental conditions, park characteristics, travel cost, and recreational demand. In our FE model we control for all time-invariant unobserved variables and compare monthly variation at the park level to determine how water quality affects visitation during the summer season. The results of our first model illustrate how visitation relates to various amenities and costs. In the FE analysis, monthly visitation was negatively related to water quality while controlling for monthly visitation trends. This indicates people are responding to changes in water quality, and an improvement would yield an increase in the value of recreation. Together, these results could help in prioritizing water quality improvements, could assist the creation of new parks or the modification of existing recreational infrastructure, and provide quantitative estimates for the expected benefits from potential changes in recreational visitation and water quality improvements. Our results also provide an example of how recreational visitation can be quantified and used in ecosystem service assessments.

  14. ICT and historical skills

    OpenAIRE

    De Keyser, Raphael; Rogiers, Kathleen; Truyen, Fred

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing present-day information society creates new needs and opportunities for the history teacher. He can help young people to develop the skills necessary for life-long learning. The heuristic methods and the critical analyses of texts (written texts but also images, moving pictures etc.) characteristic for the historical discipline are easy transferable to other domains of knowledge acquisition. The use of information and communication technology in history instruction can he...

  15. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  16. The Historical Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D.A.; F. R. Stephenson

    2003-01-01

    The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed. These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD 1604 (Kepler's SN), 1572 (Tycho's SN), 1181, 1054 (which produced the Crab Nebula) and 1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD 185. In the case of the supernovae of AD 1604 and 1572 it is European records that provide the most accurate information available, whereas for earlier supernovae records a...

  17. A novel MMP-2 inhibitor 3-azidowithaferin A (3-azidoWA abrogates cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis by modulating extracellular Par-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Rah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Withaferin A, which is a naturally derived steroidal lactone, has been found to prevent angiogenesis and metastasis in diverse tumor models. It has also been recognized by different groups for prominent anti-carcinogenic roles. However, in spite of these studies on withanolides, their detailed anti-metastatic mechanism of action remained unknown. The current study has poised to address the machinery involved in invasion regulation by stable derivative of Withaferin A, 3-azido Withaferin A (3-azidoWA in human cervical HeLa and prostate PC-3 cells. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sub-toxic concentration of 3-azidowithaferin A (3-azido WA inhibited cancer cell motility and invasion in wound healing and Boyden chamber invasion by suppressing MMP-2 activity in gelatin zymography and its expression has proved to be a major obstacle in chemo-sensitivity. We have uncovered a novel mechanism of 3-azidoWA induced extracellular pro-apoptotic candidate tumor suppressor Par-4 protein stimulation in conditioned media and also noticed a concomitant marked reduction in pAkt and pERK signaling by immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, our zymography results suggest 3-azidoWA induced MMP-2 inhibition was mediated through secretory Par-4. The inhibition of apoptosis by 3-azidoWA could not restore MMP-2 gelatinase activity. In addition to this, our in vivo animal experiments data showed 3-azidoWA abrogated neovascularisation in dose dependent manner in mouse Matrigel plug assay. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: For this report, we found that 3-azidoWA suppressed motility and invasion of HeLa and PC-3 cells in MMP-2 dependent manner. Our in vitro result strongly suggests that sub-toxic doses of 3-azidoWA enhanced the secretion of extracellular Par-4 that abolished secretory MMP-2 expression and activity. Depletion of secretory Par-4 restored MMP-2 expression and invasion capability of HeLa and PC-3 cells. Further, our findings implied that 3-azidoWA attenuated

  18. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  19. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These data shows the historical frequency (1972-2002) pattern of gypsy moth defoliation as it spreads south and west from the New England states. forested areas with repeated annual defoliation become more stressed and are at increased risk of permanent damage. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  20. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  1. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  2. An Analysis of Social Genocide in A Bend in the River by V. S. Naipaul and A Grain of Wheat by Ngugi wa Thiong’o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda ELMAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution was a turning point in the world and it caused several major changes for each society during its time and later. Even though it brought many benefits to England, it also ended up with harsh conditions. The thought of having an endless power created a way for Europeans to have an idea like possessing other regions with this power and brought colonisation to African countries. However, colonisation did not remain only as a policy and did not bring civilization to the countries as it was claimed. It changed the lives, culture, language and traditions of the indigenous people. Furthermore, this practice brought about genocide but not only physically, but also socially and psychologically because the destruction of a society’s culture means destroying that society which leads to social genocide. This study aims to state “social genocide” and “societal racism” terms in post-colonial era and analyze them in the selected works, in the order of; A Bend in the River by V. S. Naipaul and A Grain of Wheat by Ngugi Wa Thiong’o. In this respect, the perspectives of the two writers about colonisation, imperialism and social genocide are examined in the light of their other works and other sources related to the topic.

  3. The Historical Justification of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of justifying music historically. In Matti Huttunen's opinion Western music culture has been strongly historical since the nineteenth century. The article attempts to elucidate the historical nature of music, as well as the canon of music, the selective nature of music history, and the influence of aesthetic…

  4. Current and Historic Sinkhole and Depression locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset is all of the sinkholes and depressions that originated from the SSURGO spot data, and has been updated using LiDAR and historic photography to capture...

  5. Al-Islām wa al-Madd wa al-Jazr fī al-‘Alāqāt bayn al-Dīn wa al-Dawlah fī Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatu Ropi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the complex contestation between religion and state in terms of the Muslims role in the formation of nation state since Indonesia’s independence. The article’s first part discusses the emergence of new middle-class Muslims that played a key role in the Islamization process and contribute to the emergence of Islamist attitudes and behavior. These attitudes tend to be strengthened and lead the potential latent extremism endangering multiculturalism and multireligious life in Indonesia. The article’s second part focuses on the long history of the Muslims role as majority groups in the formation of the constitution’s nomenclature relating to the position of religion in the state system. The new middle-class Muslims also have a desire to achieve their dreams exposing the greater portion of religion in public sphere. It can be seen from the strengthening of those Muslims activists in the parliament to transform the comprehensive meaning of the concept of God.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v23i2.3715

  6. The Serbian and Croatian Historical Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ramet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yugoslavia collapsed and descended into war for a number of reasons. The paper is dealing with the role of historical narratives, namely, the failure to develop a common historical narrative, which had the result that the diverse peoples of Yugoslavia had diff erent understandings of some important aspects of their history, both in the remote and the more proximate past. The author discusses the Serbian and Croatian historical narratives, noting especially those areas in which they diff er. Many Serbian politicians looked on the Yugoslav state as a framework within which they could realize the Serbian national idea, which is to say, the idea that all Serbs and Serb-inhabited areas should be united in one state. Many Croats had a rival notion, always resenting the fact that the Serbs constituted the largest national group in the country and dreaming of an independent Croatian state. The author concludes that historical narratives provide frameworks within which a society may fi nd answers to current questions. The problem of legitimacy was fi ltered through the lenses of the historical narrative, so that the system bequeathed by Tito was not just ‘the communist system’, but (for Serbs ‘the anti-Serb federal system, created by the Croat, Tito’ or (for Croats ‘the anti-Croat communist system, dominated by Serbs at the expense of Croats’ or (for Albanians ‘the land of the South Slavs, in which non-Slavs are second class citizens and in which the legitimate rights of the Albanians are quashed’.

  7. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  8. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  9. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  10. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  11. Al-Islām wa al-qānūn wa al-dawlah: Dirāsah fī fikri Ki Bagus Hadikusumo wa dawrihi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarnoto Abdul Hakim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the intellectual and political biography of Ki Bagus Hadikusumo, a prominent Muslim leader in Indonesia. He was born in Yogyakarta where he grew up  in a Muslim priyayi family of Kauman in the city. This study explains that the Sufi tradition of Pesantren Wonokromo in Yogyakarta deeply influenced his religious thoughts. Later, he was noted as one of the first students of K.H. Ahmad Dahlan, the founder of Muhammadiyah. It is clear that he was under a strong intellectual, ideological and religious influence of Dahlan. He published works on Islamic theology, Fiqh, Sufism, and also on Islam and state. During the Japanese occupation, he  became the Chairman of Muhammadiyah organization . Ki Bagus was also known as a prominent leader of political parties, i.e. PII, MIAI, Masyumi and then a prominent member of BPUPKI, an important element of Indonesian independence in 1945. Representing a nationalist-Islamist wing, he greatly contributed to the politics of early modern Indonesia by (1 preparing  the Indonesian constitution, and (2 providing solid arguments for Muslims to accept Pancasila as the nation’s state ideology.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v21i1.881

  12. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steven G.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; Sun, Shanlei; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Zhang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43-50, 20-24, and 16-23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  13. Advanced geospatial techniques and archaeological methods to investigate historical rice cultivation at Wormsloe Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro Pasqua

    2016-01-01

    Despite much of the environmental history of Wormsloe State Historic Site on the Isle of Hope, Georgia having previously been documented and described, there are still some aspects that require deeper investigation. For example, whether rice cultivation was ever performed at Wormsloe is a question which does not have a definitive answer.

  14. The Faculty Role in Governance: A Historical Analysis of the Influence of The American Association of University Professors and the Middle States Association on Academic Decision Making. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Valerie Hawkes

    This study examined changes in private college governance during the years 1960-90, and at how external forces affected decision making structures and processes and at faculty's powers. The theoretical construct for the study was largely based on H. Mintzberg's (1983) concepts of organizational structure and power. Historical and case study…

  15. 77 FR 56231 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  16. 77 FR 69498 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  17. 78 FR 50106 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  18. 77 FR 12878 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  19. 75 FR 41234 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  20. 75 FR 62851 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  1. 77 FR 515 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  2. 75 FR 25291 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  3. 76 FR 16638 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW.., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  4. 77 FR 55226 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  5. 76 FR 56795 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  6. 76 FR 21005 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  7. 77 FR 71828 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  8. 76 FR 69761 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  9. 78 FR 64008 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  10. 77 FR 4582 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  11. 76 FR 27345 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  12. 77 FR 61783 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  13. 77 FR 25195 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  14. 76 FR 62442 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St., NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  15. 75 FR 60137 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related... United States Postal Service, to the National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, 1849 C St. NW., MS 2280, Washington, DC 20240; by all other carriers, National Register of Historic Places...

  16. Fostering Historical Thinking toward Civil Rights Movement Counter-Narratives: Documentary Film in Elementary Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how elementary preservice teachers used four documentary films to think historically about the United States Civil Rights Movement. The author situates the descriptive case study within research about historical thinking and documentary film, identifying the need for using documentary film to think historically in the…

  17. Lipophilic Toxins in WA - Clear and present danger: monitoring and management of lipophilic shellfish toxins in Washington State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lipophilic shellfish toxins comprise an extensive suite of compounds including those associated with the human syndromes known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning...

  18. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  19. 78 FR 9420 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...., Manhattan, 13000040 Orleans County Bacon--Harding Farm, (Cobblestone Architecture of New York State MPS..., 13000046 WYOMING Platte County Grant, Duncan, Ranch Rural Historic Landscape, (Ranches, Farms, and...

  20. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  1. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  2. Teorias econômicas de oferta de educação: evolução histórica, estado atual e perspectivas Economic theories of the supply of education: historical evolution, current state, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D. Waltenberg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo preocupa-se com uma faceta particular (o lado da oferta de uma das duas grandes linhas de pesquisa em economia da educação (aspectos econômicos dos sistemas educacionais. Apresentam-se a evolução histórica, o estado atual do debate e as perspectivas de desenvolvimento das teorias econômicas de oferta de educação, abarcando-se o período compreendido entre o início da década de 1960 e as contribuições mais recentes. Argumenta-se que as teorias tradicionais de economia da educação (capital humano e sinalização não deram tratamento adequado ao lado da oferta da educação. Mais tarde, os conceitos e o instrumental da microeconomia da firma foram mobilizados a fim de se tentar mapear a "tecnologia de produção de educação". A abordagem das funções de produção de educação, baseadas inicialmente apenas em insumos monetários, não foi suficiente para que se apreendesse toda a complexidade envolvida no processo de provisão de educação. Uma análise de artigos mais recentes revela três caminhos promissores para o desenvolvimento das teorias de oferta de educação: (i incluir insumos não monetários às funções de produção; (ii levar em consideração aspectos institucionais e organizacionais do sistema educativo; e (iii aprimorar as técnicas econométricas de estimação das funções de produção. Por fim, o artigo discute mais detidamente o primeiro desses três caminhos.The present article deals with a particular aspect (the side of the supply of one of the two main lines of research in the economics of education (economical aspects of educational systems. It shows the historical evolution, the current state, and the perspectives of development of the economic theories of education supply, covering the period from the early 1960s to the more recent contributions. It argues that the traditional theories of the economics of education (human capital and screening have not dealt adequately with the

  3. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an...

  4. Africa in 2108: A Strategic Plan | wa Muiu | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only a united Africa can harness its resources for development and fair trade in an age of endemic exploitation and corruption. This paper argues that Africa's future will depend on a revision of state borders, increase in population and the creation of a Federation of African States based on five states. In this article a strategic ...

  5. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  6. Study of {Lambda}{sup +}{sub c} production and Pentaquark search in WA89 CERN experiment data; Etude de la production du {Lambda}{sup +}{sub c} et recherche du Pentaquark dans les donnees de l`experience WA89 du CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charignon, F.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} charmed baryon and to the ``Pentaquark`` search, within the framework of the CERN WA89 experiment. This fixed target experiment is using a 330 GeV/c hyperon beam. Its aim is the production and the study of baryons carrying charm and strangeness as well as the search of multiquarks. The experimental setup is built around the CERN Omega spectrometer. Production and decay vertices of charmed particles are reconstructed by means of microstrip detectors. Multiwire proportional chambers reconstruct the trajectories in the Omega magnetic field and particle identification is provided by a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. An invariant mass signal has been obtained for the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} in the proton-kaon-pion decay channel. Distorsion effects occurring in the event reconstruction have been taken into account in the estimation of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} lifetime and production cross-section. Finally, the exotic multiquark state ``Pentaquark`` was investigated in the channel proton-phi-pion but no signal was observed. (author). 86 refs., 56 figs.

  7. Located historical cognition: syllabus expectations and teaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyso Germinari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research of qualitative nature has as objective to analyze how a group of elementary school’s teachers formulates its teaching method, under the perspective of located historical cognition. The theoretical and methodological presuppositions of the Historical Education are present in the teaching and learning conception of the State Syllabus Guidelines of History, referring to a located historical cognition. The syllabus affirms that the teachers’ pedagogic work has as purpose the formation of the students’ historical thought, through the historical conscience. In order to do that, it suggests the use of the historical investigation method in classroom, articulated by the historical narratives of the subjects. Based in the theoretical and methodological referential of the “methodological structuralism”, the investigation used standardized questionnaire and semi-structured interview applied to four teachers. The results indicate that the teachers use in their teaching method elements of the historical investigation, which is a practice that potentiates in the student the development of a cognition located in the science of history.

  8. US Historic Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This programs derives a table of secular change in magnetic declination for a specified point in the conterminous United States. It utilizes the USD polynomial and...

  9. Historic Natural Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2001, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) contracted with the California State University, Chico Research Foundation...

  10. Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression in the spleen and lungs of mice infected with the human Babesia isolate WA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, R M; Ferrick, D A; Conrad, P A

    2000-02-01

    We analyzed cytokine expression in mice infected with the intraerythrocytic parasites Babesia microti and WA1. In C3H/HeN mice, WA1 infections were fatal, whereas B. microti infections were resolved. We propose that the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) contribute to the WA1-associated disease. WA1 infection was characterized by up-regulation of TNFalpha and IFNgamma mRNA in the spleen. Previous studies in WA1-infected mice showed that pathologic lesions occurred primarily in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and intravascular margination of leukocytes. Analysis of cytokine expression in the lungs is important for an understanding of the disease process in WA1-infected mice. Expression of both TNFalpha and IFNgamma mRNA was increased in the lungs of WA1-infected mice. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the upregulation of these proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs. Expression of TNFalpha and IFNgamma was not up-regulated in the lungs of B. microti-infected mice. The results implicate TNFalpha and IFNgamma in the pathogenesis of WA1-associated disease.

  11. A Model of Historical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    "Historical thinking" has a central role in the theory and practice of history education. At a minimum, history educators must work with a model of historical thinking if they are to formulate potential progression in students' advance through a school history curriculum, test that progression empirically, and shape instructional…

  12. What is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Janowicz, K.; Schlobach, S.; Lambrix, P.; Hyvönen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative newcomers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archived

  13. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  14. The Return of Historical Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  15. Lagos Historical Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  16. READING THE PSALMS HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE. EXEGESIS AND A HISTORICAL. READING Of PSALM 46. ABSTRACT. The Antiochene exegetes, most notably Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia read the ..... tation is often informed by the heading. In 2001 .... that it was given to them for meditation and performance. As Hill ...

  17. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Scientific and historical archive

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    : International Archives Day, 9 June, is an opportunity to discover a little-known CERN resource. Unlike libraries, archives tend to be hidden away. You can’t browse among the shelves, or borrow files to use in the workplace, but sometimes they contain just the information you need. CERN’s rich heritage has many parts: its scientific data, the black and white photos recently put online by the Library, the audio-visual collection, currently being digitized by the IT department, historic objects in the care of the IR-ECO group, and much more - not least the memory of its people. The CERN Archive exists in the background, supporting other endeavours and preserving our documentary heritage for future generations. About 1000 shelf metres of files filled with letters, notes, reports, rough drafts, memos such as this report, by Miss Steel, are preserved. You can browse more examples on our timeline. It is a place for information on all aspects of CERN’s history. Sometimes documents pro

  19. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers. The political elites of the Five Buddha Districts, however, were monks who had escaped the strict orthodoxy of the Qing government to become local chieftains, or rebels, depending on political changes in southern Yunnan. As a centralized polity, the Five Buddha Districts system was attached to the frontier politics of the Qing state before the coming of European colonial powers. The Qing state provided a sociopolitical space for local groups to develop their political ideals between various powerful Dai-Shan chieftains. The negotiation, competition, and cooperation between the Five Buddha leadership and the Qing, Dai chieftains, and neighboring political powers had been thoroughly integrated into the frontier politics of this interdependent society for more than two hundred years. As the history of the Yunnan-Burma frontier formation shows that no mountain space existed to allow the natives to escape from the state through their shifting agriculture, and anarchism was not practiced by the mountain people who were separated from the state, the author argues that a stateless region like James Scott’s “Zomia” did not historically exist in this region.

  20. Institutions of Religious Education ad their Historical Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Göksoy, İsmail Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the religious educational institutions and their historical developments in Indonesia. It firstly focuses on the state of general education during the Dutch colonial and the Republican periods. Afterwards, it begins with the investigation of traditional religious educational system. In this respect, the historical development and the structure of religious educational establishments of pesantrens and the aspects. of educational life in these religious schools are ...

  1. Preserving the acoustical heritage of historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    with the present state building. Next step is to identify what historic conditions that should be reconstructions, especially architectural details, surface materials, obstacles, textiles, performing persons and audience, and typical sounds or music. The computer model is then modified according to these data......The use of virtual reality and auralization techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of acoustical conditions in historic buildings. With reference to some recent and current projects the paper describes the steps in the process and how new technology may be used to overcome some...... of the difficulties involved. If the building exists as a whole or partly the first step is collection of geometrical and architectural data from the site. The level of detail may be huge, e.g. if laser scanning is used for providing the geometrical data, and some degree of simplification may be necessary...

  2. The Women and Their Children's Health (WaTCH) study: methods and design of a prospective cohort study in Louisiana to examine the health effects from the BP oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Edward S; Rung, Ariane L; Bronson, Megan H; Brashear, Meghan M; Peres, Lauren C; Gaston, Symielle; Sullivan, Samaah M; Peak, Kate; Abramson, David M; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Harrington, Daniel; Oral, Evrim; Trapido, Edward J

    2017-07-10

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. Few studies have evaluated the potential health effects of this spill on the Gulf Coast community. The Women and Their Children's Health (WaTCH) study is a prospective cohort designed to investigate the midterm to long-term physical, mental and behavioural health effects of exposure to the oil spill. Women were recruited by telephone from pre-existing lists of individuals and households using an address-based sampling frame between 2012 and 2014. Baseline interviews obtained information on oil spill exposure, demographics, physical and mental health, and health behaviours. Women were also asked to provide a household roster, from which a child between 10 and 17 years was randomly selected and recruited into a child substudy. Telephone respondents were invited to participate in a home visit in which blood samples, anthropometrics and neighbourhood characteristics were measured. A follow-up interview was completed between 2014 and 2016. 2852 women completed the baseline interview, 1231 of whom participated in the home visit, and 628 children participated in the child's health substudy. The follow-up interview successfully reinterviewed 2030 women and 454 children. WaTCH continues to conduct follow-up surveys, with a third wave of interviews planned in 2017. Also, we are looking to enhance the collection of spatially related environmental data to facilitate assessment of health risks in the study population. In addition, opportunities to participate in behavioural interventions for subsets of the cohort have been initiated. There are ongoing studies that examine the relationship between genetic and immunological markers with mental health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  4. ONGs, indios y petroléo: El caso U'wa a través de los mapas del territorio en disputa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    ón. Debido a la pretensión de objetividad con la que se expresa la cartografía, los mapas aparecen ajenos a las posiciones que cada uno de los actores ha tomado en la discusión, y nos ofrecen por ello una ventana privilegiada para entrever las hipótesis y los supuestos de los que parten los diferentes actores. Este trabajo nos aproxima, a través de los mapas, al “sub-texto” de los antagonistas, a las nociones, opiniones e intenciones que los actores no expresan explícitamente, es decir al “inconsciente político” detrás de cada línea de argumentación. A partir del análisis de la cartografía se concluye, por una parte, que la “agenda” que defiende el ambientalismo e incluso el indigenismo, tiene mucho más en común con la del desarrollo petrolero de lo que aparenta y por otra, que los mecanismos a través de los cuales se esencializa la cosmología indígena, logran deslegitimarla e invisibilizarla de maneras paradójicas. NGOS, INDIANS AND PETROLEUM: THE U'WA FILE THROUGH THE MAPS OF THE LAND IN DISPUTE. This paper examines the U'wa affair, a confrontation that became well know when a small indigenous group threatened to commit collective suicide in response to an oil exploitation project by two transnational companies (OXY and SHELL associated with the state in Colombia. The story of a “tribe” willing to commit suicide in the name of what they consider to be sacred not only attracted the attention of the media all over the world, but the activism of numerous NGO's devoted to the environment and human rights. These organizations have played a key part in this confrontation which took place in the midst of the Colombian armed conflict. This article reflects on the set of images and representations which has guided the experience and the practice of the actors in dispute. At some point, all parties involved have prepared and even published maps intended to illustrate and sustain their argumentation. These maps all show the same combination of zones: those

  5. Pocahontas: Comparing the Disney Image with Historical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Fourth grade students "know about" Pocahontas, but is this knowledge based on historical fact, or on information from the media, specifically the Disney movies "Pocahontas" and "Pocahontas II"? To address this question within the context of the New York State Social Studies curriculum and the New York State English…

  6. Achebe's Novels as a Historical Documentation of Nigeria | Ugwanyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is with this background that the paper looks at the Nigerian state from its early beginnings to the present state of chaos, anarchy and great backwardness and concludes that Chinua Achebe has aptly used his novels to reflect these historical movements. This paper shows clearly that imperialism is the basis of the crises ...

  7. The Historical Role of Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Historically, females, as compared to males, have represented a lower percentage of college professors and administrators in the United States. The tendency for males to outnumber females in the professoriate and college administration has existed since United States higher education institutions formed in the early 1800s and still persists today.…

  8. 75 FR 71638 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliot Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... comments stated that this regulation hinders free speech. This regulation establishes a safety zone to.... The minimal size of this safety zone will enable displays of free speech in visibly accessible areas... direction and/or fines. One comment stated this proposed rule would burden substantially more speech than is...

  9. Al-Islâm wa Ushûl al-Hukm: Delegitimasi Institusi Khilâfah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harir Muzakki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Setelah  peristiwa penghapusan institusi khilâfah oleh Mustafa Kemal Attaturk di Turki tahun 1924, ‘Alî ‘Abd al-Râziq memberikan sumbangan pemikirannya dengan menulis buku yang berjudul Al-Islâm wa Ushûl al-Hukm (Islam dan Dasar-dasar Pemerintahan tahun 1925. Buku tersebut merupakan reaksi atas penghapusan sistem khilâfah. Sementara itu, Rasyîd Ridlâ dan kawan-kawannya dari al-Azhar sedang bersemangat mempersiapkan muktamar Akbar Islam di Kairo dalam rangka menghidupkan kembali lembaga khilâfah. Munculnya buku itu menimbulkan polemik dan perdebatan di kalangan masyarakat ilmiyah Mesir, bahkan negara-negara Arab dan dunia Islam pada umumnya. 

  10. Information of “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” by ad-Dimashqi about the Turkic Tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Ilyasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduced into academic circulation information of such a historical source as “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” (Excerpts of Time on the Marvels of the Land and Sea on Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak. The material of the study is drawn from this source. Main scientific result of this work was the source’s translation into Russian accompanied by scientific comments. Sheikh Shams al-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad Abu Talib al-Ansari al-Sufi al-Dimashqi was the author of this work. Some scholars have mistakenly confuse him with another chronicler named Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn Yahya Ibn Fadlallah al-Omari al-Dimashqi. There is a widespread misconception that while writing on Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes al-Dimashqi used the data of such an author as Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Yahya al-Ansari al-Qutub al-Warraq al-Vatvat, also known as Ahmad al-Tini. After had studying the manuscripts of al-Tini and al-Dimashqi, we did not notice the connection between these two authors regarding their information about Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak. After had studying the information about Kipchak clans and Turkic tribes of Dasht-i Kipchak, we put forward the theory that 16 ethnonyms previously identified as Kipchak clans, are actually the etnonyms of eight Kipchak clans and eight Turkic tribes. The article also contains the extraction from “Nukhbat al-dahr fi ‘aja’ib al-barr wa-al-bahr” regarding the geography of Dasht-i Kipchak and the countries inhabited by the Turks. The following data are unique in this source: 1. The text describes such rivers as Ceyhun (Amu Darya, Seyhun (Syr Darya, Itil (Volga, as well as Khorezm and Khazar Seas (Aral and Caspian Seas. 2. Additionally, this text lists the following Turkic peoples: al-Kharlukhiya (Karluks, al-Khirgaziya (Kyrgyz, al-Kaymakiya (Kimaks, al-Guzziya (Oguz, al-Bazhanakiya (Pechenegs, al-Tuguzguziya (Uighurs, al-Khulkhiya (?, al

  11. The rock art of Mwana wa Chentcherere II rock shelter, Malawi : a site-specific study of girls' initiation rock art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zubieta, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Mwana wa Chentcherere II, or Chentcherere Rock Shelter II, the name by which it was more generally known when it was excavated in 1972, is one of the largest rock painting sites in Malawi. It has been a national monument since 1972 and has been the subject of extensive archaeological research. This

  12. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at the City of Okanogan, WA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the City of Okanogan, WA facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Filtronics’ FH-13 Ele...

  13. Educational Implication For Adopting Open-Ended Response Systems In Higher Education The Scenario Of Wa Polytechnic Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Tetteh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning is fundamentally a two-way affair the teacher transferring knowledge and the learner making meaning from the knowledge. Teaching becomes complete when the learner acquires the knowledge transferred and applies it appropriately to real life situations. However in Ghana teaching and learning has undergone a lot of alteration coupled with both negative and positive effects. In Wa Polytechnic teaching and learning has seen little or no improvement with regards to information and communication Technology ICT making it difficult for students to acquire 21st century skills and be part of the digitally connected ecosystem. Active classroom participation and engagement information sharing communication collaboration coupled with large class sizes have been a problem for teachers and students in Wa Polytechnic hence the need to conduct a study to identify productive solutions that enhance students participation and engagement in the classroom. The study investigates the role of ICT in augmenting active participation and engagement of students in the classroom via open-ended response systems. The study was conducted using Educational Design Research EDR methods. A critical analysis was done by studying the responses of the respondents which identified three forms of students classroom participation and engagement verbal classroom participation non-verbal classroom participation and after classroom teaching and learning activities. Smart phones laptop tablet iPad and regular cellular phone were the predominant devices used by students for other purpose rather than teacher-led class activities. When students were made to actively participate in the classroom using the devices as open-ended response system students engagement and their ability to contribute during lectures appreciated comparatively. It was however evident that open-ended response system was effective tool to manage large class sizes as students who were timid could

  14. W.A. Parish Post Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project Final Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armpriester, Anthony [Petra Nova Parish Holdings, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-02-17

    The Petra Nova Project is a commercial scale post-combustion carbon dioxide capture project that is being developed by a joint venture between NRG Energy (NRG) and JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration (JX). The project is designed to separate and capture carbon dioxide from an existing coal-fired unit's flue gas slipstream at NRG's W.A. Parish Generation Station located southwest of Houston, Texas. The captured carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline and injected into the West Ranch oil field to boost oil production. The project, which is partially funded by financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy will use Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of America, Inc.'s Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery (KM-CDR(R)) advanced amine-based carbon dioxide absorption technology to treat and capture at least 90% of the carbon dioxide from a 240 megawatt equivalent flue gas slipstream off of Unit 8 at W.A. Parish. The project will capture approximately 5,000 tons of carbon dioxide per day or 1.5 million tons per year that Unit 8 would otherwise emit, representing the largest commercial scale deployment of post-combustion carbon dioxide capture at a coal power plant to date. The joint venture issued full notice to proceed in July 2014 and when complete, the project is expected to be the world's largest post-combustion carbon dioxide capture facility on an existing coal plant. The detailed engineering is sufficiently complete to prepare and issue the Final Public Design Report.

  15. Al-‘Adl wa-l-Ihsan in Spain: A National Project for an Islamic Transnational Movement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arigita, Elena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The author examines recent developments in Muslim associations of Spain established by Moroccan immigrants linked to the Islamic movement al-‘Adl wa-l-Ihsan (Justice and Spirituality. By analyzing the discourse of an emerging leadership of this movement, she seeks to understand how the political commitment and spiritual bond of these activists with the Moroccan Guide both incorporate and rework elements from the dominant discourse on the necessary adaptation of Islam to Spain. Based on in-depth interviews with these leaders, she explores how the Movement’s commitment to Morocco as well as the ummah (Universal Community of Believers interact with the way these muslims perceive and position themselves in the national context of Spain.

    Se examina en este ensayo la evolución reciente de las asociaciones musulmanas en España creadas por inmigrantes marroquíes vinculados al movimiento islámico al-‘Adl wa-l-Ihsan (Justicia y Espiritualidad. Partiendo de las declaraciones de un liderazgo emergente de este movimiento en España, la autora trata de explicar cómo el compromiso político de estas personas y el vínculo espiritual con su Guía marroquí incorporan, al tiempo que reelaboran, elementos del discurso dominante sobre la necesaria adaptación del islam a España. Entrevistas en profundidad con estos activistas revelan cómo los lazos del Movimiento con Marruecos y con la umma (Comunidad universal de creyentes interactúan con el modo en el que estos musulmanes perciben y se posicionan en el contexto nacional de España.

  16. Wildfire may increase habitat quality for spring Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River subbasin, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Gordon H.; Hessburg, Paul F.; McNyset, Kris M.; Benda, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Northwest salmonids are adapted to natural disturbance regimes that create dynamic habitat patterns over space and through time. However, human land use, particularly long-term fire suppression, has altered the intensity and frequency of wildfire in forested upland and riparian areas. To examine the potential impacts of wildfire on aquatic systems, we developed stream-reach-scale models of freshwater habitat for three life stages (adult, egg/fry, and juvenile) of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wenatchee River subbasin, Washington. We used variables representing pre- and post-fire habitat conditions and employed novel techniques to capture changes in in-stream fine sediment, wood, and water temperature. Watershed-scale comparisons of high-quality habitat for each life stage of spring Chinook salmon habitat suggested that there are smaller quantities of high-quality juvenile overwinter habitat as compared to habitat for other life stages. We found that wildfire has the potential to increase quality of adult and overwintering juvenile habitat through increased delivery of wood, while decreasing the quality of egg and fry habitat due to the introduction of fine sediments. Model results showed the largest effect of fire on habitat quality associated with the juvenile life stage, resulting in increases in high-quality habitat in all watersheds. Due to the limited availability of pre-fire high-quality juvenile habitat, and increased habitat quality for this life stage post-fire, occurrence of characteristic wildfires would likely create a positive effect on spring Chinook salmon habitat in the Wenatchee River subbasin. We also compared pre- and post-fire model results of freshwater habitat for each life stage, and for the geometric mean of habitat quality across all life stages, using current compared to the historic distribution of spring Chinook salmon. We found that spring Chinook salmon are currently distributed in stream channels in

  17. Strings Attached? Linking Historically Black Colleges and Universities Public Revenue Sources with Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupet, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), a set of US higher education institutions historically tasked with educating African-American students, receive both state and federal funding. However, state governments often assert operational control through the political process, potentially influencing how key resources are used. Do these…

  18. LBA-ECO LC-24 Historical Roads of the Legal Amazon: 1968-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains ESRI shapefiles of historical roads (basin-wide federal and state roads) in nine Brazilian states for the Legal Amazon: Amazonas,...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-24 Historical Roads of the Legal Amazon: 1968-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ESRI shapefiles of historical roads (basin-wide federal and state roads) in nine Brazilian states for the Legal Amazon: Amazonas, Para, Acre,...

  20. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  1. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  2. GDOT historic landscape mitigation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Historic Landscapes are our nations finger prints of the past. They provide us a glimpse into the way people worked, lived, and admired : the land. As the earths population continues to grow, so does the need for infrastructure improvements suc...

  3. Historical sources and watershed evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley W. Trimble

    2012-01-01

    Historical data, including structures, documents, photographs and eyewitness reports, allow changes in some drainage basins to be documented in fine detail over time periods ranging from a few days to several decades...

  4. Feminism and nursing: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, S; Campbell, J C

    1990-07-01

    Feminists have often criticized nursing for lack of commitment to women's movements. This article addresses the contradictions and conflicts in the relationship of feminism and nursing from a historical perspective. Different feminist epistemologies, those of enlightened liberal, cultural, and radical feminism, are examined historically and their relevance to nursing is discussed. A reflexive theory, proposed by Harding, is used to conceptualize the differing responses, feminist and nonfeminist, of women and nurses, as alternative reactions to the many types of patriarchy they have encountered.

  5. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  6. A Critical Comparative Reading of Nationalism in Pramoedya A. Toer and Ngugi wa Thiong’o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to explore how the conception, birth, and development of novel can become a tool to shed lights to our understanding of the conception, birth, and development of nationalism. The discussion departs from a powerful finding by Edward Said that prominent exiles he happened to know and befriend with had deliberately chosen to be novelists. According to Said, the choice to write novels was fueled by intense feeling of homelessness, which in turn took shape in dream of an imaginary homeland. Novel as a genre is in perpetual search for epic; and since that epic is elusive, what novel can offer is an imagined form. It is in this shared feeling, the same desire to imagine a perfect home, the constant fabrication of narratives of the epic past, the invention of quasi-sacred texts alongside with the heroes and enemies, the dynamics of including and excluding of people that novel and nationalism inform each other. As reader, we turn to postcolonial Kenyan Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat and Indonesian Toer’s This Earth of Mankind. By commenting on the main characters of these novels we make intellectual exploration into the idea of nationalism. The results are two tentative conclusions regarding the relationship between novel and nationalism, i.e. (1 the pretense of novel to be epic is comparable to the claim of nationalism as the historically overarching set of identity of modern society, and (2 the dynamics of the characters in novel is a metonymy of the dynamics of nationalism bildungsroman.

  7. A Critical Comparative Reading of Nationalism in Pramoedya A. Toer and Ngugi wa Thiong’o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to explore how the conception, birth, and development of novel can become a tool to shed lights to our understanding of the conception, birth, and development of nationalism. The discussion departs from a powerful finding by Edward Said that prominent exiles he happened to know and befriend with had deliberately chosen to be novelists. According to Said, the choice to write novels was fueled by intense feeling of homelessness, which in turn took shape in dream of an imaginary homeland. Novel as a genre is in perpetual search for epic; and since that epic is elusive, what novel can offer is an imagined form. It is in this shared feeling, the same desire to imagine a perfect home, the constant fabrication of narratives of the epic past, the invention of quasi-sacred texts alongside with the heroes and enemies, the dynamics of including and excluding of people that novel and nationalism inform each other. As reader, we turn to postcolonial Kenyan Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat and Indonesian Toer’s This Earth of Mankind. By commenting on the main characters of these novels we make intellectual exploration into the idea of nationalism. The results are two tentative conclusions regarding the relationship between novel and nationalism, i.e. (1 the pretense of novel to be epic is comparable to the claim of nationalism as the historically overarching set of identity of modern society, and (2 the dynamics of the characters in novel is a metonymy of the dynamics of nationalism bildungsroman.

  8. 76 FR 30014 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... of the notice-and-comment rulemaking process established by the Administrative Procedures Act (APA... comments stated that the www.regulations.gov Web site would not accept the video file format desired for... support the file format for the video comment, other means remained available to submit the video to the...

  9. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated...

  10. 75 FR 36672 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here.... 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Thomas Burke Memorial...

  11. 77 FR 74871 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Museum of Anthropology at Washington State University, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Museum of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with...

  12. 76 FR 73663 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... the cultural items should contact Mary Collins, Director of the Museum of Anthropology at Washington... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Washington State University, Museum of Anthropology, Pullman, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Washington...

  13. Sectoral contributions to surface water stress in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Averyt; J. Meldrum; P. Caldwell; G. Sun; S. McNulty; A. Huber-Lee; N. Madden

    2013-01-01

    Here, we assess current stress in the freshwater system based on the best available data in order to understand possible risks and vulnerabilities to regional water resources and the sectors dependent on freshwater. We present watershed-scale measures of surface water supply stress for the coterminous United States (US) using the water supply stress index (WaSSI) model...

  14. Dredged Material Placement Site Capacity Analysis for Navigation Improvement Project at Grays Harbor, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Site (SJDS) and the Point Chehalis Disposal Site (PCDS) respectively. The dynamic capacity for three scenarios was determined by including the... determine the optimal channel design for minimizing maintenance dredging requirements. ERDC/CHL TR-12-18 4 As stated previously, the NWS has...model formulated from a parabolic approximation equation ( Mase et al. 2005a; 2005b) with energy dissipation and diffraction terms to simulate a

  15. Desa.lina.tion - A Supply Source of Wa.ter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soil stralta contaming salt. The Salt Lake Oity in the middle of tlle UDJiited Stat.es is an example in point. Another method is that known as "reverse o~mosis". How does this work? (fig. 5). If you have a vessel divided into two parts by a membrane, and you £iJIJ. the fh'Slt part wJiflh waiter and tJhe second part with salt wate.r, ...

  16. The Emergence of Organizational Fit: Applying Configuration Theory to the Snohomish County (WA) Emergency Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1 Ronald W. Perry, “Emergency Operations Centres in an Era of Terrorism: Policy and Management Functions,” Journal of Contingencies and...W. Perry, “Emergency Operations Centres in an Era of Terrorism: Policy and Management Functions,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 11...training.fema.gov/is/crslist.aspx?all=true. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and United States Geological Survey (USGS). “2014 Washington Mudslide

  17. Ibn Rushd on God’s decree and Determination (al-qaḍā’, wa-l-qadar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belo, Catarina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on Ibn Rushd’s chapter on God’s qaḍā’ wa-qadar, which adresses the question of predestination, as illustrative of a rationalistic approach that introduces philosophical views into an age-old religious debate. My aim is to present Ibn Rushd’s argument, which has unmistakable Aristotelian overtones; therefore, the harmonization of religion and philosophy implicit in his argument is one of the points I would like to explore in this paper. In the same way, I am interested in discussing whether Ibn Rushd’s proposed solution constitutes a middle way between two opposite positions and solves the perennial problem of determinism. The paper also discusses the issue whether he supports predestination, i.e., the view that events are predetermined by God before they happen.

    Este artículo se basa en el capítulo de Ibn Rušd sobre los atributos qaḍā’ wa-qadar de Allāh, que se ocupa del concepto "predestinación", como ejemplo de una aproximación racionalista que introduce conceptos filosóficos en un viejo debate religioso. Es mi propósito presentar el argumento de Ibn Rušhd que contiene inequívocas alusiones aristotélicas; por tanto, la armonización de la religión y la filosofía implícita en sus argumentos es uno de los puntos que trataré de explorar en este trabajo. Igualmente, estoy interesada en la cuestión de si las soluciones propuestas por Ibn Rušhd suponen un término medio entre dos posiciones enfrentadas y resuelven el eterno problema del determinismo. Este trabajo discute también si Ibn Rušhd defiende la predestinación, es decir, la cuestión de si los sucesos están predeterminados por Dios antes de que tengan lugar.

  18. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  19. “FEATRON OR HISTORICAL SHAME” W. STRATEMANA – MEMO BOOK CYRILLIC PRINTING: HISTORICAL AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Ю. Соколов

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author offers a historical and bibliographic analysis Cyrillic edition works of the German Protestant Bishop William Stratemanna "Featron or historical Shame" (SPb.: typography Alexander Nevsky Monastery, 1724 against the background of the Russian literary culture, historical thought and publishing the first quarter of XVIII c. The study revealed that the publication of secular books, in particular, historical themes, in Russia during this period was the state character and largely depended on the reform efforts of Peter I, who initiated the civil publishing, publishing repertoire, organization of translation and the formation of a secular book culture in general. It was found that the main goal of a secular publishing was the dissemination of ideas of education, science and education, the formation of readers' needs, in particular with regard to the book of historical subjects. Stated that the theme of historical publications in the study period was determined by socio-political factors, public policy, as well as increased attention to the achievements of Western historical thought. The article defines the main directions of development of Russian historical thought, as well as the thematic repertoire of publications on the history of the industry in the context of the formation of printing. The characteristic features of the development of Western Protestant and Catholic historiography XVI-XVII centuries. The analysis found that due to the socio-economic and cultural reforms, with the development of education and science, the need for a secular book, in particular historical themes have evolved relatively slowly. The demand for scientific, educational, industrial and secular book as a whole lagged behind the proposal, which is artificially supported by the state. Study of sources and scientific material allowed to disclose the value of the product W. Stratemanna - as the first Russian edition of the textbook on world

  20. GPR application to historical buildings structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinelli, E.; Barone, P. M.; Mattei, E.; Di Matteo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Preservation of historical buildings requires particular care, as any intervention must conducted in a way which does not alter or damage the style, structure or contents of the edifice. In order to properly plan the restoration of a building, non-destructive techniques can be extensively used to detect structural elements and weaknesses. Ground Penetrating Radar is particularly well adapted to this type of work, as the method is non-invasive, rapid, and provides high resolution images of contrasting subsurface materials. In the present work we show three case-histories on three historical buildings - different in age, structure and geometry - in which GPR technique has been successfully used. To obtain 2D time slices of the investigated area, high frequency bistatic GPR (900 MHz and 1GHz antennas) was applied in each site, acquiring data along several parallel profiles. The first case presented here, is the GPR detection of the fractures and the internal lesions in the architrave of the Porticus Octaviae, a Roman building partially restored, located downtown Rome. The second case shows the application of the GPR to detect the internal structure of the floors above the vaulted ceilings that houses a series of 16th century frescos in the important Zuccari Palace, also located in Rome. Finally, the third case illustrates the application of GPR to reconstruct the geometry and the reinforcement structures of the floors and the inside walls of the Provincial Palace of Pescara, dated back to the Fascist age. These three examples show that GPR technique is a valid support which, in exhaustive way, can highlight the state of conservation of historical buildings. In particular, this technique can produce fundamental information for the restorers, in terms of location, dimension, and geometry of the internal lesions in the structure, helping them in developing the best possible protection plan for an historical building. REFERENCES Annan A.P.; 2004: Ground Penetrating Radar