WorldWideScience

Sample records for w-si-n ternary systems

  1. Evolution of the microstructure, residual stresses, and mechanical properties of W-Si-N coatings after thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavaleiro, A; Marques, AP; Fernandes, JV; Carvalho, NJM; De Hosson, JT

    W-Si-N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in a Ar + N-2 atmosphere from a W target encrusted with different number of Si pieces and followed by a thermal annealing at increasing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. Three iron-based substrates with different thermal expansion coefficients, in

  2. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  3. Page 1 Structure and superconductivity in ternary systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structure and superconductivity in ternary systems of compounds 299. Erra B2 structure do not have T. above 1:2 K (Ku and Meisner 1981); (iii) for. Ao.67Pt3B the T. are 1-6, 28 and 56K for A = Ca,Sr and Ba (Shelton 1978) and. (iv) AOs B, A = Th, T = 3 K; A = Y, T = 6K (Ku 1980). 3. Ternary carbides. Of the known ternary ...

  4. Polycation-Based Ternary Gene Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Guo, Tianying

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in gene therapy has opened the door for various human diseases. The greatest challenge that gene vectors still face is the ability to sufficiently deliver nucleic acid into target cells. To overcome various barriers, plenty of researches have been undertaken utilizing diverse strategies, among which a wide variety of polycation/pDNA vectors have been developed and explored frequently. For enhanced transfection efficiency, polycations are constantly utilized with covalent modifications, which however lead to reduced positive charge density and changed properties of polycation/pDNA complexes. Accordingly, non-covalent or ternary strategy is proposed. The cationic properties of polycations can be retained and the transfection efficiency can be enhanced by introducing additional polymers with functional groups via non-covalent assembly. This review will discuss the construction and advantages of ternary complexes gene delivery system, including low toxicity and enhanced gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Recent progress and expectations with promising results that may have some reference for clinical application are also discussed.

  5. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  6. Densities and Excess Molar Volume for the Ternary Systems (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methylimidazolium methyl sulphate ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]-) were determined. The ternary systems studied were ([BMIM]+[MeSO4]-+ nitromethane + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol) at the temperatures (303.15 and 313.15) K. The ternary excess molar ...

  7. The ternary system: Silicon-tantalum-uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogl, Peter, E-mail: peter.franz.rogl@univie.ac.a [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42 (Austria); Noel, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes I, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, Cedex (France)

    2010-09-01

    Phase equilibria in the ternary system Si-Ta-U have been established in an isothermal section at 1000 {sup o}C by optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Two novel ternary compounds were observed and were characterised by X-ray powder Rietveld refinement: stoichiometric {tau}{sub 1}-U{sub 2}Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 4} (U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type, P2{sub 1}/c; a = 0.70011(1), b = 0.70046(1), c = 0.68584(1) nm, ss = 109.38(1); R{sub F} = 0.073, X-ray powder Rietveld refinement) and {tau}{sub 2}-U{sub 2-x}Ta{sub 3+x}Si{sub 4} at x {approx} 0.30 (Sc{sub 2}Re{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type = partially ordered Zr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type, P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2; a = b = 0.69717(3)(1), c = 1.28709(4) nm; R{sub F} = 0.056; X-ray single crystal data). Mutual solubility of U-silicides and Ta-silicides are found to be very small i.e. below about 1 at.%. Due to the equilibrium tie-line Ta{sub 2}Si-U(Ta), no compatibility exists between the U-rich silicides U{sub 3}Si or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and tantalum metal. Single crystals obtained from alloys slowly cooled from liquid (2000 {sup o}C), yielded a fully ordered compound U{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}Si{sub 3}C (unique structure type; Pmna, a = 0.68860(1); b = 2.17837(4); c = 0.69707(1) nm; R{sub F2} = 0.048).

  8. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  9. Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail

    2012-02-01

    Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.

  10. The ternary system: silicon-uranium-vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes I, Avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes, Cedex (France); Rogl, Peter Franz, E-mail: peter.franz.rogl@univie.ac.a [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42 (Austria)

    2010-09-01

    Phase equilibria in the system Si-U-V were established at 1100 {sup o}C by optical microscopy, EMPA and X-ray diffraction. Two ternary compounds were observed, U{sub 2}V{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and (U{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3}, for which the crystal structures were elucidated by X-ray powder data refinement and found to be isotypic with the monoclinic U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}Si{sub 4}-type (space group P2{sub 1}/c; a = 0.6821(3), b = 0.6820(4), c = 0.6735(3) nm, {beta} = 109.77(1){sup o}) and the tetragonal W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type (space group I4/mcm, a = 1.06825(2), c = 0.52764(2) nm), respectively. (U{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} appears at 1100 {sup o}C without any significant homogeneity region at x {approx} 0.2 resulting in a formula U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} which corresponds to a fully ordered atom arrangement. DTA experiments clearly show decomposition of this phase above 1206 {sup o}C revealing a two-phase region U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} + V{sub 3}Si. At 1100 {sup o}C U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} is in equilibrium with V{sub 3}Si, V{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U(V). At 800 {sup o}C U{sub 4}VSi{sub 3} forms one vertex of the tie-triangle to U{sub 3}Si and V{sub 3}Si. Due to the rather high thermodynamic stability of V{sub 3}Si and the corresponding tie-lines V{sub 3}Si + liquid at 1100 {sup o}C and V{sub 3}Si + U(V) below 925 {sup o}C, no compatibility exists between U{sub 3}Si or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and vanadium metal.

  11. Thermodynamic Study of Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Ye, R.; Chen, Y. Y.; Su, X. H.; Wang, S. L.; Fu, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of rare earth elements on Sn-Bi-based alloy, and to study the phase equilibrium of Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb ternary systems by means of establishing the thermodynamic database. Combined with the thermodynamic parameters of relevant binary systems, the thermodynamic database of the Sn-Bi-Nd, Tb ternary systems has been developed to present the significant information for the design of low-temperature lead-free solder alloys.

  12. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  13. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  14. Ternary Systems Control with Two Recycle Steams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solar–González R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the use of parallel control structure to improve the control behavior of plantwide de signs has been study. In this work, we consider the behavior of a plant that consists of a recycle system, a reactor and two distillation columns where the control aim is to improve the disturbance rejection capabilities of the controlled process. The idea is to change the operating conditions in both the reactor and the second distillation column in order to distribute the composition control effort in the face of fresh feed composition disturbances. To this end, a parallel control structure is proposed where the product composition is regulated by means of simultaneous feed back manipulations of the vapor boilup rate of the second column and there actor temperature. In this way, the use of the reactor temperature as a secondary control in put reduces oscillatory behavior and the vapour flowrate us age.

  15. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  16. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  17. Designing and analysing parallel control for multifeed ternary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Solar-González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a parallel control structure for improving the behaviour of a chemical plant having recycling and multi- ple feed streams; a ternary system is taken as an example,having an A + B → C second-order irreversible reaction. Material recycling dynamics can induce the so-called snowball effect in the presence of disturbance in the feed stream. The snowball effect can be prevented by distributing load through the parallel control scheme. A control structure was thus pro- posed where product composition was regulated by means of simultaneous feedback manipulation of final column vapour boilup rate and reactor temperature. An extension was made for one reactor, one distillation column and recycle stream configuration. Nonlinear simulations showed that effective composition control could be obtained with moderate vapour boilup control efforts.

  18. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Contribution to the aluminum–tin–zinc ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drápala, J.; Kostiuková, G.; Losertová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The Sn–Zn–Al alloys are one of significant candidates in the proposal of alternative lead-free solders for higher temperature soldering. This paper deals with the study of the aluminum–tin–zinc system. Twenty Sn–Zn–Al alloys together with six binary Sn–Zn alloys were prepared and studied experimentally. Alloys were prepared from pure Sn, Zn and Al (melting and cooling in a vacuum resistance furnace). The specimens were studied metallographically including the micro-hardness measurements, complete chemical analysis (ICP-AES, OES), X-ray micro-analysis of alloys by SEM and EDX in order to determine the composition and identification of individual phases. Significant temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations were determined by DTA. After long-term annealing of selected alloys in vacuum followed by quenching the structural and chemical microanalyses of the present phases and their limit concentrations were carried out. The achieved results were compared with the thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Sn–Zn–Al system (computer programs THERMOCALC, MTDATA, PANDAT and databases CALPHAD, COST). Electrical resistivity, density, magnetic susceptibility and wettability of Sn–Zn–Al solders were measured as well.

  20. Biocatalysis of immobilized chlorophyllase in a ternary micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, R; Kermasha, S; Bisakowski, B

    1999-09-24

    The immobilization of chlorophyllase was optimized by physical adsorption on various inorganic supports, including alumina, celite, Dowex-1-chloride, glass beads and silica gel. The enzyme was also immobilized in different media, including water, Tris-HCl buffer solution and a ternary micellar system containing Tris-HCl buffer solution, hexane and surfactant. The highest immobilization efficiency (84.56%) and specific activity (0.34 mumol hydrolyzed chlorophyll mg protein-1 per min) were obtained when chlorophyllase was suspended in Tris-HCl buffer solution and adsorbed onto silica gel. The effect of different ratios of chlorophyllase to the support and the optimum incubation time for the immobilization of chlorophyllase were determined to be 1-4 and 60 min, respectively. The experimental results showed that the optimum pH and temperature for the immobilized chlorophyllase were 8.0 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The use of optimized amounts of selected membrane lipids increased the specific activity of the immobilized chlorophyllase by approximately 50%. The enzyme kinetic studies indicated that the immobilized chlorophyllase showed a higher affinity towards chlorophyll than pheophytin as substrate.

  1. Thermodynamic optimization and phase equilibria in the ternary system Ni–Sn–Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandova, V., E-mail: gandova_71@abv.bg [University of Food Technologies, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Department, 26 Mariza avenue, 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Vassilev, G.P. [University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Chemistry, 24 Tsar Asen str., 4000 Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of the Ni–Sn–Zn system was obtained. • Six isothermal sections were calculated. • Third constituents solubility in binary phases’ extensions were taken into account. • Good correlation between calculated and experimental data was obtained. - Abstract: Recent experimental results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and other methods were used to develop a thermodynamic description of the ternary system Ni–Sn–Zn. Four ternary non-stoichiometric compounds (T1–T4), mentioned in the literature, were described using three-sublattice models. Previously known optimizations of the binary subsystems were remodeled to comply with the new experimental data. The solubility of the respective ternary components, i.e., Zn in Ni–Sn phases and Sn in Ni–Zn phases, were taken into account and optimized ternary parameters were derived. Six isothermal sections were calculated using Thermo-Calc software.

  2. Mathematical representation of electrophoretic mobility in ternary solvent electrolyte systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Jouyban A

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic mobilities of salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine in capillary zone electrophoresis were determined using acetate buffer in mixed solvents containing different concentrations of water, methanol and acetonitrile. Maximum electrophoretic mobilities for salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine were observed with water-methanol-acetonitrile ratios of 5:50:45 v/v and 3:60:37 v/v, respectively, and minimum mobilities of both compounds occurred in methanol-acetonitrile ratio of 30:70 v/v. The generated experimental data have been used to evaluate a mathematical model to compute the electrophoretic mobility of the analytes in a ternary solvent electrolyte system. The proposed model is: ln μm =ƒ1 ln μ1+ƒ2 ln μ2+k ƒ3+M1ƒ1 ƒ2+M2 ƒ1ƒ3+M3 ƒ2ƒ3+M4 ƒ1ƒ²1+M5 ƒ²2ƒ3+M6ƒ²2ƒ3+M7ƒ1ƒ2ƒ3. Where μ is the electrophoretic mobility, subscripts m,1, 2 and 3 refer to mixed solvent and solvents 1-3, respectively, f is the volume fraction of the solvent in the mixed solvent system and M1-M7 and K are the model constants calculated by a least squares analysis. The generated experimental data fitted to the model and the back-calculated mobilities were employed to compute the average percentage deviation (APD as an accuracy criterion. The obtained APD for salmeterol and phenylpropanolamine are 3.10 and 2.21%, respectively and the low APD values indicate that the model is able to calculate the mobilities within an acceptable error range.

  3. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  4. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin

    2018-02-01

    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  5. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.

    1974-01-01

    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  6. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Yb ternary system supported by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships of the ternary Al-Cu-Yb system have been assessed using a combination of CALPHAD method and first principles calculations. A self-consistent thermodynamic parameter was established based on the experimental and theoretical information. Most of the binary intermetallic phases, except Al3Yb, Al2Yb, Cu2Yb and Cu5Yb, were assumed to be zero solubility in the ternary system. Based on the experimental data, eight ternary intermetallic compounds were taken into consideration in this system. Among them, three were treated as line compounds with large homogeneity ranges for Al and Cu. The others were treated as stoichiometric compounds. The calculated phase diagrams were in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data.

  7. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Ni-Nb-V ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome; Zhang, Xianjie; Jiang, Hengxing; Shi, Zhan [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-09-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system at 1000 C and 1200 C were established using electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the investigation revealed that: (1) The Nb solubility in (Ni) and σ{sup '} phases was less than 10 at.%; (2) A ternary compound τ (NiNbV) was confirmed, in which V had a large solubility; (3) A new liquid region was evident at 1200 C, but was absent at 1000 C; (4) The lattice constants of Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7} phase decreased with increase in V content in the Ni{sub 3}Nb and Ni{sub 6}Nb{sub 7}. The phase equilibria of the Ni-Nb-V ternary system will contribute to its thermodynamic assessment.

  8. Comparative instrumental evaluation of efficacy and safety between a binary and a ternary system in chemexfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Ardigò, Marco; Corato, Cristina; De Paoli, Gianfranco; Berardesca, Enzo

    2017-09-20

    To instrumentally evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a new ternary system chemo exfoliating formulation (water-dimethyl isosorbide-acid) vs traditional binary systems (water and acid) where the acid is maintained in both the systems at the same concentration. Different peelings (binary system pyruvic acid and trichloroacetic acid-TCA, and ternary system pyruvic acid and TCA) were tested on the volar forearm of 20 volunteers of both sexes between 28 and 50 years old. The outcomes were evaluated at the baseline, 10 minutes, 24 hours, and 1 week after the peeling by means of noninvasive skin diagnosis techniques. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy was used for stratum corneum evaluation, transepidermal waterloss, and Corneometry for skin barrier and hydration, Laser Doppler velocimetry in association with colorimetry for irritation and erythema analysis. The instrumental data obtained showed that the efficacy and safety of the new ternary system peel compounds were significantly higher compared with the binary system formulations tested. The new formulation peels improved chemexfoliation and reduced complications such as irritation, redness, and postinflammatory pigmentation compared to the traditional aqueous solutions. The study showed that ternary system chemexfoliation, using a controlled delivery technology, was able to provide the same clinical effects in term of stratum corneum reduction with a significantly reduced barrier alteration, water loss, and irritation/erythema compared to traditional binary system peels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria in the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, Shuiyuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, Xingjun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Duh, Jenq-Gong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Universtiy, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cuiping, E-mail: wangcp@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-03-01

    The phase equilibria of the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system were investigated using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), back scattered electron (BSE) imaging and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Three isothermal sections of the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system at 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C were experimentally established. The phase equilibria of Mg–Pb binary and Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system were thermodynamically assessed by using CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the presently determined experimental data. A consistent set of thermodynamic parameters has been derived for describing the Gibbs free energies of each solution phase and intermetallic compound in the Mg–Pb and Mg–Pb–Zn systems. The calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Mg–Pb and Mg–Pb–Zn systems are in good agreement with experimental data. - Highlights: • Three isothermal sections of the Mg–Pb–Zn system were experimentally determined. • The phase equilibria of Mg–Pb binary system are thermodynamically reassessed. • The calculated phase diagrams in the Mg–Pb–Zn ternary system are in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Phase Behaviour and Structural Aspects of Ternary Clathrate Hydrate Systems. The Role of Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijer-Van den Heuvel, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study an experimental and modelling approach is applied to obtain fundamental insight into the phase behaviour of ternary systems, in which clathrate hydrates are formed. Proper interpretation of the phase behaviour requires knowledge on the clathrate hydrate structure in these systems,

  11. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  12. Characterization of Ternary Protein Systems In Vivo with Tricolor Heterospecies Partition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Kwang-Ho; Chen, Yan; Mueller, Joachim D

    2016-03-08

    Tools and assays that characterize protein-protein interactions are of fundamental importance to biology, because protein assemblies play a critical role in the control and regulation of nearly every cellular process. The availability of fluorescent proteins has facilitated the direct and real-time observation of protein-protein interactions inside living cells, but existing methods are mostly limited to binary interactions between two proteins. Because of the scarcity of techniques capable of identifying ternary interactions, we developed tricolor heterospecies partition analysis. The technique is based on brightness analysis of fluorescence fluctuations from three fluorescent proteins that serve as protein labels. We identified three fluorescent proteins suitable for tricolor brightness experiments. In addition, we developed the theory of identifying interactions in a ternary protein system using tricolor heterospecies partition analysis. The theory was verified by experiments on well-characterized protein systems. A graphical representation of the heterospecies partition data was introduced to visualize interactions in ternary protein systems. Lastly, we performed fluorescence fluctuation experiments on cells expressing a coactivator and two nuclear receptors and applied heterospecies partition analysis to explore the interactions of this ternary protein system. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Equilibrium thermodynamics of the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, A.M.W.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Naafs, E.M.; van Eeten, F.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The binary Flory-Huggins interaction parameters for the ternary membrane-forming system nylon, formic acid and water have been obtained from literature data, swelling values and melting point depression. Nylon 4,6 nylon 6 and a copolymer of nylon 4,6 and 6 were examined. The isothermal

  14. Organic alloy systems suitable for the investigation of regular binary and ternary eutectic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturz, L.; Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2004-09-01

    Transparent organic alloys showing a plastic crystal phase were investigated experimentally using differential scanning calorimetry and directional solidification with respect to find a suitable model system for regular ternary eutectic growth. The temperature, enthalpy and entropy of phase transitions have been determined for a number of pure substances. A distinction of substances with and without plastic crystal phases was made from their entropy of melting. Binary phase diagrams were determined for selected plastic crystal alloys with the aim to identify eutectic reactions. Examples for lamellar and rod-like eutectic solidification microstructures in binary systems are given. The system (D)Camphor-Neopentylglycol-Succinonitrile is identified as a system that exhibits, among others, univariant and a nonvariant eutectic reaction. The ternary eutectic alloy close to the nonvariant eutectic composition solidifies with a partially faceted solid-liquid interface. However, by adding a small amount of Amino-Methyl-Propanediol (AMPD), the temperature of the nonvariant eutectic reaction and of the solid state transformation from plastic to crystalline state are shifted such, that regular eutectic growth with three distinct nonfaceted phases is observed in univariant eutectic reaction for the first time. The ternary phase diagram and examples for eutectic microstructures in the ternary and the quaternary eutectic alloy are given.

  15. The ternary sorption system U(VI)-phosphate-silica explained by spectroscopy and thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Stockmann, Madlen; Heim, Karsten; Mueller, Katharina; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Comarmond, M.J.; Payne, T.E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia); Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    Spectroscopic data of sorption processes potentially provide direct impact on Surface Complexation Modelling (SCM) approaches. Based on spectroscopic data of the ternary sorption system U(VI)/phosphate/silica strongly suggesting the formation of a precipitate as the predominant surface process, SCM calculations accurately reproduced results from classical batch experiments.

  16. A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy applied to drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Xin, Dingcheng; Hu, Jiawen; Liu, Kaijian; Pan, Jiangao; Xiang, Jiannan

    2009-01-01

    A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy has been developed, in which modified heparin using active mix anhydride as intermediate conjugates with model drug molecule and model specific ligand, respectively. Designed ester bonds between model drug and heparin facilitate hydrolysis kinetics research. The strategy can be extended to design and synthesize a targeted drug delivery system. The key point is to use mixed anhydride groups as activating intermediates to mediate the synthesis of the ternary heparin conjugate. Formation of mixed anhydride is detected by the conductimetry experiment. The ternary heparin conjugate is characterized by (13)C NMR, FT-IR and GPC, respectively. The decreased trend on degree of substitution (DS) is consistent with that of introduced anticancer drug and specific ligand in drug delivery system. Moreover, their anticoagulant activity is evaluated by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-factor Xa activity. The results show that model ternary heparin conjugate with reduced anticoagulant activity may avoid the risk of severe hemorrhagic complication during the administration and is potential to develop a safe and effective drug delivery system on anticancer research.

  17. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). College of Materials and Fujian Provincial Key Lab. of Materials Genome

    2017-08-15

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi, ZrNi{sub 5}, Zr{sub 14}Cu{sub 51}, and Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}, show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ{sub 3} (Zr{sub 31.1-30.7} . Cu{sub 28.5-40.3}Ni{sub 40.4-29.0}) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  18. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  19. Phase equilibria in the ternary In-Ni-Sn system at 700 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetterer, C; Zemanova, A; Flandorfer, H; Kroupa, A; Ipser, H

    2013-04-01

    The phase equilibria of the ternary system In-Ni-Sn were investigated experimentally at 700 °C using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron micro probe analysis (EMPA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). A corresponding isothermal section was established based on these results. This particular temperature was chosen because it allowed obtaining reliable results within reasonable time. The existence of the ternary phase InNi 6 Sn 5 was confirmed whereas the ternary compound In 2 NiSn, reported earlier in literature, was found to be part of a large solid solution field based on binary InNi. The ternary solubility of the binary phases was established, and continuous solid solutions were found between the isostructural phases Ni 3 Sn LT and InNi 3 as well as between Ni 3 Sn 2 HT and InNi 2 . In addition, this isothermal section could be well reproduced by CALPHAD modelling. The resulting calculated isotherm at 700 °C is presented, too, and compared with the experimental results.

  20. Reinvestigation of the Ce–Co–Al ternary system: Isothermal section at 973 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasri, N. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Gastebois, J. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pasturel, M., E-mail: mathieu.pasturel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Belgacem, B. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Péron, I.; Gouttefangeas, F. [Centre de Microscopie Electronique à Balayage et microAnalyse, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 263 av. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ben Hassen, R. [Unité de Recherche de Chimie des Matériaux et de l’Environnement, ISSBAT, Université de Tunis El Manar, 9 av. Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); and others

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The experimental isothermal section at 973 K of the Ce–Co–Al system is presented. • This section contains 5 ternary phases and 7 ternary extensions of pseudo-binaries. • DTA experiments are used to estimate the liquid areas. - Abstract: The Ce–Co–Al ternary phase diagram has been reinvestigated at 973 K by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analyses. It contains 5 ternary phases (CeCo{sub 2}Al{sub 8}, Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 6}Al{sub 19}, CeCoAl{sub 4}, Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 3}Al{sub 4} and CeCoAl) as well as 7 extensions in the ternary field of pseudo-binaries (CeAl{sub 2−x}Co{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.18; CeCo{sub 2−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.21; CeCo{sub 3−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.20; Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 7−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.73; Ce{sub 5}Co{sub 19−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.20; CeCo{sub 5−x}Al{sub x} with 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.71 and Ce{sub 2}Co{sub 17−y}Al{sub y} with 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 2.2). Two liquid areas are present at the Al and Ce-rich corners of this isothermal section.

  1. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Binary and ternary VLE of the 2-(diethylamino)-ethanol (DEEA)/ 3-(methylamino)-propylamine (MAPA)/ water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartono, Ardi; Saleem, Fahad; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    -T-x-y, activity coefficient, excess enthalpy and freezing point depression for both the binary and ternary systems. However, a small inconsistency was observed between water activity coefficients determined from ebulliometer and freezing point depression measurements....

  3. Experimental determination of the phase equilibria in the Co–Cr–Ta ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, S.Y.; Liu, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, C.P., E-mail: wangcp@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Three isothermal sections at 800, 1000, and 1100 °C were established. • A large solubility of Cr is identified in the Co{sub 6}Ta{sub 7} phase. • The high–temperature phase (Co,Cr){sub 2}Ta(HT) was found to be stabilized at low temperatures. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co–Cr–Ta ternary system were experimentally investigated by using backscattered electron (BSE), wavelength dispersive X-ray analyzer (WDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Three isothermal sections of the Co–Cr–Ta ternary system at 800 °C, 900 °C and 1100 °C were experimentally determined. The experimental results show that: (1) No ternary compound is found in this system; (2) A large solubility of Cr is identified in the Co{sub 6}Ta{sub 7} phase; (3) The (Co, Cr){sub 2}Ta(HT) phase is stabilized at temperatures below it stability limits in Co–Ta and Cr–Ta binary systems in the range of Cr concentrations from 4 to 61 at.% and from 24 to 41 at.% Ta.

  4. Experimental and thermodynamic investigation of Al-Cu-Nd ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jiang, Y. [Hunan Sushi Guangbo Testing Techniques Co. LTD, Changsha (China); Guo, Z.Y.; Zeng, L.J.; Tan, M.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Meggs, C. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.G., E-mail: ligangzhang@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: pdc@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2017-07-01

    The phase relationships in the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system at 673 K have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in backscattered electron imaging (BSE) modes. The existence of six ternary Stoichiometric compounds, namely τ{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Nd, τ{sub 2}-Al{sub 9}Cu{sub 8}Nd{sub 2}, τ{sub 3}-Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 7}Nd, τ{sub 4}-Al{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 8.6}Nd, τ{sub 5}-Al{sub 3}CuNd, τ{sub 6}-AlCuNd, have been confirmed. A complete thermodynamic description of the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system coupled with the CALPHAD method is obtained based on experimental results and first-principles calculations. The calculated phase equilibria were in agreement with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase relationships in the Al-Cu-Nd system has been systematically investigated. • 9 three-phase regions and 4 two-phase regions are confirmed. • A complete thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Nd system is obtained. • Results of first-principle calculation consist with thermodynamic calculation.

  5. First principles total energy study of NbCr{sub 2} + V Laves phase ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormeci, A. [Koc Univ., Istanbul (Turkey); Chen, S.P.; Wills, J.M.; Albers, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The C15 NbCr{sub 2} + V Laves phase ternary system is studied by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. Equilibrium lattice parameters, cohesive energies, density of states and formation energies of substitutional defects are calculated. Results of all these calculations show that in the C15 NbCr{sub 2} + V compounds, V atoms substitute Cr atoms only.

  6. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  7. Isothermal section of the Er-Cu-Ga ternary system at 973 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgacem, B. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Pasturel, M., E-mail: mathieu.pasturel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Tougait, O. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Nouri, S. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Bekkachi, H. El; Peron, I. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Hassen, R. Ben [Unite de Recherche de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement (UR11ES25), ISSBAT, Universite de Tunis ElManar, 9 Avenue Dr. Zoheir Safi, 1006 Tunis (Tunisia); Noeel, H. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Materiaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France)

    2012-08-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The isothermal section at 973 K of the Er-Cu-Ga ternary phase diagram has been established for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight extensions of binary compounds in the ternary domain have been identified, as well as six ternary intermediate solid solutions characterized by an important Cu/Ga mutual substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of Er{sub 3}(Cu,Ga){sub 11} are reported for the first time and confirms the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior of all the six intermediate intermetallics. - Abstract: Phase relations in the Er-Cu-Ga ternary system have been established at 973 K by means of powder X-ray diffraction complemented by energy dispersive spectroscopy coupled to scanning electron microscopy. The isothermal section of the phase diagram comprises eight extensions of binaries into the ternary system, ErCu{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 0.5), ErCu{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 1.1), ErCu{sub 5-x}Ga{sub x} (x {<=} 0.5), Er{sub 5}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 3-x} (x {<=} 0.60), Er{sub 3}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (x {<=} 0.24), ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} (x {<=} 0.10), ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (x {<=} 0.30) and ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 3-x} (x {<=} 0.35), as well as six ternary intermediate phases, ErCu{sub x}Ga{sub 2-x} (0.4 {<=} x {<=} 0.7), Er{sub 14}Cu{sub 51-x}Ga{sub x} (5.5 {<=} x {<=} 11.0), ErCu{sub 5-x}Ga{sub x} (0.8 {<=} x {<=} 2.3), Er{sub 2}Cu{sub 17-x}Ga{sub x} (4.9 {<=} x {<=} 8.0), ErCu{sub 12-x}Ga{sub x} (5.7 {<=} x {<=} 6.7) and Er{sub 3}Cu{sub x}Ga{sub 11-x} (1.5 {<=} x {<=} 4.4), all deriving from binary structure-types.

  8. Composition dependences of thermodynamical properties associated with Pb-free ternary, quaternary, and quinary solder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, A.; Arslan, H.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, Chou's General Solution Model (GSM) has been used to predict the enthalpy and partial enthalpies of mixing of the liquid Ag-In-Sn ternary, Ag-In-Sn-Zn quaternary, and Ag-Au-In-Sn-Zn quinary systems. These are of technical importance to optimize lead-free solder alloys, in selected cross-sections: x In/ x Sn = 0.5/0.5 (ternary), Au-In0.1-Sn0.8-Zn0.1, Ag-In0.1-Sn0.8-Zn0.1 (quaternary), and t = x Au/ x In = 1, x In = x Sn = x Zn (quinary) at 1173, 773, and 773 K, respectively. Moreover, the activity of In content in the ternary alloy system Ag-In-Sn has been calculated and its result is compared with that determined from the experiment, while the activities of Ag contents associated with the alloys mentioned above have been calculated. The other traditional models such as of Colinet, Kohler, Muggianu, Toop, and Hillert are also included in calculations. Comparing those calculated from the proposed GSM with those determined from experimental measurements, it is seen that this model becomes considerably realistic in computerization for estimating thermodynamic properties in multicomponent systems.

  9. Solid-liquid equilibria in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rui-Zhi; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Wei; Sang, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The solubilities of the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O were investigated by isothermal method at 398 K. On the basis of the experimental data, the phase diagram was plotted. In the phase diagram of ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K, no complex salt or solid solution was found. It belongs to simple co-saturation type. There are only one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr and KBr. Using the equilibrium solubilities data of the ternary system at 398 K, mixing ioninteraction parameter ΨNa,K,Br of Pitzer's equation was fitted by multiple linear regression method. Based on the Pitzer model and its extended Harvie-Weare (HW) model, the solubilities of phase equilibrium in the ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K were calculated. The phase diagram of the ternary system was plotted. The results show that calculated values have a good agreement with measured experimental data. It can demonstrate the accuracy of the experimental data, and it also shows that reasonable parameters of the Pitzer model can be used in ternary system NaBr-KBr-H2O at 398 K.

  10. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Nb-Si-Ta ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Cuiping; Yao, Jun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Zhan Shi; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Kang, Yongwang [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Lab.

    2016-12-15

    The phase equilibria in the Nb-Si-Ta ternary system at 1 373 K, 1 473 K and 1 573 K were investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The isothermal sections at 1 373 K, 1 473 K and 1 573 K consist of two three-phase regions and seven two-phase regions, without any ternary compounds. The compounds of NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}, αNb{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and αTa{sub 5}Si{sub 3} form continuous solid solutions, respectively. The solubilities of Nb in Ta{sub 3}Si and Ta{sub 2}Si phases are extremely large, whereas the solubility of Si in the β(Nb, Ta) phase is relatively small.

  11. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingjun; Yang, Shuiyuan; Yu, Wenjie; Wang, Cuiping [Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome; Xiong, Huaping; Cheng, Yaoyong; Wu, Xin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (China). Div. of Welding and Forging

    2016-10-15

    The phase equilibria of the Co-Ni-Zr ternary system at 1 000 C, 1 100 C and 1 200 C were experimentally investigated by means of back-scattered electron imaging, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on the equilibrated ternary alloys. In this study, no ternary compound is found. The (αCo, Ni) phase region extends from the Ni-rich corner to the Co-rich corner with small solubility of Zr at three sections. At 1 000 C and 1 100 C, Ni{sub 5}Zr, Co{sub 2}Zr and Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phases have large solid solution ranges, but Ni{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} phase disappears at 1 200 C. The Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2}, NiZr, Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2}, Co{sub 23}Zr{sub 6} and CoZr phases exhibit nearly linear compounds in the studied sections, and have large composition ranges. Additionally, some differences in phase relationship exist among the above three isothermal sections.

  12. Preparation of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol 6000 ternary system: characterization, in vitro and in vivo bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radia, Ourezki; Rogalska, Ewa; Moulay-Hassane, Guermouche

    2012-01-01

    Ternary complexes of meloxicam (ML), a poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were prepared from an equimolar (ML-βCD) and 10% of PEG. Characterization of the ternary complex was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The solubility of ML increased as a function of increasing the concentration of βCD and PEG 6000. Ternary system increased significantly ML solubility in water. Ternary complexes improved drug release compared with ML and ML-βCD. The oral bioavailability of ML-βCD-PEG was investigated by administration to rat and compared with ML and ML-βCD. The results confirmed that the oral bioavailability of ML was significantly improved by complexation with βCD in the presence of PEG.

  13. Thermodynamic modelling of the Ag-Cu-Ti ternary system.

    OpenAIRE

    Dezellus, Olivier; Arroyave, Raymundo; Fries, Suzana G.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The Ag-Cu-Ti system is important for brazing applications, particularly for ceramic joining. This system is characterized by numerous intermetallics in the {Cu-Ti} binary and the existence of a miscibility gap in the liq. phase. For applications, knowledge of the phase equil., invariant reactions in the temp. range of interest and thermodn. activity values (mainly of Ti) are important. Thermodn. model parameters for all the stable phases in the Ag-Cu, Cu-Ti and Ag-Ti s...

  14. Shear-induced transitions in a ternary polymeric system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvelindovsky, AV; Sevink, GJA; Fraaije, JGEM

    The first three-dimensional simulation of shear-induced phase transitions in a polymeric system has been performed. The method is based on dynamic density-functional theory. The pathways between a bicontinuous phase with developing gyroid mesostructure and a lamellar/cylinder phase coexistence are

  15. Robust stabilization of nonlinear systems by quantized and ternary control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De

    2009-01-01

    Results on the problem of stabilizing a nonlinear continuous-time minimum-phase system by a finite number of control or measurement values are presented. The basic tool is a discontinuous version of the so-called semi-global backstepping lemma. We derive robust practical stabilizability results by

  16. The ternary system U(VI) / humic acid / Opalinus Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is discussed worldwide as the main strategy for nuclear waste management. To ensure the confinement of the nuclear waste, a multiple barrier system which consists of engineered, geo-engineered, and geological barriers will be applied. Thereby, in Germany the definition of the isolating rock zone represents an important safety function indicator. Clay rock is internationally investigated as potential host rock for a repository and repr...

  17. Binary and Ternary Explorations of the Molybdenum Boride System

    OpenAIRE

    Dismukes, Avalon Hope

    2015-01-01

    Refractory metal borides have recently generated intense interest in materials chemistry. These compounds have been shown to possess many advantageous properties, such as exceptionally high hardness, electrical conductivity, and even superconductivity. Higher molybdenum borides are discussed as compounds of interest in this category of materials. However, the complex phase relationships in the molybdenum-boron system complicate the preparation of phase-pure samples. MoB2 and Mo2B4 have both b...

  18. Liquid - liquid equilibria of the water + butyric acid + decanol ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Kirbaslar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data for the water + butyric acid + decanol ternary system were determined experimentally at temperatures of 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining the solubility curve and the tie lines. The reliability of the experimental tie line data was confirmed with the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC method was used to predict the phase equilibrium of the system using the interaction parameters for groups CH3, CH2, COOH, OH and H2O determined experimentally. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  19. Ternary particles for effective vaccine delivery to the pulmonary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Treniece La'shay

    Progress in the fields of molecular biology and genomics has provided great insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the defense mechanisms of the immune system. This knowledge has lead to the classification of an array of abnormal genes, for which, treatment relies on cellular expression of proteins. The utility of DNA-based vaccines hold great promise for the treatment of genetically based and infectious diseases, which ranges from hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. Synthetic delivery systems consisting of cationic polymers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), are capable of condensing DNA into compact structures, maximizing cellular uptake of DNA and yielding high levels of protein expression. To date, short term expression is a major obstacle in the development of gene therapies and has halted their expansion in clinical applications. This study intends to develop a sustained release vaccine delivery system using PLA-PEG block copolymers encapsulating PEI:DNA polyplexes. To enhance the effectiveness of such DNA-based vaccines, resident antigen presenting cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, will be targeted within the alveoli regions of the lungs. Porous microspheres will be engineered with aerodynamic properties capable of achieving deep lung deposition. A fabrication technique using concentric nozzles will be developed to produce porous microspheres. It was observed that modifications in the dispersed to continuous phase ratios have the largest influence on particle size distributions, release rates and encapsulation efficiency which ranged form 80--95% with fourteen days of release. Amphiphilic block copolymers were also used to fabricate porous microspheres. The confirmation of PEG within the biodegradable polymer backbone was found to have a tremendous impact on the microsphere morphology and encapsulation efficiency which varied from 50--90%. Porous microspheres were capable of providing sustained gene expression when tested in vitro using the

  20. Bergman Clusters, Multiple Bonds, and Defect Planes: Synthetic Outcomes of Chemical Frustration in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, Amelia Beth

    Intermetallics crystallize in a variety of complex structures, many of which show unusual bonding or intriguing properties. Understanding what factors drive this structural chemistry would be a valuable step towards designing new intermetallics with specific structures or properties. One pathway towards understanding and predicting the structures of complex intermetallics is chemical frustration, a design tool which harnesses competition between incompatible bonding or packing modes to induce complexity in ternary intermetallic systems. The research outlined in this thesis focuses on developing chemical frustration through exploratory synthesis in ternary systems designed to induce frustration between the tetrahedral close packing of many intermetallics and the simple cubic packing seen for ionic salts or elemental metals. Syntheses in three systems yielded six new ternary intermetallics, four of which crystallize in novel structure types. Three were discovered in the Ca-Cu-Cd system: Ca5Cu2Cd and Ca2Cu 2Cd9, which adopt ternary variants of binary structures, and Ca10Cu2Cd27, which crystallizes in a new structure built from Bergman clusters. All three structures can be traced to electronic packing frustration induced by the similar electronegativities but different metallic radii of Cu and Cd. The Gd-Fe-C system yielded the new carbometalate Gd13Fe 10C13 and an oxycarbide derivative. These phases crystallize in structures built from Gd tricapped trigonal prisms interpenetrated by an Fe-C network. Theoretical analyses reveal that Fe-Fe and Fe-C multiple bonding is found throughout this network. A theoretical investigation of similar carbides uncovers additional metal-metal, metal-carbon, and carbon-carbon multiple bonding. This unusual bonding stabilizes the carbides by satisfying preferred electron counts for their transition metal sites. One new phase, Mg4.5Pd5Ge1.5, was found in the Mg-Pd-Ge system. Its structure is closely related to the CsCl-type structure of

  1. The ternary system U(VI) / humic acid / Opalinus Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Claudia

    2013-07-23

    The storage of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is discussed worldwide as the main strategy for nuclear waste management. To ensure the confinement of the nuclear waste, a multiple barrier system which consists of engineered, geo-engineered, and geological barriers will be applied. Thereby, in Germany the definition of the isolating rock zone represents an important safety function indicator. Clay rock is internationally investigated as potential host rock for a repository and represents a part of the geological barrier. In the present work, the natural clay rock Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri rock laboratory, Switzerland, was studied. In Germany, the direct disposal of the spent nuclear fuel without the reprocessing of the spent fuel is preferred. In case of water ingress, radionuclides can be released from the nuclear waste repository into its surroundings, namely the host rock of the repository. Humic acids, ubiquitous in nature, can be found associated with the inorganic components in natural clay rock (1.5 x 10{sup -3} wt.% in Opalinus Clay). They can be released under certain conditions. Due to their variety of functional groups, humic acids are very strong complexing agents for metal ions. They have inherent redox abilities and a colloidal conformation in solution. Because of these characteristics, humic acids can affect the mobility of metal ions such as actinides. Furthermore, in the near-field of a repository elevated temperatures have to be considered due to the heat production resulting from the radioactive decay of the various radionuclides in the nuclear waste. This work focuses on the interaction of uranium, as main component of spent nuclear fuel, with Opalinus Clay and studies the influence of humic acid and elevated temperature on this interaction. Thus, the collected sorption and diffusion data are not only relevant for safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories but also for any clay-containing system present in the environment

  2. A pillararene-based ternary drug-delivery system with photocontrolled anticancer drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guocan; Yu, Wei; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou; Huang, Feihe

    2015-02-25

    A novel ternary drug delivery system (DDS) is constructed using a photodegradable anticancer prodrug (Py-Cbl), a water-soluble pillararene supramolecular container (WP6), and the diblock copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)114 -block-poly(L -lysine hydrochloride)200. This DDS successfully addresses three important issues: enhancement of the water solubility of the anticancer prodrug; controlled release of the anticancer drug; accurate and quantitative measurement of the drug release. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. True ternary fission and quasifission of superheavy nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner Walter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We found that a true ternary fission with formation of a heavy third fragment (a new kind of radioactivity is quite possible for superheavy nuclei due to the strong shell effects leading to a three-body clusterization with the two doubly magic tin-like cores. The three-body quasifission process could be even more pronounced for giant nuclear systems formed in collisions of heavy actinide nuclei. In this case a three-body clusterization might be proved experimentally by detection of two coincident lead-like fragments in low-energy U+U collisions.

  4. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  5. Experimental investigation and thermodynamic assessment of phase equilibria in the Nb–Si–Zr ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Guo, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yang, S.Y.; Shi, Z.; Wang, C.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, X.J., E-mail: lxj@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • The sections of Nb–Si–Zr system at 1373, 1473 and 1573 K were determined. • Large solubilities of Nb in αZr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}Si phases were observed. • The thermodynamic assessment of Nb–Si–Zr ternary system was carried out. - Abstract: In this study, the phase equilibria of Nb–Si–Zr at 1373 K, 1473 K and 1573 K were experimentally determined by means of back-scattered electron (BSE), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that there were five three-phase regions and sixteen two-phase regions in the studied isothermal sections, and no any ternary compounds were found. The solubility of Si in the Nb–Zr side is very small. Large solubilities of Nb in αZr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}Si phases were observed, otherwise the solubilities of Nb in ZrSi{sub 2}, αZrSi and Zr{sub 3}Si phases are relatively small. Based on the present experimental results, the thermodynamic assessment of Nb–Si–Zr system was carried out using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method. The current calculated phase diagrams are in reasonable agreement with the present experimental data.

  6. Liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary system thiophene + octane + dimethyl sulfoxide at several temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Hou, Kaihu; Mi, Guanjie; Chen, Na

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data of the ternary system thiophene + octane + dimethyl sulfoxide at 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, and 60 degrees C under atmospheric pressure were determined using an equilibrium cell with the standard curve method. The distribution of thiophene between extract and raffinate was measured and a practical formula of equilibria data for industrial extraction was proposed. NRTL model and UNIQUAC model were used to correlate and calculate LLE data of the system, and model parameters were determined using the simplex optimization method and imitative Newton method with a minimized objective function of mole fraction deviation. The rule of thermodynamic equilibria was used to deal with multi-roots problem in correlating process. Agreement between predicted and experimental data was satisfactory. The average absolute deviations of the NRTL and UNIQUAC models of thiophene mass fraction were 0.0040 and 0.0078, respectively. Both NRTL and UNIQUAC models were suitable for the calculation of LLE data of the ternary system thiophene + octane + dimethyl sulfoxide. The correlation accuracy of NRTL model is inferior to that of UNIQUAC model.

  7. Tuning of "antenna effect" of Eu(III) in ternary systems in aqueous medium through binding with protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Saha Sardar, Pinki; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2013-02-04

    A simple ternary system containing a protein [human serum albumin (HSA)/bovine serum albumin (BSA)], tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), and Eu(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 7.2) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect" compared to the binary complex of TC with Eu(III) (Eu(3)TC). The ternary system containing E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), TC, and Eu(III), however, shows a slight enhancement of Eu(III) emission, although the binding constant of AP with TC is 2 orders of magnitude greater than with BSA/HSA. The enhanced emission of bound TC in the binary systems containing proteins and TC gets quenched in the ternary systems containing HSA/BSA, showing the efficient energy transfer (ET) from TC to Eu(III). Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in all the ternary systems in H(2)O and in D(2)O medium reveal that Eu(III) is very well protected from the O-H oscillator in the ternary system containing HSA/BSA compared to that containing AP. The docking studies locating the binding site of TC in the proteins suggest that TC binds near the surface of AP. In the case of HSA/BSA, TC resides in the interior of the protein resulting in a large shielding effect of Eu(III). The rotational correlation time (θ(c)) determined from the anisotropy decay of bound TC in the complexes and the accessible surface area (ASA) of the ligand in the complexes obtained from the docking studies also support the contention that Eu(3)TC is more exposed to solvent in the case of the ternary system consisting of AP, TC, and Eu(III). The calculated radiative lifetime and the sensitization efficiency ratio of Eu(III) in all the systems clearly demonstrate the protein mediated tuning of "antenna effect" in Eu(III).

  8. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  9. Theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of unusual ternary ordered semiconductor compounds in Sr-Pb-S system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shiqiang; Zhao, Li-Dong; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Dravid, Vinayak P; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Wolverton, Christopher M

    2014-01-29

    We examine the thermodynamics of phase separation and ordering in the ternary Ca(x)Pb(1-x)S and Sr(x)Pb(1-x)S systems by density-functional theory combined with a cluster expansion and Monte Carlo simulations. Similar to most other ternary III-V or IV-VI semiconductor alloys, we find that bulk phase separation is thermodynamically preferred for PbS-CaS. However, we predict the surprising existence of stable, ordered ternary compounds in the PbS-SrS system. These phases are previously unreported ordered rocksalt-based compounds: SrPb3S4, SrPbS2, and Sr3PbS4. The stability of these predicted ordered phases is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy observations and band gap measurements. We believe this work paves the way for a combined theory-experiment approach to decipher complex phase relations in multicomponent chalcogenide systems.

  10. Synergistic Action of a Ternary System of Portland Cement - Limestone - Silica Fume in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, J.; Jozić, D.; Krpan-Lisica, D.

    Some experimental investigations on a synergistic action when a ternary system of Portland cement - silica fume - limestone is used in mortar or concrete are present in this paper. Standard laboratory tests with respect to the pore size distribution, micromorphology, compressive strength and sulphate resistance in both sodium and magnesium sulphate solutions were performed on mortars made with 70% (by mass) of Portland cement (PC), type CEM II/B-S and 30% of cement replacement materials consisted of various combination of fine ground limestone filler (LF) and silica fume (SF). In addition to these ternary systems, binary blends, such as: PC-LF, as well as PC-SF, along with 100 % PC mortars, were investigated for comparison. It is found that SF-blends reach higher compressive strengths than LF-blends for the same replacement of cement. When SF was added together with LF, the mortars show considerable increase in the compressive strength and show a lower expansion than a control, sulphate-resisting mortar, independent of the type of sulphate solutions, due to pore size refinement microstructure of mortars.

  11. Ternary system of dihydroartemisinin with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and lecithin: simultaneous enhancement of drug solubility and stability in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Haiyan; Gu, Jingkai; Guo, Tao; Yang, Shuo; Guo, Zhen; Zhang, Xueju; Zhu, Weifeng; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously improve the solubility and stability of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in aqueous solutions by a ternary cyclodextrin system comprised of DHA, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and a third auxiliary substance. Solubility and phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing efficiency of HP-β-CD in association with various auxiliary substances. Then, the solid binary (DHA-HP-β-CD or DHA-lecithin) and ternary systems were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and power X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The effect of the ternary system on the solubility, dissolution and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions was also investigated. As a result, the soybean lecithin was found to be the most promising third component in terms of solubility enhancement. For the solid characterization, the disappearance of the drug crystallinity indicated the formation of new solid phases, implicating the formation of the ternary system. The dissolution rate of the solid ternary system was much faster than that of the drug alone and binary systems. Importantly, compared with binary systems, the ternary system showed a significant improvement in the stability of DHA in Hank's balanced salt solutions (pH 7.4). The solubility and stability of DHA in aqueous solutions were simultaneously enhanced by the ternary system, which might be attributed to the possible formation of a ternary complex. For the ternary interactions, results of molecular docking studies further indicated that the lecithin covered the top of the wide rim of HP-β-CD and surrounded around the peroxide bridging of DHA, providing the possibility for the ternary complex formation. In summary, the ternary system prepared in our study, with simultaneous enhancement of DHA solubility and stability in aqueous solutions, might have an important pharmaceutical potential in the development of a better

  12. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  13. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... We present the ternary fission of 252Cf and 236U within a three-cluster model as well as in a level density approach. The competition between collinear and equatorial geometry is studied by calculating the ternary fragmentation potential as a function of the angle between the lines joining the stationary ...

  14. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, we have studied the various aspects associated with the ternary fission process. A model, called the three-cluster model (TCM) [1–6] has been put forth. This accounts for the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the ...

  15. Experimental measurements of vapor-liquid equilibria of the H2O + CO2 + CH4 ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Duan, Zhenhao

    2008-01-01

    Reported are the experimental measurements on vapor-liquid equilibria in the H2O + CO2 + CH4 ternary system at temperatures from (324 to 375) K and pressures from (10 to 50) MPa. The results indicate that the CH4 solubility in the ternary mixture is about 10 % to 40 % more than that calculated by interpolation from the Henry's law constants of the binary system, H2O + CH4, and the solubility of CO2 is 6 % to 20 % more than what is calculated by the interpolation from the Henry's law constants of the binary mixture, H 2O + CO2. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Study on La–Mg based ternary system for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capurso, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.capurso@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Naik, Mehraj-ud-din; Lo Russo, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Saccone, Adriana; Gastaldo, Federica; De Negri, Serena [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Explorative study in the Mg-rich corner of the La–Pd–Mg ternary system. ► The studied alloys lay on the La{sub 2}(Mg{sub 1−x}Pd{sub x}){sub 17} compositional line. ► Higher Pd content results in lower H{sub 2} capacity, but higher equilibrium pressures. ► The highest absorbed hydrogen quantity is 4.8 wt% at 2 MPa and 310 °C. -- Abstract: An explorative study on the hydriding/dehydriding characteristics of the La{sub 2}(Mg,Pd){sub 17} ternary alloy, with different Pd content, is presented. All the samples were prepared by induction melting of the selected elements, characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, to detect present phases, and subsequently milled with a high-energy shaker apparatus. The hydrogen reaction kinetics and thermodynamics properties have been investigated by means of a volumetric Sievert’s apparatus. The measured H{sub 2} gravimetric capacity of the alloy varied with the Pd content, being the highest for the sample without Pd (>4.5 wt%). A possible correlation between the constituent phases individuated with microanalysis and the variation in the hydrogenation behaviour is proposed.

  18. Enhanced Dissolution of a Porous Carrier-Containing Ternary Amorphous Solid Dispersion System Prepared by a Hot Melt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masataka; Jermain, Scott V; Williams, Robert O

    2018-01-01

    The focus of our study was to employ a solvent-free, thermal process to evaluate the use of a porous carrier in a drug-polymer-porous carrier ternary formulation containing a high drug load (e.g., ≥50% w/w). The purpose of the study was to improve the dissolution properties of the biopharmaceutical classification system class II drug, indomethacin, in the ternary formulation. The effect that the selected polymer has on properties of the formulation was studied, and the formulation characteristics of hypromellose (AF15), copovidone (VA64), and polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer was evaluated to understand differences in dissolution rates and drug adsorption onto the porous carrier. The ternary formulations were manufactured using a thermal technique that relied on heating and mixing, without the necessity of mechanical shear. All thermally processed granules that employed the porous carrier exhibited immediate release compared with crystalline indomethacin and physical mixtures. In addition, the ternary formulations maintained supersaturation compared with the binary formulations without polymer. The results of this study indicated that the thermally processed ternary formulations containing a porous carrier demonstrated a much improved dissolution profile in nonsink conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase Behavior at High Pressure of the Ternary System: CO2, Ionic Liquid and Disperse Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Mazzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High pressure phase behavior experimental data have been measured for the systems carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] and carbon dioxide (CO2 + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] [PF6] + 1-amino-2-phenoxy-4-hydroxyanthraquinone (C.I. Disperse Red 60. Measurements were performed in the pressure up to 18 MPa and at the temperature (323 to 353 K. As reported in the literature, at higher concentrations of carbon dioxide the phase transition pressure increased very steeply. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems were correlated with good agreement using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The amount of water in phase behavior of the systems was evaluated.

  20. Discovery of a ternary pseudobrookite phase in the earth-abundant Ti-Zn-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H; Stevanovic, Vladan; Lim, Linda Y; Mason, Thomas O

    2016-01-28

    We combine theory with experiment in searching for "missing", stable materials within the Zn-Ti-O chemical system, leading to the discovery of a new pseudobrookite phase, ZnxTi3-xO5-δ. This ternary system was chosen for (1) technological relevance, (2) earth abundance, and (3) the fact that many compounds in this system are predicted from enthalpies of formation to be borderline stable, suggesting an important role of entropic contributions in their stabilization and making this chemical system a perfect test bed for exploring the limits of theoretical predictions. The initial set of exploratory experimental syntheses, via sintering in evacuated ampoules and quenching, resulted in a single phase ZnxTi3-xO5-δ composition with x ≈ 0.6 and an almost stoichiometric oxygen content, as evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The theoretically calculated lowest energy crystal structure for the closest stoichiometric ZnTi5O10 composition matched that measured experimentally by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (allowing for differences attributable to cation disorder). The measured broad optical absorption, n-type electrical conductivity, and stability in acidic media are comparable to those of other ternary pseudobrookites and Ti-O Magnéli phases, suggesting comparable applicability as a robust electrode or catalyst support in electrochemical devices or water remediation. However, the new phase decomposes upon heating in air as it oxidizes. The success of the present approach to identify a "missing material" in an earth-abundant and applications-rich system suggests that future efforts to experimentally realize and theoretically confirm missing materials in this and similar systems are warranted, both scientifically and technologically.

  1. Pre-scission configuration of the tri-nuclear system at spontaneous ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirov, A.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, BLTP, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Tashkhodjaev, R.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Inha University in Tashkent, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Oertzen, W. von [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet, Fachbereich Physik, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The potential energy surface for the pre-scission configurations of tri-nuclear systems formed in the spontaneous ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf is calculated. The fission channel {sup 70}Ni+{sup 50}Ca+{sup 132}Sn is chosen as one of the more probable channels of true ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf. A study of the collinear arrangement of the reaction products for true ternary fission is the aim of this work. The results are presented as a function of the relative distance R{sub 12} between the centres of mass of {sup 70}Ni and {sup 132}Sn and the distance from the centre of mass of {sup 50}Ca, which is perpendicular to R{sub 12}. The results show that only for a particular range of the R{sub 12} values the collinear tripartion of the fissioning nucleus occurs. (orig.)

  2. Phase relationships in the {Ho, Er}–Ni–Sn ternary systems at 673 K and crystal structure of new ternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, L., E-mail: romakal@franko.lviv.ua [Ivan Franko L’viv National University, Kyryl & Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 L’viv (Ukraine); Romaniv, I. [Ivan Franko L’viv National University, Kyryl & Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 L’viv (Ukraine); Romaka, V.V. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Pavlyuk, V. [Ivan Franko L’viv National University, Kyryl & Mephodiy Str. 6, 79005 L’viv (Ukraine)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ho–Ni–Sn and Er–Ni–Sn phase diagrams were constructed at 673 K. • Eight ternary compounds exist in both investigated systems. • HoNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 7 at.% Ni) and ErNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 5 at.% Ni) solid solutions were found. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Ho–Ni–Sn and Er–Ni–Sn ternary systems were studied at 673 K in the whole concentration range using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XPD). Each system is characterized by formation of eight ternary compounds at 673 K: Ho{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn (Ho{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Ga-type), Ho{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), HoNi{sub 5}Sn, ErNi{sub 5}Sn (CeCu{sub 4.38}In{sub 1.62}-type), HoNi{sub 1.73}Sn, ErNi{sub 1.72}Sn (YbNi{sub 1.705}Sn-type), HoNiSn, ErNiSn (TiNiSi-type), HoNiSn{sub 2}, ErNiSn{sub 2} (LuNiSn{sub 2}-type), HoNiSn{sub 4}, ErNiSn{sub 4} (LuNiSn{sub 4}-type), and Ho{sub 2}NiSn{sub 6}, Er{sub 2}NiSn{sub 6} (Lu{sub 2}NiSn{sub 6}-type). The interstitial solid solutions HoNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 7 at.% Ni) and ErNi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (up to 5 at.% Ni) based on the RSn{sub 2} (ZrSi{sub 2}-type) binary compounds were found.

  3. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarani, Babak [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gmehling, Juergen, E-mail: gmehling@tech.chem.uni-oldenburg.d [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. High-Pressure Phase Behavior of Polycaprolactone, Carbon Dioxide, and Dichloromethane Ternary Mixture Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, JungMin; Kim, Hwayong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hun Yong [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The high-pressure phase behavior of a polycaprolactone (Mw=56,145 g/mol, polydispersity 1.2), dichloromethane, and carbon dioxide ternary system was measured using a variable-volume view cell. The experimental temperatures and pressures ranged from 313.15 K to 353.15 K and up to 300 bar as functions of the CO{sub 2}/dichloromethane mass ratio and temperature, at poly(D-lactic acid) weight fractions of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%. The correlation results were obtained from the hybrid equation of state (Peng-Robinson equation of state + SAFT equation of state) for the CO{sub 2}-polymer system using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule. The three binary interaction parameters were optimized by the simplex method algorithm.

  5. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    in a very wide range of applications. However, those conditions, especially the levels of high pressure required at larger scale, involve certain equipment limitations. An alternative to overcome those restrictions is to use subcritical carbon dioxide. In order to understand the different systems......) of the ternary system HAc—H2O—CO2 at different subcritical conditions. A proposed computer model could be validated with experimental data, leading to a certain degree of adjustment due to specific factors, such as the binary interaction parameter kij, used in the model based on the Peng-Robinson EoS coupled...... it will be returned to the atmosphere (as part of the carbon cycle), CO2 is an inexpensive and clean source with numerous industrial applications in diverse fields: from chemical processes to biotechnological purposes [1]. Many of these studies have been focused on supercritical CO2, due to its broad potential uses...

  6. Novel siRNA delivery system using a ternary polymer complex with strong silencing effect and no cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Shiokawa, Yumi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Aki, Keisei; Nakagawa, Hiroo; Muro, Takahiro; Kitahara, Takashi; Higuchi, Norihide; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system using a ternary complex with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), which showed silencing effect and no cytotoxicity. The binary complexes of siRNA with PEI were approximately 73-102 nm in particle size and 45-52 mV in ζ-potential. The silencing effect of siRNA/PEI complexes increased with an increase of PEI, and siRNA/PEI complexes with a charge ratio greater than 16 showed significant luciferase knockdown in a mouse colon carcinoma cell line regularly expressing luciferase (Colon26/Luc cells). However, strong cytotoxicity and blood agglutination were observed in the siRNA/Lipofectamine complex and siRNA/PEI16 complex. Recharging cationic complexes with an anionic compound was reported to be a promising method for overcoming these toxicities. We therefore prepared ternary complexes of siRNA with PEI (charge ratio 16) by the addition of γ-PGA to reduce cytotoxicity and deliver siRNA. As expected, the cytotoxicity of the ternary complexes decreased with an increase of γ-PGA content, which decreased the ζ-potential of the complexes. A strong silencing effect comparable to siRNA/Lipofectamine complex was discovered in ternary complexes including γ-PGA with an anionic surface charge. The high incorporation of ternary complexes into Colon26/Luc cells was confirmed with fluorescence microcopy. Having achieved knockdown of an exogenously transfected gene, the ability of the complex to mediate knockdown of an endogenous housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), was assessed in B16-F10 cells. The ternary complex (siRNA/PEI16/γ-PGA12 complex) exhibited a significant GAPDH knockdown effect. Thus, we developed a useful siRNA delivery system.

  7. Solid-liquid equilibria for a pyrrolidinium-based common-cation ternary ionic liquid system, and for a pyridinium-based ternary reciprocal ionic liquid system: an experimental study and a thermodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirarabrazi, Meysam; Stolarska, Olga; Smiglak, Marcin; Robelin, Christian

    2017-12-20

    The present paper describes an experimental study and a thermodynamic model for the phase diagrams of the common-cation ternary system [C 4 MPyrr]Cl-[C 4 MPyrr]Br-[C 4 MPyrr]BF 4 (where [C 4 MPyrr] refers to 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium) and of the ternary reciprocal system [C 2 Py], [C 4 Py]‖Cl, Br (where [C n Py] refers to 1-alkyl-pyridinium). Phase equilibria were measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for two isoplethal sections in the common-cation pyrrolidinium-based ternary system. Phase diagram measurements were recently performed for the four common-ion binary subsystems and the two diagonal sections in the pyridinium-based ternary reciprocal system. In each case, the Modified Quasichemical Model was used to model the liquid solution, and the Compound Energy Formalism was used for the relevant solid solutions. For the ternary reciprocal system, the missing thermodynamic properties of the pure compounds were assessed using the Volume-based Thermodynamics (VBT) from Glasser and Jenkins, making it possible to estimate the exchange Gibbs free energy for the reaction [C 2 Py]Br (liquid) + [C 4 Py]Cl (liquid) = [C 2 Py]Cl (liquid) + [C 4 Py]Br (liquid). The experimental diagonal sections [C 4 Py]Br-[C 2 Py]Cl and [C 4 Py]Cl-[C 2 Py]Br were satisfactorily reproduced using solely the optimized model parameters for the four common-ion binary subsystems.

  8. On the Growth of Ternary System HNO3/H2SO4/H2O Aerosol Particles in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Patrick; Tabazadeh, A.; Kinne, S.; Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the growth of ternary solution (nitric acid, sulfuric acid and water) droplets in the stratosphere. The growth mechanism is hetero-molecular condensation in which the particle is assumed to be in equilibrium with environmental water vapor. Model results are in reasonable agreement with the averaged extinction ratio obtained by the SAM II satellite system.

  9. Liquid-liquid phase equilibria for ternary systems of several polyethers with NaCl and H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Staal, K.J.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid–liquid extraction using polymers followed by induced phase separation is a potential energy reducing technology for water–salt separation. Ternary equilibrium data have been determined and reported for the (block co)poly ethers–sodium chloride–water systems at two different temperatures at

  10. The use of Nile Red to monitor the aggregation behavior in ternary surfactant-water-organic solvent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, MCA; van de Pas, JC; Engberts, JBFN; Pas, John C. van de

    Ternary systems of surfactants, water and organic solvents were studied by monitoring the steady-state fluorescence of the versatile solvatochromic probe Nile Red. We found not only that Nile Red can be used throughout the whole isotropic regions in the phase diagram, but also that subtle changes in

  11. Linearized cloudpoint curve correlation for ternary systems consisting of one polymer, one solvent and one non-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    A linear correlation function is found for cloudpoint composition curves of ternary systems consisting of one polymer, one solvent and one non-solvent. The conditions for validity of this correlation function appear to be that the polymer is strongly incompatible with the non-solvent, and that only

  12. Data transmission is faster with ternary coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bruins, T

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a ternary data transmission system for an effective rate of up to 6 megabits per second over a 1-mile line of ordinary twisted- pair cable. The methods are discussed of implementing a ternary data transmission system. (0 refs).

  13. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan

    2015-09-05

    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. About the nanostructure of the ternary system water - [BMIm]PF6- TX-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Harun; Bürger, Matthias; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Porada, Jan H

    2016-12-15

    Many efforts have been made to formulate water-IL microemulsions. One of the most intensely studied systems is H 2 O - 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm]PF 6 ) - 4-octylphenol polyethoxylate (TX-100) and it is not questioned that this system forms microemulsions. The nanostructures observed for traditional microemulsions are postulated with the surfactant being adsorbed at the interface such that the hydrophilic EO sides intrude into the water domains, while the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains are immersed into [BMIm]PF 6 . However, the high polarity of [BMIm]PF 6 and the observation that [BMIm]PF 6 mixes well with oligoethylene oxides but hardly with non-polar solvents like toluene or alkanes are not in line with this picture. We re-studied the ternary system H 2 O - [BMIm]PF 6 - TX-100 by measuring phase diagrams, determining tie-lines, and carrying out ROESY NMR and PFG NMR measurements. We found that the hydrophobic part of the surfactant interacts neither with water nor with [BMIm]PF 6 , while both solvents interact with the hydrophilic part of the surfactant. We suggest that the surfactant is not adsorbed at the interface between water and the IL, but forms normal spherical or elongated micelles or even continuous aggregates with the hydrocarbon chains forming the interior of the aggregates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Computerised Calculus in the Prognosis of the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System Al-Cu-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina A. Cziple

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for establishing the mathematical functions of the liquidus and solidus curves, from the binary diagrams Al-Si, Si-Cu, Cu-Al and their use in the prognosis of the phase equilibrium diagram from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. We have studied the model of the non-ideal liquid solution of the regular type. The calculus and graphic plotting of the equations for the binary systems has been performed on the computer with the software programmes MathCad 2000 Professional, Statistica 5, Curve Expert, and for the ternary system Al-Cu-Si, with the 3D StudioMax software

  16. Direct solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy of standard chemicals and humic acid in ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, S; Nicolodelli, G; Redon, R; Milori, D M B P

    2017-04-15

    The front face fluorescence spectroscopy is often used to quantify chemicals in well-known matrices as it is a rapid and powerful technique, with no sample preparation. However it was not used to investigate extracted organic matter like humic substances. This work aims to fully investigate for the first time front face fluorescence spectroscopy response of a ternary system including boric acid, tryptophan and humic substances, and two binaries system containing quinine sulfate or humic substance in boric acid. Pure chemicals, boric acid, tryptophan, quinine sulfate and humic acid were mixed together in solid pellet at different contents from 0 to 100% in mass. The measurement of excitation emission matrix of fluorescence (3D fluorescence) and laser induced fluorescence were then done in the front face mode. Fluorescence matrices were decomposed using the CP/PARAFAC tools after scattering treatments. Results show that for 3D fluorescence there is no specific component for tryptophan and quinine sulfate, and that humic substances lead to a strong extinction effect for mixture containing quinine sulfate. Laser induced fluorescence gives a very good but non-specific related response for both quinine sulfate and tryptophan. No humic substances fluorescence response was found, but extinction effect is observed as for 3D fluorescence. This effect is stronger for quinine sulfate than for tryptophan. These responses were modeled using a simple absorbance versus emission model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct solid surface fluorescence spectroscopy of standard chemicals and humic acid in ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, S.; Nicolodelli, G.; Redon, R.; Milori, D. M. B. P.

    2017-04-01

    The front face fluorescence spectroscopy is often used to quantify chemicals in well-known matrices as it is a rapid and powerful technique, with no sample preparation. However it was not used to investigate extracted organic matter like humic substances. This work aims to fully investigate for the first time front face fluorescence spectroscopy response of a ternary system including boric acid, tryptophan and humic substances, and two binaries system containing quinine sulfate or humic substance in boric acid. Pure chemicals, boric acid, tryptophan, quinine sulfate and humic acid were mixed together in solid pellet at different contents from 0 to 100% in mass. The measurement of excitation emission matrix of fluorescence (3D fluorescence) and laser induced fluorescence were then done in the front face mode. Fluorescence matrices were decomposed using the CP/PARAFAC tools after scattering treatments. Results show that for 3D fluorescence there is no specific component for tryptophan and quinine sulfate, and that humic substances lead to a strong extinction effect for mixture containing quinine sulfate. Laser induced fluorescence gives a very good but non-specific related response for both quinine sulfate and tryptophan. No humic substances fluorescence response was found, but extinction effect is observed as for 3D fluorescence. This effect is stronger for quinine sulfate than for tryptophan. These responses were modeled using a simple absorbance versus emission model.

  18. Structural, mechanical and electrical properties of alloys in ternary Ag-Bi-Zn system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minic, Duško M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, mechanical and electrical properties of selected alloys in ternary Ag-Bi-Zn system are presented in this paper. Chosen alloys were investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, light optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS, as well as by electrical conductivity and Brinell hardness measurements. Isolines of electrical conductivity and hardness for the entire Ag-Bi-Zn system were calculated using regression models.Este trabajo estudia las propiedades estructurales, mecánicas y eléctricas de aleaciones seleccionadas del sistema ternario Ag-Bi-Zn. Las aleaciones elegidas se han caracterizado por medio de difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica, microscopía electrónica de barrido combinada con espectrometría de dispersión de energía, así como por medio de medidas de conductividad eléctrica y dureza Brinell. Por medio de modelos de regresión se han calculado las líneas de isoconductividad eléctrica y dureza para todo el sistema Ag-Bi-Zn.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photoluminescent properties of ternary Cd(II)/triazolate/chloride system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gang; Shen, Yu-Feng; Li, Yong-Ru; Huang, Xiao-Chun

    2010-10-18

    Solvothermal reactions of cadmium chloride and 1,2,4-triazole (Htrz) in different solvent mediums have successfully synthesized five ternary Cd(II)/trz/Cl(-) complexes, [Cd(trz)Cl]·H(2)O (1·H(2)O), [Cd(4)(trz)(5)Cl(3)(H(2)O)]·(THF)(1.25)·(H(2)O)(2.5) (2·1.25THF·2.5H(2)O), [Cd(3)(trz)(2)Cl(MeCN)] (3), [Cd(3)(trz)(4)Cl(2)]·(H(2)O)(0.5) (4·0.5H(2)O), and [Cd(4)(trz)(6)Cl(2)(H(2)O)(0.5)]·(H(2)O)(3.5) (5·3.5H(2)O). All of these five coordination polymers have three-dimensional (3-D) structural features, which are constructed by distinct substructures including clusters, chains, rings, and even 3-D frameworks. In all cases, 1,2,4-triazolate adopts a μ(1,2,4) bridging mode, and chloride ions display a μ(2), μ(3), μ(4) bridging mode, respectively, which makes the structural diversity in the assembling system, for example, μ(4)-Cl and cadmium triazolate, build up an unprecedented tetranuclear cluster [Cd(4)(trz)(8)Cl](-) in 2. All of the materials exhibit intense blue fluorescent emission and high thermal stability, wherein 1 presents an interesting guest-responsive photoluminescent property.

  20. Structural, microrheological and kinetic properties of a ternary silica-Pluronic F127-starch thermosensitive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Olsson, Yana; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Ullsten, Henrik; Järnström, Lars

    2018-03-15

    The sol-gel transition in aqueous suspensions consisting of silica particles and thermosensitive polymer is controlled by inter-particle forces and solution properties of the polymer. Addition of a second non-thermosensitive polymer may affect the transition. The purpose of this work was to characterize the kinetics of the sol-gel transition and to understand the effects of a second non-thermosensitive polymer on the microstructure, using a combination of classical rheology and microrheology. Classical rotational rheology as well as two microrheology methods, Multiple Particle Tracking (MPT) and Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS), were used to investigate the sol-gel transition of a ternary silica-Pluronic F127-starch thermosensitive system. Classical rheometry and DWS indicated sol-gel transition temperature ∼25 °C at 1 wt% Pluronic, independently of the concentration of the other components. DWS showed a fast gelation process, less than two minutes for all samples, beside a second slow kinetic process. In the gel state, MPT indicated micro-structural and micro-viscoelastic differences compared to rotational rheology. This was explained by formation of an elastic matrix of silica and polymers in combination with assembly of silica particles in large macroporous agglomerates. Presence of starch led to breakdown of the macroporous network, leaving the homogeneous elastic network left. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thin films in ternary Bi-Mn-O system obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, E. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)], E-mail: eric.langenberg@ub.edu; Varela, M.; Garcia-Cuenca, M.V.; Ferrater, C. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Sanchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain)

    2007-11-25

    We have explored the influence of deposition temperature and the deposition rate on the growth of the ternary Bi-Mn-O system onto (0 0 1) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The studies were performed with a fixed oxygen pressure of 10 Pa (0.1 mbar) and substrate temperatures between 600 and 680 deg. C. The films were obtained from non-stoichiometric targets with 10 and 15% Bi excess in order to compensate for Bi volatility. The fact that the compound is metastable together with the high volatility of Bi induces different Bi and Mn oxides apart from BiMnO{sub 3}. Stabilisation of epitaxial BiMnO{sub 3} is therefore very elusive and only in a narrow temperature window around 630 deg. C the presence of spurious phases is reduced to traces. X-ray diffraction results reveal a correlation between the Bi-Mn-O compounds and the deposition temperature. Reciprocal space maps show that the BiMnO{sub 3} grows completely strained on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The unit cell has a reduced volume, which could be due to the presence of Bi vacancies. The surface of the films is rough, but they flatten when the films are obtained at lower deposition rates.

  2. Composition optimization and stability testing of a parenteral antifungal solution based on a ternary solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Kristóf; Antal, István; Stampf, György; Klebovich, Imre; Ludányi, Krisztina

    2010-03-01

    An intravenous solution is a dosage forms intended for administration into the bloodstream. This route is the most rapid and the most bioavailable method of getting drugs into systemic circulation, and therefore it is also the most liable to cause adverse effects. In order to reduce the possibility of side effects and to ensure adequate clinical dosage of the formulation, the primarily formulated composition should be optimized. It is also important that the composition should retain its therapeutic effectiveness and safety throughout the shelf-life of the product. This paper focuses on the optimization and stability testing of a parenteral solution containing miconazole and ketoconazole solubilized with a ternary solvent system as model drugs. Optimization of the solvent system was performed based on assessing the risk/benefit ratio of the composition and its properties upon dilution. Stability tests were conducted based on the EMEA (European Medicines Agency) "guideline on stability testing: stability testing of existing active substances and related finished products". Experiments show that both the amount of co-solvent and surface active agent of the solvent system could substantially be reduced, while still maintaining adequate solubilizing power. It is also shown that the choice of various containers affects the stability of the compositions. It was concluded that by assessing the risk/benefit ratio of solubilizing power versus toxicity, the concentration of excipients could be considerably decreased while still showing a powerful solubilizing effect. It was also shown that a pharmaceutically acceptable shelf-life could be assigned to the composition, indicating good long-term stability.

  3. Interaction of Zn(II) with hematite nanoparticles and microparticles: Part 2. ATR-FTIR and EXAFS study of the aqueous Zn(II)/oxalate/hematite ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-05-19

    Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.

  4. Cyclodextrin based ternary system of modafinil: Effect of trimethyl chitosan and polyvinylpyrrolidone as complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Agrawal, Y K; Sarvaiya, Jayrajsinh

    2016-03-01

    Modafinil is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and have a strong market presence in many countries. The drug is widely consumed for off-label uses and currently listed as a restricted drug. Modafinil has very low water solubility. To enhance the aqueous solubility of modafinil by the formation of a ternary complex with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and two hydrophilic polymers was the main objective of the present study. Pyrrolidone (PVP K30) and a water soluble chitosan derivative, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) were studied by solution state and solid state characterization methods for their discriminatory efficiency in solubility enhancement of modafinil. Phase solubility study depicted the highest complexation efficiency (2.22) of cyclodextrin derivative in the presence of TMC compared to the same in the presence of PVP K30 (0.08) and in the absence of any polymer (0.92). FT-IR analysis of binary and ternary complex expressed comparable contribution of both polymers in formation of inclusion complex. The thermal behaviour of binary and ternary complex, involving individual polymers disclosed the influence of TMC on polymorphism of the drug. DSC study revealed efficiency of TMC to prevent conversion of metastable polymorphic form to stable polymorphic form. Ternary complex, involving TMC enhanced water solubility of the drug 1.5 times more compared to the binary complex of the drug whereas PVP K30 reduced the Solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Computerised Calculus in the Prognosis of the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System Al-Cu-Si

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina A. Cziple

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a model for establishing the mathematical functions of the liquidus and solidus curves, from the binary diagrams Al-Si, Si-Cu, Cu-Al and their use in the prognosis of the phase equilibrium diagram from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. We have studied the model of the non-ideal liquid solution of the regular type. The calculus and graphic plotting of the equations for the binary systems has been performed on the computer with the software programmes MathC...

  6. Carbonation of ternary cementitious concrete systems containing fly ash and silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eehab Ahmed Badreldin Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonation is quite a complex physical negative effect phenomenon on concrete especially in the ones containing ternary blends of Portland Cement, fly ash, and silica fume. Nine selected concrete mixtures were prepared with various water to cementitious materials’ ratios and various cementitious contents. The concrete mixtures were adapted in such a way to have the same workability and air content. The fresh concrete properties were kept near identical in slump, air content, and unit weight. The variation was in the hardened concrete mechanical properties of compression and tension strength. The carbonation phenomenon was studied for these mixes showing at which mixes of ternary cementitious content heavy carbonation attacks maybe produced. The main components of such mixes that do affect the carbonation process with time were presented.

  7. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  8. Prediction of high-Tc conventional superconductivity in the ternary lithium borohydride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokail, Christian; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Boeri, Lilia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the superconducting ternary lithium borohydride phase diagram at pressures of 0 and 200 GPa using methods for evolutionary crystal structure prediction and linear-response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. Our calculations show that the ground state phase at ambient pressure, LiBH4, stays in the P n m a space group and remains a wide band-gap insulator at all pressures investigated. Other phases along the 1 :1 :x Li:B:H line are also insulating. However, a full search of the ternary phase diagram at 200 GPa revealed a metallic Li2BH6 phase, which is thermodynamically stable down to 100 GPa. This superhydride phase, crystallizing in a F m 3 ¯m space group, is characterized by sixfold hydrogen-coordinated boron atoms occupying the fcc sites of the unit cell. Due to strong hydrogen-boron bonding this phase displays a critical temperature of ˜100 K between 100 and 200 GPa. Our investigations confirm that ternary compounds used in hydrogen-storage applications should exhibit high-Tc conventional superconductivity in diamond anvil cell experiments, and suggest a viable route to optimize the superconducting behavior of high-pressure hydrides, exploiting metallic covalent bonds.

  9. Study of the ternary system Al-H-RE (RE = Er, La and Y) in liquid state

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent, Jocelyn; Joubert, Jean-Marc; Latroche, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is the only gas able to dissolve in aluminum. The solubility S of hydrogen in Al obeys the Sieverts’ law and S is much larger in the liquid phase (above 660.4°C) than in the solid one. This might lead to the formation of porosity during aluminum casting. In the present work, the ternary system Al-H-RE (RE= Er, La, Y) is investigated. The equilibria between the different phases are determined in the presence of liquid Al, RE and H2 gas by both experimental measurements and phase diagr...

  10. Competitive immobilization of Pb in an aqueous ternary-metals system by soluble phosphates with varying pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Ren, Jie; Wang, Mei; Song, Xinlai; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Jiayu; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-09-01

    Chemical immobilization by phosphates has been widely and successfully applied to treat Pb in wastewater and contaminated soils. Pb in wastewaters and soils, however, always coexists with other heavy metals and their competitive reactions with phosphates have not been quantitatively and systematically studied. In this approach, immobilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd by mono-, di-, and tripotassium phosphate (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, and K3PO4) was observed in the single- and ternary-metals solutions. The immobilization rates of the three metals were determined by the residual concentration. The mineral composition and structure of the precipitates were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that competitive reaction occurred in Pb-Zn-Cd ternary system, with immobilization rates decrease of system. The reaction of Pb with three phosphates exhibited intense competitiveness and the phosphates had a stronger affinity for Pb when Cl(-) was added. Pb-phosphate minerals formed by KH2PO4 with the better crystalline characteristics and largest size were very stable with a low dissolution rate (system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atomistic modeling to investigate the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the Ca-Mg-Ni ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Li, J H; An, S M; Li, S N; Liu, B X

    2017-05-17

    A realistic interatomic potential was first constructed for the Ca-Mg-Ni system and then applied to Monte Carlo simulations to predict the favored composition for metallic glass formation in the ternary system. The simulations not only predict a hexagonal composition region, within which the Ca-Mg-Ni metallic glass formation is energetically favored, but also pinpoint an optimized sub-region within which the amorphization driving force, i.e. the energy difference between the solid solution and disordered phase, is larger than that outside. The simulations further reveal that the physical origin of glass formation is the solid solution collapsing when the solute atom exceeds the critical solid solubility. Further structural analysis indicates that the pentagonal bi-pyramids dominate in the optimized sub-region. The large atomic size difference between Ca, Mg and Ni extends the short-range landscape and facilitates the development of a hybridized packing model in the medium-range, and eventually enhancing the glass formation in the system. The predictions are well supported by the experimental observations reported so far, and could be of help for designing the ternary glass formation.

  12. Binary and Ternary Catalytic Systems for Olefin Metathesis Based on MoCl5/SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Victor I.; Belyaev, Boris A.; Butenko, Tamara A.; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh.

    Kinetics of α-olefin metathesis in the presence of binary (MoCl5/ SiO2-Me4Sn) and ternary catalytic systems (MoCl5/SiO2-Me4Sn-ECl4, E = Si or Ge) was studied. Specifically, kinetics and reactivity of 1-decene, 1-octene, and 1-hexene in the metathesis reaction at 27°C and 50°C in the presence of MoCl5/ SiO2-SnMe4 were examined and evaluated in detail. It was shown that experimental data comply well with the simple kinetic equation for the rate of formation of symmetrical olefins with allowance for the reverse reaction and catalyst deactivation: r = left( {k_1 \\cdot c_α - k_{ - 1} \\cdot c_s } right) \\cdot e^{ - k_d \\cdot tilde n_{tot} } . The coefficients for this equation were determined, and it was shown that these α-olefins had practically the same reactivity. It was found that reactivation in the course of metathesis took place due to the addition of a third component (silicon tetrachloride or germanium tetrachloride in combination with tetramethyltin) to a partially deactivated catalyst. The number of active centers was determined (5-6% of the amount of Mo) and the mechanisms of formation, deactivation, and reactivation were proposed for the binary and ternary catalytic systems. The role of individual components of the catalytic systems was revealed.

  13. Phase relations and crystal structures in the ternary systems Sr-{Ag, Au}-{Si, Ge}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiringer, Isolde [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Grytsiv, Andriy [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Thermoelectric Research, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, Ernst [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Thermoelectric Research, Vienna (Austria); Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse14, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Rogl, Peter [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 42, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Thermoelectric Research, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    Phase equilibria in the isothermal sections of the ternary systems Sr-{Ag, Au}-{Si, Ge} were determined in the (Si) or (Ge) rich part up to 33.3 at % Sr after annealing at 700 C (Sr-{Ag, Au}-Ge) or 800 C (Sr-{Ag, Au}-Si). Tentative liquidus projections were constructed for the Si, Ge-rich part of all the four phase diagrams. These systems are characterized by a series of ternary compounds, exhibiting in some cases extended homogeneity regions at a constant Sr content. Compounds in the Si, Ge-rich region essentially form along two sections: at 33.3 at % Sr (AlB{sub 2}-family) and at 20 at % Sr (BaAl{sub 4}-family of structure types). The crystal structures of the novel equilibrium phases were derived by X-ray single crystal diffraction: Sr{sub 2}Ag{sub 1+x}Si{sub 3-x-y}□{sub y} [Sr{sub 2}LiSi{sub 3} type; x = 0.17, y = 0.43: a = 8.4488(2), b = 14.6376(2), c = 18.4018(2) Aa], SrAg{sub 2-x}Si{sub 2+x} [ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} type; x = 0.1: a = 4.37664(6), c = 10.4517(2) Aa], Sr(Au{sub 1-y}□{sub y})(Si{sub 1-x}Au{sub x}){sub 3} [BaNiSn{sub 3} type; x = 0.59, y = 0.64: a = 4.4594(2), c = 10.1013(6) Aa] and SrAu{sub 5-x}□{sub x}Si{sub 2} [BaAu{sub 5}Si{sub 2} type; x = 0.7: a = 8.7557(3), b = 6.9945(2), c = 9.8873(3) Aa]. The crystal structures of Sr(Ag{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 2} [AlB{sub 2} type; x = 0.25: a = 4.3431(2), c = 4.5938(1) Aa], SrAg{sub 2-x}Ge{sub 2+x} [ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} type; x = 0.2: a = 4.4476(2), c = 10.822(1) Aa] and Sr(Au{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 2} [AlB{sub 2} type; x = 0.25: a = 4.3263(2), c = 4.5852(7) Aa] were evaluated by X-ray powder Rietveld analysis. Composition dependent polymorphism was observed among the BaAl{sub 4}-type derivative structures for SrAu{sub 2-x}Ge{sub 2+x}: CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} type [x = 0.45: a = 4.4796(2), c = 10.6315(5) Aa], BaCu{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} type [x = 0.35: a = 4.4866(2), c = 31.808(1) Aa] and ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} type [x = 0.2: a = 4.5214(4), c = 10.336(1) Aa]. Similarly, Sr(Au{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}){sub 2} exhibits

  14. Ternary diagram of extract proteins / solvent systems: Sesame, soybean and lupine proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed, S. S.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction as a method of extracting protein from oilseed meals offers the advantage of higher efficiency. Unfortunately, the published literature points to the gap in the work concerned with the necessary equilibrium diagram to design due process equipment for such extracts. Initiated by this lack of basic knowledge, the present study has been undertaken to provide the equilibrium data for three different ternary systems, namely: sesame protein / sodium hydroxide solution system, soybean protein / sodium hydroxide solution system and lupine protein / sodium hydroxide solution system. These oilseed meals were selected because of their high protein content (53.4 %, 46.2 % and 42.3 % protein, respectively. The study also concentrated on the evaluation of the major parameters affecting the extraction process, i.e. the normality of the sodium hydroxide solution used as extracting solvent and the initial oilseed solvent to meal feeding ratio. The results obtained indicate that the best normality of sodium hydroxide solution used for extracting soybean and lupine protein is 0.02N, while 0.04N solution is required for extracting sesame protein. Also, operating at a liquid to solid feed ratio of 30:1 and 50:1 for soybean, sesame and lupine, respectively, is enough to reach a high protein extract. Correlations were presented for each locus of under flow compositions, graphically acquired, and the data are compared with those calculated by analytical solutions.La extracción con disolventes es un método de extracción de proteínas de las harinas de semillas oleaginosas que ofrece la ventaja de su elevada eficacia. Desafortunadamente, la bibliografía coincide en el vacío existente con respecto a los diagramas de equilibrio necesarios para el diseño de los equipos adecuados. Debido a esta falta de conocimientos, el presente estudio se ha llevado a cabo para obtener datos de tres sistemas ternarios: sistema proteína de sésamo / disolución de

  15. Calculation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system of a polymer in a mixture of a solvent and a nonsolvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Frank W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of the binodal of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system is described. The Flory-Huggins theory for three-component systems is used. Binodals are calculated for polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems which are used in the preparation of asymmetric

  16. Preparation, Structural, Electrical, and Ferroelectric Properties of Lead Niobate–Lead Zirconate–Lead Titanate Ternary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A ternary system of lead niobate–lead zirconate–lead titanate with composition xPN–yPZ–(x-yPT where x=0.5 and y=0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 known as PNZT has been prepared by conventional mixed oxide route at a temperature of 1100°C. The formation of the perovskite phase was established by X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of fairly dense grains and elemental composition was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Dielectric properties like dielectric constant and dielectric loss (ε′ and tan⁡δ indicate poly-dispersive nature of the material. The temperature dependent dielectric constant (ε′ curve indicates relaxor behaviour with two dielectric anomalies. The poly-dispersive nature of the material was analysed by Cole-Cole plots. The activation energy follows the Arrhenius law and is found to decrease with increasing frequency for each composition. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity follows the universal power law. The ac conductivity analysis suggests that hopping of charge carriers among the localized sites is responsible for electrical conduction. The ferroelectric studies reveal that these ternary systems are soft ferroelectric.

  17. Phase equilibrium properties of binary and ternary systems containing di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene at 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamanan, Rosa M. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: rvillama@dce.uva.es; Martin, M. Carmen [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: mcmg@eis.uva.es; Chamorro, Cesar R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: miguel.villamanan@eis.uva.es; Segovia, Jose J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: josseg@eis.uva.es

    2006-05-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibria data of (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene) (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol) and (1-butanol + benzene) have been measured at T = 313.15 K using an isothermal total pressure cell. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for the excess molar Gibbs energy using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary. The Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems reported here.

  18. Thermophysical properties for (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteiro, L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Casas, L.M., E-mail: lmcasas@uvigo.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Curras, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Mariano, A.B. [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Comahue, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Legido, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Thermophysical properties of (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) were measured. > Excess molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities were determined and correlated. > Ternary surface tension deviations were correlated using Cibulka equation. > Intermolecular interactions based on the derived properties trend were discussed. - Abstract: The density and speed of sound of the ternary mixture (diethyl carbonate + p-xylene + octane) have been measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range T = (288.15 to 308.15) K. Besides, surface tension has been also determined for the same mixture at T = 298.15 K. The experimental measurements have allowed the calculation of the corresponding derived properties: excess molar volumes, excess isentropic compressibilities, and surface tension deviations. Excess properties have been correlated using Nagata and Tamura equation and correlation for the surface tension deviation has been done with the Cibulka equation. Good accuracy has been obtained. Based on the variations of the derived properties values with composition, a qualitative discussion about the intermolecular interactions was drawn.

  19. Ternary Oxides in the TiO2-ZnO System as Efficient Electron-Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency over 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiong; Xu, Zhongzhong; Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Peng; He, Meng

    2016-11-02

    Perovskite solar cells, which utilize organometal-halide perovskites as light-harvesting materials, have attracted great attention due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and potentially low cost in fabrication. A compact layer of TiO 2 or ZnO is generally applied as electron-transport layer (ETL) in a typical perovskite solar cell. In this study, we explored ternary oxides in the TiO 2 -ZnO system to find new materials for the ETL. Compact layers of titanium zinc oxides were readily prepared on the conducting substrate via spray pyrolysis method. The optical band gap, valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the ternary oxides varied significantly with the ratio of Ti to Zn, surprisingly, in a nonmonotonic way. When a zinc-rich ternary oxide was applied as ETL for the device, a PCE of 15.10% was achieved, comparable to that of the device using conventional TiO 2 ETL. Interestingly, the perovskite layer deposited on the zinc-rich ternary oxide is stable, in sharp contrast with that fabricated on a ZnO layer, which will turn into PbI 2 readily when heated. These results indicate that potentially new materials with better performance can be found for ETL of perovskite solar cells in ternary oxides, which deserve more exploration.

  20. Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling of 1-Propanethiol+1-Butanethiol + CH4 in Methane Ternary System at 303, 336, and 368 K and Pressure Up to 9 MPa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Javeed A.; Coquelet, Christophe; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    New vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for 1-propanethiol + 1-butanethiol + CH4 ternary system is reported. Measurements were performed at three different temperatures (303, 336, and 368 K), and the pressure ranged from 1 to 9 MPa. The total system pressure was maintained by CH4. The inlet mole...

  1. Experimental data and thermodynamic modeling of ternary aqueous biphasic systems of EO/PO polymers–Na2SO4–H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Staal, K.J.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid–liquid extraction using thermoresponsive polymers as solvents in aqueous two phase systems followed by induced phase separation to recover the polymers is a potential technology for water–salt separations. Here we report for seven polymers on their ternary systems containing water, sodium

  2. System Cu-Rh-O: Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides CuRhO2 and CuRh204

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, KT; Uda, T.; Waseda, Y; Okabe, TH

    1999-01-01

    An isothermal section of the phase diagram for the system Cu-Rh-O at 1273 K has been established by equilibration of samples representing eighteen different compositions, and phase identification after quenching by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX). In addition to the binary oxides Cu2O, CuO, and Rh2O3, two ternary oxides CuRhO2 and CuRh2O4 were identified. Both the ternary oxides were in equilibrium with me...

  3. Ternary systems based on PVDF, BaTiO{sub 3} and MWCNTs: Fabrication, characterization, electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria [University of Rome “Niccolò Cusano”, RU INSTM, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi 3, 00166-Rome (Italy); Valentini, Manlio; Nanni, Francesca [University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Enterprise Engineering Department, RU INSTM-Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133-Rome (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this work, ternary bulk systems based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), synthesised barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}, BT) nanopowder and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated by film stacking technique, starting from solvent cast films. The main purpose was to investigate the influence of BT and MWCNTs addition to the polymeric matrix on its microstructural and dielectrical properties. In order to achieve it, different BT concentrations, ranging between the 60 and 75 %wt, were tested, whereas a MWCNTs content of 2 %wt was maintained constant. The morphology was studied by observation at scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the microstructure and crystalline phases investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and the electromagnetic properties measured in the microwave region (8-12 GHz). The electromagnetic response of the investigated bulk systems was also simulated as function of the sample thickness.

  4. Adsorption behavior of modified Iron stick yam skin with Polyethyleneimine as a potential biosorbent for the removal of anionic dyes in single and ternary systems at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bian, Wei; Li, Yun; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The skin of Iron stick yam (ISY) was modified with Polyethyleneimine (ISY@PEI) and evaluated for use as a potential biosorbent to remove the anionic dyes Sunset yellow (SY), Lemon yellow (LY), and Carmine (CM) from wastewater under low temperature conditions (5-15°C) in single and ternary dye systems. Both in the single and ternary systems, experimental data showed that adsorption capacity reached the highest value at 5°C, and adsorption capacity decreased when the temperature increased (10-50°C). The equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model and the extended Langmuir isotherm, for the single and ternary systems, respectively. The maximum adsorption capability was 138.92, 476.31, and 500.13mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a single system and 36.63, 303.31, and 294.12mg/g for LY, SY, and CM, respectively, in a ternary system. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that it was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction of the components in the Ce-Cu-Zn ternary system at 200deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlyuk, V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryl and Mefodiy str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Prochwicz, W. [Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Solokha, P. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryl and Mefodiy str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)]. E-mail: soloha_pavel@mail.ru; Zelinska, O. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyryl and Mefodiy str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Marciniak, B. [Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Rozycka-Sokolowska, E. [Jan Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Institute of Chemistry and Environmental Protection, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2006-01-05

    The isothermal section of the Ce-Cu-Zn phase diagram was constructed at 200 deg. C over the whole concentration range as a result of X-ray powder diffraction, wavelength dispersive spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis. The existence of one new ternary compound Ce{sub 2}Cu{sub 5-5.7}Zn{sub 2-1.3} was observed at this temperature and its crystal structure was refined from X-ray single crystal data (structure type Ce{sub 2}Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 2}, space group R3-bar m, Pearson code hR18, a=0.4998(1)-0.5078(1)nm, c=3.6924(5)-3.6987(4)nm). The homogeneity regions were determined for a number of solid solutions on the basis of binary phases.

  6. Ternary rhythm and the lapse constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenbaas, N.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ternary rhythmic systems differ from binary systems in stressing every third syllable in a word, rather than every second. Ternary rhythm is well-established for only a small group of languages, including Chugach Alutiiq, Cayuvava, and Estonian, and possibly Winnebago. Nevertheless the stress

  7. The Establishment, Plotting and Statistic– Mathematical Interpretation of the Liquidus Surface from the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System Al-Cu-Si

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina A. Cziple

    2006-01-01

    The paper forwards the conclusions of a survey performed on a mathematical model of the phase equilibrium from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. The author presents the calculus of the statistic equation of the liquidus surface model from this diagram, the plotting and statistical-mathematical interpretation of the results obtained.

  8. The Establishment, Plotting and Statistic– Mathematical Interpretation of the Liquidus Surface from the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the Ternary System Al-Cu-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina A. Cziple

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper forwards the conclusions of a survey performed on a mathematical model of the phase equilibrium from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. The author presents the calculus of the statistic equation of the liquidus surface model from this diagram, the plotting and statistical-mathematical interpretation of the results obtained.

  9. Phase Relations in Ternary Systems in the Subsolidus Region: Methods to Formulate Solid Solution Equations and to Find Particular Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Montan~o, Victor E.; Farías, Mario H.; Brown, Francisco; Mun~oz-Palma, Iliana C.; Cubillas, Fernando; Castillon-Barraza, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    A good understanding of ternary phase diagrams is required to advance and/or to reproduce experimental research in solid-state and materials chemistry. The aim of this paper is to describe the solutions to problems that appear when studying or determining ternary phase diagrams. A brief description of the principal features shown in phase diagrams…

  10. Hydrogen-bonding behavior of various conformations of the HNO3…(CH3OH)2ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Hasan; Uras-Aytemiz, Nevin; Balcı, F Mine

    2017-12-21

    Nine minima were found on the intermolecular potential energy surface for the ternary system HNO 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The cooperative effect, which is a measure of the hydrogen-bonding strength, was probed in these nine conformations of HNO 3 …(CH 3 OH) 2 . The results are discussed here in terms of structures, energetics, infrared vibrational frequencies, and topological parameters. The cooperative effect was observed to be an important contributor to the total interaction energies of the cyclic conformers of HNO 3 …(CH 3 OH) 2 , meaning that it cannot be neglected in simulations in which the pair-additive potential is applied. Graphical abstract The H-bonding behavior of various conformations of the HNO 3 (CH 3 OH) 2 trimer was investigated.

  11. Kinetic Phase Diagrams of Ternary Al-Cu-Li System during Rapid Solidification: A Phase-Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Lijun; Sobolev, Sergey; Du, Yong

    2018-02-08

    Kinetic phase diagrams in technical alloys at different solidification velocities during rapid solidification are of great importance for guiding the novel alloy preparation, but are usually absent due to extreme difficulty in performing experimental measurements. In this paper, a phase-field model with finite interface dissipation was employed to construct kinetic phase diagrams in the ternary Al-Cu-Li system for the first time. The time-elimination relaxation scheme was utilized. The solute trapping phenomenon during rapid solidification could be nicely described by the phase-field simulation, and the results obtained from the experiment measurement and/or the theoretical model were also well reproduced. Based on the predicted kinetic phase diagrams, it was found that with the increase of interface moving velocity and/or temperature, the gap between the liquidus and solidus gradually reduces, which illustrates the effect of solute trapping and tendency of diffusionless solidification.

  12. Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary systems sulfolane + octane + benzene, sulfolane + octane + toluene and sulfolane + octane + p-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kim, H. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-03-01

    Sulfolane is widely used as a solvent for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons. Ternary phase equilibrium data are essential for the proper understanding of the solvent extraction process. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the systems sulfolane + octane + benzene, sulfolane + octane + toluene and sulfolane + octane + p-xylene were determined at 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15 K. Tie line data were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method. The experimental data were compared with the values calculated by the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. Good quantitative agreement was obtained with these models. However, the calculated values based on the NRTL model were found to be better than those based on the UNIQUAC model.

  13. Prediction of thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and prediction of the thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by the polynomial equations are reviewed. Empirical equations of Radojković et al. (also known as Redlich-Kister, Kohler, Jacob-Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao-Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al. and Rastogi et al. are compared with experimental data of available papers appeared in well know international journals (Fluid Phase Equilibria, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, Journal of Solution Chemistry, Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Thermochimica Acta, etc.. The applicability of empirical models to estimate excess molar volumes, VE, excess viscosities, ηE, excess free energies of activation of a viscous flow,

  14. Combustion synthesis in the Ni-Al-Nb ternary system: A Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytschev, Alexander E.; Kovalev, Dmitry Yu.; Vrel, Dominique; Vadchenko, Sergey G.

    Combustion synthesis of intermetallics, using the thermal explosion mode, in the Ni-Al-Nb ternary system is presented, with a 40:40:20 atomic ratio. The kinetic pathway is determined using Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction, with a time-step resolution of 1 s and demonstrated a first formation of the B2 NiAl structure followed by progressive dissolution of Nb to yield NiAlNb intermetallic Laves phase, representing 35 w% of the final product. SEM observations show a double dendritic (coarse and fine) microstructure, resulting from eutectic crystallization. Due to a high cooling rate, Nb dissolution is not complete at the surface, and yields slightly more complex microstructure, including the Ni2AlNb Geissler phase, the (Ni,Al)2Nb Laves phase, and (Ni, Al)7Nb6.

  15. TbNb6Sn6: the first ternary compound from the rare earth–niobium–tin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hlukhyy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, terbium hexaniobium hexastannide, TbNb6Sn6, is the first ternary compound from the rare earth–niobium–tin system. It has the HfFe6Ge6 structure type, which can be analysed as an intergrowth of the Zr4Al3 and CaCu5 structures. All the atoms lie on special positions; their coordination geometries and site symmetries are: Tb (dodecahedron 6/mmm; Nb (distorted icosahedron 2mm; Sn (Frank–Caspar polyhedron, CN = 14–15 6mm and overline{6}m2; Sn (distorted icosahedron overline{6}m2. The structure contains a graphite-type Sn network, Kagome nets of Nb atoms, and Tb atoms alternating with Sn2 dumbbells in the channels.

  16. Liquid-liquid equilibrium measurement of ternary system containing β-caryophyllene in the water and 2-propanol mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrisyanda, Rizky; Kuswandi, Wibawa, Gede

    2017-01-01

    To obtain a high purity of clove oil, it is needed to separate β-caryophyllene from the oil mixtures.The separation of this component could be obtained by solvent extraction. In this work, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data were measured for the ternary system of water β-caryophyllene (1) + 2-propanol (2) + water (3) at temperature 303.15 K, 313.15 K and 323.15K under atmospheric pressure. The experimental LLE data were correlated with the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The reliability of these models is tested by comparison with experimental results. The varied temperatures studied in this work have significant influence to the two-phase area and the solubility of 2-propanol and β-caryophyllene in the aqueous phase.

  17. One-pot solvothermal preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity of metallic silver and graphene co-doped BiVO{sub 4} ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei; Wei, Yongge [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Guo, Wan [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Guo, Yihang, E-mail: guoyh@nenu.edu.cn [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Guo, Yingna [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We have obtained Ag/GR/BiVO{sub 4} ternary system by one-pot solvothermal route. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for 3%Ag/5%GR/BiVO{sub 4}. • Silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets doping clearly favor the photocarriers separation. • The Ag/GR/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst can be reused five times without obvious loss of the reactivity. - Abstract: A series of metallic silver and graphene (GR) co-doped monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} ternary systems (Ag/GR/BiVO{sub 4}) are demonstrated by a single-step solvothermal method. The phase and chemical structure, morphology, textural and optical absorption properties of the Ag/GR/BiVO{sub 4} ternary systems are well characterized, and then their simulated sunlight and visible-light photocatalytic activity were evaluated by the degradation of a typical dye pollutant, rhodamine B (RhB). For comparison, binary systems of Ag/BiVO{sub 4} and GR/BiVO{sub 4} as well as solitary BiVO{sub 4} are also tested under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers in the simulated sunlight-irradiating Ag/GR/BiVO{sub 4} ternary systems are studied by photoelectrochemistry experiments, and the active species generated during the process of photodegradation are investigated by free radical and hole scavenging experiments. On the basis of the above results, mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB over the Ag/GR/BiVO{sub 4} ternary system is revealed. Finally, the reusability of the catalyst was evaluated by five consecutive catalytic runs.

  18. Gold nanoparticles interacting with β-cyclodextrin-phenylethylamine inclusion complex: a ternary system for photothermal drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpe, Rodrigo; Lang, Erika; Jara, Paul; Guerrero, Ariel R; Chornik, Boris; Kogan, Marcelo J; Yutronic, Nicolás

    2015-07-22

    We report the synthesis of a 1:1 β-cyclodextrin-phenylethylamine (βCD-PhEA) inclusion complex (IC) and the adhesion of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto microcrystals of this complex, which forms a ternary system. The formation of the IC was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and NMR analyses ((1)H and ROESY). The stability constant of the IC (760 M(-1)) was determined using the phase solubility method. The adhesion of AuNPs was obtained using the magnetron sputtering technique, and the presence of AuNPs was confirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy (surface plasmon resonance effect), which showed an absorbance at 533 nm. The powder X-ray diffractograms of βCD-PhEA were similar to those of the crystals decorated with AuNPs. A comparison of the one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of the IC with and without AuNPs suggests partial displacement of the guest to the outside of the βCD due to attraction toward AuNPs, a characteristic tropism effect. The size, morphology, and distribution of the AuNPs were analyzed using TEM and SEM. The average size of the AuNPs was 14 nm. Changes in the IR and Raman spectra were attributed to the formation of the complex and to the specific interactions of this group with the AuNPs. Laser irradiation assays show that the ternary system βCD-PhEA-AuNPs in solution enables the release of the guest.

  19. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems containing glycols, aromatic hydrocarbons, and water: Experimental measurements and modeling with the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of four binary glycol + aromatic hydrocarbon systems and three ternary systems containing water have been measured at atmospheric pressure. The measured systems are monoethylene glycol (MEG) + benzene or toluene, triethylene glycol (TEG) + benzene or toluene, MEG...... + water + benzene, MEG + water + toluene, and TEG + water + toluene. The binary systems are correlated with the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state while the ternary systems are predicted from interaction parameters obtained from the binary systems. Very satisfactory liquid-liquid equilibrium...... correlations are obtained for the binary systems using temperature-independent interaction parameters, while adequate predictions are achieved for multicomponent water + glycol + aromatic hydrocarbons systems when accounting for the solvation between the aromatic hydrocarbons and glycols or water....

  20. Investigating the antagonistic action between aspirin and tamoxifen with HSA: identification of binding sites in binary and ternary drug-protein systems by spectroscopic and molecular modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgonabadi, Sanaz; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshid Khan

    2011-03-01

    The combination of several drugs is often necessary, especially during long-term therapy. A competitive binding of the drugs can cause a decrease of the amount of drugs actually bound to the protein and increase the biologically active fraction of the drug. The aim of this study has been to analyze the interactions of tamoxifen (TMX) and aspirin (ASA) with human serum albumin (HSA) and to evaluate the mechanism of a simultaneous binding of TMX and ASA to the protein. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the drugs on the protein fluorescence and to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes. The binding sites for TMX and ASA were identified in ternary structures of HSA by means of spectrofluroscence. The analysis of the fluorescence quenching of HSA in binary and ternary systems pointed at TMX and ASA having an effect on the HSA-ASA and HSA-TMX complexes. Furthermore, the results of synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering and circular dichroism of the binary and ternary systems showed that the binding of TMX and ASA to HSA could induce conformational changes in HSA. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of TMX and ASA during binding to HSA should be taken into account in multi-drug therapy, as it induces the necessity of a monitoring therapy owing to the possible increase of uncontrolled toxic effects. Competitive site marker experiments demonstrated that the binding site of ASA and TMX to HSA differed in the binary system as opposed to in its ternary counterpart. Finally, molecular modeling of the possible binding sites of TMX and ASA in binary and ternary systems to HSA confirmed the experimental results.

  1. The ternary Ho–V–Ga system at 750 °C, and new rare earth vanadium and chromium gallides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbovytskyy, Yuriy, E-mail: yuryvv@bigmir.net [Physico–Mechanical Institute, NAS of Ukraine, Naukova str. 5, 79601 Lviv (Ukraine); C" 2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695–066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2016-05-05

    The ternary Ho–V–Ga phase diagram has been investigated at 750 °C by means of powder X–ray diffraction analysis and energy–dispersive X–ray spectroscopy. The studied system is characterized by the absence of detectable solubility for the binary compounds and by the existence of two new ternary phases, HoV{sub 2}Ga{sub 4} (YbMo{sub 2}Al{sub 4} structure type) and Ho{sub 4}V{sub 1–x}Ga{sub 12} (0 ≤ x < 1, related to the AuCu{sub 3} structure type). Isostructural representatives REV{sub 2}Ga{sub 4} have been found for RE = Tb, Dy and Tm and confirmed for RE = Er. Additionally, the formation of the new RECr{sub 4}Ga{sub 8} phases (related to the ScFe{sub 6}Ga{sub 6} structure type) with RE = Gd–Tm has been revealed. Structural peculiarities and interactions of the atoms in the HoV{sub 2}Ga{sub 4} and HoCr{sub 4}Ga{sub 8} compounds have been briefly discussed. - Highlights: • Isothermal section of the Ho–V–Ga at 750 °C was investigated. • Five new REV{sub 2}Ga{sub 4} compounds with YbMo{sub 2}Al{sub 4} type were studied. • Six new RECr{sub 4}Ga{sub 8} phases with ScFe{sub 6}Ga{sub 6} type were discovered.

  2. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    pseudopotential to ternary metallic glasses involves the assumption of pseudoions with average properties, which are assumed to replace three types of ions in the ternary systems, and a gas of free electrons is assumed to perme- ate through them. The electron–pseudoion is accounted by the pseudopotential, and the ...

  3. Melting point equations for the ternary system water/sodium chloride/ethylene glycol revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, James D; Bagchi, Aniruddha; Han, Xu; Critser, John K; Woods, Erik J

    2010-12-01

    Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit our previous experiments by measuring melting points at five ethylene-glycol to sodium chloride ratios (R values; R=5, 10, 15, 30, and 45) and five levels of concentration for each ratio. Melting points were averaged from three measurements and plotted as a function of total solute concentration for each R value studied. The new measurements differed from our original experimental values and agreed with predicted values from both theoretical models. Additionally, the data were fit to the polynomial described in our previous report and the resulting equation was obtained: T(m) = (38.3-2.145 x 10⁻¹ R)w + (81.19 - 2.909×10⁻¹ R)w², where w is the total solute mass fraction. This new equation provided good fits to the experimental data as well as published values and relates the determined polynomial constants to the R value of the corresponding isopleths of the three dimensional phase diagram, allowing the liquids curve for any R value to be obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of phase separation in ternary alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ternary systems; Cahn–Hilliard equations; spinodal decomposition. Abstract. We have studied the evolution of microstructure when a disordered ternary alloy is quenched into a ternary miscibility gap. We have used computer simulations based on multicomponent Cahn–Hilliard (CH) equations for A and B, ...

  5. Isothermal section of the phase diagram and crystal structures of the compounds in the ternary system Tm-Cu-Sb at 870 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyna, L. O.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Mykhalichko, V. M.; Shpyrka, Z. M.; Fedyna, M. F.

    2017-07-01

    The isothermal section of the Tm-Cu-Sb phase diagram at 870 K was constructed using X-ray phase analysis. The existence of one ternary compound was confirmed - TmCu1-xGe2 (x = 0.109) (structure type HfCuSi2, space group P4/nmm, Pearson code tP8-0.22, a = 4.24170(2), c = 9.73942(9) Å). New ternary copper antimonides Tm3Cu20+xSb11-x (x = 2) (structure type Dy3Cu20+xSb11-x, space group F-43 m, Pearson code cF272, a = 16.55784(4) Å) and TmCu4-xSb2 (x = 1.065) (structure type ErFe4Ge2 (LTM), space group Pnnm, Pearson code oP14-2.13, a = 7.00565(6), b = 7.83582(6), c = 4.25051(3) Å) were found. The crystal structures of compounds were refined by full-profile Rietveld method using X-ray powder diffraction data. The solubility of the third component in all binary phases was found to be negligible. The crystal structures of known ternary antimonides were analyzed and relationship among the crystal structures of compounds in the ternary system Tm-Cu-Sb was illustrated.

  6. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of (diethyl carbonate + ethanol or 1-propanol + water) systems at 303.15 K under atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Rizqy Romadhona; Mustain, Asalil; Gunardi, Ignatius; Wibawa, Gede

    2017-01-01

    Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria data of diethyl carbonate (DEC) + ethanol or 1-propanol + water systems were accurately determined at 303.15 K using jacketed equilibrium cell under atmospheric pressure. The reliability of experimental tie-line data were checked by using Bachman-Brown correlation giving an r-squared value of 0.9933 and 0.9996, respectively. Both systems studied in this work exhibit Treybal's Type I ternary phase behavior. The experimental tie-line data were correlated well using the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models giving root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 0.95 and 1.18% for DEC + ethanol + water system.,While DEC + 1-propanol + water system gives RMSD value of 0.30 and 0.37%, respectively. The effect of carbon chain length of alcohol to the phase boundary of both systems was observed and discussed in detail.

  7. Spectroscopic evidence for ternary surface complexes in the lead(II)-malonic acid-hematite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, J.J.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements, we examined the sorption of Pb(II) to hematite in the presence of malonic acid. Pb LIII-edge EXAFS measurements performed in the presence of malonate indicate the presence of both Fe and C neighbors, suggesting that a major fraction of surface-bound malonate is bonded to adsorbed Pb(II). In the absence of Pb(II), ATR-FTIR measurements of sorbed malonate suggest the formation of more than one malonate surface complex. The dissimilarity of the IR spectrum of malonate sorbed on hematite to those for aqueous malonate suggest at least one of the sorbed malonate species is directly coordinated to surface Fe atoms in an inner-sphere mode. In the presence of Pb, little change is seen in the IR spectrum for sorbed malonate, indicating that geometry of malonate as it coordinates to sorbed Pb(II) adions is similar to the geometry of malonate as it coordinates to Fe in the hematite surface. Fits of the raw EXAFS spectra collected from pH 4 to pH 8 result in average Pb-C distances of 2.98 to 3.14 A??, suggesting the presence of both four- and six-membered Pb-malonate rings. The IR results are consistent with this interpretation. Thus, our results suggest that malonate binds to sorbed Pb(II) adions, forming ternary metal-bridging surface complexes. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  8. On the importance of thermodynamic investigations for the re-assessment of selected ternary Fe-base systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presoly, P.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-07-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential for the design and the production of new alloying systems. Particularly, the knowledge of the high-temperature phase transformations (TLiquid, TSolid, TPerit, Tγ→δ) are important for the solidification and the further processing. Investigations of selected commercial Dual-Phase, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels by DTA/DSC measurements show that the experimental results differ significantly from the calculation results of thermodynamic databases with respect to the phase transformation temperature and sequence. Based on these findings, it is very important to identify the defective subsystems of complex alloys in order to optimise the thermodynamic databases. In order to verify a quaternary system, e.g. the Fe-C-Si-Mn system, it is important to check the corresponding ternary subsystems. This was performed by DSC measurements of selected model alloys. By doing so, it was found that in Si- and Mn-alloyed Dual-Phase steels the thermodynamic description of the Fe-Si-Mn system is currently inadequate. This is a very important result, since all new designed steel grades for the automotive industry are based on a Fe-C-Si-Mn matrix.

  9. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Romaka, L.; Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institute of Materials Chemistry and Research, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu; Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Orlovskyy, M.; Krayovskyy, V. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2016-07-15

    The phase equilibria in the Gd–Ni–Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb ternary systems were studied at 873 K by X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction of the elements in the Gd–Ni–Sb system results the formation of five ternary compounds at investigated temperature: Gd{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), Gd{sub 5}NiSb{sub 2} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type), GdNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Gd{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5} (Y{sub 3}Ni{sub 6}Sb{sub 5}-type), and GdNi{sub 0.72}Sb{sub 2} (HfCuSi{sub 2}-type). At investigated temperature the Lu-Ni-Sb system is characterized by formation of the LuNiSb (MgAgAs-type), Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 2.44} (Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type) compounds. The disordering in the crystal structure of half-Heusler GdNiSb and LuNiSb was revealed by EPMA and studied by means of Rietveld refinement and DFT modeling. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical transport property studies. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure model and electron localization function of Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Sb. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Gd-Ni-Sb and Lu-Ni-Sb phase diagrams were constructed at 873 K. • GdNiSb and LuNiSb are characterized by disordered crystal structure. • Crystal structure optimization with DFT calculations confirmed crystal structure disorder in GdNiSb and LuNiSb.

  10. Contribution to the benchmark for ternary mixtures: Measurement of diffusion and Soret coefficients of ternary system tetrahydronaphtalene-isobutylbenzene-n-dodecane with mass fractions 80-10-10 at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galand, Quentin; Van Vaerenbergh, Stéfan

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides the molecular diffusion and Soret coefficients of the ternary system 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtalene, isobutylbenzene, n -dodecane system at mass fractions 0.8-0.1-0.1 and temperature 25 (°)C for implementation into the benchmark presented in this topical issue. The Soret coefficients are determined by digital interferometry using the data of DSC-DCMIX microgravity experiment. The method used takes into account the influence of the thermal field on the Soret separations and the selection of the image processing techniques results in reproducible Soret coefficients.The diffusion coefficients are obtained by the Open Ended Capillary technique The fitting of the data collected through a set of two complementary experimental runs allows retrieving the four Fickian diffusion coefficients.

  11. Analysis of physicochemical properties of ternary systems of oxaprozin with randomly methylated-ß-cyclodextrin and l-arginine aimed to improve the drug solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, Natascia; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2016-09-10

    The influence of l-arginine on the complexing and solubilizing power of randomly-methylated-β-cyclodextrin (RameβCD) towards oxaprozin, a very poorly soluble anti-inflammatory drug, was examined. The interactions between the components were investigated both in solution, by phase-solubility analysis, and in the solid state, by differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR and X-ray powder diffractometry. The morphology of the solid products was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results of phase-solubility studies indicated that addition of arginine enhanced the RameβCD complexing and solubilizing power of about 3.0 and 4.5 times, respectively, in comparison with the binary complex (both at pH≈6.8). The effect of arginine was not simply additive, but synergistic, being the ternary system solubility higher than the sum of those of the respective drug-CD and drug-arginine binary systems. Solid equimolar ternary systems were prepared by physical mixing, co-grinding, coevaporation and kneading techniques, to explore the effect of the preparation method on the physicochemical properties of the final products. The ternary co-ground product exhibited a dramatic increase in both drug dissolution efficiency and percent dissolved at 60min, whose values (83.6 and 97.1, respectively) were about 3 times higher than the sum of those given by the respective drug-CD and drug-aminoacid binary systems. Therefore, the ternary co-ground system with arginine and RameβCD appears as a very valuable product for the development of new more effective delivery systems of oxaprozin, with improved safety and bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct phase coexistence molecular dynamics study of the phase equilibria of the ternary methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2016-09-14

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to predict the phase equilibrium conditions of a ternary hydrate system. In particular, the direct phase coexistence methodology is implemented for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature of the methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system at elevated pressures. The TIP4P/ice, TraPPE-UA and OPLS-UA forcefields for water, carbon dioxide and methane respectively are used, in line with our previous studies of the phase equilibria of the corresponding binary hydrate systems. The solubility in the aqueous phase of the guest molecules of the respective binary and ternary systems is examined under hydrate-forming conditions, providing insight into the predictive capability of the methodology as well as the combination of these forcefields to accurately describe the phase behavior of the ternary system. The three-phase coexistence temperature is calculated at 400, 1000 and 2000 bar for two compositions of the methane-carbon dioxide mixture. The predicted values are compared with available calculations with satisfactory agreement. An estimation is also provided for the fraction of the guest molecules in the mixed hydrate phase under the conditions examined.

  13. Administration of the optimized β-Lapachone-poloxamer-cyclodextrin ternary system induces apoptosis, DNA damage and reduces tumor growth in a human breast adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Samuel; Díaz-Rodríguez, Patricia; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Gallego, Rosalia; Pérez-Fernández, Román; Landin, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    β-Lapachone (β-Lap) is a 1,2-orthonaphthoquinone that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells through NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). NQO1 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, as compared to normal adjacent tissue. However, the low solubility and non-specific distribution of β-Lap limit its suitability for clinical assays. We formulated β-Lap in an optimal random methylated-β-cyclodextrin/poloxamer 407 mixture (i.e., β-Lap ternary system) and, using human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and immunodeficient mice, performed in vitro and in vivo evaluation of its anti-tumor effects on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and tumor growth. This ternary system is fluid at room temperature, gels over 29 °C, and provides a significant amount of drug, thus facilitating intratumoral delivery, in situ gelation, and the formation of a depot for time-release. Administration of β-Lap ternary system to MCF-7 cells induces an increase in apoptosis and DNA damage, while producing no changes in cell cycle. Moreover, in a mouse xenograft tumor model, intratumoral injection of the system significantly reduces tumor volume, while increasing apoptosis and DNA damage without visible toxicity to liver or kidney. These anti-tumoral effects and lack of visible toxicity make this system a promising new therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Coexistence of several sillenite-like phases in pseudo-binary and pseudo-ternary systems based on Bi2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapčević, Aleksandra; Poleti, Dejan; Karanović, Ljiljana; Rogan, Jelena; Dražič, Goran

    2013-11-01

    A series of polycrystalline samples containing sillenite-like (doped γ-Bi2O3) phases were prepared by high-temperature reactions from α-Bi2O3 powder and different oxides in six pseudo-binary Bi2O3-MxOy (M = Mn, Ti, V) and six pseudo-ternary Bi2O3-M1xOy-M2xOy (M1 = Pb, Zn, Ti and M2 = Zn, Ti, Si) systems. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX, HRTEM, SAED and DTA techniques. It is shown that for pseudo-binary systems, the phase composition of specimens depends on dopant content, while, for pseudo-ternary systems, depends on dopants radii, as well. In pseudo-binary systems, single-phase sillenites are obtained if the dopant content is in accordance with formula Bi12M4+O20, for M = Mn and Ti, and Bi(M0.85+)O, for M = V. However, two coexisting sillenite-like phases, doped compound and nominally undoped solid solution, are found if a half of that dopant quantity is applied. In pseudo-ternary systems, the phase-pure double-doped sillenite specimens are identified if ionic radii of dopants differ less than 40%. Otherwise, two coexisting sillenites were obtained. The possibility to prepare the undoped γ-Bi2O3 phase was also discussed.

  15. HIGH-PRESSURE VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM DATA FOR BINARY AND TERNARY SYSTEMS FORMED BY SUPERCRITICAL CO2, LIMONENE AND LINALOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELO S. A. B. VIEIRA DE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of deterpenating orange peel oil with supercritical CO2 depends on relevant vapor-liquid equilibrium data because the selectivity of this solvent for limonene and linalool (the two key components of the oil is of crucial importance. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the CO2-limonene binary system was measured at 50, 60 and 70oC and pressures up to 10 MPa, and of the CO2-linalool binary system at 50oC and pressures up to 85 bar. These results were compared with published data when available in the literature. The unpublished ternary phase equilibrium of CO2-limonene-linalool was studied at 50oC and up to 9 MPa. Selectivities obtained using these ternary data were compared with those calculated using binary data and indicate that a selective separation of limonene and linalool can be achieved.

  16. The micro-flow reaction system featured the liquid-liquid interface created with ternary mixed carrier solvents in a capillary tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, Yuji; Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A micro-flow reaction system was developed in which liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary mixed carrier solvents. The system was constructed from double capillary tubes having different inner diameters (100 and 250 µm i.d.). The smaller tube was inserted into the larger one through a T-type joint. The reaction of a protein with a fluorescence derivatizing reagent was adopted as a model. A water-acetonitrile mixture (3:1 volume ratio) including bovine serum albumin (hydrophilic) was delivered into the large tube from the inside through the small tube and an acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture (7:4 volume ratio) containing fluorescamine (hydrophobic) as a derivatizing reagent was delivered from the outside through the joint. Solutions were mixed through the double capillary tubes to promote ternary mixed carrier solvents (water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate; 1:2:1 volume ratio). The liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary solvents in the larger tube. The derivatization reaction was performed in the larger, or reaction, tube in the micro-flow system. The fluorescence intensity of the fluorescamine-derivatized bovine serum albumin obtained by the system, which specifically included the kinetic liquid-liquid interface in the tube, was greater than that obtained through a batch reaction using a homogeneous solution of water-acetonitrile (1:2 volume ratio).

  17. Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Assessment of Phase Equilibria in the PLLA/Dioxane/Water Ternary System for Applications in the Biomedical Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Flavia; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Torino, Enza

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of thermodynamic of phase separation plays a key role in tuning the desired features of biomedical devices. In particular, phase separation of ternary solution is of remarkable interest in processes to obtain biodegradable and biocompatible architectures applied as artificial devices to repair, replace, or support damaged tissues or organs. In these perspectives, thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) is the most widely used technique to obtained porous morphologies and, in addition, among different ternary systems, polylactic acid (PLLA)/dioxane/water has given promising results and has been largely studied. However, to increase the control of TIPS-based processes and architectures, an investigation of the basic energetic phenomena occurring during phase separation is still required. Here we propose an experimental investigation of the selected ternary system by using isothermal titration calorimetric approach at different solvent/antisolvent ratio and a thermodynamic explanation related to the polymer-solvents interactions in terms of energetic contribution to the phase separation process. Furthermore, relevant information about the phase diagrams and interaction parameters of the studied systems are furnished in terms of liquid-liquid miscibility gap. Indeed, polymer-solvents interactions are responsible for the mechanism of the phase separation process and, therefore, of the final features of the morphologies; the knowledge of such data is fundamental to control processes for the production of membranes, scaffolds and several nanostructures. The behavior of the polymer at different solvent/nonsolvent ratios is discussed in terms of solvation mechanism and a preliminary contribution to the understanding of the role of the hydrogen bonding in the interface phenomena is also reported. It is the first time that thermodynamic data of a ternary system are collected by mean of nano-isothermal titration calorimetry (nano-ITC). Supporting

  18. Thermionic emission and vaporization behavior of the ternary systems of lanthanum hexaboride containing molybdenum boride, molybdenum diboride, zirconium diboride, gadolinium hexaboride, and neodymium hexaboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, E. K.

    1983-02-01

    The addition of various compounds to LaB6 did not improve the thermionic emission over that of pure LaB6. This experience and general conclusions, which result by considering the vaporization properties of these and other materials, greatly limit the options available to improve the properties of LaB6 by forming a ternary system. The principles which must be considered, in order to simplify future work, are described.

  19. Carbometalates. Intermediate phases in the ternary systems RE-T-C (RE = Y, La, Gd-Er; T = Cr, Fe, Ru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davaasuren, Bambar

    2010-07-01

    The main motivation of this work was the preparation and characterization of novel compounds in the ternary systems RE-T-C with T = Cr, Fe and Ru with a special focus on compounds containing C{sub 2}{sup n-} and C{sub 3}{sup m-} or mixed C and C{sub 2}{sup n-} as structural units. This would allow to investigate the applicability of the concept of complex anions to this class of materials.

  20. In₂S₃/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Miao, Fujun; Liu, Yichun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In2S3 nanosheets with 5-10nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2S3 and In2S3/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In2S3, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In2S3/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gel/Space Ratio Evolution in Ternary Composite System Consisting of Portland Cement, Silica Fume, and Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxue; Li, Chen; Yao, Wu

    2017-01-11

    In cement-based pastes, the relationship between the complex phase assemblage and mechanical properties is usually described by the "gel/space ratio" descriptor. The gel/space ratio is defined as the volume ratio of the gel to the available space in the composite system, and it has been widely studied in the cement unary system. This work determines the gel/space ratio in the cement-silica fume-fly ash ternary system (C-SF-FA system) by measuring the reaction degrees of the cement, SF, and FA. The effects that the supplementary cementitious material (SCM) replacements exert on the evolution of the gel/space ratio are discussed both theoretically and practically. The relationship between the gel/space ratio and compressive strength is then explored, and the relationship disparities for different mix proportions are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the SCM replacements promote the gel/space ratio evolution only when the SCM reaction degree is higher than a certain value, which is calculated and defined as the critical reaction degree (CRD). The effects of the SCM replacements can be predicted based on the CRD, and the theological predictions agree with the test results quite well. At low gel/space ratios, disparities in the relationship between the gel/space ratio and the compressive strength are caused by porosity, which has also been studied in cement unary systems. The ratio of cement-produced gel to SCM-produced gel ( G C to G S C M ratio) is introduced for use in analyzing high gel/space ratios, in which it plays a major role in creating relationship disparities.

  2. Gel/Space Ratio Evolution in Ternary Composite System Consisting of Portland Cement, Silica Fume, and Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cement-based pastes, the relationship between the complex phase assemblage and mechanical properties is usually described by the “gel/space ratio” descriptor. The gel/space ratio is defined as the volume ratio of the gel to the available space in the composite system, and it has been widely studied in the cement unary system. This work determines the gel/space ratio in the cement-silica fume-fly ash ternary system (C-SF-FA system by measuring the reaction degrees of the cement, SF, and FA. The effects that the supplementary cementitious material (SCM replacements exert on the evolution of the gel/space ratio are discussed both theoretically and practically. The relationship between the gel/space ratio and compressive strength is then explored, and the relationship disparities for different mix proportions are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the SCM replacements promote the gel/space ratio evolution only when the SCM reaction degree is higher than a certain value, which is calculated and defined as the critical reaction degree (CRD. The effects of the SCM replacements can be predicted based on the CRD, and the theological predictions agree with the test results quite well. At low gel/space ratios, disparities in the relationship between the gel/space ratio and the compressive strength are caused by porosity, which has also been studied in cement unary systems. The ratio of cement-produced gel to SCM-produced gel ( G C to G S C M ratio is introduced for use in analyzing high gel/space ratios, in which it plays a major role in creating relationship disparities.

  3. Interaction between ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with human serum albumin as binary and ternary systems by multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaki, Hanie, E-mail: hanieh.mahaki@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina; Chamani, Jamshidkhan [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Saberi, Mohammad [Medical Chemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to describe the competition of ropinirole hydrochloride (RP) and aspirin (ASA) in binding to human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH=7.4) using multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta-potential measurements. Fluorescence analysis was used to define the binding and quenching properties of drug-HSA complexes in binary and ternary systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that in the presence of RP, the binding constant of HSA-ASA was increased. Static quenching was confirmed to result in the fluorescence quenching and FRET. The effect of drugs on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD). The RLS method determined the critical aggregation concentration of drugs on HSA in binary and ternary systems that confirmed the zeta potential results. Structural modeling showed that the affinity of each of the drugs to HSA in binary and ternary systems confirms the spectroscopic results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the interaction of ropinirole hydrochloride and aspirin with HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular modeling and zeta-potential used to describe competitive interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the critical induced aggregation concentration of both drugs on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding mechanism of drugs as separate and simultaneous to HSA has been compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding site of both drugs as simultaneous effects on HSA has been determined.

  4. Application of artificial neural network for vapor liquid equilibrium calculation of ternary system including ionic liquid: Water, ethanol and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazlali, Alireza; Koranian, Parvaneh [Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beigzadeh, Reza [Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, Masoud [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    A feed forward three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for VLE prediction of ternary systems including ionic liquid (IL) (water+ethanol+1-butyl-3- methyl-imidazolium acetate), in a relatively wide range of IL mass fractions up to 0.8, with the mole fractions of ethanol on IL-free basis fixed separately at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 0.98. The output results of the ANN were the mole fraction of ethanol in vapor phase and the equilibrium temperature. The validity of the model was evaluated through a test data set, which were not employed in the training case of the network. The performance of the ANN model for estimating the mole fraction and temperature in the ternary system including IL was compared with the non-random-two-liquid (NRTL) and electrolyte non-random-two- liquid (eNRTL) models. The results of this comparison show that the ANN model has a superior performance in predicting the VLE of ternary systems including ionic liquid.

  5. Partially crystalline systems in lyophilization: I. Use of ternary state diagrams to determine extent of crystallization of bulking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Koustuv; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2005-04-01

    Two model ternary systems: water-glycine-raffinose and water-glycine-trehalose were investigated to determine the extent of glycine crystallization in frozen solutions. The use of such partially crystalline systems allows primary drying to be carried out substantially above the collapse temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and variable temperature X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used to monitor phase transitions in frozen systems as well as to determine the T'g. Aqueous solutions containing different glycine to carbohydrate weight ratios were first cooled to -60 degrees C and then warmed to room temperature. In both raffinose and trehalose systems, when the initial glycine to sugar (raffinose pentahydrate or trehalose dihydrate) ratio was or=1, partial glycine crystallization was observed during warming. The presence of amorphous glycine caused the T'g to be substantially lower than that of the solution containing only the carbohydrate. To determine the extent of glycine crystallization, the solutions were annealed for 5 h just above the temperature of glycine crystallization. The T'g observed in the second warming curve was very close to that of the carbohydrate solution alone, indicating almost complete glycine crystallization. These studies enabled the construction of the water-rich sections of the raffinose-glycine-water and trehalose-glycine-water state diagrams. These diagrams consist of a kinetically stable freeze-concentrated solution and a doubly unstable glassy region, which readily crystallizes during cooling or subsequent warming. In addition, there is an intermediate region, where during the experimental timescale, there appears to be hindered glycine nucleation but unhindered crystal growth. To obtain substantially crystalline glycine in the frozen solutions, the glycine to carbohydrate ratios should be >or=1. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  7. Investigation of phase equilibria in the quaternary Ce-Mn-In-Ge system and isothermal sections of the boundary ternary systems at 800 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliynyk, Anton O.; Djama-Kayad, Kadar; Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Ce-Mn-In, Mn-In-Ge, Ce-In-Ge, and Ce-Mn-Ge systems at 800 °C were examined. • Ce{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} and Ce{sub 43}Mn{sub 18}Ge{sub 39} are new high-temperature phases with close composition. • Two new quaternary phases, Ce{sub 4}Mn{sub 2}InGe{sub 4} and Ce{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}InGe{sub 2}, were discovered. - Abstract: Part of the quaternary Ce-Mn-In-Ge phase diagram has been examined through powder X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Two new quaternary (Ce{sub 4}Mn{sub 2}InGe{sub 4} and Ce{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}InGe{sub 2}) and two ternary (Ce{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} and Ce{sub 43}Mn{sub 18}Ge{sub 39}) phases were found. The isothermal sections of the boundary ternary systems (Ce-Mn-In, Mn-In-Ge, Ce-In-Ge, and Ce-Mn-Ge) were determined at 800 °C. Among these, the Ce-Mn-Ge system deserves particular attention because the phase equilibria are complex. Relative to the previously reported phase diagram evaluated at a lower temperature (400 °C), three ternary phases (CeMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, Ce{sub 2}MnGe{sub 6}, and CeMnGe) persist, Ce{sub 2}MnGe{sub 5} does not form, and two new phases with very close composition (Ce{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} and Ce{sub 43}Mn{sub 18}Ge{sub 39}) appear at 800 °C. Ce{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (orthorhombic Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type) has a small homogeneity range (2%) deviating from the ideal composition, whereas Ce{sub 43}Mn{sub 18}Ge{sub 39} (tetragonal La{sub 2+x}MnGe{sub 2+y}-type) has negligible homogeneity. Magnetic measurements on Ce{sub 4}Mn{sub 2}InGe{sub 4} suggest ferromagnetic behaviour.

  8. Evaluation of the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State for Ternary, Quaternary, and Multicomponent Systems in the Presence of Monoethylene Glycol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzirakis, Fragkiskos; Karakatsani, Eirini; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    , and carbon dioxide). In this study we have extended the use of CPA EoS to perform equilibrium temperature calculations for natural gas main components with (mono-)ethylene glycol (MEG) as an inhibitor. The ternary systems with aqueous MEG solution include methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide......, and hydrogen sulfide. The quaternary systems with aqueous MEG solution include methane + ethane, methane + propane, methane + n-heptane, and methane + n-octane. Three multicomponent systems (>4 components) were also studied. The temperature range of the literature data is between 241.25–333.15 K...

  9. Tensiometric investigation of the interaction and phase separation in a polymer mixture–ionic surfactant ternary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAV M. KATONA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction and phase separation in a ternary mixture composed of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS were investigated by tensiometry. Surface tension measurements of binary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC and 0.00–2.00 % SDS and of ternary mixtures (0.7 % HPMC, 0.3 % NaCMC, and 0.00–2.00 % SDS were performed. The measurements indicated interaction between HPMC and SDS, which resulted in HPMC–SDS complex formation. The critical association concentration, CAC, and polymer saturation point, PSP, were determined. Phase separation of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures occurs at SDS concentration > CAC, i.e., when the HPMC–SDS complex is formed. The volume of the coacervate increases with increasing SDS concentration, and at SDS concentrations > 1.00 %, the coacervate vanishes. The surface tensions (s of ternary HPMC/SDS/NaCMC mixtures in the pre-coacervation region and at the onset of the coacervation region are similar to the σ of the corresponding binary HPMC–SDS mixtures, while in the coacervation and post coacervation region, they are close to the s of the corresponding SDS solutions

  10. The ternary Fe-C-N system: Homogeneous distributions of nitrogen and carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian; Ståhl, Kenny; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2017-01-01

    of the nitriding and carburizing potentials, tailored nitrogen and carbon contents can be achieved, which allows assessment of a phase stability diagram for the Fe-N-C system, for which available experimental data is limited. Thermal decomposition sequences were established for the various iron carbides and (carbo...

  11. Investigation of Ternary Transition-Metal Nitride Systems by Reactive Cosputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dover, R.B. Van; Hessen, B.; Werder, D.; Chen, C.-H.; Felder, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reactive dc cosputtering technique has been used to evaluate compound formation in bimetallic transition-metal nitride systems. A wide range in M-M’ composition can be studied in a single deposition run, and the method is applicable to nonalloying metal combinations. Using this technique, it was

  12. Composition Optimization and Stability Testing of a Parenteral Antifungal Solution based on a Ternary Solvent System

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Kristóf; Antal, István; Stampf, György; Klebovich, Imre; Ludányi, Krisztina

    2010-01-01

    An intravenous solution is a dosage forms intended for administration into the bloodstream. This route is the most rapid and the most bioavailable method of getting drugs into systemic circulation, and therefore it is also the most liable to cause adverse effects. In order to reduce the possibility of side effects and to ensure adequate clinical dosage of the formulation, the primarily formulated composition should be optimized. It is also important that the composition should retain its ther...

  13. Magnetic properties of the ternary alloy system (FexNi1-x)11Se8 for 0.042

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.

    1990-07-01

    The ternary alloy system (FexNi1-x)11Se8 for 0.042system.

  14. Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling of 1-Propanethiol+1-Butanethiol + CH4 in Methane Ternary System at 303, 336, and 368 K and Pressure Up to 9 MPa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Javeed A.; Coquelet, Christophe; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    New vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for 1-propanethiol + 1-butanethiol + CH4 ternary system is reported. Measurements were performed at three different temperatures (303, 336, and 368 K), and the pressure ranged from 1 to 9 MPa. The total system pressure was maintained by CH4. The inlet mole...... fraction of 1-propanethiol (x = 5.43 x 10-1) and 1-butanethiol (x = 4.56 x 10-1) in the liquid phase were same in all experiments. A static analytic method was used for performing phase equilibrium measurements. The new VLE data have been modeled successfully with cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation...

  15. Chemical effects in ion mixing of a ternary system (metal-SiO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, T.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Sands, T.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing of Ti, Cr, and Ni thin films with SiO2 by low-temperature (- 196-25 C) irradiation with 290 keV Xe has been investigated. Comparison of the morphology of the intermixed region and the dose dependences of net metal transport into SiO2 reveals that long range motion and phase formation probably occur as separate and sequential processes. Kinetic limitations suppress chemical effects in these systems during the initial transport process. Chemical interactions influence the subsequent phase formation.

  16. Dynamical fluctuation of the mesoscopic structure in ternary C12E5-water-n-octane amphiphilic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, S; Takeda, T; Kawabata, Y; Ghosh, S K; Seto, H; Nagao, M

    2001-04-01

    Dynamical fluctuations of the bicontinuous microemulsion and lamellar structures in ternary C12E5-water-n-octane amphiphilic system are studied by means of neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometry. The decay rates of the time correlation of the concentration were analyzed in terms of three theories: (1) A. G. Zilman and R. Granek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4788 (1996), (2) M. Nonomura and T. Ohta, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 7516 (1999), and (3) R. Granek and M. E. Cates, Phys. Rev. A 46, 3319 (1992), in the first of which a Langevin equation for membrane plaquettes and in the latter two of which time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the order parameters are considered. The result shows that the intermediate correlation functions I(q,t) for the ranges of 0systems with the relaxation rate Gamma increasing as q(3) in agreement with theory (1) from which the bending modulus of the membrane kappa was estimated. For more restricted ranges of 0system were estimated. The effective viscosity from the nonexponential eta(eff) is five times greater than that from the simple exponential eta(0) that is almost the same as the literature value. The implication of this result is discussed in terms of the effective viscosity eta(eff) that takes into account the renormalization of the bending modulus of the membrane.

  17. Ternary CBe4Au4cluster: a 16-electron system with quasi-planar tetracoordinate carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Chang; Feng, Lin-Yan; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2018-02-13

    Planar hypercoordinate carbons as exotic chemical species are dominated by 18-electron counting. We report herein a 16-electron planar tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) cluster, CBe 4 Au 4 , which is quasi-planar to be exact, being composed of a C center, a square-planar Be 4 ring, and four outer Au bridges. The quasi-ptC cluster is established as a global minimum via computer structural searches, located 14.6 kcal mol -1 below the nearest competitor at the CCSD(T) level. It shows thermodynamic and electronic robustness, with a low electron affinity (1.54 eV at B3LYP) and a large HOMO-LUMO gap (2.21 eV for excitation energy). Bonding analyses reveal 2π and 6σ double aromaticity, in addition to four three-center two-electron (3c-2e) Be-Au-Be σ bonds, confirming that 16-electron counting is perfect for the system. We believe that double (π and σ) aromaticity is a general concept that governs planar or quasi-planar carbons, which overrides the 18-electron rule. Competition between quasi-ptC and tetrahedral carbon (thC) isomers in the CBe 4 M 4 (M = K, Au, H, Cl) series is also examined, which sheds crucial light on factors that govern the ptC clusters. The present findings offer opportunities for further planar and unconventional molecules.

  18. Solubility measurement and solid-liquid equilibrium model for the ternary system MgBr2 + MgSO4 + H2O at 288.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of magnesium minerals and the refractive index of the ternary system MgBr2 + MgSO4 + H2O at 288.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there are two invariant points in the phase diagram and the solubility isotherm of this ternary system consists of three branches, corresponding to equilibrium crystallization of Epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O, Eps, hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O, Hex and magnesium bromide hexahydrate (MgBr2·6H2O, Mb. Neither solid solutions nor double salts were found. The refractive indices calculated from empirical equation are in good agreement with the experimental data. Combining the results from solubility measurements with the single-salt parameters for MgBr2 and MgSO4, and the mixed ion-interaction parameter θBr,S0(4, the parameter ψMg,Br,S0(4 at 288.15 K was fitted using the Pitzer theory and Harvie-Weare (HW approach. In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 288.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. A chemical model, which combined the Pitzer parameters and the average equilibrium constants, was constructed to calculate the solid + liquid equilibria in the ternary system MgBr2 + MgSO4 + H2O at 288.15 K. The model agreed well with the equilibrium solubility data for the magnesium salts.

  19. Solid–liquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems with the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fettouhi, André; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the CPA model's performance within solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) in binary mixtures (methane + ethane, methane + heptane, methane + benzene, methane + CO2, ethane + heptane, ethane + CO2, 1-propanol + 1,4-dioxane, ethanol + water, 2-propanol + water) is presented. Th....... The results from the binary mixtures are used to predict SLE behaviour in ternary mixtures (methane + ethane + heptane, methane + ethane + CO2). Our results are compared with experimental data found in the literature....

  20. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE TERNARY SYSTEMS PROPIONIC ACID - WATER - SOLVENT (n-AMYL ALCOHOL AND n-AMYL ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZMEN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data have been obtained at 25 oC for ternary systems propionic acid-water-n-amyl alcohol and propionic acid-water-n-amyl acetate. The reliability of the experimental tie line data are checked using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The distribution coefficients and separation factors were obtained from experimental results and are also reported. The predicted tie line data obtained by UNIFAC method are compared with experimental data. It is concluded that n-amyl alcohol and n-amyl acetate are suitable separating agents for dilute aqueous propionic acid solutions.

  1. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE TERNARY SYSTEMS PROPIONIC ACID - WATER - SOLVENT (n-AMYL ALCOHOL AND n-AMYL ACETATE)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek ÖZMEN

    2005-01-01

    The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data have been obtained at 25 oC for ternary systems propionic acid-water-n-amyl alcohol and propionic acid-water-n-amyl acetate. The reliability of the experimental tie line data are checked using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The distribution coefficients and separation factors were obtained from experimental results and are also reported. The predicted tie line data obtained by UNIFAC method are compared with experimental data. It i...

  2. Retention Mechanisms of Citric Acid in Ternary Kaolinite-Fe(III)-Citrate Acid Systems Using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Jian; Pan, Weinan; Regier, Tom; Hu, Yongfeng; Rumpel, Cornelia; Bolan, Nanthi; Sparks, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) stability in tropical soils is strongly interlinked with multivalent cation interaction and mineral association. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) represent the readily biodegradable OC. Therefore, investigating retention mechanisms of LMWOAs in mineral-cation-LMWOAs systems is critical to understanding soil C cycling. Given the general acidic conditions and dominance of kaolinite in tropical soils, we investigated the retention mechanisms of citric acid (CA) in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems with various Fe/CA molar ratios at pH ~3.5 using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES techniques. With Fe/CA molar ratios >2, the formed ferrihydrite mainly contributed to CA retention through adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios from 2 to 0.5, ternary complexation of CA to kaolinite via a five-coordinated Fe(III) bridge retained higher CA than ferrihydrite-induced adsorption and/or coprecipitation. With Fe/CA molar ratios ≤0.5, kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate complexation preferentially occurred, but less CA was retained than via outer-sphere kaolinite-CA complexation. This study highlighted the significant impact of varied Fe/CA molar ratios on CA retention mechanisms in kaolinite-Fe(III)-CA systems under acidic conditions, and clearly showed the important contribution of Fe-bridged ternary complexation on CA retention. These findings will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of CA and other LMWOAs in tropical soils. PMID:27212680

  3. Solid-state reactions during mechanical alloying of ternary Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadef, Fatma, E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université 20 Août 1955, BP 26, Route d’El-Haddaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an intensive research in the field of nanocrystalline materials due to their enhanced properties. A lot of processing techniques were developed in order to synthesis these novel materials, among them mechanical alloying or high-energy ball milling. In fact, mechanical alloying is one of the most common operations in the processing of solids. It can be used to quickly and easily synthesize a variety of technologically useful materials which are very difficult to manufacture by other techniques. One advantage of MA over many other techniques is that is a solid state technique and consequently problems associated with melting and solidification are bypassed. Special attention is being paid to the synthesis of alloys through reactions mainly occurring in solid state in many metallic ternary Fe–Al–X systems, in order to improve mainly Fe–Al structural and mechanical properties. The results show that nanocrystallization is the common result occurring in all systems during MA process. The aim of this work is to illustrate the uniqueness of MA process to induce phase transformation in metallic Fe–Al–X (X=Ni, Mn, Cu, Ti, Cr, B, Si) systems. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on binary Fe–Al alloys was presented. • Structural and microstructural properties of MA ternary Fe–Al–X alloys were summerized. • MA process is a powerful tool for producing metallic alloys at the nanometer scale.

  4. Carbon dioxide induced bubble formation in a CH4-CO2-H2O ternary system: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujith, K S; Ramachandran, C N

    2016-02-07

    The extraction of methane from its hydrates using carbon dioxide involves the decomposition of the hydrate resulting in a CH4-CO2-H2O ternary solution. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the evolution of dissolved gas molecules in the ternary system at different concentrations of CO2. Various compositions considered in the present study resemble the solution formed during the decomposition of methane hydrates at the initial stages of the extraction process. We find that the presence of CO2 aids the formation of CH4 bubbles by causing its early nucleation. Elucidation of the composition of the bubble revealed that in ternary solutions with high concentration of CO2, mixed gas bubbles composed of CO2 and CH4 are formed. To understand the role of CO2 in the nucleation of CH4 bubbles, the structure of the bubble formed was analyzed, which revealed that there is an accumulation of CO2 at the interface of the bubble and the surrounding water. The aggregation of CO2 at the bubble-water interface occurs predominantly when the concentration of CO2 is high. Radial distribution function for the CH4-CO2 pair indicates that there is an increasingly favorable direct contact between dissolved CH4 and CO2 molecules in the bubble-water interface. It is also observed that the presence of CO2 at the interface results in the decrease in surface tension. Thus, CO2 leads to greater stability of the bubble-water interface thereby bringing down the critical size of the bubble nuclei. The results suggest that a rise in concentration of CO2 helps in the removal of dissolved CH4 thereby preventing the accumulation of methane in the liquid phase. Thus, the presence of CO2 is predicted to assist the decomposition of methane hydrates in the initial stages of the replacement process.

  5. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary, Ternary, and Multicomponent Systems. Part I. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Water and Aqueous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi

    2011-03-01

    The solubility data for well-defined binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems of solid-liquid type are reviewed. One component, which is 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, 4-hydroxybenzoate alkyl esters (parabens), or hydroxybenzoic acid salts, is in the solid state at room temperature and another component is liquid water, meaning that all of the systems are aqueous solutions. The ternary or multicomponent systems include organic substances of various classes (hydrocarbons of several structural types, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, ethers, esters, amides, and surfactants) or inorganic substances. Systems reported in the primary literature from 1898 through 2000 are compiled. For seven systems, sufficient binary data for hydroxybenzoic acids or parabens in water are available to allow critical evaluation. Almost all data are expressed as mass and mole fractions as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration.

  6. Fabrication of porous ethyl cellulose microspheres based on the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system: Controlling porosity via the solvent-removal mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Watanabe, Chie; Kurumado, Yu; Takama, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    Porous ethyl cellulose (EC) microspheres were prepared from the acetone-glycerin-water ternary system using an oil/water (O/W)-type emulsion solvent extraction method. The O/ W type emulsion was prepared using acetone dissolved ethyl cellulose as an oil phase and aqueous glycerin as a water phase. The effects of the different solvent extraction modes on the porosity of the microspheres were investigated. The specific surface area of the porous EC microspheres was estimated by the gas adsorption method. When the solvent was extracted rapidly by mixing the emulsion with water instantaneously, porous EC microspheres with a maximum specific surface area of 40.7±2.1 m2/g were obtained. On the other hand, when water was added gradually to the emulsion, the specific surface area of the fabricated microspheres decreased rapidly with an increase in the infusion period, with the area being 25-45% of the maximum value. The results of an analysis of the ternary phase diagram of the system suggested that the penetration of water and glycerin from the continuous phase to the dispersed phase before solidification affected the porosity of the fabricated EC microspheres.

  7. Phase Equilibria in the Fe-Mo-Ti Ternary System at 1173 K (900 °C) and 1023 K (750 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, A. J.; Jones, N. G.; Jones, C. N.; Stone, H. J.

    2017-09-01

    Alloys with fine-scale eutectic microstructures comprising Ti-based A2 and TiFe B2 phases have been shown to have excellent mechanical properties. In this study, the potential of alloys with further refined A2-B2 microstructures formed through solid-state precipitation has been explored by analyzing a series of six alloys within the Fe-Mo-Ti ternary system. Partial isothermal sections of this system at 1173 K (900 °C) and 1023 K (750 °C) were constructed, from which the ternary solubility limits of the A2 (Ti, Mo), B2 TiFe, D85 Fe7Mo6, and C14 Fe2Ti phases were determined. With these data, the change in solubility of Fe in the A2 phase with temperature, which provides the driving force for precipitation of B2 TiFe, was determined and used to predict the maximum potential volume fraction of B2 TiFe precipitates that may be formed in an A2 (Ti, Mo) matrix.

  8. Phase equilibria in the Zr-Si-B ternary system (Zr-Si-ZrB{sub 2} region) at 1 173 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Feng; Luo, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Lab. of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Lab. of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-10-15

    The isothermal section of the Zr-Si-B ternary system (Zr-Si-ZrB{sub 2} region) at 1 173 K has been experimentally determined. All equilibrated alloys were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A ternary phase Zr{sub 5}(Si{sub 0.86}B{sub 0.14}){sub 3} was found at 1 173 K. The experimental results show that the isothermal section consists of 11 single-phase regions, 26 two-phase regions and 13 three-phase regions. The existence of eight compounds, i.e. ZrSi{sub 2}, ZrSi, Zr{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Zr{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, Zr{sub 2}Si, ZrB, ZrB{sub 2} and Zr{sub 5}(Si{sub 0.86}B{sub 0.14}){sub 3} in this system has been confirmed in the Zr-Si-ZrB{sub 2} region at 1 173 K.

  9. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Amanda [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States); Zhao, Hongbin [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States); Hopkins, Scott [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistance to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.

  10. Identification of phases of various oil, surfactant/ co-surfactants and water system by ternary phase diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Haroon K; Peh, Kok K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select appropriate surfactants or blends of surfactants and oil to study the ternary phase diagram behavior and identify various phases obtained from the oil and surfactant/surfactant mixture combinations of different HLB. The phases include conventional emulsion, gel/viscous and transparent/translucent microemulsion. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of water, oil and S/Smix of various HLB values range of 9.65-15 were constructed by using water titration method at room temperature. Visual analysis, conductivity and dye dilution test (methylene blue) were performed after each addition and mixing of water, to identify phases as microemulsion, o/w or w/o emulsion (turbid/milky) and transparent gel/turbid viscous. High gel or viscous area was obtained with Tween 80 and surfactant mixture of Tween 80 and Span 80 with all oils. The results indicated that non-ionic surfactants and PG of different HLB values exhibited different pseudoternary phase diagram characteristics but no microemulsions originated from mineral and olive oils. The w/o emulsion occupied a large area in the ternary phase triangle when HLB value of the surfactant/Smix decreased. The o/w emulsion area was large with increasing HLB value of surfactant/Smix.

  11. Investigation of the phase relations in the U-Al-Ge ternary system: Influence of the Al/Ge substitution on the properties of the intermediate phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, C.; El Sayah, Z. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Chajewski, G. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Berche, A.; Dorcet, V. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pikul, A.P. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Pasturel, M. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Joanny, L. [ScanMAT – CMEBA, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Stepnik, B. [AREVA/CERCA, 10 Rue Juliette Récamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Tougait, O., E-mail: tougait@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Université de Lille, 59695 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2016-11-15

    The phase relations within the U-Al-Ge ternary system were studied for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25–100 at% U. The identification of the phases, their composition ranges and stability were determined by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The tie-lines and the solubility domains were determined for the U-Ge and U-Al binaries, the UAl{sub 3}-UGe{sub 3} solid-solution and for the unique ternary intermediate phase U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x}. The experimental isopleth section of the pseudo-binary UAl{sub 3}-UGe{sub 3} reveals an isomorphous solid solution based on the Cu{sub 3}Au-type below the solidus. The U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x} solid solution extends for −0.1≤x≤1.35 and −0.2≤x≤1.5 at 673 K and 1173 K respectively. It crystallizes in the I-centered tetragonal symmetry. The reciprocal lattice of several compositions of the U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x} solid solution was examined by electron diffraction at room temperature, revealing the presence of a c-glide plane. Their crystal structure was refined by single crystal x-ray diffraction suggesting an isomorphous solid solution best described with the non-centrosymmetric space group I4cm in the paramagnetic domain. The magnetic measurements confirm the ferromagnetic ordering of the solid solution U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x} with an increase of Tc with the Al content. The thermal variation of the specific heat bear out the magnetic transitions with some delocalized character of the uranium 5f electrons. - Graphical abstract: The phase relations within the U-Al-Ge ternary system were experimentally assessed for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25–100 at% U. A complete UAl{sub 3}-UGe{sub 3} solid-solution based on the Cu{sub 3}Au-type forms

  12. The Sr-poor part of the Sr–{Pd,Pt}–{Si,Ge} systems: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V.; Falmbigl, M.; Grytsiv, A.; Rogl, P., E-mail: peter.franz.rogl@univie.ac.at

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Phase diagrams of the Sr-poor part of Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Si (900 °C) and Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Ge (700 °C) systems were constructed. • The crystal structure for three novel compounds SrPd{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7}, SrPt{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7} and SrPd{sub 5.9}Si{sub 6.1} was refined. • DFT calculations predicted metallic behavior for SrPdSi{sub 3}, SrPtSi{sub 3}, SrPd{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7} and SrPd{sub 6}Si{sub 6}. - Abstract: Phase relations have been established by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) for the Sr-poor part of four ternary systems: Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Si at 900 °C and Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Ge at 700 °C. In the Sr–Pd–Si system the formation of the silicide SrPdSi{sub 3} (BaNiSn{sub 3}-type) was confirmed and a small homogeneity region was found. Furthermore, two novel compounds were detected and their crystal structure was refined from X-ray powder patterns: SrPd{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7} (AlB{sub 2}-type) and SrPd{sub 5.9}Si{sub 6.1} (own-type). In the Sr–Pt–Si ternary system a novel compound with AlB{sub 2}-type was discovered (SrPt{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7}), whereas SrPtSi{sub 3} with the BaNiSn{sub 3}-type was confirmed. Two more compounds were detected by EPMA, but their crystal structure remains unknown. In the Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Ge systems no new compounds were observed, but the existence of SrPdGe{sub 3} and SrPtGe{sub 3} (both adopt the BaNiSn{sub 3} structure type), and SrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}, crystallizing in the LaFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} structure type, was corroborated. For selected ternary silicides the electronic structure was evaluated by DFT calculations.

  13. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  14. Single polymer-based ternary electronic memory material and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Juan; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Hui-Ying; Wong, Jenlt; Sun, Hui-Bin; Dong, Xiao-Chen; Lin, Wen-Peng; Huang, Wei

    2012-06-05

    A ternary polymer memory device based on a single polymer with on-chain Ir(III) complexes is fabricated by combining multiple memory mechanisms into one system. Excellent ternary memory performances-low reading, writing, and erasing voltages and good stability for all three states-are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ternary interaction parameters in calphad solution models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleno, Luiz T.F., E-mail: luizeleno@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Schön, Claudio G., E-mail: schoen@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Computational Materials Science Laboratory. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2014-07-01

    For random, diluted, multicomponent solutions, the excess chemical potentials can be expanded in power series of the composition, with coefficients that are pressure- and temperature-dependent. For a binary system, this approach is equivalent to using polynomial truncated expansions, such as the Redlich-Kister series for describing integral thermodynamic quantities. For ternary systems, an equivalent expansion of the excess chemical potentials clearly justifies the inclusion of ternary interaction parameters, which arise naturally in the form of correction terms in higher-order power expansions. To demonstrate this, we carry out truncated polynomial expansions of the excess chemical potential up to the sixth power of the composition variables. (author)

  16. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium for eugenol + tert-butanol + water system at 303.15 and 323.15K and atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipto, Retno Kumala Hesti; Kuswandi, Wibawa, Gede

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium for eugenol + tert-butanol + water system at 303.15 and 323.15K and atmospheric pressure. Using 25 mL equilibrium cell equipped jacketted water connected to water bath to maintain equilibrium temperature constant. The procedure of this experiment was conducted by inserting mixture of eugenol + tert-butanol + water system at certain composition into equilibrium cell. The solution was stirred for 4 hours and then was allowed for 20 hours in order to separate aqueous and organic phases completely. The temperature equilibrium cell of and the atmosphere pressure were recorded as equilibrium temperature and pressure for each measurenment. The equilibrium compositions of each phase were analyzed using Gas Chromatography. The experimental data obtained in this work were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models with root mean square deviation between esperimental and calculated equilibrium compositions of 0.03% and 0.04% respectively.

  17. In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: Hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Changlu, E-mail: clshao@nenu.edu.cn; Li, Xinghua, E-mail: lixh781@nenu.edu.cn; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Miao, Fujun; Liu, Yichun

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: We describe a route to synthesize In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system with high efficiency visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system. • Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Easy photocatalyst separation and reuse. - Abstract: In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanosheets with 5–10 nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In{sub 2}S{sub 3} and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure.

  18. Binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the system ethylbenzene+styrene+3-methyl-N-butylpyridinium tetracyanoborate at vacuum conditions and liquid-liquid equilibrium data of their binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, Mark; Hermens, E.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, binary LLE data at 313.2, 333.2, and 353.2 K, binary VLE data in the pressure range of 3–30 kPa and ternary VLE data at 5, 10, and 15 kPa have been determined for the system ethylbenzene + styrene + [3-mebupy][B(CN)4]. The IL [3-mebupy][B(CN)4] can increase the relative volatility of

  19. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  20. Sn–Ag–Cu nanosolders: Melting behavior and phase diagram prediction in the Sn-rich corner of the ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Vrestal, Jan; Yakymovych, Andriy; Richter, Klaus W.; Ipser, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Melting temperatures of Sn–Ag–Cu (SAC) alloys in the Sn-rich corner are of interest for lead-free soldering. At the same time, nanoparticle solders with depressed melting temperatures close to the Sn–Pb eutectic temperature have received increasing attention. Recently, the phase stability of nanoparticles has been the subject of plenty of theoretical and empirical investigations. In the present study, SAC nanoparticles of various sizes have been synthesized via chemical reduction and the size dependent melting point depression of these particles has been specified experimentally. The liquidus projection in the Sn-rich corner of the ternary SAC system has also been calculated as a function of particle size, based on the CALPHAD-approach. The calculated melting temperatures were compared with those obtained experimentally and with values reported in the literature, which revealed good agreement. The model also predicts that with decreasing particle size, the eutectic composition shifts towards the Sn-rich corner. PMID:26082567

  1. Solubility relations in the ternary system NaCl-CsCl-H2O at 1 atm. 1. Solubilities of halite from 20 to 100 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lee, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Solubilities of halite in the ternary system NaCl-CsCl-H2O have been determined by the visual polythermal method at 1 atm from 20 to 100??C along five constant CsCl/(CsCl + H2O) weight ratio lines. These five constant weight ratios are 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The maximum uncertainties in these measurements are ??0.02 wt % NaCl and ??0.15??C. The data along each constant CsCl/(CsCl + H2O) weight ratio line were regressed to a smooth curve. The maximum deviation of the measured solubilities from the smooth curves is 0.06 wt % NaCl. Isothermal solubilities of halite were calculated from smoothed curves at 25, 50, and 75??C.

  2. Phase equilibria in a ternary fullerenol-d(C60(OH)22-24)-SmCl3-H2O system at 25°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'ev, G. O.; Keskinov, V. A.; Semenov, K. N.; Charykov, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The solubility in a ternary fullerenol-d (C60(OH)22-24)-SmCl3-H2O system at 25°C is studied via isothermal saturation in ampules. The solubility diagram is shown to be a simple eutonic one that consists of two branches corresponding to the crystallization of fullerenol-d (C60(OH)22-24 · 30H2O) and samarium(III) chloride SmCl3 · 6H2O crystallohydrates and contains one nonvariant eutonic point corresponding to saturation with both crystallohydrates. The long branch of C60(OH)22-24 · 30H2O crystallization shows the effect of fullerenol-d salting out of saturated solutions; in contrast, the short branch of SmCl3 · 6H2O crystallization shows the pronounced salting-in effect of samarium(III) chloride.

  3. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of dimethyl carbonate + 2-propanol + water system at 303.15 and 313.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Rizqy Romadhona; Mustain, Asalil; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Gunardi, Ignatius; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    In this work, liquid-liquid equilibria data of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) + 2-propanol + water system were accurately determined at 303.15 and 313.15 K using stirred and jacketed equilibrium cell under atmospheric pressure. The reliabilities of the experimental data were confirmed using Bachman-Brown correlation giving r-squared value of 0.9993 and 0.9983 at 303.15 and 313.15 K, respectively. Experimental data obtained in this work exhibit Treybal's Type I ternary phase behavior. The selectivity and distribution coefficient of DMC increases with addition of DMC concentration in the organic phase. On the other hand, the effect of temperature to phase boundary was found to be not significant. The data were correlated well using the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models with root-mean-square deviation of 1.5% and 1.3%, respectively.

  4. Phase separation in ternary system of Ni{sub 3}Mn{sub x}Al{sub 1−x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, N.V., E-mail: nvolkova@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620137 (Russian Federation); Kourov, N.I. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620137 (Russian Federation); Marchenkov, V.V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620137 (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    The concentration dependence of the resistance of the alloys of Ni{sub 3}Mn{sub x}Al{sub 1−x} system is described in the framework of the percolation theory in the model of an effective medium. The regions corresponding to the alloys of terminal compositions are present in the entire volume of the samples. The formation of an infinite cluster occurs near the percolation threshold x=0.3 for the phase of the Ni{sub 3}Al and x=0.7 for the phase of the Ni{sub 3}Mn type. This makes it possible to suppose that in the ternary Ni{sub 3}Mn{sub x}Al{sub 1−x} alloys in the intermediate region of concentrations there is realized an inhomogeneous heterophase structure.

  5. Combustion synthesis in the Ni–Al–Nb ternary system: A Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Sytschev

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of intermetallics, using the thermal explosion mode, in the Ni-Al-Nb ternary system is presented, with a 40:40:20 atomic ratio. The kinetic pathway is determined using Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction, with a time-step resolution of 1 s and demonstrated a first formation of the B2 NiAl structure followed by progressive dissolution of Nb to yield NiAlNb intermetallic Laves phase, representing 35 w% of the final product. SEM observations show a double dendritic (coarse and fine microstructure, resulting from eutectic crystallization. Due to a high cooling rate, Nb dissolution is not complete at the surface, and yields slightly more complex microstructure, including the Ni2AlNb Geissler phase, the (Ni,Al2Nb Laves phase, and (Ni, Al7Nb6.

  6. Superconductivity and magnetic ordering in the mixed ternary ErxY1−xRh1.1Sn3.6 system

    OpenAIRE

    Houwman, Evert Pieter; van de Pasch, A.W.M.; Flokstra, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    The superconducting transition temperature Tc as well as the magnetic ordering temperature Tm have been determined in the mixed ternary compound ErxY1−xRh1.1Sn3.6 as a function of the Er concentration. Tc decreases from 3.13 K for YRh1.1Sn3.6 to 1.1K for ErRh1.1Sn3.6. Reentrant superconductivity has been found for x > 0.6. The application of the models of Abrikosov and Gorkov, Maekawa and Tachiki, and Roshen and Ruvalds to this system is discussed. Tc as function of the concentration x is bes...

  7. pH-Specific structural speciation of the ternary V(V)-peroxido-betaine system: a chemical reactivity-structure correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C; Kioseoglou, E; Venetis, J; Psycharis, V; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Voyiatzis, G; Bertmer, M; Mateescu, C; Salifoglou, A

    2012-06-04

    Vanadium involvement in cellular processes requires deep understanding of the nature and properties of its soluble and bioavailable forms arising in aqueous speciations of binary and ternary systems. In an effort to understand the ternary vanadium-H(2)O(2)-ligand interactions relevant to that metal ion's biological role, synthetic efforts were launched involving the physiological ligands betaine (Me(3)N(+)CH(2)CO(2)(-)) and H(2)O(2). In a pH-specific fashion, V(2)O(5), betaine, and H(2)O(2) reacted and afforded three new, unusual, and unique compounds, consistent with the molecular formulation K(2)[V(2)O(2)(O(2))(4){(CH(3))(3)NCH(2)CO(2))}]·H(2)O (1), (NH(4))(2)[V(2)O(2)(O(2))(4){(CH(3))(3)NCH(2)CO(2))}]·0.75H(2)O (2), and {Na(2)[V(2)O(2)(O(2))(4){(CH(3))(3)NCH(2)CO(2))}(2)]}(n)·4nH(2)O (3). All complexes 1-3 were characterized by elemental analysis; UV/visible, FT-IR, Raman, and NMR spectroscopy in solution and the solid state; cyclic voltammetry; TGA-DTG; and X-ray crystallography. The structures of 1 and 2 reveal the presence of unusual ternary dinuclear vanadium-tetraperoxido-betaine complexes containing [(V(V)═O)(O(2))(2)] units interacting through long V-O bonds. The two V(V) ions are bridged through the oxygen terminal of one of the peroxide groups bound to the vanadium centers. The betaine ligand binds only one of the two V(V) ions. In the case of the third complex 3, the two vanadium centers are not immediate neighbors, with Na(+) ions (a) acting as efficient oxygen anchors and through Na-O bonds holding the two vanadium ions in place and (b) providing for oxygen-containing ligand binding leading to a polymeric lattice. In 1 and 3, interesting 2D (honeycomb) and 1D (zigzag chains) topologies of potassium nine-coordinate polyhedra (1) and sodium octahedra (3), respectively, form. The collective physicochemical properties of the three ternary species 1-3 project the chemical role of the low molecular mass biosubstrate betaine in binding V

  8. An attempt to stabilize tanshinone IIA solid dispersion by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO3 and poloxamer 188.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jiang, Yan-Rong; Ding, Dong-Mei; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-04-01

    Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) on solid dispersions (SDs) has thermodynamical instability of amorphous drug. Ternary solid dispersions (tSDs) can extend the stability of the amorphous form of drug. Poloxamer 188 was used as a SD carrier. Nano-CaCO3 played an important role in adsorption of biomolecules and is being developed for a host of biotechnological applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution behavior and accelerated stability of TSIIA on solid dispersions (SDs) by the use of ternary systems with nano-CaCO3 and poloxamer 188. The TSIIA tSDs were prepared by a spray-drying method. First, the effect of combination of poloxamer 188 and nano-CaCO3 on TSIIA dissolution was studied. Subsequently, a set of complementary techniques (DSC, XRPD, SEM and FTIR) was used to monitor the physical changes of TSIIA in the SDs. Finally, stability test was carried out under the conditions 40°C/75% RH for 6 months. The characterization of tSDs by differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) showed that TSIIA was present in its amorphous form. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) suggested the presence of interactions between TSIIA and carriers in tSDs. Improvement in the dissolution rate was observed for all SDs. The stability study conducted on SDs with nano-CaCO3 showed stable drug content and dissolution behavior, over the period of 6 months as compared with freshly prepared SDs. SDs preparation with nano-CaCO3 and poloxamer 188 may be a promising approach to enhance the dissolution and stability of TSIIA.

  9. A microstructure-composition map of a ternary liquid/liquid/particle system with partially-wetting particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Roell, David; Echavarria, Martin; Velankar, Sachin S

    2017-11-22

    We examine the effect of composition on the morphology of a ternary mixture comprising two molten polymeric liquid phases (polyisobutylene and polyethylene oxide) and micron-scale spherical silica particles. The silica particles were treated with silanes to make them partially wetted by both polymers. Particle loadings up to 30 vol% are examined while varying the fluid phase ratios across a wide range. Numerous effects of particle addition are catalogued, stabilization of Pickering emulsions and of interfacially-jammed co-continuous microstructures, meniscus-bridging of particles, particle-induced coalescence of the dispersed phase, and significant shifts in the phase inversion composition. Many of the effects are asymmetric, for example particle-induced coalescence is more severe and drop sizes are larger when polyisobutylene is the continuous phase, and particles promote phase continuity of the polyethylene oxide. These asymmetries are likely attributable to a slight preferential wettability of the particles towards the polyethylene oxide. A state map is constructed which classifies the various microstructures within a triangular composition diagram. Comparisons are made between this diagram vs. a previous one constructed for the case when particles are fully-wetted by polyethylene oxide.

  10. Experimental study of the phase relations in the Fe-Cr-Si ternary system at 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Xinming; Liu, Yongxiong; Wu, Yu; Zhao, Manxiu; Yin, Fucheng [Xiangtan Univ., Hunan (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Xiangtan Univ., Hunan (China). Key Lab. of Materials Design and Preparation Technology of Hunan Province

    2014-09-15

    The 700 C isothermal section of the Fe-Cr-Si ternary phase diagram has been determined experimentally by means of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Ten three-phase regions exist in the 700 C isothermal section. The binary σ phase contains 0-17.6 at.% Si and 31.4-59.2 at.% Cr; the Fe{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase is stable at 700 C because of the dissolution of Cr. At this temperature, Fe and Cr cannot be entirely substituted by each other to form the FeSi or CrSi phases: the maximum possible Cr content in FeSi{sub 2}, Fe{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and D0{sub 3} is 3.9, 20.7 and 15.2 at.%, respectively, and the maximum soluble Fe in CrSi{sub 2}, Cr{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and Cr{sub 3}Si is 2.5, 20.4 and 16.8 at.%, respectively.

  11. Spectral and theoretical study on complexation of sulfamethoxazole with β- and HPβ-cyclodextrins in binary and ternary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Beena; Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Al-Hajri, Aalia; Al Bishri, Nahed Surur S.; Al-Rwashda, Nathir

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion complexes of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and (2-hydroxypropyl) β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) were prepared. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry, ESI-MS, were used to investigate and characterize the inclusion complexation of SMX with cyclodextrins in solutions. Whereas in the solid state the complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Raman techniques. Enhanced twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), emission as well as local excited (LE) bands were observed upon addition of HPβCD indicate that SMX enters deeper into the cyclodextrins cavity. The stoichiometries and association constants of these complexes have been determined by monitoring the fluorescence data. The effect of presence of ternary components like arginine and cysteine on the complexation efficiency of SMX with cyclodextrins was investigated. Molecular Dynamic simulations were also performed to shed an atomistic insight into the complexation mechanism. The results obtained showed that complexes of SMX with both cyclodextrins are stabilized in aqueous media by strong hydrogen bonding interactions.

  12. Ternary complexes of folate-PEG-appended dendrimer (G4)/α-cyclodextrin conjugate, siRNA and low-molecular-weight polysaccharide sacran as a novel tumor-selective siRNA delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Ayumu; Higashi, Taishi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2017-06-01

    We previously developed a tumor-selective siRNA carrier by preparing polyamidoamine dendrimer (generation 4, G4) conjugates with α-cyclodextrin and folate-polyethylene glycol (Fol-PαC (G4)). In the present study, we developed ternary complexes of Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA with low-molecular-weight-sacrans to achieve more effective siRNA transfer activity. Among the different molecular-weight sacrans, i.e. sacran 100, 1000 and 10,000 (MW 44,889Da, 943,692Da and 1,488,281Da, respectively), sacran 100 significantly increased the cellular uptake and the RNAi effects of Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA binary complex with negligible cytotoxicity in KB cells (folate receptor-α positive cells). In addition, the ζ-potential and particle size of Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA complex were decreased by the ternary complexation with sacran 100. Importantly, the in vivo RNAi effect of the ternary complex after the intravenous administration to tumor-bearing BALB/c mice was significantly higher than that of the binary complex. In conclusion, Fol-PαC (G4)/siRNA/sacran 100 ternary complex has a potential as a novel tumor-selective siRNA delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase equilibria in the Mo-Fe-P system at 800 °C and structure of ternary phosphide (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))3P (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Lomnytska, Yaroslava F; Dzevenko, Mariya V; Stoyko, Stanislav S; Mar, Arthur

    2013-01-18

    Construction of the isothermal section in the metal-rich portion (ternary phases: (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(2)P (x = 0.30-0.82) and (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(3)P (x = 0.10-0.15). The occurrence of a Co(2)Si-type ternary phase (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(2)P, which straddles the equiatomic composition MoFeP, is common to other ternary transition-metal phosphide systems. However, the ternary phase (Mo(1-x)Fe(x))(3)P is unusual because it is distinct from the binary phase Mo(3)P, notwithstanding their similar compositions and structures. The relationship has been clarified through single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies on Mo(3)P (α-V(3)S-type, space group I42m, a = 9.7925(11) Å, c = 4.8246(6) Å) and (Mo(0.85)Fe(0.15))(3)P (Ni(3)P-type, space group I4, a = 9.6982(8) Å, c = 4.7590(4) Å) at -100 °C. Representation in terms of nets containing fused triangles provides a pathway to transform these closely related structures through twisting. Band structure calculations support the adoption of these structure types and the site preference of Fe atoms. Electrical resistivity measurements on (Mo(0.85)Fe(0.15))(3)P reveal metallic behavior but no superconducting transition.

  14. Phase equilibria in ternary (carbon dioxide + tetrahydrofuran + water) system in hydrate-forming region: Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and the occurrence of pseudo-retrograde hydrate phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabil, Khalik M. [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Process Equipment, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Eng, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Chemical Engineering Programme, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Witkamp, Geert-Jan [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Process Equipment, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Eng, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Peters, Cor J., E-mail: C.J.Peters@tudelft.n [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Process Equipment, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Eng, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Chemical Engineering Programme, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); The Petroleum Institute, Chemical Engineering Program, Bu Hasa Building, Room 2203, P.O. Box 2203, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-01-15

    In the present work, the three- and four-phase hydrate equilibria of (carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) + tetrahydrofuran (THF) + water) system are measured by using Cailletet equipment in the temperature and pressure range of (272 to 292) K and (1.0 to 7.5) MPa, respectively, at different CO{sub 2} concentration. Throughout the study, the concentration of THF is kept constant at 5 mol% in the aqueous solution. In addition, the fluid phase transitions of L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W}-L{sub V} (bubble point) and L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W}-V (dew point) are determined when they are present in the ternary system. For comparison, the three-phase hydrate equilibria of binary (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O) are also measured. Experimental measurements show that the addition of THF as a hydrate promoter extends hydrate stability region by elevating the hydrate equilibrium temperature at a specified pressure. The three-phase equilibrium line H-L{sub W}-V is found to be independent of the overall concentration of CO{sub 2}. Contradictory, at higher pressure, the phase equilibria of the systems are significantly influenced by the overall concentration of CO{sub 2} in the systems. A liquid-liquid phase split is observed at overall concentration of CO{sub 2} as low as 3 mol% at elevated pressure. The region is bounded by the bubble-points line (L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W}-L{sub V}), dew points line (L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W} + V) and the four-phase equilibrium line (H + L{sub W} + L{sub V} + V). At higher overall concentration of CO{sub 2} in the ternary system, experimental measurements show that pseudo-retrograde behaviour exists at pressure between (2.5 and 5) MPa at temperature of 290.8 K.

  15. Molecular thermodynamic analysis for assessing the relationship between reentrant swelling behavior and ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanometer-sized gel particles in a water-tetrahydrofuran cosolvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang Chul; Bae, Young Chan

    2012-02-23

    The influence of phase separation on swelling behavior was investigated based on the thermodynamic framework of reswelling phenomena. The cloud-point for a ternary system of water(1)-tetrahydrofuran (THF)(2)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(3) was examined by thermo-optical analysis (TOA). Nanometer-sized N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) gel particles were prepared by precipitation polymerization, and their swelling behaviors were determined using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). NIPA gel particles underwent reswelling when the ratio of water to THF was varied. First, the modified double lattice model (MDL) was employed to determine ternary interaction energy parameters for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of linear poly-NIPA in a water-THF cosolvent system. The reentrant swelling equilibria of the NIPA gel in the water-THF system were then calculated using the interaction energy parameters. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Nb-based in situ composites from Nb-Si-Ti ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Peng, L.M. [Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China)], E-mail: penglm@ustc.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    This study deals with the Nb-niobium silicide-based composites developed by the hot-pressing of Nb-Si-Ti ternary powder mixtures with a fixed Ti addition (6 at.%) and Si content ranging from hypereutectic (11 at.%) to near-eutectic compositions (18 at.%). The effects of Si content, Ti addition and strain rates on the sample microstructural characterization, flexural strength, fracture toughness, quasi-static compressive deformation and failure processes were investigated. It was revealed that the volume fraction of silicides increased with increasing Si content, and most of the Ti atoms dissolved into the niobium silicides to form (Nb,Ti){sub 5}Si{sub 3} solid solutions instead of binary titanium silicides. The experimental evidence showed that a moderate improvement in the flexural strength, fracture toughness and compressive yield stress of the composites was achieved by the addition of Ti. Higher Si additions produced a much more remarkable enhancement in the compressive yield stress and bulk hardness, whereas both the flexural strength and fracture toughness decreased with increasing Si content owing to the existence of residual porosities in the samples. The composites showed remarkable superiority to the arc-melted Nb-Si alloys and monolithic niobium silicides in fracture toughness (8.3-13.0MPa{radical}(m) vs. 4.5MPa{radical}(m)), where the toughening effect was attributed mainly to crack bridging and crack deflection by the remaining ductile Nb phase. Moreover, quasi-static uniaxial compression tests at strain rates between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -3} s{sup -1} indicated that the deformation behavior and failure processes were significantly affected by Si content and strain rates. The strain-rate-hardening behavior for all the strain rates was observed in the composite materials and the strain-rate sensitivity decreased with increasing Si content. At a lower strain rate, the composite materials with a hypoeutectic Si composition failed with a pseudoplastic

  17. Structural Characteristics of Homogeneous Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid-HNO3-H2O Ternary System: Experimental Studies and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Yang, Y Isaac; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-06-16

    The solubility of water in the hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) increases significantly in the presence of HNO3. [C2mim][NTf2] is completely miscible with HNO3 but immiscible with water. The triangular phase diagram of the ternary system [C2mim][NTf2]-HNO3-H2O was determined at 300.1 K. The homogeneous [C2mim][NTf2]-HNO3-H2O phase is thermodynamically stable, while it can be separated into two phases with an increase of water content. Experiments (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the interaction between [C2mim][NTf2], HNO3, and water in the homogeneous phase. It was found that NO3(-) ions interact with both C2mim(+) and water via H-bonding and act as a "bridge" to induce a large amount of water to be dissolved in the hydrophobic IL phase. This confirms that the complexes [C2mim-NTf2-C2mim](+) and [NTf2-C2mim-NTf2](-) exist in the homogeneous [C2mim][NTf2]-HNO3-H2O system at the concentration of HNO3 up to 27.01 wt % and of water as high as 20.74 wt %.

  18. Preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersion of biopharmaceutics classification system class II model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidi, Sharan K; Jena, Sunil K; Ahuja, Bhupesh K; Devasari, Naresh; Suresh, Sarasija

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a novel spray-dried ternary solid dispersion (TSD) on the dissolution rate and bioavailability of a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II model drug, atorvastatin calcium trihydrate (ATC), and evaluate its in-vitro and in-vivo performance. TSD of ATC was prepared by spray-drying method employing ethanol/water solvent systems. The TSD formulations, composed of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5) and nicotinamide, were optimized by rotatable central composite design. Physicochemical characterization along with dissolution, stability and pharmacokinetic study of optimized TSD was evaluated. The optimized TSD was found to be amorphous with spherical shape morphology. It exhibited a fourfold increase in dissolution rate in comparison to ATC, with a considerable enhancement in oral bioavailability (relative bioavailability of 134.11%). Physicochemical characterization and dissolution study of optimized TSD at the end of stability studies clearly indicated that the stability of optimized TSD was due to hydrogen bonding between drug and HPMC E5 and nicotinamide. This bonding remained unaffected even under stressful conditions of high temperature and humidity. The TSD exhibits a significant increase in dissolution rate, and for this reason should be useful as an efficacious tool to enhance the bioavailability of BCS class II drug molecule, ATC. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Polymer-ionic liquid ternary systems for Li-battery electrolytes: Molecular dynamics studies of LiTFSI in a EMIm-TFSI and PEO blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luciano T; Sun, Bing; Jeschull, Fabian; Brandell, Daniel

    2015-07-14

    This paper presents atomistic molecular dynamics simulation studies of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide (LiTFSI) in a blend of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIm)-TFSI and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), which is a promising electrolyte material for Li- and Li-ion batteries. Simulations of 100 ns were performed for temperatures between 303 K and 423 K, for a Li:ether oxygen ratio of 1:16, and for PEO chains with 26 EO repeating units. Li(+) coordination and transportation were studied in the ternary electrolyte system, i.e., PEO16LiTFSI⋅1.0 EMImTFSI, by applying three different force field models and are here compared to relevant simulation and experimental data. The force fields generated significantly different results, where a scaled charge model displayed the most reasonable comparisons with previous work and overall consistency. It is generally seen that the Li cations are primarily coordinated to polymer chains and less coupled to TFSI anion. The addition of EMImTFSI in the electrolyte system enhances Li diffusion, associated to the enhanced TFSI dynamics observed when increasing the overall TFSI anion concentration in the polymer matrix.

  20. Polymer-ionic liquid ternary systems for Li-battery electrolytes: Molecular dynamics studies of LiTFSI in a EMIm-TFSI and PEO blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Luciano T., E-mail: ltcosta@id.uff.br [Instituto de Química-Departamento de Físico-Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de São João Batista s/n CEP, 24020-150 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sun, Bing; Jeschull, Fabian; Brandell, Daniel [Department of Chemistry—Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-07-14

    This paper presents atomistic molecular dynamics simulation studies of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide (LiTFSI) in a blend of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIm)-TFSI and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), which is a promising electrolyte material for Li- and Li-ion batteries. Simulations of 100 ns were performed for temperatures between 303 K and 423 K, for a Li:ether oxygen ratio of 1:16, and for PEO chains with 26 EO repeating units. Li{sup +} coordination and transportation were studied in the ternary electrolyte system, i.e., PEO{sub 16}LiTFSI⋅1.0 EMImTFSI, by applying three different force field models and are here compared to relevant simulation and experimental data. The force fields generated significantly different results, where a scaled charge model displayed the most reasonable comparisons with previous work and overall consistency. It is generally seen that the Li cations are primarily coordinated to polymer chains and less coupled to TFSI anion. The addition of EMImTFSI in the electrolyte system enhances Li diffusion, associated to the enhanced TFSI dynamics observed when increasing the overall TFSI anion concentration in the polymer matrix.

  1. Measurement of (liquid + liquid) equilibria for ternary systems of (N-formylmorpholine + benzene + cyclohexane) at temperatures (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedein Ghannad, S. MohammadReza [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader, E-mail: mnlotfollahi@semnan.ac.i [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighi Asl, Ali [School of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: LLE were measured for (NFM+benzene+cyclohexane) at temperatures (303.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K. UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to correlate the LLE. The reliability of the experimental data was tested by the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The obtained RMSDs are 0.0367 for NRTL model and 0.0539 for UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This work demonstrates the ability of N-formylmorpholine (NFM) to act as an extraction solvent for the removal of benzene from its mixture with cyclohexane. The (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) were measured for a ternary system of {l_brace}N-formylmorpholine (NFM) + benzene + cyclohexane{r_brace} under atmospheric pressure and at temperatures (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The experimental distribution coefficients (K) and selectivity factors (S) were obtained to reveal the extractive effectiveness of the solvent for separation of benzene from cyclohexane. The LLE results for the system studied indicate that increasing temperature decreases selectivity of the solvent. The reliability of the experimental results was tested by applying the Othmer-Tobias correlation. In addition, the universal quasichemical activity coefficient (UNIQUAC) and the non-random two liquids equation (NRTL) were used to correlate the LLE data using the interaction parameters determined from the experimental data. The root mean square deviations (RMSDs) obtained comparing calculated and experimental two-phase compositions are 0.0367 for the NRTL model and 0.0539 for the UNIQUAC model.

  2. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary systems (cycloalkane + ethylbenzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolim ethylsulfate) at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica de la Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, LSRE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Facultade de Engenharia, Universidade de Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Calvar, Noelia, E-mail: noecs@uvigo.e [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, LSRE, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Facultade de Engenharia, Universidade de Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Dominguez, Irene; Dominguez, Angeles [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica de la Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: [EMim][ESO{sub 4}] was studied as solvent to extract ethylbenzene from cycloalkanes. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were measured at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. [EMim][ESO{sub 4}] can be used as solvent for the studied (liquid + liquid) extraction. - Abstract: In this paper, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (cyclohexane, or cyclooctane, or methylcyclohexane + ethylbenzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate) have been determined experimentally at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The solubility curves and the tie-line compositions of the conjugate phases were obtained by means of density. The degree of consistency of the tie-lines was tested using the Othmer-Tobias equation, and the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) and the Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) models were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the systems. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were evaluated for the immiscible region.

  3. Competitive adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from their binary and ternary acidic systems using tourmaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibin; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Jingting; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Hongwen

    2013-10-15

    The adsorption of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions in binary and ternary component systems by tourmaline was investigated. Kinetic data were accurately fitted to pseudo-second order and internal diffusion models, which indicated that the adsorption of heavy metals occurred on the interior surface of the sorbent and internal diffusion was the controlling mechanism during heavy metal ion adsorption but was not the only rate-controlling step. Additionally, tourmaline had a very good adsorption capacity for Cd(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) in multi-component aqueous solutions at strongly acidic pH values (in contrast to industrial wastewater pH values). This good adsorption capacity is attributed to the fact that tourmaline can automatically adjust the pH values of acidic (except pH 2.0 and 3.0), neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions to 6.0. Adsorption isotherms and separation factors showed that tourmaline displays a high selectivity toward one metal in a two-component or a three-component system with an affinity order of Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). Thermodynamic parameters indicated that heavy metal adsorption was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. Therefore, tourmaline should be explored as a material for removing pollutants from the strongly acidic wastewater. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}3-methyl pentane + cyclopentane + methanol{r_brace} ternary system at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo de Doz, Monica B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)], E-mail: mgramajo@herrera.unt.edu.ar; Cases, Alicia M.; Bonatti, Carlos M.; Solimo, Horacio N. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Avenida Independencia 1800, 4000 Tucuman (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    In order to show the influence of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) of the {l_brace}3-methyl pentane (1) + cyclopentane (2) + methanol (3){r_brace} ternary system, equilibrium results at T = (293.15, 297.15, and 299.15) K are reported. The effect of the temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium is determined and discussed. Experimental results show that this ternary system is completely homogeneous beyond T = 300 K. All chemicals were quantified by gas chromatography using a thermal conductivity detector. The tie line results were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method, and the plait point coordinates for the three temperatures were estimated. Experimental values for the ternary system are compared with values calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations, and predicted by means of the UNIFAC group contribution method. It is found that the UNIQUAC and NRTL models provide similar good correlations of the solubility curve at these three temperatures. Finally, the UNIFAC model predicts binodal band type curves in the range of temperatures studied here, similar to those observed for systems classified by Treybal as type 2, instead of type 1 as experimentally observed. Distribution coefficients were also analysed through distribution curves.

  5. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO system at 1773 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Phase relationships in the LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs’ phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH)3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs’ phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram. PMID:27877506

  6. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO system at 1773 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Kobayashi and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase relationships in the LaO1.5–SiO2–MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs' phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs' phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram.

  7. Phase relationships in the quasi-ternary LaO1.5-SiO2-MgO system at 1773 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2012-08-01

    Phase relationships in the LaO 1.5 -SiO 2 -MgO quasi-ternary system at 1773 K were investigated by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis applying single- and multiple-phase Rietveld methods. Most of the formed phases satisfied the Gibbs' phase rule, except for the samples containing LaO 1.5 and a liquid phase at 1773 K. The detection of segregated MgO phases was difficult in the XRD profiles of the compositional samples around the oxyapatite single phase because the MgO peaks were weak and heavily overlapped by peaks from the oxyapatite and La(OH) 3 phases. The solid solubility limit of MgO in oxyapatite was determined not only from the chemical composition of the oxyapatite phase, which was confirmed by XRD, but also from several phase boundary compositions among the two-phase and three-phase regions based on the Gibbs' phase rule. Formation of a liquid phase at 1773 K was observed in a wide range of compositions and considered when constructing the phase diagram.

  8. Superconductivity and magnetic ordering in the mixed ternary Er xY 1-xRh 1.1Sn 3.6 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, E. P.; van de Pasch, A. W. M.; Flokstra, J.

    1987-07-01

    The superconducting transition temperature Tc as well as the magnetic ordering temperature Tm have been determined in the mixed ternary compound Er xY 1-xRh 1.1Sn 3.6 as a function of the Er concentration. Tc decreases from 3.13 K for YRh 1.1Sn 3.6 to 1.1K for ErRh 1.1Sn 3.6. Reentrant superconductivity has been found for x > 0.6. The application of the models of Abrikosov and Gorkov, Maekawa and Tachiki, and Roshen and Ruvalds to this system is discussed. Tc as function of the concentration x is best described by the model of Roshen and Ruvalds assuming a ferromagnetic interaction between the spins. The parameter I2N(0), arising from electron spin, is found to be 0.088 K. The ferromagnetic ordering temperature dependence is described by the theory of Oguchi and Ono, using an effective coordination number z = 6 and an exchange constant of J‧ = 0.30 K.

  9. Approximately Ternary Homomorphisms on C*-Ternary Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon Wha Shim

    2013-01-01

    functional equation: fx2-x1/3+fx1-3x3/3+f3x1+3x3-x2/3=fx1, by the direct method. Under the conditions in the main theorems, we can show that the related mappings must be zero. In this paper, we correct the conditions and prove the corrected theorems. Furthermore, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability and the superstability of C*-ternary homomorphisms and C*-ternary derivations on C*-ternary algebras by using a fixed point approach.

  10. Ternary Electrochemiluminescence System Based on Rubrene Microrods as Luminophore and Pt Nanomaterials as Coreaction Accelerator for Ultrasensitive Detection of MicroRNA from Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Li; Tang, Zhi-Ling; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2017-09-05

    As the only endogenous coreactant in the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) system, the dissolved O 2 was the ideal candidate due to the mild reaction and easy operation, but compared to S 2 O 8 2- , the dissolved O 2 with weaker redox activity suffers from the poor enhancement effect of the luminophore, which restricted the further application in bioanalysis. Here, a high-intense ECL signal was gained by the employing of Pt nanomaterials as a coreaction accelerator to generate more of the intermediate of dissolved O 2 to promote the coreaction efficiency. On the basis of a new ternary ECL system of Pt nanomaterials as the coreaction accelerator, dissolved O 2 as the coreactant, and a neotype rubrene microrods as the luminophore, an efficient "on-off-on" solid-state ECL switch platfrom was designed for ultrasensitive microRNA (miRNA) detection with a background reduction strategy of ferrocene-labeled single-stranded DNA (Fc-DNA) as a quencher. In the presence of miRNA 141, the Pt nanoparticles labeled hairpin (HP1/PtNPs) was opened to produce plenty of Pt nanoparticles labeled output DNA (S1/PtNPs) and release the miRNA-141 to participate in the next cycle. Then, the S1/PtNPs were captured on the surface of the electrode by the complementary strand to obtain the super "signal on" state with extremely high ECL signal. This novel solid-state ECL platform exhibited excellent sensitivity from 10 aM to 100 pM with a detection limit of 2.1 aM, which provided a new approach for ultrasensitive ECL bioanalysis.

  11. From Incidental, Mechanically-Induced Arrhythmias to Reflex-Defined Arrhythmogenicity: On The Track of The Ternary Reflex System Resemblance to The "Infancy" of New Era or Rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirbys, Petras

    2016-01-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias remains a matter of intense investigation. Though evolving, the contemporary explanations do not encompass all aspects of arrhythmogenicity. An improved understanding of arrhythmia substrate is needed to augment therapeutic capabilities. Our observation and literature sources demonstrate relatively high incidence of transitory arrhythmias which are non-intentionally generated by the endocardial lead/catheter manipulation. These findings are interesting and potentially may crystallize the reflex-dependent proarrhythmic cardiac activity. Herein we suggest the "reflexogenic arrhythmogenicity" concept extending an overall spectrum of known hypotheses. Cardiovascular reflex action can be categorized into three-tiered levels - intra-cellular, inter-cellular and inter-organic. The first two levels of the triplicate system reside within the cardiac anatomical landmarks (in fact intramurally, intra-organically), however the third one implicates central (cerebral) activity which boomerangs back via centripetal and centrifugal connections. These levels likely compose synoptic ternary reflex set system which may be validated in future studies. To hypothesize, coordinated mutual reciprocity of reflex activity results in stabilization of heart rhythm in robust heart. Any stressful cardiac event may lead to the shift of the rhythm toward unfavorable clinical entity probably via the loss of the influence of dominant reflex. Overall, an interaction and likely intrinsic inter-tiered competition along with possible interplay between physiological and pathological reflexes may be treated as contributing factors for the inception and maintaining of arrhythmias and cardiac performance as well. These assumptions await further documentation. If such a tenet were recognized, the changes in the clinical approach to arrhythmia management might be anticipated, preferably by selective reflex suppression or

  12. Study of fatigue and fracture behavior of NbCr{sub 2}-based alloys: Phase stability in Nb-Cr-Ni ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    Phase stability in a ternary Nb-Cr-Ni Laves phase system was studied in this paper. Their previous study in NbCr{sub 2}-based transition-metal Laves phases has shown that the average electron concentration factor, e/a, is the dominating factor in controlling the phase stability of NbCr{sub 2}-based Laves phases when the atomic size ratios are kept identical. Since Ni has ten out-shell electrons, the substitution of Ni for Cr in NbCr{sub 2} will increase the average electron concentration of the alloy, thus leading to the change of the crystal structures from C15 to C14. In this paper, a number of pseudo-binary Nb(Cr,Ni){sub 2} alloys were prepared, and the crystal structures of the alloys after a long heat-treatment at 1000 C as a function of the Ni content were determined by the X-ray diffraction technique. The boundaries of the C15/C14 transition were determined and compared to their previous predictions. It was found that the electron concentration and phase stability correlation is obeyed in the Nb-Cr-Ni system. However, the e/a ratio corresponding to the C15/C14 phase transition was found to move to a higher value than the predicted one. The changes in the lattice constant, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also determined as a function of the Ni content, which were discussed in light of the phase stability difference of the alloys.

  13. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  14. Liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and ternary polymer solutions with PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Thomas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    are used for investigating the correlative and predictive capabilities of the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. The investigation shows that the model correlates well experimental LLE data for binary as well as ternary systems but further predicts the behavior of the ternary systems with reasonably good......Two algorithms for evaluating liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) for binary and ternary polymer solutions are presented. The binary algorithm provides the temperature versus concentration cloud-point curve at fixed pressure, whereas the ternary algorithm provides component 1 versus component 2...

  15. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, M.A.; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials

  16. Investigations of the ternary system beryllium-carbon-tungsten and analyses of beryllium on carbon surfaces; Untersuchung des ternaeren Systems Beryllium-Kohlenstoff-Wolfram und Betrachtungen von Beryllium auf Kohlenstoffoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Florian

    2009-05-25

    Beryllium, carbon and tungsten are planned to be used as first wall materials in the future fusion reactor ITER. The aim of this work is a characterization of mixed material formation induced by thermal load. To this end, model systems (layers) were prepared and investigated, which give insight into the basic physical and chemical concepts. Before investigating ternary systems, the first step was to analyze the binary systems Be/C and Be/W (bottom-up approach), where the differences between the substrates PG (pyrolytic graphite) and HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) were of special interest. Particularly X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (ISS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used as analysis methods. Beryllium evaporated on carbon shows an island growth mode, whereas a closed layer can be assumed for layer thicknesses above 0.7 nm. Annealing of the Be/C system induces Be{sub 2}C island formation for T{>=}770 K. At high temperatures (T{>=}1170 K), beryllium carbide dissociates, resulting in (metallic) beryllium desorption. For HOPG, carbide formation starts at higher temperatures compared to PG. Activation energies for the diffusion processes were determined by analyzing the decreasing beryllium amount versus annealing time. Surface morphologies were characterized using angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments were performed to study processes in the Be/W system in the temperature range from 570 to 1270 K. Be{sub 2}W formation starts at 670 K, a complete loss of Be{sub 2}W is observed at 1170 K due to dissociation (and subsequent beryllium desorption). Regarding ternary systems, particularly Be/C/W and C/Be/W were investigated, attaching importance to layer thickness (reservoir) variations. At room temperature, Be{sub 2}C, W{sub 2}C, WC and Be{sub 2}W formation at the respective interfaces was observed. Further Be{sub 2}C is forming with increasing annealing temperatures

  17. Information on individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends from positron annihilation lifetime studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Ravikumar, H. B.; Ranganathaiah, C.

    2012-06-01

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy has been used to determine the free volume content in the ternary blends of SAN/EVA/PVC. The method of deriving hydrodynamic interaction parameter (α) in binary polymer blends was modified for ternary polymer blend system characterized by three distinct interfaces. Each interface characterized, is associated with an α and its assertion for the ternary blend are compared with available literature data.

  18. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary polymer mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suk Yung [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Chan, E-mail: ycbae@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-24

    Graphical abstract: We developed a molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems and discribed the phase equilibrium for ternary polymer mixtures by using the model parameters obtained from the binary systems. Research highlights: {yields} Model parameters were obtained from the binary systems. {yields} The obtained parameters were directly used to predict the ternary data. {yields} The undetermined parameters were used to correlate the ternary data. {yields} The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data. - Abstract: A molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems based on a closed-packed lattice model is presented based on two contributions; entropy and energy contribution. The calculated liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary chainlike mixtures agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict Types 0, 1, 2 and 3 phase separations of the Treybal classification. The model parameters obtained from the binary systems were used to directly predict real ternary systems and the calculated results correlated well with experimental data using few adjustable parameters. Specific interactions in associated binary systems were considered using a secondary lattice.

  19. A label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the novel signal amplification system of AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles functionalized polymer nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Yang, Yuying; Tan, Zhaoling; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ping; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Daopeng; Li, Yueyun; Dong, Yunhui

    2018-04-30

    A sensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor was designed using a novel signal amplification system for quantitative detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) supported surfactant-free AuPdCu ternary nanoparticles (AuPdCu/N-GQDs), which featured with good conductivity and excellent catalytic properties for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), was synthesized by a simple and benign hydrothermal procedure. At the same time, the electroactive polymer nanospheres (PS) was synthesized by infinite coordination polymers of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid, which could play as carrier and electronic mediator to load AuPdCu/N-GQDs. The PS not only improved the ability to load antibodies because of the good biocompatibility, but also accelerated electron transport of the electrode interface attribute to plentiful ferrocene unit. Thus, the prepared AuPdCu/N-GQDs@PS has abilities of good biocompatibility, catalytic activity and electrical conductivity to be applied as transducing materials to amplify electrochemical signal in detection of HBsAg. Under optimal conditions, the fabricated immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability in the detection of HBsAg. A linear relationship between current signals and the concentrations of HBsAg was obtained in the range from 10fg/mL to 50ng/mL and the detection limit of HBsAg was 3.3fg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the designed immunosensor with excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability shows excellent performance in detection of human serum samples. Furthermore, this label-free electrochemical immunosensor has promising application in clinical diagnosis of HBsAg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Voltammetric study of the boric acid-salicylaldehyde-H-acid ternary system and its application to the voltammetric determination of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Mari; Ito, Yoshio N; Miyazaki, Yoshinobu; Fujimori, Takao; Takehara, Kô; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2015-02-14

    The ternary system of boric acid, salicylaldehyde (SA) and H-acid (HA) was voltammetrically studied from kinetic and equilibrium points of view. The effect of the SA substituents was also studied by using two analogs, 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde (F-SA) and 5-methylsalicylaldehyde (Me-SA). The three cathodic peaks of Azomethine H (AzH), Azomethine H-boric acid complex (AzB), and free SA were observed in the solution containing boric acid, SA and HA. The peak potentials of AzH and SA were shifted to negative potentials with increasing pH, while the peak potential of AzB was pH-independent. This difference indicates that a proton participates in the charge-transfer steps of the AzH and SA reductions, but not in that of the AzB reduction. The formation constants for the AzB complexation were similar among all the examined analogs. In the kinetic study, the reaction rate was higher in an acidic condition for the AzH formation, but in a neutral condition for the AzB formation. The rate constants for the AzB complexes were in the order of F-SA > SA ≈ Me-SA, indicating that the fluoro group accelerates the F-AzB complexation. The AzB complexation mechanism is considered to consist of more than three steps, i.e., the pre-equilibrium of the salicylaldehyde-boric acid complex (SA-B) formation, the nucleophilic attack of HA on SA-B, and the remaining some steps to form AzB. Based on these results, the voltammetric determination method of boron using F-SA was optimized, which allowed the boron concentration to be determined within only 5 min with a 0.03 mg B dm(-3) detection limit.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) systems containing water, FeCl3, HCl and diisopropyl ether

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosevic, M.; Hendriks, I.; Smits, R.E.R.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid–liquid extraction using ethers as solvents is a potentially energy saving alternative for the concentration of aqueous ferric chloride solutions. Adequate thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of the resulting quaternary systems (FeCl3, ether, acid and water) are not available in

  2. The Ternary Alpha Energy Distribution Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Cyriel; Janssens, Peter; Heyse, Jan; Serot, Olivier; Geltenbort, Peter; Soldner, Torsten

    2004-02-01

    The shape of the energy distribution of the particles emitted in ternary fission has been studied since the discovery of the phenomenon for a large variety of fissioning systems. The general tendency of the observations is that most particles have a Gaussian-shaped energy distribution, except the α-particles, for which mostly an important non-Gaussian tailing on the low-energy side is reported. The origin of this tailing is generally ascribed to the decay of ternary 5He particles in an α-particle and a neutron. Since the experiments reported in the literature are rarely optimised for measuring the low-energy part of the α-spectrum, we realised good experimental conditions for studying the 235U(nth,f) ternary α energy distribution at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL in Grenoble. Thanks to a very intense and clean neutron beam, a small, very thin sample of highly enriched U could be used, with an activity of only 1.6 Bq. So the measurements could be done without absorber in between the sample and the ΔE-E detector. With the resulting low detection limit of 6 MeV, a clearly asymmetric energy distribution was obtained, in agreement with most data in the literature.

  3. More statistics on intermetallic compounds - ternary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Steurer, Walter

    2015-05-01

    How many different intermetallic compounds are known so far, and in how many different structure types do they crystallize? What are their chemical compositions, the most abundant ones and the rarest ones? These are some of the questions we are trying to find answers for in our statistical analysis of the structures of the 20,829 intermetallic phases included in the database Pearson's Crystal Data, with the goal of gaining insight into some of their ordering principles. In the present paper, we focus on the subset of 13,026 ternary intermetallics, which crystallize in 1391 different structure types; remarkably, 667 of them have just one representative. What makes these 667 structures so unique that they are not adopted by any other of the known intermetallic compounds? Notably, ternary compounds are known in only 5109 of the 85,320 theoretically possible ternary intermetallic systems so far. In order to get an overview of their chemical compositions we use structure maps with Mendeleev numbers as ordering parameters.

  4. Ternary phase behaviour and vesicle formation of a sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate/1-decanol/water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Nasima; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan

    2011-08-01

    The phase behaviour of a system composed of amino acid-based surfactant (sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate), 1-decanol and deionised water was investigated for vesicle formation. Changing the molar ratio of the amphiphiles, two important aggregate structures were observed in the aqueous corner of the phase diagram. Two different sizes of microemulsions were found at two amphiphile-water boundaries. A stable single vesicle lobe was found for 1∶2 molar ratios in 92 wt% water with vesicles approximately 100 nm in size and with high zeta potential value. Structural variation arises due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions among the ionic headgroups of the surfactants and the hydration forces due to adsorbed water onto monolayer's. The balance of these two forces determines the aggregate structures. Analysis was followed by the molecular geometrical structure. These findings may have implications for the development of drug delivery systems for cancer treatments, as well as cosmetic and food formulations.

  5. The constitution of the ternary system Ti-Ni-C; Die Konstitution des Dreistoffes Ti-Ni-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.C.; Du, Y. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The system Ti-Ni-C was completely re-examined taking a new approach applying XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX and light microscopy, for elaboration of a complete thermodynamic description of the system. The carbon solubility in the binary Ti-Ni compounds is of significance only in the Ti{sub 2}Ni phase, and was found to be 4 at% at 900 C. The thermodynamic description thus achieved enables precise determination of the solubilities of Ti and C in solid or liquid nickel. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das System Ti-Ni-C wurde mittels XRD, DTA, SEM-EDX und Lichtmikroskopie umfassend neu untersucht mit dem Ziel, eine komplette thermodynamische Beschreibung zu ermoeglichen. Die Kohlenstoffloeslichkeit in den binaeren Ti-Ni Verbindungen ist nur fuer die Phase Ti{sub 2}Ni signifikant. Bei 900 C betrug sie 4 at% C. Die erarbeitete thermodynamische Beschreibung erlaubt eine praezise Darstellung der Ti- und C-Loeslichkeiten in festem und fluessigem Nickel. (orig.)

  6. Pharmacokinetics of a ternary conjugate based pH-responsive 10-HCPT prodrug nano-micelle delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A pH-responsive conjugate based 10-hydroxycamptothecin-thiosemicarbazide-polyethene glycol 2000 (10-HCPT-hydro-PEG nano-micelles were prepared in our previous study. In the present study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-MS method is developed to investigate its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. The results demonstrated that the conjugate circulated for a much longer time in the blood circulation system than commercial 10-HCPT injection, and bioavailability was significantly improved compared with 10-HCPT. In vivo biodistribution study showed that the conjugate could enhance the targeting and residence time in tumor site.

  7. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary polymer mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan

    2011-01-01

    A molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent systems based on a closed-packed lattice model is presented based on two contributions; entropy and energy contribution. The calculated liquid-liquid equilibria of ternary chainlike mixtures agreed with Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict Types 0, 1, 2 and 3 phase separations of the Treybal classification. The model parameters obtained from the binary systems were used to directly predict real ternary systems and the calculated results correlated well with experimental data using few adjustable parameters. Specific interactions in associated binary systems were considered using a secondary lattice.

  8. Modeling mass transfer and reaction of dilute solutes in a ternary phase system by the lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu-Hang; Bai, Lin; Luo, Kai-Hong; Jin, Yong; Cheng, Yi

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we propose a general approach for modeling mass transfer and reaction of dilute solute(s) in incompressible three-phase flows by introducing a collision operator in lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. An LB equation was used to simulate the solute dynamics among three different fluids, in which the newly expanded collision operator was used to depict the interface behavior of dilute solute(s). The multiscale analysis showed that the presented model can recover the macroscopic transport equations derived from the Maxwell-Stefan equation for dilute solutes in three-phase systems. Compared with the analytical equation of state of solute and dynamic behavior, these results are proven to constitute a generalized framework to simulate solute distributions in three-phase flows, including compound soluble in one phase, compound adsorbed on single-interface, compound in two phases, and solute soluble in three phases. Moreover, numerical simulations of benchmark cases, such as phase decomposition, multilayered planar interfaces, and liquid lens, were performed to test the stability and efficiency of the model. Finally, the multiphase mass transfer and reaction in Janus droplet transport in a straight microchannel were well reproduced.

  9. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materials or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.

  10. Properties of planetary ices in the NH3 + CO2 ± H2O ternary system using neutron diffraction and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, C. M.; Wood, I. G.; Fortes, A. D.; Vocadlo, L.

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundInteractions between simple molecules are of fundamental interest across diverse areas of the physical sciences, and the ternary system NH3 + CO2 ± H2O is no exception. In the outer solar system, interaction of CO2 with aqueous ammonia is likely to occur, synthesizing `rock-forming' minerals [1], with CO2 perhaps playing a role in ammonia-water oceans and cryomagmas inside icy planetary bodies - the discovery of ammonium carbonates in a crater of Pluto's moon Charon [2] adds weight to CO2 occuring in these planetary environments. In the same context, ammonium carbonates may have some astrobiological relevance, since removal of water leads to the formation of urea. On Earth, combination of CO2 with aqueous ammonia has relevance to carbon capture schemes [3], and there is interest in using such materials for hydrogen storage in fuel cells [4]. Consequently, from earthly matters of climate change to the study of extraterrestrial ices, understanding the structures and properties of ammonium carbonates are important. Despite this, our knowledge of ammonium carbonates is limited under ambient conditions of pressure and temperature and is entirely absent at the higher pressures, severely limiting our ability to model the behaviour of NH3 + CO2 ± H2O solids and fluids in planetary environments. ResultsWe report the results of several experiments using variable pressure and temperature neutron diffraction work on ammonium carbonate monohydrate, ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbamate, with complementary Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The excellent agreement between experiments and DFT calculations obtained so far adds weight to the accuracy of calculated material properties of ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and several polymorphs of urea where little empirical data exists. These experimental and computational studies provide the structural, thermoelastic and vibrational information required for accurate planetary modelling and remote

  11. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Development of a new ternary photoluminescence enhancement system of Eu–N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)-1,8-diaminonaphthalene–1, 10-phenanthroline for trace determination of Eu{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lijuan; An, Yugang; Ahmad, Waqar; Zhou, Yunshan, E-mail: zhouys@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shi, Zonghai; Ren, Haizhou

    2013-11-15

    A new Schiff base ligand N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)-1,8-diaminonaphthalene (NHND) was synthesized and characterized, and a new ternary photoluminescence enhancement system Eu–NHND–1,10-phenanthroline in acetonitrile was successfully developed to determine trace amounts of Eu{sup 3+}. The excitation and emission wavelengths were 274 and 617 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the photoluminescence intensities of the system showed a linear response toward Eu{sup 3+} in the range of 7.0×10{sup −8} to 3.2×10{sup −6} M with a detection limit of 7.5×10{sup −9} M. The interferences of other trivalent lanthanides and some common ions were described. The system was applied to determine the trace amounts of Eu{sup 3+} in a high purity Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix and in a synthetic rare earth oxide mixture, and satisfactory results proved applicability of the system. Mechanism of energy transfer and photoluminescence enhancement was also studied. -- Highlights: • A new ternary photoluminescence enhancement system has been developed. • A simple yet effective method is built for determination of trace amount of Eu{sup 3+}. • Interferences of other lanthanide ions and common ions are described. • Energy transfer mechanism and photoluminescence enhancement were studied.

  13. Material properties of perovskites in the quasi-ternary system LaFeO3-LaCoO3-LaNiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, F.; Arul Raj, I.; Ma, Q.; Baumann, S.; Mahmoud, A.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    An overview is presented on the variation of electrical conductivity, oxygen permeation, and thermal expansion coefficient as a function of the composition of perovskites in the quasi-ternary system LaFeO3-LaCoO3-LaNiO3. Powders of thirteen nominal perovskite compositions were synthesized under identical conditions by the Pechini method. The powder X-ray diffraction data of two series, namely La(Ni0.5Fe0.5)1-xCoxO3 and LaNi0.5-xFexCo0.5O3, are presented after the powders had been sintered at 1100 °C for 6 h in air. The measurements revealed a rhombohedral structure for all compositions except LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 for which 60% rhombohedral and 40% orthorhombic phase was found. The maximum DC electrical conductivity value of the perovskites at 800 °C was 1229 S cm-1 for the composition LaCoO3 and the minimum was 91 S cm-1 for the composition LaCo0.5Fe0.5O3. The oxygen permeation of samples with promising conductivities at 800 °C was one order of magnitude lower than that of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF). The highest value of 0.017 ml cm-2 min-1 at 950 °C was obtained with LaNi0.5Co0.5O3. The coefficients of thermal expansion varied in the range of 13.2×10-6 K-1 and 21.9×10-6 K-1 for LaNi0.5Fe0.5O3 and LaCoO3, respectively. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used as probe for the oxidation states, local environment and magnetic properties of iron ions as a function of chemical composition. The substitution had a great influence on the chemical properties of the materials.

  14. submitter Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Rondo, L; Bianchi, F; Duplissy, J; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Makhmutov, V; Petäjä, T; Praplan, A P; Riccobono, F; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary sys...

  15. Fullerene alloy formation and the benefits for efficient printing of ternary blend organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2015-01-01

    with a third polymer component, the system exhibits pseudo-binary phase behaviour instead of the expected ternary phase behaviour. Our results experimentally confirm the earlier hypothesis that the unexpected composition average dependent IV-behaviour for these supposed ternary mixtures are indeed due to them...

  16. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - II. Calibration of a combined ordering model and mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Earlier attempts at solution models for the ternary carbonate system have been unable to adequately accommodate the cation ordering which occurs in some of the carbonate phases. The carbonate solution model of this study combines a Margules type of interaction model with a Bragg-Williams type of ordering model. The ordering model determines the equilibrium state of order for a crystal, from which the cation distribution within the lattice can be obtained. The interaction model addresses the effect that mixing different cation species within a given cation layer has on the total free energy of the system. An ordering model was derived, based on the Bragg-Williams approach; it is applicable to ternary systems involving three cations substituting on two sites, and contains three ordering energy parameters (WCaMg, WCaFe, and WCaMgFe). The solution model of this study involves six Margules-type interaction parameters (W12, W21, W13, W31, W23, and W32). Values for the two sets of energy parameters were calculated from experimental data and from compositional relationships in natural assemblages. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Probing the interaction of human serum albumin with bilirubin in the presence of aspirin by multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential techniques: insight on binary and ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosainzadeh, Akram; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Saberi, Mohammad; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report on the effect of aspirin (ASA), on the binding parameters with regard to bilirubin (BR) to human serum albumin (HSA). Two different classes of binding sites were detected. Binding to the first and second classes of the binding sites was dominated by hydrophobic forces in the case of HSA-BR, whereas in the case of the ternary system, binding to the first and second classes of the binding sites was achieved by electrostatic interaction. The binding constant (K(a)) and number of binding site (n) obtained were 1.6 × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.98, respectively, for the primary binding site in the case of HSA-BR, and 3.7 × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.84, respectively, in the presence of ASA (ternary complex) at λ(ex)= 280 nm. The progressive quenching of the protein fluorescence as the BR concentration increased indicated an arrangement of the domain IIA in HSA. Changes in the environment of the aromatic residues were also observed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). Changes of the secondary structure of HSA involving a decrease of α-helical and β-sheet contents and increased amounts of turns and unordered conformations were mainly found at high concentrations of BR. For the first time, the relationship between the structural parameters of HSA-BR by RLS for determining the critical induced aggregation concentration (C(CIAC)) of BR in the absence and presence of ASA was investigated, and there was a more significant enhancement in the case of the ternary mixture as opposed to the binary one. Changes in the zeta potential of HSA and the HSA-ASA complex in the presence of BR demonstrated a hydrophobic adsorption of this anionic ligand onto the surface of HSA in the binary system as well as both electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption in the case of the ternary complex. By performing docking experiments, it was found that the acting forces between BR and HSA were mainly hydrophobic > hydrogen bonding > electrostatic interactions, and consequently BR had a long

  18. Thermodynamic Description of Ternary Fe-B-X Systems. Part 3: Fe-B-Mn/ Opis Termodynamiczny Trójskładnikowych Układów Fe-B-X. Część 3: Fe-B-Mn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Miettinen; K. Lilova; G. Vassilev

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic optimization of the ternary Fe-B-Mn system is presented. The thermodynamic parameters of the binary sub-systems, Fe-Mn, Fe-B and B-Mn, are taken from earlier assessments slightly modifying the B-Mn system description...

  19. Variation of properties of glasses along the 3Bi2O3 X 5B2O3-4PbO X B2O3 and PbO X 2B2O3-2PbO X Bi2O3 sections of the PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3 ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargarova, M.I.; Shuster, N.S.

    1985-07-01

    Already published data on the phase diagrams of Pb-B2O3, Bi2O3-B2O3, and PbO-Bi2O3 systems serve as the basis of this investigation, together with original experiments on the PbO-Bi2O3-B2O3 ternary system. The authors establish the quasi binary nature of the 3Bi2O3 X 5B2O3 - 4PbO X B2O3 section with the formation of the congruently melting ternary compound 3Bi2O3 X 8PbO X 7B2O3, and they demonstrate the role of the ternary compound 3Bi2O3 X 8PbO X 7B2O3 as a glass former in the PbO-Bi2O3 - B2O3 system.

  20. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  1. Ternary jitter-based true random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Rustam; Stolov, Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a novel family of generators producing true uniform random numbers in ternary logic is presented. The generator consists of a number of identical ternary logic combinational units connected into a ring. All the units are provided to have a random delay time, and this time is supposed to be distributed in accordance with an exponential distribution. All delays are supposed to be independent events. The theory of the generator is based on Erlang equations. The generator can be used for test production in various systems. Features of multidimensional random vectors, produced by the generator, are discussed.

  2. Influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the viscosity of dimethyl sulfoxide-H2O-NaCl and glycerol-H2O-NaCl ternary systems at subzero temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jingru; Tang, Heyu; Zhao, Gang

    2014-10-01

    The viscosity, at subzero temperatures, of ternary solutions commonly used in cryopreservation is tremendously important for understanding ice formation and molecular diffusion in biopreservation. However, this information is scarce in the literature. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of nanoparticles on the viscosity of these solutions has not previously been reported. The objectives of this study were thus: (i) to systematically measure the subzero viscosity of two such systems, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-H2O-NaCl and glycerol-H2O-NaCl; (ii) to explore the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on the viscosity; and (iii) to provide models that precisely predict viscosity at multiple concentrations of cryoprotective agent (CPA) in saline solutions at subzero temperatures. Our experiments were performed in two parts. We first measured the viscosity at multiple CPA concentrations [0.3-0.75 (w/w)] in saline solution with and without nanoparticles at subzero temperatures (0 to -30°C). The data exhibited a good fit to the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. We then measured the viscosity of residual unfrozen ternary solutions with and without nanoparticles during equilibrium freezing. HA nanoparticles made the solution more viscous, suggesting applications for these nanoparticles in preventing cell dehydration, ice nucleation, and ice growth during freezing and thawing in cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectrophotometric Study of Ternary Complex Forming Systems of Some Lanthanide Metal Ions with Eriochrome Cyanine R in Presence of Cetylpyridinium Bromide for Microdetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dhepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of coordination compounds of lanthanide elements has received a great attention due to growing applications in science and technology. Number of chromogenic reagents form water soluble colored complexes with lanthanides. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR a member of triphenylmethane type of dye has been reported to form green colored complexes with lanthanides and has been used for microdetermination of these metal ions. Addition of cationic surfactant, Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB, a cationic surfactant sensitizes the color reactions of Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, Ho(III and Lu(III with ECR. Formation of water soluble, highly colored ternary complexes with a considerable bathochromic shift of about 50 nm in presence of surfactant has been observed. Optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were also evaluated. Stoichiometric ratio 1:3:3 of Ln: ECR: CPB are responsible for the observed rise in molar absorptivity and sensitivity. Beer’s law was obeyed between 0.50 to 13.00 ppm. Effective photometric range and molar absorptivity of these ternary complexes have been calculated. Effect of some common interfering ions on determination of these lanthanide metal ions was studied. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometeric method has been proposed for the determination of metal ions understudy.

  4. Vapor–Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling of Ethanethiol + Methane + Water, 1-Propanethiol + Methane + Water and 1-Butanethiol + Methane + Water Ternary Systems at 303, 335, and 365 K and Pressure Up to 9 MPa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Javeed; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    for performing the measurements; the total system pressure was maintained by CH4. The objective of this work is to provide experimental VLLE data for mixtures of mercaptans (thiols) with other natural gas contents at its crude form, for which no data are available in the open literature. Such data will help......New vapor–liquid–liquid equilibrium (VLLE) data for ethanethiol + methane + water, 1-propanethiol + methane + water, and 1-butanethiol + methane + water ternary systems have been measured at three temperatures (303, 335, and 365 K) and pressures up to 9 MPa. A “static-analytic” method was used...... the industrial modeling of processes relevant to reduction of sulfur emissions. The Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state was applied to describe the phase behavior of the investigated systems. It is shown that the CPA EoS satisfactorily describes the solubilities of mercaptans (thiols) in all phases...

  5. Structure and dynamics of binary and ternary lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) tris[4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione] (TTA) complexes. Part 2, the structure and dynamics of binary and ternary complexes in the Y(III)/Eu(III)-TTA-tributylphosphate (TBP) system in chloroform as studied by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zoltán; Vallet, Valerie; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2010-12-07

    The stoichiometric reaction mechanisms, rate constants and activation parameters for inter- and intramolecular ligand exchange reactions in the binary Y/Eu(TTA)(3)(OH(2))(2)-HTTA and the ternary Y/Eu(TTA)(3)(OH(2))(2)-TBP systems have been studied in chloroform using (1)H and (31)P NMR methods. Most complexes contain coordinated water that is in very fast exchange with water in the chloroform solvent. The exchange reactions involving TTA/HTTA and TBP are also fast, but can be studied at lower temperature. The rate constant and activation parameters for the intramolecular exchange between two structure isomers in Y(TTA)(3)(OH(2))(2) and Y(TTA)(3)(TBP)(OH(2)) were determined from the line-broadening of the methine protons in coordinated TTA. The rate equations for the intermolecular exchange between coordinated TTA and free HTTA in both complexes are consistent with a two-step mechanism where the first step is a fast complex formation of HTTA, followed by a rate determining step involving proton transfer from coordinated HTTA to TTA. The rate constants for both the inter- and intramolecular exchange reactions are significantly smaller in the TBP system. The same is true for the activation parameters in the Y(TTA)(3)(OH(2))(2)-HTTA and the ternary Y/Eu(TTA)(3)(TBP)(OH(2))-HTTA systems, which are ΔH(≠) = 71.8 ± 2.8 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(≠) = 62.4 ± 10.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) and ΔH(≠) = 38.8 ± 0.6 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(≠) = -93.0 ± 3.3 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. The large difference in the activation parameters does not seem to be related to a difference in mechanism as judged by the rate equation; this point will be discussed in a following communication. The rate and mechanism for the exchange between free and coordinated TBP follows a two-step mechanism, involving the formation of Y(TTA)(3)(TBP)(2).

  6. Factoring with qutrits: Shor's algorithm on ternary and metaplectic quantum architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Alex; Roetteler, Martin; Svore, Krysta M.

    2017-07-01

    We determine the cost of performing Shor's algorithm for integer factorization on a ternary quantum computer, using two natural models of universal fault-tolerant computing: (i) a model based on magic state distillation that assumes the availability of the ternary Clifford gates, projective measurements, classical control as its natural instrumentation set; (ii) a model based on a metaplectic topological quantum computer (MTQC). A natural choice to implement Shor's algorithm on a ternary quantum computer is to translate the entire arithmetic into a ternary form. However, it is also possible to emulate the standard binary version of the algorithm by encoding each qubit in a three-level system. We compare the two approaches and analyze the complexity of implementing Shor's period-finding function in the two models. We also highlight the fact that the cost of achieving universality through magic states in MTQC architecture is asymptotically lower than in generic ternary case.

  7. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a singlejunction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, due to increased complexity with one more component, only limited high performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here, we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show for the first time that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer, and better morphology. The novel working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  8. Phase diagrams of novel Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} quasi-ternary system following DTA and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchiy, I.E.; Tatzkar, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Uzhgorod National University, Pidgirna St., 46, Uzhgorod 88000 (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, Pekarska St., 50, Lviv 79010 (Ukraine); Plucinski, K., E-mail: kpluc2006@wp.pl [Electronics Department, Military University Technology, Warsaw, Kaliskiego 2, Warsaw 00-908 (Poland)

    2016-06-25

    Phase relation in the Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} quasiternary system were studied by the DTA and X-ray diffraction in combination with mathematical modeling. The phase diagrams of the Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2} and Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}–TlSbSe{sub 2} systems, the perspective views of the phase interaction in the ternary system, the liquidus surface projection, the isothermal section at 423 K were built for the first time. The Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2}–Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} system is of the invariant eutectic type and is characterized by the formation of limited solid solutions following initial ternary compounds. New complex compounds are not formed. - Highlights: • Two Tl{sub 4}SnSe{sub 4}–TlSbSe{sub 2},Tl{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}–TlSbSe{sub 2} systems were explored. • Invariant processes in the ternary system were determined. • New complex compounds were not observed in ternary system.

  9. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...

  10. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  11. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main...... computational part to be reduced to a simple integration of a system of ordinary differential equations....

  12. IMPROVING THE PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL BY TERNARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective coatings are perhaps the most extensively used system for chemical and mechanical degradation in application. ... mechanical and electrochemical resistance bond needful during application. .... binary phase of SiC and ZrO2 results to a reduction in the hardness value compare to the ternary phase which is in ...

  13. Study on the Mg-Li-Zn ternary alloy system with improved mechanical properties, good degradation performance and different responses to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Yuanhao; Bian, Dong; Gao, Shuang; Leeflang, Sander; Guo, Hui; Zheng, Yufeng; Zhou, Jie

    2017-10-15

    Novel Mg-(3.5, 6.5wt%)Li-(0.5, 2, 4wt%)Zn ternary alloys were developed as new kinds of biodegradable metallic materials with potential for stent application. Their mechanical properties, degradation behavior, cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility were studied. These potential biomaterials showed higher ultimate tensile strength than previously reported binary Mg-Li alloys and ternary Mg-Li-X (X=Al, Y, Ce, Sc, Mn and Ag) alloys. Among the alloys studied, the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn and Mg-6.5Li-2Zn alloys exhibited comparable corrosion resistance in Hank's solution to pure magnesium and better corrosion resistance in a cell culture medium than pure magnesium. Corrosion products observed on the corroded surface were composed of Mg(OH) 2 , MgCO 3 and Ca-free Mg/P inorganics and Ca/P inorganics. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed different behaviors of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) and Human Aorta Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) to material extracts. HUVECs showed increasing nitric oxide (NO) release and tolerable toxicity, whereas VSMCs exhibited limited decreasing viability with time. Platelet adhesion, hemolysis and coagulation tests of these Mg-Li-Zn alloys showed different degrees of activation behavior, in which the hemolysis of the Mg-3.5Li-2Zn alloy was lower than 5%. These results indicated the potential of the Mg-Li-Zn alloys as good candidate materials for cardiovascular stent applications. Mg-Li alloys are promising as absorbable metallic biomaterials, which however have not received significant attention since the low strength, controversial corrosion performance and the doubts in Li toxicity. The Mg-Li-Zn alloy in the present study revealed much improved mechanical properties higher than most reported binary Mg-Li and ternary Mg-Li-X alloys, with superior corrosion resistance in cell culture media. Surprisingly, the addition of Li and Zn showed increased nitric oxide release. The present study indicates good potential of Mg-Li-Zn alloy as

  14. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  15. Dependence of the Internal Structure on Water/Particle Volume Ratio in an Amphiphilic Janus Particle-Water-Oil Ternary System: From Micelle-like Clusters to Emulsions of Spherical Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tomohiro G; Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-31

    Amphiphilic Janus particles (AJP), composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic hemispheres, are one of the simplest anisotropic colloids, and they exhibit higher surface activities than particles with homogeneous surface properties. Consequently, a ternary system of AJP, water, and oil can form extremely stable Pickering emulsions, with internal structures that depend on the Janus structure of the particles and the system composition. However, the detail of these structures has not been fully explored, especially for the composition range where the amount of the minority liquid phase and AJP are comparable, where one would expect the Janus characteristics to be directly reflected. In this study, we varied the volume ratio of the particles and the minority liquid phase, water, by 2 orders of magnitude around the comparable composition range, and observed the resultant structures at the resolution of the individual particle dimensions by optical microscopy. When the volume ratio of water is smaller than that of the Janus particles, capillary interactions between the hydrophilic hemispheres of the particles induce micelle-like clusters in which the hydrophilic sides of the particles face inward. With increasing water content, these clusters grow into a rodlike morphology. When the water volume exceeds that of the particles, the structure transforms into an emulsion state composed of spherical droplets, colloidosomes, because of the surface activity of particles at the liquid-liquid interface. Thus, we found that a change in volume fraction alters the mechanism of structure formation in the ternary system, and large resulting morphological changes in the self-assembled structures reflect the anisotropy of the particles. The self-assembly shows essential commonalities with that in microemulsions of surfactant molecules, however the AJP system is stabilized only kinetically. Analysis of the dependence of the emulsion droplet size on composition shows that almost all the

  16. A theoretical investigation into the cooperativity effect between the H∙∙∙O and H∙∙∙F⁻ interactions and electrostatic potential upon 1:2 (F⁻:N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide) ternary-system formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-Ping; Wang, Yan-Hong; Shi, Wen-Jing; Song, Shu-Qin; Tang, Hai-Fei

    2013-12-01

    The cooperativity effects between the O/N-H∙∙∙F(-) anionic hydrogen-bonding and O/N-H∙∙∙O hydrogen-bonding interactions and electrostatic potentials in the 1:2 (F(-):N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide (signed as "ha")) ternary systems are investigated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels. A comparison of the cooperativity effect in the "F(-)∙∙∙ha∙∙∙ha" and "FH∙∙∙ha(-)∙∙∙ha" systems is also carried out. The result shows that the increase of the H∙∙∙O interaction energy in the O-H∙∙∙O-H, N-H∙∙∙O-H or N-H∙∙∙O = C link is more notable than that in the O-H∙∙∙O = C contact upon ternary-system formation. The cooperativity effect is found in the complex formed by the O/N-H∙∙∙F(-) and O/N-H∙∙∙O interactions, while the anti-cooperativity effect is present in the system with only the O/N-H∙∙∙F(-) H-bond or the "FH∙∙∙ha(-)∙∙∙ha" complex by the N(-)∙∙∙H-F contact. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis and shift of electron density confirm the existence of cooperativity. The most negative surface electrostatic potential (V(S,min)) correlates well with the interaction energy E' int.(ha∙∙∙F-) and synergetic energy E(syn.), respectively. The relationship between the change of V(S,min) (i.e., ΔV(S,min)) and E(syn.) is also found.

  17. Nearly Ternary Quadratic Higher Derivations on Non-Archimedean Ternary Banach Algebras: A Fixed Point Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability and superstability of ternary quadratic higher derivations in non-Archimedean ternary algebras by using a version of fixed point theorem via quadratic functional equation.

  18. Compositional regions of single phases at 1800 Degree-Sign C in Mo-rich Mo-Si-B ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seong-Ho, E-mail: fy11001@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Yoshimi, Kyosuke; Maruyama, Kouichi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-08-30

    Single-phase regions in Mo-rich Mo-Si-B alloys at 1800 Degree-Sign C were experimentally determined using a field-emission (FE) gun-type electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) in this study. A quantitative analysis by FE-EPMA was conducted with the calibration method we applied in our previous study to improve the accuracy in the B measurements. The compositional ranges of the determined Mo solid solution, silicide and boride phases were in good agreement with those of Mo-Si and Mo-B binary phase diagrams. On the other hand, the determined solubility of B in Mo solid solution, Mo{sub 3}Si and T{sub 1} (Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}) were quite different from that indicated in previously reported ternary phase diagrams. The compositional region of the T{sub 2} (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}) single-phase ranges from 9.7 to 13.3 at% for Si and from 23.5 to 26.8 at% for B. The following two points were made clear by the ternary phase diagram as determined in this study. One is that no stoichiometric T{sub 2} composition is in the T{sub 2} single-phase region, confirming no T{sub 2} single-phase material can be obtained at the stoichiometric composition at 1800 Degree-Sign C. The another is that the T{sub 2} region of this study expands to a Si-rich area from the stoichiometric composition.

  19. Determination of sulfonamides in swine muscle after salting-out assisted liquid extraction with acetonitrile coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2010-01-15

    A salting-out assisted liquid extraction coupled with back-extraction by a water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed for the extraction and determination of sulfonamides in solid tissue samples. After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, an aliquot of 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract containing a small amount of dichloromethane (250-400 microL) was alkalinized with diethylamine. The clear organic extract obtained by centrifugation was used as a donor phase and then a small amount of water (40-55 microL) could be used as an acceptor phase to back-extract the analytes in the water/acetonitrile/dichloromethane ternary component system. In the back-extraction procedure, after mixing and centrifuging, the sedimented phase would be water and could be withdrawn easily into a microsyringe and directly injected into the HPLC system. Under the optimal conditions, recoveries were determined for swine muscle fortified at 10 ng/g and quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. The calibration curves of five sulfonamides showed linearity with the coefficient of estimation above 0.998. Relative recoveries for the analytes were all from 96.5 to 109.2% with relative standard deviation of 2.7-4.0%. Preconcentration factors ranged from 16.8 to 30.6 for 1 mL of the acetonitrile extract. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/g. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of ultrasound-assisted crystallization in the diastereomeric salt resolution of tetramisole enantiomers in ternary system with O,O'-dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeleczky, Zsolt; Kis-Mihály, Erzsébet; Semsey, Sándor; Pataki, Hajnalka; Bagi, Péter; Pálovics, Emese; Marosi, György; Pokol, György; Fogassy, Elemér; Madarász, János

    2016-09-01

    The diastereomeric salt resolution of racemic tetramisole was studied using ultrasound irradiation. We examined the effect of power and duration of ultrasonic irradiation on the properties of the crystalline phase formed by ultrasound-assisted crystallization and the result of the whole optical resolution. The results were compared with reference experiment without using ultrasound. The US time (5-30min) caused higher enantiomeric excess. Although yield was lower continuously high resolving efficiency could have been reached through ultrasound. We had the best results with 4.3W ultrasound power when resolvability was even higher than the best of reference. Furthermore, we accomplished a deep and thorough examination of the salts that possibly could form in this resolution. One of the four diastereomeric salts, which have been identified by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR-spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the ternary system of the two tetramisole enantiomers and the resolving agent, namely the bis[(S)-tetramisole]-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-tartrate salt have been proven the key compound in the resolution process, and presented the highest melting point of 166°C (dec.) among the four salts. The originally expected diastereomeric bitartrate salts with 1:1M base:acid ratio [(S)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt and (R)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt] and their 'racemic' co-crystal [(RS)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt] showed somewhat lower melting points (152, 145, and 150°C, respectively) and their crystallization was also prevented by application of ultrasound. Based on the melting points and enthalpies of fusion measured by DSC, all the binary and ternary phase diagrams have been newly established and calculated in the system with help of classical modelling equations of liquidus curves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ternary system Tm-Cu-Ge: isothermal section of the phase diagram at 870 K and crystal structures of the compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedyna, L.O.; Bodak, O.I.; Tokaychuk, Ya.O.; Fedyna, M.F.; Mokra, I.R

    2004-03-24

    The isothermal section of the Tm-Cu-Ge phase diagram at 870 K was constructed using X-ray phase analysis. The existence of three ternary compounds was confirmed: TmCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (structure type CeAl{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}, space group I4/mmm, Pearson code tI10, a=3.99155(8) A, c=10.3285(2) A), Tm{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6} (structure type Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}, space group Amm2, Pearson code oS18, a=4.061(1) A, b=3.957(4) A, c=20.76(2) A) and Tm{sub 6}Cu{sub 8}Ge{sub 8} (structure type Gd{sub 6}Cu{sub 8}Ge{sub 8}, space group Immm, Pearson code oI22, a=13.7407(3) A, b=6.5995(1) A, c=4.1368(1) A). A new ternary copper germanide TmCu{sub 1.24}Ge{sub 0.76} (structure type CaIn{sub 2}, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc, Pearson code hP6, a=4.42254(8) A, c=7.0477(2) A) was found. The crystal structures of TmCu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, Tm{sub 6}Cu{sub 8}Ge{sub 8} and TmCu{sub 1.24}Ge{sub 0.76} were refined by full-profile Rietveld method using X-ray powder diffraction data. The binary compound Tm{sub 0.9}Ge{sub 2} (structure type ZrSi{sub 2}) dissolves up to 5 at.% of Cu. The lattice parameters refined for the sample Tm{sub 31}Cu{sub 5}Ge{sub 64} (a=4.042(1) A, b=15.793(4) A, c=3.906(2) A) slightly increased, compared with Tm{sub 0.9}Ge{sub 2}. The solubility of the third component in the other binary phases was found to be negligible.

  2. Toward Multi Principal Component Alloy Discovery: Assessment of the CALPHAD Approach for Ternary (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    phase names such as “ sigma ” or “r- phase ” were disregarded. Of the ternaries evaluated, 14% of the systems have a phase that is only present with a...principal element systems. However, the uncertainty of phase equilibria predictions within these regions is unknown. This study assesses the current...capabilities of a commercially available CALPHAD databases to accurately predict phase equilibria within ternary phase space as a function of the number

  3. On Some Ternary LCD Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Darkunde, Nitin S.; Patil, Arunkumar R.

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study $LCD$ codes. Linear code with complementary dual($LCD$) are those codes which have their intersection with their dual code as $\\{0\\}$. In this paper we will give rather alternative proof of Massey's theorem\\cite{8}, which is one of the most important characterization of $LCD$ codes. Let $LCD[n,k]_3$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ ternary $LCD$ codes. In \\cite{4}, authors have given upper bound on $LCD[n,k]_2$ and extended th...

  4. Novels patterns of hydration and new compounds in the ternary system of CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiqun, L.; Jiashan, H.; Biao, L.; Wei, C.; Ning Zhang; Qi Wang [Shandong Building Mater. Inst., Jinan (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    1998-10-12

    The patterns of hydrating and solidifying with the compositional variation of phosphorus-rich, phosphorus-calcium-rich and aluminum-calcium rich regions in ternary system CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been studied in detail, and two new ternary compounds L and H have been synthesized here. The results indicate that the region of 48-56% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} doesn`t present cementitiousness, which contains mainly crystal phases of {beta}-C{sub 2}P(2CaO.P{sub 2}O{sub 5}), {alpha}-C{sub 3}P(3CaO.P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and AlPO{sub 4}; the phosphorus-calcium-rich region of 21-35% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} exhibits substantial cementitiousness, which contains mainly crystal phase of {alpha}-C{sub 3}P and certain amount of CA(CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and new phases L/H; and the aluminum-calcium-rich region of 8-18% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is full of promise for cementitiousness. It contains mainly new crystal phase L and certain amount of {alpha}-C{sub 3}P and CA. The hydration and solidification mechanisms have been preliminarily analyzed by means of XRD, XPS and DTA. It appears that crystal phase CA might hydrate directly to the stable phase of C{sub 3}A.6H{sub 2}O in the phosphorus-rich case of 21-35% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}; new phase H has the behavior of rapid setting; and L, being a dominant phase, can prevent cement pastes from significant strength loss in long curing cycles. (orig.) With 6 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs.

  5. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of 252Cf(sf, fff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. von Oertzen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in 252Cf(sf, fff, with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES. Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of 252Cf(sf into three different masses (e.g. 132–140Sn, 52–48Ca, 68–72Ni, observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the JINR (Dubna the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT, is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  6. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  7. Silk flame retardant finish by ternary silica sol containing boron and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang-hua; Chen, Guo-qiang; Xing, Tie-ling

    2017-11-01

    A ternary flame retardant sol system containing Si, B and N was prepared via sol gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a precursor, boric acid (H3BO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2) as flame retardant additives and then applied to silk fabric flame retardant finish. The FT-IR and SEM results showed that the nitrogen-boron-silica ternary sol was successfully prepared and entrapped onto the surface of silk fibers. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) test indicated that the silk fabric treated with 24% boric acid and 6% urea (relative to the TEOS) doped ternary silica sol system performed excellent flame retardancy with the LOI value of 34.6%. Furthermore, in order to endow silk fabric with durable flame retardancy, the silk fabric was pretreated with 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) before the ternary sol system treatment. The BTCA pretreat ment applied to silk could effectively promote the washing durability of the ternary sol, and the LOI value of the treated sample after 10 times washing could still maintain at 30.8% compared with that of 31.0% before washing. Thermo gravimetric (TG), micro calorimeter combustion (MCC) and smoke density test results demonstrated that the thermal stability, heat release and smoke suppression of the nitrogen-boron-silica ternary system decreased somewhat compared with the boron-silica binary flame retardant system.

  8. Use of Spectroscopic, Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamic Techniques to Study the Interaction between Human Holo-Transferrin and Two Antagonist Drugs: Comparison of Binary and Ternary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Saberi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP and aspirin (ASA to human holo-transferrin (hTf has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering, as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.

  9. Binary Ternary Based Nanolaminates Fabricated By Multi Stationary Target PLD (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0306 BINARY- TERNARY BASED NANOLAMINATES FABRICATED BY MULTI-STATIONARY TARGET PLD (PREPRINT) Steven R. Smith...December 2013 – 15 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BINARY- TERNARY BASED NANOLAMINATES FABRICATED BY MULTI-STATIONARY TARGET PLD (PREPRINT) 5a...energy of 450 mJ per pulse, a galvanometer mirror system and a background pressure of oxygen. Trends in material properties were identified by

  10. Simultaneous Speciation, Structure, and Equilibrium Constant Determination in the Ni2+-EDTA-CN-Ternary System via High-Resolution Laboratory X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Theoretical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnóczi, Éva G; Németh, Zoltán; Vankó, György

    2017-11-20

    Even quite simple chemical systems can involve many components and chemical states, and sometimes it can be very difficult to differentiate them by their hardly separable physical-chemical properties. The Ni II -EDTA-CN - (EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) ternary system is a good example for this problem where, in spite of its fairly simple components and numerous investigations, several molecular combinations can exist, all of them not having been identified unambiguously yet. In order to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction steps and chemical equilibria, methods are required in which the structural transitions in the different reaction steps can be followed via element-selective complex spectral feature sets. With the help of our recently developed von Hámos type high-resolution laboratory X-ray absorption spectrometer, both the structural variations and stability constants of the forming complexes were determined from the same measurement series, proving that X-ray absorption spectroscopy can be considered as a multifaced, table-top tool in coordination chemistry. Furthermore, with the help of theoretical calculations, independent structural evidence was also given for the formation of the [NiEDTA(CN)] 3- mixed complex.

  11. A Structural Study on the Foaming Behavior of CaO-SiO2-MO (MO = MgO, FeO, or Al2O3) Ternary Slag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjoo; Min, Dong Joon

    2017-12-01

    The foaming index of the CaO-SiO2-MO (MO = MgO, FeO, or Al2O3) ternary slag system with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio is measured to understand the effect of the ionic structure. At 1773 K (1500 °C), the foaming index of the slag increases with Al2O3 addition and decreases with MgO or FeO addition at a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio. It is verified that the previous correlation between the foaming index and the physical properties could also be valid for the CaO-SiO2-(MgO or Al2O3) system. Raman spectroscopy for the CaO/SiO2 = 1.0 slag is applied to explain the foaming behavior from an ionic structural perspective. From the ionic structural viewpoint, the fractional change in each silicate anion unit is identified by de-convoluted Raman spectra. The Raman spectra indicate that the silicate network structure is polymerized with Al2O3 as an aluminosilicate structure; in contrast, de-polymerization occurs by MgO or FeO addition. Furthermore, the relationship between the silicate structure and the thermodynamic stability function is discussed. Since the ionic structure of the molten slag affects various physical/thermodynamic properties, the foaming behavior could be successfully interpreted from the ionic structural viewpoint.

  12. Tie-line data for water-formic acid-1-decanol ternary system at T = 298.2, 303.2, 313.2, and 323.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H., E-mail: hggilani@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guilan, 41335 Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadian, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guilan, 41335 Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liquid equilibria of (water + formic acid + 1-decanol) system were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental LLE data were correlated with NRTL model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. - Abstract: Solubility and tie-line data for the (water + formic acid + 1-decanol) ternary system were determined at T = 298.2, 303.2, 313.2, and 323.2 K and atmospheric pressure. Solubility data were obtained by cloud-point titration method. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were measured to evaluate the extracting capacity of the solvent. The consistency of the experimental tie-line data was determined through the Othmer-Tobias and Bachman equations. The NRTL model was used to correlate the experimental data. The influence of temperature on the equilibrium characteristics and separation factor was found to be small at the temperatures studied. The average root-mean-square deviation between the experimental and calculated mass fractions was 0.66%. The thermodynamic model showed a good regression fit to the experimental results.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  14. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  15. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of Eugenol + Isobutanol + H2O and β-Caryophyllene + Isobutanol + H2O systems at temperatures 303.15 and 323.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Zahrida D.; Kurniawan, Andre M.; Wibawa, Gede; Kuswandi, Kuswandi

    2017-05-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data of ternary Eugenol + Isobutanol + H2O and β-Caryophyllene + Isobutanol + H2O systems were measured at temperatures of 303.15 K and 323.15 K. Equilibrium cell with water jacket for keeping the temperature was used. Equilibrium data were obtained by stirring the mixture for 4 hours and settled for 20 hours to allow the system reach the equilibrium state. Samples of organic and aqueous phases were analyzed using Gas Chromatography. All the measured data were correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The reliability of the models is tested by comparison of calculated equilibrium compositions with experimental data in terms of root mean square deviations (RMSD). The system exhibited type II phase behaviour from immiscible area. It has two pairs miscible components (Eugenol + Isobutanol and β-Caryophyllene + Isobutanol), two pairs partially miscible components (Eugenol + H2O and Isobutanol + H2O) and one pair immiscible components (β-Caryophyllene + H2O). The temperatures on this system have small effect on immiscible zone and slope of tie lines. Based on experiment and calculation results, Eugenol + Isobutanol + H2O system has been successfully represented slightly better using UNIQUAC model with average values of RMSD is 2.0842% meanwhile NRTL model has higher value of RMSD that is 2.1359%, and β-Caryophyllene + Isobutanol + H2O system has been successfully represented better using UNIQUAC model with average values of RMSD is 2.1521% meanwhile NRTL model has higher value of RMSD that is 3.2976%.

  16. Synthesis of ternary nitrides by mechanochemical alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Zhu, J.J.; Lindelov, H.

    2002-01-01

    Ternary metal nitrides ( of general formula MxM'N-y(z)) attract considerable interest because of their special mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic properties. Usually they are prepared by ammonolysis of ternary oxides (MxM'O-y(m)) at elevated temperatures. We show that ternary...... nitrides by mechanochemical alloying of a binary transition metal nitride (MxN) with an elemental transition metal. In this way, we have been able to prepare Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N by ball-milling of Mo2N with Fe and Co, respectively. The transformation sequence from the starting materials ( the binary...... nitride and the transition metal) to the ternary nitride was followed by Mossbauer spectroscopy (for Fe3Mo3N) and by X-ray powder diffraction ( for both Fe3Mo3N and Co3Mo3N). Usually, the preparation of a given ternary nitride by ammonolysis of a ternary oxide is dependent on the availability of an oxide...

  17. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOL–GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIAL IN THE TERNARY SYSTEM 64 % SiO2 - 31 % CaO - 5 % P2O5 AS A BIOACTIVE GLASS: IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizari D.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed a new bioactive glass formulation with the molar composition 64 % SiO2 - 31 % CaO - 5 % P2O5 by the sol-gel method. Sol-gel derived bioglass material was produced in nanopowder using planetary milling machine, followed by sintering at 700°C, for applications as bioactive material in bioactive scaffolds or in orthopaedic. The obtained material was evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption pore size. The biocompatibility evaluation of the formed glass was assessed through in vitro cell culture by evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts and immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF for different time intervals while monitoring the pH changes and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and silicon in the SBF medium as key factors in the rapid bonding of this bioactive glass to bone tissue as a high bioactive glass. The present investigation revealed that the sol-gel derived ternary bioglass system has the ability to support the growth of human fetal osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19. Finally, this material proved to be non-toxic and compatible for the proposed work in segmental defects in the goat model in vivo.

  18. Influence of La in xPBBiN of ternary nanoceramic composite (1-x0.5PMN-0.5PZT-xPBBiN system by mechanic al activatio n technique for dielectric and piezoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. CHANDRAMOULI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available (1-x[0.5Pb(Mg0.33Nb0.67O3-0.5Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3]-x[Pb0.557Ba0.38La0.022Bi0.02Nb2O6] with both perovskite and tungsten bronze structured composite have been synthesized through mechanical activation technique. The strong influence of lanthanum addition to the lead-barium-bismuth-niobate (xPBLBiN ceramics in perovskite structured (1-xPMN-PZT on structural and functional properties is confirmed. X-ray diffraction patterns studies showed that these complex composites consisted of perovskite Cubic with tungsten bronze Orthorhombic phases. La modification in PBBiN of a ternary system (1-xPMN-PZTxPBBiN revealed intensified orthorhombicity. As La increased the dielectric and piezoelectric properties tremendously increased in (1-xPMN-PZT-xPBLBiN nanoceramic composite. The optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties (εRT = 2931, kp = 0.461 and d33 = 428 pC/N were found in x =0.4 composite. We achieved novel nanocomposites synthesized by high energy ball milling method and having binary structures in a single composite with excellent functional properties that can be used for energy harvesting applications.

  19. Ternary Ag/epoxy adhesive with excellent overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Hong; Liu, Yu; Huang, Gui-Wen; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2015-04-22

    Excellent electrical conductivity (EC) generally conflicts with high lap shear strength (LSS) for electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) since EC increases while LSS decreases with increasing conductive filler content. In this work, the ECAs with the excellent overall performance are developed based on the ternary hybrid of Ag microflakes (Ag-MFs), Ag nanospheres (Ag-NSs), and Ag nanowires (Ag-NWs). First, a low silver content adhesive system is determined. Then, the effects of the relative contents of Ag fillers on the EC and the LSS are studied. It is shown that a small amount of Ag-NSs or Ag-NWs can dramatically improve the EC for the Ag-MF/epoxy adhesives. The Ag-NSs and Ag-NWs with appropriate contents have a synergistic effect in improving the EC. Meanwhile, the LSS of the as-prepared adhesive with the appropriate Ag contents reaches an optimal value. Both the EC and the LSS of the as-prepared ternary hybrid ECA with a low content of 40 wt % Ag are higher than those of the commercial ECAs filled with the Ag-MF content over 60 wt %. Finally, the ternary hybrid ECA with the optimal formulation is shown to be promising for printing the radio frequency identification tag antennas as an immediate application example.

  20. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  1. The calculation of ternary miscibility gaps using the linear contributions method: Problems, benchmark systems and an application to (K, Li, Na)Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.G.; Oonk, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hypothetical systems are useful to enhance the rigor of computerized algorithms and to enhance the applicability of the developed software to physically realistic systems. This paper deals with the calculation of miscibility gaps using the method of the addition of linear contributions. We derived a

  2. Ternary critical point determination of experimental demixion curve: calculation method, relevance and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutaudier C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many cases of miscibility gap in ternary systems, one critical point at least, stable or metastable, can be observed under isobaric and isothermal conditions. The experimental determination of this invariant point is difficult but its knowledge is essential. The authors propose a method for calculating the composition of the invariant solution starting from the composition of the liquid phases in equilibrium. The computing method is based on the barycentric properties of the conjugate solutions (binodal points and an extension of the straight diameter method. A systematic study was carried out on a large number of ternary systems involving diverse constituents (230 sets ternary systems at various temperatures. Thus the results are presented and analyzed by means of consistency tests.

  3. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of {sup 252}Cf(sf, fff)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertzen, W. von, E-mail: oertzen@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nasirov, A.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Kyungpook National University, 702-701, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Tashkhodjaev, R.B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Inha University in Tashkent, 100170, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2015-06-30

    We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in {sup 252}Cf(sf, fff), with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES). Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of {sup 252}Cf(sf) into three different masses (e.g. {sup 132–140}Sn, {sup 52–48}Ca, {sup 68–72}Ni), observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions) of the JINR (Dubna) the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT), is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  4. A-site deficient perovskite-type compounds in the ternary CaTiO{sub 3}-LaCrO{sub 3}-La{sub 2/3}TiO{sub 3} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashook, V. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: vladimir.vashook@chemie.tu-dresden.de; Vasylechko, L. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera St., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Trofimenko, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Kuznecov, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Otchik, P. [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Sintered Materials, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Zosel, J. [Kurt-Schwabe-Institute for Measuring and Sensor Technology Meinsberg, D-04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf (Germany); Guth, U. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kurt-Schwabe-Institute for Measuring and Sensor Technology Meinsberg, D-04720 Ziegra-Knobelsdorf (Germany)

    2006-08-10

    Phase equilibriums in the CaTiO{sub 3}-LaCrO{sub 3}-La{sub 2/3}TiO{sub 3} quasi-ternary system have been studied by means of high-resolution powder diffraction technique using X-ray and synchrotron radiation. Over 50 La{sub (2+y-2x)/3}Ca {sub x}Cr {sub y}Ti{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} compounds were synthesized by solid-state reactions in air at 1350 deg. C using La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}. Based on the results of X-ray phase and structural analysis, the isothermal section of the CaTiO{sub 3}-LaCrO{sub 3}-La{sub 2/3}TiO{sub 3} phase diagram at room temperature is constructed. The A-cation deficient La{sub (2+y-2x)/3}Ca{sub x}Cr {sub y}Ti{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} solid solution with different perovskite-type structures (space groups Pbnm, Imma, I4/mcm and Cmmm or P2/m) is formed in the CaTiO{sub 3}-LaCrO{sub 3}-La{sub 2/3}TiO{sub 3} quasi-ternary system in air conditions. The compounds show high stability at high temperatures at reducing as well as at oxidizing conditions. The substances with y = 0 and y = 0.2 show n-type conductivity at 900 deg. C at pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -15} to 10{sup 5} Pa and with y = 0.5 show conductivity minima these shift to the oxygen reach region with increasing A-site deficiency. The A-site deficient La{sub (2+y-2x)/3}Ca {sub x}Cr {sub y}Ti{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} samples have higher sintering ability in comparison with the cation stoichiometric La{sub 1-x}Ca {sub x}Cr{sub 1-y}Ti {sub y}O{sub 3} compositions and, in contrast to the latter, can be prepared as gas dense ceramics in air at temperatures lower as 1300 deg. C. Thermal expansion of the A-site deficient La{sub (2+y-2x)/3}Ca {sub x}Cr {sub y}Ti{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} ceramics is comparable with that of yttrium stabilised zirconia (YSZ). No interaction between La{sub (2+y-2x)/3}Ca {sub x}Cr {sub y}Ti{sub 1-y}O{sub 3} and YSZ ceramics up to 1300 deg. C was observed. Oxygen mobility in these ceramics can be characterised with chemical diffusion coefficients (1-9) x 10{sup -9} cm

  5. Ternary carbon composite films for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh-Hai; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2017-09-01

    A simple, binder-free, method of making supercapacitor electrodes is introduced, based on modification of activated carbon with graphite oxide and carbon nanotubes. The three carbon precursors of different morphologies support each other to provide outstanding electrochemical performance, such as high capacitance and high energy density. The ternary carbon composite shows six times higher specific capacitance compared to that of activated carbon itself with high retention. The excellent electrochemical properties of the ternary composite attribute to the high surface area of 1933 m2 g-1 and low equivalent series resistance of 2 Ω, demonstrating that it improve the electrochemical performance for supercapacitor applications.

  6. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  7. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  8. Optimisasi Bubuk Slag Nikel Dengan Sistem Ternary C-A-S

    OpenAIRE

    Ashad, Hanafi; Nasution, Amrinsyah; Imran, Iswandi; Soegiri, Saptahari

    2008-01-01

    . This papers study concerning optimization of nickel slag powder as substitution material to partial cement by C-A-S (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2) ternary system. Optimization conducted to determine procentage of nickel slag powder in the consuming calcium hydroxide compound as hydration product of tricalcium silicate (C3S) and dicalcium silicate (C2S) cement with water so that form secondary of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) compound. By the phase diagram C-A-S ternary system, procentage of optimum nick...

  9. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto,P.; Follegatti-Romero,L. A.; Batista,E. A. C.; Meirelles,A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  10. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  11. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-30

    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid-State Characterization and Dissolution Properties of Meloxicam–Moringa Coagulant–PVP Ternary Solid Dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Noolkar, Suhail B.; Namdeo R Jadhav; Bhende, Santosh A.; Killedar, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam–moringa and meloxicam–polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam–moringa–PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, a...

  13. Ternary Dynamic Images In Robotic Smooth Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Pietro; Tagliasco, Vincenzo

    1984-02-01

    Early stages of visuo-motor interaction are considered with regard to dynamic scene analysis. Target fixation and tracking is distinguished from target visual analysis. The notion of target specification is elaborated upon. The use of ternary dynamic images is shown as an example of target tracking.

  14. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. SOUMEN SAHA1, SONALIKA VAIDYA2, KANDALAM V RAMANUJACHARY3,. SAMUEL E LOFLAND4 and ASHOK K GANGULI1,2,∗. 1Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India. 2Institute of Nano Science and ...

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of (NaNO{sub 3} + PEG 4000 + H{sub 2}O) ternary system at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Yecid P. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta, CICITEM (Chile); Galleguillos, Hector R., E-mail: hgalleguillos@uantof.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Antofagasta, CICITEM (Chile)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > LLE data for the ATPS NaNO{sub 3} + PEG 4000 were determined at T = (288.15 and 308.15) K. > The experimental data shown that the temperature increases as STL and biphasic area increase. > The Chen-NRTL, modified Wilson and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental tie-line data. > The results show that the quality of fitting is better with the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: Phase diagram and (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the (NaNO{sub 3} + polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) + H{sub 2}O) system have been determined experimentally at T = (288.15 and 308.15) K. The effects of temperature on the binodal curves and tie-lines have been studied and it was found that an increasing in temperature caused the expansion of two-phase region. The Chen-NRTL, modified Wilson and UNIQUAC models were used to correlate the experimental tie-line data. The results show that the quality of fitting is better with the UNIQUAC model.

  16. A Novel Method for Detecting and Computing Univolatility Curves in Ternary Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakov, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    of the generalized univolatility and unidistribution curves in the three dimensional composition – temperature state space lead to a simple and efficient algorithm of computation of the univolatility curves. Two peculiar ternary systems, namely diethylamine – chloroform – methanol and hexane – benzene......Residue curve maps (RCMs) and univolatility curves are crucial tools for analysis and design of distillation processes. Even in the case of ternary mixtures, the topology of these maps is highly non-trivial. We propose a novel method allowing detection and computation of univolatility curves...... in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of azeotropes, which is particularly important in the case of zeotropic mixtures. The method is based on the analysis of the geometry of the boiling temperature surface constrained by the univolatility condition. The introduced concepts...

  17. Excess enthalpies of binary and ternary mixtures containing dibutyl ether (DBE), 1-butanol, and heptane at T = 298.15 K and 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Fernando; Alaoui, Fatima E.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain); Segovia, Jose J.; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Montero, Eduardo A., E-mail: emontero@ubu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Experimental excess molar enthalpies of the ternary systems left bracedibutyl ether (DBE) + 1-butanol + heptaneright brace and the corresponding binary systems at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure are reported. A quasi-isothermal flow calorimeter has been used to make the measurements. All the binary and the ternary systems show endothermic character. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems have been fitted using the Redlich-Kister equation, the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The values of the standard deviation indicate good agreement between the experimental results and those calculated from the equations.

  18. Synthesis and application of a ternary composite of clay, saw-dust and peanut husks in heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungondori, Henry H; Mtetwa, Sandile; Tichagwa, Lilian; Katwire, David M; Nyamukamba, Pardon

    2017-05-01

    The adsorption of a multi-component system of ferrous, chromium, copper, nickel and lead on single, binary and ternary composites was studied. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ternary composite of clay, peanut husks (PH) and saw-dust (SD) exhibited a higher adsorption capacity than that of a binary system of clay and SD as well as a single component adsorbent of PH alone. The materials were used in their raw state without any chemical modifications. This was done to retain the cost effective aspect of the naturally occurring adsorbents. The adsorption capacities of the ternary composite for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Pb 2+ were 41.7 mg/g, 40.0 mg/g, 25.5 mg/g, 41.5 mg/g and 39.0 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the ternary composite exhibited excellent and enhanced adsorption capacity compared with both a binary and single adsorbent for the heavy metals Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Cr 3+ . Characterization of the ternary composites was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also studied. The pseudo second order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best described the adsorption mechanisms for the ternary composite towards each of the heavy metal ions.

  19. Thermoluminescent properties of Spinel-type oxides present in the Ternary system In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-Mg O in air at 1350 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.; Hernandez P, T. C.; Alvarez M, V. E.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Munoz, I. C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: imunoz@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In the ternary system In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-Mg O exists a solid solution Mg{sub 2-x}In{sub 2x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 4} (0≤ x ≤1) with spinel-type structure between MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} (F. Brown et. al., 2000). In order to analyze their thermoluminescent (Tl) response, we obtained the spinel-type oxides with x= 0 (s1), 0.25 (s2), 0.5 (s3), 0.75 (s4), and 1 (s5) by a solid state reaction at 1350 degrees C in air. The X-ray patterns showed a spinel type structure for these compounds. The powders were exposed to beta particles from {sup 90}Sr. The glow curve showed by s1 and s3 were hundreds of times more intense than s2, s4 and s5. At 50 Gy, s1 exhibits a main Tl maximum located at 200 degrees C, with two shoulders at 119 and 250 degrees C. The s3 oxide reveals a simple and wide glow curve at ≅195 degrees C with a Tl maximum located at 203 degrees C at 21.33 Gy. The peaks of the s1 and s3 oxide show a shift to lower temperatures and this increases its intensity as the irradiation dose increases. The lineal behavior observed for s1 and s3 were between 1.33-150 Gy and 10.66-341 Gy correspondingly, without evidence of saturation signal. After cycle 4, the s1 oxide has small variations in the relative sensitivity, with percentages below 1%. On the other hand, s3 reveals a relative sensitivity variation of 2.7%. Besides this, the standard deviation after ten consecutive irradiation-Tl readout cycles for s1 was 3.07 % and for s3 was 1%. The minimum detectable dose obtained were 0.5 Gy for s1 and 5.65 Gy for s3. These results suggest a possible application of Mg{sub 1.5}InTi{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} in dosimetry. (Author)

  20. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  1. Fac–mer equilibria of coordinated iminodiacetate (ida 2–) in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pH potentiometric and spectrophotometric investigations on the complex formation equilibria of CuII with iminodiacetate (ida2-) and heterocyclic N-bases, viz. imidazole and benzimidazole (B), in aqueous solution in binary and ternary systems using different molar ratios of the reactants indicated the formation of complexes ...

  2. Nanoassembly of Polydisperse Photonic Crystals based on Binary and Ternary Polymer Opal Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qibin; Schafer, Christian; Spahn, Peter; Gallei, Markus; Herrmann, Lars; Petukhov, Andrei; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-01-01

    Ordered binary and ternary photonic crystals, composed of different sized polymer-composite spheres with diameter ratios up to 120%, are generated using bending induced oscillatory shearing (BIOS). This viscoelastic system creates polydisperse equilibrium structures, producing mixed opaline colored films with greatly reduced requirements for particle monodispersity, and very different sphere size ratios, compared to other methods of nano-assembly.

  3. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  4. Panchromatic Sequentially Cast Ternary Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Masoud; Ye, Long; Zhang, Qianqian; Yan, Liang; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Awartani, Omar; You, Wei; Gadisa, Abay; Ade, Harald

    2017-01-01

    A sequential-casting ternary method is developed to create stratified bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells, in which the two BHJ layers are spin cast sequentially without the need of adopting a middle electrode and orthogonal solvents. This method is found to be particularly useful for polymers that form a mechanically alloyed morphology due to the high degree of miscibility in the blend. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ternary alloy nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu–Fe–Ni ternary alloys (size ∼55–80 nm) with varying compositions viz. CuFeNi (A1), CuFe2Ni (A2) and CuFeNi2 (A3) were successfully synthesized using microemulsion. It is to be noted that synthesis of nanocrystallineternary alloys with precise composition is a big challenge which can be overcome by choosing an ...

  6. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  7. Triethanolamine Stabilization of Methotrexate-β-Cyclodextrin Interactions in Ternary Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahamunna A. A. Barbosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of methotrexate (MTX with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD in the presence of triethanolamine (TEA was investigated with the aim to elucidate the mechanism whereby self-assembly cyclodextrin systems work in association with this third component. Solubility diagram studies showed synergic increment of the MTX solubility to be about thirty-fold. Experiments using 2D ROESY and molecular modeling studies revealed the inclusion of aromatic ring III of the drug into β-CD cavity, in which TEA contributes by intensifying MTX interaction with β-CD and stabilizes MTX:β-CD:TEA ternary complex by electrostatic interaction. The maintenance of these interactions in solid phase was also studied in ternary MTX:β-CD:TEA and comparisons were made with freeze dried binary MTX:β-CD and physical mixtures. FTIR studies evidenced that MTX–β-CD interaction remained in solid ternary complexes, which was also supported by thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/first derivative of TG analysis (DTG and C,N,H elementary analysis and structural (X-ray diffraction analysis, (XRD studies, mainly regarding the increment of drug stability. The efficient in vitro drug dissolution studies successfully demonstrated the contribution of ternary complexes, which highlights the importance of this possible new raw material for further applications in drug delivery systems.

  8. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, F [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Makhlouf, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4, rue des Freres Lumiere F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Silvestrov, S, E-mail: Faouzi.Ammar@rnn.fss.t, E-mail: Abdenacer.Makhlouf@uha.f, E-mail: sergei.silvestrov@math.lth.s [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-07-02

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  9. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A theoretical study of ternary indole-cation-anion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazana-García, Jorge A; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Campo-Cacharrón, Alba; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús

    2014-12-07

    The simultaneous interactions of an anion and a cation with a π system were investigated by MP2 and M06-2X theoretical calculations. Indole was chosen as a model π system for its relevance in biological environments. Two different orientations of the anion, interacting with the N-H and with the C-H groups of indole, were considered. The four cations (Na(+), NH4(+), C(NH2)3(+) and N(CH3)4(+)) and the four anions (Cl(-), NO3(-), HCOO(-) and BF4(-)) included in the study are of biological interest. The total interaction energy of the ternary complexes was calculated and separated into its two- and three-body components and all of them are further divided into their electrostatic, exchange, repulsion, polarization and dispersion contributions using the local molecular orbital-energy decomposition analysis (LMO-EDA) methodology. The binding energy of the indole-cation-anion complexes depends on both ions, with the cation having the strongest effect. The intense cation-anion attraction determines the geometric and energetic features in all ternary complexes. These structures, with both ions on the same side of the π system, show an anti-cooperative interaction. However, the interaction is not only determined by electrostatics, but also the polarization contribution is important. Specific interactions like the one established between the anion and the N-H group of indole or the proton transfer between an acidic cation and a basic anion play a significant role in the energetics and the structure of particular complexes. The presence of the polar solvent as modelled with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) does not seem to have a significant effect on the geometry of the ternary complexes, but drastically weakens the interaction energy. Also, the strength of the interaction is reduced at a faster rate when the anion is pushed away, compared to the results obtained in the gas phase. The combination of PCM with the addition of one water molecule indicates that the PCM

  11. Ternary diffusion in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Du, Yong, E-mail: yongducalphad@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Xu, Honghui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Jin, Zhanpeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: •Interdiffusivities in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined. •The present results were compared with experimental data in boundary binary systems. •The present results were validated by thermodynamic constraints and Fick’s law. •The sign of ternary cross diffusivities was predicted in terms of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Utilizing six groups of bulk diffusion couples and with electron probe microanalysis technique, the composition dependence of ternary interdiffusion coefficients in Cu-rich fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys at 1073 K were determined by the Matano-Kirkaldy method. Using a three-dimensional representation, the obtained main ternary diffusion coefficients were found to be consistent with the experimental data in boundary binaries available in the literature. The reliability of the obtained interdiffusivities was further validated by thermodynamic constraints as well as by Fick’s second law applied to numerical simulation. The sign of the ternary cross diffusivities in fcc Cu–Al–Si alloys, which shows a noticeable effect on microstructure, was also successfully predicted in terms of thermodynamics.

  12. Magnetic features of a mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloy cylindrical nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Z. D.

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the finite temperature magnetic phase transition properties of a mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic ternary alloy cylindrical nanowire of the type ABpC1-p by Monte Carlo simulation technique. The nanowire system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices, one of which contains type-A magnetic components with spin-3/2 and the other one is randomly occupied type-B and type-C magnetic components with spin-1 and spin-5/2, respectively. We have examined the effect of exchange interaction ratio, R, and the concentration value of type-B magnetic ions, p, on the transition temperature of the system. It has been found that one can modify the transition temperature and saturation magnetization of the system by varying concentration value and interaction ratio. Moreover, our numerical results show that the ternary alloy nanowire system exhibits compensation behavior for particular values of the system parameters.

  13. Microstructural evolution and thermal stability of aluminum-cerium-nickel ternary eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodran, Eric John

    The engineering community has identified several applications in which the use of a lightweight alloy for elevated temperature service, in substitution for current heavier and more costly alloys, would have a substantial benefit. This need for structural materials to perform at elevated temperatures has driven researchers to develop novel alloys as well as processing routes to manufacture them and obtain optimum microstructures. Previous studies on aluminum based binary eutectic systems have proven that the aluminum alloy system shows promising potential for satisfying this need. This has motivated the investigation of the solidification and thermal stability of the Al-12 wt% Ce-5 wt% Ni ternary eutectic performed in this investigation. The solidification behavior of the Al-Ce-Ni ternary eutectic was conducted via solidification of various compositions at and above the eutectic composition in a copper chill mold, thus allowing the observation of various solidification rates on a single ingot. Directional solidification of the ternary eutectic was also conducted to further study the unique microstructures forms. After casting the ingots were analyzed for the composition of phases in the microstructure via X-ray diffraction, and the distribution of the phases determined by scanning electron microscopy. The solidification of the ternary eutectic was found to occur much like that of a faceted/non-faceted binary couples growth. The thermal stability of the microstructure was also studied. Ternary eutectic microstructures were heat treated at various temperatures for time intervals up to 100 hours. The coupled growth microstructures were found to coarsen at temperature above 400°C, which was associated with a loss in hardness. Coarsening of the microstructures at elevated temperatures was also observed to occur by multiple mechanisms: an Ostwald ripening within the eutectic cell, and an accelerated coarsening at the cell boundaries due to increased diffusion at

  14. Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-moringa coagulant-PVP ternary solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noolkar, Suhail B; Jadhav, Namdeo R; Bhende, Santosh A; Killedar, Suresh G

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam-moringa and meloxicam-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam-moringa-PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro dissolution behavior of meloxicam from the different products was evaluated by means of United States Pharmacopeia type II dissolution apparatus. The results of solid-state studies indicated the presence of strong interactions between meloxicam, moringa, and PVP which were of totally amorphous nature. All ternary combinations were significantly more effective than the corresponding binary systems in improving the dissolution rate of meloxicam. The best performance in this respect was given by the ternary combination employing meloxicam-moringa-PVP ratio of [1:(3:1)] prepared by ball milling, with about six times increase in percent dissolution rate, whereas meloxicam-moringa (1:3) and meloxicam-PVP (1:4) prepared by ball milling improved dissolution of meloxicam by almost 3- and 2.5-folds, respectively. The achieved excellent dissolution enhancement of meloxicam in the ternary systems was attributed to the combined effects of impartation of hydrophilic characteristic by PVP, as well as to the synergistic interaction between moringa and PVP.

  15. Solubilization properties of nonionic surfactants. Part 1. Evolution of the ternary phase diagrams with temperature, salinity, HLB (hydrophile-lipophile balance), and ACN (alkane carbon number)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzier, M.; Ravey, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    From investigations of ternary systems with nonionic polyoxyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, brine, and alkanes, a classification of the oil-water solubilization properties of these surfactants can be made in terms of the evolution of the whole of the ternary diagrams. A simple relation between the different parameters characterizing the systems is proposed which uses the concepts of the equivalence between temperature and other parameters (HLB, alcane carbon number, salinity). 30 references.

  16. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  17. Elongation factor Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassembly of the Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu·GTP·aminoacyl-tRNA ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Benjamin J; Altman, Roger B; Ferrao, Ryan; Alejo, Jose L; Kaur, Navdep; Kanji, Joshua; Blanchard, Scott C

    2013-05-10

    Aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) enters the ribosome in a ternary complex with the G-protein elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. EF-Tu·GTP·aa-tRNA ternary complex formation and decay rates are accelerated in the presence of the nucleotide exchange factor elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts). EF-Ts directly facilitates the formation and disassociation of ternary complex. This system demonstrates a novel function of EF-Ts. Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the translating ribosome in a ternary complex with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. Here, we describe bulk steady state and pre-steady state fluorescence methods that enabled us to quantitatively explore the kinetic features of Escherichia coli ternary complex formation and decay. The data obtained suggest that both processes are controlled by a nucleotide-dependent, rate-determining conformational change in EF-Tu. Unexpectedly, we found that this conformational change is accelerated by elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts), the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for EF-Tu. Notably, EF-Ts attenuates the affinity of EF-Tu for GTP and destabilizes ternary complex in the presence of non-hydrolyzable GTP analogs. These results suggest that EF-Ts serves an unanticipated role in the cell of actively regulating the abundance and stability of ternary complex in a manner that contributes to rapid and faithful protein synthesis.

  18. Balanced ternary addition using a gated silicon nanowire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.A.; Van der Heijden, J.; Verduijn, J.; Klein, M.; Remacle, F.; Rogge, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ternary logic has the lowest cost of complexity, here, we demonstrate a CMOS hardware implementation of a ternary adder using a silicon metal-on-insulator single electron transistor. Gate dependent rectifying behavior of a single electron transistor (SET) results in a robust three-valued output as a

  19. Formation of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The glass-forming ability (GFA) of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy alloys was systematically investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. The results showed that a series of ternary Mg–Cu–Dy bulk metallic glasses (BGMs) with a diameter of 4–8 mm were suc-.

  20. Nonequilibrium patterns in phase-separating ternary membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jordi; Sagués, Francesc; Reigada, Ramon

    2009-07-01

    We present a nonequilibrium approach for the study of a two-dimensional phase-separating ternary mixture. When the component that promotes phase separation is dynamically exchanged with the medium, the separation process is halted and actively maintained finite-size segregation domains appear in the system. In addition to this effect, already reported in our earlier work [J. Gómez, F. Sagués, and R. Reigada, Phys. Rev. E 77, 021907 (2008)], the use of a generic Ginzburg-Landau formalism and the inclusion of thermal fluctuations provide a more dynamic description of the resulting domain organization. Its size, shape, and stability properties are studied. Larger and more circular and stable domains are formed when decreasing the recycling rate, increasing the mobility of the exchanged component, and the mixture is quenched deeper. We expect this outcome to be of applicability in raft phenomenology in plasmatic cell membranes.

  1. Morphological Control Agent in Ternary Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Chung Liao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic photovoltaic (OPV promise low cost solar energy and have caused an explosive increase in investigations during the last decade. Control over the 3D morphology of BHJ blend films in various length scales is one of the pillars accounting for the significant advance of OPV performance recently. In this contribution, we focus on the strategy of incorporating an additive into BHJ blend films as a morphological control agent, i.e., ternary blend system. This strategy has shown to be effective in tailoring the morphology of BHJ through different inter- and intra-molecular interactions. We systematically review the morphological observations and associated mechanisms with respect to various kinds of additives, i.e., polymers, small molecules and inorganic nanoparticles. We organize the effects of morphological control (compatibilization, stabilization, etc. and provide general guidelines for rational molecular design for additives toward high efficiency and high stability organic solar cells.

  2. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  3. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  4. Robust tribo-mechanical and hot corrosion resistance of ultra-refractory Ta-Hf-C ternary alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yate, Luis; Coy, L Emerson; Aperador, Willian

    2017-06-08

    In this work we report the hot corrosion properties of binary and ternary films of the Ta-Hf-C system in V 2 O 5 -Na 2 SO 4 (50%wt.-50%wt.) molten salts at 700 °C deposited on AISI D3 steel substrates. Additionally, the mechanical and nanowear properties of the films were studied. The results show that the ternary alloys consist of solid solutions of the TaC and HfC binary carbides. The ternary alloy films have higher hardness and elastic recoveries, reaching 26.2 GPa and 87%, respectively, and lower nanowear when compared to the binary films. The corrosion rates of the ternary alloys have a superior behavior compared to the binary films, with corrosion rates as low as 0.058 μm/year. The combination and tunability of high hardness, elastic recovery, low nanowear and an excellent resistance to high temperature corrosion demonstrates the potential of the ternary Ta-Hf-C alloy films for applications in extreme conditions.

  5. The structure and physical properties of the ternary CuZnPt{sub 6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziya, A.B. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan-60800 (Pakistan); Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)], E-mail: amer_ziya@yahoo.com; Takahashi, M.; Ohshima, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The ternary addition of Zn to the binary Cu-Pt system was found to result in a complete miscibility at a stoichiometric composition of CuZnPt{sub 6}. The equilibrium ground state structure is face-centered cubic (fcc) (A{sub 1}-type). The results are associated with the alloying behavior in the ternary CuMPt{sub 6} (M=3d metals) system reported previously. They verify the fact that the Pt-based primary solid solution found in binary MPt{sub 3} alloys extends its region in the phase diagram to the composition of Cu:M:Pt=1:1:6. The Debye temperature ({theta}{sub D}) obtained is smaller than that of pure Pt, whereas no significant effect is observed on the linear thermal expansion and magnetic property of the alloy.

  6. Flashpoint prediction for ternary mixtures of alcohols with water for CFD simulation of unsteady flame propagation during explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Ševčíková, Silvie Petránková

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of binary and ternary mixtures of alcohols are of considerable interest for a wide range of scientists and technologists. Simple dimensionless experimental formulae based on rational reciprocal and polynomial functions are proposed for correlation of the flashpoint data of binary mixtures of two components. The formulae are based on data obtained from flashpoint experiments and predictions. The main results are the derived experimental flashpoint values for ternary mixtures of two aqueous-organic solutions and the model prediction of maximum explosion pressure values for the studied mixtures. Potential application for the results concerns the assessment of fire and explosion hazards, and the development of inherently safer designs for chemical processes containing binary and ternary partially miscible mixtures of an aqueous-organic system. The goal of this article is to present the results of modelling using these standard models and to demonstrate its importance in the area of CFD simulation.

  7. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  8. Solubility Modeling of the Binary Systems Fe(NO3)3–H2O, Co(NO3)2–H2O and the Ternary System Fe(NO3)3–Co(NO3)2–H2O with the Extended Universal Quasichemical (UNIQUAC) Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrad, Mouad; Kaddami, Mohammed; Goundali, Bahija El

    2016-01-01

    Solubility modeling in the binary system Fe(NO3)3–H2O, Co(NO3)2–H2O and the ternary system Fe(NO3)3–Co(NO3)2–H2O is presented. The extended UNIQUAC model was applied to the thermodynamic assessment of the investigated systems. The model parameters obtained were regressed simultaneously using the ...... are determined. The model represents the experimental data with good accuracy from the freezing point region to the boiling points of the solutions....... the available databank but with more experimental points, recently published in the open literature. A revision of previously published parameters for the cobalt ion and new parameters for the iron(III) nitrate system are presented. Based on this set of parameters, the equilibrium constants of hydrates...

  9. Metal-amino acid (or peptide)-nucleoside (or related bases) ternary complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron, A.; Fiol, J.J.; Herrero, L.A.; Garcia-Raso, A. [Departament de Quimica. Universitat de les Illes Balears. Palma de Mallorca. (Spain); Apella, M.C. [Cerela Centro de Referencia de Lactobacilos, Tucaman, Argentina (Antigua and Barbuda); Caubet, A.; Moreno, V. [Departament de Quimica Inorganica. Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    The knowledge of simultaneous metal ion interaction with proteins and nucleic acids is one of the most exciting subjects inside the Inorganic Biochemistry. In the last years, several groups have published articles on the synthesis and characterization of ternary complexes bringing relevant data on the structure and stability of metallo biomolecules. In this short review, the last contributions found in the literature are collected. Comments on the factors influencing the behaviour and stability of these systems are offered. (Author) 100 refs.

  10. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  13. Improved Domain Size and Purity Enables Efficient All-Small-Molecule Ternary Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Liyan; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Yun; He, Chang; Ma, Wei; Hou, Jianhui

    2017-11-01

    An all-small-molecule ternary solar cell is achieved with a power conversion efficiency of 10.48% by incorporating phenyl-C 71 -butyric-acid-methyl ester (PC 71 BM) into a nonfullerene binary system. The addition of PC 71 BM is found to modulate the film morphology by improving the domain purity and decreasing the domain size. This modulation facilitates charge generation and suppresses charge recombination, as manifested by the significantly enhanced short-circuit current density and fill factor. The results correlate the domain characteristics with the device performance and offer new insight from the perspective of morphology modulation for constructing efficient ternary devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nanoparticle formation of poorly water-soluble drugs from ternary ground mixtures with PVP and SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Koichi; Pongpeerapat, Adchara; Tozuka, Yuichi; Oguchi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2003-02-01

    Poorly water-soluble drugs N-5159, griseofulvin (GFV), glibenclamide (GBM) and nifedipine (NFP) were ground in a dry process with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Different crystallinity behavior of each drug during grinding was shown in the ternary Drug/PVP/SDS system. However, when each ternary Drug/PVP/SDS ground mixture was added to distilled water, crystalline nanoparticles which were 200 nm or less in size were formed and had excellent stability. Zeta potential measurement suggested that the nanoparticles had a structure where SDS was adsorbed onto the particles that were formed by the adsorption of PVP on the surface of drug crystals. Stable existence of crystalline nanoparticles was attributable to the inhibition of aggregation caused by the adsorption of PVP and SDS on the surface of drug crystals. Furthermore, the electrostatic repulsion due to the negative charge of SDS on a shell of nanoparticles could be assumed to contribute to the stable dispersion.

  15. Superconductivity in the metal rich Li-Pd-B ternary boride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, K; Badica, P; Nakamori, Y; Orimo, S; Takeya, H; Hirata, K

    2004-12-10

    Superconductivity at about 8 K was observed in the metal-rich Li-Pd-B ternary system. Structural, microstructural, electrical, and magnetic investigations for various compositions proved that the Li2Pd3B compound, which has an antiperovskite cubic structure composed of distorted Pd6B octahedrons, is responsible for the superconductivity. This is the first observation of superconductivity in metal-rich ternary borides containing alkaline metal and Pd as a late transition metal. The compound prepared by arc melting has a high density and is relatively stable in the air. The upper critical fields H(c2)(0) estimated by linear extrapolation and the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory are 6.2 and 4.8 T, respectively.

  16. Phase field crystal modeling of ternary solidification microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Berghoff, Marco; Nestler, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we present a free energy derivation of the multi-component phase-field crystal model [1] and illustrate the capability to simulate dendritic and eutectic solidification in ternary alloys. Fast free energy minimization by a simulated annealing algorithm of an approximated crystal is compared with the free energy of a fully simulated phase field crystal structure. The calculation of ternary phase diagrams from these free energies is described. Based on the free energies rel...

  17. Subarrayed Antenna Array Synthesis Using Ternary Adjusting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary adjusting method is proposed and combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for subarrayed antenna array synthesis. Ternary variables are introduced to represent element adjustments between adjacent subarrays. Compared to previous methods, rounding-off operations are not required any longer, and the equation constraint of the fixed total element number is also removed, which effectively reduces the complexity of implementation while obtaining improved topology exploration capability simultaneously.

  18. APPLICATION OF THE UNIFAC MODEL TO LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF WATER-PROPIONIC ACID-SOLVENT TERNARIES*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla ÇEHRELİ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid equilibria of Water-Propionic Acid-Benzyl Alcohol, Water-Propionic Acid-Benzyl Acetate and Water-Propionic Acid-Dibenzyl Ether ternary systems were predicted by means of UNIFAC Model. For this purpose, multivariable Newton-Raphson convergence procedure was used. Experimental and model results were compared.

  19. An electrochemical hydrogen meter for measuring hydrogen in sodium using a ternary electrolyte mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Sridharan, R; Nagaraj, S; Gnanasekaran, T; Periaswami, G

    2003-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for measuring hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium that is based on a ternary mixture of LiCl, CaCl sub 2 and CaHCl as the electrolyte has been developed. DSC experiments showed the eutectic temperature of this ternary system to be approx 725 K. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of the electrolyte indicated ionic conduction through a molten phase at approx 725 K. Two electrochemical hydrogen sensors were constructed using the ternary electrolyte of composition 70 mol% LiCl:16 mol% CaHCl:14 mol% CaCl sub 2 and tested at 723 K in a mini sodium loop and at hydrogen levels of 60-250 ppb in sodium. The sensors show linear response in this concentration range and are capable of detecting a change of 10 ppb hydrogen in sodium over a background level of 60 ppb. Identification of this electrolyte system and its use in a sensor for measuring hydrogen in sodium are described in this paper.

  20. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  1. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  2. Ternary complex of plasmid DNA with NLS-Mu-Mu protein and cationic niosome for biocompatible and efficient gene delivery: a comparative study with protamine and lipofectamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Hadi; Torkzadeh-Mahanai, Masoud; Pardakhty, Abbas; Ebrahimi Meimand, Hossein Ali; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2017-10-28

    Non-viral gene delivery methods are considered due to safety and simplicity in human gene therapy. Since the use of cationic peptide and niosome represent a promising approach for gene delivery purposes we used recombinant fusion protein and cationic niosome as a gene carrier. A multi-domain fusion protein including nuclear localization motif (NLS) and two DNA-binding (Mu) domains, namely NLS-Mu-Mu (NMM) has been designed, cloned and expressed in E. coli DE3 strain. Afterward, the interested protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Binary vectors based on protein/DNA and ternary vectors based on protein/DNA/niosome were prepared. Protamine was used as a control. DNA condensing properties of NMM and protamine were evaluated by various experiments. Furthermore, we examined cytotoxicity, hemolysis and transfection potential of the binary and ternary complexes in HEK293T and MCF-7 cell lines. Protamine and Lipofectamine™2000 were used as positive controls, correspondingly. The recombinant NMM was expressed and purified successfully and DNA was condensed efficiently at charge ratios that were not harmful to cells. Peptidoplexes showed transfection efficiency (TE) but ternary complexes had higher TE. Additionally, NMM ternary complex was more efficient compared to protamine ternary vectors. Our results showed that niosomal ternary vector of NMM is a promising non-viral gene carrier to achieve an effective and safe carrier system for gene therapy.

  3. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  4. The gRNA-miRNA-gRNA Ternary Cassette Combining CRISPR/Cas9 with RNAi Approach Strongly Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Ruiyang; Ding, Shanlong; Zhang, Tianying; Yuan, Quan; Guan, Guiwen; Chen, Xiangmei; Zhang, Ting; Zhuang, Hui; Nunes, Frederick; Block, Timothy; Liu, Shuang; Duan, Zhongping; Xia, Ningshao; Xu, Zhongwei; Lu, Fengmin

    2017-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a novel genome editing technology which has been successfully used to inhibit HBV replication. Here, we described a novel gRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-gRNA ternary cassette driven by a single U6 promoter. With an anti-HBV pri-miR31 mimic integrated between two HBV-specific gRNAs, both gRNAs could be separated from the long transcript of gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette through Drosha/DGCR8 processing. The results showed that the gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette could efficiently express two gRNAs and miR-HBV. The optimal length of pri-miRNA flanking sequence in our ternary cassette was determined to be 38 base pairs (bp). Besides, HBV-specific gRNAs and miR-HBV in gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette could exert a synergistic effect in inhibiting HBV replication and destroying HBV genome in vitro and in vivo. Most importantly, together with RNA interference (RNAi) approach, the HBV-specific gRNAs showed the potent activity on the destruction of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Since HBV cccDNA is an obstacle for the elimination of chronic HBV infection, the gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette may be a potential tool for the clearance of HBV cccDNA. PMID:28839466

  5. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: IV. Differential thermal analysis of the sylvite liquidus in the KCl-H2O binary, the liquidus in the NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary, and the solidus in the NaCl-KCl binary to 2 kb pressure, and a summary of experimental data for thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at elevated P-T conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sterner, S.M.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-01-01

    The sylvite liquidus in the binary system KCl-H2O and the liquidus in the ternary system NaCl-KCl-H2O were determined by using isobaric differential thermal analysis (DTA) cooling scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Sylvite solubilities along the three-phase curve in the binary system KCl-H2O were obtained by the intersection of sylvite-liquidus isopleths with the three-phase curve in a P-T plot. These solubility data can be represented by the equation Wt.% KCl (??0.2) = 12.19 + 0.1557T - 5.4071 ?? 10-5 T2, where 400 ??? T ??? 770??C. These data are consistent with previous experimental observations. The solidus in the binary system NaCl-KCl was determined by using isobaric DTA heating scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Using these liquidus and solidus data and other published information, a thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high pressures and temperatures for the ternary system has been performed and is presented in an accompanying paper (Part V of this series). However, all experimental liquidus, solidus, and solvus data used in this analysis are summarized in this report (Part IV) and they are compared with the calculated values based on the analysis. ?? 1992.

  6. A simple method for determining the lattice parameter and chemical composition in ternary bcc-Fe rich nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Javier A., E-mail: jmoya.fi.uba@gmail.com [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Gamarra Caramella, Soledad; Marta, Leonardo J. [Grupo Interdisciplinario en Materiales-IESIING, Universidad Católica de Salta, INTECIN UBA-CONICET, Salta (Argentina); Berejnoi, Carlos [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Facultad de Ingeniería, Salta (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A method for determining composition in ternary nanocrystals is presented. • X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy data were employed. • We perform theoretical charts for lattice parameter of Fe-rich ternary alloys. • A linear relationship in lattice parameter for binary alloys is evaluated. • A parabolic relationship is proposed for the Fe–Co–Si alloy. - Abstract: Charts containing lattice parameters of Fe{sub 1−x}(M,N){sub x} ternary systems with M and N = Si, Al, Ge or Co, and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ ∼0.3, were developed by implementing a linear relationship between the respective binary alloys with the same solute content of the ternary one. Charts were validated with experimental data obtained from literature. For the Fe–Co–Si system, the linear relationship does not fit the experimental data. For the other systems (except the Fe–Co–Ge one where no experimental data was found), the lineal relationship constitute a very good approximation. Using these charts and the lattice parameter data obtained from X-ray diffraction technique combining with the solute content data obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy technique it is possible to determine the chemical composition of nanograins in soft magnetic nanocomposite materials and some examples are provided.

  7. The Ti-V-Fe ternary alloy system and its application to hydrogen storage; Le systeme ternaire Ti-V-Fe et son application au stockage d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicot, B.; Jobert, J.M.; Latroche, M. [Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est vient, CNRS, 94 - Thiais (France)

    2007-07-01

    In this work, the samples synthesized on a wide composition range of the system Ti-V-Fe have allowed to specify the isothermal section at 1000 C and to give data on the expansion of the centered cubic structure, attractive for hydrogen storage. (O.M.)

  8. Synthesis of Ternary Nitrides From Intermetallic Precursors: Modes of Nitridation in Model Cr3Pt Alloys to Form Cr3PtN Perovskite and Applications to Other Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Wrobel, Sarah [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lograsso, Tom [Ames Laboratory; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Hoelzer, David T [ORNL; Horton Jr, Joe A [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    The use of intermetallic alloy precursors is explored as a new means to synthesize complex transition and refractory metal nitrides, carbides, and related phases. The conditions under which model single-phase Cr{sub 3}Pt and two-phase Cr{sub 3}Pt-dispersed Cr alloys form Cr{sub 3}PtN antiperovskite when thermally nitrided were studied. Phenomenological experiments suggest that the key variable to achieving single-phase Cr{sub 3}PtN surface layers is the Cr{sub 3}Pt phase composition. In two-phase {beta}-Cr-Cr{sub 3}Pt alloys, the formation of single-phase Cr{sub 3}PtN at Cr{sub 3}Pt precipitates by in-place internal nitridation was found to be a strong function of the size of the Cr{sub 3}Pt dispersion in the microstructure. Nanoscale Cr{sub 3}Pt dispersions were readily converted to near single-phase Cr{sub 3}PtN, whereas nitridation of coarse Cr{sub 3}Pt particles resulted in a cellular or discontinuous-type reaction to form a lath mixture of Cr{sub 3}PtN and a more Cr-rich Cr{sub 3}Pt or {beta}-Cr. The potential for using such external/internal oxidation phenomena as a synthesis approach to layered or composite surfaces of ternary ceramic phases (nitrides, carbides, borides, etc.) of technological interest such as the Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2} phase, bimetallic nitride, and carbide catalysts (Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}C and related phases), and magnetic rare earth nitrides (Fe{sub 17}Sm{sub 2}N{sub x} or Fe{sub 17}Nd{sub 2}N{sub x}) is discussed.

  9. Divergent synthesis routes and superconductivity of ternary hydride MgSiH6 at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbin; Duan, Defang; Shao, Ziji; Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Hanyu; Tian, Fubo; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Da; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2017-10-01

    We predict a new ternary hydride MgSiH6 under high pressures, which is a metal with an ionic feature and takes on a simple cubic structure with space group P m -3 above 250 GPa. Our first-principles calculations show that the cubic MgSiH6 is a potential high-temperature superconductor with a superconducting transition temperature Tc of ˜63 K at 250 GPa. Further analysis suggests that phonon softening along mainly Γ -X and Γ -M directions induced by Fermi surface nesting plays a crucial role in the high-temperature superconductivity. Herein we propose the "triangle straight-line method" which provides a clear guide to determine the specific A + B → D type formation routes for ternary hydrides of the Mg-Si-H system and it effectively reveals two divergent paths to obtain MgSiH6 under high pressures: MgH2+SiH4→MgSiH6 and MgSi + 3 H2→MgSiH6 . This method might be applicable to all ternary compounds, which will be very significant for further experimental synthesis.

  10. Stability of a density-change flow in the solidification of a ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guba, Peter; Anderson, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    We consider phase-change driven flow and solidification of a ternary (three-component) alloy. The ternary system is characterized by the formation of two distinct mushy layers (primary and secondary), distinguished by the number of components present in their solid phases. A primary layer has the solid phase composed of a single component and, beneath the primary layer, a secondary layer has the solid phase composed of two components. Generally, the densities of the liquid, primary solid and secondary solid phases during solidification are different, and these differences give rise to a flow of the interstitial liquid. We identify four different flow regimes dependent upon whether the two solid phases shrink or expand upon solidification. The stability of this density-change flow in the absence of buoyancy is studied numerically applying a spectral method. A simple power law is employed to describe the permeability of the ternary mushy layers, with a sensitivity of permeability to changes in porosity used as the control parameter. An instability is found to occur not only in the case of expansion but also contraction, an option that is apparently unavailable for the binary case. A reduced model is derived which contains the bare essentials required to capture this instability.

  11. Ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and potential application in photocatalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivetić, T.B., E-mail: tamara.ivetic@df.uns.ac.rs [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Finčur, N.L. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Đačanin, Lj. R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Abramović, B.F. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Lukić-Petrović, S.R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) powders. • Photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam in the presence of ZTO water suspensions. • Coupled binary ZTO exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to ternary ZTO. - Abstract: In this paper, ternary and coupled binary zinc tin oxide nanocrystalline powders were prepared via simple solid-state mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the structure and optical properties of the obtained powder samples. The thermal behavior of zinc tin oxide system was examined through simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analysis. The efficiencies of ternary (Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}) and coupled binary (ZnO/SnO{sub 2}) zinc tin oxide water suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of alprazolam, short-acting anxiolytic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs, under UV irradiation were determined and compared with the efficiency of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2}.

  12. Design and implementation of the modified signed digit multiplication routine on a ternary optical computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Wang, Xianchao; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Multiplication with traditional electronic computers is faced with a low calculating accuracy and a long computation time delay. To overcome these problems, the modified signed digit (MSD) multiplication routine is established based on the MSD system and the carry-free adder. Also, its parallel algorithm and optimization techniques are studied in detail. With the help of a ternary optical computer's characteristics, the structured data processor is designed especially for the multiplication routine. Several ternary optical operators are constructed to perform M transformations and summations in parallel, which has accelerated the iterative process of multiplication. In particular, the routine allocates data bits of the ternary optical processor based on digits of multiplication input, so the accuracy of the calculation results can always satisfy the users. Finally, the routine is verified by simulation experiments, and the results are in full compliance with the expectations. Compared with an electronic computer, the MSD multiplication routine is not only good at dealing with large-value data and high-precision arithmetic, but also maintains lower power consumption and fewer calculating delays.

  13. Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371

  14. Dynamical simulation of sputtering and reflection from a ternary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshinaga, H.; Yamamura, Y.

    The sputtering and the reflection from a Tb0.2Fe0.7Co0.1 alloy due to Ar+ ion bombardment have been investigated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT-DIFFUSE which include the compositional change induced by ion influence. In the Tb-Fe-Co system, Fe atoms are preferentially sputtered. The atomic size of a Tb atom is the largest of these three atoms, and so Tb atoms trap preferentially in vacancies. The steady-state concentration of Tb atoms at the topmost layer is larger than the bulk concentration for the low energy ions due to radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering of Fe atoms. As the ion fluence increases, the atomic fractions of sputtered atoms calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code become those of the bulk concentration. The depth profiles of each element at the steady state depend on the incident energy. The total sputtering yield and the reflection coefficient from a Tb-Fe-Co alloy calculated by the ACAT-DIFFUSE code are larger than those by the ACAT code at near-threshold energies, where the ACAT code does not include the ion-influence effect. The energy spectra of back-scattered Ar atoms from the present ternary alloy have very similar profiles to those from a monoatomic Tb target, especially for low-energy Ar+ ions.

  15. Control mechanism of double-rotator-structure ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, SONG; Liping, YAN

    2017-03-01

    Double-rotator-structure ternary optical processor (DRSTOP) has two characteristics, namely, giant data-bits parallel computing and reconfigurable processor, which can handle thousands of data bits in parallel, and can run much faster than computers and other optical computer systems so far. In order to put DRSTOP into practical application, this paper established a series of methods, namely, task classification method, data-bits allocation method, control information generation method, control information formatting and sending method, and decoded results obtaining method and so on. These methods form the control mechanism of DRSTOP. This control mechanism makes DRSTOP become an automated computing platform. Compared with the traditional calculation tools, DRSTOP computing platform can ease the contradiction between high energy consumption and big data computing due to greatly reducing the cost of communications and I/O. Finally, the paper designed a set of experiments for DRSTOP control mechanism to verify its feasibility and correctness. Experimental results showed that the control mechanism is correct, feasible and efficient.

  16. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Binary and Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Su, Ching-Hua; Hopkins, R. H.; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very exciting optical and electrical properties including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt-liquid-vapor medium. We describe preliminary results of binary and ternary selenide materials in light of recent theories. Experiments were performed with lead selenide and thallium arsenic selenide systems which are multifunctional material and have been used for detectors, acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection applications. We observed that small units of nanocubes and elongated nanoparticles arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places. Growth of lead selenide nanowires was performed by physical vapor transport method and thallium arsenic selenide nanowire by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. In some cases very long wires (>mm) are formed. To achieve this goal experiments were performed to create situation where nanowires grew on the surface of solid thallium arsenic selenide itself.

  17. Phase equilibria in the La–Mg–Ge system at 500 °C and crystal structure of the new ternary compounds La{sub 11}Mg{sub 2}Ge{sub 7} and LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Negri, S., E-mail: serena.denegri@unige.it [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Solokha, P.; Skrobańska, M. [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Proserpio, D.M. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS), Samara State University, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Saccone, A. [Università degli Studi di Genova, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    The whole 500 °C isothermal section of the La–Mg–Ge ternary system was constructed. The existence and crystal structure of three ternary compounds were confirmed: La{sub 2+x}Mg{sub 1−x}Ge{sub 2} (τ{sub 2}, P4/mbm, tP10–Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, 0≤x≤0.25), La{sub 4}Mg{sub 5}Ge{sub 6} (τ{sub 3}, Cmc2{sub 1}, oS60–Gd{sub 4}Zn{sub 5}Ge{sub 6}) and La{sub 4}Mg{sub 7}Ge{sub 6} (τ{sub 4}, C2/m, mS34, own structure type). Five novel compounds were identified and structurally characterized: La{sub 11}Mg{sub 2}Ge{sub 7} (τ{sub 1}, P4{sub 2}/ncm, tP88-8, own structure type, a=1.21338(5), c=1.57802(6) nm), LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} (τ{sub 5}, P3{sup ¯}1c, hP34-0.44, own structure type, x=0.407(5), a=0.78408(4), c=1.45257(7) nm), La{sub 6}Mg{sub 23}Ge (τ{sub 6}, Fm3{sup ¯}m, cF120–Zr{sub 6}Zn{sub 23}Si, a=1.46694(6) nm), La{sub 4}MgGe{sub 10−x} (τ{sub 7}, x=0.37(1), C2/m, mS60-1.46, own structure type, a=0.88403(8), b=0.86756(8), c=1.7709(2) nm, β=97.16°(1) and La{sub 2}MgGe{sub 6} (τ{sub 8}, Cmce, oS72–Ce{sub 2}(Ga{sub 0.1}Ge{sub 0.9}){sub 7}, a=0.8989(2), b=0.8517(2), c=2.1064(3) nm). Disordering phenomena were revealed in several La–Mg–Ge phases in terms of partially occupied sites. The crystal structures of La{sub 11}Mg{sub 2}Ge{sub 7} and LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} are discussed in details. The latter is a √3a×√3a×2c superstructure of the LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} structure type; the symmetry reduction scheme is shown in the Bärnighausen formalism terms. - Graphical abstract: La–Mg–Ge isothermal section at 500 °C and group–subgroup relation between the LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} (parent type) and LaMg{sub 3−x}Ge{sub 2} (derivative) structures. - Highlights: • Novel La−Mg−Ge compounds structure determination from X-ray single crystal data. • Disordering phenomena as common features of the studied germanides. • Bärnighausen formalism as a useful tool for accurate structure determination. • Full isothermal section of the La

  18. Measurement of Soret coefficients in a ternary mixture of toluene-methanol-cyclohexane in convection-free environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialdun, A.; Ryzhkov, I.; Khlybov, O.; Lyubimova, T.; Shevtsova, V.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the measurement of Soret (ST) coefficients in the ternary system toluene (T)-methanol (M)-cyclohexane (Ch) onboard the International Space Station in the experiment selectable optical diagnostic instrument/DCMIX2 (Diffusion Coefficients Measurement in ternary mIXtures). Nine experiments were conducted in the range of mean temperatures between 298.15 K and 306.15 K in the mixture with composition 0.62 (T)-0.31 (M)-0.07 (Ch) in mass fractions. A linear dependence of the Soret coefficients on temperature was established for the ternary mixture. It has also been found that, over considered range of mean temperatures, the Soret coefficients of toluene are small and positive, while the Soret coefficients for methanol are negative and, at least, two times larger. The present work also presents a comprehensive study of possible methodologies to process raw data from the Soret experiment in ternary mixtures. All the experiments were processed by seven different schemes and two of them were identified as the most reliable. We also investigate the error propagation and explain the reasons for the discrepancy of the results obtained by different schemes.

  19. An Efficient Approach Towards the Photodegradation of Indigo Carmine by Introducing ZnO/CuO/Si Ternary Nanocomposite as Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Arnab; Baral, Apurba; Chabri, Sumit; Sinha, Arijit; Bandyopadhyay, Nil Ratan; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2017-04-01

    The authors report a facile route for the large scale synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Si ternary system achieved by non-equilibrium synthesis using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) technique. The synthesized material was found highly efficient for the photo-degradation of a hazardous dye Indigo Carmine, a widely used dye in textile industries with major threats to our environment. The structural properties of the prepared material were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, which revealed, that the optimization of milling duration plays a crucial role for the formation of such ternary system. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy yielded broadband absorption of light over the region 1100-350 nm. The photocatalytic activities of CuO/ZnO/Si ternary system were systematically explored by monitoring the fall in specific absorption peak intensity of the aqueous Indigo Carmine solution exposed under artificial light source.

  20. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  1. On the interpretation, verification and calibration of ternary probabilistic forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Jupp, Tim E; Coelho, Caio A S; Stephenson, David B

    2011-01-01

    We develop a geometrical interpretation of ternary probabilistic forecasts in which forecasts and observations are regarded as points inside a triangle. Within the triangle, we define a continuous colour palette in which hue and colour saturation are defined with reference to the observed climatology. In contrast to current methods, forecast maps created with this colour scheme convey all of the information present in each ternary forecast. The geometrical interpretation is then extended to verification under quadratic scoring rules (of which the Brier Score and the Ranked Probability Score are well--known examples). Each scoring rule defines an associated triangle in which the square roots of the \\emph{score}, the \\emph{reliability}, the \\emph{uncertainty} and the \\emph{resolution} all have natural interpretations as root--mean--square distances. This leads to our proposal for a \\emph{Ternary Reliability Diagram} in which data relating to verification and calibration can be summarised. We illustrate these id...

  2. [Synthesis and luminescence properties of reactive ternary europium complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-cai; Shu, Wan-gen; Zhang, Wei; Liu, You-nian; Zhou, Yue

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, five new reactive ternary europium complexes were synthesized with the first ligand of 1,10-phenanthroline and the reactive second ligands of maleic anhydride, acrylonitrile, undecenoic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, and also characterized by means of elemental analysis, EDTA titrimetric method, FTIR spectra and UV spectra. The fluorescence spectra show that the five new ternary complexes have much higher luminescence intensity than their corresponding binary complexes, and the synergy ability sequence of the five reactive ligands is as follows: linoleic acid > oleic acid > acrylonitrile > maleic anhydride > undecenoic acid. At the same time, the reactive ternary europium complexes coordinated with the reactive ligands, which can be copolymerized with other monomers, will provide a new way for the synthesis of bonding-type rare earth polymer functional materials with excellent luminescence properties.

  3. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  4. A New Class of Ternary Compound for Lithium-Ion Battery: from Composite to Solid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wu, Hailong; Cui, Yanhua; Liu, Shengzhou; Tian, Xiaoqing; Cui, Yixiu; Liu, Xiaojiang; Yang, Yin

    2018-02-14

    Searching for high-performance cathode materials is a crucial task to develop advanced lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with high-energy densities for electrical vehicles (EVs). As a promising lithium-rich material, Li 2 MnO 3 delivers high capacity over 200 mAh g -1 but suffers from poor structural stability and electronic conductivity. Replacing Mn 4+ ions by relatively larger Sn 4+ ions is regarded as a possible strategy to improve structural stability and thus cycling performance of Li 2 MnO 3 material. However, large difference in ionic radii of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions leads to phase separation of Li 2 MnO 3 and Li 2 SnO 3 during high-temperature synthesis. To prepare solid-solution phase of Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 , a buffer agent of Ru 4+ , whose ionic radius is in between that of Mn 4+ and Sn 4+ ions, is introduced to assist the formation of a single solid-solution phase. The results show that the Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system evolves from mixed composite phases into a single solid-solution phase with increasing Ru content. Meanwhile, discharge capacity of this ternary system shows significantly increase at the transformation point which is ascribed to the improvement of Li + /e - transportation kinetics and anionic redox chemistry for solid-solution phase. The role of Mn/Sn molar ratio of Li 2 RuO 3 -Li 2 MnO 3 -Li 2 SnO 3 ternary system has also been studied. It is revealed that higher Sn content benefits cycling stability of the system because Sn 4+ ions with larger sizes could partially block the migration of Mn 4+ and Ru 4+ from transition metal layer to Li layer, thus suppressing structural transformation of the system from layered-to-spinel phase. These findings may enable a new route for exploring ternary or even quaternary lithium-rich cathode materials for LIBs.

  5. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás; Mohri, Tetsuo; Gránásy, László

    2015-04-01

    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.

  6. Experimental consideration of capillary chromatography based on tube radial distribution of ternary mixture carrier solvents under laminar flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A capillary chromatography system has been developed based on the tube radial distribution of the carrier solvents using an open capillary tube and a water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture carrier solution. This tube radial distribution chromatography (TRDC) system works under laminar flow conditions. In this study, a phase diagram for the ternary mixture carrier solvents of water, acetonitrile, and ethyl acetate was constructed. The phase diagram that included a boundary curve between homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions was considered together with the component ratios of the solvents in the homogeneous carrier solutions required for the TRDC system. It was found that the TRDC system performed well with homogeneous solutions having component ratios of the solvents that were positioned near the homogeneous-heterogeneous solution boundary of the phase diagram. For preparing the carrier solutions of water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvents for the TRDC system, we used for the first time methanol, ethanol, 1,4-dioxane, and 1-propanol, instead of acetonitrile (hydrophilic organic solvent), as well as chloroform and 1-butanol, instead of ethyl acetate (hydrophobic organic solvent). The homogeneous ternary mixture carrier solutions were prepared near the homogeneous-heterogeneous solution boundary. Analyte mixtures of 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid and 1-naphthol were separated with the TRDC system using these homogeneous ternary mixture carrier solutions. The pressure change in the capillary tube under laminar flow conditions might alter the carrier solution from homogeneous in the batch vessel to heterogeneous, thus affecting the tube radial distribution of the solvents in the capillary tube.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of ternary PtxPdyAuz fuel cell nanocatalyst growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brault, P.; Coutanceau, C.; C. Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of PEMFC cathodes based on ternary Pt70Pd15Au15 and Pt50Pd25Au25 nanocatalysts dispersed on carbon indicate systematic Au segregation from the particle bulk to the surface, leading to an Au layer coating the cluster surface and to the spontaneous formation of a Pt......@Pd@Au core-shell structure. For Au content below 25 at%, surface PtxPdy active sites are available for efficient oxygen reduction reaction, in agreement with DFT calculations and experimental data. Simulations of direct core@shell system prepared in conditions mimicking those of plasma sputtering deposition...

  8. The use of Ternary Diagrams in the Analysis and the Mathematical Modeling of Bank Assets Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives pursued in this paper are: to obtain by means of ternary diagrams imagistic representations of the structure of assets in credit banking institutions operating in Romania in case of stability, turbulence and intense manifestation of the crisis; identifying functional discontinuities and achieve a comparative database. The ultimate goal of this paper is reporting the results obtained from comparative database to find out what signals preceding a turbulent situation in the banking sector and how far away is the banking system by the normal situation.

  9. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria measurement for epoxidized soybean oil + acetic acid + water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shuang-Fei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Qing; Li, Yi; Feng, Yun-Xia; Linghu, Rong-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) data were measured for ternary system epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) + acetic acid + water at 313.15, 323.15 and 333.15 K, respectively. The consistency of the measured LLE data was tested, using Othmer-Tobias correlation and root-mean-square deviation (sigma) in mass fraction of water in the lower phase and average value of the absolute difference (AAD) between experimental mass fraction of epoxidized soybean oil in the upper phase and that calculated using Othmer-Tobias correlation.

  10. Deposition and Phase Transformations of Ternary Al-Cr-O Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Khatibi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns the ternary Al-Cr-O system. (Al1-xCrx)2O3 solid solution thin films with 0.6

  11. NiS and MoS2nanosheet co-modified graphitic C3N4ternary heterostructure for high efficient visible light photodegradation of antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejun; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xinyi; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei; Lv, Jun; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-01-05

    The development of efficient solar driven catalytic system for the degradation of antibiotics has become increasingly important in environmental protection and remediation. Non-noble-metal NiS and MoS 2 nanosheet co-modified graphitic C 3 N 4 ternary heterostructure has been synthesized via a facile combination of hydrothermal and ultrasound method, and the ternary heterostructure has been utilized for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic agents. The antibiotics of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) were photodegraded by the hybrid under the visible light. The optimal photodegradation rate of the ternary heterostructure reaches about 96% after 2h irradiation, which is 2.1 times higher than that of pure g-C 3 N 4 for TC degradation. The photocatalytic degradation rates of the ternary heterostructure for both CIP and TC obey the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The enhanced visible light adsorption and charge separation efficiency contribute to the photocatalytic performance of the ternary heterostructure. This work provides new insights and pathways by which efficient degradation of antibiotics can be achieved and will stimulate further studies in this important field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  13. Hierarchic structure formation in binary and ternary polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, M; Walheim, S; Budkowski, A; Steiner, U

    The phase morphology of multi-component polymer blends is governed by the interfacial interactions of its components. We discuss here the domain morphology in thin films of model binary and ternary polymer blends containing polystyrene, poly(methyl metacrylate), and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS, PMMA,

  14. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 3. Mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties of ternary ZnO–V2O5–Mn3O4 varistor with sintering temperature. S El-Rabai A H Khafagy M T Dawoud M T Attia. Volume 38 Issue 3 June 2015 pp 773-781 ...

  15. Evaluation of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions with HPMCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham

    2009-01-01

    The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to the solid dispersion may enhance the stability of the amorphous griseofulvin due to greater interaction with griseofulvin. The X-ray powder diffraction results showed that griseofulvin (binary and ternary solid dispersions) remained amorphous for more than 19 months stored at 85% RH compared with the spray-dried griseofulvin which crystallized totally within 24 h at ambient conditions. The Fourier transform infrared scan showed that griseofulvin carbonyl group formed hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl group in the HPMCAS, which could explain the extended stability of the drug. Further broadening in the peak could be seen when PHPMA was added to the solid dispersion, which indicates stronger interaction. The glass transition temperatures increased in the ternary solid dispersions regardless of HPMCAS grade. The dissolution rate of the drug in the solid dispersion (both binary and ternary) has significantly increased when compared with the dissolution profile of the spray-dried griseofulvin. These results reveal significant stability of the amorphous form due to the hydrogen bond formation with the polymer. The addition of the third polymer improved the stability but had a minor impact on dissolution.

  16. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relation (NR), Van Deal's ideal mixing relation (IMR) and Junjie's relation (JR). The results are used to ... The compounds used were 2-propanol (>99 mass%), diethyl ether (>99.5 mass%) and n-hexane (>99 .... The excess speed of sound, uE, is estimated in binary and ternary mixtures using the following expression:.

  17. Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 117; Issue 3. Viscometric and thermodynamic studies of interactions in ternary solutions containing sucrose and aqueous alkali metal halides at 293.15, 303.15 and 313.15 K. Reena Gupta Mukhtar Singh. Volume 117 Issue 3 May 2005 pp 275-282 ...

  18. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes i...

  19. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of ternary Cu compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report here electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements at 9 and 34 GHz, and room temperature (T ), in powder and single crystal samples of the ternary compounds of copper nitrate or copper chloride with glycine and 1,10-phenanthroline [Cu(Gly)(phen)(H2O)]·NO3·1.5H2O (1) and.

  1. Experimental examination of ternary fission in nuclear track emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambrožová, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Haiduc, M.; Kakona, M.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Marey, A.; Neagu, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Activities performed in preparation for the search for ternary fission of heavy nuclei and the analysis of fragment angular correlations with nuclear track emulsion and an automated microscope are detailed. Surface irradiation of nuclear emulsion by a Cf source was initiated. Planar events containing nothing but fragment triples were found and studied.

  2. Isothermal sections of the quasi-ternary systems Ag{sub 2}S(Se)–Ga{sub 2}S(Se){sub 3}–In{sub 2}S(Se){sub 3} at 820 K and the physical properties of the ternary phases Ga{sub 5.5}In{sub 4.5}S{sub 15}, Ga{sub 6}In{sub 4}Se{sub 15} and Ga{sub 5.5}In{sub 4.5}S{sub 15}:Er{sup 3+}, Ga{sub 6}In{sub 4}Se{sub 15}:Er{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, I.A., E-mail: Ivashchenko.Inna@eenu.edu.ua [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, Lutsk (Ukraine); Danyliuk, I.V.; Gulay, L.D. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Eastern European National University, Lutsk (Ukraine); Halyan, V.V. [Department of General Physics, Eastern European National University, Lutsk (Ukraine); Olekseyuk, I.D. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Eastern European National University, Lutsk (Ukraine)

    2016-05-15

    Isothermal sections of the quasi-ternary systems Ag{sub 2}S(Se)–Ga{sub 2}S(Se){sub 3}–In{sub 2}S(Se){sub 3} at 820 K were compared. Along the 50 mol% Ag{sub 2}S(Se), both systems feature continuous solid solutions with the chalcopyrite structure. Along the 17 mol% Ag{sub 2}S(Se), the interactions at the AgIn{sub 5}S(Se){sub 8}–'AgGa{sub 5}S(Se){sub 8}' sections are different. In the Ag{sub 2}S–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} system the existence of the layered phase AgGa{sub x}In{sub 5–x}S{sub 8}, 2.25≤x≤2.85, was confirmed (S.G. P6{sub 3}mc). The Ag{sub 2}Se–Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}–In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system features the formation of solid solution (up to 53 mol% Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) based on AgIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8} (S.G. P-42m). Crystal structure, atomic coordinates were determined by powder diffraction method for samples from the homogeneity region of AgIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8}. Specific conductivities of the crystals Ga{sub 6}In{sub 4}Se{sub 15} (1.33·10{sup −6} Ω{sup −1} m{sup −1}), Ga{sub 5.94}In{sub 3.96}Er{sub 0.1}Se{sub 15} (3.17·10{sup −6} Ω{sup −1} m{sup −1}), Ga{sub 5.5}In{sub 4.5}S{sub 15} (7.94·10{sup −6} Ω{sup −1} m{sup −1}), Ga{sub 5.46}In{sub 4.47}Er{sub 0.07}S{sub 15} (1·10{sup −9} Ω{sup −1} m{sup −1}) were measured at room temperature. Optical absorption and photoconductivity spectra were recorded in the range 400–760 nm. The introduction of erbium leads to an increase in the absorption coefficient and to the appearance of absorption bands at 530, 660, 810, 980, 1530 nm. - Highlights: • Nature of solid solutions in Ag{sub 2}S(Se)–Ga{sub 2}S(Se){sub 3}–In{sub 2}S(Se){sub 3} (820 K) were discussed. • Crystal structures of ternary and quaternary compounds were discussed. • Specific conductivity, optical properties of four single crystals were measured. • Photoconductivity of the Ga{sub 5.5}In{sub 4.5}S{sub 15} in the range 400–760 nm were recorded.

  3. Discovery of the Ternary Nanolaminated Compound Nb2GeC by a Systematic Theoretical-Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Per; Dahlqvist, Martin; Tengstrand, Olof; Hultman, Lars; Lu, Jun; Nedfors, Nils; Jansson, Ulf; Rosén, Johanna

    2012-07-01

    Since the advent of theoretical materials science some 60 years ago, there has been a drive to predict and design new materials in silicio. Mathematical optimization procedures to determine phase stability can be generally applicable to complex ternary or higher-order materials systems where the phase diagrams of the binary constituents are sufficiently known. Here, we employ a simplex-optimization procedure to predict new compounds in the ternary Nb-Ge-C system. Our theoretical results show that the hypothetical Nb2GeC is stable, and excludes all reasonably conceivable competing hypothetical phases. We verify the existence of the Nb2GeC phase by thin film synthesis using magnetron sputtering. This hexagonal nanolaminated phase has a and c lattice parameters of ˜3.24Å and 12.82 Å.

  4. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria in ternary aqueous mixtures of phosphoric acid with organic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanadzadeh, H., E-mail: hggilani@guilan.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanadzadeh, A., E-mail: aggilani@guilan.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghajani, Z.; Abbasnejad, S.; Shekarsaraee, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of left bracewater (1) + phosphoric acid (2) + organic solvents (3)right brace were determined at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The organic solvents were cyclohexane, 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol), and isobutyl acetate. All the investigated systems exhibit Type-1 behaviour of LLE. The immiscibility region was found to be larger for the (water + phosphoric acid + cyclohexane) ternary system. The experimental LLE results were correlated with the NRTL model, and the binary interaction parameters were obtained. The reliability of the experimental tie-line results was tested through the Othmer-Tobias and Bachman correlation equations. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions and a comparison of the extracting capabilities of the solvents was made with respect to these factors. The experimental results indicate the superiority of cyclohexane as the preferred solvent for the extraction of phosphoric acid from its aqueous solutions.

  5. Calculation of ternary Si-Fe-Al phase equilibrium in vacuum distillation by molecular interaction volume model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum distillation of aluminum from Si-Fe-Al ternary alloy with high content of Al is studied by a molecular interaction volume model (MIVM in this paper. The vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of the Si-Fe-Al system in vacuum distillation has been calculated using only the properties of pure components and the activity coefficients. A significant advantage of the model lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only binary infinite dilution activity coefficients. The thermodynamic activities and activity coefficients of components of the related Si-Fe, Si- Al and Fe-Al binary and the Si-Fe-Al ternary alloy systems are calculated based on the MIVM. The computational activity values are presented graphically, and evaluated with the reported experiment data in the literature, which shows that the prediction effect of the proposed model is of stability and reliability.

  6. Critical size dependence of domain formation observed in coarse-grained simulations of bilayers composed of ternary lipid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelopulos, George A.; Nagai, Tetsuro; Bandara, Asanga; Panahi, Afra; Straub, John E.

    2017-09-01

    Model cellular membranes are known to form micro- and macroscale lipid domains dependent on molecular composition. The formation of macroscopic lipid domains by lipid mixtures has been the subject of many simulation investigations. We present a critical study of system size impact on lipid domain phase separation into liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered macroscale domains in ternary lipid mixtures. In the popular di-C16:0 PC:di-C18:2 PC:cholesterol at 35:35:30 ratio mixture, we find systems with a minimum of 1480 lipids to be necessary for the formation of macroscopic phase separated domains and systems of 10 000 lipids to achieve structurally converged conformations similar to the thermodynamic limit. To understand these results and predict the behavior of any mixture forming two phases, we develop and investigate an analytical Flory-Huggins model which is recursively validated using simulation and experimental data. We find that micro- and macroscale domains can coexist in ternary mixtures. Additionally, we analyze the distributions of specific lipid-lipid interactions in each phase, characterizing domain structures proposed based on past experimental studies. These findings offer guidance in selecting appropriate system sizes for the study of phase separations and provide new insights into the nature of domain structure for a popular ternary lipid mixture.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of some binary and ternary zirconium iodides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, D.H.

    1981-10-01

    Studies of binary ZrI/sub 4/-Zr and ternary CsI-Zr-ZrI/sub 4/ systems have produced several new compounds. The new binary compounds include two polymorphs of ZrI/sub 2/ (..cap alpha.. and ..beta..) as well as a phase described earlier as ZrI/sub 1/ /sub 8/. ..cap alpha..-ZrI/sub 2/ forms as black lath-like crystals by vapor phase transport reactions between Zr and ZrI/sub 4/ from 700 to 825/sup 0/C. Its structure is monoclinic space group P2/sub 1//m with a = 6.821(2), b = 3.741(1), c = 14.937(3) A and ..beta.. = 95.66(3)/sup 0/, Z = 4 (R = 0.064). ..beta..-ZrI/sub 2/ is formed as black gem-like crystals between 800 to 975/sup 0/C, crystallizing in the trigonal space group R anti 3 with hexagonal axes a = 14.502(2) and c = 9.996(2) A, Z = 18 (R = 0.109). This phase contains a Zr/sub 6/I/sub 12/ cluster. Guinier x-ray powder diffraction data previously reported for ZrI/sub 1/ /sub 8/ has now been found to arise from ..cap alpha..-ZrI/sub 2/ intergrown with an orthorhombic ZrI/sub 2/ phase (perhaps isostructural with WTe/sub 2/ plus an unknown phase. The ternary compounds include Cs/sub 2/ZrI/sub 6/, Cs/sub 3/Zr/sub 2/T/sub 9/ and CsZr/sub 6/I/sub 14/. The first is isostructural with K/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/. Cs/sub 3/Zr/sub 2/I/sub 9/ is formed from the reaction of CsI, ZrI/sub 4/ and Zr between 700 to 900/sup 0/C as black gem-like crystals which crystallize in the space group P6/sub 3//mmc with a = 8.269(1) and c = 19.908(3) A, z = 2. This phase was found to have a Cs/sub 3/Cr/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/-type structure, d/sub Zr-Zr/ = 3.134(4) A (R = 0.087). CsZr/sub 6/I/sub 14/ forms both rod and gem crystals by the same reaction with more metal between 900 to 950/sup 0/C. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Ccmb with a = 14.275(4), b = 15.880(4) and c = 12.953 (4) A (R = 0.062). This phase also contains a Zr/sub 6/I/sub 12/ cluster.

  8. Mass and Heat Diffusion in Ternary Polymer Solutions: A Classical Irreversible Thermodynamics Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Es-haghi, S Shams

    2016-01-01

    Governing equations for evolution of concentration and temperature in three-component systems were derived in the framework of classical irreversible thermodynamics using Onsager variational principle and were presented for solvent/solvent/polymer and solvent/polymer/polymer systems. The derivation was developed from the Gibbs equation of equilibrium thermodynamics using the local equilibrium hypothesis, Onsager reciprocal relations and Prigogine theorem for systems in mechanical equilibrium. It was shown that the details of mass and heat diffusion phenomena in a ternary system are completely expressed by a 3x3 matrix whose entries are mass diffusion coefficients (4 entries), thermal diffusion coefficients (2 entries) and three entries that describe the evolution of heat in the system. The entries of the diffusion matrix are related to the elements of Onsager matrix that are bounded by some constraints to satisfy the positive definiteness of entropy production in the system. All the elements of diffusion matr...

  9. 1H NMR studies of binary and ternary dapsone supramolecular complexes with different drug carriers: EPC liposome, SBE-β-CD and β-CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lucas; Arrais, Monica; de Souza, Alexandre; Marsaioli, Anita

    2014-11-01

    Binary and ternary systems composed of dapsone, sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD), β-CD and egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) were evaluated using 1D ROESY, saturation transfer difference NMR and diffusion experiments (DOSY) revealing the binary complexes Dap/β-CD (K(a) 1396 l mol(-1)), Dap/SBE-β-CD (K(a) 246 l mol(-1)), Dap/EPC (K(a) 84 l mol(-1)) and the ternary complex Dap/β-CD/EPC (K(a) 18 l mol(-1)) in which dapsone is more soluble. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 98. Solubility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Pure and Organic Solvent Mixtures: Revised and Updated. Part 2. Ternary Solvent Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, William E.

    2013-03-01

    This work updates Vols. 54, 58, and 59 in the IUPAC Solubility Data Series and presents solubility data for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon solutes dissolved in ternary organic solvent mixtures. Published solubility data for anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene that appeared in the primary literature between 1995 to the end of 2011 are compiled and critically evaluated. Experimental solubility data for 119 different solute-ternary solvent systems are included in the volume. Solubility data published prior to 1995 were contained in three earlier volumes (Vols. 54, 58, and 59) and are not repeated here.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nabipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO46(OH2 was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocomposite and addition of poly lactic acid with different percentages to the resulting composition. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while major elements and impurities of hydroxyapatite were identified by elemental analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Morphology and size of the nanocomposites were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.Biocompatibility of nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay. Results: XRD patterns verified the ideal crystal structure of the hydroxyapatite, which indicated an appropriate synthesis process and absence of disturbing phases. Results of FTIR analysis determined the polymers’ functional groups, specified formation of the polymers on the hydroxyapatite surface, and verified synthesis of nHA/PLA/Gel composite. FESEM images also indicated the homogeneous structure of the composite in the range of 50 nanometers. MTT assay results confirmed the biocompatibility of nanocomposite samples.Conclusion: This study suggested that the ternary nanocomposite of nHA/PLA/Gel can be a good candidate for biomedical application such as drug delivery systems, but for evaluation of its potential in hard tissue replacement, mechanical tests should be performed.

  12. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ternary and quaternary oxides of Bi, Sr and Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, M. T.; Millan, P.; Rasines, I.; Campa, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Before the discovery of superconductivity in an oxide of Bi, Sr, and Cu, the system Bi-Sr-Cu-O had not been studied, although several solid phases had been identified in the two-component regions of the ternary system Bi2O3-Si-O-CuO. The oxides Sr2CuO3, SrCu2O2, SrCuO2, and Bi2CuO4 were then well known and characterized, and the phase diagram of the binary system Bi2O3-SrO had been established in the temperature range 620 to 1000 C. Besides nine solutions of compositions Bi(2-2x) Sr(x) O(3-2x) and different symmetries, this diagram includes three definite compounds of stoichiometries Bi(2)BrO4. Bi2Sr2O5, and Bi2Sr3O6 (x - 0.50, 0.67 and 0.75 respectively), only the second of which with known unit-cell of orthorhombic symmetry, dimensions (A) a = 14.293(2), b = 7.651(2), c = 6.172(1), and z = 4. The first superconducting oxide in the system Bi-Sr-Cu-O was initially formulated as Bi2Sr2Cu2O(7+x), with an orthorhombic unit-cell of parameters (A) a = 5.32, b = 26.6, c = 48.8. In a preliminary study the same oxide was formulated with half the copper content, Bi(2)Sr(2)CuO(6+x), and index its reflections assuming an orthorhombic unit-cell of dimensions (A) a = 5.390(2), b = 26.973(8), c = 24.69(4). Subsequent studies by diffraction techniques have confirmed the composition 2:2:1. A new family of oxygen-deficient perovskites, was characterized, after identifying by x ray diffraction the phases present in the products of thermal treatments of about 150 mixtures of analytical grade Bi2O3, Sr(OH)2-8H2O and CuO at different molar ratios. X ray diffraction data are presented for some other oxides of Bi and Sr, as well as for various quaternary oxides, among them an oxide of Bi, Sr, and Cu.

  14. Quantitative Comparison of Ternary Eutectic Phase-Field Simulations with Analytical 3D Jackson-Hunt Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Philipp; Kellner, Michael; Hötzer, Johannes; Nestler, Britta

    2018-02-01

    For the analytical description of the relationship between undercoolings, lamellar spacings and growth velocities during the directional solidification of ternary eutectics in 2D and 3D, different extensions based on the theory of Jackson and Hunt are reported in the literature. Besides analytical approaches, the phase-field method has been established to study the spatially complex microstructure evolution during the solidification of eutectic alloys. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the morphology development in multiphase, multicomponent systems is of high interest. For this purpose, a comparison is made between the analytical extensions and three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification in an ideal ternary eutectic system. Based on the observed accordance in two-dimensional validation cases, the experimentally reported, inherently three-dimensional chain-like pattern is investigated in extensive simulation studies. The results are quantitatively compared with the analytical results reported in the literature, and with a newly derived approach which uses equal undercoolings. A good accordance of the undercooling-spacing characteristics between simulations and the analytical Jackson-Hunt apporaches are found. The results show that the applied phase-field model, which is based on the Grand potential approach, is able to describe the analytically predicted relationship between the undercooling and the lamellar arrangements during the directional solidification of a ternary eutectic system in 3D.

  15. Thermochemical stability of Li-Cu-O ternary compounds stable at room temperature analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepple, Maren [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics; Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Eduard-Zintl-Inst. of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry; Rohrer, Jochen; Albe, Karsten [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Materialmodellierung; Adam, Robert; Rafaja, David [Technical Univ. Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science; Cupid, Damian M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics; Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Vienna (Austria). Center for Low-Emission Transport TECHbase; Seifert, Hans J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials - Applied Materials Physics

    2017-11-15

    Compounds in the Li-Cu-O system are of technological interest due to their electrochemical properties which make them attractive as electrode materials, i.e., in future lithium ion batteries. In order to select promising compositions for such applications reliable thermochemical data are a prerequisite. Although various groups have investigated individual ternary phases using different experimental setups, up to now, no systematic study of all relevant phases is available in the literature. In this study, we combine drop solution calorimetry with density function theory calculations to systematically investigate the thermodynamic properties of ternary Li-Cu-O phases. In particular, we present a consistently determined set of enthalpies of formation, Gibbs energies and heat capacities for LiCuO, Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} and LiCu{sub 2}O{sub 2} and compare our results with existing literature.

  16. Structural characterization of the ternary complex that mediates termination of NF-κB signaling by IκBα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sulakshana P; Quintas, Pedro O; McNulty, Reginald; Komives, Elizabeth A; Dyson, H Jane

    2016-05-31

    The transcription factor NF-κB is used in many systems for the transduction of extracellular signals into the expression of signal-responsive genes. Published structural data explain the activation of NF-κB through degradation of its dedicated inhibitor IκBα, but the mechanism by which NF-κB-mediated signaling is turned off by its removal from the DNA in the presence of newly synthesized IκBα (termed stripping) is unknown. Previous kinetic studies showed that IκBα accelerates NF-κB dissociation from DNA, and a transient ternary complex between NF-κB, its cognate DNA sequence, and IκBα was observed. Here we structurally characterize the >100-kDa ternary complex by NMR and negative stain EM and show a modeled structure that is consistent with the measurements. These data provide a structural basis for previously unidentified insights into the molecular mechanism of stripping.

  17. An engineered genetic selection for ternary protein complexes inspired by a natural three-component hitchhiker mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Portnoff, Alyse D; Rocco, Mark A; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2014-12-22

    The bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is well known to translocate correctly folded monomeric and dimeric proteins across the tightly sealed cytoplasmic membrane. We identified a naturally occurring heterotrimer, the Escherichia coli aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC, that is co-translocated by the Tat translocase according to a ternary "hitchhiker" mechanism. Specifically, the PaoB and PaoC subunits, each devoid of export signals, are escorted to the periplasm in a piggyback fashion by the Tat signal peptide-containing subunit PaoA. Moreover, export of PaoA was blocked when either PaoB or PaoC was absent, revealing a surprising interdependence for export that is not seen for classical secretory proteins. Inspired by this observation, we created a bacterial three-hybrid selection system that links the formation of ternary protein complexes with antibiotic resistance. As proof-of-concept, a bispecific antibody was employed as an adaptor that physically crosslinked one antigen fused to a Tat export signal with a second antigen fused to TEM-1 β-lactamase (Bla). The resulting non-covalent heterotrimer was exported in a Tat-dependent manner, delivering Bla to the periplasm where it hydrolyzed β-lactam antibiotics. Collectively, these results highlight the remarkable flexibility of the Tat system and its potential for studying and engineering ternary protein interactions in living bacteria.

  18. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  19. In vitro and in vivo siRNA delivery to hepatocyte utilizing ternary complexation of lactosylated dendrimer/cyclodextrin conjugates, siRNA and low-molecular-weight sacran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Higashi, Taishi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Jono, Hirofumi; Ando, Yukio; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we newly developed the ternary complexes consisting of lactosylated dendrimer (generation 3)/α-cyclodextrin conjugate (Lac-α-CDE), siRNA and the anionic polysaccharide sacrans, and evaluated their utility as siRNA transfer carriers. Three kinds of the low-molecular-weight sacrans, i.e. sacran (100) (Mw 44,889Da), sacran (1000) (Mw 943,692Da) and sacran (10,000) (Mw 1,488,281Da) were used. Lac-α-CDE/siRNA/sacran ternary complexes were prepared by adding the low-molecular-weight sacrans to the Lac-α-CDE/siRNA binary complex solution. Cellular uptake of the ternary complex with sacran (100) was higher than that of the binary complex or the other ternary complexes with sacran (1000) and sacran (10,000) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, the ternary complex possessed high serum resistance and endosomal escaping ability in HepG2 cells. High liver levels of siRNA and Lac-α-CDE were observed after the intravenous administration of the ternary complex rather than that of the binary complex. Moreover, intravenous administration of the ternary complex (siRNA 5mg/kg) induced the significant RNAi effect in the liver of mice with negligible change of blood chemistry values. Therefore, a ternary complexation of the Lac-α-CDE/siRNA binary complex with sacran is useful as a hepatocyte-specific siRNA delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Multifunctional Sensor for Measuring Concentrations of Ternary Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori

    This paper presents a multifunctional sensor with novel structure, which is capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and conductivity. By combined measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in a ternary solution can be simultaneously determined. The structure and operation principle of the sensor are described, and a regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least square method is adopted to estimate the concentrations. The performances of the proposed sensor are experimentally tested by the use of ternary aqueous solution of sodium chloride and sucrose, which is widely involved in food and beverage industries. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in industry fields.

  1. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mijangos, R.R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Valdez, E. [Escuela Nacional de Estudios Profesionales Acatlan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Santa Cruz Acatlan, Naucalpan (Mexico); Duarte, C. [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Sonora, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl{sub x}KBrRbCl{sub 2} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  2. Optical Properties of Silver Aluminium Sulphide Ternary Thin Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ternary thin films of Silver Aluminium Sulphide (AgAlS2) have been prepared by chemical bath deposition techniques. Aqueous solution of 41.5 mls containing AgNO3, Al2(SO4)3, thiourea and EDTA was used, where AgNO3, Al2(SO4)3, thiourea were the source of Ag+, Al+ and S- respectively and EDTA was used as a ...

  3. Evaluation of Griseofulvin Binary and Ternary Solid Dispersions with HPMCAS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Buckton, Graham

    2009-01-01

    The stability and dissolution properties of griseofulvin binary and ternary solid dispersions were evaluated. Solid dispersions of griseofulvin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared using the spray drying method. A third polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylate] (PHPMA), was incorporated to investigate its effect on the interaction of griseofulvin with HPMCAS. In this case, HPMCAS can form H bonds with griseofulvin directly; the addition of PHPMA to t...

  4. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  5. Theoretical prediction of topological insulator in ternary rare earth chalcogenides

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Binghai; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Frauenheim, Thomas; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    A new class of three-dimensional topological insulator, ternary rare earth chalcogenides, is theoretically investigated with ab initio calculations. Based on both bulk band structure analysis and the direct calculation of topological surface states, we demonstrate that LaBiTe3 is a topological insulator. La can be substituted by other rare earth elements, which provide candidates for novel topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator, axionic insulator and topological Kondo ins...

  6. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  7. An Open-Circuit Voltage and Power Conversion Efficiency Study of Fullerene Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Oligomer/Oligomer and Oligomer/Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guichuan; Zhou, Cheng; Sun, Chen; Jia, Xiaoe; Xu, Baomin; Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Variations in the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of ternary organic solar cells are systematically investigated. The initial study of these devices consists of two electron-donating oligomers, S2 (two units) and S7 (seven units), and the electron-accepting [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) and reveals that the V oc is continuously tunable due to the changing energy of the charge transfer state (E ct ) of the active layers. Further investigation suggests that V oc is also continuously tunable upon change in E ct in a ternary blend system that consists of S2 and its corresponding polymer (P11):PC 71 BM. It is interesting to note that higher power conversion efficiencies can be obtained for both S2:S7:PC 71 BM and S2:P11:PC 71 BM ternary systems compared with their binary systems, which can be ascribed to an improved V oc due to the higher E ct and an improved fill factor due to the improved film morphology upon the incorporation of S2. These findings provide a new guideline for the future design of conjugated polymers for achieving higher performance of ternary organic solar cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ternary WD40 repeat-containing protein complexes: evolution, composition and roles in plant immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants, like mammals, rely on their innate immune system to perceive and discriminate among the majority of their microbial pathogens. Unlike mammals, plants respond to this molecular dialogue by unleashing a complex chemical arsenal of defense metabolites to resist or evade pathogen infection. In basal or non-host resistance, plants utilize signal transduction pathways to detect non-self, damaged-self and altered-self-associated molecular patterns and translate these danger signals into largely inducible chemical defenses. The WD40 repeat (WDR-containing proteins Gβ and TTG1 are constituents of two independent ternary protein complexes functioning at opposite ends of a plant immune signaling pathway. Gβ and TTG1 are also encoded by single-copy genes that are ubiquitous in higher plants, implying the limited diversity and functional conservation of their respective complexes. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the evolutionary history of these WDR-containing ternary complexes, their repertoire and combinatorial interactions, and their downstream effectors and pathways in plant defense.

  9. Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations of novel ternary solid dispersion of rebamipide with poloxamer 407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Woong; Tung, Nguyen-Thach; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Tack-Oon; Ha, Jung-Myung; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Park, Eun-Seok

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted primarily to improve the solubility of rebamipide, a poorly water-soluble anti-ulcer drug, using novel ternary solid dispersion (SD) systems and secondly to evaluate the effect of solubility enhancement on its pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile. After dissolving the three components in aqueous medium, ternary SD containing the drug, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and PVP-VA 64 was achieved by spray drying method, which was used as primary SD. Poloxamer 407, a surfactant polymer, was incorporated in this primary SD by four different methods: co-grinding, physical mixing, melting or spray drying. SD was then characterized by dissolution test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The spray dried SD of poloxamer 407 together with primary SD displayed highest dissolution rate of the drug of about 70% after 2 h. DSC, PXRD and FT-IR characterized the amorphous state and molecular dispersion of the drug in the SD. PK and PD studies in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that the bioavailability of the drug using optimal SD was about twofold higher than that of reference product, and the irritation area of stomach was significantly reduced in the ulcer-induced rat model using optimal SD as compared to the reference product.

  10. Comparison of three ternary lipid bilayer mixtures: FRET and ESR reveal nanodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Frederick A; Wu, Jing; Goh, Shih Lin; Petruzielo, Robin S; Feigenson, Gerald W

    2010-11-17

    Phase diagrams of ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol have provided valuable insight into cell membrane behaviors, especially by describing regions of coexisting liquid-disordered (Ld) and liquid-ordered (Lo) phases. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of giant unilamellar vesicles has greatly assisted the determination of phase behavior in these systems. However, the requirement for optically resolved Ld + Lo domains can lead to the incorrect inference that in lipid-only mixtures, Ld + Lo domain coexistence generally shows macroscopic domains. Here we show this inference is incorrect for the low melting temperature phosphatidylcholines abundant in mammalian plasma membranes. By use of high compositional resolution Förster resonance energy transfer measurements, together with electron spin resonance data and spectral simulation, we find that ternary mixtures of DSPC and cholesterol together with either POPC or SOPC, do indeed have regions of Ld + Lo coexistence. However, phase domains are much smaller than the optical resolution limit, likely on the order of the Förster distance for energy transfer (R(0), ∼2-8 nm). Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rheological study of self-compacting mortars based on ternary cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadja Dada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is able to provide the ability to be easily implemented without vibration and to achieve spectacular structures, by its high fluidity and its rheological stability. By against its formulation requires a large volume of cement, which is necessary to allow its flow. The current environmental considerations lead to reduce the production of clinker however, it is essential to use cementitious additions to replace cement, because of their high availability and their moderate price. Furthermore, their use contributes in a simple and economical way to solve the problems related to the environment. The objective of our work is to study the effects of the incorporation of mineral additions such as: blast furnace slag of El-Hadjar (BFS, and marble powder (MP on the rheological parameters of selfcompacting mortars developed in different combinations in ternary system with a substitution rate ranging from 20% to 60%. According to this study, it been found that the substitution of cement by blast furnace slag and marble powder has negatively affected the rheological behavior of the mixtures. In addition, a considerable decrease in the rheological parameters has been achieved with a substitution rate of 20% of slag and 30% of marble powder. As well as an improvement of workability has been proven to self-compacting mortars and this is due to the increase of ternary cement replacement rate by marble powder from 20% to 30%.

  12. Crystal growth and property characterization for PIN–PMN–PT ternary piezoelectric crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary piezoelectric crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PMN–PT has excellent dielectric and piezoelectric properties, which has led to the commercialization for medical ultrasound imaging. Recently, there is a growing demand for piezoelectric crystals with improved thermal and electrical properties. Ternary piezoelectric crystals Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PIN–PMN–PT have increased depoling temperature and coercive field than binary PMN–PT. To better understand the ternary crystal system and improve crystal properties, we systematically investigated crystal growth of PIN–PMN–PT with modified Bridgman method. Like PMN–PT, PIN–PMN–PT crystals have excellent piezoelectric properties (e.g., k33 ~ 0.87–0.92, d33 ~ 1000–2200 pm/V. Higher PIN content leads to ~40°C increase in depoling temperature and more than doubling of coercive field(~7.0 kV/cm. Such improvements are advantageous for applications where high temperature and/or high-drive are needed.

  13. One-pot facile synthesis of Bi2S3/SnS2/Bi2O3 ternary heterojunction as advanced double Z-scheme photocatalytic system for efficient dye removal under sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chongfei; Wang, Ke; Yang, Pengyan; Yang, Shengnan; Lu, Chen; Song, Yingze; Dong, Shuying; Sun, Jingyu; Sun, Jianhui

    2017-10-01

    The construction of solid-state Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalytic system to efficiently tailor the photoinduced charge separation is of great significance to water purification. In this study, we reported for the first time the controlled preparation of Bi2S3/SnS2/Bi2O3 double Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst by a simple one-pot solvothermal route. The experimental results with regard to rhodamine B (RhB) degradation showed that the as-fabricated heterojunctions can significantly enhance photocatalytic activity in comparison with pure Bi2S3. In addition, the optimized BiS-4 sample possessed good simulated-sunlight photocatalytic efficiency towards the degradation of other types of dyes, including methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), orange IV (OG IV) and crystal violet (CV). By further probing the charge separation and migration behaviors, studying the band structure, as well as conducting the active species trapping experiments, a possible double Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was proposed, which not only benefited the efficient photogenerated electron-hole pair separation but also demonstrated advanced capacity for the removal of organic dyes. This work would pave the route towards the design of novel Z-scheme photocatalytic systems for energy conversion and environmental remediation.

  14. Mapping of Diffusion and Nanohardness Properties of Fcc Co-Al-V Alloys Using Ternary Diffusion Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Xu, Guanglong; Cui, Yuwen

    2017-09-01

    Ternary diffusion behavior in Co-Al-V ternary alloys was investigated at 1373 K and 1473 K (1100 °C and 1200 °C) by the solid-state diffusion-couple technique. The extraction and interpolation of diffusion data allows the diffusion properties of Fcc Co-Al-V alloys to be mapped in the composition arrays of Al and V. A full picture of the diffusion properties was then constructed by interpolating all accessible interdiffusivities and impurity diffusivities of Co-Al binary and Co-Al-V ternary with a Redlich-Kister polynomial, in a graphic manner depicting a rapid increase of Al diffusion with increasing Al and a weak decrease with the V addition alone. Further incorporation of a nanoindentation technique enables the nanohardness property of the Co-Al-V fcc alloys to be screened in the Al and V arrays. The hardenability in the Co-Al-V alloy system has been evidenced; specifically, the alloy arrays containing higher contents of V, being solution-and-quenching processed, exhibit more effective strengthening than those with the addition of Al. The discovery of Co-Al-V alloys with comparable nanohardness but differing alloy compositions could facilitate the strengthening design of next generation Co-based alloys.

  15. Optimization of Contrast-to-Tissue Ratio by Adaptation of Transmitted Ternary Signal in Ultrasound Pulse Inversion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ménigot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound contrast imaging has provided more accurate medical diagnoses thanks to the development of innovating modalities like the pulse inversion imaging. However, this latter modality that improves the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR is not optimal, since the frequency is manually chosen jointly with the probe. However, an optimal choice of this command is possible, but it requires precise information about the transducer and the medium which can be experimentally difficult to obtain, even inaccessible. It turns out that the optimization can become more complex by taking into account the kind of generators, since the generators of electrical signals in a conventional ultrasound scanner can be unipolar, bipolar, or tripolar. Our aim was to seek the ternary command which maximized the CTR. By combining a genetic algorithm and a closed loop, the system automatically proposed the optimal ternary command. In simulation, the gain compared with the usual ternary signal could reach about 3.9 dB. Another interesting finding was that, in contrast to what is generally accepted, the optimal command was not a fixed-frequency signal but had harmonic components.

  16. Simulation analysis and ternary diagram of municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification based on the equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Na; Zhang, Awen; Zhang, Qiang; He, Guansong; Cui, Wenqian; Chen, Guanyi; Song, Chengcai

    2017-07-01

    A self-sustained municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis-gasification process with self-produced syngas as heat source was proposed and an equilibrium model was established to predict the syngas reuse rate considering variable MSW components. Simulation results indicated that for constant moisture (ash) content, with the increase of ash (moisture) content, syngas reuse rate gradually increased, and reached the maximum 100% when ash (moisture) content was 73.9% (60.4%). Novel ternary diagrams with moisture, ash and combustible as axes were proposed to predict the adaptability of the self-sustained process and syngas reuse rate for waste. For wastes of given components, its position in the ternary diagram can be determined and the syngas reuse rate can be obtained, which will provide guidance for system design. Assuming that the MSW was composed of 100% combustible content, ternary diagram shows that there was a minimum limiting value of 43.8% for the syngas reuse rate in the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline hybrid composite as negative electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Kalimuthu Vijaya; Selvan, Ramakrishnan Kalai

    2015-02-01

    The ternary MnFe2O4/graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite was successfully prepared for the negative electrode in hybrid supercapacitors. The MnFe2O4 particles are synthesized by polymer assisted solution combustion method without any high temperature calcinations. Similarly, the flexible graphene and PANI are prepared by eco-friendly hydrothermal and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The presence of possible functional groups and the existence of individual constituents in the composite were identified through Fourier transform infra-red spectra (FT-IR) and Raman spectra. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image reveals that the MnFe2O4 particles are dispersed on the flexible graphene sheet and are wrapped by PANI. The ternary composite electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 241 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2, which was 7.5 times higher than MnFe2O4. The calculated b-value elucidates that the charge storage mechanism in the ternary system is based on the capacitive behavior rather than intercalation. The increase in ratio between capacitive and intercalation current with respect to scan rate corroborates that the pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism is dominant. Further, the fabricated hybrid supercapacitor provides the maximum specific capacitance and energy density of 48.5 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 and 17 Wh kg-1, respectively. In addition, the hybrid supercapacitor exhibits excellent cyclic stability of up to 5000 successive cycles.

  18. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  19. Iso-conversional approach for study of glass transition and crystallization kinetics of ternary glassy Se{sub 98−x}Ag{sub 2}In{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4, 6) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohare, C.; Mehta, N., E-mail: dr_neeraj_mehta@yahoo.co.in

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Novel glasses of Se–Ag–In system are prepared. • The effect of In incorporation on glass transition kinetics is studied. • The effect of In incorporation on crystallization kinetics is studied. • We have found remarkable increase in thermal stability. -- Abstract: The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of Se{sub 98−x}Ag{sub 2}In{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4, 6) glasses have been studied under non-isothermal condition using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Using model free approach [Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO), Tang and Straink], the activation energy of glass transition, ΔE{sub αg} and crystallization kinetics, ΔE{sub αc} have been plotted as a function of extent of conversion, α. The kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), Avrami exponent (n), and rate of crystallization (K) have been determined using Kolmogorov–Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (KJMA) model. Glassy nature of as prepared samples was confirmed by XRD (X-ray diffraction), surface morphology and diffraction pattern by SEM and TEM, respectively.

  20. Co-crystal of (R,R)-1,2-cyclohexanediol with (R,R)-tartaric acid, a key structure in resolution of the ({+-})-trans-diol by supercritical extraction, and the related ternary phase system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorey, Paul [Department of Chemical and Environmental Process Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Bombicz, Petra [Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, Imre Miklos [Material Structure and Modeling Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Molnar, Peter; Bansaghi, Gyoergy; Szekely, Edit; Simandi, Bela [Department of Chemical and Environmental Process Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Parkanyi, Laszlo [Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Pokol, Gyoergy [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Madarasz, Janos, E-mail: madarasz@mail.bme.hu [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-01-10

    A novel co-crystal of trans-(R,R)-1,2-cyclohexanediol and (R,R)-tartaric acid (with 1:1 molar ratio, 1) has been found to be a key crystalline compound in the improved resolution of ({+-})-trans-1,2-cyclohexanediol by supercritical fluid extraction. The molecular and crystal structure of this co-crystal, which crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system (space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a = 6.7033(13) A, b = 7.2643(16), c = 24.863(5), Z = 4), has been solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction (R = 0.064). The packing arrangement consists of two dimensional layers of sandwich-like sheets, where the inner part is constructed by double layers of tartaric acids which hydrophilicity is 'covered' on both upper and bottom side by cyclohexanediols with the hydrophobic cyclohexane rings pointing outward. Thus, a rather complex hydrogen bonding pattern is constructed. The relatively high melting point (133 {sup o}C) observed by both simultaneous TG/DTA and DSC, and the main features of FTIR-spectrum of 1 are explained by the increased stability of this crystal structure. DSC studies on binary mixtures of co-crystal 1 with (R,R)-1,2-cyclohexanediol or (R,R)-tartaric acid, revealed eutectic temperatures of T{sub eu} = 100 or 131 {sup o}C, respectively. Between (S,S)-1,2-cyclohexanediol and (R,R)-tartaric acid a eutectic temperature of T{sub eu} = 85 {sup o}C have also been observed. The phase relations have been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, as well.

  1. Thermodynamic Calculations of Ternary Polyalcohol and Amine Phase Diagrams for Thermal Energy Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Renhai

    Organic polyalcohol and amine globular molecular crystal materials as phase change materials (PCMs) such as Pentaglycerine (PG-(CH3)C(CH 2OH)3), Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS-(NH2)C(CH 2OH)3), 2-amino-2methyl-1,3-propanediol (AMPL-(NH2)(CH3)C(CH2OH)2), and neopentylglycol (NPG-(CH3)2C(CH2OH) 2) can be considered to be potential candidates for thermal energy storage (TES) applications such as waste heat recovery, solar energy utilization, energy saving in buildings, and electronic device management during heating or cooling process in which the latent heat and sensible heat can be reversibly stored or released through solid state phase transitions over a range of temperatures. In order to understand the polymorphism of phase transition of these organic materials and provide more choice of materials design for TES, binary systems have been studied to lower the temperature of solid-state phase transition for the specific application. To our best knowledge, the study of ternary systems in these organic materials is limited. Based on this motivation, four ternary systems of PG-TRIS-AMPL, PG-TRIS-NPG, PG-AMPL-NPG, and TRIS-AMPL-NPG are proposed in this dissertation. Firstly, thermodynamic assessment with CALPHAD method is used to construct the Gibbs energy functions into thermodynamic database for these four materials based on available experimental results from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The phase stability and thermodynamic characteristics of these four materials calculated from present thermodynamic database with CALPHAD method can match well the present experimental results from XRD and DSC. Secondly, related six binary phase diagrams of PG-TRIS, PG-AMPL, PG-NPG, TRIS-AMPL, TRIS-NPG, and AMPL-NPG are optimized with CALPHAD method in Thermo-Calc software based on available experimental results, in which the substitutional model is used and excess Gibbs energy is expressed with Redlich-Kister formalism. The

  2. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enthalpy and phase behavior of coal derived liquid mixtures: Technical progress report for the period January-March 1987. [M-cresol/quinoline/tetralin ternary mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesavage, V.F.; Kidnay, A.J.

    1987-04-30

    On July 15, 1984, work was initiated on a program to study the enthalpy and phase behavior of coal derived liquid model compound mixtures. The objectives of this program are to study the enthalpy and phase behavior of a selected ternary model compound system, representative of interactions present in coal derived liquids. Measurements will be made in a Freon 11 reference fluid boil-off calorimeter, and an equilibrium flash vaporization apparatus. These experimental systems have already been developed. Previous studies have indicated that existing data and correlations developed for petroleum fluids are not applicable to coal derived liquids. This is due to the presence of significant concentrations of polar associating heteroatomics in the predominantly aromatic coal liquids. Thus, the ternary system will include an aromatic, a basic nitrogen compound, and a cresol. It is presently planned to study the m-cresol/quinoline/tetralin ternary mixture. Measurements will be made over a wide range of temperature (200 to 750/sup 0/F) and pressure (20 to 1500 psia), for the three pure compounds, the three binary mixtures and selected compositions of the ternary. Both enthalpy and phase behavior measurements will be made. This set of data will be useful as a standard for fitting and evaluating thermodynamic correlations and equations of state that are applicable to associating fluid mixtures, and thus to coal derived liquids. In particular we will attempt to fit both the enthalpy and phase behavior data with a single equation of state using local composition mixing rules and common interaction parameters. During the eleventh quarter, enthalpy measurements have been obtained for the ternary mixtures of m-cresol/quinoline/tetralin with molar ratios 2/3:1/6:1/6 and 1/6:2/3:1/6 m-cresol:quinoline:tetralin. The results are presented in Appendix A. The project has progressed very will during this quarter, and the enthalpy measurements have been completed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The Lattice Compatibility Theory: Arguments for Recorded I-III-O2 Ternary Oxide Ceramics Instability at Low Temperatures beside Ternary Telluride and Sulphide Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some recorded behaviours differences between chalcopyrite ternary oxide ceramics and telluride and sulphides are investigated in the framework of the recently proposed Lattice Compatibility Theory (LCT. Alterations have been evaluated in terms of Urbach tailing and atomic valence shell electrons orbital eigenvalues, which were calculated through several approximations. The aim of the study was mainly an attempt to explain the intriguing problem of difficulties of elaborating chalcopyrite ternary oxide ceramics (I-III-O2 at relatively low temperatures under conditions which allowed crystallization of ternary telluride and sulphides.

  5. Boosting the Visible-Light Photoactivity of BiOCl/BiVO4/N-GQD Ternary Heterojunctions Based on Internal Z-Scheme Charge Transfer of N-GQDs: Simultaneous Band Gap Narrowing and Carrier Lifetime Prolonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Yuanyuan; Ge, Lan; Li, Henan; Wang, Kun

    2017-11-08

    The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in photoactive materials is highly desired, allowing their transfer to specific sites for undergoing redox reaction in various applications. The construction of ternary heterojunctions is a practical strategy to enhance the migration of photogenerated electron that realizes the synergistic effect of multicomponents rather than the simple overlay of single component. Here, we demonstrate an available way to fabricate new BiOCl/BiVO 4 /nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot (N-GQD) ternary heterojunctions that exhibit higher efficiency in charge separation than any binary heterojunction or pure material under visible-light irradiation. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy demonstrated that the proposed BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions possess the narrower band gap energy. More importantly, the ternary heterojunctions reveal the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which may be ascribed to sensitization based on an internal Z-scheme charge transfer at the interface of N-GQDs with oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, we examine the photoactive performance of proposed ternary heterojunctions in aqueous solution by using the photodegradation of bisphenol A as a model system and BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions also display a dramatically enhanced photodegradation rate. The proposed charge separation and transfer process of BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions for the enhanced photoactivity were deduced by electrochemical measurements, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The results demonstrate that a Z-scheme charge process was formed between BiOCl/BiVO 4 binary heterojunctions and N-GQDs, leading to an efficient charge carrier separation and strong photocatalytic ability. Notably, this work may assist in a better understanding of the role of N-GQDs in kinds of heterojunctions

  6. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  7. Isothermal section of the ternary phase diagram U–Fe–Ge at 900 °C and its new intermetallic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, M.S., E-mail: mish@itn.pt [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); CCTN, IST/CFMCUL, University of Lisbon, Nuclear and Technological Campus, P-2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal); Berthebaud, D.; Lignie, A.; El Sayah, Z.; Moussa, C.; Tougait, O. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, Université Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes (France); Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Gonçalves, A.P. [CCTN, IST/CFMCUL, University of Lisbon, Nuclear and Technological Campus, P-2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Isothermal section of the U–Fe–Ge at 900 °C was investigated. • Ten ternary compounds and four significant solubility ranges were found. • Three new compounds and a solid solution were discovered. - Abstract: The isothermal section at 900 °C of the U–Fe–Ge ternary system was assessed using experimental results from X-ray diffraction and observations by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy chemical analysis. The phase diagram at this temperature is characterized by the formation of fourteen stable phases: four homogeneity ranges and ten intermetallic compounds. Among these, there is an extension of the binary compound UFe{sub 2} into the ternary system (UFe{sub 2−x}Ge{sub x,}x < 0.15), three ternary line compounds, U{sub 2}Fe{sub 17−x}Ge{sub x} (2 < x < 3.7), UFe{sub 1−x}Ge{sub 2} (0.58 < x < 0.78), UFe{sub 6+x}Ge{sub 6−x} (x < 0.7), and ten ternary stoichiometric compounds, U{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}Ge, U{sub 6}Fe{sub 16}Ge{sub 7}, UFe{sub 4}Ge{sub 2}, U{sub 6}Fe{sub 22}Ge{sub 13}, UFeGe, U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4}, UFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, U{sub 34}Fe{sub 3.32}Ge{sub 33}, U{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}Ge{sub 7}, and U{sub 9}Fe{sub 7}Ge{sub 24}.

  8. Densities and Excess Molar Volume for the Ternary Systems (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-09-10

    Sep 10, 2012 ... catalyst to extend its life span, and as reagents for nanomaterials.2,3. The physical properties of ILs such as density, viscosity, melting point, polarity and miscibility with water or molecular solvents, can be finely tuned by changing either the anion or the cation.2–6. ILs have other properties such as very low ...

  9. 600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn ternary phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zuxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Peng, Haoping; Liu, Ya; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    600 °C isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Eleven three-phase regions have been identified experimentally at 600 °C. The τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} ternary compounds were identified in this isothermal section and the crystal structures of both phases are cubic. The lattice parameters of τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} are a = 2.1536 nm and a = 1.8323 nm, respectively. The formerly reported τ{sub 1} phase was not found. The formerly reported τ{sub 2} phase is an extension of Al{sub 7}Cr. The highest Zn content in γ{sub 2} and ν phases is 7.1 at at.% and 6.7 at.%, respectively. The Zn solubility in Al{sub 7}Cr phase can be up to 10.4 at.%, while that in Al{sub 4}Cr phase is less than 4 at.%. The clearly phase relation of the Al–Cr–Zn system can lead us to better understand the effect of Cr on the corrosion behavior of metals in the Zn–Al bath and the Hot-dip galvanizing process. - Highlights: • Isothermal section of the Al–Cr–Zn system at 600 °C was determined. • Eleven three-phase regions were identified experimentally at 600 °C. • Existence of the γ{sub 2} and ν phases was confirmed at 600 °C. • X-ray diffraction patterns of the ternary phases τ{sub 3} and τ{sub 4} were proposed for the first time.

  10. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  11. A review on ternary vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Li Z; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Han D; Pei, Yin Q

    2014-01-01

    Ternary vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials exhibit great application potential in the fields of lithium ion batteries, photocatalysis and electrochemical sensors owing to their good electrochemical and photocatalytic properties. The article reviews the recent progress and patents on the vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials. The synthesis of the vanadate nanorods, nanobelts and nanotubes by hydrothermal method, template method and room temperature wet chemical process is demonstrated. The application of the vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials for lithium ion batteries, electrochemical sensors and photocatalysis is discussed. The possible development direction of the vanadate one-dimensional nanomaterials for the synthesis and application is also analyzed.

  12. Growth Mechanism of Nanowires: Ternary Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Hopkins, R. H.; Su, Ching Hua; Arnold, B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Cullum, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades there has been a large rise in the investment and expectations for nanotechnology use. Almost every area of research has projected improvements in sensors, or even a promise for the emergence of some novel device technologies. For these applications major focuses of research are in the areas of nanoparticles and graphene. Although there are some near term applications with nanowires in photodetectors and other low light detectors, there are few papers on the growth mechanism and fabrication of nanowire-based devices. Semiconductor nanowires exhibit very favorable and promising optical properties, including high transparency and a several order of magnitude better photocurrent than thin film and bulk materials. We present here an overview of the mechanism of nanowire growth from the melt, and some preliminary results for the thallium arsenic selenide material system. Thallium arsenic selenide (TAS) is a multifunctional material combining excellent acousto-optical, nonlinear and radiation detection properties. We observed that small units of (TAS) nanocubes arrange and rearrange at moderate melt undercooling to form the building block of a nanowire. In some cases very long wires (less than mm) are formed. Since we avoided the catalyst, we observed self-nucleation and uncontrolled growth of wires from different places.

  13. Visible and near-infrared light emitting calix[4]arene-based ternary lanthanide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebbink, G.A.; Klink, S.I.; Oude Alink, Patrick G.B.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article ternary lanthanide complexes consisting of a calix[4]arene unit and dibenzoylmethane (dbm) as the antenna are described. In the europium complex [(Eu)2]NO3 two solvent molecules are still coordinated to the ion, making substitution of them by the dbm antenna possible. In the ternary

  14. Calculated site substitution in ternary gamma'-Ni3Al: Temperature and composition effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    The temperature and composition dependence of the site substitution behavior of ternary additions to Ni3Al is examined on the basis of first-principles calculations of the total energies of ternary, partially ordered (gamma') alloys. The calculations are performed by means of the linear muffin...

  15. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  16. Ternary-fission dynamics and asymmetries in reactions with polarized neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bunakov, V E

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of measuring various asymmetries of charged-particles emission in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons, namely parity nonconserving asymmetries, left-right asymmetries and triple-odd correlations are presented. It is demonstrated what kind of new information about the mechanism of ternary fission can be obtained from their analysis

  17. Adsorption behavior of ternary mixtures of noble gases inside single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Nasrabadi, Amir Taghavi

    2010-09-01

    In order to study the gas-storage and gas-filtering capability of carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles simultaneously, we considered the adsorption behavior of a ternary mixture of noble gases, including Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), and Xenon (Xe), i.e., Ar-Kr-Xe mixture, on (10, 10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at different temperatures of (75, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300) K were performed, and adsorption energies, self-diffusion coefficients, activation energies, and radial distribution functions (RDFs) were computed to analyze the thermodynamics, transport and structural properties of the adsorption systems. It is observed that the SWCNT bundles have larger contents of heavier noble gases compared to the lighter ones. This interesting behavior of SWCNT bundles makes them proper candidates for gas-storage and gas molecular-sieving processes.

  18. Ternary Bi-Cu-Ni alloys – thermodynamics, characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radomir Marković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bi–Cu–Ni ternary system belongs to the group of potential Cu-Ni-based advanced lead-free solder materials for high temperature application. The paper shows results of the thermodynamic calculations using general solution model along the line with the molar ratio of Cu: Ni = 1:1. The experimental part shows thermal, structural, electrical and mechanical properties based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS, electroconductivity and hardness measurements of the alloys selected in the section from bismuth corner with molar ratio Cu: Ni = 1:1, Cu: Ni = 3:1, and Cu: Ni = 1:3.

  19. Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Das, Chanchal; Dahal, Sanjay; Das, Bijan

    2013-02-15

    Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary system have been investigated with special reference to their variations with the polyelectrolyte concentration, the medium relative permittivity and the temperature using electrical conductance measurements. The experimental data have been analyzed on the basis of a model for semidilute polyelectrolyte conductivity which takes into account the scaling arguments proposed by Dobrynin et al. Concentration-dependent moderate counterion condensation (24-33%) was observed. Counterion condensation is found to be spontaneous which depends upon the EG-content of the medium and the temperature. A major proportion of the current is transported by the carboxymethylcellulose polyions. The results further demonstrated that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance in solution as the EG-content increases or as the temperature decreases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular dynamics investigation of the thermal conductivity of ternary silicon–germanium–tin alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjin; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2017-12-01

    A further reduction of the thermal conductivity (κ) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys is indispensable for their use as thermoelectric materials. Thus far, heteroatom-doped and nanostructured SiGe systems have been mainly synthesized and tested. This work presents a possibility of reducing the κ of SiGe by alloying with tin (Sn). Our molecular dynamics simulations predict that the κ of ternary SiGeSn alloys can be 40% lower than those of binary SiGe and GeSn alloys due mainly to increased mass disorder scattering of phonons. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of κ suppression in multielement alloys and guidance on how to design them for thermoelectric applications.

  1. Ternary Organic Solar Cells with Coumarin7 as the Donor Exhibiting Greater Than 10% Power Conversion Efficiency and a High Fill Factor of 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Wei; Tao, Si-Lu; Fan, Cong; Chen, Dong-Cheng; Zhou, Ling; Lin, Hui; Zheng, Cai-Jun; Su, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-06

    Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), because the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC 71 BM). A champion PCE value of 10.28% was realized in the ternary OSCs when incorporated with 10 wt % C7 doping ratio in the donors, corresponding to about 35% enhancement compared with the PTB7:PC 71 BM-based OSCs, a high fill factor (FF) of 75.03%, a short-circuit currentdensity (J sc ) of 18.72 mA cm -2 and an open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.73 V. The enhanced performance of the ternary OSCs can be attributed to the simultaneous improvement of the FF and the J sc . In addition to extended light absorption, a perfect nanofiber filament active layer morphology is obtained due to the good compatibility between C7 and PTB7, which facilitates the balance of charge transportation and the suppression of charge recombination. This investigation suggests that coumarin derivatives, which have completely different structure with polymer donors, can also be used to fabricate ternary solar cells and have the potential applications to obtain amazing performance after further device engineering and optimization.

  2. Atomistic study of ternary oxides as high-temperature solid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongyu

    Friction and wear are important tribological phenomena tightly associated with the performance of tribological components/systems such as bearings and cutting machines. In the process of contact and sliding, friction and wear lead to energy loss, and high friction and wear typically result in shortened service lifetime. To reduce friction and wear, solid lubricants are generally used under conditions where traditional liquid lubricants cannot be applied. However, it is challenging to maintain the functionality of those materials when the working environment becomes severe. For instance, at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 400 °C), most traditional solid lubricants, such as MoS2 and graphite, will easily oxidize or lose lubricity due to irreversible chemical changes. For such conditions, it is necessary to identify materials that can remain thermally stable as well as lubricious over a wide range of temperatures. Among the currently available high-temperature solid lubricants, Ag-based ternary metal oxides have recently drawn attention due to their low friction and ability to resist oxidation. A recent experimental study showed that the Ag-Ta-O ternary exhibited an extremely low coefficient of friction (0.06) at 750 °C. To fully uncover the lubricious nature of this material as a high-temperature solid lubricant, a series of tribological investigations were carried out based on one promising candidate - silver tantalate (AgTaO3). The study was then extended to alternative materials, Cu-Ta-O ternaries, to accommodate a variety of application requirements. We aimed to understand, at an atomic level, the effects of physical and chemical properties on the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of these materials at high temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface as a representative boundary lubricating system in a nonextreme environment. This investigation complemented the study of Ag/Cu-Ta-O and enhanced the

  3. Local Directional Ternary Pattern for Facial Expression Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byungyong; Rivera, Adin Ramirez; Kim, Jaemyun; Chae, Oksam

    2017-07-11

    This paper presents a new face descriptor, local directional ternary pattern (LDTP), for facial expression recognition. LDTP efficiently encodes information of emotion-related features (i.e., eyes, eyebrows, upper nose, and mouth) by using the directional information and ternary pattern in order to take advantage of the robustness of edge patterns in the edge region while overcoming weaknesses of edge-based methods in smooth regions. Our proposal, unlike existing histogram-based face description methods that divide the face into several regions and sample the codes uniformly, uses a two level grid to construct the face descriptor while sampling expression-related information at different scales. We use a coarse grid for stable codes (highly related to non-expression), and a finer one for active codes (highly related to expression). This multi-level approach enables us to do a finer grain description of facial motions, while still characterizing the coarse features of the expression. Moreover, we learn the active LDTP codes from the emotionrelated facial regions. We tested our method by using persondependent and independent cross-validation schemes to evaluate the performance. We show that our approaches improve the overall accuracy of facial expression recognition on six datasets.

  4. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  5. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  6. Thermodynamics of fuels with a bio-synthetic component (IV): (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary mixture (ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + 1-hexene + toluene) at T = 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamanan, Rosa M. [Research Group TERMOCAL-Thermodynamics and Calibration University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: rvillama@dce.uva.es; Segovia, Jose J. [Research Group TERMOCAL-Thermodynamics and Calibration University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: josseg@eis.uva.es; Carmen Martin, M. [Research Group TERMOCAL-Thermodynamics and Calibration University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: mcmg@eis.uva.es; Vega-Maza, David [Research Group TERMOCAL-Thermodynamics and Calibration University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: davveg@eis.uva.es; Chamorro, Cesar R. [Research Group TERMOCAL-Thermodynamics and Calibration University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Research Group TERMOCAL-Thermodynamics and Calibration University of Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: miguel.villamanan@eis.uva.es

    2009-02-15

    The paper reports experimental p-x data for the ternary system (ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + 1-hexene + toluene) at T = 313.15 K. The ether, synthesized from ethanol of biological origin, increases the interest of this compound as an additive for gasolines. An isothermal total pressure cell was used for the measurements. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for G{sup E}, using Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC models and the Wohl expansion for the ternary system and the calculation of the vapor phase composition. Good results are obtained for the correlation by all the models.

  7. Computation of Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Methanol, Water, and Ethanoic Acid from T, p, x, and HmE Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for the strongly associated ternary system methanol + water + ethanoic acid and the three constituent binary systems have been determined by the total pressure-temperature-liquid-phase composition-molar excess enthalpy of mixing of the liquid phase (p, T, x, HmE for the binary systems using a novel pump ebulliometer at 101.325 kPa. The vapor-phase compositions of these binary systems had been calculated from Tpx and HmE based on the Q function of molar excess Gibbs energy through an indirect method. Moreover, the experimental T, x data are used to estimate nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar model parameters, and these parameters in turn are used to calculate vapor-phase compositions. The activity coefficients of the solution were correlated with NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar models through fitting by least-squares method. The VLE data of the ternary system were well predicted from these binary interaction parameters of NRTL, Wilson, Margules, and van Laar model parameters without any additional adjustment to build the thermodynamic model of VLE for the ternary system and obtain the vapor-phase compositions and the calculated bubble points.

  8. Co(x)Ni(4-x)Sb(12-y)Sn(y) Ternary Skutterudites: Processing and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Skutterudites have proven to be a useful thermoelectric system as a result of their high figure of merit, favorable mechanical properties, and good thermal stability. Binary skutterudites have received the majority of interest in recent years, as a result of successful double and triple filling schemes. Ternary skutterudites, such as Ni4Sb7Sn5, also demonstrate good thermoelectric performance, with high power factor and low thermal conductivity. Ternary skutterudites, as contrasted to binary systems, provide more possibility for tuning electronic structure as substitutions can be studied on three elements. The Co(x)Ni(4-x)Sb(12-y)Sn(y) system has been investigated as both a p- and n-type thermoelectric material, stable up to 200 C. The system is processed through a combination of solidification, mechanical alloying, and hot pressing steps. Rietveld structure refinement has revealed an interesting occupancy of Sn on both the 24g Wyckoff position with Sb as well as the 2a position as a rattler. In addition to thermoelectric properties, detailed processing routes have been investigated on the system.

  9. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  10. Neural correlates of intentional switching from ternary to binary meter in a musical hemiola pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako eFujioka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical rhythms are often perceived and interpreted within a metrical framework that integrates timing information hierarchically based on interval ratios. Endogenous timing processes facilitate this metrical integration and allow us using the sensory context for predicting when an expected sensory event will happen (‘predictive timing’. Previously, we showed that listening to metronomes and subjectively imagining the two different meters of march and waltz modulated the resulting auditory evoked responses in the temporal lobe and motor-related brain areas such as the motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Here we further explored the intentional transitions between the two metrical contexts, known as hemiola in the Western classical music dating back to the 16th century. We examined MEG from 12 musicians while they repeatedly listened to a sequence of 12 unaccented clicks with an interval of 390 ms, and tapped to them with the right hand according to a 3+3+2+2+2 hemiola accent pattern. While participants listened to the same metronome sequence and imagined the accents, their pattern of brain responses significantly changed just before the pivot point of metric transition from ternary to binary meter. Until 100 ms before the pivot point, brain activities were more similar to those in the simple ternary meter than those in the simple binary meter, but the pattern was reversed afterwards. A similar transition was also observed at the downbeat after the pivot. Brain areas related to the metric transition were identified from source reconstruction of the MEG using a beamformer and included auditory cortices, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, cerebellum, inferior/middle frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The results strongly support that predictive timing processes related to auditory-motor, fronto-parietal, and medial limbic systems underlie metrical representation and its

  11. Conducting to non-conducting transition in dual transmission lines using a ternary model with long-range correlated disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, E.; Diez, E.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we study the behavior of the allowed and forbidden frequencies in disordered classical dual transmission lines when the values of capacitances {C} are distributed according to a ternary model with long-range correlated disorder. We introduce the disorder from a random sequence with a power spectrum S(k)∝k, where α⩾0.5 is the correlation exponent. From this sequence we generate an asymmetric ternary map using two map parameters b and b, which adjust the occupancy probability of each possible value of the capacitances C={CCC}. If the sequence of capacitance values is totally at random α=0.5 (white noise), the electrical transmission line is in the non-conducting state for every frequency ω. When we introduce long-range correlations in the distribution of capacitances, the electrical transmission lines can change their conducting properties and we can find a transition from the non-conducting to conducting state for a fixed system size. This implies the existence of critical values of the map parameters for each correlation exponent α. By performing finite-size scaling we obtain the asymptotic value of the map parameters in the thermodynamic limit for any α. With these data we obtain a phase diagram for the symmetric ternary model, which separates the non-conducting state from the conducting one. This is the fundamental result of this Letter. In addition, introducing one or more impurities in random places of the long-range correlated distribution of capacitances, we observe a dramatic change in the conducting properties of the electrical transmission lines, in such a way that the system jumps from conducting to non-conducting states. We think that this behavior can be considered as a possible mechanism to secure communication.

  12. High pressure phase equilibrium of ternary and multicomponent alkane mixtures in the temperature range from (283–473) K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Liu, Yiqun; Wibowo, Ahmad A.

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric multicomponent alkane mixtures can be used as model systems for reservoir fluids. We have prepared two ternary mixtures, methane/n-butane/n-decane and methane/n-butane/n-dodecane, and two multicomponent mixtures composed of methane/n-butane/n-octane/n-dodecane/n-hexadecane/n-eicosane a......Asymmetric multicomponent alkane mixtures can be used as model systems for reservoir fluids. We have prepared two ternary mixtures, methane/n-butane/n-decane and methane/n-butane/n-dodecane, and two multicomponent mixtures composed of methane......-Redlich-Kwong (SRK), Peng-Robinson (PR), Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), and Soave-Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR), have been used to predict phase equilibrium of the measured systems. PR and PC-SAFT give better results than others and Soave-BWR gives poor phase envelope predictions...... the fractions just below the saturation pressures are difficult to predict. Moreover GERG-2008 has also been tested with the measured methane/n-butane/n-decane system. It over predicts the saturation pressures but predicts low pressure liquid fractions quite accurately....

  13. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H

    2002-01-01

    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  14. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium for ternary mixtures of {l_brace}heptane + aromatic compounds + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkhani, S.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M., E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pazuki, G.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safekordi, A.A. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydari, A.; Akbari, J. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yavari, M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > This paper reports the LLE data of ternary systems {l_brace}heptane (1) + aromatic compounds (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace}. > The distribution coefficient and the selectivity were obtained from the experimental data. > The consistency of LLE data was successfully correlated with Othmer-Tobias and Hand equation. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (heptane + toluene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) and (heptane + benzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate) were measured at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and aromatic distribution coefficients, calculated from the equilibrium data, were used to determine if this ionic liquid can be used as a potential extracting solvent for the separation of aromatic compounds from heptane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations.

  15. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  16. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  17. Comprehensive characterization of chitosan/PEO/levan ternary blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Muge Sennaroglu; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Kazak, Hande; Sinan Keskin, S; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Eroglu, Mehmet S

    2014-02-15

    Ternary blend films of chitosan, PEO (300,000) and levan were prepared by solution casting method and their phase behavior, miscibility, thermal and mechanical properties as well as their surface energy and morphology were characterized by different techniques. FT-IR analyses of blend films indicated intermolecular hydrogen bonding between blend components. Thermal and XRD analysis showed that chitosan and levan suppressed the crystallinity of PEO up to nearly 25% of PEO content in the blend, which resulted in more amorphous film structures at higher PEO/(chitosan+levan) ratios. At more than 30% of PEO concentration, contact angle (CA) measurements showed a surface enrichment of PEO whereas at lower PEO concentrations, chitosan and levan were enriched on the surfaces leading to more amorphous and homogenous surfaces. This result was further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cell proliferation and viability assay established the high biocompatibility of the blend films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ternary gypsum-based materials: Composition, properties and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleželová, M.; Svora, P.; Vimmrová, A.

    2017-10-01

    In spite of the fact that gypsum is one of the most environmentally friendly binders, utilization of gypsum products is relatively narrow. The main problem of gypsum materials is their low resistance to the wet environment and radical decrease of mechanical properties with increasing moisture. The solution of the problem could be in use of composed gypsum-based binders, usually ternary, comprising gypsum, pozzolan and alkali activator of pozzolan reaction. These materials have a better moisture resistance and often also better mechanical properties. Paper provides literature survey of the possible compositions, properties and ways of utilization of the composed gypsum-based binders with latent hydraulic and pozzolan materials together with some results of present research performed by authors.

  19. Issues Affecting the Synthetic Scalability of Ternary Metal Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Morrow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Mn-Zn ferrite (MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of an oleate complex, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS mediated hydrazine decomposition of the chloride salts, and triethylene glycol (TREG mediated thermal decomposition of the metal acetylacetonates. Only the first method was found to facilitate the synthesis of uniform, isolable NPs with the correct Mn : Zn ratio (0.7 : 0.3 as characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Scaling allowed for retention of the composition and size; however, attempts to prepare Zn-rich ferrites did not result in NP formation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the incomplete decomposition of the metal-oleate complexes prior to NP nucleation for Zn-rich compositions is the cause.

  20. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  1. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Polo, G; Valdes, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mijngos, R. R; Duarte, D. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCI{sub x}KBr{sub y}RbCl{sub z} maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard's law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The values of the lattice parameter given X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se calcula el valor de la energia de amarre de una estructura ternaria cristalina nueva formada por halogenuros alcalinos. La estructura ternaria preparada con diferentes concentraciones KCI{sub x}KBr{sub y}RbCl{sub z} mantiene una muy buena estabilidad y miscibilidad. El calculo se basa en el uso de una generalizacion de la ley de Vegard (que en general es valida para compuestos binarios) para calcular los valores de la constante de red y de exponente repulsivo m. El valor del parametro de red medido por difractometria de rayos X, concuerda en buena aproximacion con el valor calculado por el metodo usado. Tambien se compara el valor de la energia de cohesion obtenido por la expresion de Born con aproximaciones mas complejas.

  2. Photovoltaic cells based on ternary P3HT:PCBM:polymethine dye active layer transparent in the visible range of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliznyuk, Valery N., E-mail: vblizny@clemson.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Gasiorowski, Jacek [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Ishchenko, Alexander A.; Bulavko, Gennadiy V. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5 Murmanskaya str., Kiev 02660 (Ukraine); Rahaman, Mahfujur [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Hingerl, Kurt [Center for Interface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Sariciftci, Niyazi S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University, Linz 4040 (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Addition of a polymethine dye to P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) films leads to a compositionally induced transparency in the system. • Variation of the complex refractive index in binary and ternary BHJ films has been studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry. • Power conversion efficiency of ternary BHJ solar cells is determined by the dye composition and photodoping. - Abstract: Optical and photovoltaic properties were studied for ternary photovoltaic cells containing a traditional donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layer modified with polymethine dye molecules in a broad range of compositions and wavelengths. An effect of composition induced optical transparency, due to the strong modification of the density of states, was observed for symmetrical compositions with approximately equal amount of components. Based on our spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies we can suggest that the variation of the refractive index, which is significantly reduced in the visible range for ternary systems, is involved in the physical mechanism of the phenomenon. Despite of an addition of the IR absorbing component (which allows broadening of the absorption band to up to 800 nm) no improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is observed in comparison to the binary BHJ system (P3HT:PCBM). Nevertheless, we believe that further advance of the efficiency will be possible if the energy levels will be chemically designed to avoid formation of charge traps at the BHJ interface during light excitation. Such fine adjustment of the system should become possible with a proper choice of polymer:dye composition due to a high versatility of the polymethine dyes demonstrated in previous studies.

  3. Multicomponent isotherm for biosorption of Zn(II), CO(II) and Cd(II) from ternary mixture onto pretreated dried Aspergillus niger biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hajahmadi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar; Hossein Khakpour; Kasra Pirzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, multicomponent competitive biosorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution onto pretreated dried Aspergillus niger in batch system was investigated. The adsorption data were fitted to the multicomponent Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Sips equations. We used the genetic algorithm of biosorption in ternary mixture to evaluate the potential effects of each metal in the removal of other metals. In order to take both mechanisms of the cell-surface binding and intra-particl...

  4. Self-regulated route to ternary hybrid nanocrystals of Ag-Ag2S-CdS with near-infrared photoluminescence and enhanced photothermal conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoxing; Bao, Chunlin; Liu, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaoping; Xi, Chunyan; Xu, Zheng; Ji, Zhenyuan

    2014-09-01

    Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of heterointerfaces among the crystals. This work will not only advance the synthesis chemistry of multi-component hybrid nanocrystals but also provide a possible route for the design of advanced multi-model materials used in bio-related fields.Developing hybrid nanocrystals is a hot topic in materials science. Herein, a ternary hybrid nanocrystal, Ag-Ag2S-CdS, combining near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties was demonstrated. The ternary Ag-Ag2S-CdS hybrid nanocrystals with cubic shape and uniform size were synthesized by a simple one-pot and one-step colloidal method. The growth process is self-regulated with the formation order of Ag2S, Ag, and CdS, sequentially. The formation of Ag originates from the partial reduction of Ag2S, while the formation of CdS is through an Ag2S catalytic mechanism based on its superionic feature. The obtained ternary hybrid nanocrystals show near infrared emission and photothermal conversion properties in a lab-on-a-particle system. Importantly, an enhanced effect is observed for the photothermal conversion, which is mainly due to the presence of

  5. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for ternary mixtures of (alkane + benzene + [EMpy] [ESO{sub 4}]) at several temperatures and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Gonzalez, Begona [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica de la Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Dominguez, Angeles [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica de la Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: admguez@uvigo.es

    2009-11-15

    In this work, the separation of benzene from aliphatic hydrocarbons (hexane, or heptane) is investigated by extraction with 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulphate ionic liquid, [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria (LLE) data are determined for the ternary systems: {l_brace}hexane (1) + benzene (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace} at T = (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K and {l_brace}heptane (1) + benzene (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3){r_brace} at T = (283.15 and 298.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and distribution coefficient, derived from the tie line data, were used to determine whether the ionic liquid is a good solvent for the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic compounds. The consistency of the tie line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations. The experimental results for the ternary systems were well correlated with the NRTL equation. A study of the temperature effect and the influence of the chain length of the alkanes were realized. The results obtained were compared with other ionic liquids. There are no literature data for the mixtures discussed in this paper.

  6. A novel, efficient CNTFET Galois design as a basic ternary-valued logic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzian, Peiman; Mirzaee, Mahla Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents arithmetic operations, including addition and multiplication, in the ternary Galois field through carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Ternary logics have received considerable attention among all the multiple-valued logics. Multiple-valued logics are an alternative to common-practice binary logic, which mostly has been expanded from ternary (three-valued) logic. CNTFETs are used to improve Galois field circuit performance. In this study, a novel design technique for ternary logic gates based on CNTFETs was used to design novel, efficient Galois field circuits that will be compared with the existing resistive-load CNTFET circuit designs. In this paper, by using carbon nanotube technology and avoiding the use of resistors, we will reduce power consumption and delay, and will also achieve a better product. Simulation results using HSPICE illustrate substantial improvement in speed and power consumption.

  7. Serpentine diffusion trajectories and the Ouzo effect in partially miscible ternary liquid mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the transient equilibration process when partially miscible ternary liquid mixtures of two different compositions are brought into contact with each other. Diffusional coupling effects are shown to become increasingly significant as the mixture compositions approach the

  8. A novel ternary quantum-dot cell for solving majority voter gate problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Mohammad A.; Bahrami, Safura; Navi, Keivan

    2014-03-01

    Since the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has experienced many serious problems in fulfilling the need for more robust and efficient circuits, some emerging nanotechnologies have been introduced as the candidates for replacing CMOS. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the promising nanotechnology candidates with majority function as its fundamental logic element. It has one implementation in binary QCA and several implantations in ternary QCA, but none of the ternary QCA implementations are as efficient as the binary one. In this paper, a new cell configuration for ternary QCA is proposed which works as well as previous cell configuration. Also, a new design for ternary QCA majority function is proposed which performs faster and occupies less area.

  9. Ternary and Multi-Bit FIR Filter Area-Performance Tradeoffs in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Ur-Rahman Dayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, performance and area of conventional FIR (Finite Impulse Responce filters versus ternary sigma delta modulated FIR filter is compared in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays using VHDL (Verilog Description Language. Two different approaches were designed and synthesized at same spectral performance by obtaining a TIR (Target Impulse Response. Both filters were synthesized on adaptive LUT (Look Up Table FPGA device in pipelined and non-pipelined modes. It is shown that the Ternary FIR filter occupies approximately the same area as the corresponding multi-bit filter, but for a given specification, the ternary FIR filter has 32% better performance in non-pipelined and 72% in pipelined mode, compared to its equivalent Multi-Bit filter at its optimum 12-bit coefficient quantization. These promising results shows that ternary logic based (i.e. +1,0,-1 filters can be used for huge chip area savings and higher performance.

  10. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from......% and modulus of 50 MPa at 150 degrees C. Based on these ternary membranes large MEAs with an active area of 256 cm(2) have been prepared for a 2 kW(el) stack showing good performance and reproducibility....

  11. Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Two Compatible Nonfullerene Acceptors with Power Conversion Efficiency >10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Guo, Yuan; Yi, Yuanping; Huo, Lijun; Xue, Xiaonan; Sun, Xiaobo; Fu, Huiting; Xiong, Wentao; Meng, Dong; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Sun, Yanming

    2016-12-01

    Two different nonfullerene acceptors and one copolymer are used to fabricate ternary organic solar cells (OSCs). The two acceptors show unique interactions that reduce crystallinity and form a homogeneous mixed phase in the blend film, leading to a high efficiency of ≈10.3%, the highest performance reported for nonfullerene ternary blends. This work provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance OSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  13. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    any quantity of interest. This allows multiple responses to be calculated by perturbing the input parameter without having to directly perform separate calculations. The approach is strictly created for critical systems, but was utilized as the basis of a new methodology implemented for fixed source problems, known as Exact Perturbation Theory (EPT). EPT can calculate the tritium breeding ratio response, caused by a perturbation in the composition of the ternary alloy. The downfall of EPT methodology is that it cannot account for the collision history at large perturbations and thus, produces results with high uncertainties. Preliminary analysis for EPT with Serpent for a LiPbBa alloy demonstrated that 25 simulations per ternary must be completed so that most uncertainties calculated at large perturbations do not exceed 0.05. To reduce the uncertainties of the results, generalized least squares (GSL) method was implemented, to replace imprecise TBR results with more accurate ones. It was demonstrated that a combination of EPT Serpent calculations with the application of GLS for results with high uncertainties is the most effective and produces values with the highest fidelity. The scheme finds an alloy composition that has a TBR within a range of interest, while imposing constraint on the EMF, and a requirement to minimize lithium concentration. It involved a three-level iteration process with each level zooming in closer on the area of interest to fine tune the correct composition. Both alloys studied, LiPbBa and LiSnZn, had optimized compositions close to the leftmost edge of the ternary, increasing the complexity of optimization due to the highly uncertain results found in these regions. Additional GPT methodologies were considered for optimization studies, specifically with the use of deterministic codes. Currently, an optimization deterministic code, SMORES, is available in the SCALE code package, but only for critical systems. Subsequently, it was desired to

  14. Identification of a non-covalent ternary complex formed by PIAS1, SUMO1, and UBC9 proteins involved in transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascle, Xavier H; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Cappadocia, Laurent; Estephan, Patricia; Raiola, Luca; Omichinski, James G; Aubry, Muriel

    2013-12-20

    Post-translational modifications with ubiquitin-like proteins require three sequentially acting enzymes (E1, E2, and E3) that must unambiguously recognize each other in a coordinated fashion to achieve their functions. Although a single E2 (UBC9) and few RING-type E3s (PIAS) operate in the SUMOylation system, the molecular determinants regulating the interactions between UBC9 and the RING-type E3 enzymes are still not well defined. In this study we use biochemical and functional experiments to characterize the interactions between PIAS1 and UBC9. Our results reveal that UBC9 and PIAS1 are engaged both in a canonical E2·E3 interaction as well as assembled into a previously unidentified non-covalent ternary complex with SUMO as evidenced by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry studies. In this ternary complex, SUMO functions as a bridge by forming non-overlapping interfaces with UBC9 and PIAS1. Moreover, our data suggest that phosphorylation of serine residues adjacent to the PIAS1 SUMO-interacting motif favors formation of the non covalent PIAS1·SUMO·UBC9 ternary complex. Finally, our results also indicate that the non-covalent ternary complex is required for the known transcriptional repression activities mediated by UBC9 and SUMO1. Taken together, the data enhance our knowledge concerning the mode of interaction of enzymes of the SUMOylation machinery as well as their role in transcriptional regulation and establishes a framework for investigations of other ubiquitin-like protein systems.

  15. Identification of a Non-covalent Ternary Complex Formed by PIAS1, SUMO1, and UBC9 Proteins Involved in Transcriptional Regulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascle, Xavier H.; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Cappadocia, Laurent; Estephan, Patricia; Raiola, Luca; Omichinski, James G.; Aubry, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications with ubiquitin-like proteins require three sequentially acting enzymes (E1, E2, and E3) that must unambiguously recognize each other in a coordinated fashion to achieve their functions. Although a single E2 (UBC9) and few RING-type E3s (PIAS) operate in the SUMOylation system, the molecular determinants regulating the interactions between UBC9 and the RING-type E3 enzymes are still not well defined. In this study we use biochemical and functional experiments to characterize the interactions between PIAS1 and UBC9. Our results reveal that UBC9 and PIAS1 are engaged both in a canonical E2·E3 interaction as well as assembled into a previously unidentified non-covalent ternary complex with SUMO as evidenced by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry studies. In this ternary complex, SUMO functions as a bridge by forming non-overlapping interfaces with UBC9 and PIAS1. Moreover, our data suggest that phosphorylation of serine residues adjacent to the PIAS1 SUMO-interacting motif favors formation of the non covalent PIAS1·SUMO·UBC9 ternary complex. Finally, our results also indicate that the non-covalent ternary complex is required for the known transcriptional repression activities mediated by UBC9 and SUMO1. Taken together, the data enhance our knowledge concerning the mode of interaction of enzymes of the SUMOylation machinery as well as their role in transcriptional regulation and establishes a framework for investigations of other ubiquitin-like protein systems. PMID:24174529

  16. Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

    1996-10-17

    An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

  17. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  18. Quantum dot ternary-valued full-adder: Logic synthesis by a multiobjective design optimization based on a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymenko, M. V.; Remacle, F., E-mail: fremacle@ulg.ac.be [Department of Chemistry, B6c, University of Liege, B4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-10-28

    A methodology is proposed for designing a low-energy consuming ternary-valued full adder based on a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled with a single electron transistor operating as a charge sensor. The methodology is based on design optimization: the values of the physical parameters of the system required for implementing the logic operations are optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. The searching space is determined by elements of the capacitance matrix describing the electrostatic couplings in the entire device. The objective functions are defined as the maximal absolute error over actual device logic outputs relative to the ideal truth tables for the sum and the carry-out in base 3. The logic units are implemented on the same device: a single dual-gate quantum dot and a charge sensor. Their physical parameters are optimized to compute either the sum or the carry out outputs and are compatible with current experimental capabilities. The outputs are encoded in the value of the electric current passing through the charge sensor, while the logic inputs are supplied by the voltage levels on the two gate electrodes attached to the QD. The complex logic ternary operations are directly implemented on an extremely simple device, characterized by small sizes and low-energy consumption compared to devices based on switching single-electron transistors. The design methodology is general and provides a rational approach for realizing non-switching logic operations on QD devices.

  19. Ternary Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells with 12.16% Efficiency by Introducing One Acceptor with Cascading Energy Level and Complementary Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weigang; Yu, Runnan; Liu, Zhiyang; Peng, Ruixiang; Mi, Dongbo; Hong, Ling; Wei, Qiang; Hou, Jianhui; Kuang, Yongbo; Ge, Ziyi

    2018-01-01

    A novel small-molecule acceptor, (2,2'-((5E,5'E)-5,5'-((5,5'-(4,4,9,9-tetrakis(5-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(methanylylidene)) bis(3-hexyl-4-oxothiazolidine-5,2-diylidene))dimalononitrile (ITCN), end-capped with electron-deficient 2-(3-hexyl-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups, is designed, synthesized, and used as the third component in fullerene-free ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The cascaded energy-level structure enabled by the newly designed acceptor is beneficial to the carrier transport and separation. Meanwhile, the three materials show a complementary absorption in the visible region, resulting in efficient light harvesting. Hence, the PBDB-T:ITCN:IT-M ternary PSCs possess a high short-circuit current density (J sc ) under an optimal weight ratio of donors and acceptors. Moreover, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of the ternary PSCs is enhanced with an increase of the third acceptor ITCN content, which is attributed to the higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of ITCN than that of IT-M, thus exhibits a higher V oc in PBDB-T:ITCN binary system. Ultimately, the ternary PSCs achieve a power conversion efficiency of 12.16%, which is higher than the PBDB-T:ITM-based PSCs (10.89%) and PBDB-T:ITCN-based ones (2.21%). This work provides an effective strategy to improve the photovoltaic performance of PSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rational Integration of Polypropylene/Graphene Oxide/Nafion as Ternary-Layered Separator to Retard the Shuttle of Polysulfides for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ting-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Qi; Peng, Hong-Jie; He, Lian-Yuan; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-20

    The reversible electrochemical transformation from lithium (Li) and sulfur (S) into Li2 S through multielectron reactions can be utilized in secondary Li-S batteries with very high energy density. However, both the low Coulombic efficiency and severe capacity degradation limits the full utilization of active sulfur, which hinders the practical applications of Li-S battery system. The present study reports a ternary-layered separator with a macroporous polypropylene (PP) matrix layer, graphene oxide (GO) barrier layer, and Nafion retarding layer as the separator for Li-S batteries with high Coulombic efficiency and superior cyclic stability. In the ternary-layered separator, ultrathin layer of GO (0.0032 mg cm(-2) , estimated to be around 40 layers) blocks the macropores of PP matrix, and a dense ion selective Nafion layer with a very low loading amount of 0.05 mg cm(-2) is attached as a retarding layer to suppress the crossover of sulfur-containing species. The ternary-layered separators are effective in improving the initial capacity and the Coulombic efficiency of Li-S cells from 969 to 1057 mAh g(-1) , and from 80% to over 95% with an LiNO3 -free electrolyte, respectively. The capacity degradation is reduced from 0.34% to 0.18% per cycle within 200 cycles when the PP separator is replaced by the ternary-layered separators. This work provides the rational design strategy for multifunctional separators at cell scale to effective utilizing of active sulfur and retarding of polysulfides, which offers the possibility of high energy density Li-S cells with long cycling life. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.