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Sample records for vyngapour west siberia

  1. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  2. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  3. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of

  4. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  5. Arrangement of tapering traps in the main oil and gas complexes of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotskiy, V.M.; Malykh, A.G.; Pikulevich, V.D.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Based on evaluation of the densities of distribution of traps formed by lithological and stratigraphic screens, in the main oil and gas masses of West Siberia an isolation is made of the intervals of the section which are the most promising for detecting screened formations. These include the Berrias-Valanzhinskiy, Valanzhin-Gotherivian and upper Jurassic oil and gas complexes which are included among the primary objects for setting up prospecting and exploration aimed at finding screened hydrocarbon formations.

  6. Inflorescence with tricolpate pollen grains from the Cenomanian of Tschulymo-Yenisey Basin, West Siberia.

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    Krassilov, V A.; Golovneva, L B.

    2001-05-01

    A new taxon Freyantha sibirica gen. et sp. nov. is erected for a delicate racemose inflorescence from the Cenomanian of the Tchulymo-Yenisey Basin, West Siberia. The inflorescence bears male flowers of partly connate stamens that produced tricolpate reticulate pollen grains. The flowers are subtended by calyptrate bracts. The taxonomically significant features of the general inflorescence morphology, prophylls, floral bracts, stamens and pollen grains are shared with different angiosperm groups, such as the Menispermaceae and Sargentodoxaceae. Prominent glands on the floral bracts indicate pollination by nectar-sucking insects.

  7. Distribution of GHG over West Siberia: airborne and tower network observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, M. Yu.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.; Belan, B. D.; Maksyutov, Sh.; Sasakawa, M.; Watai, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Sutoh, H.; Davydov, D. K.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of high confidence level in understanding of greenhouse effect on climate change there is a lack of measurement data over significant part of the Northern Hemisphere. Taking into account the importance of the global climate changes and international cooperation in this field, NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) and IAO (Institute of Atmospheric Optics) combined their efforts in the framework of Joint Japanese-Russian Project on GHG monitoring to fill up this gap at least over West Siberia, which occupies a significant part of Northern Eurasia. This monitoring consists of airborne and tower network observations. Airborne study of vertical distribution of greenhouse gases nearby Novosibirsk (between 54°05'N-81°50'E and 54°35'N-82°40'E) has been started on July 1997. Monthly flight observation have been conducted at an altitude from 500 to 7000 km. The 11-year airborne study nearby Novosibirsk has revealed a positive trend in CO2 mixing ratio (>15 ppm) and the absence of a definite trend for CH4. Minimum of CO2 concentration is typically observed at the end of July. Highest annual amplitudes of CO2 mixing ratio (up to 40 ppm) are observed in the atmospheric boundary layer. During recent years a tower network (8 towers) for carbon dioxide and methane monitoring was established in West Siberia. This network covers several climatic zones from steppes in the south to northern taiga in the north (51°N to 63°N and 62°E to 82°E). In this paper we present the first results of the diurnal, seasonal, and annual behavior of these greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer over West Siberia Diurnal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio showed its maximum amplitude in July and its minimum amplitude in January. Concentration gradient between northern and southern regions remains during the whole year. Carbon dioxide mixing ratio has a pronounced annual behavior with a maximum in December and a minimum in July-August. It starts to decrease on March

  8. Changes in CO_{2} trends observed in the lower troposphere over West Siberia

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    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Maksyutov, Shamil; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr; Arshinov, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Long-term airborne observations of greenhouse gases carried out in the troposphere over south-western area of West Siberia since 1997 allowed some specific features in CO2 trends to be revealed at different heights. At an altitude of 7 km above ground level (AGL), the average annual rate of CO2 increase was 1.72 ppm yr-1. The main distinctive features in the tendencies of CO2 mixing ratio have been found in the lower troposphere. Thus, for the period from 1997 to 2004, July concentrations of CO2 at an altitude of 500 m AGL increased slightly with a rate of 0.17 ppm yr-1, while since 2005 they began to rise dramatically with a rate of 3.64 ppm yr-1. Analysis of the possible causes of such long-term behavior showed that it was resulted from neither reduction of forest area, nor wildfires, nor forest diseases. Also it is impossible to state that reducing CO2 sink has been caused by the impact of climate changes on ecosystems. Possibly, anthropogenic CO2 accumulation resulted in that Siberian forests cannot assimilate such additional amount of carbon dioxide. A decrease in the sink for atmospheric CO2 is also observed in the Amazon (Brienen et al. 2015). Brienen et al. (2015) assume that it may be caused by a sustained long-term increase in tree mortality. There is also a supposition that it can be a result of a vegetation replacement by other types of plants or young trees, which absorb less amount of CO2 (Kunstler et al., 2015; Crowther T. W., 2015). However, it seems highly unlikely to test these hyposeses in the near future due to a huge area of West Siberia, most regions of which are difficult to access. This work was funded by the Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes of the Ministry of the Environment (Japan) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Brienen R.J.W. et al. 2015. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink. Nature. 519 (7543), 344-348. Kunstler G. et al. 2015. Plant functional traits have globally

  9. Methane consumption and soil respiration by a birch forest soil in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoko; Inoue, Gen; Fukuda, Masami

    2004-07-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were measured in a birch forest soil in West Siberia, in August 1999, June 2000 and September 2000. The study site had a very thick organic horizon that was subject to drought during the observation periods. The soils always took up CH4, while CO2 was released from the surface to the atmosphere. CH4 consumption and CO2 emission rates ranged from 0.092 to 0.28 mg C m2 h1 and from 110 to 400 mg C m2 h1 respectively. The CH4 consumption rate and soil temperatures showed significant relationships for individual measurements. The soil respiration rate was weakly correlated with individual soil temperatures. This study examined the effect of current and lagged soil temperatures at a depth of 5 cm on CH4 consumption and soil respiration. The variation in the correlation coefficient between CH4 consumption and lagged soil temperature was greatest at a 4-h lag, whereas that for soil respiration showed a gentle peak at lags from several hours to half a day. This difference in the temperature-related lag effect between CH4 consumption and soil respiration results from differences in the exchange processes. Neither flux showed any correlation with soil moisture. The limited variation in soil moisture during our observation period may account for the lack of correlation. However, the droughty soil conditions resulted in high gas diffusion and, consequently, high CH4 consumption.

  10. Cadmium accumulation in soil, fodder, grain, organs and muscle tissue of cattle in West Siberia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Nikolaevich Narozhnykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of cadmium in the soil, fodder, grain, organs and muscle tissue of animals from two ecological zones of the Novosibirsk Region, marked by different prevalent breeds of cattle – Hereford breed (beef cattle and Black-and-White breed (dairy cattle – was studied. The concentrations of elements in the soil, fodder, and grain were measured by flame atomic absorption, using Kvant-2A spectrometer, and expressed on a dry weight basis. The cadmium content in soil, fodder, and grain did not exceed maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. The chemical composition of organs and muscle tissue was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry, using Shimadzu AA-7000 spectrometer. Average cadmium content in liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, lungs and muscle tissue over the populations was determined for Hereford and Black-and-White cattle. The cadmium levels in forage and soil from the first and second zones were not different. Maximal cadmium content was observed in kidneys of the animals of the studied breeds, whereas minimal content was observed in heart. Interbreed differences in cadmium content in lungs, liver, spleen, and heart were determined. The West Siberia territories are suitable for yielding ecologically safe production, concerning the content of cadmium in the soil, fodder, grain, meat and by-products of cattle.

  11. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

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    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of greening and browning between and within bioclimatic zones in northern West Siberia

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    Miles, Victoria V.; Esau, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Studies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have found broad changes in vegetation productivity in high northern latitudes in the past decades, including increases in NDVI (‘greening’) in tundra regions and decreases (‘browning’) in forest regions. The causes of these changes are not well understood but have been attributed to a variety of factors. We use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite data for 2000-2014 and focus on northern West Siberia—a hot spot of extensive landcover change due to rapid resource development, geomorphic change, climate change and reindeer grazing. The region is relatively little-studied in terms of vegetation productivity patterns and trends. This study examines changes between and within bioclimatic sub-zones and reveals differences between forest and treeless areas and differences in productivity even down to the tree species level. Our results show that only 18% of the total northern West Siberia area had statistically significant changes in productivity, with 8.4% increasing (greening) and 9.6% decreasing (browning). We find spatial heterogeneity in the trends, and contrasting trends both between and within bioclimatic zones. A key finding is the identification of contrasting trends for different species within the same bioclimatic zone. Browning is most prominent in areas of denser tree coverage, and particularly in evergreen coniferous forest with dark (Picea abie, Picea obovata) or light (Pinus sylvestris) evergreen and evergreen-majority mixed forests. In contrast, low density deciduous needle-leaf forest dominated by larch (Larix sibirica), shows a significant increase in productivity, even while neighboring different species show productivity decrease. These results underscore the complexity of the patterns of variability and trends in vegetation productivity, and suggest the need for spatially and thematically detailed studies to better understand the response of different

  13. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

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    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  14. High spatial resolution image object classification for terrestrial oil spill contamination mapping in West Siberia

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    Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2009-04-01

    This work is a part of the OSCaR pilot study (Oil Spill Contamination mapping in Russia). A synergetic concept for an object based and multi temporal mapping and classification system for terrestrial oil spill pollution using a test area in West Siberia is presented. An object oriented image classification system is created to map contaminated soils, vegetation and changes in the oil exploration well infrastructure in high resolution data. Due to the limited spectral resolution of Quickbird data context information and image object structure are used as additional features building a structural object knowledge base for the area. The distance of potentially polluted areas to industrial land use and infrastructure objects is utilized to classify crude oil contaminated surfaces. Additionally the potential of Landsat data for dating of oil spill events using change indicators is tested with multi temporal Landsat data from 1987, 1995 and 2001. OSCaR defined three sub-projects: (1) high resolution mapping of crude oil contaminated surfaces, (2) mapping of industrial infrastructure change, (3) dating of oil spill events using multi temporal Landsat data. Validation of the contamination mapping results has been done with field data from Russian experts provided by the Yugra State University in Khanty-Mansiyskiy. The developed image object structure classification system has shown good results for the severely polluted areas with good overall classification accuracy. However it has also revealed the need for direct mapping of hydrocarbon substances. Oil spill event dating with Landsat data was very much limited by the low spatial resolution of Landsat TM 5 data, small scale character of oil spilled surfaces and limited information about oil spill dates.

  15. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2010-12-01

    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  16. Soil microbiological composition and its evolution along with forest succession in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naplekova, Nadezhda N.; Malakhova, Nataliya A.; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Natural forest succession process in West Siberia is mostly initiated by fire disturbance and involves changing tree species composition from pioneer species to late succession trees. Along with forest aging, litter and forest biomass accumulate. Changes of the soil nitrogen cycle between succession stages, important for plant functioning, have been reported in a number of studies. To help understanding the mechanism of the changes in the soil nitrogen cycle we analyzed soil microbiological composition for soil profiles (0-160 cm) taken at sites corresponding to three forest succession stages: (1) young pine, age 18-20 years, (2) mid age, dark coniferous, age 50-70 years, (3) mature, fir-spruce, age 170-180 years. Soil samples were taken from each soil horizon and analyzed in the laboratory for quantity and species composition of algae and other microorganisms. Algae community at all stages of succession is dominated by species typical for forest (pp. Chlorhormidium, Chlamydomonas, Chloroccocum, Pleurochloris, Stichococcus). Algae species composition is summarized by formulas: young forest C14X10Ch9H2P4Cf1B2amph4, mid age X16C15Ch10H4P4Cf1B2amph4, mature X24C22Ch17H10P2amph5Cf1, with designations C -- Cyanophyta, X -- Xantophyta, Ch -- Chlorophyta, B -- Bacillariophyta. Diversity is highest in upper two horizons and declines with depth. Microorganism composition on upper 20 cm was analyzed in three types of forests separately for consumers of protein (ammonifiers) and mineral nitrogen, fungi, azotobacter, Clostridium pasteurianum, oligonitrophylic (eg diazotrophs), nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Nitrogen biologic fixation in the mature forest soils is done mostly by oligonitrophyls and microorganisms of the genus Clostridium as well as сyanobacteria of sp. Nostoc, but the production rate appears low. Concentrations (count in gram soil) of nitrogen consumers (eg ammonifiers), oligonitrophyls, Clostridium and denitrifiers increase several fold from young forest to mid

  17. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

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    Koveshnikov, A. E.; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of the crust of weathering including redeposited one, were formed as a result of hypergenesis, during the continental stand of the area in the near-surface zone. A new geological prospecting unit has been suggested which underlies these crusts of weathering and formed during fracture tectonic processes with hydrothermal-metasomatic limestones reworking and the processes of hydrothermal leaching and dolomitization. So, in the carbonate platforms the system of fissure zones related to tectonic disturbance was formed. This has a dendrite profile where the series of tangential, more thinned fractures deviate from the stem and finish in pores and caverns. The carbonate platforms formation in the West Siberia tectonic depression has been analyzed, their dynamics and gradual increasing from the minimal in Ordovician and Silurian to maximal at the end of the Late Devonian has been shown.

  18. [Molecular-biologic analysis of avian influenza virus isolates which caused epizootics on the south of West Siberia and in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Berezhnov, S P; Shestopalov, A M; Alekseev, A Iu; Ternovoĭ, V A; Khaĭtovich, A B; Kroviakova, M T; Netesov, S V; Drozdov, I G

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine reasons of poultry deaths in Crimea Republic in December 2005 as well as isolation, identification, and comparative analysis of pathogens, which caused epizootics in Siberia and Crimea. During epizootic in poultry in North-East Crimea highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA sequences revealed that they belong to one big cluster. Isolated strain was close to viruses, which caused epizootic in July-August 2005 in the south of West Siberia. Conclusion about the high importance of the south of West Siberia in spreading of highly pathogenic influenza viruses H5N1 in Eurasia was made.

  19. Relict gas hydrates as possible reason of gas emission from shallow permafrost at the northern part of West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Bukhanov, Boris; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Istomin, Vladimir; Tipenko, Gennady

    2017-04-01

    Intra-permafrost gas (mostly methane) is represent a serious geological hazards during exploration and development of oil and gas fields. Special danger is posed by large methane accumulations which usually confined to sandy and silty sand horizons and overlying in the frozen strata on the depth up to 200 meters. Such methane accumulations are widely spread in a number of gas fields in the northern part of Western Siberia. According to indirect indicators this accumulations can be relic gas hydrates, that formed earlier during favorable conditions for hydrate accumulation (1, 2). Until now, they could be preserved in the frozen sediments due to geological manifestation of the self-preservation effect of gas hydrates at temperatures below zero. These gas hydrate formations, which are lying above the gas hydrate stability zone today, are in a metastable state and are very sensitive to various anthropogenic impacts. During drilling and operation of production wells in the areas where the relic of gas hydrates can occur, there are active gas emission and gas explosion, that can lead to various technical complications up to the accident. Mathematical and experimental simulations were were conducted to evaluate the possibility of existence of relic gas hydrates in the northern part of West Siberia. The results of math simulations revealed stages of geological history when the gas hydrate stability zone began virtually from the ground surface and saturated in shallow permafrost horizons. Later permafrost is not completely thaw. Experimental simulations of porous gas hydrate dissociation in frozen soils and evaluation of self-preservation manifestation of gas hydrates at negative temperatures were carried out for identification conditions for relic gas hydrates existence in permafrost of northern part of West Siberia. Sandy and silty sand sediments were used in experimental investigations. These sediments are typical of most gas-seeping (above the gas hydrate stability

  20. Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia

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    Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The study area is located in the Subarctic region of Western Siberia at Nadym and Pur Rivers interfluve. The mean monthly air temperature of the coldest month is -25…-27oC and of the warmest month is 8…10oC. The mean annual air temperature is increasing at 0.03…0.06oC per year. The mean annual precipitation is 550…600 mm. The continuous permafrost up to 50-70 m thick have temperature of -1..-3oC. The study site is located 40 km west of Noviy Urengoy City. The study site is dominated by typical forest-tundra, where the cup-mossy larch-birch light forests neighbors with typical tundra, and the boreal fir-larch forest spread across minor river valleys. Ecosystems of the study area experience strong technogenic stress from the large gas-producing enterprise "Yubileinoe" which is situated nearby. A polygonal peatland with 2-2.5 m peat at the southern bank of Nashe-to Lake was disturbed by fire in July, 2005. The fire event lasted for 2 days have burned vegetation dominated by semifrutex, sedges, mosses, and underlaying peat. Following years the succession rates were rather slow. The peatland surface is elevated relative to the surrounding drained lake basin (hasyrey) and free of snow in winter. After the disturbance of the thermo-insulating layers (peat, moss and vegetation cover) the activation of frost-cracking was observed, especially strong at completely burnt areas on sandy loam. The second site of the hasyrey has experienced the fire in the middle of July, 2007. It is located within the plain watershed with drainage hollows. The Arctic birch, semifrutex and cup-mosses were dominating in the vegetation cover of hillocky tundra. The vegetation cover has experienced slow succession after the fire. In August, 2008, we found the semifrutex, sedges and cotton-grass growing sparsely between the burnt bare hillocks. The wetness of the territory increased. As a result of vegetation cover and mosses disturbance, the thermoinsulation have decreased and the frost

  1. Sphagnum peatland development at their southern climatic range in West Siberia: trends and peat accumulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peregon, Anna; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    A region of western Siberia is vulnerable to the predicted climatic change which may induce an important modification to the carbon balance in wetland ecosystems. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of peat (carbon) accumulation and its patterns at the southern climatic range of Sphagnum peatlands in western Siberia. Visible and physical features of peat and detailed reconstructions of successional change (or sediment stratigraphies) were analysed at two types of forest peatland ecotones, which are situated close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. Our results suggest that Siberian peatlands exhibit a general trend towards being a carbon sink rather than a source even at or near the southern limit of their distribution. Furthermore, two types of peat accumulation were detected in the study area, namely persistent and intermittent. As opposed to persistent peat accumulation, the intermittent one is characterized by the recurrent degradation of the upper peat layers at the marginal parts of raised bogs. Persistent peat accumulation is the case for the majority of Sphagnum peatlands under current climatic conditions. It might be assumed that more peat will accumulate under the 'increased precipitation' scenarios of global warming, although intermittent peat accumulation could result in the eventual drying that may change peatlands from carbon sinks to carbon sources.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability of CO2 and CH4 Concentrations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Alexander V.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of greenhouse gas behavior in the atmosphere plays a key role in predicting the global changes of Earth's climate. In this connection, of particular importance is the study of the distribution of sources/sinks of trace gases in the atmospheric surface layer over the different regions of the globe. In order to fill a gap in the data on greenhouse gas concentrations in Russia, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan) and Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS, Russia) established a network for GHG monitoring (JR-STATION, Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network). Gas analyzers and meteorological sensors were mounted at radio relay towers located in different regions of West Siberia. The checking equipment was placed in containers at the tower base. In the containers, the climatic parameters optimal for gas analyzer operation were maintained. The work on the network development started in 2001. Since at each of the sites the measurement duration could be different, in this paper we present the data of the greenhouse gas monitoring for eight sites which give the primary idea on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over West Siberia. The analysis of the data showed that the average increase in concentration of carbon dioxide by results of our measurements in this territory increases within 1.95 - 2.53 ppm/year, depending on the area. The analysis of long-term data testifies about existence of growth of concentration of methane within 3.2 - 7.2 ppb / year. The presence of a distributed network of the sites operating in the monitoring regime makes it possible not only to investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 at each site and to determine the spatial differences between the concentrations by comparing the data, but also to plot the distribution charts for different moments of time. This work was supported by the Global Environment Research

  3. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  4. Gas hydrates and permafrost in continental northern West Siberia; Gashydrate und Permafrost im kontinentalen noerdlichen Westsibirien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Braun, A.; Poelchau, H.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und Organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1997-12-31

    The largest natural gas pool in the world is located in northern part of the West Siberian Basin. During the Quaternary this reservoir became overlaid with several hundreds of metres of permafrost. The pressure and temperature conditions prevailing under this permafrost zone have led to the development of gas hydrates. As far as is known today there is no genetic relationship between the formation of the gas pool and the development of gas hydrates. The present contribution deals with these questions in detail. (MSK) [Deutsch] Im Nordteil des westsibirischen Beckens liegt die groesste Erdgaslagerstaette der Erde. Darueber hat sich im Quartaer ein mehrere hundert Meter maechtiger Permafrost gebildet. Die unter der Premafrostzone herrschenden Druck-und Temperaturbedingungen ermoeglichten die Bildung von Gashydraten. Nach heutigen Erkenntnisse besteht kein genetischer Zusammenhang zwischen Lagerstaettenbildung und Gashydraten. Im Folgenden werden Einzelheiten geschildert.

  5. WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr-1), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr-1) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air

  6. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  7. Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005–2009: a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fofonov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan–Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15′ N, 82°25′ E and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47′ N, 70°52′ E, in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (ΔCH4 and ΔCO2 during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d−1 higher than the climatological 1979–1998 base. Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ΔCH4/ΔCO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005–2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2 calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT, showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr−1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

  8. Remote sensing and local knowledge of hydrocarbon exploitation : the case of Bovanenkovo, Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpala, T. [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Geographical and Historical Studies; Forbes, B.C. [Lapland Univ., Rovaniemi (Finland). Arctic Centre; Stammler, F. [Lapland Univ., Rovaniemi (Finland). Arctic Centre; Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    This study evaluated the capacity of satellite imagery to detect the impacts of anthropogenic activities on land cover in the Bovanenkovo gas field located on the Yamal peninsula in northwest Siberia. The region is home to nomadic Nenets reindeer herders, whose annual migrations between the tree line and the northern tundra can expose them to the impacts of oil and gas activities, which include roads, railways, and pipelines, as well as changes in vegetation and hydrology. The Nenets have noted changes in the quantity and quality of terrestrial and freshwater habitats that have been used seasonally for centuries. Industrial impacts were examined at detailed and coarse scales using Landsat, ASTER and Spot satellite technologies. A very high resolution Quickbird-2 satellite was able to locate many impacts, but was not able to detect items like garbage that reduced the quality of reindeer pastures. Remote sensing technology and detailed ground-truthing are required to accurately characterize the impacts of industrial activities in the region. 59 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Intercomparison of the Wetchimp-Wsl Wetland Methane Models over West Siberia: How Well Can We Simulate High-Latitude Wetland Methane Emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Glagolev, M.; Ito, A.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kleinen, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Schroeder, R.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of these emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This is particularly true at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over this century. Despite the importance of wetland methane emissions to the global carbon cycle and climate dynamics, global models exhibit little agreement as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in both wetland area and emissions per unit area driven by a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across West Siberia make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Model Intercomparison Project focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 17 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. Findings include: a) estimates of total CH4 emissions from both models and inversions spanned almost an order of magnitude; b) forward models using inundation alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; and c) aside from these area-driven biases, disagreement in flux per unit wetland area was the main driver of forward model uncertainty. We examine which forward model approaches are best suited towards simulating high-latitude wetlands and make recommendations for future modeling, remote sensing, and field campaigns to reduce model uncertainty.

  10. Lymphocytes with multiple chromosomal damages in a large cohort of West Siberia residents: Results of long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinin, Vladimir [Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Bakanova, Maria [Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Fucic, Aleksandra, E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Golovina, Tatiana [Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Savchenko, Yana [Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Sinitsky, Maxim; Volobaev, Valentin [Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Study reports RC frequency in lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects. • The highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon. • In 85% of RCs double minutes were observed. • Results suggests that radon may be the leading factors causing RC. • RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to α-emitters. - Abstract: Cells with specific multiple chromosome aberrations, defined as rogue cells (RC) have been described in different populations, predominantly those exposed to radiation. The frequency, etiology and related health risks have still not been elucidated due to their low frequency of occurrences and rarely performed studies. This study reports RC frequency using chromosome aberration (CA) assay in peripheral lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects, during a 30-year long follow-up study in a general rural and urban population, children environmentally exposed to radon, occupationally exposed population and lung cancer patients from the Kemerovo region (Siberia, Russian Federation). Results show that the highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon and the lowest in the general urban population. Total frequency of CA did not correlate with frequency of RC. Genotoxic analysis of air and water samples excluded anthropogenic pollution as a possible cause of genome damage and RC frequency. In 85% of RCs, double minutes, observed in a large number of human tumors, were present. Results of CA analysis suggested that radon and its decay products (alpha-emitters) were the leading factors causing RC in subjects exposed to high LET radiation. Thus, RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to this type of radiation.

  11. Variability in methane emissions from West Siberia's shallow boreal lakes on a regional scale and its environmental controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrekov, Aleksandr F.; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.; Terentieva, Irina E.; Stepanenko, Victor M.; Kotsyurbenko, Oleg R.; Maksyutov, Shamil S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-08-01

    Small lakes represent an important source of atmospheric CH4 from northern wetlands. However, spatiotemporal variations in flux magnitudes and the lack of knowledge about their main environmental controls contribute large uncertainty into the global CH4 budget. In this study, we measured methane fluxes from small lakes using chambers and bubble traps. Field investigations were carried out in July-August 2014 within the West Siberian middle and southern taiga zones. The average and median of measured methane chamber fluxes were 0.32 and 0.30 mgCH4 m-2 h-1 for middle taiga lakes and 8.6 and 4.1 mgCH4 m-2 h-1 for southern taiga lakes, respectively. Pronounced flux variability was found during measurements on individual lakes, between individual lakes and between zones. To analyze these differences and the influences of environmental controls, we developed a new dynamic process-based model. It shows good performance with emission rates from the southern taiga lakes and poor performance for individual lakes in the middle taiga region. The model shows that, in addition to well-known controls such as temperature, pH and lake depth, there are significant variations in the maximal methane production potential between these climatic zones. In addition, the model shows that variations in gas-filled pore space in lake sediments are capable of controlling the total methane emissions from individual lakes. The CH4 emissions exhibited distinct zonal differences not only in absolute values but also in their probability density functions: the middle taiga lake fluxes were best described by a lognormal distribution while the southern taiga lakes followed a power-law distribution. The latter suggests applicability of self-organized criticality theory for methane emissions from the southern taiga zone, which could help to explain the strong variability within individual lakes.

  12. Immunological parameters and gene polymorphisms (C-590T IL4, C-597A IL10 in severe bronchial asthma in children from the Krasnoyarsk region, West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Smolnikova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is a common disease caused by interplay between multiple determinants, including genetic and immune variations. Objective. To investigate the main indices of humoral and cellular branches of immunity, features of cytokine regulation and cytokine genes in children with atopic bronchial asthma (BA with different levels of disease control. Design. Fifty children with controlled BA (CBA and 50 with uncontrolled BA (UBA were analyzed. Mean age in the sample was 13.36±2.24 years. A control group of healthy children (n=50 was also studied. All individuals were Russians (Eastern Slavs from the Krasnoyarsk Territory, West Siberia. Diagnoses, severity and level of disease control were defined according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA recommendations. The lymphocytes were counted in blood using fluorescent microscopy. Humoral branch indices and cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-α in blood serum were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in −590 position of the IL4 and −597 position of the IL10 gene was performed by restriction fragment length analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in total IgE and cytokines blood levels were found in CBA and UBA. However, significant differences between the groups were found for CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+, cell counts. The T-590 allele of the IL4 gene, which is responsible for an increased serum level of IL-4, showed a tendency to an association with UBA. A decreased level of IL-10 enhances control over BA, which proves its association with the allelic variant A-597 IL10. Conclusions. Our data show that children with UBA have higher counts of CD3+, cells and an increase of sub-population of CD4+, -cells as well as higher levels of IgE, IL-4 and TNF-α in blood serum as compared to CBA. Polymorphisms of the IL4 and IL10 genes are associated with allergic inflammation in UBA.

  13. Vertical distribution of trace gas species in the troposphere over the south of West Siberia: comparison of airborne in situ measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belov, Vladimir V.; Gridnev, Yurii V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    A comparison of the vertical distributions of O3, CO, CO2 and CH4 derived from the airborne in situ measurements and satellite observations over the southern part of West Siberia is presented. In this study we used data of monthly research flights of 'Optik' TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out from 2012 to 2013 and data retrieved from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on-board the MetOp satellite. It was found that differences in ozone mixing ratios between the airborne and satellite data can vary from +3 to +18 ppb at 0.5 km AGL and form -8 to -37 ppb at 7 km AGL, and relative ones ranged from +8 to +30 % and from -12 to -88 %, respectively. Differences in CO concentrations varied from +32 to +103 ppb at 0.5 km height and from -18 to +23 ppb at 3 km. Relative differences were in the range from -4 to +48 % at 0.5 km and from -8 to +20 % at 7 km. The maximal difference in all CH4 profiles reached 150 ppb in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the minimal one was -10 ppb. The average relative difference varied between +2.8 and -0.5 %. The average difference in CO2 concentration lies within ±1.5 ppm, while individual profiles are incommensurable. Maximal and minimal differences during the all flights were observed in the atmospheric boundary layer (+10 and -12 ppm or +2.3 and -3.3%, respectively). In the free troposphere, relative difference decreased down to ±1.0%. This work was funded by Research funds for Global Environmental Monitoring in NIES (Japan), CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  14. Provenance trials of larch in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyutin, L.I. [V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Some results of provenance trials of larch in Siberia are given. These provenance trials were established in the last thirty years by efforts of V.N. Sukaczev Inst. of Forest. Provenances and species of larch were tested in some field trials distributed over Siberia between Lat. N 52 deg and 66 deg, Long. E 88 deg and 113 deg: near Krasnoyarsk, in Republic Khakasia (an altitudes of 800 and 1200 metres), in the Lower Yenisei near Turukhansk, in the west and south regions of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the Upper Lena, near Chita. 2 refs

  15. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west...

  16. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

  17. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  18. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Zinovyev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

  19. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  20. Structure of the Crust and the Lithosperic Mantle in Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia

    the development of a new regional crustal model, SibCrust, that is a digital crustal model for both the Siberian Craton and the West Siberian Basin. The SibCrust model, constrained by digitizing of all available seismic profiles and crustal velocity models across the Siberia, also includes a critical quality...

  1. Circulation patterns governing October snowfalls in southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Wibig, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on early fall season in southern Siberia (50-60 N) and is purposed as a contribution to the discussion on the climatic relevance of October Eurasian snow cover. Analysis is based on the daily snow depth data from 43 stations from years 1980-2012, available in the database of All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information—World Data Centre. The snow cover season in southern Siberia starts in early autumn and the number of days with snowfall varies from less than 5 days in the southernmost zone along the parallel 50 N to more than 25 days in the northeastern part of the analyzed area. October snowfall in southern Siberia is associated with occurrence of negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP), usually spreading right over the place of recorded intense snowfall or extending eastward from it. Negative anomalies of air temperature at the 850 hPa geopotential level (T850) occurring with increased cyclonic activity are also observed. Negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions. Counterclockwise circulation around low-pressure systems transports cold Arctic air from the north or even colder Siberian polar air from the east, to the west, and northwest parts of cyclones, and induces negative anomalies of temperature. The pattern of T850 anomalies during heavy snowfalls in the eastern part of the southern Siberia is shifted counterclockwise in regard to SLP anomalies: the strongest negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions.

  2. Circulation patterns governing October snowfalls in southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Wibig, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    This study is focused on early fall season in southern Siberia (50-60 N) and is purposed as a contribution to the discussion on the climatic relevance of October Eurasian snow cover. Analysis is based on the daily snow depth data from 43 stations from years 1980-2012, available in the database of All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information—World Data Centre. The snow cover season in southern Siberia starts in early autumn and the number of days with snowfall varies from less than 5 days in the southernmost zone along the parallel 50 N to more than 25 days in the northeastern part of the analyzed area. October snowfall in southern Siberia is associated with occurrence of negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP), usually spreading right over the place of recorded intense snowfall or extending eastward from it. Negative anomalies of air temperature at the 850 hPa geopotential level (T850) occurring with increased cyclonic activity are also observed. Negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions. Counterclockwise circulation around low-pressure systems transports cold Arctic air from the north or even colder Siberian polar air from the east, to the west, and northwest parts of cyclones, and induces negative anomalies of temperature. The pattern of T850 anomalies during heavy snowfalls in the eastern part of the southern Siberia is shifted counterclockwise in regard to SLP anomalies: the strongest negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions.

  3. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  4. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  5. Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

    2013-12-01

    We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

  6. Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In

  7. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west...... and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data (from the late 1960-ies until present). Seismic structure along seismic profiles is digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with the resolution of seismic models. Structural parameters based on gravity modeling...... is paid to the data quality problem, and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and provides valuable...

  8. Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Saeki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S. (Center for Global Environmental Research, National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Shimoyama, K. (Inst. of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Tsuda, N. (Global Environmental Forum, Tokyo (Japan)); Suto, H. (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)); Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O. (Inst. of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation))

    2010-11-15

    We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH{sub 4}) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that high pressure systems caused CH{sub 4} accumulation at subcontinental scale due to the widespread formation of an inversion layer. Daytime means sometimes exceeded 2000 ppb, particularly in the summer of 2007 when temperature and precipitation rates were anomalously high over West Siberia, which implies that CH{sub 4} emission from wetlands were exceptionally high in 2007. Many hot spots detected by MODIS in the summer of 2007 illustrate that the contribution of biomass burning also cannot be neglected. Daytime mean CH{sub 4} concentrations from the Siberian tower sites were generally higher than CH{sub 4} values reported at NOAA coastal sites in the same latitudinal zone, and the difference in concentrations between two sets of sites was reproduced with a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model. Simulations of emissions from different CH{sub 4} sources suggested that the major contributor to variation switched from wetlands during summer to fossil fuel during winter.

  9. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  10. [Endemic goiter in the extreme North of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, I G; Suplotova, L A; Osadchenko, G A

    1998-01-01

    Random examinations covering 8-60-year-old 4345 citizens of 12 settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic Territory discovered goiter endemia throughout the territory but most evident the endemy manifested in the Far North. The prevalence of endemic goiter among schoolchildren made up 52.8% (enlargement of the goiter of the 1st and 2nd degree), among adults-49.2%. By ultrasound investigation, the above percentages were 29 and 26.4%, respectively. This corresponds to moderate endemia. The median of urinary iodine excretion averaged in the territory 5.1 micrograms%, while overall iodine insufficiency (number of children with urinary iodine < 10 micrograms%) was 81.9%. In the Far North iodine excretion was less but goiter incidence was higher than normal. Thus, in the Far North goiter endemia is rather serious.

  11. Phytoremediation of Excavation in Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Zhmurova, T. M.

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with prospects and applicability of phytoremediation technology in the conditions of Eastern Siberia as applied to gypsum stone extraction of Zalarinsky deposit in Irkutsk region. It analyses dust intensity for different technological processes of the deposit and evaluates the dust loading on the workers of the deposit. The selection of plantings that have potential to neutralize the dust loading produced by the plot “Severniy” is carried out.

  12. Development of A Network of Seismological Observations In The Territory of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Soloviev, V. M.; Dergachev, A. A.; Filina, A. G.; Emanov, A. A.; Kabannik, A. V.

    The present stage of development of geophysical researches in Russia is characterized by scaling re-equipment of apparatus-methodical basis; first of all of systems of digital recording and processing of significant volumes of geophysical information and data transfer by modern telecommunication media. The Geophysical Survey SB RAS in Siberia territory has carried out re-equipment of a significant part of a network of ana- log seismological stations by modern digital recording equipment. More than 60 dig- ital seismic stations realize continuous observations in seismoactive regions of Baikal rift zone, Altai - Sayan fold area and Yakutia. For study of man-caused seismicity, con- nected to development of the largest oil-and-gas deposits, 9 stations in the territory of the West-Siberian oil-and-gas bearing province have been set up. With use of modern telecommunication media a gathering of continuous seismic information from seismi- cally dangerous regions of Siberia in Regional centers of gathering and data processing in Novosibirsk, Irkutsk and Yakutsk has been organized, that has allowed to increase substantially efficiency in work of services of the periodic and operational reports about happening seismic events of natural and man-caused character in the Siberian region and give a significant increase of a scientific information for solving of problem on an evaluation of seismic danger of the territory of Siberia, medium- and short-term prognosis of earthquakes. With use of a highly sensitive digital seismic equipment work on study of a seismic condition in large industrial and civil centers of the ter- ritory of Siberia are begun recently with the purpose of an evaluation of influence weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and on the man. The outcomes of seismological and active vibroseismic monitoring with use of high-power vibrators of seismically dangerous sites of the Siberia territory and engineering-seismological researches using of new

  13. Seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Liseikin, A. V.; Sigonin, P.

    2013-05-01

    In West and East Siberia a great deal of rivers and big lakes are situated. For oil and gas exploration these places hold much promise. It is very difficult to carry out seismic work in these regions, when temperature is fall down below 40 degrees centigrade. It is necessary to pave ways for technical equipment, to organize shooting operations in some cases, that harming ecology of investigated regions. It is well-known, that at seas and big reservoirs seismic works are carried out with use of air guns as sources and floating or ground cables as receivers. There is a special interest to carry out jointly processing and interpretation of seismic survey and electrical data. We should learn how to carry out such researches at rivers, developed a special combined technology on river seismic and electrical works carrying out. Geophysical Survey SB RAS has been carried out seismic and electrical works at rivers and reservoirs of Siberia for more then 20 years. We had to work in conditions, when depth of a reservoir was more then 10 meters or less then 1 meter. It was necessary to work out or adapt some floating equipment, to create air-guns working on light depths ("Malysh", "Sibiryak"), to create new recording equipment (seismic and electrical variants of "Baikal" equipment) for carrying out work in such conditions. There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe. For the first time it was determined, that the depth of sedimentary cover under Lake Baikal exceeds 14 km. On demands of government and private companies we carried out river works in Common-depth-point method at such rivers as: Ob, Volga, Enisey, Vakh, Lena, Kirenga, Nizhnya Tunguska. Comparison of results got at river profiles with surface ones, crossing the river, showed in difficult surface conditions (central part of the River Lena, the Nizhnya Tunguska) river seismic sections are better then surface sections. It is connected with the fact, that

  14. Teleseismic receiver functions imaging of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    be used for determining Moho depth, and are excellent for detecting relatively broad vertical gradients in velocity, such as expected for a thermally controlled LAB. The combination of both types of RFs allows for independent discontinuity models of the same area in different frequency bands using......We map the lithosphere in Siberia by using the available broadband seismic data for calculation of Ps- and Sp-wave receiver functions (RF). RFs show converted waves from discontinuities in the vicinity of the seismic stations. The main objective is to image the Moho and upper mantle discontinuities......, including the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the study area. We construct the RF using the LQT method (Vinnik, 1977; Kind et al. 1995) in the version by Yuan et al. (1997). Rotation of ray coordinates uses the incidence angles predicted by the AK135 velocity model. This decomposes the wave...

  15. Analysis of alcohol dependence in indigenous peoples in Northern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Savchenko

    2015-06-01

    More severe course of alcoholism among indigenous population of North of Siberia leads to the destruction of traditional lifestyles and reduction of the indigenous population in the northern territories of the Russian Federation.

  16. Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Measurement Network on Towers in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, K.; Machida, T.; Shinohara, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Fedoseev, N.; Belan, B.; Belan, H.; Inoue, G.

    2006-12-01

    In order to estimate CO2 and CH4 fluxes at regional to sub-continental scale by an inverse model, a network of tall towers for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements has been established over a region of thousand square kilometers in west Siberia. In-situ continuous measurements have been conducted at 6 stations: Berezorechka (56.17N, 84.33E) since 2002, Parabel (58.25N, 82.40E) and Igrim (63.20N, 64.48E) since 2004, Demyanskoe (59.78N, 70.87E) and Noyabrsk (63.43N, 76.76E) since 2005, and Yakutsk (62.83N, 129.35E) in east Siberia since 2005. Over next two years, installations of 4 more stations are planned. This study provides some results of observation from this network. Seasonal cycles of CO2 showed quite similar trends in growing season (May to September) among the west Siberian sites. The remarkable decrease of CO2 concentration occurred in early May and the seasonal minimum was observed between July and August. On the other hand, the short-term (from several days to week) variations in CO2 concentrations were quite different among the sites, particularly during the growing season. Rather large variation of more than 25 ppm within a week was observed during winter. The changes in CO2 concentrations at the nearby sites were almost identical. Monthly mean values of CO2 during the growing season were relatively higher at the northern sites than at southern sites. These observational results evidentially reflected the regional characteristics of CO2 flux variation, transportation, and mixing process. Daily cycles of CH4 in summer showed nocturnal increase and diurnal decrease which was due to emission of CH4 from wetland accumulated over night, and diurnal convective mixing. Relatively high concentrations of CH4 were observed in winter and summer. Because there is one of the world's vastest wetland in western Siberia, the peak of CH4 in summer implies the significant role of CH4 emissions from the west Siberian wetland to the atmosphere. On the other hand, an

  17. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  18. Lower Jurassic palynostratigraphy of Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryacheva, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a palynological study of the natural outcrops of the Lower and Middle Jurassic on the Kelimyar River (Outcrops 5, 6, 7, 14, and 16) and two boreholes, Middle-Nakynskaya and Ygyata-Tyungskaya 1, in Eastern Siberia. The Ukugut, Tyung, Motorchuna, Suntar, Kyrin, and Kelimyar formations were studied. Six biostrata with dinocysts were established for the Upper Sinemurian-Toarcian. The analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of dinocysts in the sections allowed the identification of the stratigraphic ranges for important genera of dinocysts, which enabled the updating of the geochronology of some biostrata. Three main stages of the evolution of dinocysts in the Early Jurassic in the Siberian Paleobasin were characterized by the appearance, diversification, and disappearance of some orders of dinocysts at certain times. Seven biostrata (beds with characteristic palynoassemblages) were established for the upper Sinemurian-Toarcian on the basis of the study of the taxonomic composition of spores and pollen of land plants and successive changes in the composition of the palynospectra.

  19. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  20. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  1. MILESTONES OF DEVELOPMENT OF GENUS POTAMOGETON L. (POTAMOGETONACEAE IN THE FLORA OF THE WESTERN SIBERIA RESERVOIRS IN THE CAENOZOIC – REVIEW OF PALEOCARPOLOGY AND PALINOLOGY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Durnikin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Palaeobotanical, geomorphological, and paleogeographical data on flora of reservoirs are presented. The structured materials on geomorphology and paleogeography from Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary deposits of Western Siberia are reported. The stratigraphic complexes linked to tectonic zoning Kulunda and southern Baraba Lowlands are analyzed. The data on the structure-formational zones, distinguished by time of inception, the composition and thickness of the sediments, and nature of the neotectonics are presented. The analysis of paleocarpology and palynology data from the Potamogeton genus as the largest among the aquatic plants of Western Siberia is done. The composition and structure of this genus as an integral part of Tertiary and Quaternary flora of studied reservoirs are characterized, the current composition of this genus is presented. It is proved that the most ancient complexes of the West Siberian Tertiary belong to the upper Eocene, whereas the early Siberian Paleogene is still unknown.

  2. We Live around Lake Baikal: Russians in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa Brazhnikova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a new issue of the series of mini-books about culture, traditions and customs of the inhabitants of Pribaikalie - “We Live around Lake Baikal” - published by the Irkutsk Regional Children’s Library named after Mark Sergeev. The issue is about the emergence of Russians in Eastern Siberia, their culture, traditions and family life.

  3. Industrial Development of Siberia and the Soviet Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    21 (This argument is perhaps unintentionally fed by the central leadership’s emphasis on investing in renovation and technical reequipment of...Malov, "Po programme ’ energia ’," Pravda, May 12, 1982, p. 2. " M. Matafonov, "Open up Siberia’s Treasure Houses," Sotsialisticheskaia industriia

  4. Reanalysis Data Evaluation to Study Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes are strongly pronounced in Siberia by significant warming in the 2nd half of 20th century and recent extreme events such as 2010 heat wave and 2013 flood in Russia's Far East. To improve our understanding of observed climate extremes and to provide to regional decision makers the reliable scientifically based information with high special and temporal resolution on climate state, we need to operate with accurate meteorological data in our study. However, from available 231 stations across Siberia only 130 of them present the homogeneous daily temperature time series. Sparse, station network, especially in high latitudes, force us to use simulated reanalysis data. However those might differ from observations. To obtain reliable information on temperature extreme "hot spots" in Siberia we have compared daily temperatures form ERA-40, ERA Interim, JRA-25, JRA-55, NCEP/DOE, MERRA Reanalysis, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX gridded datasets with observations from RIHMI-WDC/CDIAC dataset for overlap period 1981-2000. Data agreement was estimated at station coordinates to which reanalysis data were interpolated using modified Shepard method. Comparison of averaged over 20 year annual mean temperatures shows general agreement for Siberia excepting Baikal region, where reanalyses significantly underestimate observed temperature behavior. The annual temperatures closest to observed one were obtained from ERA-40 and ERA Interim. Furthermore, t-test results show homogeneity of these datasets, which allows one to combine them for long term time series analysis. In particular, we compared the combined data with observations for percentile-based extreme indices. In Western Siberia reanalysis and gridded data accurately reproduce observed daily max/min temperatures. For East Siberia, Lake Baikal area, ERA Interim data slightly underestimates TN90p and TX90p values. Results obtained allows regional decision-makers to get required high spatial resolution (0,25°×0

  5. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  6. Siberia on Russian mental maps: The imperial and national space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical problem of understanding the nation-building process within continental empires, this paper investigates the various meanings of ‘Siberia’ in the Russian imperial and national imagination. Analyzing discursive practices that create various representations of the geographical space, this study shows the changes in Russian perceptions of Siberia from the ‘alien’ space and the ‘colony’, to an unalienable part of the national territory (‘Russian land’ or ‘homeland’. Tracing the creation of ‘Russianness’ of Siberia, the author interprets this concept as a part of broader debates about ‘Russian identity’ and the relationship between ‘European’ and ‘Asiatic’ Russia. Therefore, the principal aim of the present study is to examine one of the most important aspects of the process Russia’s transformation from imperial to a ‘nationalizing State’.

  7. Studies of Fire Nature in the Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Tsvetkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of forest fires in the forests of Siberia from literature data published over the past 50 years is given. Prior to 1970 the main attention in publications was given to the investigation of fire nature in the southern taiga and mountain forests of Western and Central Siberia, Altai and Trans-Baikal. From 1971 to 1980, publications were characterized by wider aspects of forest fire research and expansion of the geographical area of coverage. In the next 15–20 years, the main consideration was given to the impact of fires on forest formation process, fire emissions, carbon balance, and fire management’ problems. Also in this paper, the main trends and goals for future research are determined.

  8. Gravity Variation in Siberia: GRACE Observation and Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fong Chao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the finding, from the GRACE observation, of an increasing trend in the gravity anomaly in Siberia at the rate of up to 0.5 ugal yr-1 during 2003/1 - 2009/12, in the backdrop of a negative anomaly of magnitude on the order of ~-10 mgal. In consideration of the non-uniqueness of the gravitational inverse problem, we examine in some detail the various possible geophysical causes to explain the increasing gravity signal. We find two geophysical mechanisms being the most plausible, namely the melting of permafrost and the GIA post-glacial rebound. We conclude that these two mechanisms cannot be ruled out as causes for the regional gravity increase in Siberia, based on gravity data and in want of ancillary geophysical data in the region. More definitive identification of the contributions of the various causes awaits further studies.

  9. [Lactase deficiency among representatives of various nationalities of Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvavyĭ, N F; Kozlov, A I; Kondik, V M

    1991-01-01

    Some features of lactase tolerance were investigated in representatives of varying groups of indigenous population in Siberia-Mansi, Khanty, Nenets, Buryats. The indirect method was used to evaluate lactase activity. A total of 92 subjects were investigated. It was found that 32% of the representatives of the Urals population group and 53% of Buryats were capable of lactase assimilating. The data obtained correspond to the cultural-genetic hypothesis on the nature of lactase tolerance in the representatives of different ethnic groups.

  10. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  11. Conifer Decline and Mortality in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Im, S.; Ranson, K.

    2015-12-01

    "Dark needle conifer" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica and Picea obovata) decline and mortality increase were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed causes and scale of Siberian pine and fir mortality in Altai-Sayan and Baikal Lake Regions and West Siberian Plane based on in situdata and remote sensing (QuickBird, Landsat, GRACE). Geographically, mortality began on the margins of the DNC range (i.e., within the forest-steppe and conifer-broadleaf ecotones) and on terrain features with maximal water stress risk (narrow-shaped hilltops, convex steep south facing slopes, shallow well-drained soils). Within ridges, mortality occurred mainly along mountain passes, where stands faced drying winds. Regularly mortality was observed to decrease with elevation increase with the exception of Baikal Lake Mountains, where it was minimal near the lake shore and increased with elevation (up to about 1000 m a.s.l.). Siberian pine and fir mortality followed a drying trend with consecutive droughts since the 1980s. Dendrochronology analysis showed that mortality was correlated with vapor pressure deficit increase, drought index, soil moisture decrease and occurrence of late frosts. In Baikal region Siberian pine mortality correlated with Baikal watershed meteorological variables. An impact of previous year climate conditions on the current growth was found (r2 = 0.6). Thus, water-stressed trees became sensitive to bark beetles and fungi impact (including Polygraphus proximus and Heterobasidion annosum). At present, an increase in mortality is observed within the majority of DNC range. Results obtained also showed a primary role of water stress in that phenomenon with a secondary role of bark beetles and fungi attacks. In future climate with increased drought severity and frequency Siberian pine and fir will partly disappear from its current range, and will be substituted by drought-tolerant species (e.g., Pinus silvestris, Larix sibirica).

  12. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  13. Ice Complex formation in arctic East Siberia during the MIS3 Interstadial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hüls, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A continuous 15 m long sequence of Ice Complex permafrost (Yedoma) exposed in a thermo-cirque at the southern coast of Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago, Dmitry Laptev Strait) was studied to reconstruct past landscape and environmental dynamics. The sequence accumulated during the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) Interstadial between >49 and 29 ka BP in an ice-wedge polygon. The frozen deposits were cryolithologically described and sampled on a vertical bluff between two ice wedges. According to sedimentological and geochronological data, the section is subdivided into three units which correlate with environmental conditions of the early, middle, and late MIS3 period. Palynological data support this stratification. The stable isotope signature of texture ice in the polygon structure reflects fractionation due to local freeze-thaw processes, while the signature of an approximately 5 m wide and more than 17 m high ice wedge fits very well into the regional stable-water isotope record. Regional climate dynamics during the MIS3 Interstadial and local landscape conditions of the polygonal patterned ground controlled the Ice Complex formation. The sequence presented here completes previously published MIS3 permafrost records in Northeast Siberia. Late Quaternary stadial-interstadial climate variability in arctic West Beringia is preserved at millennial resolution in the Ice Complex. A MIS3 climate optimum was revealed between 48 and 38 ka BP from the Ice Complex on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island.

  14. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  15. Global Change and Regional Landscape Response and Desertification in Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.M. PLYUSNIN; L.V. DANKO

    2011-01-01

    Climate changes and associated natural and anthropogenic processes have manifested themselves particularly clearly during the last two decades.The study of consequences of these changes has become one of the central scientific,social and political issues of our time (Pilot 2000;UNEP 2007).The study of the regional response of landscapes of Siberia to global changes is one of the fundamental tasks,aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Siberian regions both at present time and in the future.Because in the 21 st century we should expect strong changes the humidity regime,accompanying the global warming (CCD 1994).

  16. The Yudomian of Siberia, Vendian and Ediacaran systems of the International stratigraphic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomentovsky, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    In Russia, the terminal Neoproterozoic formally includes the Vendian of western part of the East European platform and the concurrent Yudoma Group of Siberia. As is shown in this work, the designated subdivisions correspond in the stratotypes only to the upper, Yudomian Series of the Vendian. In the Siberian platform, the Ust-Yudoma and Aim horizons of the Yudomian are tightly interrelated. The lower of them, bearing remains of Ediacaran Fauna, represents the Ediacarian Stage, whereas the upper one containing small-shelled fossils (SSF) corresponds to the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage divided into the trisulcatus and antiqua superregional zones. In more complete sections of the platform periphery, sediments of these subdivisions conformably rest on siliciclastic succession that should be ranked as basal subdivision of the Yudomian. The succession is concurrent to the Laplandian Stage of the East European platform. According to geochronological dates obtained recently, the Yudomian Series spans interval of 600-540 Ma. In the East European platform, the Upper Vendian (Yudomian) begins with the Laplandian basal tillites of synonymous stage. In the west of the platform, tillites are dated at 600 Ma like the Upper Vendian base in Siberia. The next Ediacarian Stage of the East European platform is stratigraphic equivalent of the Redkino Horizon, while summary range of the Kotlin and Rovno horizons is concurrent to that of the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage. The Vendian of Russia is conformably overlain by the Tommotian Stage of the Lower Cambrian. Intense pre-Vendian events constrained distribution areas of the Lower Vendian sediments in Russia. The Lower Vendian deposits of the East European platform are most representative and well studied in the central Urals, where they are attributed to the Serebryanka Group. In Siberia, separate subdivisions representing the Lower Vendian are the Maastakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift, two lower members of the Ushakovka Formation in the Baikal

  17. Rock-magnetic investigation of Siberia loess and its implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Multiple-rock magnetic investigations conducted on the loess-paleosol sequences at Kurtak in Southwestern Siberia reveal that the mass-normalized low-field magnetic susceptibility profiles reflect changes in lithology between relatively unweathered primary loess of glacial periods and the interglacial paleosols. Maxima in susceptibility values correspond with the least-weathered loess horizons, and minima with the humic horizons of soils. Frequency-dependent susceptibility of the loess-paleosol sequences at Kurtak is very low and practically uniform, indicating the dominance of non-SP ferrimagnetic minerals and negligible pedogenesis. The history of tempera- ture-dependence of susceptibility (TDS) and stepwise acquisition of the isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) have confirmed that magnetite is predominant magnetic mineral, and only few maghemite and probably hematite are present within the studied section. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) can be used to monitor tilt and disturbance of the sedimentary layers, and also to provide information about the paleo-transport direction for Siberia loess.

  18. Authigenic mineral formation in fluid permeability zones in the West Siberia Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Melnikov, V. P.; Rogov, V. V.; Slagoda, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    Basic chemical and mineralogical anomalies in permafrost caused by hydrocarbon migration are considered. Direct evidence for bacterial oxidation of light hydrocarbons, primarily methane, were first obtained in fluid permeability zones in the permafrost as a stepwise formation of authigenic minerals such as iron sulfides and oxides, carbonates, silicates, and gypsum.

  19. Spatial-genetic associations of tapering traps in the Mesozoic of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.I.; Yasovich, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    It is indicated that in a number of regions in the Mesozoic deposits, tapering traps of different genesis which are spatially closely interlinked are encountered. It is suggested that their spatial-genetic associations be revealed. This has forecasting value for the sections which have been poorly studied.

  20. Airborne studies of submicron aerosol in the troposphere over West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchenko, M.V.; Zuev, V.E.; Belan, B.D.; Terpugova, S.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    Submicron fraction particles that have the longest lifespan and are included in almost all atmospheric processes are of special importance among the great variety of sizes of particles present in the atmosphere. Submicron particles mainly determine the opticle state of the atmosphere in the visible spectral range, essentially cause the absorption of infrared radiation and, since they are the products and participants in all aerosol-to-gas transformations, accumulate of a lot of various chemical compounds and transfer them to large distances. Investigation of the processes of the spatial-temporal variability of aerosol particles for different climatic zones of the earth is the experimental base for studying their effect on climatically and ecologically significant factors and estimating their unfavorable tendencies. The increasing anthropogenic loading of the earth`s atmosphere is creating an urgency for aerosol research. Regardless of how perfect the analytical and numerical methods of solving radiation problems may be, success in forecasting climatic change is mainly determined by the reliability of the experimental data on optical parameters of the atmosphere and of the description of their variability under the effect of external factors.

  1. Technogenic Fallout of Uranium and Thorium in the Vicinity of Novosibirsk (Russia, West Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, Svetlana Yu.

    Evaluation of the contribution of definite pollution sources among many others is rather complicated scientific challenge, but its solution may become decisive for the realization of measures aimed at ecological remediation of the territories. Element composition of aerosol particles accumulated during winter in the snow cover of Novosibirsk was determined by means of X-ray fluorescence measurements with synchrotron radiation at the "Siberian Synchrotron and Terahertz Radiation Center" based on VEPP-3 of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS. Means of ICP-MS and scanning electron microscopy were used additionally. These studies allowed revealing the contribution of separate industrial enterprises into the general technogenic pollution of the megapolis with uranium and thorium.

  2. Gas-emission crater in Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia, a new permafrost feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Marina; Kizyakov, Alexandr; Khomutov, Artem; Dvornikov, Yury; Streletskaya, Irina; Gubarkov, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    The Yamal crater is a hole funnel-shaped on top and cylinder-shaped down to the bottom, surrounded by a parapet. Field study of the crater included size measurements, photo- video-documentation of the feature and the surrounding environment, and geochemical sampling. The upper part of the geological section within the crater consisted of stratified icy sediments, underlain by almost pure stratified ice of nearly vertical orientation of the layers. The volume of discharged material (volume of the void of the crater) was 6 times larger than the volume of material in the parapet. The difference was due to a significant amount of ice exposed in the walls of the crater, emitted to the surface and melted there. Remote sensing data was processes and validated by field observations to reveal the date of crater formation, previous state of the surface, evolution of the crater and environmental conditions of the surrounding area. Crater formed between 9 October and 1 November 2013. The initial size derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) had diameter of the vegetated rim 25-29 m. It turned through a sharp bend into a cylinder with close to vertical sides and diameter 15-16 m. Depth of the hole was impossible to estimate from DEM because of no light reaching walls in the narrow hole. By the time of initial observation in July 2014, water was found at the depth exceeding 50 m below the rim. In November 2014 this depth was 26 m. By September 2015 almost all the crater was flooded, with water surface about 5 m below the rim. The plan dimensions of the crater increased dramatically from initial 25-29 to 47-54 m in 2015. Thus, it took two warm seasons to almost entirely fill in the crater. We suppose that during the next 1-2 years parapet will be entirely destroyed, and as a result the crater will look like an ordinary tundra lake. Excluding impossible and improbable versions of the crater's development, the authors conclude that the origin of this crater can be attributed to the air temperature warming trend along with the extreme of 2012. The increased ground temperature and amount of unfrozen water in the permafrost, expanding of cryopegs, formation of a pingo-like mound and its outburst due to high pressure produced by gas hydrate decomposition within permafrost are the main controls. Similar temperature anomalies may increase in number in the future decades, presenting risks for human activities in the region. This conclusion is supported by recent studies of gas-hydrate behavior in the upper permafrost as well as by subsea processes in gas-bearing provinces where analogue mechanism is known to produce pockmarks - subsea depressions. As the crater is surrounded by the parapet, thus is resulting from expulsion of ice and rocks from beneath to the surface and should not be treated as a "sinkhole", "thermokarst" or "collapse".

  3. Cryogenic disturbance and its impact on soils of frost boil ecosystems of Taz peninsula, West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshonkov, Alexander; Matyshak, George; Petrzhik, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    For the last years there is an active development of permafrost zone, which is about 60% of the territory of Russia. More than 15% of this area belong to different types of tundra. Frost boil ecosystems, the formation of which is associated with the cryogenesis and cryogenic disturbance processes are one of the most specific tundra landscape. Such landscape forms of tundra ecosystems cover the area over 68000 sq. km - 20% of total Russian tundra area. Cryogenic processes leading to the formation of patterned ground (such as frost boils, non-sorted circles, ice-wedge polygons) are important mechanisms, which control the landscape distribution of soil and phytomass carbon in continuous permafrost terrain. Frost boil ecosystem's properties have been poorly studied. So, the aim of this work is to explore the functioning parameters and properties of frost boil soils. The object - frost boil ecosystems, - is located in the southern tundra of Taz peninsula, about 150 km north from Novy Urengoy (57°28 '50,6″ N, 76°42 '32,6″ E). Frost boils are small (0,5-2 m diameter and 5-15 cm height), barren, non-sorted circles separated by completely vegetated (moss-lichens and shrubs) troughs - interboils. Our monitoring section (100 sq. m.) was set on a typical frost-boil landscape. Within this area we obtained moisture content and temperature of upper layer (0-10 cm), active layer depth, CO2 flux. This analyzed site includes more than 40 frost boils. Measurements were made both on boil and interboil patches in 10-20 replicates. Samples were taken both from frost boils and interboils upper layers as well as from horizons two soil pit profiles. Different soil parameters were obtained by laboratory analysis: pH (1: 2,5), BR, SIR (Anderson, 1978), TC, DOC (Kalbitz, 2003). It is estimated that total area with frost boils is approx. twice larger than troughs area with vegetation cover within the monitoring site. The soil properties of frost boil and interboil are significantly different. Frost boils have lack of vegetatio and, as consequence, no organic matter in uppers pit horizons. We find organic horizon in interboil areas - it can be up to 15 cm height. Frost boils have higher moisture and temperature levels: 25,6 ±6 % and 12,5 ±0,8 °C, as compared with interboil areas: 15 ±4 % and 8,5 ±0,8 °C. Active layer is found on an average depth of 125±5 cm under the frost boils to 110±5 cm under the interboils. Chemical analysis shows that pH varies from neutral values at the bare spot ( 6-6.2) to a slightly acidic at microdepressions ( 5-5,3). These differences lead to the contrast in biological activity: CO2 flux is higher in the troughs than in spots (193 and 55 mg*m2/hour, resp.). BR results are the same: it is higher in troughs than in spots more than 10 times. Cryogenic processes actively influence on the soil formation and redistribution of substances in studied ecosystems. These facts of influence should be considered in different calculations.

  4. MOSS FLORA OF THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT (WEST SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Lapshina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Overview of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District moss flora was made based on original authors’ data and information from literature sources. List of mosses includes 307 species. 236 species occur on a flat part of the District; theirs distribution and habitats are described. 21 species are reported from the region for the first time.

  5. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some

  6. What is the P value of Siberian soils? Soil phosphorus status in south-western Siberia and comparison with a global data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédoire, Félix; Bakker, Mark R.; Augusto, Laurent; Barsukov, Pavel A.; Derrien, Delphine; Nikitich, Polina; Rusalimova, Olga; Zeller, Bernd; Achat, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is particularly strong in northern Eurasia and substantial ecological changes are expected in this extensive region. The reshaping and migration northwards of bioclimatic zones may offer opportunities for agricultural development in western and central Siberia. However, the bioclimatic vegetation models currently employed for projections still do not consider soil fertility, in spite of this being highly critical for plant growth. In the present study, we surveyed the phosphorus (P) status in the south-west of Siberia where soils have developed on loess parent material. We selected six sites differing in pedoclimatic conditions and the soil was sampled at different depths down to 1 m in aspen (Populus tremula L.) forest as well as in grassland areas. The P status was assessed by conventional methods and by isotope dilution kinetics. We found that P concentrations and stocks, as well as their distribution through the soil profile, were fairly homogeneous on the regional scale studied, although there were some differences between sites (particularly in organic P). The young age of the soils, together with slow kinetics of soil formation processes have probably not yet resulted in a sufficiently wide range of soil physico-chemical conditions to observe a more diverging P status. The comparison of our data set with similar vegetation contexts on the global scale revealed that the soils of south-western Siberia, and more generally of northern Eurasia, often have (very) high levels of total, organic and inorganic P. The amount of plant-available P in topsoils, estimated by the isotopically exchangeable phosphate ions, was not particularly high but was intermediate on the global scale. However, large stocks of plant-available P are stored in subsurface layers which currently have low fine-root exploration intensities. These results suggest that the P resource is unlikely to constrain vegetation growth and agricultural development under the present

  7. Cold as Metaphor of Siberia (19th Century Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degaltseva E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on discourse and fantasy studies representing Siberia in social mythology as one of the relevant and topical directions in the identity studies. Techniques of forming different myths uniting the society as a whole are presented. A mythologem “Siberia” together with various metaphorical characteristics (cold, snow, hard labour, clear became unifying for ethnic and social groups of the region. Siberian literature plays an important role in forming the concept “Siberian” in numerous poetic texts serving as codes and messages in the communication process. The conflict in interpreting symbols connected with the concept-mythologem “Siberia” is rather vague in the traditional society as it is related to the general world view setting of the communication subjects.

  8. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n

  9. The Technologies of Lie in Local Cultures of Western Siberia

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    Evgeny A. Naumenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the political phenomenon – "technology of lie" that emerged of Jesuit and quasi-Catholic culture of Europe at the Middle Ages. The article also considers penetration of this phenomenon into Western Siberia through representatives of exile. According to author, the technologies of lie were created as a result of distortion of Catholicism, departure from a true spiritual component. This policy was considered by its carriers as a competition form. The author considers that misstatement of Orthodoxy was possible to a lesser extent because of its traditional dogmatism; the Russian imperial power did not use technologies of lie at the wide nation-wide and geopolitical level. The phenomenon existed only in local cultures. In article the social and economic and political reasons of forming of these technologies in the Russian Empire and Western Siberia, their manifestations and a consequence are analyzed. As examples cases of anti-Semitic "bloody slanders" are given in the European Russia and a defiant line item of the Jesuit organization in a Siberian exile. The author notes that the considered tactics has been directed to some religious groups and to certain representatives of society and the government. As a rule, none of the victims were ready to "information attacks" and lost them, losing not only property and positions, but also life sometimes. The author emphasizes that this practice has been adopted by part of the Russian revolutionary atheists. There is approved action of these technologies in terms of the Siberian penal servitude and the exile. Later the experience gained by them has formed the basis of fabricated political processes in case of the Stalin the regime.

  10. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

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    Bouakaze Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations. This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia. Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

  11. Forecasting and prospecting criteria of Au-bearing weathering mantles in southern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Yu. A.; Roslyakov, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    The geological and genetic model of gold concentration at different stages of weathering has been developed on the basis of long-standing geological and geochemical research of Au-bearing weathering mantles in the main ore fields of Siberia. This model makes it possible to substantiate forecasting and prospecting criteria of gold deposits hosted in linear karst zones of weathering, to delineate prospective areas in southern Siberia, and to estimate their resource potential.

  12. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E [V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: Amber.J.Soja@nasa.go [National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), NASA Langley Research Center, Climate Sciences, 21 Langley Boulevard, Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  13. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  14. Season - dependent and source-influenced aerosol in Northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovicheva, Olga; Makshtas, Alexander; Bogorodsky, Peter; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Shonia, Natalia; Uttal, Taneil

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol may serve as a tracer of arctic pollution, allowing a link to climate response if its major characteristics relating to natural and anthropogeneous sources are defined. It has been shown that BC and sulfates are the most important aerosol constituents measured in the Arctic boundary layer; these species demonstrate similar seasonal variations with a peak during winter to early spring and a minimum in summer. Long - time gap in consistent aerosol observations in the Russian Arctic strongly limits the assessment of air pollution and climate impacts. On-line monitoring, sampling, and analyses of atmospheric aerosols were carried out at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory, Northern Siberia, during one year from September 2014 to 2015. Physico-chemical characterization combining aethalometry, thermo-optical analysis, and analytical chemistry was used in order to identify the seasonal variability of aerosols and to link their composition to possible sources, as well as to characterize the differences in aerosol chemical composition between natural background conditions and BC-pollution episodes. The present study reports the first results from the Tiksi Observatory on season-dependent and source-influenced characteristics of aerosol species, such as carbon fractions (OC, EC), inorganic and organic functionalities of chemical compounds, sulfates, nitrates and other ion components, and elements. In addition, data obtained by individual particles analysis provide insight into micromarkers of combustion sources. Aerosol at the Tiksi Observatory is found to be originated from natural marine, biogenic, and continental sources as well as influenced by local residential activity and regional pollution. Characterization of aerosols during OC and BC-pollution episodes, combined with analysis of the wind direction, atmosphere stability, and air mass trajectories, allows for the identification of the sources which are responsible for the emission of hazardous compounds

  15. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  16. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  17. Arctic East Siberia had a lower latitude in the Pleistocene

    CERN Document Server

    Wölfli, W

    2006-01-01

    In Arctic East Siberia many remains of mammoths have been found. In this region there is not sufficient sunlight over the year to allow for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed. Consequently the latitude of these regions must have been lower before the end of the Pleistocene than at present. It is a challenge to reconstruct this geographic shift of the poles in a manner compa- tible with known facts. A possible sequence of events is described here. It as- sumes an additional planet, which must since have disappeared. This is possible, if it moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot as a result of tidal work and solar radiation. During a few million years evaporation of this planet led to a disk-shaped cloud of ions moving around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the Earth from the solar radiation, producing the alteration of cold and warm periods characterizing the Pleistocene. The degree of shielding is sensitive to the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100000 y...

  18. Surface ultraviolet radiation over east Siberia: seasonal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhalev

    Full Text Available The results of spectral measurements of the daily near-noon surface direct solar ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range of 295–345 nm obtained in Irkutsk (East Siberia for the time interval of 1998–2000 are presented. For the period under consideration, the seasonal UV radiation variations are analysed that are associated with the total ozone dynamics, the transition of cyclonic and anticyclonic (Siberian anticyclone periods, the presence of snow cover, and other factors. The analysis reveals an asymmetric behaviour of the seasonal course in ground-level UV radiation around the time of the summer solstice, with seasonal variation dependence on the wavelength. We have determined the irregular variations of surface UV radiation that is typical for the region, with their properties dependent on the season and on the spectral range analysed. The similarity of the above noted features from year to year was revealed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Transmission and scattering of radiation; instruments and techniques – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  19. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  20. Structural problems of mining region innovative development (Kuzbass, Western Siberia

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    Dotsenko Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the issues of overcoming the negative structural shift in Russian economy, accelerating economic growth, reducing technological and social- and-economic gap between Russia and the developed countries are strategically important. Modern structure of Russian economy which had been developed as a part of market model does not generate the innovative type of development. In this situation, mining regions, the structure of which was formed in the early 20th century and is represented by the extractive industries, are undergoing the greatest problems of innovative development. Therefore, despite high urbanization and industrial development level the economy of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia is characterized by significant structural problems. They are associated with primary extractive nature of the regional industry, in which coal and iron ore, metallurgical and chemical industries dominate. They highly depend on Russian and global market of raw materials, widely use low-productive technologies, and they are characterized by high level of fixed capital depreciation and insufficient pace of innovative infrastructure development. The solution of the structural problems of economic development of mining region is connected with technological modernization of extractive industries and use of modern materials for the production of high-tech products.

  1. Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Lysanova, G. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-90 and 1990-2010 using historic data and data taken from 2020 and 2080 HadCM3 B1 and A2 scenarios. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future Siberian climatic resources could provide the potential for a great variety of crops to grow that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km/decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops nonexistent today may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

  2. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

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    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  3. Degradation processes of hydrological resources by human and climate - example of small lakes in Northern Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Burghard; Schreiner, Vera

    2014-05-01

    The presentation discusses (on the basis of an actual application in the development of a curriculum for Integrated Water Cycle Management in Kazakhstan; TEMPUS I-WEB project) the diverse scientific approaches to explain the degradation of hydrological resources in West-Siberia and Nord-Kazakhstan by focussing on natural and anthropogenic causes by the example of the dry out of small lakes. Since Pleistocene in the region a diverse mosaic of large and small lakes of at total shrinking surface area was formed. On natural causes it includes (1) climatic cycling, (2) lake developments since the Pleistocene originate by the Northern glaciations by ice dammed lakes (without tectonics). The man made causes are (1) the sediment accumulation in lakes, (2) the (problematic) water management and water usage and (3) the land use changes in the watersheds. Climate change includes finally both natural and climatic causes of the change. The latter is explained using actual reports of (1) IPCC on extreme events and (2) gives a note about radiative forcing components as proxy to integrate.

  4. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  5. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  6. Ground and aircraft-based methane measurements in Siberia: source attribution using tracers and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Paris, J. D.; Pruvost, A.; Peng, S.; Turquety, S.; Berchet, A.; Pison, I.; Helle, J.; Arshinov, M.; Belan, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is also naturally emitted by a number of processes, including microbial activity in wetlands, permafrost degradation and wildfires. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of its natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). Furthermore, high latitude regions are large natural sources of CH4 in the atmosphere. Observing boreal/Arctic CH4 variability and understanding its main driving processes using atmospheric measurements and transport model is the task of this work. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns (flights in the tropospheric layer up to 9 km connecting the two cities of Novosibirsk and Yakutsk) and continuous measurements at Fonovaya Observatory (60 km west of Tomsk - 56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) have been performed in order to provide observational data on the composition of Siberian air. The study is focused on 2012, during which a strong heat wave impacted Siberia, leading to the highest mean daily temperature values on record since the beginning of the 20th century. This abnormal drought has led to numerous large forest fires. A chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfires (APIFLAME), is used to determine contributions of CH4 sources in the region. Recent results concerning CH4 fluxes and its atmospheric variability in the Siberian territory derived from a modeled-based analysis will be shown and discussed. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S

  7. Terreneuvian stratigraphy and faunas from the Anabar Uplift, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Kouchinsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Assemblages of mineralized skeletal fossils are described from limestone rocks of the lower Cambrian Nemakit-Daldyn, Medvezhya, Kugda-Yuryakh, Manykay, and lower Emyaksin formations exposed on the western and eastern flanks of the Anabar Uplift of the northern Siberian Platform. The skeletal fossil assemblages consist mainly of anabaritids, molluscs, and hyoliths, and also contain other taxa such as Blastulospongia, Chancelloria, Fomitchella, Hyolithellus, Platysolenites, Protohertzina, and Tianzhushanella. The first tianzhushanellids from Siberia, including Tianzhushanella tolli sp. nov., are described. The morphological variation of Protohertzina anabarica and Anabarites trisulcatus from their type locality is documented. Prominent longitudinal keels in the anabaritid Selindeochrea tripartita are demonstrated. Among the earliest molluscs from the Nemakit-Daldyn Formation, Purella and Yunnanopleura are interpreted as shelly parts of the same species. Fibrous microstructure of the outer layer and a wrinkled inner layer of mineralised cuticle in the organophosphatic sclerites of Fomitchella are reported. A siliceous composition of the globular fossil Blastulospongia is reported herein and a possible protistan affinity similar to Platysolenites is discussed. New carbon isotope data facilitate correlation both across the Anabar Uplift and with the Terreneuvian Series of the IUGS chronostratigraphical scheme for the Cambrian System. The base of Cambrian Stage 2 is provisionally placed herein within the Fortunian‒Cambrian Stage 2 transitional interval bracketed by the lowest appearance of Watsonella crosbyi and by a slightly higher horizon at the peak of carbon isotope excursion Iʹ from western flank of the Anabar Uplift. Correlation across the Siberian Platform of the fossiliferous Medvezhya and lower Emyaksin formations showing δ13Ccarb excursion Iʹ with the upper Sukharikha Formation containing excursion 5p and upper Ust’-Yudoma Formation

  8. Parameterization of tree-ring growth in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychkov, Ivan; Popkova, Margarita; Shishov, Vladimir; Vaganov, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    No doubt, climate-tree growth relationship is an one of the useful and interesting subject of studying in dendrochronology. It provides an information of tree growth dependency on climatic environment, but also, gives information about growth conditions and whole tree-ring growth process for long-term periods. New parameterization approach of the Vaganov-Shashkin process-based model (VS-model) is developed to described critical process linking climate variables with tree-ring formation. The approach (co-called VS-Oscilloscope) is presented as a computer software with graphical interface. As most process-based tree-ring models, VS-model's initial purpose is to describe variability of tree-ring radial growth due to variability of climatic factors, but also to determinate principal factors limiting tree-ring growth. The principal factors affecting on the growth rate of cambial cells in the VS-model are temperature, day light and soil moisture. Detailed testing of VS-Oscilloscope was done for semi-arid area of southern Siberia (Khakassian region). Significant correlations between initial tree-ring chronologies and simulated tree-ring growth curves were obtained. Direct natural observations confirm obtained simulation results including unique growth characteristic for semi-arid habitats. New results concerning formation of wide and narrow rings under different climate conditions are considered. By itself the new parameterization approach (VS-oscilloscope) is an useful instrument for better understanding of various processes in tree-ring formation. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219).

  9. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of forest ecosystems are thus required. Relative contributions of organic and inorganic P and, consequently, P availability in forest ecosystems depend on decomposition processes, which could be strongly affected by vegetation composition, temperature, precipitation, and their changes due to a warming climate. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep forest soil horizons from two contrasted biomes in Southwestern Siberia (i.e. forest steppe in the West Siberian plain and blackish ("chernevaya" in Russian) taiga in the low Salair mountains) and (2) assess the effects of vegetation (siberian fir stand, common aspen stand and herbs in a forest gap) and local climate on soil P fractions. Results revealed high contents in total P (645-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and available inorganic P (diffusive phosphate ions in one week = 83-126 mg kg-1). In addition, there was an accumulation of diffusive phosphate ions in the subsoils resulting from differences between soil horizons in total inorganic P and soil properties. Consequently, deeper root systems may mine substantial amounts of available P for the trees and the potential enhanced growth and C sequestration due to climate change should thus a~priori not be P-limited. High proportions of total organic P (47-56 % of total P in the

  10. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Achat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C, which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of forest ecosystems are thus required. Relative contributions of organic and inorganic P and, consequently, P availability in forest ecosystems depend on decomposition processes, which could be strongly affected by vegetation composition, temperature, precipitation, and their changes due to a warming climate. The objectives of the present study were to (1 evaluate P status of surface and deep forest soil horizons from two contrasted biomes in Southwestern Siberia (i.e. forest steppe in the West Siberian plain and blackish ("chernevaya" in Russian taiga in the low Salair mountains and (2 assess the effects of vegetation (siberian fir stand, common aspen stand and herbs in a forest gap and local climate on soil P fractions. Results revealed high contents in total P (645–1042 mg kg−1 in the surface mineral soils and available inorganic P (diffusive phosphate ions in one week = 83–126 mg kg−1. In addition, there was an accumulation of diffusive phosphate ions in the subsoils resulting from differences between soil horizons in total inorganic P and soil properties. Consequently, deeper root systems may mine substantial amounts of available P for the trees and the potential enhanced growth and C sequestration due to climate change should thus a~priori not be P-limited. High proportions of total

  11. Trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in arctic and subarctic Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outten, S.; Miles, V.; Ezau, I.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the high Arctic have been reliably documented, with widespread "greening" (increase in NDVI), specifically along the northern rim of Eurasia and Alaska. Whereas in West Siberia south of 65N, widespread "browning" (decrease in NDVI) has been noted, although the causes remain largely unclear. In this study we report results of statistical analysis of the spatial and temporal changes in NDVI around 28 major urban areas in the arctic and subarctic Western Siberia. Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves has led to rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development has significant impact on the environment and particularly in the vegetation cover in and around the urbanized areas. The analysis is based on 15 years (2000-2014) of high-resolution (250 m) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data acquired for summer months (June through August) over the entire arctic and subarctic Western Siberian region. The analysis shows that the NDVI background trends are generally in agreement with the trends reported in previous coarse-resolution NDVI studies. Our study reveals greening over the arctic (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern (boreal taiga forest) part is browning, with the more densely vegetation areas or areas with highest NDVI, particularly along Ob River showing strong negative trend. The unexpected and interesting finding of the study is statistically robust indication of the accelerated increase of NDVI ("greening") in the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the decrease in the NDVI background. Moreover, interannual variations of urban NDVI are not coherent with the NDVI background variability. We also find that in tundra zones, NDVI values are higher in a 5-10 km buffer zone around the city edge than in rural areas (40 km distance from the city edge), and in taiga in a 5-10 km

  12. Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E.; Lysanova, G.

    2012-04-01

    The largest temperature increases are currently found in Northern Hemishpere upper latitudes, and this is where temperature increases from climate change are predicted to be the greatest in the future. Alteration of boreal and Arctic landscapes is already apparent, particularly in Siberia. In this work, we will explore the current spatial and temporal patterns of agriculture potential in Siberia and then investigate potential future agriculture dynamics. Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. It is predicted that forests will move northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. Climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia are analyzed based on the hypothesis that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models are used to determine crop range and regression models are constructed to determine crop yield, and these are applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 using historic data and for 2020 and 2080 using HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming but would also result in different feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate systems, in terms of an altered landscape albedo, substantially modified hydrological

  13. Forms of Wages for Miners of Siberia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the question of forms of wages paid to workers in the mining industry of Siberia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Of the two main forms of labor compensation – hourly rate and piecework pay, the latter was more corresponding to the spirit of capitalism, and it was most widespread in the mining enterprises of Siberia. The piecework pay was also the main instrument for intensifying labor productivity. This episode in the history of labor is studied on the basis of paperwork materials of mining companies and reporting documents of the mining inspectorate.

  14. Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes.

  15. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

    2009-12-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age

  16. Microbiological assessment of technogenicaly disturbed forest ecosystems in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of soil microbial complexes of forest ecosystems of Central Siberia, disturbed by cutting, fires, emissions of pollutants and mining was investigated. The most appropriate indicators for early diagnosis of the condition and sustainability assessment of soils were the contents of microbial biomass, the intensity of the basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotient. Recorded time quantitative and structural-taxonomic restructuring of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms exhibited orientation of the elementary soil-biological processes and allowed detail to assess the state of soils of disturbed forest ecosystems. Successions of soil microorganisms reflected stages of plant succession after cutting. Structural and functional changes in the microbial soil complexes marked by only one-two years after cutting of coniferous forests. For the grassy stage in deciduous young stands, there was an increase in soil microbial activity that accompanied the development of the sod process. Microbiological processes were balanced and comparable to the control at the stage of closed 30-year-old stands. Post-fire recovery of the microbial soil complexes was determined by fire severity and by the properties of soils and vegetation succession. Functional activity of microbial soil complexes were recovered in one or two years after a low-intensity fires, whereas after high-intensity fires – was not recovered in eight years. Indicative responses of soil microorganisms in the sustainable impact of aggressive pollutants tundra zone of the Norilsk industrial region were registered at the functional and at the structural level. In areas of moderate and weak disturbances of vegetation, there were quantitative changes, whereas strong disturbances and constant exposure to pollutants marked structural and taxonomic adjustment of microbial soil complexes, disturbed dynamic processes of synthesis-mineralization and reduced adaptive capacity saprophytic

  17. The 'Ice Hill': An example of 'retarded deglaciation' in siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhov, Valery I.; Isayeva, Lia L.

    The geological structure of one of the southernmost sites of thick ice beds in the Yenisei valley near the Arctic Circle is discussed. The erosion contacts of the foliated and contorted ice, abundance of glacial debris and the position between the basal till and ablation cover indicate a glacial origin for the ice layer. The ice occurs in the cores of arcuate accretion ridges built of ablation materials. The overlying sequence consists of a series of diamicton flows alternating with lacustrine and outwash sediments. Laterally the ice-rock complex changes into thick lacustrine rhythmites underlain by basal tills. The ice-containing hummocky terrain is often lower than the adjacent lacustrine plain. Therefore inversion of ice-controlled topography is suggested. Several stages of glaciokarst development are supposed to have occurred after an eastward moving ice lobe stagnated more than 50 ka BP. The main depositional events are associated with the Middle Weichselian draining of ice-dammed Lake Igarka, and with Early Holocene topographic inversion. The Holocene warming apparently caused diapiric deformation of the buried ice probably because of the density and thickness differences between the ice and the overburden. The long history of burial and preservation of the remnants of basal glacier ice was controlled by Pleistocene permafrost. Landscape evolution in Northern Siberia is governed by such 'retarded deglaciation', in contrast with Atlantic environments. The thick ablation sequence may be described in terms of a Spitsbergen model, but the Siberian basal tills, because of their position within the permafrost, must be regarded as exfoliated layers of debris-rich ice according to Shantzer-Lavrushin's model. The occurrence of buried glacier ice and the mode of distribution of the permafrost shows the relict nature of the latter. In areas of modern and former retarded deglaciation intermittent diamicton flows are supposed to mark episodes of climatic amelioration like

  18. A motogenetic classification of the sand and aleurite sediments of the Mesozoic of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A motogenetic classification is developed for terrigenous sediments with identification of the main dynamogenetic signs based on the results of a study of the output of the heavy fraction and the stability factor. Studies of the Mesozoic sedimentary series of Western Siberia made it possible to isolate the following types of sediments: currents, wave accumulation, natural alluvial sand accumulation and so on.

  19. Chronology of holocene climate and vegetation changes and their connection to cultural dynamics in Southern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, V. G.; van Geel, B.; Koulkova, M. A.; Zaitseva, G. I.; Sementsov, A. A.; Scott, E. M.; Cook, G. T.; van der Plicht, J.; Lebedeva, L. M.; Bourova, N. D.; Bokovenko, N. A.

    2007-01-01

    Two sediment sequences from Big Kyzykul Lake and the Shushenskoe paleolake in the Minusinsk depression, Southern Siberia, were studied by pollen, microfossil, and geochemical analyses, as well as radiocarbon dating. The records indicate the persistence of an and period between similar to 11.7-7.6

  20. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  1. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June 2

  2. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    -frequency P-RF component as it has about an order of magnitude better resolution than S-RF. We find no indication for significant crustal anisotropy in the cratonic areas of Siberia. The preliminary crustal thickness results from the Hk stacking and from the inversion approach agree with a previous study...

  3. Chronology of Holocene climate and vegetation changes and their connection to cultural dynamics in Southern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.G. Dirksen; B. van Geel; M.A. Koulkova; G.I. Zaitseva; A.A. Sementsov; E.M. Scott; G.T. Cook; J. van der Plicht; L.M. Lebedeva; N.D. Bourova; N.A. Bokovenko

    2007-01-01

    Two sediment sequences from Big Kyzykul Lake and the Shushenskoe paleolake in the Minusinsk depression, Southern Siberia, were studied by pollen, microfossil, and geochemical analyses, as well as radiocarbon dating. The records indicate the persistence of an arid period between ~11.7-7.6 cal kyr BP,

  4. Chronology of holocene climate and vegetation changes and their connection to cultural dynamics in Southern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, V. G.; van Geel, B.; Koulkova, M. A.; Zaitseva, G. I.; Sementsov, A. A.; Scott, E. M.; Cook, G. T.; van der Plicht, J.; Lebedeva, L. M.; Bourova, N. D.; Bokovenko, N. A.

    2007-01-01

    Two sediment sequences from Big Kyzykul Lake and the Shushenskoe paleolake in the Minusinsk depression, Southern Siberia, were studied by pollen, microfossil, and geochemical analyses, as well as radiocarbon dating. The records indicate the persistence of an and period between similar to 11.7-7.6 ca

  5. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2011-01-01

    We investigated questions about the ability of broad silvicultural strategies to achieve multiple objectives (reduce disturbance losses, maintain the abundance of preferred species, mitigate fragmentation and loss of age-class diversity, and sequester aboveground carbon) under future climate conditions in Siberia. We conducted a factorial experiment using the LANDIS-II...

  6. [Health of workers engaged into mining industry in Siberia and Far North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Pankov, V A; Kolycheva, I V

    2004-01-01

    Based on longstanding analysis of transitory disablement morbidity among workers engaged into mining industry of Siberia and Far North, the authors defined factors and conditions contributing to health deterioration among these workers. These factors and conditions are severe climate conditions, long exposure to hazards, bad health care, ineffective methods of treatment and prophylaxis.

  7. Fire Impact on Surface Fuels and Carbon Emissions in Scots pine Logged Sites of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zhila, S. V.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due great amounts of logging slash, which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population. Both legal and illegal logging are also increasing rapidly in many forest areas of Siberia. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on logged vs. unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region in 2009-2012 as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Dead down woody fuels are significantly less at unburned/logged area of dry southern regions compared to more humid northern regions. Fuel consumption was typically less in spring fires than during summer fires. Fire-caused carbon emissions on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration is less at logged areas compared to undisturbed forest. After fire soil respiration decreases both at logged and unlogged areas. arbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  8. Molecular and serological studies on the recent seal virus epizootics in Europe and Siberia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Barrett (Thomas); J. Crowther; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.M. Subbarao; J. Groen (Jan); L. Haas; L.V. Mamaev; A.M. Titenko; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); C.J. Bostock

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootics which occurred in seals in both Europe and Siberia during 1987/1988 were caused by two different morbilliviruses, referred to as phocid distemper virus (PDV) 1 and 2, respectively. Molecular and serological studies have shown that the European virus is quite distinct

  9. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina;

    2015-01-01

    -frequency P-RF component as it has about an order of magnitude better resolution than S-RF. We find no indication for significant crustal anisotropy in the cratonic areas of Siberia. The preliminary crustal thickness results from the Hk stacking and from the inversion approach agree with a previous study...

  10. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  11. SIRS NEESPI megaproject on land - atmosphere processes in Siberia: results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Lykosov, V. N.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2009-04-01

    The Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is the Siberia-focused NEESPI Mega-Project. SIRS is developed in line with Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach in cooperation of Russian Academy of Science (Siberian Branch) specialists with their European, American and Asian partners/counterparts and is aimed at coordination of multidisciplinary and "distributed" teams of specialists carrying out different scale projects on Siberia environment dynamics. Currently SIRS is supervised by the Russian National Committee for IGBP and managed by its Siberian Branch. Reported are recent results of investigations of the two major Siberian ecosystems dynamics, which are boreal forests and wetlands, with special emphasis on their role in the carbon cycle as well as results of climatic modeling for the region under study and first elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure forming glue for relevant multidisciplinary research. Among those are: recent results obtained at the Zotino Tall Tower Observation Facility; analysis of carbon balance between СО2 emission and accumulation based on ground observations performed at the Great Vasyugan Bog, recent development in high resolution regional climate modeling and new elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure. New SB RAS initiatives aimed at organization across Siberia a set of environmental observatories to monitor regional ecosystems and climate dynamics with special emphasis upon desertification and permafrost thawing processes and synchronized development of distributed facilities supporting obtained data storage and delivery are described in details. Scientific plans relying upon these developments are discussed as well.

  12. Analyses of changes in vegetation cover in the South and Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia using Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, Egor; Pologova, Nina; Golovatskaya, Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    Understanding human impact on vegetation composition and structure, at scales from the patch to the globe, and capacity to monitor change over time is fundamental research problem to address Global Change and ensure sustainable development. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early successional states, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances (e.g., fire, dieback due to insect attacks) appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data. The studied area of the first test site ("Bakchar") is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site "Tomsk" covered by cultivated lands in the south, dark coniferous forest complexes an early and old-growth state in the north part. Mire types at the test sites are presented by open fens, ridge-hollow / ridge-lake complexes and pine-shrub-sphagnum communities with different tree height and layer density. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed revealing dynamics in vegetation cover. Forest change was calculated using the Disturbance Index (Healey, 2006). Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Strong winds were registered in 2003

  13. Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

  14. Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Mikhail V.

    2002-02-01

    Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and

  15. SAYANI'91 - A joint United States/Commonwealth of Independent States field campaign to investigate forest decline damage in the Krasnoyarsk region of southcentral Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Zhirin, V. M.; Rock, B. N.; Ranson, K. J.; Wessman, C. A.; Curtiss, B.

    1992-01-01

    The field experiment described took place in the Sayani Mountains of Siberia. The purpose of the joint field campaign was to observe and exchange methodologies with Russian scientists with regard to the development of remote sensing techniques for the early detection and assessment of forest decline damage believed to be associated with atmospheric deposition and/or insect and disease infestations. Several types of passive and active remote sensing measurements were made in conjunction with biophysical measurements on vegetative samples collected from four study sites representing a strong elevational gradient. Relatively cloud-free SPOT data were also acquired over the study area. Moderate canopy damage was recorded at the mid-elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The lowest levels of damage were recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m.) At all sites, east versus west flagging of the canopy was noted (i.e., full canopy on the west-facing side of the canopy, significantly less foliage on the east-facing side).

  16. BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change

  17. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  18. New and rare findings of lignicolous lichen species for the Southern Siberia from the Baikal nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Urbanavichene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on field trips between 2009–2014, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Baikal Nature Reserve (Baikal nature reserve, Khamar-Daban ridge are described. These are mostly lignicolous lichens growing on wood and bark of Abies sibirica and Pinus sibirica, such as Absconditella lignicola, Strangospora moriformis, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, T. viridescens. Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa is new for Siberia, Lepraria jackii – new for South Siberia.

  19. Stable isotope ratios of atmospheric CO_{2} and CH_{4} over Siberia measured at ZOTTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhina, Anastasiya; Prokushkin, Anatily; Lavric, Jost; Heimann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The boreal and arctic zones of Siberia housing the large amounts of carbon stored in the living biomass of forests and wetlands, as well as in soils and specifically permafrost, play a crucial role in earth's global carbon cycle. The long-term studies of greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations are important instruments to analyze the response of these systems to climate warming. In parallel to GHG observations, the measurements of their stable isotopic composition can provide useful information for distinguishing contribution of individual GHG source to their atmospheric variations, since each source has its own isotopic signature. In this study we report first results of laboratory analyses of the CO2 and CH4 concentrations, the stable isotope ratio of δ13C-CO2, δ18O-CO2, δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 measured in one-liter glass flasks which were obtained from 301 height of ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower Observatory, near 60° N, 90° E, about 20 km west of the Yenisei River) during 2008 - 2013 and 2010 - 2013 for stable isotope composition of CO2 and CH4. The magnitudes of δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 in a seasonal cycle are -1.4±0.1‰ (-7.6 - -9.0‰) and -2.2±0.2‰ (-0.1 - -2.3‰), respectively. The δ13C-CO2 seasonal pattern opposes the CO2 concentrations, with a gradual enrichment in heavy isotope occurring during May - July, reflecting its discrimination in photosynthesis, and further depletion in August - September as photosynthetic activity decreases comparatively to ecosystem respiration. Relationship between the CO2 concentrations and respective δ13C-CO2 (Keeling plot) reveals isotopic source signature for growing season (May - September) -27.3±1.4‰ and -30.4±2.5‰ for winter (January - March). The behavior of δ18O-CO2 associated with both high photosynthetic rate in the June (enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by 18O as consequence of CO2 equilibrium with "heavy" leaf water) and respiratory activity of forest floor in June - October (depletion of respired CO2 by 18O

  20. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  1. Spatio-temporal competition dynamics of larch species in North Central Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In North Central Siberia larch trees dominate huge parts of the prevailing light-coniferous taiga. In this unique ecosystem, permafrost limits the soil layer that thaws in summer and hence the supply of nutrients and water available for plants. Two larch species dominate the forest and build the tree line: Siberian larch (Larix sibirica LEDEB.) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii (RUPr.) RUPR.). In changing climatic conditions, the distribution areas of both species will shift and overlap more...

  2. Experience of studying of formation the morpho-functional status of the population of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Nikolaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a review results more than 20-years studying age, sexual, constitutional and ethnic laws of morpho-functional variability of the population of Eastern Siberia are presented. Distinctions between groups of the population on overall dimensions, body composition, proportionality of a constitution are shown. The phenomena secular trend, a phenomenon long living people are studied and influence of ecological factors on the physical status of a growing organism is shown

  3. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Korets, M. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%-90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ˜400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30-40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10-20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%-25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%-50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25-30 m) would occur over 8%-12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30-40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture.

  4. RECENT GEODYNAMICS AND SEISMICITY OF THE FAR EAST AND THE EASTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor G. Bykov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The information on the «Problems of seismicity and recent geodynamics of the Far East and Eastern Siberia» Symposium is presented. It was held on June 1–4, 2010 at the Yu.A. Kosygin Institute of tectonics and teophysics, Far Eastern branch, Russian academy of sciences, Khabarovsk. The scope of plenary meetings, sessions and round-table discussions conducted during the Symposium is presented with a brief review of the most interesting scientific reports.

  5. Nuremberg Counting Jetons of XVI–XIX centuries: from Western Europe to Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Pushkarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of Western counting jetons, which have spread over a vast area from Western Europe to Siberia. The history of jetons is very dynamic. For more than three centuries in Western Europe tokens were used as a tool for calculation in trading shops, government offices, etc. In the second half of the XVI century because the spread of the written account the functions of jetons fundamentally changed. They are being used as chips in card games, they were presented as souvenirs, scattered among the crowd at weddings and festivals, etc. At the same time, jetons became the translation tool for public information about the government, in the form of images of the reigning monarch, as well as key political events. Through trade exchange jetons penetrate into the territory of Western Siberia, where their function changed again. All counting tokens from burial graves in Western Siberia, have holes for hanging or sewing, which indicate their use as ornaments. However, in the culture of the indigenous population decorations had not only aesthetic but also a sacred, religious meaning.

  6. Variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia during the last 13000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Pilipenko, O. V.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal magnetization of the samples from the archaeological sites in Siberia is studied. The magnetization of the collected samples was studied using the authors' modification of the Thellier method amended by the magnetic anisotropy and chemical alterations. Resulting from the study of the burned material from the Kazachka site, the time series of the geomagnetic field intensity in Siberia spanning the time interval from 10000 to 1000 B.C. is obtained. These data are unique in terms of the duration and representativeness. For the first time, the main variation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is traced by studying the magnetization of the samples from a single archeological site. The pattern of the variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia from 11000 B.C. to 2000 A.D., which is reconstructed from the data of the Kazachka, Ust-Karenga, and some other sites of Cis-Baikalia, indicates that the characteristics time of the long-period oscillation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is about 8000 years. It also suggests the existence of rapid variations superimposed on the main oscillation.

  7. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Train Your Temper What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  8. The research station "Vaskiny Dachi", Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia – a review of 25 years of permafrost studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina O. Leibman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research station "Vaskiny Dachi" on the Yamal Peninsula was established in 1988. Activities aimed at monitoring of permafrost and related environmental features under a relatively low level of nature disturbances caused by gas field development. Cryogenic processes that may affect the environment and their structures have been of primary interest. Landslides are the most common cryogenic processes in Central Yamal in general and also in the proximity of the station. Field surveys of numerous landslides, analysis of their dependence on climatic parameters and their fluctuations resulted in novel classification of cryogenic landslides based on mechanisms of their development. Dating by radiocarbon and dendrochronology allows the separation of cycles of landslide activation. Cryogenic landslides control the development of other processes, such as thermal erosion, river channel erosion and thermokarst. It also affects topography, vegetation pattern, geochemistry of vegetation, ground water and soils. As a result, permafrost parameters, specifically active layer depth and ground temperature, moisture and ice content in the active layer, depend indirectly on landsliding. Monitoring within the framework of the main programs of the International Permafrost Association, such as Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM, since 1993 and Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP, since 2011, play an important role among the research activities. From the collected data one can conclude that ground temperature increased on average by about 1 °C since the 1990s. At the same time, active layer fluctuations do not exactly follow the air temperature changes. Spatial changes in ground temperature are controlled by the redistribution of snow which is resulting from strong winds characteristic for tundra environments and the highly dissected relief of Central Yamal. Temporal variations rather depend on air temperature fluctuations but the rate differs in various landscape (environmental units. While the spatial distribution of active layer depth depends on lithology and surface covers, temporal fluctuations are controlled by ground temperature, summer air temperature, summer precipitation, and in general may contravene climate warming due to specific combination of all factors.

  9. Microbiological composition of river waters in the Ob’ basin (West Siberia) and its associations with hydrochemical indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Ivanova, E. A.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Chemical and microbiological composition of the Mid-Ob’ and its feeders’ waters has been studied. Swampiness of the area is the cause of significant organic and biogenic substance content in streams, and it is also responsible for a large variety of organotrophic microflora. Microbiological composition of studied streams characterizes them as contaminated. Settlements are the main sources of the investigated area water pollution.

  10. Transformation of soil organic matter in leached chernozems under minimized treatment in the forest-steppe of West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, I. N.; Samokhvalova, L. M.; Mishina, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the contents of total organic carbon and the carbon of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter (labile humus, detritus, and mortmass) in the layers of 0-10, 10-25, and 0-25 cm were studied in leached chernozems ((Luvic Chernozems (Loamic, Aric)) subjected to deep plowing and surface tillage for nine years. In the layer of 0-25 cm, the content of Corg did not show significant difference between these two treatments and comprised 3.68-3.92% in the case of deep plowing and 3.63-4.08% in the case of surface tillage. Tillage practices greatly affected the distribution of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter in the layers of 0-10 and 10-25 cm, though the difference between two treatments for the entire layer (0-25 cm) was insignificant. Surface tillage resulted in the increase in the contents of mortmass (by 59%), detritus (by 32%), and labile humus (by 8%) in the layer of 0-10 cm in comparison with deep plowing. At the same time, the contents of these fractions in the layer of 10-25 cm in the surface tillage treatment decreased by 67, 46, and 3%, respectively. The estimate of the nitrogen-mineralizing capacity made according to the data on the uptake of soil nitrogen by oat plants in a special greenhouse experiment confirmed the observed regularities of the redistribution of easily mineralizable organic matter fractions by the soil layers. In case of surface tillage, it increased by 23% in the layer of 0-10 cm; for the layer of 0-25 cm, no significant differences in the uptake of nitrogen by oat plants were found for the two studied treatments.

  11. AMS 14C chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia : Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenin, V.N.; Plicht, J. van der; Orlova, L.A.; Kuzmin, Y.V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a series of AMS 14C dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The 14C ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained fro

  12. AMS C-14 chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia : Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenin, VN; van der Plicht, J; Orlova, LA; Kuzmin, YV

    2000-01-01

    We present a series of AMS C-14 dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The C-14 ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained f

  13. Preface to the Special Issue on Geodynamic and Climate-Change Processes over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate change. Recent terrestrial gravity, GRACE and GPS observations suggest that the crust over the Tibetan plateau is thickening, and the Himalayan glaciers appear to be thinning. Satellite altimetry is a potential tool to study vertical displacement and permafrost thawing and changes in the active layers in Siberia and Tibet.

  14. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  15. Endurance of larch forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia under warming trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideki; Iwahana, Go; Ohta, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The larch (Larix spp.) forest in eastern Siberia is the world's largest coniferous forest. Its persistence is considered to depend on near-surface permafrost, and thus, forecast warming over the 21st century and consequent degradation of near-surface permafrost is expected to affect the larch forest in Siberia. However, predictions of these effects vary greatly, and many uncertainties remain about land - atmosphere interactions within the ecosystem. We developed an integrated land surface model to analyze how the Siberian larch forest will react to current warming trends. This model analyzed interactions between vegetation dynamics and thermo-hydrology, although it does not consider many processes those are considered to affect productivity response to a changing climate (e.g., nitrogen limitation, waterlogged soil, heat stress, and change in species composition). The model showed that, under climatic conditions predicted under gradual and rapid warming, the annual net primary production of larch increased about 2 and 3 times, respectively, by the end of the 21st century compared with that in the previous century. Soil water content during the larch-growing season showed no obvious trend, even when surface permafrost was allowed to decay and result in subsurface runoff. A sensitivity test showed that the forecast temperature and precipitation trends extended larch leafing days and reduced water shortages during the growing season, thereby increasing productivity. The integrated model also satisfactorily reconstructed latitudinal gradients in permafrost presence, soil moisture, tree leaf area index, and biomass over the entire larch-dominated area in eastern Siberia. Projected changes to ecosystem hydrology and larch productivity at this geographical scale were consistent with those from site-level simulation. This study reduces the uncertainty surrounding the impact of current climate trends on this globally important carbon reservoir, and it demonstrates the need

  16. Dynamics of the larch taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ningning [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Yasunari, Tetsuzo [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ohta, Takeshi, E-mail: zhangningning@lasg.iap.ac.cn [Study Consortium for Earth-Life Interactive Systems (SELIS) of Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Larch taiga, also known as Siberian boreal forest, plays an important role in global and regional water-energy-carbon (WEC) cycles and in the climate system. Recent in situ observations have suggested that larch-dominated taiga and permafrost behave as a coupled eco-climate system across a broad boreal zone of Siberia. However, neither field-based observations nor modeling experiments have clarified the synthesized dynamics of this system. Here, using a new dynamic vegetation model coupled with a permafrost model, we reveal the processes of interaction between the taiga and permafrost. The model demonstrates that under the present climate conditions in eastern Siberia, larch trees maintain permafrost by controlling the seasonal thawing of permafrost, which in turn maintains the taiga by providing sufficient water to the larch trees. The experiment without permafrost processes showed that larch would decrease in biomass and be replaced by a dominance of pine and other species that suffer drier hydroclimatic conditions. In the coupled system, fire not only plays a destructive role in the forest, but also, in some cases, preserves larch domination in forests. Climate warming sensitivity experiments show that this coupled system cannot be maintained under warming of about 2 deg. C or more. Under such conditions, a forest with typical boreal tree species (dark conifer and deciduous species) would become dominant, decoupled from the permafrost processes. This study thus suggests that future global warming could drastically alter the larch-dominated taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia, with associated changes of WEC processes and feedback to climate.

  17. Application of the Terra Modis Satellite Data for Environmental Monitoring in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenkoa, I. G.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2016-06-01

    Using the MODIS thematic products, the status of vegetation of oil producing areas in Western Siberia for the period 2010-2015 is monitored. An approach for estimating the impact of various factors on the ecology of oil producing areas using the NDVI coefficient and remote sensing data on the status of vegetation is proposed. The approach is tested within four technologically-disturbed lands - four oil fields, Krapivinskoye, Myldzhenskoye, Luginetskoye, and Urmanskoye in Tomsk region. The territory of the Oglatsky Status Nature Reserve of regional importance is investigated as a reference area.

  18. APPLICATION OF THE TERRA MODIS SATELLITE DATA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Yashchenkoa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the MODIS thematic products, the status of vegetation of oil producing areas in Western Siberia for the period 2010-2015 is monitored. An approach for estimating the impact of various factors on the ecology of oil producing areas using the NDVI coefficient and remote sensing data on the status of vegetation is proposed. The approach is tested within four technologically-disturbed lands – four oil fields, Krapivinskoye, Myldzhenskoye, Luginetskoye, and Urmanskoye in Tomsk region. The territory of the Oglatsky Status Nature Reserve of regional importance is investigated as a reference area.

  19. Cap-shaped gastropods from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northern East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzhov, A. V.; Zakharov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Cap-shaped gastropods are first identified in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sections of northern East Siberia. They belong to three new genera of the subclass Pectinibranchia ( Boreioconus gen. nov., Nixepileolus gen. nov., and Taimyroconus gen. nov.), which are identified at the species level ( B. bojarkensis sp. nov., N. depressus sp. nov., T. zakharovi sp. nov.), and several species with the open nomenclature. The genus Taimyroconus attributed to the family Calyptraeidae is considered as an ancestral form of the genus Crepidula. The stratigraphic position of each taxon is determined for several sections. The facies confinement, habitat conditions, and ethology of defined genera are considered with the analysis of their geographic distribution.

  20. Accounting for natural-climatic conditions in the design of roads in western Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir N. Efimenko; Sergey V. Efimenko; Alexey V. Sukhorukov

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodological scheme that thoroughly accounts for natural-climatic conditions which can impair the stability and longevity of transport facilities (roadways), to ensure the best possible quality of the initial road design. Factors determining the formation of water-heating mode subgrade soils are allocated, and an information database for mathematical modeling of geocomplexes is shown. Values of strength and deformability of clay soils are calculated within the limits of the defined, homogeneous road districts in Western Siberia to provide the required level of reliability of design solutions.

  1. Change in the circulation regime in the stratified saline Lake Shira (Siberia, Republic of Khakassia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belolipetskii, V. M.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Genova, S. N.; Rogozin, D. Y.

    2017-06-01

    The in-situ data on the vertical structure and stability of the vertical stratification of saline Lake Shira over the past decade (2007-2015) are analyzed. Simplified mathematical models have shown that strong wind in the autumn of 2014 together with rather thick ice in the winter of 2015 caused a change in the circulation regime of this water reservoir from meromictic (incomplete mixing) to holomictic (compete mixing). Based on the results obtained, a circulation regime for deep saline lakes located in the continental climate zone, in particular, in the arid zones of Southern Siberia (Khakassia, Transbaikal, and Altai) can be predicted under various climate scenarios of the future.

  2. Ethnomyocological data from Siberia and North-East Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M

    1991-02-01

    The paper includes literary data on the use of Amanita muscaria in Siberia and North-East Asia as well as information collected from ethnographers investigating these areas during the past decades. A survey is given on the cases and rules of Amanita muscaria consumption and the ways of its administration. The peoples having the tradition of Amanita muscaria consumption were aware of its different psychotrophic qualities and were able to use for several purposes. The fungus has been used by them as a psychostimulant having a simultaneous effect on several psychic functions.

  3. Ecosystem resilience to abrupt late Quaternary change in continental southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Poppy; Mackay, Anson; Bezrukova, Elena; Shchetnikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Quaternary climate variability is dominated by long term orbital forcing along with abrupt sub-Milankovitch events on the scales of millennia to centuries, driven by internal feedback mechanisms, volcanic forcing and fluctuating solar activity. Although these are well documented in the North Atlantic region, their expression is poorly understood in Siberia, particularly in relation to abrupt climatic events. Siberia has the world's highest level of continentality offering an opportunity to study changes remote from oceanic influences and improving understanding of interactions between the Siberian High and other atmospheric systems including the Aleutian Low, Arctic oscillation and Icelandic Low1 and ENSO2. Understanding of palaeoenvironmental change in Siberia is essential due to the region's high sensitivity to climatic change, with warming rates considerably higher than the global average over the past 50 years3, triggering significant environmental changes, including permafrost degradation, shifts in the forest-steppe biome, increases in forest fires and warming of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Additionally, the region provides essential palaeoenvironmental context for early hominins, for example at globally important sites such as Denisova cave4, and megafauna extinctions5. This presentation outlines ongoing work at Lake Baunt, SE Siberia including: key quaternary climate forcings, the site and its regional context, the key methods and preliminary results. These include a dated record back to ˜30ka BP (based on multiple 14C dates and Bayesian age modelling), multiproxy indicators of palaeoproductivity (e.g. biogenic silica and diatom analyses) and lake mixing regimes (inferred from diatom analyses). Together these highlight several key Quaternary fluctuations potentially correlated to events recorded in Greenland Ice Cores (GS2, GS2.1, GI1, GS1), and these are considered against key Quaternary records including those from nearby Lake Baikal and Hulu Cave in

  4. Dynamics of mountain glaciation in the South-Eastern Siberia over the past 160 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in areas of glaciers in three South-East Siberian mountainous regions (East Sayan, Baikalsky and Kodar ridges had been analyzed for the period since end of Little Ice Age (LIA to the present time (about 160 years. It was determined that since the end of LIA area of these glaciers reduced, on the aver- age, by 59% (or 0.37% per a year, and their termini retreated by 550 m (3.5 m/year. At the second half of 20th century deglaciation in mountains of South- Eastern Siberia proceeded more intensive than in other Siberian regions. 

  5. Optimizing the power of transformer substations in electric supply to the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Kudryashov, R.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Sud, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The problems which come up in designing substations for electricity supply grids for the oil fields in Western Siberia in determining their capacity are examined. A technique is proposed for technical and economic selection of the capacity of substations with consideration of the specifications for design documentation. The issues of rating loads on transformer substations and their prediction are examined. A technique for considering the overloading capability of transformers and their wear at the design load is presented. An example of power drop of an oil field, 35/6 kilovolt voltage substation is cited.

  6. Linking Satellite-Derived Fire Counts to Satellite-Derived Weather Data in Fire Prediction Models to Forecast Extreme Fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    different time scales. We spatially compare the FWI using GEOS-4 / GPCP data on a grid from 50-80 degrees latitude and 70 degrees East longitude to 170 degrees West longitude. We are covering the burning season from April through October for the years of 1999 and 2002. Extreme fires occurred in central Siberia in 2002. In contrast, minor fires occurred in central Siberia 1999. Our analysis shows a direct correlation between increased fire activity and increased FWI, independent of time or the severity of the fire season. We noticed the density of fire counts per 1-degree grid box increased with increasing FWI rating. During normal and extreme fire seasons, the percentage of 1-degree grid boxes with and without fire counts increased with increasing FWI rating. Given this analysis, we are confident large-scale weather and climate data, in this case from the GEOS reanalysis and the GPCP data sets, can be used to accurately assess future fire potential. This increases confidence in the ability of large-scale IPCC weather and climate scenarios to predict future fire regimes in boreal regions.

  7. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  8. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  9. Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

  10. ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald

    2014-05-01

    We employ elevation data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to investigate surface changes across the Lena Delta and sea ice of the coastal Laptev Sea, Siberia during winters of 2003 through 2008. We compare ICESat GLAS-derived elevation changes on sea ice and the Bykovskaya and Sardakhskaya Channels with datum-corrected tide gauge height measurements from Danai, Sannikova and Tiksi stations. We find the coastal sea ice and large inland ice covered channels elevation changes are in phase with the tide-height changes on a same-month-year and datum controlled basis. Furthermore, we find elevation change on tundra drained lake basins to be +0.03 +/- 0.02 m, on average. These findings indicate ICESat GLAS is capable of detection of tide fluxes of ice covered coastal rivers and with a small error range is suitable for investigations of active-layer and permafrost dynamics associated with seasonal freezing (heave) and thawing (subsidence) using repeat-location profiles. Ref.: Muskett, R.R., "ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 4 (1), pp. 1-9, 2014. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=41709.

  11. Saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in oils of Late Precambrian age from Eastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.G.; Douglas, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Large quantities of petroleum derived from source rocks of Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian age have been discovered in the Lena-Tunguska region of Eastern Siberia over the last twenty-five years. The authors have examined three oils, with presumed Late-Precambrian (Vendian) source rocks, from this region for C/sub 15/ + saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show these oils to have many characteristics in common with other oils of similar age from Eastern Siberia and Oman. Amongst the compounds detected in the three oils analyzed were: (1) n-alkanes which show a marine-derived distribution, (2) centrally branched monomethyl alkanes, (3) acyclic isoprenoids (pr/ph < 1), (4) tricyclic and tetracyclic terpanes, (5) hopanes, (6) C/sub 29/ unrearranged steranes, and (7) C/sub 30/ nuclear methylated steranes. All of these compounds with the exception of the 4-methylsteranes (which on current biochemical knowledge are unexpected in oils of this age), can be assigned a prokaryotic source. This and other evidence such as the lack of diasteranes suggest microorganisms were the major contributors to organic matter deposited as part of a carbonate source rock.

  12. EDUCATION FOR THE FUTURE: New Strategies of Distance Education For The Universities of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. KIRKO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main trends of global education and educational problems in the Arctic and Siberian regions. The modern labor markets are changing in the Arctic. The modern labor market requires the creation of new jobs associated with the provision of the Arctic zone with food. Small food productions will be created. We will need a mobile change of professional competence of those workers who work in the Arctic zone. Global world creates global competition in education. The quality of education and research in the region is the main source of development of this region. Economic and social development of the Arctic zone is impossible without the development of modern universities in the Siberian Arctic. In the near future the number of universities in the area of the Arctic and Siberian Russia will be reduced by 2 times. In this situation a complete transition to distance learning technologies is necessary. Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafijev (KSPU has established a network of Resource Centers in Krasnoyarsk Region (Eastern Siberia, Russia. Distance Education Resource Centers are connected into a single network, with the main center in KSPU (Krasnoyarsk, Russia. The Unified Network of Resource Centers, through distance education, will provide the required professional competence for people of the Arctic and the Northern zones of Eastern Siberia.

  13. The Voivode Government’s Genesis in Siberia: a Study of Key Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov G. Solodkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The voivode system of government emerged in Western Siberia at the turn of the 16th–17th centuries, following the legendary expedition of Yermak’s Cossacks. Its implementation depended crucially on the succession in which the Russian acquisition of the new vast territories had taken place. Voivodes and departmental administrators usually acted as county governors as the counties were formed around towns, with stockaded settlements shaping the scope of responsibility of departmental administrators, whose status and functions have often created considerable confusion in Russian historiography, inasmuch as they are frequently but groundlessly identified with voivodes, with the latter’s functions sometimes attributed to streltsy commanders or even Cossack atamans. In the early period of the Russian colonization of Siberia, as well as in the subsequent years, it was standard practice to send to the newly acquired lands voivodes and departmental administrators who possessed extensive experience in governance. The practice of Intra-Siberian transferring of departmental administrators, which gained wide currency in the 17th century, had been adopted well before 1599, the year when the Tobolsk department was established. In most cases, the officers who founded towns and stockaded settlements served a one-year term of appointment, with the latter being occasionally extended to two or three years.

  14. Arctic ice core records of vanillic acid from Siberia, Greenland, and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieman, M. M.; Saltzman, E. S.; McConnell, J.; Fritzsche, D.; Opel, T.; Isaksson, E. D.; Schwikowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source for atmospheric gases and aerosols, and an important part of the global carbon cycle and radiation budget. The factors controlling centennial and millennial variability in regional to global biomass burning dynamics are not well understood because there are few well-dated proxy records only. We are exploring ice core records of organic compounds resulting from incomplete combustion of lignin as tracers for biomass burning. In this study we investigate the distribution of vanillic acid (VA) in Arctic ice cores. VA is a major product of conifer combustion, but may also be produced from angiosperms. VA was measured in ice core samples using ion chromatography with electrospray MS/MS detection. Here we present measurements of vanillic acid in three Arctic ice cores from Siberia (Akademii Nauk; 0-3 kyr bp), northern Greenland (Tunu; 0-1.75 kyr bp), and Svalbard (Lomonosovfonna; 0-0.75 kyr bp). The Siberian record exhibits 3 strong centennial scale maxima (1200-600 BC, AD 300-800, and AD 1450-1700). All three cores exhibit a smaller feature around 1250, with a subsequent decline in Greenland and Svalbard. VA levels in Greenland and Svalbard are generally smaller than those in Siberia. These results suggest strong regional input from Northern Eurasian sources (i.e. boreal forests) to the Siberian core, and lower Arctic-wide "background" levels at the other sites.

  15. Lichens in the Urban Environment within South-East of Western Siberia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species diversity and trend of their distribution were studied in two big cities and fi ve towns in south-east of Western Siberia. In total of 348 species from 46 families and 98 genera were found in all studied urban and suburban areas. All local checklists are characterized by high degree of the lichen species similarity between each other and smaller lists are included in bigger ones on to 64-100%. Epiphytic lichens were the largest group in all studied areas and almost half of them were occupied two and more substrates. Crustose life-form and mesophytes prevailed everywhere. Share of sensitive lichens exceeded percent of tolerant ones in big cities and was lower than tolerant ones in smaller towns. The sixteen species were the most tolerant, commonly present everywhere and have been recognized as the key species for urban lichen synusiae within south-east of Western Siberia. Five zones have been determined with IP-mapping (mapping on the base of index of air pollution tolerance in studied areas: IP=3-5 is a “normal zone”, IP=5-7 is a “moderate exposure zone”, IP=7-9 is a “mixed zone”, IP=9-10 is a “struggle zone”, and fi nally – lichen-free zone. The most studied urban areas had got quite extensive lichen-free zone (up to 35% of their areas.

  16. Pacific winds preventing ice sheet buildup over Siberia during the Ice Age climax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Bakker, Pepijn; Prange, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    At the culmination of the last Ice Age ( 21,000 years ago), vast portions of the Northern Hemisphere land areas were buried under several-kilometer-thick ice sheets. Surprisingly, one of the coldest regions in the modern world, Northern Siberia, escaped this fate and remained largely ice free. To date, two potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: A regional precipitation deficit that would not allow for a sufficient snow accumulation and an increased dust deposition that would enhance snow melt during the summer ablation period. Here we use high-resolution climate and ice sheet simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum, land proxy data and paleoglacial reconstructions to link the absence of extensive glaciations to changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. Our analysis suggests that a reorganization of major stationary pressure systems resulted in strong seasonal winds from the Pacific Ocean that maintained warm spring and summer conditions over the Siberian coasts during the coldest stage of the last glacial period. Both our simulations and proxy data indicate snow-free summers over much of Northern Siberia, in particular due to a pronounced warming of the Arctic shelf placed above the sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum. Although of a regional nature, our finding presents a challenge to the polar amplification theory that cannot reconcile modern-like or even warmer Arctic summers during the Ice Age climax.

  17. Genome Sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an Acidophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium from Copper Mining Waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Abicht, Helge K.; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

  18. Genome sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from copper mining waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Helge K; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2011-11-01

    We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

  19. Sun-Earth Day:2008 Space Weather Around the World Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 1st in Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A very unique astronomical phenomenon will take place on the territory of Russia on the 1st August 2008.The total eclipse with a width of about 250 km will cross the Western Siberia from the north to the south,then will cross the Altai Mountains and will go further to the difficult to access regions of China and Mongolia.

  20. Palaeodistribution modelling of European vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum using modern analogues from Siberia: Prospects and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janská, Veronika; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Divíšek, Jan; Anenkhonov, Oleg; Korolyuk, Andrey; Lashchinskyi, Nikolai; Culek, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We modelled the European distribution of vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using present-day data from Siberia, a region hypothesized to be a modern analogue of European glacial climate. Distribution models were calibrated with current climate using 6274 vegetation-plot records surveyed in Siberia. Out of 22 initially used vegetation types, good or moderately good models in terms of statistical validation and expert-based evaluation were computed for 18 types, which were then projected to European climate at the LGM. The resulting distributions were generally consistent with reconstructions based on pollen records and dynamic vegetation models. Spatial predictions were most reliable for steppe, forest-steppe, taiga, tundra, fens and bogs in eastern and central Europe, which had LGM climate more similar to present-day Siberia. The models for western and southern Europe, regions with a lower degree of climatic analogy, were only reliable for mires and steppe vegetation, respectively. Modelling LGM vegetation types for the wetter and warmer regions of Europe would therefore require gathering calibration data from outside Siberia. Our approach adds value to the reconstruction of vegetation at the LGM, which is limited by scarcity of pollen and macrofossil data, suggesting where specific habitats could have occurred. Despite the uncertainties of climatic extrapolations and the difficulty of validating the projections for vegetation types, the integration of palaeodistribution modelling with other approaches has a great potential for improving our understanding of biodiversity patterns during the LGM.

  1. Experience and Perspectives of Art History Development in Educational Space of Siberia at the Turn of XX-XXI ?enturies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhvyadovich, Larisa Ivanovna; Chernyaeva, Irina Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article has a program-analytical nature, contains an analysis and assessment of the scientific school of T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Arts, professor, member of Russian Union of Artists. The goal of T. M. Stepanskaya's professional activity is incorporation of Art History in higher educational institutions in Siberia. The authors consider the…

  2. Understanding the mechanisms of blooming of phytoplankton in Lake Shira, a saline lake in Siberia (the Republic of Khakasia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Gulati, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarises the results of a three-year research study (European Union Grant: INTAS 97-O519) aimed at investigating the planktonic populations and trophic organization of the Lake Shira ecosystem – a saline lake in Khakasia, Siberia. The lake exhibits a stable summer-autumn stratification o

  3. Climate-Driven Changes Within the Larch Forest of Northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to the support of NASA's Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Focus Area programs, joint NASA/ Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences studies have been conducted throughout Siberia. The overall objective has been to obtain field and satellite measurements to examine carbon stocks and track changes in forests across this vast area. In this presentation, we discuss some of the finding from this 25+ year collaboration' i.e., observed climate-driven changes within larch communities in northern Siberia. Field measurements and satellite data, including Terra/MODIS, Landsat, GRACE and QuickBird were used for analysis of forest conditions. The following results will be discussed. (1). At the northern limit of larch (Larix gmelinii) range (i.e.,~72°N) tree mortality was observed during the cooling period from the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Post- Little Ice Age (LIA) trees re-establishment followed warming temperatures by the middle of the19th century. The current tree line has recovered to the pre-LIA line location although tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower. The mean rate of upward migration was found to be 0.35 m yr-1 (with a range of 0.21-0.58). (2) The migration of the "dark needle conifers" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata) into the southern margin zone of larch dominated forest was documented. Meanwhile, within the traditional DNC range decline and mortality of both Siberian pine and fir were observed and attributed, primarily, due to an increased drought. (3) Within Central Siberia larch growth is limited by early summer temperatures and available water from thawing permafrost. Larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), drought (SPEI; r = 0.68-0.82), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), previous year precipitation (r = 0.63) and soil water anomalies (r = 0.79). Larch TRW growth and Gross Primary Productivity

  4. Forest fire plumes sampled above Siberia during YAK-AEROSIB/POLARCAT airborne campaigns: properties and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J.-D.; Nedelec, P.; Stohl, A.; Arshinov, M. Yu.; Belan, B. D.; Ciais, P.

    2009-04-01

    The composition of the Siberian troposphere remains highly unknown due to a lack of measurements in this area. Siberia is a key region for a quantified understanding of many land-atmosphere exchange processes. As an example, Siberian forest fire emissions are a major extratropical source of CO to the atmosphere. Fire-emitted trace gases and particles are subject to long-range transport and may contribute to pollution of nearby Arctic. However, establishing precise top-down estimates of sources strengths based on satellite or surface network measurements for species such as CO is limited by models' ability to represent sub-grid-scale dynamics associated to the wildfire (pyroconvection) and the injection height of the plume. In an experimental effort to address this issue and to increase our knowledge of the properties of the Siberian troposphere, CO, O3, CO2 and fine particles were measured onboard a research aircraft in the frame of the YAK-AEROSIB project, partially as a contribution to the Summer 2008 POLARCAT programme. Two large scale transects were established over Northern and Central Siberia between 7 and 21 July 2008. The aircraft flight pattern consisted of ramp ascents and descents so as to sample as many vertical profiles as possible. Very high CO concentrations were observed at various altitudes, essentially in Eastern Siberia near Yakutsk and Chokurdakh. The highest concentrations (up to 600ppb) were observed between 2 and 5 km (flight ceiling being at 7km) in very thin layers (few hundreds of m thick). A Lagrangian modelling analysis (FLEXPART) revealed that the aircraft sampled fire plumes from regional fire emissions, east of Yakutsk, after about 2 days of transport. The observed fire plumes are also characterized by anomalies in O3 and excess particle concentrations. These data provide new constraints on our understanding of forest fire plume transport. They also constitute a critical testbench for the models used to assess pyrogenic emissions and

  5. Sociological Aspects of Rotational Employment in the Northern Territories of Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Nikolaevich Silin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes features of the lifestyle associated with rotational employment system in developing oil and gas resources of Northwestern Siberia. It shows the change in conceptual approaches to the organization of commuting, the dynamics of key parameters, the socio-cultural features of mobile and multilocal lifestyle of commuters. The consideration of the rotational method as complex and significant for the implementation of the tasks set for the Arctic and subarctic areas of Russia has allowed to reveal the interaction system of basic elements of commuting and offer more efficient tools and technologies as compared to traditional management. The author presents some results of the sociological research in the oil and gas companies located in Northwestern Siberia. The work discloses the factors of negative impact of commuting on health, physical and social well-being of people leading “double” and mobile lives. They are the following: need for long stay in closed space with strangers, differences in natural conditions of places of residence and work (pressure drops, oxygen deficiency in the North, light aperiodicity, food and water quality, cold and mosquitoes, separation from family, etc., increased physical and emotional stress. The surveys of employees on rotation, their families and management of the enterprises using this method in the oil and gas areas of the Western-Siberian North, conducted by the author for four decades, have given the opportunity to identify the causes of people’s dissatisfaction with conditions of their life, their attitude to authorities and different aspects of organization of production and life, transportation from place of residence to place of employment and back, etc. Geography of fly-in fly-out transportation and the level of satisfaction with various elements of such work have recently changed. The priority importance of payment for labor efforts has only preserved. Besides, if in the Soviet

  6. Southern East Siberia Pliocene–Quaternary faults: Database, analysis and inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Lunina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first release of an Informational System (IS devoted to the systematic collection of all available data relating to Pliocene–Quaternary faults in southern East Siberia, their critical analysis and their seismotectonic parameterization. The final goal of this project is to form a new base for improving the assessment of seismic hazard and other natural processes associated with crustal deformation. The presented IS has been exploited to create a relational database of active and conditionally active faults in southern East Siberia (between 100°–114° E and 50°–57° N whose central sector is characterized by the highly seismic Baikal rift zone. The information within the database for each fault segment is organized as distinct but intercorrelated sections (tables, texts and pictures, etc. and can be easily visualized as HTML pages in offline browsing. The preliminary version of the database distributed free on disk already highlights the general fault pattern showing that the Holocene and historical activity is quite uniform and dominated by NE–SW and nearly E–W trending faults; the former with a prevailing dip-slip normal kinematics, while the latter structures are left-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip (with different proportion of left-lateral and normal fault slip components. These faults are mainly concentrated along the borders of the rift basins and are the main sources of moderate-to-strong (M ≥ 5.5 earthquakes on the southern sectors of East Siberia in recent times. As a whole, based on analyzing the diverse fault kinematics and their variable spatial distribution with respect to the overall pattern of the tectonic structures formed and/or activated during the late Pliocene–Quaternary, we conclude they were generated under a regional stress field mainly characterized by a relatively uniform NW–SE tension, but strongly influenced by the irregular hard boundary of the old Siberian craton. The

  7. Southern East Siberia PlioceneeQuaternary faults:Database, analysis and inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oksana V. Lunina; Riccardo Caputo; Anton A. Gladkov; Andrey S. Gladkov

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first release of an Informational System (IS) devoted to the systematic collection of all available data relating to PlioceneeQuaternary faults in southern East Siberia, their critical analysis and their seismotectonic parameterization. The final goal of this project is to form a new base for improving the assessment of seismic hazard and other natural processes associated with crustal defor-mation. The presented IS has been exploited to create a relational database of active and conditionally active faults in southern East Siberia (between 100º-114º E and 50º-57ºN) whose central sector is characterized by the highly seismic Baikal rift zone. The information within the database for each fault segment is organized as distinct but intercorrelated sections (tables, texts and pictures, etc.) and can be easily visualized as HTML pages in offline browsing. The preliminary version of the database distributed free on disk already highlights the general fault pattern showing that the Holocene and historical activity is quite uniform and dominated by NEeSW and nearly EeW trending faults;the former with a prevailing dip-slip normal kinematics, while the latter structures are left-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip (with different proportion of left-lateral and normal fault slip components). These faults are mainly concen-trated along the borders of the rift basins and are the main sources of moderate-to-strong (M≧5.5) earthquakes on the southern sectors of East Siberia in recent times. As a whole, based on analyzing the diverse fault kinematics and their variable spatial distribution with respect to the overall pattern of the tectonic structures formed and/or activated during the late PlioceneeQuaternary, we conclude they were generated under a regional stress field mainly characterized by a relatively uniform NWeSE tension, but strongly influenced by the irregular hard boundary of the old Siberian craton. The obtained inferences are in an

  8. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  9. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  10. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  11. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  12. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  13. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  15. Larch Forests of Middle Siberia: Long-Term Trends in Fire Return Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Dvinskaya, Mariya L.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65+degN). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRIs) were found to be 112 +/- 49 years (based on firescars) and 106 +/- 36 years (based on firescars and tree natality dates). FRIs were increased with latitude increase and observed to be about 80 years at 64N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (approx.71+degN). Northward FRIs increase correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Post- Little Ice Age (LIA) warming (after 1850) caused approximately a doubling of fire events (in comparison with a similar period during LIA). The data obtained support a hypothesis of climate-induced fire frequency increase. Keywords Fire ecology Fire history Fire frequency Siberian wildfires Larch forests Climate change

  16. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs.

  17. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyboś, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied.

  18. Comparison of diaristic relations from exile to Siberia of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Szymon Tokarzewski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wilkołaska-Karpierz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study contains a comparison of diarist's relations from exile to Syberia of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Szymon Tokarzewski. The subject of analysis are diaries of the Polish exile, mainly Siedem lat katorgi (Seven years of penal servitude and Fyodor Dostoyevsky's famous The House of the Dead. The author compared an image of Siberia and its inhabitants contained in both relations, a descrption of the ordeal itself and the relations between Dostoyevsky and Tokarzewski, submitted to detailed analysis, at the time when both of them were in exile. The subject of this work is also the artistic shape of both works. The article reminds of the relatively little known works of Szymon Tokarzewski to which a comparable space was devoted as to that of Dostoyevsky.

  19. Attaining khinem: challenges, coping strategies and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulturgasheva, Olga

    2014-10-01

    This article examines challenges, coping strategies, and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia. It explores situations which the study participants associate with challenge and hardship, namely their experiences of transition from life in the family reindeer herding camp to schooling at the age of 7, bullying, boredom, and violence. By situating the data within the Eveny framework of resilience (khinem), the study provides the ethnographic context for coping strategies and efforts (e.g., sharing, inter- and intragenerational support, availability of safe homes) undertaken by the community in order to mitigate the situations of risk and hardship and to facilitate adolescents' resilience. The account emphasizes that instead of identifying adolescents as either resilient or vulnerable, it is necessary to explore culturally specific processes and practices which potentially contribute to their acquisition of resilience.

  20. Types of Structure and Sustainability of Forest Shelter Belts in the Southern Part of Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Varaksin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The series of tree stem diameter distributions has been basis for study tree stand structure in forest shelter belts. The measurements were carried out in forest shelter belts of the southern part of the Central Siberia. Experimental sample plots have been established in the Republic of Khakassia (Ust-Abakan, Beisk, and Shira districts, Krasnoyarsk Territory (Shushenskoe and Minusinsk districts, and the Republic of Tuva (Kyzyl district. The analysis of tree stem diameter distributions series allowed making reference table in determining the shape of distributions in the forest shelter belts. The evaluation involves allocation of six types of the tree stem diameter series: symmetric, left asymmetric, right asymmetric, peak, flat, and pectinate. Comparing agro-technical features of creating tree stands and distributions series of the tree stem diameters, the optimal parameters in terms of sustainability for different tree species has been determined.

  1. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  2. Climate-induced landsliding within the larch dominant permafrost zone of central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Shushpanov, Alexandr S.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-04-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62 000 km2. Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68-0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with t max > 0 °C r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes.

  3. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  4. Carbon Balance Assessment of a Natural Steppe of Southern Siberia by Multiple Constraint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belelli, L.; Papale, D.; Reichstein, M.; Vuichard, N.; Tchebakova, N.; Valentini, R.

    2007-12-01

    Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002). Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003), make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches. We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion. The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 gC m-2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 gC m-2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty \\(±130%\\) considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover) have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its own merits and flaws.

  5. Obesity in occupational groups of Western Siberia: comparison with representative national data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Maksimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare obesity prevalences in the occupational groups of Western Siberia with the national data. Materials and methods: We performed a single-step cross-sectional study enrolling 4472 employees of 14 occupational groups from Western Siberian institutions and enterprises. Obesity was considered to be present if the body mass index was >30.0 kg/m2; sex, age and education data were obtained with questionnaires. Age-adjusted obesity prevalence in the occupational groups (separately for men and women was compared with the national data with calculation of odds ratio, attributable risk and 95% confidence interval. Results: Among women the prevalence of obesity was lower in teachers compared with the national data (OR=0.45; 95% CI: 0.31–0.66. Higher obesity prevalence was observed among operating personnel and technical workers (OR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.37–2.09 as well as metallurgy equipment operators (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.17–2.31. Among males higher obesity prevalence was registered in top-managers (OR=2.53; 95% CI: 1.80–3.55, operating personnel and technical workers (OR=2.03; 95% CI: 1.59–2.58, civil servants (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.27–2.40, and mechanics (OR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.08–1.73. Moreover, in women university education (higher percentage of employees having graduated from a higher professional institution led to less obesity prevalence. In males no such tendencies were observed. Conclusions: The study allowed to identify the occupational groups of Western Siberia with higher obesity prevalence and to demonstrate the impact of sex and education level on this parameter. The obtained data can make a theoretical and practical basis for primary and secondary prevention of obesity in the workplace.

  6. Thermal analysis of wood of the main tree species of Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Loskutov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of wood from coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia has been studied using thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The tree species were larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., fir Abies sibirica Ledeb., Siberian pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour., birch Betula pendula Roth., and aspen Populus tremula L. Thermal analysis of wood samples was carried out under oxidative (air and inert (argon atmospheres from 25 to 700 °С at heating rates 10, 20, 40 °С • min–1 (TG/DTG and from 25 to 590 °С at heating rates 10, 40 °С • min–1 (DSC. The stages of thermal decomposition, the temperature intervals, the mass loss, the mass loss rate, the temperature of DTG/DSC peaks, and heating effects were determined for each tree species. The kinetic thermal degradation parameters of wood were obtained by the Broido and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall models. The wood of coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia was characterized on the base of analysis of activation energy values at various stages of thermal decomposition and the relations of activation energy on conversion level of wood substance of different tree species, and also the comparison of mass loss at the same stages of thermal destruction, heating effects, residual mass and other parameters of TG/DTG, DSC. In our opinion, the results of this work present interest for researchers and specialists in the field of forest pyrology, wood science, dendrochemistry.

  7. Radiative Characteristics of Aerosol During Extreme Fire Event over Siberia in Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solarradiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analyzed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under back-ground conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95+/-0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16+/-0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approx. 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm)=0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD.

  8. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman, 2002; Curtis, 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7± 30.1 gC m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 gC m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its own merits and

  9. Seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal-scale variability of biogeochemical trace gases and O2 from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Elena A.; Manning, Andrew C.; Kisilyakhov, Yegor; Seifert, Thomas; Heimann, Martin

    2008-12-01

    We present first results from 19 months of semicontinuous concentration measurements of biogeochemical trace gases (CO2, CO, and CH4) and O2, measured at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the boreal forest of central Siberia. We estimated CO2 and O2 seasonal cycle amplitudes of 26.6 ppm and 134 per meg, respectively. An observed west-east gradient of about -7 ppm (in July 2006) between Shetland Islands, Scotland, and ZOTTO reflects summertime continental uptake of CO2 and is consistent with regional modeling studies. We found the oceanic component of the O2 seasonal amplitude (Atmospheric Potential Oxygen, or APO) to be 51 per meg, significantly smaller than the 95 per meg observed at Shetlands, illustrating a strong attenuation of the oceanic O2 signal in the continental interior. Comparison with the Tracer Model 3 (TM3) atmospheric transport model showed good agreement with the observed phasing and seasonal amplitude in CO2; however, the model exhibited greater O2 (43 per meg, 32%) and smaller APO (9 per meg, 18%) amplitudes. This seeming inconsistency in model comparisons between O2 and APO appears to be the result of phasing differences in land and ocean signals observed at ZOTTO, where ocean signals have a significant lag. In the first 2 months of measurements on the fully constructed tower (November and December 2006), we observed several events with clear vertical concentration gradients in all measured species except CO. During "cold events" (below -30°C) in November 2006, we observed large vertical gradients in CO2 (up to 22 ppm), suggesting a strong local source. The same pattern was observed in CH4 concentrations for the same events. Diurnal vertical CO2 gradients in April to May 2007 gave estimates for average nighttime respiration fluxes of 0.04 ± 0.02 mol C m-2 d-1, consistent with earlier eddy covariance measurements in 1999-2000 in the vicinity of the tower.

  10. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  11. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to ...

  12. Morphology and biology of Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 in high mountain lakes of East Siberia (including Lake Amut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Natalya G.; Itigilova, Mydygma Ts.; Chananbaator, Ayushcuren

    2017-03-01

    Data on zooplankton from 13 high-mountain lakes of East Siberia have shown that the Holarctic copepod Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 dominates among crustaceans. In July, its abundance comprised 64%-98% of the total plankton fauna in the pelagial of these lakes, approximately 30% in the littoral zone and 10% in small northern thermokarst lakes. Biometric measurements and morphological descriptions based on scanning microscope images are supplemented by the data on its geographic distribution and phenology.

  13. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone.

  14. FIRST RECORD OF SCUTIGERA COLEOPTRATA (LINNAEUS, 1758 IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA, RUSSIA (CHILOPODA: SCUTIGEROMORPHA: SCUTIGERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Nefediev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The order, family, genus and species of the house centipede are new to Asian Russia’s list: Scutigeromorpha, Scutigeridae, Scutigera Lamark, 1801, and Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758. All records of the species in the south of western Siberia appear to be associated with synanthropic habitats. Distributional remarks are provided, all currently reported findings being mapped as well.

  15. Russia and Islam: state policy on formation of tolerance of Muslims in Western Siberia (1773–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Counteraction to Islamic extremism is the major problem in the modern world. The government of the Russian Empire solved this problem through purposeful education of confessional tolerance of Muslims in 1773–1917. Authors compare understanding of tolerance in Russia and in Western Siberia in 1773-1917, emphasizing that in the Tyumen region society understood this term the same as now. On the basis of earlier unknown archival documents of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan authors consider a state policy on formation of a certain option of Islam which provides religious tolerance in Russia. In article the main attention is paid to Western Siberia as exactly there the confessional state policy made the greatest success. The main directions of a state policy were: to unify Muslim culture according to orthodox samples; to keep the Siberian option of Islam; to create obstacles for distribution of standard Islam; to develop the state measures which would show respect for Muslims and care of them. Authors consider ways of deformation of Muslim culture in Western Siberia: change of architectural forms of mosques and necropolises, deformation of cult objects (existence of a religious sculpture, selection of literature in Muslim libraries, the facilitated conditions for examinations on the mullah's rank, appointment to positions of muftis without spiritual education in the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting, creation of obstacles for commission of a hajj to Mecca for mullahs.

  16. Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D. J.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Kovaleva, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due to the presence of generally untreated logging slash (i.e., available fuel) which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population; this increases the risk for fire ignition. Fire impacts on the overstory trees, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on 14 logged and unlogged comparison sites in the Lower Angara Region in 2009-2010 as part of the NASA-funded NEESPI project, The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia. Based on calculated fuel consumption, we estimated carbon emission from fires on both logged and unlogged burned sites. Carbon emission from fires on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration decreased on both site types after fires. This reduction may partially offset fire-produced carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  17. Fire effects on hydrochemistry of streams draining watersheds with continuous permafrost distribution in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires, assumed to be the main disturbance factor in the boreal biome, are tended to increase in frequency and severity under "dry warming" (Conard et al. 2002). Short fire-return interval in larch dominated permafrost terrains of Siberia (Kharuk et al., 2008) exert significant control on ecosystem biogeochemical cycling throughout the complex influences of deforestation, ground vegetation and organic layer combustion as well as deepen soil active layer. Despite extensive research of fire impact on carbon exchange between soil, forest biomass and atmosphere in permafrost affected regions of Siberia, much less is known on the role of fire in control of element transport in rivers and watersheds affected by fire events. To analyze the effect of fires on chemical composition of surface fluids in permafrost zone, fourteen small forested watersheds (3-25 km2) have been selected in mid-stream of Nizhnyaya Tunguska River (Yenissey basin, Central Siberia, Russia). Analysis of larch trees in forest stands of the area demonstrated that presumably all basins were affected by wildfires in the past. Selected watersheds have been influenced by ground fires (>90% of watershed area) ca 110, 60 and 15 years ago (respectively in 1899, 1947 and 1993). Water sampling campaign has been conducted from snowmelt (mid-May) to the start of freezing (mid-October) on weekly and/or monthly interval in 2006-2009. In this study, we analyzed the dissolved loads for major and trace element concentrations. In terms of concentration changes in the course of the year, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as well as associated elements like Fe, Al, Y and REE) and inorganic ions (e.g. DIC, Cl, Ca, Na, Mg etc.) demonstrated opposite tendencies during a frost-free season in all streams. However, basins with recent fire effect exhibited generally lower DOC concentrations in streams along with much more pronounced seasonal increase in concentrations of inorganic compounds. The increased

  18. A reconstruction of vegetation and paleohydrologycal changes from peatland in Kansk forest-steppe, Yenisei Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important natural archive for past climatic changes. Climatic changes throughout the Holocene have been reconstructed from peat using a wide array of biological and other proxies. Many different proxy indicators can be derived from peat cores allowing for a multi-proxy approach to climatic reconstructions. Peat-based climatic and environmental reconstructions are currently available from many sites in Yenisei Siberia, mainly for its northern territories. The purpose of this paper is to study some features of peatland development and environmental reconstructions from the Holocene period in the south part of Yenisei Siberia (Kansk forest-steppe zone). The main method used in this research is macrofossil analysis. It can be used to reconstruct the development of local vegetation and surface wetness on peatlands. The macrofossil analysis in the peat resulted from the study of the vegetation in a particular place over a period of time, and it allowed the reconstruction of environmental changes that have occurred since the Late Glacial. Then we used ecological scales of moisture and reconstructed surface wetness for the entire period of the bog formation. Radiocarbon dating was carried out at Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk . Peatland "Pinchinskoye" was selected for investigation in Kansk forest-steppe. It is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River in the floodplain of Esaulovka River. Peat cores of 350 cm were selected in the southern part of the peatbog, including 225 cm of peat (with loam layers in the range of 90 to 135 cm), 75 cm of organic and mineral sapropel with the inclusion of fossil shells of mollusks and different plant macrofossils and 50 cm of the loam below. The process of peat accumulation dated back 8400 ± 140 years, which is the oldest date for the forest-steppe zone of Yenisei Siberia. The climate of Boreal period of the Holocene was chilly. Under these conditions, in the

  19. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  20. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  1. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  2. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  3. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    member states are to be brought together. The COMETT Program has elicited great interest within the EC. According to Volker Gehmlich, who is active...of a brand name, an efficient distribution mechanism and a com- petitive cost price. The European "winners" are espe- cially West Germany, which has

  4. Database for West Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such database can prove an invaluable source of information for a wide range of agricultural and ... national soil classification systems around the world ... West African Journal of Appl ied Ecology, vol. .... SDB FAO-ISRIC English, French, Spanish Morphology and analytical ..... Furthermore, it will enhance the state of soil.

  5. The West's dismissal of the Khabarovsk trial as 'communist propaganda': ideology, evidence and international bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2004-01-01

    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond a reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with the evidence presented to the court and its major findings--which have proved remarkably accurate--was dismissed as communist propaganda and totally ignored in the West until the 1980s. This paper reviews the 1949 Khabarovsk trial, examines the West's dismissal of the proceedings as mere propaganda and draws some moral lessons for bioethics today. As an important historical case, set in the unique socio-political context of the Cold War, the West's dismissal of the trial powerfully illustrates some perennial ethical issues such as the ambivalence of evidence and power of ideology in making (or failing to make) cross-national and cross-cultural factual and moral judgments.

  6. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  7. The Last Glacial Ecosystems of North Siberia: Permafrost-Sealed Evidence from Fossiliferous Cryolithic Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Multi-proxy palaeoecology and geoarchaeology records released from degrading permafrost in the Yana River Basin and the tributary valleys (66-67°N) confirm the past existence of natural conditions for sustainment of the Pleistocene megafauna as well as the last glacial peopling of this sub-polar area. Well-preserved and taxonomically diverse large fossil fauna skeletal remains sealed in the Pleistocene colluvial and alluvial-plain formations in intact geological positions 10-20 m above the present river and scattered on gravelly river banks after their erosion from the primary geo-contexts attest to a high biotic potential of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 3-2) sub-Arctic forest-tundra. Pollen records from the ancient interstratified boggy sediments and megafauna coprolites (14C-dated to 41-38 ka BP) show a predominance of the Siberian larch, dwarf birch and willow in the local vegetation cover accompanied by grassy communities during the mid-Last Glacial stage not dissimilar from the present northern taiga forest. Articulated and humanly used/worked fauna bones (mammoth, rhinoceros, horse, bison and reindeer among other species) point to co-existence of the large animals with the Upper Palaeolithic people within the mosaic open riverine ecosystems of the late Last Ice Age. The time-trangressive macro-lithic stone industry produced from pre-selected river gravel cobbles document some specific ways of human environmental adjustment to past periglacial settings. Geomorphology and hydrogeology indices of field mappings in congruence with the long-term statistical meteorology data illustrate a steadily increasing annual temperature trend in the broader Yana-Adycha Basins (current MAT -14.5°C) that triggers accelerated permafrost thaw across the Verkhoyansk Region of NE Siberia, particularly the lowlands, similarly as in the Indigirka and Kolyma Basins further East. The regional fluvial discharge is most dynamic during late spring due to the cumulative effects of snow

  8. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards a better understanding of trace element transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ∼ 60 large and small rivers (2 watershed area of Western Siberia Lowland (WSL during spring flood and summer and winter base-flow across a 1500 km latitudinal gradient covering continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. Analysis of ∼ 40 major and trace elements in dissolved ( The Principal Component Analysis demonstrated two main factors potentially controlling the ensemble of TE concentration variation. The first factor, responsible for 16–20 % of overall variation, included trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates, Cr, V, and DOC and presumably reflected the presence of organo-mineral colloids, as also confirmed by previous studies in Siberian rivers. The 2nd factor (8–14 % variation was linked to the latitude of the watershed and acted on elements affected by the groundwater feeding (DIC, Sr, Mo, As, Sb, U, whose concentration decreased significantly northward during all seasons. Overall, the rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (3 permafrost zones > season > watershed size. The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TE but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding vs. bog water feeding determined the pattern of trace element concentration and fluxes in rivers of various size as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most trace elements; the lithology of base rocks was the major

  9. Development of provisions for oil contaminated soil neutralizing in the conditions of Siberia and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtripling, L. O.; Kholkin, E. G.

    2017-08-01

    Siberia and the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation occupy a large area of the country and they differ from other regions in special climatic conditions, in particular, a long period of freezing temperatures and relatively poor infrastructure. The main problem of neutralizing soils contaminated with oil products in conditions of negative ambient temperature is that the contaminated soil is in a frozen state, and it prevents the normal course of neutralization process, so additional energy is required for preparing the soil. There is proposed a technology adapted to the conditions of Siberia and the Arctic for the operational elimination of emergency situations consequences accompanied with oil spills. The technology for neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products is based on the encapsulation of a pollutant (reagent capsulation technology) using an alkaline calcium-based reagent. Powdered building quicklime is used as a reagent, and it is a product of roasting carbonate rocks or a mixture of this product with mineral additives (calcium oxide). The encapsulated material obtained as a result of neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products is resistant to natural and man-made factors such as moisture, temperature fluctuations, acid rain and high pressure. Energy use from the chemical detoxification exothermic process of soils contaminated with petroleum products in combination with the forced supply of carbon dioxide to the neutralization zone during the formation of a shell from calcium carbonate on the surface of the pollutant makes it possible to neutralize soils contaminated with oil products in the extreme climatic conditions of the Arctic using reagent Encapsulation. The principle of equipment operation that allows neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products in the natural and climatic conditions of the Arctic using reagent capsulation technology has been described. The results of experimental studies have been presented that

  10. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  11. Physical processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia – observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta have been investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a three year period (2009–2012, together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. The data were used for numerical modeling with FLake software, and also to determine the physical indices of the lakes. The lakes vary in area, depths and volumes. The winter thermal regime is characterized by an ice cover up to 2 m thick that survives for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increase at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. The effects of solar radiation return prior to ice break-up, effectively warming the water beneath the ice cover and inducing convective mixing. Ice break-up starts the beginning of June and takes until the middle or end of June for completion. Mixing occurs within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continues during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers. Some of the lakes located closest to the Lena River are subjected to varying levels of spring flooding with river water, on an annual basis. Numerical modeling using FLake software indicates that the vertical heat flux across the bottom sediment tends towards an annual mean of zero, with maximum downward fluxes of about 5 W m−2 in summer and with heat released back into the water column at a~rate of less than 1 W m−2 during the ice-covered period. The lakes are shown to be efficient heat absorbers and effectively distribute the heat through mixing. Monthly bottom water temperatures during the ice

  12. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  13. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change, Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Jon, R.; Im, S.

    2007-12-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  14. Populations of wild and feral reindeer in Siberia and Far East of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Baskin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification and cataloging of discrete reindeer (Rangifer tarandus populations in Siberia and the Far East of Russia has not been carried out. This prohibits accurate measures of population structure and dynamics that would allow more intensive management of this important renewable resource. To rectify the lack of information, an inventory was made that identifies 84 wild populations and 3 feral populations originating from domestic reindeer. This inventory summarizes the information available on the location, approximate population size, approximate range size, and occurrence by ecoregions and habitat types of each of those 87 reindeer populations. The 87 reindeer populations used a collective landmass of about 3 000 000 km2. The range size for each population was calculated to be between 446 km2 and 392 267 km2, with a mean ± SE of 34 033 ± 5734 km2. The 86 populations for which population size could be approximated totaled 790 655 reindeer, with an approximate mean ± SE of 9194 ± 2517, a minimum size of 50, and maximum size of 145 000. The location of the calving grounds could be determined for only 26 (30% of the 87 reindeer populations.

  15. On the change of latitude of Arctic East Siberia at the end of the Pleistocene

    CERN Document Server

    Wölfli, W

    2007-01-01

    Mammoths lived in Arctic East Siberia. In this region there is not sufficient sunlight over the year for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed. Therefore the latitude of this region was lower before the end of the Pleistocene. As the cause of this geographic pole shift, we postulate a massive object, which moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot from tidal work and solar radiation. Evaporation produced a disk-shaped cloud of ions around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the solar radiation, producing the cold and warm periods that characterize the Pleistocene. The shielding depends on the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100'000 years. The cloud builds up to a density at which inelastic particle collisions induce its collapse The resulting near-periodic time dependence resembles that of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. During cold periods fine grained inclusions were deposited into the ice. The Pleistocene ended when the massive object had a close encounter with the ...

  16. The Tunka Radio Extension (Tunka-Rex): Radio Measurements of Cosmic Rays in Siberia (PISA 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, F G; Budnev, N M; Gress, O A; Haungs, A; Hiller, R; Huege, T; Kazarina, Y; Kleifges, M; Konstantinov, E N; Korosteleva, E E; Kostunin, D; Krömer, O; Kuzmichev, L A; Lubsandorzhiev, N; Mirgazov, R R; Monkhoev, R; Pakhorukov, A; Pankov, L; Prosin, V V; Rubtsov, G I; Wischnewski, R; Zagorodnikov, A

    2015-01-01

    The Tunka observatory is located close to Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. Its main detector, Tunka-133, is an array of photomultipliers measuring Cherenkov light of air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the energy range of approximately $10^{16}-10^{18}\\,$eV. In the last years, several extensions have been built at the Tunka site, e.g., a scintillator array named Tunka-Grande, a sophisticated air-Cherenkov-detector prototype named HiSCORE, and the radio extension Tunka-Rex. Tunka-Rex started operation in October 2012 and currently features 44 antennas distributed over an area of about $3\\,$km$^2$, which measure the radio emission of the same air showers detected by Tunka-133 and Tunka-Grande. Tunka-Rex is a technological demonstrator that the radio technique can provide an economic extension of existing air-shower arrays. The main scientific goal is the cross-calibration with the air-Cherenkov measurements. By this cross-calibration, the precision for the reconstruction of the energy and mass of the primary...

  17. Estimation of Continental-Basin-Scale Sublimation in the Lena River Basin, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lena River basin in Siberia produces one of the largest river inflows into the Arctic Ocean. One of the most important sources of runoff to the river is spring snowmelt and therefore snow ablation processes have great importance for this basin. In this study, we simulated these processes with fine resolution at basin scale using MicroMet/SnowModel and SnowAssim. To assimilate snow water equivalent (SWE data in SnowAssim, we used routine daily snow depth data and Sturm’s method. Following the verification of this method for SWE estimation in the basin, we evaluated the impact of snow data assimilation on basin-scale snow ablation. Through validation against MODIS snow coverage data and in situ snow survey observations, we found that SnowAssim could not improve on the original simulation by MicroMet/SnowModel because of estimation errors within the SWE data. Vegetation and accumulated snowfall control the spatial distribution of sublimation and we established that sublimation has an important effect on snow ablation. We found that the ratio of sublimation to snowfall in forests was around 26% and that interannual variation of sublimation modulated spring river runoff.

  18. Response of larch root development to annual changes of water conditions in eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Miyahara, Mie; Ohta, Takeshi; Maximov, Trofim C.

    2016-06-01

    Eastern Siberia is characterized by continuous permafrost, and has recently been exposed to the effects of climate change. Larch, which is the dominant tree species, has been subject to major environmental changes including fluctuations in soil water content. The purpose of this study was to clarify the responses of mature larch tree roots to changes in soil water conditions. We established a treatment plot in a larch forest, and artificially changed the soil water conditions by covering the ground surface with a vinyl sheet, and from 2004 to 2006 monitored root development through root windows. The vinyl sheet maintained high levels of soil water content, even though the ambient conditions varied from dry in 2004 to wet in 2005 and dry in 2006. In the treatment plot the plants adapted to the wet conditions by decreasing vertical root development. In contrast, roots of plants in the control plot developed to the subsurface layer, even in 2005, and did not develop vertically in 2006 despite the drought. We conclude that larch adapted to the annual changes in soil water content by changing the vertical distribution of roots, and that this reflected a memory effect.

  19. Music as knowledge in Shamanism and other healing traditions of Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of experiential ways of knowing. In her Quebec City presentation, she shared some of this experiential dimension by showing and commenting on videotaped segments featuring three Siberian healers. Walker’s paper discusses healing at several levels. In addition to several healing dimensions that she lists at the end of her paper, she mentions the physiological effects of music, dance, and drumming. Current research is leading to a better understanding of how trauma affects the brain and the body, and ways that various therapies, including new therapies focusing on sensorimotor effects, can promote healing. Along with these developments has come a greater appreciation and understanding among some mental health practitioners of some of the neuropsychological processes by which traditional practices such as narrative, singing, drumming, and dancing, may bring about healing.

  20. Modified Cone Reconstruction of the Tricuspid Valve for Ebstein Anomaly as Performed in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekov, Evgeny V.; Ackerman, Jaeger P.; Yanulevich, Olga S.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Ershova, Nadezhda V.; Dearani, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    The cone reconstruction technique, first described by da Silva and modified by Dearani and by others, has become the repair method of choice in patients with Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve. This report details the outcome of the modified cone reconstruction technique in 6 children who underwent surgical correction of Ebstein anomaly at the Tomsk Institute of Cardiology in Siberia. From 2012 through 2015, 4 boys and 2 girls (age range, 11 mo–12 yr) underwent surgery to correct Ebstein anomaly. All had presented with cyanosis, exertional dyspnea, fatigue, or new-onset atrial arrhythmia, and none had undergone previous cardiac surgery. All survived the operation. One patient needed tricuspid valve replacement with a bioprosthesis after early breakdown of the cone reconstruction. As of December 2016, all the patients had no symptoms, tricuspid stenosis, or arrhythmia. This series indicates that cone reconstruction—the most anatomic repair technique for the dysmorphic Ebstein tricuspid valve—can be successfully performed in pediatric heart centers with a large experience.

  1. Atmospheric methane over Siberia: measurements from the 2014 YAK-AEROSIB aircraft campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pisso, Ignacio; Ancellet, Gérard; Law, Kathy; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Nédélec, Philippe; Myhre, Cathrine Lund

    2017-04-01

    The YAK-AEROSIB program collects high-precision in-situ measurements of the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and ultrafine particles distribution in the Siberian troposphere, as well as other parameters including aerosol lidar profiles, on a pan-Siberian aircraft transect. Recent efforts aim at better understanding the respective role of CH4 emission processes in driving its large scale atmospheric variability over the region. The October 2014 YAK-AEROSIB/MOCA campaign from Novosibirsk to Salekhard and over the Kara sea and the Yamal peninsula sampled air masses affected by local, regional and remote pollution. We analyse the contribution of local anthropogenic sources to measured CH4 enhancements, in relation to atmospheric mixing and transport conditions. Our analysis also attempts to detect CH4 signal from sources of methane in the Siberian shelf and the Arctic ocean during low level flight legs over the Kara sea using the airborne measurements and a Lagrangian model coupled to potential CH4 hydrate and geological sources. The measured CH4 concentrations do not contradict a potential source upstream of our measurements, but the interpretation is challenging due to a very low CH4 signal. The challenging question of the methane budget and its evolution in Siberia leads to a need for new approaches. A new generation of airborne measurements, more flexible, is now needed.

  2. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  3. Fluvial thermal erosion during the ice break-up of the Lena river (Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Gautier, E.; Fedorov, A.; Konstantinov, P.; Dupeyrat, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Lena River is one of the largest Arctic rivers; its periglacial environment implies an excessive fluvial regime and a spectacular flood occurring at the end of the winter. From the beginning of November to May, a continuous ice cover can be observed as thick as 2 m on the Lena River in Central Siberia. The break up starts around May 15 at the latitude of Yakutsk, corresponding to a flood wave coming from the South and to an increase of the water stream temperature up to 18°C. In spite of a relatively good understanding of the initial stage of the breakup period of these periglacial rivers [Beltaos and Burrell, 2002; Shen, 2003; Billfalk, 1982], only a few studies report on the role of mechanical and thermal erosion during the breakup Observations and measurements of erosion of the island heads during the first days of the ice breakup were made during breakup periods over a 4-year period (2008-2011). Here, we reassess the efficiency of the fluvial thermal erosion using both high resolution records from field measurements and modeling. We analyze the impact of the breakup on the erosional process on the head of several fluvial islands. Only a few days are enough to produce erosion rate as high as 30 m. The protective effect of the ice cover at the very beginning of the break up has been studied in more detailed during 3 field trips. These values are relatively high but are in good agreement with our modeling.

  4. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF HAIR IN URBAN RESIDENTS OF WESTERN SIBERIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, E A; Gogadze, N V; Turchaninov, D V; Korchina, T Ya

    2015-01-01

    There was performed a study of the element status (hair analysis) of the population of the two cities of Western Siberia: Surgut (n = 350) and Omsk (n = 385). Detection of elements was performed by atomic emission and mass spectrometry methods. The population of Surgut when compared with residents of Omsk bioelements were characterized by a more high content of B, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, I, Zn (p < 0.001), and a lower content of Cr, Se (p < 0.001). Scarce elements for Omsk residents were 1, Se. In hair of Surgut residents in more higher concentrations there were detected toxic and potentially harmful elements such as Pb, Hg, Be, Cd, Li, Sn (p < 0.001). At the same time there were lower than in Omsk residents values of concentrations of Al, As, V In comparison groups there are established statistically significant differences of coefficients used for the evaluation of the metabolic activity, such as the Na/K, Ca/K, Na/Mg, Fe/Cu. In a sample of the city of Surgut coefficients Ca/K, Fe/Cu and "toxicity index" had the high values. The established differences in the availability of macro- and trace elements for the population of territories are determined by climatogeographic, geochemical features and the specificity of the structure of nutrition.

  5. Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2010-06-01

    The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent.

  6. Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A H; Grotzinger, J P; Kaufman, A J; Kolosov, P

    1995-01-01

    In the Olenek Uplift of northeastern Siberia, the Khorbusuonka Group and overlying Kessyusa and Erkeket formations preserve a significant record of terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian Earth history. A composite section more than 350 m thick is reconstructed from numerous exposures along the Khorbusuonka River. The Khorbusuonka Group comprises three principal sedimentary sequences: peritidal dolomites of the Mastakh Formation, which are bounded above and below by red beds; the Khatyspyt and most of the overlying Turkut formations, which shallow upward from relatively deep-water carbonaceous micrites to cross-bedded dolomitic grainstones and stromatolites; and a thin upper Turkut sequence bounded by karst surfaces. The overlying Kessyusa Formation is bounded above and below by erosional surfaces and contains additional parasequence boundaries internally. Ediacaran metazoans, simple trace fossils, and vendotaenids occur in the Khatyspyt Formation; small shelly fossils, more complex trace fossils, and acritarchs all appear near the base of the Kessyusa Formation and diversify upward. The carbon-isotopic composition of carbonates varies stratigraphically in a pattern comparable to that determined for other terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian successions. In concert, litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphic data indicate the importance of the Khorbusuonka Group in the global correlation of terminal Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Stratigraphic data and a recently determined radiometric date on basal Kessyusa volcanic breccias further underscore the significance of the Olenek region in investigations of the Proterozoic-cambrian boundary.

  7. Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Seismogram Analysis: Constraining the Velocity Structure of Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, K. M.; Eriksen, Z. T.; Mackey, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs), detonated by the former Soviet Union, are seismologically significant because they are so-called Ground Truth events, where the depth and geographic coordinates of energy release (detonation) are precisely known. Seismograms from about 20 regional stations for seven PNEs in eastern Siberia (Neva-1, Neva 2-1 and Neva 2-2 in Yakutia, and Rift-3, Batholith-1, Meteorite-5 and Kraton-3 in the Baikal region) were digitized from analog records, allowing modern processing techniques to be applied to the waveforms. Pn (P1 & P2), P*, Pg, Sn, Sg, and eU (unknown) phases were identified to investigate seismic velocities. Regional average velocities, dominated by paths within the Siberian Craton, are: Pn = 8.28 km/s, P* = 7.32 km/s, Pg = 6.20 km/s, Sn = 4.67 km/s, and Sg = 3.55 km/s. Travel paths located within the Siberian Craton are consistent with fast Pn and Sn travel-time residuals observed near the Laptev Sea. Additional PNE seismograms are being digitized to further differentiate path effects and to understand regional phase identification and velocities.

  8. A Heroic Tale's Travel from Siberia to the Balto-Finnic Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Salve

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns a fairy tale from A. Andreiev’s fairy-tale index, namely AA 967, which has greatly interested Russian researchers because of its connection with bylina. However, this story is not of East Slavic origin but has enetered the Russians’ repertoire as a substrate. The case is even more interesting since the same story is also known in far East Siberia, among the Paleoasiatic Kets and Samoyed Selkups. The Ket stories are vividly Siberian narratives of inter-tribal feud. The same applies to the story’s western distribution’s periphery - it has been told as a true story in Finland and P.-L. Rausmaa has indexed it as a historical legend. Finnish and Ket versions are similar, while Karelian, Vepsian and probably also the version spread to Russians from them has obtained fairy tale motifs. Undisputable is the common origin of all these stories: coinciding facts are too complex to assume random similarity. The article also discusses whether the narrative is hostile towards women.

  9. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  10. Coastal erosion dynamics on the permafrost-dominated Bykovsky Peninsula, north Siberia, 1951–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Lantuit

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the rate of erosion during the 1951–2006 period on the Bykovsky Peninsula, located north-east of the harbour town of Tiksi, north Siberia. Its coastline, which is characterized by the presence of ice-rich sediment (Ice Complex and the vicinity of the Lena River Delta, retreated at a mean rate of 0.59 m/yr between 1951 and 2006. Total erosion ranged from 434 m of erosion to 92 m of accretion during these 56 years and exhibited large variability (σ = 45.4. Ninety-seven percent of the rates observed were less than 2 m/yr and 81.6% were less than 1 m/yr. No significant trend in erosion could be recorded despite the study of five temporal subperiods within 1951–2006. Erosion modes and rates actually appear to be strongly dependant on the nature of the backshore material, erosion being stronger along low-lying coastal stretches affected by past or current thermokarst activity. The juxtaposition of wind records monitored at the town of Tiksi and erosion records yielded no significant relationship despite strong record amplitude for both data sets. We explain this poor relationship by the only rough incorporation of sea-ice cover in our storm extraction algorithm, the use of land-based wind records vs. offshore winds, the proximity of the peninsula to the Lena River Delta freshwater and sediment plume and the local topographical constraints on wave development.

  11. Seto Singing Tradition in Siberia: Songs and ‘Non-Songs’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kalkun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on fieldwork carried out in the 2000s among diasporic Setos living in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and discusses issues related to the singing tradition and identity of the Setos in this area. The article explores the ambivalent attitudes of the local singers towards their singing tradition and proposes a systematisation of the song tradition in the area into three groups – Estonian songs, Russian songs, and Seto songs. The latter of the three represents the most archaic part of the Seto tradition, even though singers today no longer regard this part of the tradition as ‘proper’ songs, because of their improvisational and spontaneous nature. In addition to the ambivalence and confusion related to the identity and singing tradition, one can see conscious efforts in shaping identity politics and representing culture in Seto villages in Siberia. The best example of this is the Seto Museum and the choir active in Khaidak village. The generation of singers who are members of the choir today have discovered the old tradition in advanced age, but nevertheless find the singing of traditional songs highly significant. An important part of the contemporary identity politics of this tiny diasporic group is performing their exotic singing culture.

  12. The Tunka radio extension (Tunka-Rex): Radio measurements of cosmic rays in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F. G.; Bezyazeekov, P. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O. A.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Kazarina, Y.; Kleifges, M.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kostunin, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Monkhoev, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Pankov, L.; Prosin, V. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Tunka observatory is located close to Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. Its main detector, Tunka-133, is an array of photomultipliers measuring Cherenkov light of air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the energy range of approximately 1016 -1018 eV. In the last years, several extensions have been built at the Tunka site, e.g., a scintillator array named Tunka-Grande, a sophisticated air-Cherenkov-detector prototype named HiSCORE, and the radio extension Tunka-Rex. Tunka-Rex started operation in October 2012 and currently features 44 antennas distributed over an area of about 3km2, which measure the radio emission of the same air showers detected by Tunka-133 and Tunka-Grande. Tunka-Rex is a technological demonstrator that the radio technique can provide an economic extension of existing air-shower arrays. The main scientific goal is the cross-calibration with the air-Cherenkov measurements. By this cross-calibration, the precision for the reconstruction of the energy and mass of the primary cosmic-ray particles can be determined. Finally, Tunka-Rex can be used for cosmic-ray physics at energies close to 1 EeV, where the standard Tunka-133 analysis is limited by statistics. In contrast to the air-Cherenkov measurements, radio measurements are not limited to dark, clear nights and can provide an order of magnitude larger exposure.

  13. Snow algal communities on glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Miyairi, Masaya; Fujisawa, Yuta; Kadota, Tsutomu; Shirakawa, Tatsuo; Kusaka, Ryo; Takahashi, Shuhei; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Yabuki, Hironori; Konya, Keiko; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Snow and ice algal communities were investigated on four glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia in Russia over three melting seasons from 2012 to 2014. Two taxa of green algae and five taxa of cyanobacteria were observed on the glaciers. The algal community was dominated by green algae: Ancylonema nordenskioldii in the lower bare ice area and Chloromonas sp. in the upper snow area. The total algal bio-volume showed altitudinal variation, ranging from 0.03 to 4.0 mL m-2, and was greatest in the middle of the glaciers. The altitudinal variations in the algal community were similar on all studied glaciers, suggesting that they are typical in this region. Observations over the three years revealed that there was no significant change in the community structure, but a significant change in the total biomass. Since the mean summer air temperature was significantly higher in 2012 when algal biomass was greater, the difference in algal biomass among the years is probably due to the duration of surface melting. The community structure on the studied glaciers is similar to those on glaciers in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.

  14. Pollution of bogs in Tomsk region (Western Siberia, Russia as an indicator of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Mezhibor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play a key role in the climatic balance of our planet. Thus, their protection from anthropogenic pollution is an important target for sustainable development of environment. Wetlands have a special significance for the Siberian region of Russia where they take great territories. Peat bogs, being unique ecosystems among wetlands, have properties to save the history of atmospheric pollution. The particularity of peat bogs is determined by their nutrition - they receive chemical elements mostly from the atmosphere. Some peat bogs in Siberia (Tomsk region, Russia were studied to determine the degree of environment pollution during the last century and the change of geochemical composition of peat in time. These studies determined the increase of pollution in the region from the middle of 20th century because of the sharp industrial development. The data on the pollution of peat bogs allow concluding that the geochemical peculiarities of different parts of Tomsk region influenced by different types of industry: nuclear facility, coal-burning power stations and oil refineries. This method can be used together with other methods implemented for the detection of anthropogenic pollution and the results can be used as indicative parameters in environmental change. The results of the studies can be used for the development of recommendations in the decrease of the industry influence for the sustainable development of Siberian region.Keywords: upland peat, air pollution, Tomsk region, indicators of sustainable development

  15. The surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the winter time surface energy balance at a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia based on independent measurements of the net radiation, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux from two winter seasons. The latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The long-wave radiation is found to be the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60 % by the ground heat flux and almost 40 % by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Large spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between tundra soils and a small pond. The ground heat flux released at a freezing pond is by a factor of two higher compared to the freezing soil, whereas large differences in net radiation between the pond and soil are only observed at the end of the winter period. Differences in the surface energy balance between the two winter seasons are found to be related to differences in snow depth and cloud cover which strongly affect the temperature evolution and the freeze-up at the investigated pond.

  16. Temporal Behavior of Lake Size-Distribution in a Thawing Permafrost Landscape in Northwestern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mård Karlsson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic warming alters regional hydrological systems, as permafrost thaw increases active layer thickness and in turn alters the pathways of water flow through the landscape. Further, permafrost thaw may change the connectivity between deeper and shallower groundwater and surface water altering the terrestrial water balance and distribution. Thermokarst lakes and wetlands in the Arctic offer a window into such changes as these landscape elements depend on permafrost and are some of the most dynamic and widespread features in Arctic lowland regions. In this study we used Landsat remotely sensed imagery to investigate potential shifts in thermokarst lake size-distributions, which may be brought about by permafrost thaw, over three distinct time periods (1973, 1987–1988, and 2007–2009 in three hydrological basins in northwestern Siberia. Results revealed fluctuations in total area and number of lakes over time, with both appearing and disappearing lakes alongside stable lakes. On the whole basin scales, there is no indication of any sustained long-term change in thermokarst lake area or lake size abundance over time. This statistical temporal consistency indicates that spatially variable change effects on local permafrost conditions have driven the individual lake changes that have indeed occurred over time. The results highlight the importance of using multi-temporal remote sensing data that can reveal complex spatiotemporal variations distinguishing fluctuations from sustained change trends, for accurate interpretation of thermokarst lake changes and their possible drivers in periods of climate and permafrost change.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Mutations Spectrum in Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions of Western Siberia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Baturina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH locus molecular genotyping for 115 phenylketonuria (PKU patients and their family members from Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions of Western Siberia are presented. The direct exons and adjacent introns regions sequencing was used to identify PKU-associated mutations. Mutations typical for Europe (p.R158Q, p.R252W, p.P281L, IVS10-11G>A, p.R408W, IVS12+1G>A and typical for South-Eastern Asia and Turkey (p.R261Q и p.R243Q were identified as well as a bunch of rare mutations (IVS2+5G>A, p.R155H, p.Y168H, p.W187R, E221_D222>Efs, p.A342T, p.Y386C, IVS11+1G>C. The p.R408W mutation was prevailing. Mutations spectrum for Novosibirsk region appeared to be more diverse than one for Kemerovo region.

  18. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  19. Operational Forest Monitoring in Siberia Using Multi-source Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hüttich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover disturbance rates are increasing in the forests of Siberia due to intensification of human activities and climate change. In this paper two satellite data sources were used for automated forest cover change detection. Annual ALOS PALSAR backscatter mosaics (2007–2010 were used for yearly forest loss monitoring. Time series of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, 2000–2014 from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were integrated in a web-based data middleware system to assess the capabilities of a near-real time detection of forest disturbances using the break point detection by additive season and trends (Bfast method. The SAR-based average accuracy of the forest loss detection was 70 %, whereas the MODIS-based change assessment using breakpoint detection achieved average accuracies of 50 % for trend-based breakpoints and 43.4 % for season-based breakpoints. It was demonstrated that SAR remote sensing is a highly accurate tool for up-to-date forest monitoring. Web-based data middleware systems like the Earth Observation Monitor, linked with MODIS time series, provide access and easy-to-use tools for on demand change monitoring in remote Siberian forests.

  20. Temperature regimes of northern taiga soils in the isolated permafrost zone of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, O. Yu.; Matyshak, G. V.; Bobrik, A. A.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Ponomareva, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil temperature regimes were studied in three ecosystems of the north of Western Siberia in the zone of isolated permafrost: the forest ecosystem with gleyic loamy sandy podzol (Stagnic Albic Podzol), the flat-topped peat mound ecosystem with humus-impregnated loamy sandy to light loamy peat cryozem (Histic Oxyaquic Turbic Cryosol (Arenic)), and the peat mound (palsa) ecosystem with oligotrophic destructive permafrost-affected peat soil (Cryic Histosol). Annual temperature measurements in the soil profiles demonstrated that these soils function under different temperature regimes: very cold permafrost regime and cold nonpermafrost regime. The following annual temperature characteristics proved to be informative for the studied soils: sums of above-zero temperatures at the depths of 10 and 20 cm, the maximum depth of penetration of temperatures above 10°C, and the number of days with daily soil temperatures above (or below) 0°C at the depth of 20 cm. On the studied territory, the insulating effect of the snow cover in winter was at least two times more pronounced than the insulating effect of the vegetation cover in summer. Cryogenic soils of the studied region are characterized by the high buffering towards changing climatic parameters. This is explained by the presence of the litter and peat horizons with a very low thermal diffusivity and by the presence of permafrost at a relatively shallow depth with temperature gradients preventing penetration of heat to the permafrost table.

  1. Trace metals in soils of the main geomorphological units in the southwestern part of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, E. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Total concentrations of Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb as well as soil granulometric texture were studied for three plot sites representing different geomorphologic units of the southwestern part of Western Siberia: periphery of the upland Tobolsky Mainland, Ishim plain, Turinskaya plain. Interregional difference in the relationship by and among the content of trace elements and particle size distribution of soil horizons is established. Thus, for the soils of Turinskaya plain such interrelations are not observed. For the soils of Ishim Plain moderate negative correlation between Pb concentrations and medium silt, as well as average positive correlations between Zn and fine sand, coarse sand and Pb are found. For the soils of the high terraces of the Irtish and periphery of Tobolsky Mainland interface zone moderate positive correlations between contents of Ti, Zn, Sr and fine sand, weak positive ones between Rb and medium sand, moderate negative ones between Zn and clay, Ti, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and fine dust, Ti, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and medium silt are observed. Consequently, properties and genesis of local parent rocks are significant factors for distribution and accumulation of trace elements in the soils of the southern taiga; at the same time, the processes of bioaccumulation in thick humus horizons of dark gray soils and chernozems apparently play an important part in accumulation and migration of trace elements in forest-steppe soils of Ishim and Turinskaya plains.

  2. West Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  3. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  4. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  5. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  6. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  7. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  8. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato

  9. Aerosol particle number size distributions and particulate light absorption at the ZOTTO tall tower (Siberia, 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Heintzenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses aerosol particle number size distributions, particulate absorption at 570 nm wavelength and carbon monoxide (CO measured between September 2006 and January 2010 at heights of 50 and 300 m at the Zotino Tall Tower Facility (ZOTTO in Siberia (60.8° N; 89.35° E. Average number, surface and volume concentrations are broadly comparable to former studies covering shorter observation periods. Fits of multiple lognormal distributions yielded three maxima in probability distribution of geometric mean diameters in the Aitken and accumulation size range and a possible secondary maximum in the nucleation size range below 25 nm. The seasonal cycle of particulate absorption shows maximum concentrations in high winter (December and minimum concentrations in mid-summer (July. The 90th percentile, however, indicates a secondary maximum in July/August that is likely related to forest fires. The strongly combustion derived CO shows a single winter maximum and a late summer minimum, albeit with a considerably smaller seasonal swing than the particle data due to its longer atmospheric lifetime. Total volume and even more so total number show a more complex seasonal variation with maxima in winter, spring, and summer. A cluster analysis of back trajectories and vertical profiles of the pseudo-potential temperature yielded ten clusters with three levels of particle number concentration: Low concentrations in Arctic air masses (400–500 cm−3, mid-level concentrations for zonally advected air masses from westerly directions between 55° and 65° N (600–800 cm−3, and high concentrations for air masses advected from the belt of industrial and population centers in Siberia and Kazakhstan (1200 cm−3. The observational data is representative for large parts of the troposphere over Siberia and might be particularly useful for the validation of global aerosol transport models.

  10. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  11. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra

  12. Radiative characteristics of aerosol during extreme fire event over Siberia in summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solar radiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analysed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under background conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95 ± 0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16 ± 0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of ˜ 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm) = 0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD. The calculations of the average radiative effects of smoke and background aerosol are presented. Compared to background conditions and ordinary smoke, under the extreme smoke conditions the cooling

  13. Flora of the forests as the indicator of climate change of Baikal Region (South Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivobokov, Leonid; Anenkhonov, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    The problem of global climate warming and its consequences for nature and civilization has been actively discussed in scientific and political publications during last 15 years. Although quantitative estimations of the rate of warming can be rather differ by results of different authors. A relevant component of such assessment is the prognosis of vegetation development under conditions of climate warming. Our study was carried out on the western macroslope of the Ikatskii Ridge in the northern Baikal region (South Siberia). This area is located on the territory where permafrost may have a continuous, discontinuous, or insular distribution. The plant cover of study area is characterized by dominance of larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests that form a forest belt. In this belt, two parts can be distinguished: the lower, forest-steppe part (550-900 m a.s.l.), which is limited by steppe at the lower part and the upper, mountain-taiga part (800-1600 m a.s.l.) with mountain tundra on the top. Pine forests by Braun-Blanquet approach include to hemiboreal forests Rhytidio rugosi-Laricetea sibiricae K. Korotkov et Ermakov 1999. Larch forests presented by boreal forests Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Siss. et Vlieger 1939. Floristic compositions of these classes were analyzed as cenofloras. Floristic complexes of cenofloras included the species of dark coniferous, light coniferous, preboreal, forest-steppe, mountain steppe, true steppe, montane, and meadow zonal groups. The cenoflora of class Rhytidio-Laricetea is presented by 222 species of vascular plants. This cenoflora mostly has the steppe and forest floristic complexes, respectively 54.4 and 35.5%. The cenoflora of class Vaccinio-Piceetea include 153 species and the light coniferous group of the forest floristic complex prevailed. The total share of forest species in the cenoflora reaches 70.6%. Other floristic complexes (meadow, steppe, and mountain) has the similar

  14. Geochemical evidence for the characteristic of the 1908 Tunguska explosion body in Siberia, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two peat samples collected at different depths of a core including the layer affected by the 1908 explosion in Tunguska area of Central Siberia, Russia, and three basalt sampies collected near the site, are analyzed by ICP-MS. The concentrations of Pd, Ni, Co, ∑ REE,Ti and Sr in the event layers are 4-35 times higher than the background values in the normal layers. The variation of Pd is closely related to Ni, Co and ∑ REE in the event layers, but not to these elements in the normal layers. It indicates that these excess elements came from the same source,i.e. the Tunguska explosion body. In addition, the patterns of Cl-chondrite-normalized REE in the event layers ((La/Yb)N≈2-3) are much flatter than those in the normal layers ((La/Yb)N≈7-143),and differ from those in the three basalt samples. The concentrations of REE in the three basalt samples are tens times higher than those in the event layers. It may be inferred that these excess elements could not be produced by the contamination of the terrestrial material, but probably by the Tunguska explosion body, Additionally, the ratios of Ti/Ni and Sr/Co in the event layers are close to those in comet. It implies that the solid part of the explosion body was compositionally similar to carbonaceous chondrites (CI) and more probably a small comet. In terms of the Pd excess fluxes in the explosion area, it can be estimated that the celestial body that exploded over Tunguska in 1908 weighed more than 107 tons, corresponding to a radius of >126 m.

  15. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  16. Interannual variations in soil moisture and productivity of boreal forest in Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, A.; Tei, S.; Ohte, N.; Osaka, K.; Naito, D.; Maximov, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Interannual variations in soil moisture and vegetation parameters were observed for 9 years in a larch forest near Yakutsk, Russia in Eastern Siberia, to investigate the response of the ecosystem. Soil moisture varied depending on both the amount of summer rainfall in the year and soil moisture at the end of the previous summer carried over as ice. The annual water budget of soil moisture (dQs) from the previous August to the current year primarily corresponds to precipitation, with a deviations caused by runoff (decrease in dQs), limited transpiration and/or upward transport of ice meltwater from the bottom of the active layer (increase in dQs). The source of water for transpiration was inferred from sap water delta18O. Snow meltwater with low delta18O preset in spring was used in early summer (June) every year, while, summer precipitation with high delta18O was transpired in a wet summer and ice meltwater with low delta18O was a major contributor to transpiration during droughts. Tree growth (GBH increment) correlated with soil moisture in August of the same year, and there was no correlation observed with the date of snow thaw. Larch needle delta13C showed negative correlation with soil moisture in the previous August, indicating lowering of stomatal conductance during a drought and carrying over of carbon until the following year. Litter fall production seems to increase with a two-year time lag behind the increase in soil moisture due to carrying over of soil moisture and response of vegetation. Larch needle delta15N (-1.3?n on average) negatively correlated with C/N ratio, possibly caused by water and nutrient availability.

  17. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Balzter, H.; George, C.

    2009-10-01

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km2 under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  18. Calcium isotopic compositions as tracers of vegetation activity in boreal permafrost ecosystems (Kulingdakan watershed, Central Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagard, M.; Schmitt, A.; Chabaux, F. J.; Viers, J.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Stille, P.; Dupré, B.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we propose to investigate the geochemical potential of calcium isotopic fractionations in a forested boreal watershed to trace the impact of vegetation activity. This is the first study carried out in a geographical area characterized by deep and continuous permafrost. For this survey, we measured Ca and Sr isotopic compositions in the different compartments (stream waters, soil solutions, precipitations, rock, soils and soil leachates, vegetation) of a 4,100 ha Siberian watershed, the Kulingdakan watershed (Putorana Plateau, Central Siberia). Our results show that the activity of the vegetation is the only process that fractionates significantly calcium isotopes within the watershed. Indeed, Ca uptake by plants and its subsequent storage in larch tree organs favours 40Ca relatively to 44Ca. Vegetation decomposition releases light δ44/40Ca that affects calcium isotopic compositions of soil solution and soil exchangeable fractions. However, this biological impact is significant only for the South-facing slope of the watershed. Indeed, soil pools from the North-facing slope present no imprint of organic matter degradation in their δ44/40Ca signatures. Furthermore, the major difference between South- and North- facing slopes lies in the importance of the vegetation and its decomposition rate. Thus, we propose that in boreal permafrost areas with limited runoff, the available stock of biomass is critical to induce or not a significant vegetation impact on the calcium isotopic compositions in the soil-water system. As a consequence, the study of preserved calcium isotopic compositions in paleosoil exchangeable phases might bring relevant information on the evolution of biological activity at the watershed scale.

  19. Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  20. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  1. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Storch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian Republic. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test. Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  2. Landsat imagery evidences great recent land cover changes induced by wild fires in central Siberia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antamoshkina, O. A.; Trofimova, N. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the methods of satellite image classification to determine general types of forest ecosystems, as well as the long-term monitoring of ecosystems changes using satellite imagery of medium spatial resolution and the daily data of space monitoring of active fires. The area of interest of this work is 100 km footprint of the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), located near the Zotino settlement, Krasnoyarsk region. The study area is located in the middle taiga subzone of Western Siberia, are presented by the left and right banks of the Yenisei river. For Landsat satellite imagery supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method was made using ground-based studies over the last fifteen years. The results are the identification of the 10 aggregated classes of land surface and composition of the study area thematic map. Operational satellite monitoring and analysis of spatial information about ecosystem in the 100-kilometer footprint of the ZOTTO tall tower allows to monitor the dynamics of forest disturbance by fire and logging over a long time period and to estimate changes in forest ecosystems of the study area. Data on the number and area of fires detected in the study region for the 2000-2014 received in the work. Calculations show that active fires have burned more than a quarter of the footprint area over the study period. Fires have a significant impact on the redistribution of classes of land surface. Area of all types of vegetation ecosystems declined dramatically under the influence of fires, whereas industrial logging does not impact seriously on it. The results obtained in our work indicate the highest occurrence of fires for lichen forest types within study region, probably due to their high natural fire danger, which is consistent with other studies. The least damage the fire caused to the wetland ecosystem due to high content of moisture and the presence of a large number of fire breaks in the form of open water.

  3. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ∼ 60 large and small rivers (organo-mineral colloids, as also confirmed by previous studies in Siberian rivers. The 2nd factor (8-14 % variation) was linked to the latitude of the watershed and acted on elements affected by the groundwater feeding (DIC, Sr, Mo, As, Sb, U), whose concentration decreased significantly northward during all seasons. Overall, the rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (3 permafrost zones) > season > watershed size. The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TE but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen) seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding vs. bog water feeding determined the pattern of trace element concentration and fluxes in rivers of various size as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most trace elements; the lithology of base rocks was the major factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. The climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will affect essentially the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling

  4. Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

    2013-11-01

    Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Changes in Microbial Nitrogen Dynamics with Soil Depth, and along a Latitudinal Transect in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, B.; Schnecker, J.; Knoltsch, A.; Takriti, M.; Mooshammer, M.; Gentsch, N.; Mikutta, R.; Alves, R.; Gittel, A.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Richter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Plant productivity is often limited by low N availability, and this has been attributed to the slow breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins into amino acids that are small enough for uptake. Under such conditions, plants and microorganisms efficiently use the available N for growth, and the microbial release of excess N as ammonium (N mineralization), as well as the transformation of ammonium into nitrate (nitrification) is low. Nitrogen limitation is expected to increase towards high latitudes as conditions become less favourable for decomposition. On the other hand, within an ecosystem, microbial N limitation is expected to decrease with soil depth, following the decrease in the C/N ratio of organic matter. To test these hypotheses, we sampled organic topsoils, mineral topsoils and mineral subsoils from seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia, ranging from tundra (67°N) to boreal forest and further to steppe (54°N), and determined gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification using 15N pool dilution assays. We found that all rates decreased with depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to microbial biomass, however, only protein depolymerization decreased with depth, whereas N mineralization and nitrification significantly increased. This pattern was consistent across the seven ecosystems studied. Furthermore, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate systems. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth. With microbial N immobilization constrained by low C availability, subsoils might harbour an easily available N pool that can contribute to plant N nutrition, but might also promote N losses from the ecosystem, e.g., by nitrate leaching, even in high latitude systems such as tundra and boreal

  6. Holocene carbon dynamics at the forest-steppe ecotone of southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Anson William; Seddon, Alistair W R; Leng, Melanie J; Heumann, Georg; Morley, David W; Piotrowska, Natalia; Rioual, Patrick; Roberts, Sarah; Swann, George E A

    2016-12-09

    The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ(13) CTOC ). Forest-steppe dynamics were reconstructed using pollen, and diatom records provided measures of primary production from near- and off-shore communities. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to identify significant change points in temporal series, and by applying generalized linear least-squares regression modelling to components of the multiproxy data, we address (1) What factors influence carbon dynamics during early Holocene warming and late Holocene cooling? (2) How did carbon dynamics respond to abrupt sub-Milankovitch scale events? and (3) What is the Holocene carbon storage budget for Lake Baikal. CMAR values range between 2.8 and 12.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) . Peak burial rates (and greatest variability) occurred during the early Holocene, associated with melting permafrost and retreating glaciers, while lowest burial rates occurred during the neoglacial. Significant shifts in carbon dynamics at 10.3, 4.1 and 2.8 kyr bp provide compelling evidence for the sensitivity of the region to sub-Milankovitch drivers of climate change. We estimate that 1.03 Pg C was buried in Lake Baikal sediments during the Holocene, almost one-quarter of which was buried during the early Holocene alone. Combined, our results highlight the importance of understanding the close linkages between carbon cycling and hydrological processes, not just temperatures, in southern Siberian

  7. The relationship between needle sugar carbon isotope ratios and tree rings of larch in Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, K T; Saurer, M; Kirdyanov, A V; Loader, N J; Bryukhanova, M V; Werner, R A; Siegwolf, R T W

    2015-11-01

    Significant gaps still exist in our knowledge about post-photosynthetic leaf level and downstream metabolic processes and isotopic fractionations. This includes their impact on the isotopic climate signal stored in the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of leaf assimilates and tree rings. For the first time, we compared the seasonal δ(13)C variability of leaf sucrose with intra-annual, high-resolution δ(13)C signature of tree rings from larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.). The trees were growing at two sites in the continuous permafrost zone of Siberia with different growth conditions. Our results indicate very similar low-frequency intra-seasonal trends of the sucrose and tree ring δ(13)C records with little or no indication for the use of 'old' photosynthates formed during the previous year(s). The comparison of leaf sucrose δ(13)C values with that in other leaf sugars and in tree rings elucidates the cause for the reported (13)C-enrichment of sink organs compared with leaves. We observed that while the average δ(13)C of all needle sugars was 1.2‰ more negative than δ(13)C value of wood, the δ(13)C value of the transport sugar sucrose was on an average 1.0‰ more positive than that of wood. Our study shows a high potential of the combined use of compound-specific isotope analysis of sugars (leaf and phloem) with intra-annual tree ring δ(13)C measurements for deepening our understanding about the mechanisms controlling the isotope variability in tree rings under different environmental conditions.

  8. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  9. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  10. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs.

  11. Spatiotemporal behavior of climatic characteristics determining evolution of forest ecosystems in Siberia in the second half of XX century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgina, Tamara; Bogomolov, Vasily; Genina, Elena; Gordov, Evgeny

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that both global and regional climate changes influence biological processes occurring in different ecosystems. In particular, they determine forest productivity that plays important role in global carbon balance forming. The paper presents investigation results for climate indices dynamics that determine evolution of forest ecosystems in Siberia in the second half of XX century. The ECMWF data (spatial resolution of 0.5°×0.5°) and observations of the weather stations in Siberia over the period from 1974 to 2000 were taken as initial data. The paper presents calculation results for fields of the following climatic characteristics: duration of growing season and its mean temperature, sum of degree day temperature, precipitation amount and Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient. Calculation results have shown an increase of growing season duration by 4-6 days in Siberia for all period under study (32 years). Mean air temperature dynamics in growing season has weak positive trend and inhomogeneous structure over all Siberian territory. Thus, maximum increase of mean temperature for growing season is observed in south taiga and is equal to 0.9° C per 32 years. Analysis of precipitation amount dynamics shows inhomogeneity in its change. Significant increase of precipitation amount is observed in temperate forests and steppe. As a results of increase of temperature and precipitation amount, Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient significantly increases in the south of Siberia that suggests increase of water content in soil on the territory under study. However, to study forest ecosystem response to climate changes, we need climatic characteristics fields with higher spatial resolution. To do this, we used a WRF mesoscale model and calculated meteorological fields with spatial resolution of 10 km. These fields take into account influence of surface layer on climate forming and allow us to analyze in detail local response of forest ecosystems to regional

  12. Establishment of Provincial Unions of the Cities of Siberia: Experience of Regional Identity Construction in Wartime (1914–1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kharus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the approach to the detection of the role and place of provincial organizations of All-Russian Union of Cities in the social life of the Siberia, which is based on the analysis of the social practices, concerned with their establishment in the context of the regional identity construction. The paper detects the specific character of the forms and methods of Siberian identity representation, used by the liberal initiative minority in the First World War. The reasons, preventing the implementation of the project of creating of broad coalition of the public, based on the development of self-government institutions development are determined.

  13. Paleogeographic and litho-facies formation conditions of MidUpper Jurassic sediments in S-E Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaminova, M.; Rychkova, I.; Sterzhanova, Ju

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the criteria to identify Tumen (lower Bathonian) and Naunak (upper Bathonian-Callovian- Oxfordian) suites within S-E Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast). The specific paleogeographic and litho-facies formation conditions of sediments and numerous vegetable remains and ichnofossils indicated the fact that this territory was the location of sedimentogenesis transition during Tumen and Naunak suite formation. Based on integrated survey oil-gas potential litho-facies groups were defined in Mid-Upper Jurassic sediments within S-E Western Siberia.

  14. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  15. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration

  16. Analysis of Climatic and Environmental Changes Using CLEARS Web-GIS Information-Computational System: Siberia Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I.; Shulgina, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of recent climatic and environmental changes in Siberia performed on the basis of the CLEARS (CLimate and Environment Analysis and Research System) information-computational system is presented. The system was developed using the specialized software framework for rapid development of thematic information-computational systems based on Web-GIS technologies. It comprises structured environmental datasets, computational kernel, specialized web portal implementing web mapping application logic, and graphical user interface. Functional capabilities of the system include a number of procedures for mathematical and statistical analysis, data processing and visualization. At present a number of georeferenced datasets is available for processing including two editions of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25 Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA-40 and ERA Interim Reanalysis, meteorological observation data for the territory of the former USSR, and others. Firstly, using functionality of the computational kernel employing approved statistical methods it was shown that the most reliable spatio-temporal characteristics of surface temperature and precipitation in Siberia in the second half of 20th and beginning of 21st centuries are provided by ERA-40/ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA Reanalysis, respectively. Namely those Reanalyses are statistically consistent with reliable in situ meteorological observations. Analysis of surface temperature and precipitation dynamics for the territory of Siberia performed on the base of the developed information-computational system reveals fine spatial and temporal details in heterogeneous patterns obtained for the region earlier. Dynamics of bioclimatic indices determining climate change impact on structure and functioning of regional vegetation cover was investigated as well. Analysis shows significant positive trends of growing season length accompanied by statistically significant increase of sum of growing degree days and total

  17. Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi) biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Beck, P. S. A.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966-2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (≤ 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m-2, n = 66 [mean ± SE]) and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33-38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m-2, n = 32), though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2) than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr-1 × 104 km-2). The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000-2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery were strongly associated (r2 ≈ 0

  18. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  19. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-02-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and

  20. Use of various remote sensing land cover products for PFT mapping over Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ottlé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in regulating the climate system and are presently undergoing rapid environmental change. Accurate land cover datasets are required to both document these changes as well as to provide land-surface information for benchmarking and initializing earth system models. Earth system models also require specific land cover classification systems based on plant functional types, rather than species or ecosystems, and so post-processing of existing land cover data is often required. This study compares over Siberia, multiple land cover datasets against one another and with auxiliary data to identify key uncertainties that contribute to variability in Plant Functional Type (PFT classifications that would introduce errors in earth system modeling. Land cover classification systems from GLC 2000, GlobCover 2005 and 2009, and MODIS collections 5 and 5.1 are first aggregated to a common legend, and then compared to high-resolution land cover classification systems, continuous vegetation fields (MODIS-VCF and satellite-derived tree heights (to discriminate against sparse, shrub, and forest vegetation. The GlobCover dataset, with a lower threshold for tree cover and taller tree heights and a better spatial resolution, tends to have better distributions of tree cover compared to high-resolution data. It has therefore been chosen to build new PFTs maps for the ORCHIDEE land surface model at 1 km scale. Compared to the original PFT dataset, the new PFT maps based on GlobCover 2005 and an updated cross-walking approach mainly differ in the characterization of forests and degree of tree cover. The partition of grasslands and bare soils now appears more realistic compared with ground-truth data. This new vegetation map provides a framework for further development of new PFTs in the ORCHIDEE model like shrubs, lichens and mosses, to better represent the water and carbon cycles in northern

  1. Substrate use efficiency of microbial communities along a latitudinal transect through Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takriti, Mounir; Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Mooshammer, Maria; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Mikutta, Robert; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    As stable soil organic matter is largely derived from microbial compounds, the partitioning of C uptake by microorganisms into growth and respiration determines the C storage potential in soils. The proportion of substrate carbon (C) which is invested into new microbial biomass (i.e., microbial growth), compared to the fraction of substrate carbon C which is respired as as CO2,is often referred to as substrate use efficiency (SUE) or carbon use efficiency (CUE). According to stoichiometric theory, the CUE of microbes is strongly controlled by the availability of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), as microorganisms have to maintain their biomass stoichiometry within relatively narrow boundaries. Hence, when microorganisms are nitrogen limited, excess C is respired (low SUE), while conversely excess N is mineralized when C is limiting (high SUE). In this study we took advantage of the high variability in biotic and abiotic factors, such as C:N ratio and litter input quality, between samples taken from the top three soil horizons (organic topsoil, upper and lower mineral horizon) from six different ecosystems along a 1,500 km linear-distance latitudinal transect through Western Siberia. We hypothesized that SUE would increase with soil depth, as organic matter becomes successively enriched with N relative to C, and decrease with latitude, as ecosystem N availability decreases. To determine SUE we measured uptake and respiration of a mixture of 13C labeled substrate (consisting of monosaccharides, organic acids, amino acids and amino sugars), as well as C and N pools and extracellular enzyme activities. In contrast to our expectations, we found that microbial SUE in lower mineral horizons was significantly lower than in upper mineral horizons, while there was no significant difference to the organic horizons. This is contradictory to the theory of ecological stoichiometry, since microbial SUE did not increase with decreasing soil C:N. Potential oxidative enzyme activities

  2. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  3. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Audry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m−2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways was evidenced from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions. This shift was promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all stages of

  4. Use of various remote sensing land cover products for PFT mapping over Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottlé, C.; Lescure, J.; Maignan, F.; Poulter, B.; Wang, T.; Delbart, N.

    2013-06-01

    High-latitude ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in regulating the climate system and are presently undergoing rapid environmental change. Accurate land cover datasets are required to both document these changes as well as to provide land-surface information for benchmarking and initializing earth system models. Earth system models also require specific land cover classification systems based on plant functional types, rather than species or ecosystems, and so post-processing of existing land cover data is often required. This study compares over Siberia, multiple land cover datasets against one another and with auxiliary data to identify key uncertainties that contribute to variability in Plant Functional Type (PFT) classifications that would introduce errors in earth system modeling. Land cover classification systems from GLC 2000, GlobCover 2005 and 2009, and MODIS collections 5 and 5.1 are first aggregated to a common legend, and then compared to high-resolution land cover classification systems, continuous vegetation fields (MODIS-VCF) and satellite-derived tree heights (to discriminate against sparse, shrub, and forest vegetation). The GlobCover dataset, with a lower threshold for tree cover and taller tree heights and a better spatial resolution, tends to have better distributions of tree cover compared to high-resolution data. It has therefore been chosen to build new PFTs maps for the ORCHIDEE land surface model at 1 km scale. Compared to the original PFT dataset, the new PFT maps based on GlobCover 2005 and an updated cross-walking approach mainly differ in the characterization of forests and degree of tree cover. The partition of grasslands and bare soils now appears more realistic compared with ground-truth data. This new vegetation map provides a framework for further development of new PFTs in the ORCHIDEE model like shrubs, lichens and mosses, to better represent the water and carbon cycles in northern latitudes. Updated

  5. Use of various remote sensing land cover products for plant functional type mapping over Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottlé, C.; Lescure, J.; Maignan, F.; Poulter, B.; Wang, T.; Delbart, N.

    2013-11-01

    High-latitude ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in regulating the climate system and are presently undergoing rapid environmental change. Accurate land cover data sets are required to both document these changes as well as to provide land-surface information for benchmarking and initializing Earth system models. Earth system models also require specific land cover classification systems based on plant functional types (PFTs), rather than species or ecosystems, and so post-processing of existing land cover data is often required. This study compares over Siberia, multiple land cover data sets against one another and with auxiliary data to identify key uncertainties that contribute to variability in PFT classifications that would introduce errors in Earth system modeling. Land cover classification systems from GLC 2000, GlobCover 2005 and 2009, and MODIS collections 5 and 5.1 are first aggregated to a common legend, and then compared to high-resolution land cover classification systems, vegetation continuous fields (MODIS VCFs) and satellite-derived tree heights (to discriminate against sparse, shrub, and forest vegetation). The GlobCover data set, with a lower threshold for tree cover and taller tree heights and a better spatial resolution, tends to have better distributions of tree cover compared to high-resolution data. It has therefore been chosen to build new PFT maps for the ORCHIDEE land surface model at 1 km scale. Compared to the original PFT data set, the new PFT maps based on GlobCover 2005 and an updated cross-walking approach mainly differ in the characterization of forests and degree of tree cover. The partition of grasslands and bare soils now appears more realistic compared with ground truth data. This new vegetation map provides a framework for further development of new PFTs in the ORCHIDEE model like shrubs, lichens and mosses, to represent the water and carbon cycles in northern latitudes better. Updated land cover

  6. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audry, S.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Dupré, B.

    2011-11-01

    This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw) lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i) document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii) characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC) stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m-2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM) mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions was suggested. This shift was likely promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides) and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all stages of ecosystem development

  7. Rifting processes in the centre of Siberia revealed by BEST (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C. A.; Thybo, H.; Jensen, M. M.; Ross, A.; Suvorov, V. D.; Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V.; Tatkov, G.; Perchuc, E.; Gazcynski, E.

    2003-12-01

    The Baikal Rift Zone is located in Siberia at the centre of the world's largest continental area. It offers a unique opportunity for studying the processes of intra-cratonic rifting. The BEST project (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transects) comprises two deep seismic profiles at the southern end of Lake Baikal. The field project was carried out in October 2002 after a pilot project in September 2001. The aim of the project is to determine the crustal and upper mantle seismic velocity structure. The two profiles are: (1) a 360 km long, NS-trending profile across the rift zone from the Mongolian border to Cheremhovo, and (2) a 360 km long EW-trending profile along-strike of the rift zone at the northern shore of the lake into the Tunka depression to the Mongolian border. 180 Texan one-component seismographs were deployed along each profile. The primary seismic sources were 13 explosions in boreholes, each with a 500 to 3000 kg charge. Supplementary sources were airgun shots in the lake (one 100 l airgun on profile 1, one 30 l airgun on profile 2) and the supervibrator located at Babushkin near the cross point between the two profiles at the shore of the lake. We present the preliminary modelling results of the BEST data from tomographic inversion of first arrival times and 2D ray tracing modelling of the seismic velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. The models show: (1) A pronounced sedimentary graben structure to depths of at least 10 km; (2) No significant crustal thinning below the rift zone; (3) Strong seismic reflectivity underneath the rift zone, indicative of pronounced magmatic intrusion into the lower crust, despite the non-volcanic appearance of much of the rift zone; (4) No sign of significant reduction of the seismic Pn wave velocity; and (5) No clear indication of continuation of the cratonic crust underneath the rift zone in disagreement with a recently published model of the rifting process. Instead the model is in agreement with a model in

  8. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  9. Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortova, Liudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to

  10. Cycling of organic and mineral nitrogen along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The availability of nitrogen in soils is constrained by the breakdown of N-rich organic polymers, in particular proteins. Oligo-peptides and amino acids derived from protein depolymerization are subsequently taken up by soil microorganisms, and, if nitrogen availability exceeds nitrogen demand, excess nitrogen will be released as ammonium ("nitrogen mineralization"), which then can be used as a substrate for nitrification. We here report on the dynamics of organic and mineral nitrogen along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia (67°-54°N), from the tundra (tree growth restricted by low temperature), over three sites of coniferous forest (taiga) and two sites of forest steppe (deciduous forest and meadow), to steppe (tree growth restricted by low precipitation). For each of the seven sites, we sampled three soil horizons, and applied 15N pool dilution assays to determine gross rates of protein depolymerization, nitrogen mineralization, and nitrification. All nitrogen transformation rates were significantly correlated with carbon and nitrogen content, as well as microbial biomass, and decreased with depth from organic topsoil over mineral topsoil to mineral subsoil. The decrease with depth was stronger for protein depolymerization than for nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, i.e., ratios of mineralization or nitrification over protein depolymerization increased with depth. As both mineralization and nitrification depend on the degree of microbial nitrogen limitation, our findings suggest that microbial nitrogen limitation decreased with soil depth, possibly due to increasing energy limitation of microorganisms. Within the organic topsoil, protein depolymerization rates showed large variability between ecosystems, reaching the highest values in middle (60°N) and southern taiga (58°N), representing the most productive forests along the transect. We discuss these results with respect to differences of the biomes in climatic conditions, vegetation

  11. Assessing Silicate Weathering in Permafrost-Dominated Catchments Using Lithium Isotopes: The Lena River, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. J.; Pogge von Strandmann, P.; Porcelli, D.; Katchinoff, J. A.; Moreras Martí, A.; Hirst, C. A.; Andersson, P. S.; Maximov, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Rising global temperatures have the potential to influence the Earth's climate feedback cycles due to permafrost thawing, altering the freshwater input and trace metal and carbon fluxes into the ocean and atmosphere. Riverine lithium isotope ratios (d7Li) are a tracer of silicate weathering processes, which are key in the removal of atmospheric CO2 over geological timescales. Despite this, little is known about the effects of permafrost thawing on d7Li variations. Strong seasonal changes in the thawed active layer thickness dictate surficial water flow paths, which may influence intra-annual riverine d7Li signatures. We present a study of the dissolved d7Li from the large permafrost-dominated watersheds of the Lena River (Siberia), which drain into the Arctic Ocean. This work comprises a temporal study during the May 2015 spring flood, from ice breakup through peak flooding, thus monitoring changes in water-rock and water-soil interaction, both processes that control weathering and hence Li isotopes. Before riverine ice started to break up, high [Li] are observed as the river signature is governed by winter base flow conditions. As the river ice breaks up, surface runoff flows over the impermeable permafrost, interacting with leaf litter, diluting the [Li]. We compare d7Li over the spring flood period with a greater spatial study conducted over two summer field seasons (2012/2013) of the main Lena River channel and its tributaries, which drain a variety of lithologies/topographies. During the summer, the thawed active layer promotes deeper water flow paths, greater water-rock interaction and enhanced secondary minerals formation which preferentially take up 6Li. Summer riverine d7Li typically fall between +14.5 ‰ to +28.5 ‰, with rivers draining the Central Siberian Plateau typically exhibiting high [Li], but similar δ7Li to rivers draining the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range. Overall, this study demonstrates how Li isotopes respond to weathering in a permafrost

  12. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of soluble iron from forests to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of aerosols and trace gases. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM. The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of soluble iron (Fe into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (> 30° N latitude over a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–51 × 103 km2 yr−1 which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO (12–78 Tg CO yr−1. Satellite observations of CO from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. During the major Siberian fire seasons in the summer of 2002 and in the spring of 2003, the model results for CO enhancements due to intense fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These fire emission rates are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. Compared to the dust sources without the atmospheric processing by acidic species

  13. Predicting long-term carbon mineralization and trace gas production from thawing permafrost of Northeast Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Christian; Beer, Christian; Sosnin, Alexander; Wagner, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2013-04-01

    The currently observed Arctic warming will increase permafrost degradation followed by mineralization of formerly frozen organic matter to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ). Despite increasing awareness of permafrost carbon vulnerability, the potential long-term formation of trace gases from thawing permafrost remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to quantify the potential long-term release of trace gases from permafrost organic matter. Therefore, Holocene and Pleistocene permafrost deposits were sampled in the Lena River Delta, Northeast Siberia. The sampled permafrost contained between 0.6% and 12.4% organic carbon. CO2 and CH4 production was measured for 1200 days in aerobic and anaerobic incubations at 4 °C. The derived fluxes were used to estimate parameters of a two pool carbon degradation model. Total CO2 production was similar in Holocene permafrost (1.3 ± 0.8 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) aerobically, 0.25 ± 0.13 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) anaerobically) as in 34 000-42 000-year-old Pleistocene permafrost (1.6 ± 1.2 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) aerobically, 0.26 ± 0.10 mg CO2 -C gdw(-1) anaerobically). The main predictor for carbon mineralization was the content of organic matter. Anaerobic conditions strongly reduced carbon mineralization since only 25% of aerobically mineralized carbon was released as CO2 and CH4 in the absence of oxygen. CH4 production was low or absent in most of the Pleistocene permafrost and always started after a significant delay. After 1200 days on average 3.1% of initial carbon was mineralized to CO2 under aerobic conditions while without oxygen 0.55% were released as CO2 and 0.28% as CH4 . The calibrated carbon degradation model predicted cumulative CO2 production over a period of 100 years accounting for 15.1% (aerobic) and 1.8% (anaerobic) of initial organic carbon, which is significantly less than recent estimates. The multiyear time series from the incubation experiments helps to more reliably constrain projections of future

  14. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Audry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m−2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions was suggested. This shift was likely promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all

  15. Imitation modeling of ice dams (case study of Tom’ River, Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zemtsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors of ice jam formations in the lower flow of the Tom River (Siberia are investigated. A length of the main channel under investigation is about 120 km. Approaches to solution of the problem of the jam formation control and, as a consequence, the jam induced floods are considered on the basis of the imitative computer modeling of stream dynamics and ice jams. The simulation makes it possible to analyze different scenarios of initial forcing and to predict reactions of the river bed system to the effects. On the basis of 1D models developed in the HEC-RAS 4.0 modeling system for the Tom River at the city of Tomsk we investigated a possibility of the ice jam localization, probability of which at different parts of river flow varies in time according to change of the river water discharge, stream hydraulics, and ice cover thickness. The 2D hydrodynamic model of the Tom River channel system in the SMS 9.2 modeling system has been developed. It allows simulating effects of ice jams located in different sections of the river flow on the run-off redistribution between the main channel and other river branches. It makes possible to estimate hazards and risks of ice jam floods and probable effects of ice jams on formation of the river channel system. As a result it becomes possible to regulate the safe spring ice transit through populated areas.Analysis of factors of the ice jam formations has demonstrated that due to increasing anthropogenic influence changes of hydro-meteorological and geomorphologic conditions lead to more frequent occurrence of jam floods for the last 25 years as compared to previous 40-year period. The imitative computer models are proposed to be used for planning anti-jam measures since they make possible to create a whole system of the channel structure, a relief of channel and floodplain, a flow velocity field including dangerous hydrologic processes. Similar system would allow predicting both consequences of local

  16. Coastal dynamics and submarine permafrost in shallow water of the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Günther, Frank; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Grosse, Guido; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang; Makarov, Aleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Coastal erosion and flooding transform terrestrial landscapes into marine environments. In the Arctic, these processes inundate terrestrial permafrost with seawater and create submarine permafrost. Permafrost begins to warm under marine conditions, which can destabilize the sea floor and may release greenhouse gases. We report on the transition of terrestrial to submarine permafrost at a site where the timing of inundation can be inferred from the rate of coastline retreat. On Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia, changes in annual coastline position have been measured for decades and vary highly spatially. We hypothesize that these rates are inversely related to the inclination of the upper surface of submarine ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) based on the consequent duration of inundation with increasing distance from the shoreline. We compared rapidly eroding and stable coastal sections of Muostakh Island and find permafrost-table inclinations, determined using direct current resistivity, of 1 and 5 %, respectively. Determinations of submarine IBP depth from a drilling transect in the early 1980s were compared to resistivity profiles from 2011. Based on borehole observations, the thickness of unfrozen sediment overlying the IBP increased from 0 to 14 m below sea level with increasing distance from the shoreline. The geoelectrical profiles showed thickening of the unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost over the 28 years since drilling took place. We use geoelectrical estimates of IBP depth to estimate permafrost degradation rates since inundation. Degradation rates decreased from over 0.4 m a-1 following inundation to around 0.1 m a-1 at the latest after 60 to 110 years and remained constant at this level as the duration of inundation increased to 250 years. We suggest that long-term rates are lower than these values, as the depth to the IBP increases and thermal and porewater solute concentration gradients over depth decrease. For the

  17. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  18. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  19. Outlook for prospecting for lithological traps of nonanticlinal type of hydrocarbons in the lower-middle Jurassic deposits of central West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasovich, G.S.; Myasnikova, G.P.; Sidorenkov, A.I.; Zmanovskaya, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of the laws governing the arrangement and conditions of the formation of large and regional zones of formation of lithological traps of hydrocarbons. It made it possible to reveal four basic types of genetic roots of these tasks developed within the examined region. An analysis is made from these viewpoints of the features of the lower-middle Jurassic sedimentation and the potentialities for forming traps of the nonanyiclinal type on the territory of the main structural elements of the region. Considerations are expressed for the possible development of nonanticlinal traps of a certain type within the boundaries of these structural elements.

  20. Method aspects of constructing an economic-mathematical model for long-term development of oil and related sectors of industry in West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradoboyev, S.A.; Chudnovskiy, G.L.; Churikov, L.I.; Kolpakov, N.F.; Krasnov, B.S.; Mikhalev, M.K.; Yefremov, Y.P.

    1981-01-01

    Experience is analyzed of economic-mathematical modeling of the development of extracting sectors of industry from the viewpoint of the regional sector complex. Characteristics and features are examined of isolating and including into the system of models a group of related sectors. Procedures are developed for constructing a multiple-level model which reflects the basic laws governing the functioning and interaction of production subsystems. A new variant is proposed for mathematical description of the process of geological extraction under complicated conditions of regions of new development.

  1. Quantifying Post-Fire Forest Biomass Recovery in Northeastern Siberia using Hierarchical Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery and Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Russian forests are the largest vegetation carbon pool outside of the tropics, with larch dominating northeastern Siberia where extreme temperatures, permafrost and wildfire currently limit persistence of other tree species. These ecosystems have experienced rapid climate warming over the past century and model simulations suggest that they will undergo profound changes by the end of the century if warming continues. Understanding the responses of these unique deciduous-conifer ecosystems to current and future climate is important given the potential changes in disturbance regimes and other climate feedbacks. The climate implications of changes in fire severity and return interval, as predicted under a warmer and drier climate, are not well understood given the trade-off between storage of C in forest biomass and post-fire surface albedo. We examined forest biomass recovery across a burn chronosequence near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, in far northeastern Siberia. We used high-quality Landsat imagery to date and map fires that occurred between 1972 and 2009, then complemented this data set using tree ring measurements to map older fires. A three stage approach was taken to map current biomass distribution. First, tree shadows were mapped from 50 cm panchromatic WorldView 1 imagery covering a portion of the region. Secondly, the tree shadow map was aggregated to 30 m resolution and used to train a regression-tree model that ingested mosaiced Landsat data. The model output correlated with allometry-based field estimates of biomass, allowing us to transform the model output to a map of regional aboveground biomass using a regression model. When combined with the fire history data, the new biomass map revealed a chronosequence of forest regrowth and carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass after fire. We discuss the potential for future carbon emissions from fires in northeastern Siberia, as well as carbon sequestration during recovery based on the observed biomass

  2. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  3. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  4. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  5. Isotope variability in larch tree rings of Siberia: climate and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyushkina, I. P.; Knorre, A.; Leavitt, S. W.; Kirdyanov, A.; Grachev, A.; Brukhanova, M.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions from tree-ring widths and maximum wood density are most successful in localities with extreme climates for particular tree species that are most responsive. Climate proxy records from other, less conventional, tree-ring parameters have been rapidly increasing over the last decade. We assembled a unique dataset of carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of larch tree rings from the northern and southern tree-lines of Siberia, variously sub-sampled and analyzed (whole wood and cellulose & annual and 5-year sequences from individual trees and pooled). Larch samples from the north in Taymyr (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) published by Sidorova et al. (2010) and from the south collected in Khakasia (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) both came from highly temperate continental climates exhibiting similar amounts of precipitation and observed temperature trends. However, the sites differ because temperature is the dominant factor limiting radial tree growth in the north, whereas precipitation is the dominant limiting factor in the south. Climatic signals documented in the chronologies of tree-ring widths, wood density, and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes were compared from 1896 to 2005 and interpreted based on site ecology and larch physiology. We found a wide range of climatic responses in the variability of isotopic ratios, which suggest influence by combined interaction of precipitation and temperature changes rather than either climate factor alone. We discuss the improvement in our understanding of climatic mechanisms that control isotope compositions and tree growth in boreal forests. At certain locations where tree-ring widths are less sensitive to climate factors, isotope analysis may have greater value to successful climate modeling. It seems crucial to measure both isotopes (C and O) in tree rings and to incorporate these mechanisms properly in developing reliable climate predictors. It is noteworthy that despite the identified differences in climatic

  6. Environmental regulation of xylem sap flow and total conductance of Larix gmelinii trees in eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Kelliher, F. M.; Bauer, G.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Byers, J. N.; Hunt, J. E.; McSeveny, T. M.; Ziegler, W.; Vygodskaya, N. N.; Milukova, I.; Sogachov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Xylem sap flow and environmental variables were measured on seven consecutive midsummer days in a 130-year-old Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. forest located 160 km south of Yakutsk in eastern Siberia, Russia (61 degrees N, 128 degrees E, 300 m asl). The site received 20 mm of rainfall during the 4 days before measurements, and soil samples indicated that the trees were well watered. The tree canopy was sparse with a one-sided leaf area index of 1.5 and a tree density of 1760 ha(-1). On a clear day when air temperature ranged from 9 to 29 degrees C, and maximum air saturation deficit was 3.4 kPa, daily xylem sap flux (F) among 13 trees varied by an order of magnitude from 7 l day(-1) for subcanopy trees (representing 55% of trees in the forest) to 67 l day(-1) for emergent trees (representing 18% of trees in the forest). However, when based on xylem sap flux density (F'), calculated by dividing F by projected tree crown area (a surrogate for the occupied ground area), there was only a fourfold range in variability among the 13 trees, from 1.0 to 4.4 mm day(-1). The calculation of F' also eliminated systematic and large differences in F among emergent, canopy and subcanopy trees. Stand-level F', estimated by combining half-hourly linear relationships between F and stem cross-sectional area with tree size distribution data, ranged between 1.8 +/- 0.4 (standard deviation) and 2.3 +/- 0.6 mm day(-1). These stand-level F' values are about 0.6-0.7 mm day(-1) (30%) larger than daily tree canopy transpiration rates calculated from forest energy balance and understory evaporation measurements. Maximum total tree conductance for water vapor transfer (G(tmax), including canopy and aerodynamic conductances), calculated from the ratio of F' and the above-canopy air saturation deficit (D) for the eight trees with continuous data sets, was 9.9 +/- 2.8 mm s(-1). This is equivalent to a leaf-scale maximum stomatal conductance (g(smax)) of 6.1 mm s(-1), when expressed on a one

  7. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM. The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia.

    Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–49 × 103 km2 yr−1 which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO (14–81 Tg CO y−1. Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires.

    Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed

  8. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia in relation to hydrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Kraberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60–8000 m3s−1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3. Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5–30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species

  9. Middle-Late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda (Southwestern Siberia): vegetation, climate, humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, N.; Nazarova, L.; Papin, D.; Nourgaliev, D.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental reconstruction of Mid-Late Holocene vegetation and climate was inferred from pollen records of Lake Big Yarovoe (Kulunda steppe, Southwestern Siberia). Reconstruction suggests generally prevalence of steppe during last 4.45 ka. Relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.45 and 3.80 ka BP. The largest development of conifers forest started in Kulunda after 3.80 ka BP. Constant presence of dark-coniferous trees Abies and especially Picea between 3.80 and 2.7 ka BP indicates the most humid period in the region during studied time. Onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominated parallel to sharp reduction of conifers in Kulunda. These results are in agreement with general scheme of Holocene environmental history of surrounding areas including Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. Territory of Kulunda consists many archaeological sites of Bronze, Iron and Middle Ages. Second half of Bronze Age (4.45-3.80 ka BP) was represented by local human cultures or migrants from the North Kazakhstan. The main archaeological culture of Kulunda alike in the whole Ob`-Irtysh interfluve in this period was Elunino culture. The economical activities of Elunino community were connected with animal breeding especially with sheep and goats. The most humid period (~1795-710 BC; 3.8-2.7 ka BP) in Kulunda corresponded to the end of early Bronze Age and to the onset of the Iron Age. In 18 century BC Andronovo culture, associated with the Indo-Iranians and migrants from Central Kazakhstan, spread in the region. Cattle breeding economy was distinctive features of Andronovo people, however, increase of sheep, goats and horses with transition to nomadic life style was characteristic of the late Bronze Age. This trend is in

  10. Wildfire, Ecosystems and Climate in Siberia: Developing Weather and Climate Data Sets for Use in Fire Weather and Bioclimatic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    A primary driving force of land cover change in boreal regions is fire, and extreme fire seasons are influenced by local weather and ultimately climate. It is predicted that fire frequency, area burned, fire severity, fire season length, and severe fire seasons will increase under current climate change scenarios. Already, there is evidence of an increased number of extreme fire seasons in Siberia that correlate with current warming. Our overall goal is to explore the degree to which current and future climate variability has and will affect wildfire-induced land cover change and to highlight the significance of the interaction between the biosphere and the climate system. Developing reliable weather and climate data provides the backbone of this research, which is to examine the relationships between weather, extreme fire events, and fire-induced land cover change in the changing climate of Siberia. The primary focus in this presentation is the description of the assembled weather and climate data sets and the verification efforts, followed by an example where the data set is used in a fire prediction application. Ground- based weather observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) for the years 1983-2006, have been used to verify various modeled meteorological parameters from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) data. Specifically, we have extracted "Summary of the Day" and "Integrated Surface Hourly (ISH)" weather data from the NCDC. The ISH data has been processed to obtain hourly observation times for all stations in Siberia, including Mongolia and parts of northern China. A subset of these stations have been selected for validation purposes if they meet a criteria of having at least 75% of the possible reporting observations per day and 75% of the possible days in each month. GEOS-4 data interpolated to a 1x1 degree grid have compared well with the NCDC station data, covering the burning season from April through September

  11. Isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen of carbonates of oil and gas-bearing deposits of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golyshev, S.I.; Cherepnin, A.V.; Rozhnev, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    There is measured the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen in 129 samples of carbonates and carbonate cements of oil and gas-bearing Paleozoic and Mezozoic deposits of Western Siberia. The isotopic composition of samples of marine deposits varies from -1.2 to +6.1% for carbon and from 19.8 to 29.1% for oxygen and has a mean isotopic composition of 1.9 to 24.8%. Catagenetic processes lead to lightening of the isotopic composition of secondary carbonate on the average by 5% for carbon and 9% for oxygen. The most intense lightening of isotopic composition is observed in samples disposed near oil and gas deposits.

  12. Gene cloning of the 18S rRNA of an ancient viable moss from the permafrost of northeastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Gilichinsky, David A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    1999-12-01

    A moss plant dating as much as 40,000 years old was collected from the permafrost of the Kolyma Lowlands of Northeastern Siberia. The plant tissue was revived and cultured for the extraction of its genomic DNA. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was cloned and its sequence studied. Comparative sequence analysis of the cloned ribosomal DNA to other known 18S RNA showed very high sequence identity and was revealed to be closest to the moss specie, Aulacomnium turgidum. The results of this study also show the ability of biological organisms to rest dormant in deep frozen environments where they can be revived and cultured under favorable conditions. This is significant in the notion that celestial icy bodies can be media to preserve biological function and genetic material during long term storage or transport.

  13. Solid Inclusions in Au-nuggets, genesis and derivation from alkaline rocks of the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvorani Sami N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 112 Au-nuggets, collected from alluvial placer deposits of the Ingarinda River from the Guli massif, located in northem Siberia, Russia, were investigated. The Guli massif consists of a huge dunite-clinopyroxenite complex (the largest complex in the world, an alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite (melilite, nephelinite, ijolite enveloping the dunite and carbonatite intrusions, associated with disseminated schlieren type chromitite and Au-Ag, Pt placer deposits. The nuggets are characterized by various sizes and shapes and show chemical compositions Au, Au-Ag and AuCu, typical for a derivate of carbon-atites and/or ultramafic complexes. A great variety of oxide, silicate, REE-minerals, carbonate and sulphide inclusions have been detected in the nuggets, which are identical in mineralogy and chemical composition to mineral constituents of the alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite surrounding the Guli dunite core complex thus, considered as the source for Au-nuggets.

  14. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  15. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.

    2016-12-01

    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  16. Holocene radiocarbon-dated sites in northeastern Siberia: issues of temporal frequency, reservoir age, and human-nature interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V

    2010-01-01

    The existing corpus of data on radiocarbon dates for Holocene sites in Northeastern Siberia was used as proxy to reconstruct the chronology of human occupation of the region. The problem of reservoir age correction in the Bering Sea region complicated this task and this issue needs to be solved in order to obtain more reliable age determinations for coastal archaeological sites. Using a chronology built after excluding the questionable dates from the database, the major patterns of human population dynamics and their possible correlation with climatic fluctuations were examined. No direct relationship appears to exist between these two processes. Additional archaeological and paleo environmental work needs to be carried out in this region of the North.

  17. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  18. Dr. West and Mr. Summers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger Kimball

    2002-01-01

      In all the mainstream press coverage of this affair, it was put about that Comet West is a serious scholar, that AfroAmerican Studies is a serious academic discipline, and that Harvard's department...

  19. Eddy covariance CO2 flux above a Gmelin larch forest on continuous permafrost in Central Siberia during a growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kajimoto, T.; Abaimov, A. P.; Yamamoto, S.; Zyryanova, O. A.

    2008-08-01

    Gmelin larch ( Larix gmelinii) forests are representative vegetation in the continuous permafrost region of Central Siberia. Information on the carbon budget is still limited for this Siberian larch taiga in comparison to boreal forests in other regions, while the larch forests are expected to play a key role in the global carbon balance due to their wide distribution over North-East Eurasia. The authors reported results of eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements at a mature Gmelin larch stand in Central Siberia, Russia (64°16'N, 100°12'E, 250 m a.s.l.). The measurements were conducted during one growing season (June-early September in 2004). CO2 uptake was initiated in early June and increased sharply until late June, which was closely related to the phenology of the larch trees (i.e., bud-break and needle flush). Maximum half-hourly net CO2 uptake was ˜6 µmol m-2 s-1. Maximum daily net uptake of ˜2 g C m-2 day-1 occurred at the end of June and in mid-July. Cumulative net uptake was 76-78 g C m-2, indicating that the mature larch forest acted as a net sink for CO2 during the growing season (91 days). In comparison with other boreal forests, however, the magnitude of net CO2 uptake and night-time release of the forest, and cumulative net CO2 uptake were lower. We suggest that lower net ecosystem CO2 uptake of the study stand was primarily associated with low leaf area index.

  20. Revising the archaeological record of the Upper Pleistocene Arctic Siberia: Human dispersal and adaptations in MIS 3 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Nikolskiy, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    As the main external driver, environmental changes largely predetermine human population distribution, especially in the Arctic, where environmental conditions were often too extreme for human survival. Not that long ago the only evidence of human presence here was the Berelekh site in the lower reaches of the Indighirka River. This landmark dates to 13,000-12,000 years ago but it was widely accepted as documentation of the earliest stage of human dispersal in the Arctic. New research discussed here, shows that humans began colonizing the Siberian Arctic at least by the end of the early stage of MIS 3 at around 45,000 years ago. For now, this earliest known stage of human occupation in the arctic regions is documented by the evidence of human hunting. The archaeological record of continued human occupation is fragmentary; nevertheless, evidence exists for each significant phase including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Siberian Arctic human populations were likely supported by the local mammoth population, which provided humans with food and raw material in the form of mammoth tusks. Processing of mammoth ivory is recognized widely as one of the most important peculiarities of the material culture of ancient humans. In fact, ivory tool manufacturing is one of the most important innovations of the Upper Palaeolithic in northern Eurasia. Technology that allowed manufacturing of long ivory shafts - long points and full-size spears - was critical in the tree-less open landscapes of Eurasian mammoth steppe belt. These technological skills reach their greatest extent and development shortly before the Last Glacial Maximum but are recognizable until the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary across Northern Eurasia in all areas populated by mammoths and humans. Loss of this stable source of raw material due to the late Pleistocene mammoth extinction may have provoked a shift in post-LGM Siberia to the Beringian microblade tradition. This paper reviews the most important

  1. Late Quaternary vegetation and lake system dynamics in north-eastern Siberia: Implications for seasonal climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskaborn, B. K.; Subetto, D. A.; Savelieva, L. A.; Vakhrameeva, P. S.; Hansche, A.; Herzschuh, U.; Klemm, J.; Heinecke, L.; Pestryakova, L. A.; Meyer, H.; Kuhn, G.; Diekmann, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although the climate development over the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere is well known, palaeolimnological climate reconstructions reveal spatiotemporal variability in northern Eurasia. Here we present a multi-proxy study from north-eastern Siberia combining sediment geochemistry, and diatom and pollen data from lake-sediment cores covering the last 38,000 cal. years. Our results show major changes in pyrite content and fragilarioid diatom species distributions, indicating prolonged seasonal lake-ice cover between ∼13,500 and ∼8900 cal. years BP and possibly during the 8200 cal. years BP cold event. A pollen-based climate reconstruction generated a mean July temperature of 17.8 °C during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) between ∼8900 and ∼4500 cal. years BP. Naviculoid diatoms appear in the late Holocene indicating a shortening of the seasonal ice cover that continues today. Our results reveal a strong correlation between the applied terrestrial and aquatic indicators and natural seasonal climate dynamics in the Holocene. Planktonic diatoms show a strong response to changes in the lake ecosystem due to recent climate warming in the Anthropocene. We assess other palaeolimnological studies to infer the spatiotemporal pattern of the HTM and affirm that the timing of its onset, a difference of up to 3000 years from north to south, can be well explained by climatic teleconnections. The westerlies brought cold air to this part of Siberia until the Laurentide ice-sheet vanished 7000 years ago. The apparent delayed ending of the HTM in the central Siberian record can be ascribed to the exceedance of ecological thresholds trailing behind increases in winter temperatures and decreases in contrast in insolation between seasons during the mid to late Holocene as well as lacking differentiation between summer and winter trends in paleolimnological reconstructions.

  2. 日本出兵西伯利亚探析%A Talk on Japan’ s Dispatching Troops to Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何少伟; 陈永祥

    2013-01-01

    苏俄成立之初,遭到众多资本主义国家的武装干涉,日本即是干涉方之一。从1918年8月2日晚日本发表出兵西伯利亚宣言,到1922年10月25日撤兵(除北库页岛上兵力外),日本对苏俄的武装干涉历时四年零两个月。日本出兵西伯利亚带有明显的主动性,表面上是日苏之间的一场角斗,实际上牵涉到多方的利益,尤其是与美国的利益发生了激烈的冲突,加之受其他因素的制约,其最终失败也是必然的。%At the outset of its founding, the Soviet Union met with the armed intervention of numerous capital-istic countries, Japan being one of them. Japan’ s armed intervention against the Soviet Union lasted for four years and two months, from the evening of Aug. 2, 1918 when Japan announced its of troops to Siberia to Oct. 25, 1922 when Japan withdrew its troops-except for its troops on Northern Sakhalin. Japan’ s dispatching troops to Siberia was of a clear initiative, for though seemingly a combat between Japan and the Soviet Union, it involved the inter-ests of innumerable parties, esp. in a fierce conflict with the interest of USA, thus the act was doomed to failure, coupled with other factors.

  3. Siberia snow depth climatology derived from SSM/I data using a combined dynamic and static algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippa, M.; Mognard, N.; Le, Toan T.; Josberger, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges in determining snow depth (SD) from passive microwave measurements is to take into account the spatiotemporal variations of the snow grain size. Static algorithms based on a constant snow grain size cannot provide accurate estimates of snow pack thickness, particularly over large regions where the snow pack is subjected to big spatial temperature variations. A recent dynamic algorithm that accounts for the dependence of the microwave scattering on the snow grain size has been developed to estimate snow depth from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) over the Northern Great Plains (NGP) in the US. In this paper, we develop a combined dynamic and static algorithm to estimate snow depth from 13 years of SSM/I observations over Central Siberia. This region is characterised by extremely cold surface air temperatures and by the presence of permafrost that significantly affects the ground temperature. The dynamic algorithm is implemented to take into account these effects and it yields accurate snow depths early in the winter, when thin snowpacks combine with cold air temperatures to generate rapid crystal growth. However, it is not applicable later in the winter when the grain size growth slows. Combining the dynamic algorithm to a static algorithm, with a temporally constant but spatially varying coefficient, we obtain reasonable snow depth estimates throughout the entire snow season. Validation is carried out by comparing the satellite snow depth monthly averages to monthly climatological data. We show that the location of the snow depth maxima and minima is improved when applying the combined algorithm, since its dynamic portion explicitly incorporate the thermal gradient through the snowpack. The results obtained are presented and evaluated for five different vegetation zones of Central Siberia. Comparison with in situ measurements is also shown and discussed. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  5. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Constituting the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the present-day Western Kunlun is a spectacular mountain range, extending from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Altyn Tagh fault and the Eastern Kunlun Range in the east. Dramatic climate variations have a significant control on the fluvial dissection, glacial erosion and wind transport. The West Kunlun Mountains is one of the key regions for understanding the uplift history of the Plateau and the climate change of Central Asia. The activities of tectonic and erosion make the topography of West Kunlun Mountains complex and varied. However, due to its remote location, there is still limited knowledge about the geomorphologic and geological features in West Kunlun Mountains .This paper tries to figure out the geomorphologic and geological features of this region qualitatively through studying the data of Shuttle Reader Topography Mission (SRTM) and topographic maps by digital elevation models (DEMs) and constructing profiles, aiming to make clear what functions the tectonics and climate exert on the topography of the West Kunlun Mountains. The West Kunlun Mountains, the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, have strong tectonic activities. From south to north,West Kunlun Mountains developed three major faults: Kangxiwar fracture, North West Kunlun fault and Iron Creek fault. At about 25 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to uplift, and from about 5 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to grow rapidly. By using topographic analyzing software to make more than 10 vertical profiles across the main faults from south to north, it is obvious that there is a height difference between the upper and lower plate fracture, and the elevation of terrain profiles generally decreases from south to north. There is ~4,500m elevation difference between the main ridge of the West Kunlun Mountains out of Kangxiwar (5500-6000m) and the northern foot of the Tarim Basin (1200-1300m). The same progressively decreasing

  6. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  7. AMS {sup 14}C chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) remains from the Shestakovo upper paleolithic site, western Siberia: Timing of human-mammoth interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenin, V.N.; Plicht, J. van der E-mail: plicht@phys.rug.nl; Orlova, L.A.; Kuzmin, Y.V

    2000-10-01

    We present a series of AMS {sup 14}C dates from the upper paleolithic site of Shestakovo, southwestern Siberia. The {sup 14}C ages range between 21 and 26 ka BP, corresponding to the so-called Sartan Glacial and Karginian Interglacial in Siberia. The majority of dates are from woolly mammoth bones, obtained from several discrete cultural layers, and range from ca. 25,700 to 21,600 BP. One charcoal date, ca. 23,300 BP, pinpoints the timing of at least one phase of site occupation by humans. The overlap of this date with the mammoth bone dates shows clearly that paleolithic people scavenged bones from natural death accumulations near the site. Mammoth hunting was most probably of limited scale. Conventional {sup 14}C dates from Shestakovo are also discussed.

  8. West-east contrast of phenology and climate in northern Asia revealed using a remotely sensed vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rikie; Nomaki, Tomoyuki; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2003-05-01

    The phenology of the vegetation covering north Asia (mainly Siberia) and its spatial characterstics were investigated using remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The analysis used the weekly averaged NDVI over 5 years (1987-1991) using the second-generation weekly global vegetation index dataset (0.144 degrees x 0.144 degrees spatial resolution). In the seasonal NDVI cycle, three phenological events were defined for each pixel: green-up week (NDVI exceeds 0.2), maximum week, and senescence week (NDVI drops below 0.2). Generally there was a west-early/east-late gradient in the three events in north Asia. In the zonal transect between 45 degrees and 50 degrees N, the timing of green-up, maximum, and senescence near 60 degrees E (Kazakh) was about 3.4, 8.7, and 13.4 weeks earlier than near 110 degrees E (Mongolia) respectively. It has been suggested that vegetation near Kazakh only flourishes during a short period when water from snow melt is available from late spring to early summer. In Mongolia, abundant water is available for the vegetation, even in midsummer, because of precipitation. In the 50-60 degrees N zonal transect, the green-up and maximum near 40 degrees E were about 3.8 and 3.9 weeks earlier than near 115 degrees E, respectively. As for the week of senescence, there was no clear west-east trend. This west-to-east phenological gradient was related to the weekly cumulative temperature (over 0 degrees C). Weeks in which the cumalative temperature exceeded 40 degrees C and 140 degrees C had a similar west-east distribution to green-up and maximum NDVI.

  9. Who were the Clerks in Siberia? Professional Characteristics of Russian Empire Local Governmental Officials from the 19th to the early 20ies century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Karchaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the history of the Siberian grassroots and their professional composition as Siberian government participation may reflect the processes taking place in Russian Imperia. The aim of this article is to look at the long-term evolution of Siberian employees' participation in the province’s administration in Yenisei province from 1822 to the 1917. The data on the officials in grassroots governance came from archival research, involving 447 clerks' biographies from Eastern Siberia. The documents were stored in the Russian State Historical Archive (St Petersburg, Russia and the State Archive of Krasnoyarsk Region (Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, Russia. It was an important source of empirical data on the work of the Siberian grassroots governance that was not available elsewhere. Social composition, education, working experience and criminal record were considered to identify a group of officials prevailing in local and regional government structures. In conclusion, we found that, in the first, dominance of Siberian clerks with primary education, quite an insignificant number of clerks with secondary and higher education confirm the idea that involving state employees in governance participation was complicated by their educational level. Secondly, clerks low socio‐economic stratums constituted the majority in the governance grassroots in the Eastern Siberia. In this region nobles were represented in much smaller numbers. Third, Service work experience from 2 to 5 years allowed working more professionally. Consequently, frames of the Russian Imperia in Siberia began to form more experienced employees during 1822–1917. However, 1–2 years was the average term of office. Fourthly, at the time the proportion of Siberian clerks with criminal record composed 7–8 per cent as figures was in the Central regions of the Russian Imperia.

  10. A Comparison of the Classification of Vegetation Characteristics by Spectral Mixture Analysis and Standard Classifiers on Remotely Sensed Imagery within the Siberia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative to the traditional method of inferring vegetation cover characteristics from satellite data by classifying each pixel into a specific land cover type based on predefined classification schemes, the Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) method is applied to images of the Siberia region. A linear mixture model was applied to determine proportional estimates of land cover for, (a) agriculture and floodplain soils, (b) broadleaf, and (c) conifer classes, in pixels of 30 m resolution L...

  11. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 of Beijing B0/W lineage from HIV positive patient from Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 belonging to Beijing B0/W lineage isolated from a HIV patient from Siberia, Russia. This clinical isolate showed MDR phenotype and resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide. We analyzed SNPs associated with virulence and resistance. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession NZ_LVJJ00000000.

  12. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  13. The Legacy of Archaic Consciousness among Workers in Western Siberia at the End of the XIX — the Beginning of the XX Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Фаронов, В.Н.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the remains of the archaic consciousness of the workers in Western Siberia, inherited from the former social layers of the agrarian society: peasants, burghers and artisans. They had pro-royal mood, patriarchal respectfulness to superiors, and passive expectation of the changes for the better, which would be brought by a certain cultural hero from outside, a negative attitude toward private ownership and hoarding. However, the workers did not like their bosses, businessme...

  14. Politeness: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Джеффри Лич

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness

  15. Linking trace gas measurements and molecular tracers of organic matter in aerosols for identification of ecosystem sources and types of wildfires in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A. V.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Korets, M. A.; Bryukhanov, A. V.; Myers-Pigg, A. N.; Louchouarn, P.; Sidenko, N. V.; Amon, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Heimann, M.

    2016-11-01

    Summer 2012 was one of the extreme wildfire years in Siberia. At the surface air monitoring station “ZOTTO” (60°48'N, 89°21'E, 114 m a.s.l.) in Central Siberia we observed biomass burning (BB) influence on the ongoing atmospheric measurements within more than 50 % of the time in June-July 2012 that indicates a 30 times greater wildfire signal compared to previously reported ordinary biomass burning signature for the study area. While previous studies thoroughly estimated a relative input of BB into aerosol composition (i.e. size distribution, physical and optical parameters etc.) at ZOTTO, in this paper we characterize the source apportionment of the smoke aerosols with molecular tracer techniques from large-scale wildfires occurred in 2012 in the two prevailing types of Central Siberian ecosystems: complexes of pine forests and bogs and dark coniferous forests. Wildfires in the selected ecosystems are highly differed by their combustion phase (flaming/smoldering), the type of fire (crown/ground), biomass fuel, and nature of soil that greatly determines the smoke particle composition. Anhydrosugars (levoglucosan and its isomers) and lignin phenols taken as indicators of the sources and the state of particulate matter (PM) inputs in the specific fire plumes were used as powerful tools to compare wildfires in different environmental conditions and follow the role and contribution of different sources of terrestrial organic matter in the transport of BB pollutants into the pristine atmosphere of boreal zone in Central Siberia.

  16. Growth and physiological responses of larch trees to climate changes deduced from tree-ring widths and δ13C at two forest sites in eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Shunsuke; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Ohta, Takeshi; Maximov, Trofim C.

    2014-06-01

    Tree-ring chronologies of ring width and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) over the past 160 years were developed using living larch trees at two forest sites, each with different annual precipitation, in eastern Siberia: Spasskaya Pad (SP) (62°14‧N, 129°37‧E); and Elgeeii (EG) (60°0‧N, 133°49‧E). Intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) was derived from tree-ring δ13C. The physiological responses of the larch trees to climate varied between these sites and over time. Ring widths correlated negatively with summer temperatures at SP, where summer precipitation is lower than at EG, probably due to temperature-induced water stress. Since the 1990s, however, the negative effect of warming has been more severe at EG, where the productivity of larch trees is higher than at SP. A greater reduction of larch tree growth and higher increase rate of iWUE at EG reflects greater temperature-induced water stress, which is incident to the larger forest biomass. Our results suggest that effect of increase in atmospheric CO2 on larch tree growth is not sufficient to compensate for temperature-induced water stress on larch growth in eastern Siberia and differences in precipitation and forest productivity largely affect the larch tree response to changing climate in eastern Siberia.

  17. Elemental carbon in snow from Western Siberia and Northwestern European Russia during spring 2014, 2015 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Espen Yttri, Karl; Eckhardt, Sabine; Sollum, Espen; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Kobelev, Vasily O.; Korobov, Vladimir B.; Lobanov, Andrey A.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We present measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations in snow samples collected in spring 2014, 2015 and 2016 in Western Siberia, in the Kindo Peninsula and in Arkhangelsk (Northwestern European Russia). EC is often used as a proxy of BC [1], [2]. The use of the terms EC and BC has been under debate for several years. Recently, they were defined based on the analytical measurement method used [3]. Thermal or refractory analytical methods give EC, whereas optical methods give equivalent BC concentrations. The measurement data are compared to simulation results from the Langrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) FLEXPART and subsequently use the model to quantify the sources contributing to BC in snow in Russia. The highest EC concentrations in 2014 were observed in Western Siberia near Tomsk (147 to 219 ng g-1). FLEXPART emission sensitivities for these samples showed that the air was coming from the north and east. This explains these high concentrations of EC in snow well, as most of the anthropogenic BC sources are located in these regions. In the rest of snow samples, EC concentrations between 4 and 170 ng g-1 were observed. The highest concentrations were found near the Ob River with air masses mainly arriving from Europe. During the 2015 field campaign, EC concentrations were the highest near Archangelsk (175 ng g-1), for which FLEXPART showed that the air was coming from nearby areas. Therefore, it is likely that the samples were affected by direct emissions from the city or the port of Arkhangelsk. During the same campaign, snow samples collected in the Kindo peninsula (White Sea) showed high variability in EC concentrations (46 - 152 ng g-1, median = 70±37 ng g-1), while air masses were transported to Kindo peninsula from Central and Southern Europe. Finally in 2016, snow samples were collected outside Arkhangelsk, in the Kindo peninsula close to the Arctic Circle Dive Centre, as well as in the transect from Tomsk to Yamal in Western Siberia

  18. Carbon exchange fluxes over peatlands in Western Siberia: Possible feedback between land-use change and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.fleischer@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany); Khashimov, Ilhom, E-mail: nixonlp@mail.ru [Institute of Earth Science, Physical Geography and Geoecology Department, Tyumen State University, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Hölzel, Norbert, E-mail: nhoelzel@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany); Klemm, Otto, E-mail: otto.klemm@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    The growing demand for agricultural products has been leading to an expansion and intensification of agriculture around the world. More and more unused land is currently reclaimed in the regions of the former Soviet Union. Driven by climate change, the Western Siberian grain belt might, in a long-term, even expand into the drained peatland areas to the North. It is crucial to study the consequences of this land-use change with respect to the carbon cycling as this is still a major knowledge gap. We present for the first time data on the atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of an arable field and a neighboring unused grassland on peat soil in Western Siberia. Eddy covariance measurements were performed over one vegetation period. No directed methane fluxes were found due to an effective drainage of the study sites. The carbon dioxide fluxes appeared to be of high relevance for the global carbon and greenhouse gas cycles. They showed very site-specific patterns resulting from the development of vegetation: the persistent plants of the grassland were able to start photosynthesizing soon after snow melt, while the absence of vegetation on the managed field lead to a phase of emissions until the oat plants started to grow in June. The uptake peak of the oat field is much later than that of the grassland, but larger due to a rapid plant growth. Budgeting the whole measurement period, the grassland served as a carbon sink, whereas the oat field was identified to be a carbon source. The conversion from non-used grasslands on peat soil to cultivated fields in Western Siberia is therefore considered to have a positive feedback on climate change. - Highlights: • Grasslands on drained peat soil can act as carbon sinks. • Arable fields on drained peat act as carbon sources due to long phases of bare soil. • CH{sub 4} emissions from drained peatlands seem to play a smaller role than CO{sub 2} fluxes. • Conversion from grassland to arable field has

  19. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  20. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  1. Constraining CO2 emissions from open biomass burning by satellite observations of co-emitted species: a method and its application to wildfires in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to constrain carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from open biomass burning by using satellite observations of co-emitted species and a chemistry-transport model (CTM is proposed and applied to the case of wildfires in Siberia. CO2 emissions are assessed by means of an emission model assuming a direct relationship between the biomass burning rate (BBR and the Fire Radiative Power (FRP derived from the MODIS measurements. The key features of the method are (1 estimating the FRP-to-BBR conversion factors (α for different vegetative land cover types by assimilating the satellite observations of co-emitted species into the CTM, (2 optimal combination of the estimates of α derived independently from satellite observations of different species (CO and aerosol in this study, and (3 estimation of the diurnal cycle of the fire emissions directly from the FRP measurements. Values of α for forest and grassland fires in Siberia and their uncertainties are estimated by using the IASI carbon monoxide (CO retrievals and the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements combined with outputs from the CHIMERE mesoscale chemistry transport model. The constrained CO emissions are validated through comparison of the respective simulations with the independent data of ground based CO measurements at the ZOTTO site. Using our optimal regional-scale estimates of the conversion factors (which are found to be in agreement with the earlier published estimates obtained from local measurements of experimental fires, the total CO2 emissions from wildfires in Siberia in 2012 are estimated to be in the range from 262 to 477 Tg C, with the optimal (maximum likelihood value of 354 Tg C. Sensitivity test cases featuring different assumptions regarding the injection height and diurnal variations of emissions indicate that the derived estimates of the total CO2 emissions in Siberia are robust with respect to the modelling options (the different estimates vary within less than

  2. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  3. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  4. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular medi

  5. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, van der G.

    1971-01-01

    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of regiona

  6. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  7. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  8. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  9. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  10. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  11. Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Andrusevich, V.E. (Inst. of Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.J. (Petroscience Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stasova, O.F. (NPO SIBGEO, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01

    Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced oil in Cenomanian strata in the Van-Egan field underwent biodegradation in the reservoir, resulting in a low API gravity, an altered homohopane distribution, and the appearance of 25-norhopanes without alteration of the steranes. High API gravity oil from the Salym field has surpassed the peak of the oil window, consistent with abnormally high temperatures and pressures in the Bazhenov source rock from which it is produced. The remaining oils are very similar, including samples from Valanginian and Bathonian-Callovian intervals in a sequence of stacked reservoirs in the Fedorov field. Bazhenov rock samples from the study area contain abundant oil-prone, marine organic matter preserved under anoxic conditions. While the Upper Jurassic Vasyugan Formation shows lower oil-regenerative potential than the Bazhenov Formation, it cannot be excluded as a source rock because insufficient sample was available for biomarker analysis. Core from the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation in the YemYegov 15 well was compared with the oils because it is thermally mature and shows TOC and HI values, indicating slightly more favorable oil-generative characteristics than the average for the formation (2.75 wt. % for 270 samples; 95 mg HC/g TOC for 25 samples). The core contains terrigenous, gas-prone organic matter that shows no relationship with the analyzed oils. 59 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  13. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  14. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  15. Western Transbaikalia (South East Siberia): desertification from the past towards present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, Nadezhda; Erbajeva, Margarita A.; Khenzykhenova, Fedora I.

    2010-05-01

    Desertification is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem in Asia, in particular in the Baikalian region including Transbaikalia and Prebaikalia. The Baikal Rift zone is a natural border between two biogeographical provinces: Siberian (north forests, taiga - Prebaikalia) and Central-Asian (arid steppes, semi-deserts and deserts - Transbaiklia). At present time southern Transbaikal area is semi-arid region, in contrast to it, Prebaikalia is characterized by more humid environment. In the past, during Neogene paleoenvironment and biogeocoenosis of these two areas were close and they included similar faunal assemblages. However the formation of a series of south Siberian ranges and uplift of surrounding the Lake Baikal mountains have became as the main orographic barrier. As a result the West Transbaikalia has been isolated from the influence of West humid Atlantic cyclone. This evidence is considered to be the main reason of the onset the climate aridisation in the region. Moreover the influence of gradually global change of the climate change towards cool and dry was rather high too. The most important sources of information on past climate change are derived from paleoclimatic records such as terrestrial archives - deposits, paleoflora and paleofauna of the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene. The mammal associations and pollen flora evidenced that during the Pliocene the landscapes with predominance of forest inhabitants were replaced by savanna like areas and to the end of Pliocene the region was occupied by mammal assemblages inhabited the open landscapes. The dominant forms in the fauna were ground squirrels (Spermophilus). At that time the evidence of the first appearance of desert dweller animals - the genus Allactaga occurred. The further aridisation and cooling strengthened during the Early Pleistocene when the mammal faunas are characterized by the predominance of ochotonids, high frequency of progressive type Borsodia chinensis

  16. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  17. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  18. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  19. Comparing forest measurements from tree rings and a space-based index of vegetation activity in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Andrew G.; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.; Losleben, Mark; Shishov, Vladimir V.; Berner, Logan T.; Oltchev, Alexander; Vaganov, Eugene A.

    2013-09-01

    Different methods have been developed for measuring carbon stocks and fluxes in the northern high latitudes, ranging from intensively measured small plots to space-based methods that use reflectance data to drive production efficiency models. The field of dendroecology has used samples of tree growth from radial increments to quantify long-term variability in ecosystem productivity, but these have very limited spatial domains. Since the cambium material in tree cores is itself a product of photosynthesis in the canopy, it would be ideal to link these two approaches. We examine the associations between the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and tree growth using 19 pairs of tree-ring widths (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) across much of Siberia. We find consistent correlations between NDVI and both measures of tree growth and no systematic difference between MXD and TRW. At the regional level we note strong correspondence between the first principal component of tree growth and NDVI for MXD and TRW in a temperature-limited bioregion, indicating that canopy reflectance and cambial production are broadly linked. Using a network of 21 TRW chronologies from south of Lake Baikal, we find a similarly strong regional correspondence with NDVI in a markedly drier region. We show that tree growth is dominated by variation at decadal and multidecadal time periods, which the satellite record is incapable of recording given its relatively short record.

  20. A 9,000 Year History of Seal Hunting on Lake Baikal, Siberia: The Zooarchaeology of Sagan-Zaba II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Nomokonova

    Full Text Available Sagan-Zaba II, a habitation site on the shore of Siberia's Lake Baikal, contains a record of seal hunting that spans much of the Holocene, making it one of the longest histories of seal use in North Asia. Zooarchaeological analyses of the 16,000 Baikal seal remains from this well-dated site clearly show that sealing began here at least 9000 calendar years ago. The use of these animals at Sagan-Zaba appears to have peaked in the Middle Holocene, when foragers used the site as a spring hunting and processing location for yearling and juvenile seals taken on the lake ice. After 4800 years ago, seal use declined at the site, while the relative importance of ungulate hunting and fishing increased. Pastoralists began occupying Sagan-Zaba at some point during the Late Holocene, and these groups too utilized the lake's seals. Domesticated animals are increasingly common after about 2000 years ago, a pattern seen elsewhere in the region, but spring and some summer hunting of seals was still occurring. This use of seals by prehistoric herders mirrors patterns of seal use among the region's historic and modern groups. Overall, the data presented in the paper demonstrate that Lake Baikal witnessed thousands of years of human use of aquatic resources.

  1. Stable isotope and gas properties of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Boereboom

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the texture, fabric and gas properties (contents of total gas, O2, N2, CO2, and CH4 of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia. The two ice wedges display contrasting structures: one being of relatively "clean" ice and the other showing clean ice at its centre as well as debris-rich ice on its sides (referred to as ice-sand wedge. A comparison of gas properties, crystal size, fabrics and stable isotope data (δ18O and δD allows discriminating between three different facies of ice with specific paleoenvironmental signatures, suggesting different climatic conditions and rates of biological activity. More specifically, total gas content and composition reveal variable intensities of meltwater infiltration and show the impact of biological processes with contrasting contributions from anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Stable isotope data are shown to be valid for discussing changes in paleoenvironmental conditions and/or decipher different sources for the snow feeding into the ice wedges with time. Our data also give support to the previous assumption that the composite ice wedge was formed in Pleistocene and the ice wedge in Holocene times. This study sheds more light on the conditions of ice wedge growth under changing environmental conditions.

  2. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Kodar Mountains, south-central Siberia, constrained by Be-10 exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margold, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Gurinov, Artem L.; Reznichenko, Natalya V.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David

    2014-05-01

    The glacial history of the mountainous Transbaikalia region NE of Lake Baikal, Siberia, has so far received little attention. The Kodar Mountains exceed 3000 m in elevation and small cirque glaciers currently occur in the central parts of the range. Yet, greatly expanded glaciation in the past is evidenced by massive moraine complexes at the mouth of glacial valleys in the Chara Depression (part of the Baikal rift system), and along the Vitim River valley to the NW. The moraines document the existence of large valley glaciers that reached to over 120 kilometres in length. We applied Be-10 exposure dating to determine the timing of glacier advances that formed the major moraines: 19 samples from boulders on 8 moraine ridges in 5 moraine complexes. Our results indicate extensive glaciation in the Kodar Mountains at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, with our ages spanning from about 20 ka to the Late Glacial. We attribute the age spread on some of the moraines to boulder exhumation linked to permafrost dynamics.

  3. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  4. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea.

  5. Il limite e l’altrove: il mito di Jean-Paul Belmondo nella Siberia di Andreï Makine

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    Elisabetta Abignente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The narrative work of Andreï Makine (1957, a French writer of Siberian origin, is situated on the border between two geographical and cultural spaces: on the one hand the wide, wild and snowy Siberia of his childhood; on the other hand France, a mythic place which the main characters, often teenagers, of his novels look at as a model. The contrast between these two worlds is described in a particularly forceful way in one of his early novels, Au temps du fleuve Amour (1994, in which the author tells the overwhelming effect of the screening of a popular French comedy with Jean-Paul Belmondo (Le Magnifique, 1973 in a small Siberian village. Looking closely at the entire sequence which is devoted to the film in the novel, the paper aims to reconstruct the process of mythicizing the Belmondo character by the three young protagonists and to investigate the functions that the episode covers in the novel. Focusing on the different narrative levels that characterize the film plot, we show how the “phenomenon Belmondo” embodies in the novel the idea of a triple border: a geographic one (Europe/Asia, an expressive one (writing/imagine and, above all, an imaginary one (reality/fiction. We also show how this phenomenon refers, in the novel, to one of the central themes of Makine’s work: literary vocation.

  6. Vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration in the troposphere over Siberia derived from airborne in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Machida, Toshinobu; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyskin, Sergei; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosols particles is very important when estimating aerosol radiative effects. To date there are a lot of research programs aimed to study aerosol vertical distribution, but only a few ones exist in such insufficiently explored region as Siberia. Monthly research flights and several extensive airborne campaigns carried out in recent years in Siberian troposphere allowed the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration to be summarized. In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in a wide range of particle sizes by means of improved version of the Novosibirsk-type diffusional particle sizer and GRIMM aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109. The data on aerosol vertical distribution enabled input parameters for the empirical equation of Jaenicke (1993) to be derived for Siberian troposphere up to 7 km. Vertical distributions of aerosol number concentration in different size ranges averaged for the main seasons of the year will be presented. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00526). Jaenicke R. Tropospheric aerosols, in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, edited by P.V. Hobs. -Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.- P. 1-31.

  7. A snapshot of CO2 and CH4 evolution in a thermokarst pond near Igarka, northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian; Rees, Rainer; Flessa, Heiner; Rodionov, Andrej; Guggenberger, Georg; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Shibistova, Olga; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Mikheeva, Natalia; Kasansky, Oleg A.

    2008-09-01

    Thermokarst wetlands and ponds in the subarctic, which are located in land surface depressions resulting from permafrost melt, are strong sources of CH4, but little is known about respiration processes supporting these emissions. We determined CH4 fluxes and concentration profiles of dissolved gases and anions and some δ13C ratios of CO2 and CH4 in a thermokarst pond and adjacent smaller thermokarst depressions in the forest tundra near Igarka, northern Siberia in August 2006. Methane was emitted at 110-170 mg m-2 d-1 and produced mostly by CO2 reduction, which also provided high Gibbs free energies on the order of 50-70 KJ mol-1 H2 due to high H2 concentrations. The diffusive flux calculated from CH4 gradients in the floating mat contributed floating mat and the water body below. Anaerobic respiration required to reproduce nonsteady state CO2 concentration maxima in the floating mat above the water body was 30-80 nmol cm-3 d-1 or 250 mg m-2 d-1 and thus on a similar order of magnitude as CH4 fluxes. The results suggest that floating mat-covered thermokarst ponds located in northern Siberian bogs effectively convert recently fixed carbon into CH4 and thus allow for emissions independently from the finite, bog-derived carbon source. The relative contribution of recently fixed and old bog-derived carbon to C fluxes requires further investigation, however.

  8. Metal Adornments of Clothing and Headwear in the Bronze Age of Western Siberia (issues of research and reconstruction ..

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    Umerenkova Olga V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues related to the principals of scientific approach, methods and procedure of costume reconstruction on the basis of archaeological materials dating back to the Bronze Age discovered in the territory of Western Siberia. The costume is considered by researchers as one of the brightest manifestations of material culture. Its decoration provides multidisciplinary information containing elements of ideology and aesthetic norms together with traditions and social relationships. Reconstruction of clothing and headwear adornments in archaeological literature related to the Bronze Age is one of the understudied topics. Researchers use various sources for its recreation: archaeological materials, written historical, literature and folklore sources, and fine art items. A significant amount of source items has accumulated over the last decades, although the analysis and principles of processing thereof have not been sufficiently covered in special literature. In order to increase the informative capabilities of adornments as sources for the reconstruction of the Bronze Age costume, the author suggested a scheme of accounting for the location of adornments with respect to the remains of the buried when the excavations are documented. The article features the results of the author's reconstruction of women's headwear decoration with metal articles executed on the basis of Bronze Age materials.

  9. Compositional variation of glauconites in Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary iron-ore deposits in South-eastern Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, Maxim; Banerjee, Santanu; Mazurov, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    Glauconite occurs either as unaltered greenish or as altered brownish variety in Upper Cretaceous-Palaeocene sediments in the southeastern corner of Western Siberia. Studied section within the Bakchar iron-ore deposit includes Ipatovo, Slavgorod, Gan'kino and Lyulinvor formations, which are represented by sandstones, siltstones, claystones and oolitic ironstones of coastal-marine facies. The origin of unaltered glauconite is explained by the ;verdissement theory;. Transgressions during Lower Coniacian, Santonian and Campanian favored the formation of unaltered glauconites in dysoxic to anoxic conditions. Subaerial exposure of glauconite resulted in leaching of potassium, oxidation of iron and formation of iron hydroxides in Upper Coniacian, Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. Glauconite ultimately converts to leptochlorite and hydrogoethite by this alteration. Abundant microscopic gold inclusions, besides sulphides, sulphates, oxides and silicates characterize this glauconite. Mineral inclusions include precious, rare metals and non-ferrous metals. The concentration of gold in glauconite may be as high as 42.9 ppb. Abundant inclusions of various compositions in glauconites indicate enrichment of marine sediments in precious and non-precious metals. While major element composition of glauconites is affected by subaerial exposure, the broadly similar micro-inclusions in both altered and unaltered varieties are possibly related to the comparatively immobile nature of REE and trace elements.

  10. The effect of impurities on the surface melt of a glacier in the Suntar Khayata Mountain Range, Russian Siberia

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    Nozomu eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated characteristics of impurities and their impact on the ablation of Glacier No.31 in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in Russian Siberia during summer 2014. Positive degree-day factors (PDDFs obtained from 20 stake measurements distributed across the glacier’s ablation area varied from 3.00 to 8.55 mm w.e. K-1 day-1. The surface reflectivity measured with a spectrometer as a proxy for albedo, ranged from 0.09 to 0.62, and was negatively correlated with the PDDF, suggesting that glacier ablation is controlled by surface albedo on the studied glacier. Mass of total insoluble impurities on the ice surface varied from 0.1 to 45.2 g m-2 and was not correlated with surface reflectivity, suggesting that albedo is not directly conditioned by the mass of the impurities. Microscopy of impurities revealed that they comprised mineral particles, cryoconite granules, and ice algal cells filled with dark-reddish pigments (Ancylonema nordenskioldii. There was a significant negative correlation between surface reflectivity and algal biomass or organic matter, suggesting that the ice algae and their products are the most effective constituents in defining glacier surface albedo. Our results suggest that the melting of ice surface was enhanced by the growth of ice algae, which increased the melting rate 1.6 - 2.6 times greater than that of the impurity free bare-ice.

  11. Vegetation, climate and lake changes over the last 7000 years at the boreal treeline in north-central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Juliane; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Pestryakova, Luidmila A.

    2016-09-01

    Palaeoecological investigations in the larch forest-tundra ecotone in northern Siberia have the potential to reveal Holocene environmental variations, which likely have consequences for global climate change because of the strong high-latitude feedback mechanisms. A sediment core, collected from a small lake (radius ∼100 m), was used to reconstruct the development of the lake and its catchment as well as vegetation and summer temperatures over the last 7100 calibrated years. A multi-proxy approach was taken including pollen and sedimentological analyses. Our data indicate a gradual replacement of open larch forests by tundra with scattered single trees as found today in the vicinity of the lake. An overall trend of cooling summer temperature from a ∼2 °C warmer-than-present mid-Holocene summer temperatures until the establishment of modern conditions around 3000 years ago is reconstructed based on a regional pollen-climate transfer function. The inference of regional vegetation changes was compared to local changes in the lake's catchment. An initial small water depression occurred from 7100 to 6500 cal years BP. Afterwards, a small lake formed and deepened, probably due to thermokarst processes. Although the general trends of local and regional environmental change match, the lake catchment changes show higher variability. Furthermore, changes in the lake catchment slightly precede those in the regional vegetation. Both proxies highlight that marked environmental changes occurred in the Siberian forest-tundra ecotone over the course of the Holocene.

  12. Carbon dynamics after forest harvest in Central Siberia: the ZOTTO footprint area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Alexey; Zrazhevskaya, Galina; Shibistova, Olga; Onuchin, Alexander; Heimann, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere have been recognized as important carbon sinks. Accurate calculation of forest carbon budget and estimation of the temporal variations of forest net carbon fluxes are important topics to elucidate the ''missing sink'' question and follow up the changing carbon dynamics in forests. In the frame of the ongoing Russian-German partner project the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a unique international research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational about 20 km west of the Yenisei river (60.8°N; 89.35°E). The data of the ongoing greenhouse gas and aerosol measurements at the tall tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over the whole Northern Eurasia. The tall tower footprint area estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes are highly demanded for bottom-up validation of inversion estimates. The ZOTTO site lies in a vast region of forests and wetlands, still relatively undisturbed by anthropogenic influences, but a moderate human impact on vegetation, represented mainly by logging activities, becomes essential. Therefore, accurate estimates of carbon pools in vegetation and soil following harvesting are essential to inversion studies for ZOTTO and critical to predictions of both local ecosystem sustainability and global C exchange with the atmosphere. We present our investigation of carbon dynamics after forest harvest in the tall tower footprint area (~1000 km2). The changes in C pools and annual sequestration were quantified among several clear-cut lichen pine (Pinus sylvestris Lamb.) stands representing various stages of secondary succession with a "space-for-time substitution" technique. When viewed as a chronosequence, these stands represent snapshots showing how the effects of logging may propagate through time. The study concluded that ecosystems during the first 15 yrs after forest harvest become C

  13. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  14. Characterization of Siberia Larch Forest from Palsar L-Band Radar and Landsat Vcf Data Trained by High-Resolution Stereo and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, J.; Sun, G.; Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Improved understanding of the fate of the larch forests in the face of climate change requires a concerted long term research effort to detect and quantify ecosystem responses. Satellite data analysis offers much improved information on changes in the forest-tundra transitional zone and on forest structure in this area. The LANDSAT data and radar data such as ALOS/PALSAR provide extensive coverage at high resolution (30m pixel). In this study, the utilization of these data for regional canopy height and biomass mapping was examined. The major challenge for characterization of forest in a remote area such as Siberia is the lack of adequate number of training and validation data. The results of using GLAS waveform data to extend field measurements which has been successful in other ecosystems were found to be poor because most of the waveforms were acquired when the deciduous larch tree had no needles. In this study, the stereo optical data from high resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) were used to a generate canopy height model (CHM) by identifying both tree top and ground surface in these sparse forests. The regression models between the field measured canopy height, biomass and the stereo CHM were developed and the field data were extended to the forested areas within the entire stereo images, providing more data for training and validation. We compare the mapping results from two methods. One uses GLAS waveform data and the other uses high resolution stereo imagery to extrapolate field measurements. Results demonstrate the potential and limitations using high resolution stereo imagery to provide training information of sparse larch forest in Siberia.

  15. Constraining CO2 emissions from open biomass burning by satellite observations of co-emitted species: a method and its application to wildfires in Siberia

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    I. B. Konovalov

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI carbon monoxide (CO retrievals and MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements combined with outputs from the CHIMERE mesoscale chemistry-transport model. The constrained CO emissions are validated through comparison of the respective simulations with independent data of ground-based CO measurements at the ZOTTO site. Using our optimal regional-scale estimates of the conversion factors (which are found to be in agreement with earlier published estimates obtained from local measurements of experimental fires, the total CO2 emissions from wildfires in Siberia in 2012 are estimated to be in the range from 280 to 550 Tg C, with the optimal (maximum likelihood value of 392 Tg C. Sensitivity test cases featuring different assumptions regarding the injection height and diurnal variations of emissions indicate that the derived estimates of the total CO2 emissions in Siberia are robust with respect to the modeling options (the different estimates vary within less than 15% of their magnitude. The CO2 emission estimates obtained for several years are compared with independent estimates provided by the GFED3.1 and GFASv1.0 global emission inventories. It is found that our "top-down" estimates for the total annual biomass burning CO2 emissions in the period from 2007 to 2011 in Siberia are by factors of 2.5 and 1.8 larger than the respective bottom-up estimates; these discrepancies cannot be fully explained by uncertainties in our estimates. There are also considerable differences in the spatial distribution of the different emission estimates; some of those differences have a systematic character and require further analysis.

  16. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

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    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives. The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011, and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods . This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011. Results . Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion . Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011 are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance

  17. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011. Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative

  18. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender

  19. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia: effects of microbiological and physicochemical properties

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    D. L. Achat

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C, which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deep to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of Siberian forest ecosystems are thus required. The objectives of the present study were to (1 evaluate P status of surface and deep soil horizons from different forest plots in southwestern Siberia and (2 assess the effects of physicochemical soil properties, microbiological activity and decomposition processes on soil P fractions and availability. Results revealed high concentrations of total P (879–1042 mg kg−1 in the surface mineral soils and plant-available phosphate ions. In addition, plant-available phosphate ions accumulated in the subsoil, suggesting that deeper root systems may mine sufficient available P for the trees and the potentially enhanced growth and C sequestration, may not be P-limited. Because the proportions of total organic P were large in the surface soil layers (47–56% of total P, we concluded that decomposition processes may play a significant role in P availability. However, microbiological activity and decomposition processes varied between the study plots and higher microbiological activity resulted in smaller organic P fractions and consequently larger available inorganic P fractions. In the studied Siberian soils, P availability was also controlled by the physicochemical soil properties, namely Al and Fe oxides and soil pH.

  20. Interannual environmental-soil thawing rate variation and its control on transpiration from Larix cajanderi, Central Yakutia, Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez C, M. L.; Saito, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shirota, T.; Iwahana, G.; Maximov, T. C.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-05-01

    SummarySapflow measurements were carried out in a larch forest in eastern Siberia, an area of wide permafrost distribution. Canopy transpiration and canopy conductance were scaled up from these values. The objective was to analyze the relationship between environmental variables, mainly vapour pressure deficit ( D), soil moisture and soil thawing rate with canopy transpiration and canopy conductance. Maximum sapflow rate was 42.4 kg d -1 tree -1 with bigger trees showing a more accentuated response to environmental changes. Canopy transpiration ( Ec) showed inter-annual variability, with a maximum value of 1.7 mm d -1 in 2003 and 1.2 mm d -1 in 2004. Soil moisture was higher in 2003 because of higher precipitation (230 mm in 2003 compared to 110 mm in 2004 for the total growing season). Maximum soil thawing rate in 2003 and 2004 was 140 cm and 120 cm, respectively, because of different air temperature, soil water content and precipitation regime among other factors. Canopy conductance ( gc) was positively correlated with D during fine weather and well-watered days in both years. On the other hand, canopy conductance was well correlated with soil moisture ( R2 = 0.83) in the upper layers (20-30 cm depth) during 2003 (wet year) but not in 2004 (dry year), representing its strong but limited control over water fluxes from the forest. By comparison with other studies in this region, canopy transpiration is estimated to contribute to almost 50% of the total forest evaporation, highlighting the important role of understorey transpiration in permafrost regions. Our results show that it is not only the impermeability of permafrost with the property of keeping soil moisture in the thin active layer but it is also the slow soil thawing rate that plays the important role of controlling the amount of water available for trees roots in the upper soil layers during dry years.

  1. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia: effects of microbiological and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

    2013-02-01

    The Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deep to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of Siberian forest ecosystems are thus required. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep soil horizons from different forest plots in southwestern Siberia and (2) assess the effects of physicochemical soil properties, microbiological activity and decomposition processes on soil P fractions and availability. Results revealed high concentrations of total P (879-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and plant-available phosphate ions. In addition, plant-available phosphate ions accumulated in the subsoil, suggesting that deeper root systems may mine sufficient available P for the trees and the potentially enhanced growth and C sequestration, may not be P-limited. Because the proportions of total organic P were large in the surface soil layers (47-56% of total P), we concluded that decomposition processes may play a significant role in P availability. However, microbiological activity and decomposition processes varied between the study plots and higher microbiological activity resulted in smaller organic P fractions and consequently larger available inorganic P fractions. In the studied Siberian soils, P availability was also controlled by the physicochemical soil properties, namely Al and Fe oxides and soil pH.

  2. Influence Of Clear-cutting On Thermal and hydrological Regime In The Active Layer Near Yakutsk, Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahana, G.; Kobayashi, Y.; Machimura, T.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fukuda, M.

    2004-12-01

    Thermal and hydrological conditions in the active layer were investigated simultaneously at a mature larch forest (control site) and a cutover, which experienced clear-cutting in November 2000 during the thawing periods from 2001 to 2003, near Yakutsk, Eastern Siberia. The two sites were located about 100m apart and the cutover was formerly a part of the control larch forest site. The aims were to clarify the characteristics of heat and water budget in the active layer, and to assess the influence of clear-cutting on permafrost and active layer conditions, based on field observations at both intact and clear-cut forest. Clear-cutting enhanced ground thawing and the difference in the active layer thickness between the forest and the cutover (1-year) was 14cm. The soil water content drastically decreased at the forest, while that at the cutover was retained in during the first thawing season after clear-cutting. Marked changes in the active layer conditions were limited only to the first thawing season. The difference in the maximum thaw depth did not expand significantly in the second thawing season despite the increased ground heat flux at the cutover site. Thermal and hydrological analyses of the active layer revealed that the storage of latent heat was a predominant component in the energy balance in the active layer. Thus, the soil moisture condition, especially spring ice content in the active layer, plays an important role in controlling the energy balance of the active layer. Further increases in the maximum thaw depth at the cutover site were inhibited by the thermal inertial effect of the larger amount of ice in the second spring after disturbance.

  3. Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crate, S.

    2009-12-01

    An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of global climate change are Viliui Sakha communities observing, how are Viliui Sakha perceiving these changes and how are the changes affecting both their subsistence survival and their cultural orientations? 2) What local knowledge exists about past climate perturbations and how does that knowledge influence contemporary adaptation to global climate change? 3) How can anecdotal (local) knowledge and regional scientific knowledge about the local effects of global climate change be integrated to enhance both local adaptive responses and policy efforts? The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving the active participation of the targeted communities, field assistants, native specialists, an in-country research team and an international collaborator. The project is founded on the PI’s 20 years of ongoing research and work with rural Viliui Sakha communities and on her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. A central focus of this project is the integration of local and scientific knowledges. We are documenting local knowledge on the community, elder and archival levels. We are collaborating with scientists in Yakutsk for regional scientific data. Our project team has just returned from the second summer of field work and this presentation will cover the project results to date. Hayfields are inundated with water.

  4. Radiocarbon ages of insects and plants frozen in the No. 31 Glacier, Suntar-Khayata Range, eastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, F., E-mail: nakazawa@nipr.ac.jp [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Transdisciplinary Research Integration Center, Hulic Kamiyacho Bldg. 2F, 4-3-13 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Uchida, M.; Kondo, M. [Center for Environmental Measurement and Analysis, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0053 (Japan); Kadota, T. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan); Shirakawa, T. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Enomoto, H. [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Department of Polar Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Fedorov, A.N. [Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAN, Yakutsk 6770110 (Russian Federation); North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk 677010 (Russian Federation); Fujisawa, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Konstantinov, P.Y. [Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAN, Yakutsk 6770110 (Russian Federation); Kusaka, R. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Miyairi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ohata, T.; Yabuki, H. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the age of glacier ice in the No. 31 Glacier in the Suntar-Khayata Range of eastern Siberia by performing dating of insects thought to be long-legged fly species (Dolichopodidae) as well as plants (species unknown) fragments preserved in the ice. Ice samples containing organisms were collected at depths of 0.4–1.1 m at five points from the middle to lowest parts of the glacier in 2013. The age of an insect collected at the lowest point on the glacier was estimated as 2038 ± 32 yr B.P. Insects collected at higher points had a modern or near-modern radiocarbon age. The age of plant fragments collected at the uppermost and middle points was 1531 ± 44 and 1288 ± 26 yr B.P., respectively, and that of a mixture of plant and insect fragments collected at the lowest point was 9772 ± 42 yr B.P. When comparing specimens collected at the same point, the plant fragments were found to be older than the insects. In 2012–2014 observations, some living insects were found on the glacier, and thus the age of the insects appears to correspond to the age of the ice. On the other hand, the plant fragments might have already aged since detachment from the source plants. This study found an approximately 2000-year gap in the age of the ice between the lowest and higher points. Annual mass balance observations from 2012 to 2014 showed that in recent years, the glacier sometimes had no accumulation area. Therefore, the wide gap in the age of ice may be due to a difference in past melting processes between the lowest and higher points on the glacier.

  5. Climatically induced interannual variability in aboveground production in forest-tundra and northern taiga of central Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorre, Anastasia A; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Vaganov, Eugene A

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the variability of primary production of boreal forest ecosystems under the current climatic changes, we compared the dynamics of annual increments and productivity of the main components of plant community (trees, shrubs, mosses) at three sites in the north of Siberia (Russia). Annual radial growth of trees and shrubs was mostly defined by summer temperature regime (positive correlation), but climatic response of woody plants was species specific and depends on local conditions. Dynamics of annual increments of mosses were opposite to tree growth. The difference in climatic response of the different vegetation components of the forest ecosystems indicates that these components seem to be adapted to use climatic conditions during the short and severe northern summer, and decreasing in annual production of one component is usually combined with the increase of other component productivity. Average productivity in the northern forest ecosystems varies from 0.05 to 0.14 t ha(-1) year(-1) for trees, from 0.05 to 0.18 t ha(-1) year(-1) for shrubs and from 0.54 to 0.66 t ha(-1) year(-1) for mosses. Higher values of tree productivity combined with lower annual moss productivity were found in sites in northern taiga in comparison with forest-tundra. Different tendencies in the productivity of the dominant species from each vegetation level (trees, shrubs, mosses) were indicated for the last 10 years studied (1990-1999): while productivity of mosses is increasing, productivity of trees is decreasing, but there is no obvious trend in the productivity of shrubs. Our results show that in the long term, the main contribution to changes in annual biomass productivity in forest-tundra and northern taiga ecosystems under the predicted climatic changes will be determined by living ground cover.

  6. Simulating hydrology with an isotopic land surface model in western Siberia: what do we learn from water isotopes?

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    F. Guglielmo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in the evaluation of land surface models would translate into more reliable predictions of future climate changes, as significant uncertainties persist in the quantification and representation of the relative contributions of soil and vegetation to the water and energy cycles. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of water stable isotopes in land surface models studying land surface processes. To achieve this, we implemented 18O and 2H and the computation of the oxygen (δ18O and deuterium (δD stable isotope composition of soil and leaf water pools in a~recent version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE. We performed point-wise simulations with this new model and evaluated its performance on vertical profiles of soil water isotope ratios measured in summer 2012 at four experimental sites located in a boreal region of the Artic zone of western Siberia. The model performed relatively well in simulating some features of the δ18O soil profiles, but poorly reproduced the d-excess profiles, at all four stations. The response of the simulated δ18O profiles to variations in key hydrological parameters revealed the importance of the choice of a correct infiltration pathway in ORCHIDEE. Our results show also that the strength of the evaporative enrichment signal plays a role in shaping the profiles, too and, therefore, the relevance of the vegetation and bare soil characterization. We investigated furthermore to which extent we are able to determine the relative contribution of the evaporation to the evapotranspiration. This study's results confirm that the use of water stable isotopes measurements helps constrain the representation of key land surface processes in land surface models.

  7. Land cover and land use changes in the oil and gas regions of Northwestern Siberia under changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard E.; Engstrom, Ryan; Shiklomanov, Nikolay; Strelestskiy, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Northwestern Siberia has been undergoing a range of land cover and land use changes associated with climate change, animal husbandry and development of mineral resources, particularly oil and gas. The changes caused by climate and oil/gas development Southeast of the city of Nadym were investigated using multi-temporal and multi-spatial remotely sensed images. Comparison between high spatial resolution imagery acquired in 1968 and 2006 indicates that 8.9% of the study area experienced an increase in vegetation cover (e.g. establishment of new saplings, extent of vegetated cover) in response to climate warming while 10.8% of the area showed a decrease in vegetation cover due to oil and gas development and logging activities. Waterlogging along linear structures and vehicle tracks was found near the oil and gas development site, while in natural landscapes the drying of thermokarst lakes is evident due to warming caused permafrost degradation. A Landsat time series dataset was used to document the spatial and temporal dynamics of these ecosystems in response to climate change and disturbances. The impacts of land use on surface vegetation, radiative, and hydrological properties were evaluated using Landsat image-derived biophysical indices. The spatial and temporal analyses suggest that the direct impacts associated with infrastructure development were mostly within 100 m distance from the disturbance source. While these impacts are rather localized they persist for decades despite partial recovery of vegetation after the initial disturbance and can have significant implications for changes in permafrost dynamics and surface energy budgets at landscape and regional scales.

  8. Permafrost and surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in Northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Langer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost is largely determined by the surface energy balance. Its vulnerability to degradation due to climate warming depends on complex soil-atmosphere interactions. This article is the second part of a comprehensive surface energy balance study at a polygonal tundra site in Northern Siberia. It comprises two consecutive winter periods from October 2007 to May 2008 and from October 2008 to January 2009. The surface energy balance is obtained by independent measurements of the radiation budget, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux, whereas the latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The measurements reveal that the long-wave radiation is the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60% by the ground heat flux and almost 40% by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is found to be relatively small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Significant spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between the tundra soils and a small pond. The heat flux released from the subsurface heat storage is by a factor of two increased at the freezing pond during the entire winter period, whereas differences in the radiation budget are only observed at the end of winter. Inter-annual differences in the surface energy balance are related to differences in snow depth, which substantially affect the temperature evolution at the investigated pond. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of the ground heat flux for the soil-atmosphere energy exchange and reveal high spatial and temporal variabilities in the subsurface heat budget during winter.

  9. Permafrost and surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 1: Spring to fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Langer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost thawing is essentially determined by the surface energy balance, which potentially triggers the activation of a massive carbon source, if previously frozen organic soils are exposed to microbial decomposition. In this article, we present the first part of a comprehensive annual surface energy balance study performed at a polygonal tundra landscape in northeast Siberia, realized between spring 2007 and winter 2009. This part of the study focuses on the half year period from April to September 2007–2008, during which the surface energy balance is obtained from independent measurements of the radiation budget, the turbulent heat fluxes and the ground heat flux at several sites. The short-wave radiation is the dominant factor in the surface energy balance during the entire observation period. About 50% of the available net radiation is consumed by latent heat flux, while the sensible and the ground heat flux are both on the order of 20 to 30%. The ground heat flux is mainly consumed by active layer thawing, where 60% of soil energy storage are attributed to. The remainder is used for soil warming down to a depth of 15 m. The controlling factors for the surface energy partitioning are in particular the snow cover, the cloud cover and the soil temperature gradient. Significant surface temperature differences of the heterogeneous landscape indicate spatial variabilities of sensible and latent heat fluxes, which are verified by measurements at different locations. However, differences in the partition between sensible and latent heat flux for the different sites only exist during conditions of high radiative forcing, which only occur occasionally.

  10. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  11. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clio Der Sarkissian

    Full Text Available North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present. We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a, a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population

  12. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P., and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica. Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  13. Surveillance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild birds and ticks in Tomsk city and its suburbs (Western Siberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikryukova, Tamara P; Moskvitina, Nina S; Kononova, Yulia V; Korobitsyn, Igor G; Kartashov, Mikhail Y; Tyuten Kov, Oleg Y; Protopopova, Elena V; Romanenko, Vladimir N; Chausov, Evgeny V; Gashkov, Sergey I; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Moskvitin, Sergey S; Tupota, Natalya L; Sementsova, Alexandra O; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of wild birds in the transmission of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), we investigated randomly captured wild birds bearing ixodid ticks in a very highly endemic TBE region located in Tomsk city and its suburbs in the south of Western Siberia, Russia. The 779 wild birds representing 60 species were captured carrying a total of 841 ticks, Ixodes pavlovskyi Pom., 1946 (n=531), Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch., 1930 (n=244), and Ixodes plumbeus Leach. 1815 (n=66). The highest average number of ticks per bird in a particular species was found for the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, 1758) (5.60 ticks/bird) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis Linnaeus, 1758) (13.25 ticks/bird). Samples from wild birds and ticks collected in highly endemic periods from 2006 to 2011 were tested for the TBEV markers using monoclonal modified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RT-PCR. TBEV RNA and antigen were found in 9.7% and 22.8% samples collected from wild birds, respectively. TBEV markers were also detected in 14.1% I. persulcatus ticks, 5.2% I. pavlovskyi, and 4.2% I. plumbeus ticks collected from wild birds. Two TBEV strains were also isolated on PKE (pig kidney embryo) cells from fieldfare and Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849). Sequencing of 5'-NCR of TBEV revealed that all TBEV isolates belong to Far Eastern (dominate) and Siberian genotypes. Several phylogenetic subgroups included TBEV sequences novel for the Tomsk region. Our data suggest that wild birds are potential disseminators of TBEV, TBEV-infected ixodid ticks, and possibly other tick-borne infections.

  14. River ice flux and water velocities along a 600 km long reach of Lena River, Siberia, from satellite stereo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kääb

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of water-surface velocities in rivers is useful for understanding a range of river processes. In cold regions, river-ice break up and the related downstream transport of ice debris is often the most important hydrological event of the year, leading to flood levels that typically exceed those for the open-water period and to strong consequences for river infrastructure and ecology. Accurate and complete surface-velocity fields on rivers have rarely been produced. Here, we track river ice debris over a time period of about one minute, which is the typical time lag between the two or more images that form a stereo data set in spaceborne, along-track optical stereo-mapping. Using a series of 9 stereo scenes from the US/Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER onboard the NASA Terra spacecraft with 15 m image resolution, we measure the ice and water velocity field over a 620 km long reach of the lower Lena River, Siberia, just above its entry into the Lena delta. Careful analysis and correction of higher-order image and sensor errors enables an accuracy of ice-debris velocities of up to 0.04 m s−1 from the ASTER data. Maximum ice or water speeds, respectively, reach up to 2.5 m s−1 at the time of data acquisition, 27 May 2011 (03:30 UTC. Speeds show clear along-stream undulations with a wavelength of about 21 km that agree well with variations in channel width and with the location of sand bars along the river reach studied. The methodology and results of this study could be valuable to a number of disciplines requiring detailed information about river flow, such as hydraulics, hydrology, river ecology and natural-hazard management.

  15. An evaluation of health and environment in the mining community of Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russia; En bedoemning av haelso- och miljoesituationen i gruvsamhaellet Krasnokamensk, oestra Sibirien, Ryssland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-10-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the Uranium activities as such has not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor Radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 20 tabs.

  16. 读《俄国东西伯利亚与远东考古》%Book Review:Archaeology in Eastern Siberia and Far East, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌恩岳斯图

    2004-01-01

    There have been close cultural relations between Russia and North China since antiquity. To make comparative studies of archaeological cultures in the two regions, we should got further knowledge of archaeological researches in Russia. Therefore, as a regional introduction to Russian archaeology, the Archaeology in Eastern Siberia and Far East, Russia, is of self-evident academic significance. The book deals in detail with archaeological cultures in "these regions and makes a comparativ estudy of them with archaeological data and literal records on Northeast China, Japan and the Korean Peninsula. With a lot of original views, it has made an excellent beginning in our study of Russian archaeology.

  17. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  18. Characterization of a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus isolated from a migratory duck flying from Siberia in Hokkaido, Japan, in October 2009

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    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds has spread to more than 60 countries in Eurasia and Africa. It is concerned that HPAIVs may be perpetuated in the lakes in Siberia where migratory water birds nest in summer. To monitor whether HPAIVs circulate in migratory water birds, intensive surveillance of avian influenza has been performed in Mongolia and Japan in autumn each year. Until 2008, there had not been any H5N1 viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in Siberia. In autumn 2009, A/mallard/Hokkaido/24/09 (H5N1 (Mal/Hok/24/09 was isolated from a fecal sample of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos that flew from Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate was assessed for pathogenicity in chickens, domestic ducks, and quails and analyzed antigenically and phylogenetically. Results No clinical signs were observed in chickens inoculated intravenously with Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1. There was no viral replication in chickens inoculated intranasally with the isolate. None of the domestic ducks and quails inoculated intranasally with the isolate showed any clinical signs. There were no multiple basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA of the isolate. Each gene of Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is phylogenetically closely related to that of influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in autumn. Additionally, the antigenicity of the HA of the isolate was similar to that of the viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido that flew from their northern territory in autumn and different from those of HPAIVs isolated from birds found dead in China, Mongolia, and Japan on the way back to their northern territory in spring. Conclusion Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is a non-pathogenic avian influenza virus for chickens, domestic ducks, and quails, and is antigenically and genetically

  19. 沙俄时期西伯利亚移民的动因分析%An Analysis of the Causes for the Emigration to Siberia in the Reign of Russian Tsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹光天

    2011-01-01

    In as early as 19^th century the Russian ruling class had paid attention to the studies of Siberia which was an independent subject then. The emigration is one of the most important aspects in the studies for Siberia. In China the studies for Siberia hasn't begun until recently. Moreover, the studies for Siberia in China are weak, and the emphasis is often put on the process of the emigration in the eastern area in Russia and the consequences the emigration has brought. The studies for the causes for the emigration to Siberia and factors that influences the emigration to and development of Siberia are much fewer. This paper, with the analysis and study of the historical materials about the emigration to Siberia, attempts to completely and comprehensively analyze the causes and nature of the emigration to Siberia%纵观世界各国历史的发展,几乎每个国家都会遇到由于诸多因素导致的地区间的人口流动。但由于各国政治、经济、文化和地理等因素的差异,其移民开发的动因、经过及所带来的后果和影响也各不相同。纵现俄国西伯利亚300余年的征服开发史,移民运动贯穿始终,成为西伯利亚各方面发展的决定因素。国内外学者时西伯利亚移民开发的研究多侧重于移民政策及移民开发的后果和影响这一方面,对于导致人口迁移的动因及移民政策出台的原因等方面实质性的探讨研究则相对较少。

  20. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  1. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  2. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  3. Effects of soil freezing and thawing on vegetation carbon density in Siberia: A modeling analysis with the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, C.; Lucht, W.; Gerten, D.; Thonicke, K.; Schmullius, C.

    2007-03-01

    The current latitudinal gradient in biomass suggests a climate-driven limitation of biomass in high latitudes. Understanding of the underlying processes, and quantification of their relative importance, is required to assess the potential carbon uptake of the biosphere in response to anticipated warming and related changes in tree growth and forest extent in these regions. We analyze the hydrological effects of thawing and freezing of soil on vegetation carbon density (VCD) in permafrost-dominated regions of Siberia using a process-based biogeochemistry-biogeography model, the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM). The analysis is based on spatially explicit simulations of coupled daily thaw depth, site hydrology, vegetation distribution, and carbon fluxes influencing VCD subject to climate, soil texture, and atmospheric CO2 concentration. LPJ represents the observed high spring peak of runoff of large Arctic rivers, and simulates a realistic fire return interval of 100 to 200 years in Siberia. The simulated VCD changeover from taiga to tundra is comparable to inventory-based information. Without the consideration of freeze-thaw processes VCD would be overestimated by a factor of 2 in southern taiga to a factor of 5 in northern forest tundra, mainly because available soil water would be overestimated with major effects on fire occurrence and net primary productivity. This suggests that forest growth in high latitudes is not only limited by temperature, radiation, and nutrient availability but also by the availability of liquid soil water.

  4. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  5. Influence of long-distance climate teleconnection on seasonality of water temperature in the world's largest lake--Lake Baikal, Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Katz

    Full Text Available Large-scale climate change is superimposed on interacting patterns of climate variability that fluctuate on numerous temporal and spatial scales--elements of which, such as seasonal timing, may have important impacts on local and regional ecosystem forcing. Lake Baikal in Siberia is not only the world's largest and most biologically diverse lake, but it has exceptionally strong seasonal structure in ecosystem dynamics that may be dramatically affected by fluctuations in seasonal timing. We applied time-frequency analysis to a near-continuous, 58-year record of water temperature from Lake Baikal to examine how seasonality in the lake has fluctuated over the past half century and to infer underlying mechanisms. On decadal scales, the timing of seasonal onset strongly corresponds with deviation in the zonal wind intensity as described by length of day (LOD; on shorter scales, these temperature patterns shift in concert with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Importantly, the connection between ENSO and Lake Baikal is gated by the cool and warm periods of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. Large-scale climatic phenomena affecting Siberia are apparent in Lake Baikal surface water temperature data, dynamics resulting from jet stream and storm track variability in central Asia and across the Northern Hemisphere.

  6. Stability and biodegradability of organic matter from Arctic soils of Western Siberia: Insights from 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque, Elisabet; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Arctic soils contain large amounts of organic matter which, globally, exceed the amount of carbon stored in vegetation biomass and in the atmosphere. Recent studies emphasize the potential sensitivity for this soil organic matter (SOM) to be mineralised when faced with increasing ambient temperatures. In order to better refine the predictions about the response of SOM to climate warming, there is a need to increase the spatial coverage of empirical data on SOM quantity and quality in the Arctic area. This study provides, for the first time, a characterisation of SOM from the Gydan Peninsula in the Yamal Region, Western Siberia, Russia. On the one hand, soil humic acids and their humification state were characterised by measuring the elemental composition and diversity of functional groups using solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Also, the total mineralisable carbon was measured. Our results show that there is a predominance of aliphatic carbon structures, with a distribution of functional groups that has a minimal variation both regionally and within soil depth. Such vertical homogeneity and low level of aromaticity reflects the accumulation in soil of lowly decomposed organic matter due to cold temperatures. Mineralisation rates were found to be independent of SOM quality, and to be mainly explained solely by the total carbon content. Overall, our results provide further evidence on the sensitivity that the soils of Western Siberia may have to increasing ambient temperatures and highlight the important role that this region can play in the global carbon balance under the effects of climate warming.

  7. Reconstructed summer Palmer Drought Severity Index since 1850 AD based on δ13C of larch tree rings in eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Shunsuke; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Ohta, Takeshi; Maximov, Trofim C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a tree-ring reconstruction of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) in Ust-Maya region (60°00‧N, 133°49‧E), central part of eastern Siberia using total ring (TR) widths and latewood (LW) δ13C chronologies from larch trees (1850-2008 AD). Summer (JJA) PDSI was correlated positively and negatively with the TR widths and LW δ13C, respectively. Using a multiple liner regression approach, we reconstructed summer PDSI using the time series of TR widths and LW δ13C. The reconstruction showed an interannual to decadal wet/dry fluctuation with several moist periods before 1950s and a severe drought event from 1991 to 1993. Comparison of the reconstruction with reconstructed July PDSI for the Yakutsk region, 300 km northwest of Ust-Maya, showed heterogeneous changes in the mean states of soil moisture, but synchronous year-to-year changes. These results indicate that regional studies are quite important to precisely depict the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological changes in the central part of eastern Siberia.

  8. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act...

  9. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  10. Effect of permafrost thawing on organic carbon and trace element colloidal speciation in the thermokarst lakes of western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanisms of carbon mobilization and biodegradation during permafrost thawing and to establish a link between organic carbon (OC and other chemical and microbiological parameters in forming thermokarst (thaw lakes, we studied the biogeochemistry of OC and trace elements (TEs in a chronosequence of small lakes that are being formed due to permafrost thawing in the northern part of western Siberia. Twenty lakes and small ponds of various sizes and ages were sampled for dissolved and colloidal organic carbon, metals and culturable heterotrophic bacterial cell number. We observed a sequence of ecosystems from peat thawing and palsa degradation due to permafrost subsidence in small ponds to large, km-size lakes that are subject to drainage to, finally, the khasyrey (drained lake formation. There is a systematic evolution of both total dissolved and colloidal concentration of OC and TEs in the lake water along with the chronosequence of lake development that may be directly linked to the microbial mineralization of dissolved organic matter and the liberation of the inorganic components (Fe, Al, and TEs from the organo-mineral colloids.

    In this chronosequence of lake development, we observed an apparent decrease in the relative proportion of low molecular weight <1 kDa (1 kDa ~ 1 nm OC concentration along with a decrease in the concentration of total dissolved (<0.45 μm OC. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the small size organic ligands (probably autochthonous exometabolites produced by the phytoplankton and a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of large-size organic (humic complexes of allochthonous (soil origin. This evolution may be due to the activity of heterotrophic bacterioplankton that use allochthonous organic matter and dissolved nutrients originating from peat lixiviation. Most insoluble TEs demonstrate a systematic decrease in concentration during filtration (5 μm, 0.45 μm exhibiting a similar

  11. The exchange of carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River Delta, Northern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kutzbach

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide between wet arctic polygonal tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. The investigation site was situated in the centre of the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia (72°22' N, 126°30' E. The study region is characterized by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The soils at the site are characterized by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. The micrometeorological campaigns were performed during the periods July–October 2003 and May–July 2004 which included the period of snow and soil thaw as well as the beginning of soil refreeze. The main CO2 exchange processes, the gross photosynthesis and the ecosystem respiration, were found to be of a generally low intensity. The gross photosynthesis accumulated to –432 g m−2 over the photosynthetically active period (June–September. The contribution of mosses to the gross photosynthesis was estimated to be about 40%. The diurnal trend of the gross photosynthesis was mainly controlled by the incoming photosynthetically active radiation. During midday the photosynthetic apparatus of the canopy was frequently near saturation and represented the limiting factor on gross photosynthesis. The synoptic weather conditions strongly affected the exchange fluxes of CO2 by changes in cloudiness, precipitation and pronounced changes of air temperature. The ecosystem respiration accumulated to +327 g m−2 over the photosynthetically active period, which corresponds to 76% of the CO2 uptake by photosynthesis. However, the ecosystem respiration continued at substantial rates during autumn when photosynthesis had ceased and the soils

  12. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The zone-block structure of the lithosphere is represented by a hierarchically organized pattern of stable blocks and mobile zones which border such blocks and contain highly dislocated geological medium (Fig. 1. Today, different specialists adhere to different concepts of blocks and zones, which are two main elements of the lithosphere structure. Differences are most significant in determinations of ‘interblock zones’ that are named as deformation / destructive / contact / mobile / fracture zones etc. due to their diversity in different conditions of deformation. One of the most effective approaches to studying the zone-block structure of the lithosphere is a combination of geological and geophysical studies of interblock zones tectonic features on various scales, which can make it possible to reveal the most common patterns of the interblock zones, general regularities of their development and relationships between the interblock zones.The main objectives of our study were (1 to identify the zone-block structure of the crust in the southern regions of East Siberia from tectonophysical analysis of geological and geophysical surveys conducted on four different scales along the 500 km long Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect crossing the marginal segment of the Siberian block, the Baikal rift and the Transbaikalian block (Fig. 2; (2 to clarify structural features of the central part of the Baikal rift (representing the tectonic type of interblock extension zone by applying new research methods, such as radon emanation survey, to the Shertoy-Krasny Chikoy transect and using the previously applied methods, such as magnetotelluric sounding, on a smaller scale; and (3 to study manifestation of interblock zones of various ranks in different geological and geophysical fields, to reveal common specific features of their structural patterns for the upper crust, and to establish regularities of hierarchic and spatial relationships between the interblock

  13. Petrogenesis and timing of mafic magmatism, South Taimyr, Arctic Siberia: A northerly continuation of the Siberian Traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, M. K.; Saunders, A. D.; Scott, R. A.; Millar, I. L.; Barfod, D.; Pringle, M. S.; Rogers, N. W.; Hammond, S.

    2016-04-01

    The Siberian large igneous province (LIP) forms the world's most extensive continental exposure of basalt and has several sub-provinces surrounding it, which may be genetically related. The Taimyr peninsula of north Siberia is one of these sub-provinces and is frequently assumed to be the northerly continuation of the basalts exposed at Noril'sk, the best-studied area of the Siberian LIP. However, the correlation is uncertain. We present new major and trace element data from 35 samples of extrusive and intrusive rocks from Taimyr, with Sr and Nd isotope data from a subset of ten. The Taimyr rocks fall into two groups with low (~ 7 wt.%) and elevated (~ 9 wt.%) MgO concentrations. The high-MgO rocks display a restricted range of initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.705 to 0.706) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.5122 to 0.5124) ratios, and share bulk silicate earth normalised rare earth element patterns strikingly similar to data observed in the ore-related Noril'sk intrusions. The remaining low-MgO group samples have a broader range with higher Sr and lower Nd isotope values and higher incompatible trace element ratios (e.g., Th/Ta > 5.3 and La/Smn > 1.7) similar to the crustally-contaminated Nadezhdinsky and Morongovsky suite basalts of the Noril'sk region. The major and trace element data for both groups are consistent with a process of fractional crystallisation coupled with small degrees of assimilation of incompatible-element-enriched lower crust involving different contaminants. Trace element model calculations indicate a process of magma formation at large degrees of partial melting and at pressures of less than 3 GPa, probably within the garnet-spinel transition zone or the spinel stability field of the asthenospheric mantle. We obtained an argon plateau age of ~ 252 (252.7 ± 1.5) Ma and a ~ 239 Ma total fusion age from a Taimyr lava and intrusive sample, respectively, confirming that volcanism is only partly contemporaneous with the activity of the Siberian LIP. Although this is in

  14. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing between low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devolatilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde

  15. The exchange of carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River Delta, Northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzbach, L.; Wille, C.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2007-10-01

    The exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide between wet arctic polygonal tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. The investigation site was situated in the centre of the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia (72°22' N, 126°30' E). The study region is characterized by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The soils at the site are characterized by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. The micrometeorological campaigns were performed during the periods July-October 2003 and May-July 2004 which included the period of snow and soil thaw as well as the beginning of soil refreeze. The main CO2 exchange processes, the gross photosynthesis and the ecosystem respiration, were found to be of a generally low intensity. The gross photosynthesis accumulated to -432 g m-2 over the photosynthetically active period (June-September). The contribution of mosses to the gross photosynthesis was estimated to be about 40%. The diurnal trend of the gross photosynthesis was mainly controlled by the incoming photosynthetically active radiation. During midday, the photosynthetic apparatus of the canopy was frequently near saturation and represented the limiting factor on gross photosynthesis. The synoptic weather conditions strongly affected the exchange fluxes of CO2 by changes in cloudiness, precipitation and pronounced changes of air temperature. The ecosystem respiration accumulated to +327 g m-2 over the photosynthetically active period, which corresponds to 76% of the CO2 uptake by photosynthesis. However, the ecosystem respiration continued at substantial rates during autumn when photosynthesis had ceased and the soils were still largely unfrozen. The temporal variability of the ecosystem respiration during summer

  16. Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Vasukova, E. V.; Shirokova, L. S.; Dupre, B.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the processes of colloids formation in surface waters draining watersheds of various lithology and permafrost abundance, comparative study of TE speciation in various geographic zones is necessary. In this work we attempted to generalize the typical features of trace element speciation in boreal arctic and subarctic zones assessed via in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration. Surface waters of three circumpolar regions in Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia and Central Siberia were studied using unique and rigorous procedure via combination of in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration (1 kDa, 3.5 kDa, 10 kDa, 100 kDa, 0.22 µm, 0.45 µm, 1 μm, 5 µm). In both filtrates and dialysates, all major and trace elements and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. In all studied regions, three typical features of colloid speciation have been revealed: i) high proportion of large-size colloids (10 kDa - 0.22 μm and 0.22 μm - 5 µm), mostly composed of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides stabilized by organic matter; ii) presence of organic-rich, small size colloids and conventionally "dissolved" substances (complexation/adsorption on the surface, control the TE interaction with colloids. It is anticipated that knowledge of speciation of metal pollutants and organic carbon both in surficial fluids and in the permafrost ice and soils will allow the prediction of metals bioavailability change induced by permafrost thawing and human pollution - for example, around the smelters located in the arctic-zone. Elaborated models can be extended to other permafrost- bearing territories of the world which are likely to be highly

  17. Trace element fractionation and transport in boreal rivers and soil porewaters of permafrost-dominated basaltic terrain in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Dupré, B.

    2006-07-01

    The chemical status of ˜40 major and trace elements (TE) and organic carbon (OC) in pristine boreal rivers draining the basaltic plateau of Central Siberia (Putorana) and interstitial solutions of permafrost soils was investigated. Water samples were filtered in the field through progressively decreasing pore size (5 μm → 0.22 μm → 0.025 μm → 10 kDa → 1 kDa) using cascade frontal filtration technique. Most rivers and soil porewaters exhibit 2-5 times higher than the world average concentration of dissolved (i.e., Ultrafiltration revealed strong relationships between concentration of TE and that of colloidal Fe and Al. According to their partition during filtration and association with colloids, two groups of elements can be distinguished: (i) those weakly dependent on ultrafiltration and that are likely to be present as truly dissolved inorganic species (Li, Na, K, Si, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, As, Sb) or, partially (20-30%) associated with small size Fe- and Al-colloids (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) and to small (complexes (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and (ii) elements strongly associated with colloidal iron and aluminum in all ultrafiltrates largely present in 1-100 kDa fraction (Ga, Y, REEs, Pb, V, Cr, Ti, Ge, Zr, Th, U). TE concentrations and partition coefficients did not show any detectable variations between different colloidal fractions for soil porewaters, suprapermafrost flow and surface streams. TE concentration measurements in river suspended particles demonstrated significant contribution (i.e., ⩾30%) of conventionally dissolved (<0.22 μm) forms for usually "immobile" elements such as divalent transition metals, Cd, Pb, V, Sn, Y, REEs, Zr, Hf, Th. The Al-normalized accumulation coefficients of TE in vegetation litter compared to basalts achieve 10-100 for B, Mn, Zn, As, Sr, Sn, Sb, and the larch litter degradation is able to provide the major contribution to the annual dissolved flux of most trace elements. It is hypothesized that the decomposition of plant litter in the

  18. Gold mineralisation and orogenic metamorphism in the Lena province of Siberia as assessed from Chertovo Koryto and Sukhoi Log deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina A. Yudovskaya; Vadim V. Distler; Vsevolod Yu. Prokofiev; Nickolay N. Akinfiev

    2016-01-01

    The Chertovo Koryto gold deposit (80 t Au at 1.84 g/t) in the Lena world-class province, Siberia, is hosted in a metamorphosed sequence of the Paleoproterozoic Mikhailovsk Formation that comprises the oldest black shale strata of the Baikal-Patom region. The mineralisation is confined to the thrust zone complicated with a conjugate anticline fold, zones of shearing and dislocation. The structural position of the mineralisation is similar to that at the giant Sukhoi Log deposit in the neighbouring Mama-Bodaibo zone. In the latter, the isotope age data suggest that Khomolkho black shales, hosts to Sukhoi Log mineralisation, are of Ediacaran age and underwent prograde metamorphism during early Paleozoic. The geochemical composition of the terrigenous rocks that host Sukhoi Log, Chertovo Koryto, and a number of other deposits at the various stratigraphic levels throughout the Proterozoic sequence have much in common. They do not show elevated metal contents above the common black shale abundances, except for Au and As, which is at variance with the accepted view on diagenetic enrichment of black shales in the Lena province. The occurrence of sagenitic rutile in quartz and chlorite pseudomorphs after biotite and other petrographic observations provide evidence on a retrograde nature of the metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Mikhailovsk rocks. The sulphides are pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite with very minor pyrite at Chertovo Koryto, whereas pyrite is the predominant sulphide in the Sukhoi Log ore. Fluid inclusion data on both deposits emphasise a high-temperature nature of the mineralisation albeit revealing great contrast in the fluid composition. Sukhoi Log mineralisation was formed at mixing be-tween low-salinity aqueous solutions and dense gaseous carbonic fluids, which facilitated effective gold scavenging and precipitation, as demonstrated by thermodynamic simulation. The precursory devola-tilisation of the Mikhailovsk sediments at the prograde stage results in

  19. The seasonal cycle of the greenhouse gas balance of a continental tundra site in the Indigirka lowlands, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. van der Molen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were measured at a tundra site near Chokurdakh, in the lowlands of the Indigirka river in north-east Siberia. This site is one of the few stations on Russian tundra and it is different from most other tundra flux stations in its continentality. A suite of methods was applied to determine the fluxes of NEE, GPP, Reco and methane, including eddy covariance, chambers and leaf cuvettes. Net carbon dioxide fluxes were unusually high, compared with other tundra sites, with NEE=–92 g C m−2 yr−1, which is composed of an Reco=+141 g C m−2 yr−1 and GPP=–232 g C m−2 yr−1. This large carbon dioxide sink may be explained by the continental climate, that is reflected in low winter soil temperatures (–14°C, reducing the respiration rates, and short, relatively warm summers, stimulating high photosynthesis rates. Interannual variability in GPP was dominated by the frequency of light limitation (Rg <200 W m−2, whereas Reco depends most directly on soil temperature and time in the growing season, which serves as a proxy of the combined effects of active layer depth, leaf area index, soil moisture and substrate availability. The methane flux, in units of global warming potential, was +28 g C-CO2e m−2 yr−1, so that the greenhouse gas balance was –64 g C-CO2e m−2 yr−1. Methane fluxes depended only slightly on soil temperature and were highly sensitive to hydrological conditions and vegetation composition.

  20. The growing season greenhouse gas balance of a continental tundra site in the Indigirka lowlands, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. van der Molen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes were measured at a tundra site near Chokurdakh, in the lowlands of the Indigirka river in north-east Siberia. This site is one of the few stations on Russian tundra and it is different from most other tundra flux stations in its continentality. A suite of methods was applied to determine the fluxes of NEE, GPP, Reco and methane, including eddy covariance, chambers and leaf cuvettes. Net carbon dioxide fluxes were high compared with other tundra sites, with NEE=−92 g C m−2 yr−1, which is composed of an Reco=+141 g C m−2 yr−1 and GPP=−232 g C m−2 yr−1. This large carbon dioxide sink may be explained by the continental climate, that is reflected in low winter soil temperatures (−14°C, reducing the respiration rates, and short, relatively warm summers, stimulating high photosynthesis rates. Interannual variability in GPP was dominated by the frequency of light limitation (Rg<200 W m−2, whereas Reco depends most directly on soil temperature and time in the growing season, which serves as a proxy of the combined effects of active layer depth, leaf area index, soil moisture and substrate availability. The methane flux, in units of global warming potential, was +28 g C-CO2e m−2 yr−1, so that the greenhouse gas balance was −64 g C-CO2e m−2 yr−1. Methane fluxes depended only slightly on soil temperature and were highly sensitive to hydrological conditions and vegetation composition.

  1. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Antcibor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N–69.5° N representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe, arsenic (As, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co and mercury (Hg in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were

  2. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  3. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It e

  4. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  5. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic......, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  6. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  7. Mapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: implications for methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgenievna Terentieva, Irina; Vladimirovich Glagolev, Mikhail; Dmitrievna Lapshina, Elena; Faritovich Sabrekov, Alexandr; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2016-08-01

    High-latitude wetlands are important for understanding climate change risks because these environments sink carbon dioxide and emit methane. However, fine-scale heterogeneity of wetland landscapes poses a serious challenge when generating regional-scale estimates of greenhouse gas fluxes from point observations. In order to reduce uncertainties at the regional scale, we mapped wetlands and water bodies in the taiga zone of The West Siberia Lowland (WSL) on a scene-by-scene basis using a supervised classification of Landsat imagery. Training data consist of high-resolution images and extensive field data collected at 28 test areas. The classification scheme aims at supporting methane inventory applications and includes seven wetland ecosystem types comprising nine wetland complexes distinguishable at the Landsat resolution. To merge typologies, mean relative areas of wetland ecosystems within each wetland complex type were estimated using high-resolution images. Accuracy assessment based on 1082 validation polygons of 10 × 10 pixel size indicated an overall map accuracy of 79 %. The total area of the WSL wetlands and water bodies was estimated to be 52.4 Mha or 4-12 % of the global wetland area. Ridge-hollow complexes prevail in WSL's taiga zone accounting for 33 % of the total wetland area, followed by pine bogs or "ryams" (23 %), ridge-hollow-lake complexes (16 %), open fens (8 %), palsa complexes (7 %), open bogs (5 %), patterned fens (4 %), and swamps (4 %). Various oligotrophic environments are dominant among wetland ecosystems, while poor fens cover only 14 % of the area. Because of the significant change in the wetland ecosystem coverage in comparison to previous studies, a considerable reevaluation of the total CH4 emissions from the entire region is expected. A new Landsat-based map of WSL's taiga wetlands provides a benchmark for validation of coarse-resolution global land cover products and wetland data sets in high latitudes.

  8. Gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs dominate cold methane seeps in floodplains of West Siberian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshkin, Igor Y; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Lüke, Claudia; Glagolev, Mikhail V; Filippov, Illiya V; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2014-10-01

    A complex system of muddy fluid-discharging and methane (CH4)-releasing seeps was discovered in a valley of the river Mukhrinskaya, one of the small rivers of the Irtysh Basin, West Siberia. CH4 flux from most (90%) of these gas ebullition sites did not exceed 1.45 g CH4 h(-1), while some seeps emitted up to 5.54 g CH4 h(-1). The δ(13)C value of methane released from these seeps varied between -71.1 and -71.3‰, suggesting its biogenic origin. Although the seeps were characterized by low in situ temperatures (3.5 to 5°C), relatively high rates of methane oxidation (15.5 to 15.9 nmol CH4 ml(-1) day(-1)) were measured in mud samples. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected 10(7) methanotrophic bacteria (MB) per g of mud (dry weight), which accounted for up to 20.5% of total bacterial cell counts. Most (95.8 to 99.3%) methanotroph cells were type I (gammaproteobacterial) MB. The diversity of methanotrophs in this habitat was further assessed by pyrosequencing of pmoA genes, encoding particulate methane monooxygenase. A total of 53,828 pmoA gene sequences of seep-inhabiting methanotrophs were retrieved and analyzed. Nearly all of these sequences affiliated with type I MB, including the Methylobacter-Methylovulum-Methylosoma group, lake cluster 2, and several as-yet-uncharacterized methanotroph clades. Apparently, microbial communities attenuating methane fluxes from these local but strong CH4 sources in floodplains of high-latitude rivers have a large proportion of potentially novel, psychrotolerant methanotrophs, thereby providing a challenge for future isolation studies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Westing in New Poems and three Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Doğu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkısh literature completes a long period effected by İslamic culture and cıvılızatıon in 19th century when it has tendency to west. Like empire, poets and writers also focus on west. They benefits from west in terms of literature and culture. In this way, they realize innovations in the field of literature and culture as beuracracy realizes in military, financial, administrative and maarif fields. This group of people who interest in the private journal sector in cultural field, French literature styles in literature and some sozcial topics evaluate “west issue” in the perspective of current political and social developments. In this context, Tevfik Fikret is in the favour of extention of borders related to westernism. He thinks of adopting west not only in terms of science, art and techniques but also in all social institutions. With the awakening of nation and nationalism, in the perod of National Literature emerging after II. Mesrutiyet besides the rejection of westernism (alafranga, westernism called civilization (muasırlaşma is also emphized. In this article west is evaluated from the point of view of Ziya Gökalp. According to Ziya Gökalp, west is a civilization circle which should be included in. Turkısh people should take their place in this circle by protecting national culture. Mehmet Akif, living in the same period and follwing Islamic style in his works, emphasizes that there should be limitations on the ınnovations taken from west. According to M. Akif, west can only be a model only in terms of science, art and technique. After 1912, M. Akif criticises west more severely

  10. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods . Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized and of drinking water. Results . Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80% and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions, mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51% were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12% everywhere except Evenki AO (27%, and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly. The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages

  11. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the

  12. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  13. Electron microscope to examine the main viruses of Siberia Lily%西伯利亚百合病毒及脱毒的电镜检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆芳; 赵文考; 周紫鹃; 陈健; 李巧峡

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical guidance for screening no virus plants and application, electron microscope technology is used to detect the microstructure change of Siberian Lily cells which are virus infection and detoxification.The result indicates that there are several differences in the microstructure of the virus-infected and virus-dispelled foliage of Siberia Lily.There are a lot of virus particles in cells of the diseased foliage of Siberia Lily which cause serious pathological changes of host cells and organelles anomaly; but the organelles of virus-dispelled foliage of Siberia Lily are normal.The reason why symptom of flat stalk exists and the mechanism of many little bubbly in the cytoplasm still need further discussion as well as the phenomenon of multiple virus infection.%为筛选无病毒植株进行推广应用,利用电镜技术检测西伯利亚百合感染病毒及脱毒后的细胞微观形态的变化.结果显示感病和脱毒后的西伯利亚百合叶片,在微观结构上有较大差别.感病的西伯利亚百合叶片有大量的病毒粒子散布于细胞之中,引起寄主细胞严重的病理变化,从而导致细胞内一些细胞器的异常;而脱毒后的叶片细胞的各细胞器均表现正常.病毒侵染所引起的扁茎症状的因为和细胞质中形成许多小泡状物的病理机制以及存在多个病毒复合侵染的现象有待进一步的探讨.

  14. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable...

  15. West Nile virus and the climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, P R

    2001-06-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

  16. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  17. Terrestrial organic matter sources and distribution along a land-ocean transect in Siberia derived from lignin phenol composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goni, M.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid warming of the Arctic is very likely to result in increased permafrost thaw depth and accelerated coastal erosion both associated with enhanced organic matter (OM) export to the Arctic Ocean. Not only higher fluxes of terrestrial OM from land to ocean can be expected, but also a change in composition as previously freeze-locked OM pools become available for erosion, transport, and microbial degradation. To assess the present state of different terrestrial OM sources (e.g. tundra vs. taiga vegetation) contributing to OM fluxes along a Siberian land-ocean transect we analyzed the lignin phenol composition of different sample types. Holocene permafrost soil samples at several depths, surface water suspended matter (SPM) and surface sediments in the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay, NE Siberia were collected during field work in July/August 2009 and 2010. Additionally, samples representing the major vegetation constituents of NE Siberian taiga and tundra were collected in summer 2010 and 2011. The samples were analyzed using alkaline cuprous oxide oxidation (CuO) with a microwave digestion system, and different lignin phenols were identified and quantified with a GC-MS. Using the relative proportions of the main lignin phenol groups, i.e. Cinnamyl/Vanillyl ratio (C/V) vs. Syringyl/Vanillyl ratio (S/V), woody and non-woody tissues as well as between angiosperms and gymnosperms can be distinguished. Further, the acid to aldehyde ratio of Syringyl (Ad/AlS) and Vanillyl (Ad/AlV) serve as indicators for lignin degradation (higher ratios mean more advanced degradation). Along the sampled transect the Ad/Al ratios for Vanillyl and Syringyl varied from an average of 0.89 and 0.74 (different grain size fractions of permafrost soils, n=48) to 1.33 and 0.91 (SPM, n=15) to 1.24 and 1.09 respectively (Buor Khaya sediments, n=6) indicating that probably the main lignin degradation occurs within the soils and during transport to the marine sediments. The C/V and S

  18. Response of middle-taiga permafrost landscapes of Central Siberia to global warming in the late 20th and early 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedkov, Alexey A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, regional features of a climatogenic response of the middle-taiga permafrost landscapes of Central Siberia, as well as corresponding transformations of the exodynamic processes, are considered. Lithological-geomorphologic and landscape- geocryological data are analyzed with large amounts of actual data and results of monitoring surveys. Specific features of an ecotone localization of middle-taiga permafrost landscapes and their typical physiognomic characteristics are described. A comprehensive investigation of representative key sites makes it possible to discover the response of different types of permafrost landscapes to regional climate warming. A rapid increase in the active layer depth, slower creep, transformations of the moving kurums, intensive solifluction, and a local replacement of solifluction by landslides-earthflows are revealed within ecotone landscapes of the cryolithozone.

  19. Long-term competition between gas infrastructures developments in Asia. The constraints on the Siberia and Caspian export development by cross-border pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.; Mima, S.

    2000-09-01

    Despite the effects of the recent financial crisis, the problem of satisfying the energy requirements of the emerging economies in Asia remains the principal challenge in the first half of the 21. century. The competition between sources of supply is influenced by the nature of the transport infrastructures used in their exportation and by the associated economic and geopolitical conditions: capital intensiveness, rigidity, country-risk, etc... The aim of the study is the position that could be occupied by major continental infrastructures in trade within the Asian continent, in view of the economic institutional and geopolitical restraints that would appear more favourable to projects based on LNG. Developments in Siberia and Central Asia will be heavily influenced by the geographical remoteness and organizational weakness of the countries in that area. (A.L.B.)

  20. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss. from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss., kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv. Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel Maxim.], L. tristis Bunge, Melandrium olgae Maxim., Silene melandriiformis Maxim., five varieties (Melandrium affine var. Intermedium Tolm., Silene repens var. pratensis Kom., S. repens var. alpina Kom., S. repens var. angustifolia Turcz., S. repens var. latifolia Turcz., and one form (Silene repens f. densa Kom. are lectotypified.Key words: Caryophyllaceae, Silenoideae, type specimens, typification, Komarov Botanical Institute (LE, Siberia, Far East. 

  1. Visit of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Western Siberia as a Part of the Ritual Legitimization of the Ruling Romanov Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander А. Valitov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The visit of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich in Western Siberia in 1868, was not only a study tour by the representative of the Imperial Family with the marginal edge of the country. This visit was one of the forms of legimitacy power, which is a special ritual – including the official program, which was designed to reflect the unity of government and people. In General, the study period in the political culture of the country has developed specific scenarios of power, its functional embodiment they received in the form of various rituals, among which an important place was occupied by Imperial holidays and visit the highest personages. Thus, the visit of Grand Duke Vladimir, gave the chief Executive an opportunity to formally introduce myself filed for forming in the public mind about a particular scenario to the proximity of the public and the authorities, in the form of direct interaction between the Tsar and the Russian people.

  2. The Organization of Social Support of the Population of Siberia in the Years of Russian-Japanese War (1904–1905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Kattsina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of the organization of the social help to the population in extreme conditions of wars of the beginning of the XX century. Using materials of Siberia, the author reveals the main directions of development and realization of social support of families of the lower military ranks, gives an assessment to its productivity from the point of view of the level of availability and the practice which is formed on places. Research leads to a conclusion that in the years of Russian-Japanese war social support was formed under the influence of local features and local understanding that created differentiation of its level and conditions of access; gaps of the legislation not only reduced aid effectiveness, but also did harm to value of the help.

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN STATE AND THE INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF SIBERIA, FAR EAST AND RUSSIAN AMERICA IN XVII-XIX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Валинуровна Ахметова

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work sets the priorities and methods of realization of policy of the Russian state towards the indigenous population of Siberia, Far East and Russian America, reveals the changes in economical and legal status of non-Russians, as well as describes the transformation of social structure of aborigines in the process of entrance thereof to the state authorities system.Upon the performed research the series of causes of alteration of the character of interrelations between central authorities and indigenous population were revealed. The equalization of the status of domiciled non-Russians and peasants and the replacement of yasak (tribute in furs with national tax were attributable both to furs catch decline and internal changes within the aboriginal society including the alteration of economical life basis, the acculturation with Russian colonists and the transformation of closed communities of aborigines to agricultural peasant communities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-38

  4. Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric circulation over Siberia using NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data and synoptic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podnebesnykh, Nataliya

    2014-05-01

    Dynamics of large-scale atmospheric circulation over Siberia using NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data and synoptic maps Podnebesnykh N.V., Ippolitov I.I. Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS 634055, Tomsk, 10/3 Academichesky Ave. In this paper a comparative analysis of cyclones and anticyclones characteristics, which defined circulation conditions over Siberia (50-70°W, 60-110°N) in the period of 1976-2011 was carried out using synoptic maps and NCEP/DOE AMIP II reanalysis data. The analysis has shown the ambiguous relationships in the results of the comparison. The number of cyclones and anticyclones, obtained from synoptic maps exceeds on an average by 1.2 times the number of pressure formations, determined from reanalysis data. This tendency is, probably, due to the fact that in general NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data, like other reanalysis datasets, represents large pressure systems better than small systems. Such result is in a good agreement with studies of other authors. The pressure in the cyclonic centers varies from 996.7 to 1006.0 hPa using synoptic maps and from 992.4 to 1000.3 hPa using reanalysis data. As for anticyclones the pressure in the centers varies from 1026.3 to 1034.2 hPa and 1022.9-1028.1 hPa according to synoptic maps and reanalysis data, respectively. The average pressure in the cyclonic centers for the period of 1976-2006 was 1000.9 hPa (σ = 2.0 hPa) according to synoptic maps, and 996.6 hPa (σ = 1.9 hPa) according to reanalysis data. The average pressure in the anticyclonic centers was 1029.9 hPa (σ = 1.8 hPa) and 1026.0 hPa (σ = 1.4 hPa), respectively. Therefore, cyclones, obtained by synoptic maps, are not deep and anticyclones are more intensive in comparison with pressure formations from reanalysis data. The average annual number of days with cyclones over the territory of under study is less than that with anticyclones, i.e. during the period of 1976-2006 anticyclonic weather conditions dominated

  5. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF INTRONIC POLYMORPHISMS OF IL1-raVNTR AND IL-4VNTR IN RHEUMATIC MITRAL VALVE DISEASE IN CAUCASIAN POPULATION OF SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponasenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A search for associations between allelic variations of immune response genes, and mitral stenosis associated with rheumatic heart disease, represents an important task when studying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders among inhabitants of large industrial regions in Western Siberia. Among multiple polymorphisms of interleukin-encoding genes, a particular attention should be paid to association studies of some intronic polymorphisms with variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR. In this respect, genotyping of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist genes (IL-1ra86bp VNTR and interleukin 4 (IL-470bp VNTR has shown positive associations between the intron 2 IL-1ra*3R/3R microsatellite polymorphism, intron 3 IL-4*2R/2R variant, and the risk of mitral stenosis development in patients with rheumatic heart disease (OR = 12.71; p = 0.0001.  

  6. The effect of salinization on the biomass of microorganisms in the soils of different ages in the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakutin, M. V.; Anopchenko, L. Yu.; Andrievskii, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    The study of soils of different ages developing on the drying bottom of the shallow-water Yudinsk reach of Lake Chany (Western Siberia) has shown that soil salinization is a powerful factor affecting the biomass and metabolic activity of microorganisms. Strong salinity of parent materials retards the development of microbial population in the young soils. With an increase the soil age of lake depressions, desalinization takes place, and the rate of the formation of microbial biomass increases. Its metabolic activity becomes more pronounced, though the specific rate of metabolic activity slows down. The carbon of the microbial biomass and basal respiration in the soils developing on drying lake bottoms in the forest-steppe zone reach the values typical of the zonal chernozemic soils in about 80 years.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AKADEMIK FYODOROV in the East Siberia Sea and Laptev (or Nordenskjold) Sea from 1994-07-05 to 1994-08-08 (NODC Accession 0113884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113884 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AKADEMIK FYODOROV in the East Siberia Sea and Laptev (or...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the JAKOV SMIRNITSKIY in the Beaufort Sea, East Siberia Sea and others from 2008-08-15 to 2008-09-16 (NODC Accession 0108368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108368 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAKOV SMIRNITSKIY in the Beaufort Sea, East Siberia Sea, Kara Sea...

  9. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  10. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  11. Does the geoid drift west?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. A 33,000-year-old incipient dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: evidence of the earliest domestication disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai D Ovodov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000-9000 calendar years ago, cal BP, with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500-19,000 cal BP. The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia. Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old, and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial-early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim and Siberia (Razboinichya, separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of

  13. The exchange of energy, water and carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere at the Lena River Delta, Northern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutzbach, L.

    2006-07-01

    The ecosystem-scale exchange fluxes of energy, water and carbon dioxide between wet arctic tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. The investigation site was the centre of the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia characterised by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The measurements were performed on the surface of a Holocene river terrace characterised by wet polygonal tundra. The soils at the site are characterised by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. The fluctuations of the H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations were measured with a closed-path infrared gas analyser. The fast-response eddy covariance measurements were supplemented by a set of slow-response meteorological and soil-meteorological measurements. The combined datasets of the two campaigns 2003 and 2004 were used to characterise the seasonal course of the energy, water and CO{sub 2} fluxes and the underlying processes for the synthetic measurement period May 28..October 21 2004/2003 including the period of snow and soil thawing as well as the beginning of refreezing. The synthetic measurement period 2004/2003 was characterised by a long snow ablation period and a late start of the growing season. On the other hand, the growing season ended also late due to high temperatures and snow-free conditions in September. The cumulative summer energy partitioning was characterised by low net radiation, large ground heat flux, low latent heat flux and very low sensible heat flux compared to other tundra sites. These findings point out the major importance of the very cold permafrost for the summer energy budget of the tundra in Northern Siberia. (orig./SR)

  14. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  15. WEST AND EAST REGIONS OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobilisation and saving as well as records keeping in PMCS in the Upper West and. East Regions. 1. ..... money to meet the maintenance of pump facilities including pump site .... are given some incentives as motivation, the data show that the.

  16. West Nile Virus Mimicking Herpes Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old male child with suspected herpes simplex virus encephalitis who asubsequently tested positive for West Nile virus is reported from Schneider Children’s Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  18. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  19. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  20. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  1. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  2. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  3. Drought May Beckon Bigger West