WorldWideScience

Sample records for vybranych funkcii lesa

  1. Los delitos de lesa humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepto de delitos de lesa humanidad. ¿Porqué surgieron los delitos de lesa humanidad?. ¿Cuándo surgieron los delitos de lesa humanidad?. Condiciones o características de los delitos de lesa humanidad. Modalidades o figuras de los crímenes de lesa humanidad. Aspectos generales a todos los delitos. ConclusionesLa respuesta debe elaborarse necesariamente en el marco del derecho penal internacional y derecho humanitario, que a través del tiempo fueron creando normas, que prohibían ciertas conductas, y de esa manera pretendieron proteger los bienes jurídicos de mayor trascendencia e importancia para el Hombre.El concepto fue evolucionando a través de la historia y ampliándose la nómina de actos prohibidos, llegando a la definición más elaborada en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional (ERCPI, que reclama también, la concreción de elementos objetivos y subjetivos para conformar un tipo penal especial, que se hallan comprendidos, como dice el preámbulo del Estatuto de Roma (cuarto párrafo entre “los crímenes más graves de trascendencia para la comunidad internacional en su conjunto”.

  2. Utility of LESA Criteria for Estimating The Number of LESA Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Herbert L.; And Others

    Studies conducted concerning numbers of limited-English-speaking-ability (LESA) students and utility of criteria for estimating this population are discussed. A sample of 287 students in kindergarten through grade three, whose parents had responded to a Language Resource Questionnaire, were selected for study. The teacher of each student was…

  3. ATIPICIDAD DE LOS CRÍMENES DE LESA HUMANIDAD, UNA REVISIÓN DEL CASO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fernández Mejía

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de investigación tiene como propósito analizar las consecuenciasque genera la ausencia de tipificación de los crímenes de lesa humanidad enColombia. Así las cosas, una de las consecuencias que ha generado dicha ausenciade consagración penal es el desconocimiento del principio de legalidad, debidoa la posibilidad que tienen las autoridades judiciales de aplicar, directamente, elEstatuto de Roma para calificar una conducta como constitutiva de un crimen delesa humanidad. Igualmente la ausencia de esta tipificación podría provocar que,en un caso determinado, la Corte Penal Internacional activara su competencia enrazón del principio de complementariedad, específicamente, por la incapacidadmaterial del Estado colombiano para llevar a cabo la persecución penal de unresponsable de un crimen de lesa humanidad.

  4. Top-Down LESA Mass Spectrometry Protein Analysis of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocurek, Klaudia I.; Stones, Leanne; Bunch, Josephine; May, Robin C.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2017-10-01

    We have previously shown that liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique suitable for the top-down analysis of proteins directly from intact colonies of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli K-12. Here we extend the application of LESA MS to Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1054 and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus MSSA476, as well as two strains of E. coli (K-12 and BL21 mCherry) and an unknown species of Staphylococcus. Moreover, we demonstrate the discrimination between three species of Gram-positive Streptococcus ( Streptococcus pneumoniae D39, and the viridans group Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037 and Streptococcus gordonii ATCC35105), a recognized challenge for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS. A range of the proteins detected were selected for top-down LESA MS/MS. Thirty-nine proteins were identified by top-down LESA MS/MS, including 16 proteins that have not previously been observed by any other technique. The potential of LESA MS for classification and characterization of novel species is illustrated by the de novo sequencing of a new protein from the unknown species of Staphylococcus. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Top-Down LESA Mass Spectrometry Protein Analysis of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocurek, Klaudia I.; Stones, Leanne; Bunch, Josephine; May, Robin C.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2017-07-01

    We have previously shown that liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique suitable for the top-down analysis of proteins directly from intact colonies of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli K-12. Here we extend the application of LESA MS to Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1054 and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus MSSA476, as well as two strains of E. coli (K-12 and BL21 mCherry) and an unknown species of Staphylococcus. Moreover, we demonstrate the discrimination between three species of Gram-positive Streptococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae D39, and the viridans group Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037 and Streptococcus gordonii ATCC35105), a recognized challenge for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS. A range of the proteins detected were selected for top-down LESA MS/MS. Thirty-nine proteins were identified by top-down LESA MS/MS, including 16 proteins that have not previously been observed by any other technique. The potential of LESA MS for classification and characterization of novel species is illustrated by the de novo sequencing of a new protein from the unknown species of Staphylococcus.

  6. Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) of hydrophobic TLC plates coupled to chip-based nanoelectrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Direct identification and structural characterization of analyte spots on TLC plates have always been of great interest and the development of interfaces that allow TLC to be combined with MS is making steady progress. The recently introduced liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) approach has the potential to hyphenate TLC with MS. A mixture of lipid standards was separated on HPTLC RP-18 glass plates using chloroform:methanol :acetonitrile 2:1:1 (v:v:v) as mobile phase. After visualization with primuline dye (0.02% in acetone:water 8:2 (v:v)), LESA was performed, followed by a chip-based nanoflow infusion in combination with FTICRMS. The optimized extraction solvent composition was methanol:chloroform:water:formic acid 52:24:24:0.2 (v:v:v:v). A nanoelectrospray voltage of 1.6 kV and a gas pressure of 0.2 psi were applied in all experiments. All phospholipids were extracted successfully and detected unambiguously using the optimized TLC-LESA-FTICRMS procedure. Sampling the tricaprylin spot gave the most intense signals and also tricaprin was detected. Three other triacylglycerols of higher molecular mass have logP values between 15.5 and 21.6, which are the highest among all investigated compounds and are not detected from their corresponding spots, due to the fact that the solubility of very apolar lipids is not high enough in the extraction solvent. It was demonstrated that TLC can be elegantly combined with mass spectrometry based on the LESA approach. In general, apart from the analysis of lipids, TLC-LESA-MS has a high potential for medium-polar compounds separated on reversed-phase TLC plates, but limitations are present when very apolar compounds have to be extracted.

  7. Juicio Circuito Camps (parte 34) : Los delitos sexuales de lesa humanidad serán analizados dentro del marco y contexto en que fueron cometidos

    OpenAIRE

    Radio Universidad Nacional de La Plata

    2013-01-01

    Se transmite a los juzgados donde se cursan expedientes que realicen las investigaciones por delitos sexuales en el marco de las causas de lesa humanidad, dentro del marco y contexto en que fueron cometidos.

  8. Deciphering the rhizosphere by liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, R. K.; Tfaily, M. M.; Handakumbura, P. P.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Anderton, C.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of plants with their soil microenvironment and surrounding microbes are of major scientific importance for reasons ranging from understanding global carbon and nitrogen cycling to developing advanced crops. Gaining spatial information of the biochemical interactions that occur within the rhizosphere and other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems is an area of growing interest. Accordingly, development of analytical tools to probe and map molecular interactions in situ, and without intrusive and extensive sample preparation, would provide unique insights into the processes governing plant growth, nitrogen fixation and the metabolic exchange between the root and rhizobia, for example. Here, we will discuss the development of an application using LESA-MS—liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry—that is capable of spatially characterizing molecular rhizospheric interactions in their native state and in a label-free manner. In LESA-MS, microextractions of a sample's surface are performed robotically, and we can either address points of interest (e.g., determined visually) or an entire area can be profiled in a serial fashion. Extracted molecules are then ionized by nanoelectrospray ionization (nano-ESI) and analyzed using high resolution and mass accuracy mass spectrometry (Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, FTICR MS). Because this analysis can be performed under ambient conditions, we are able to characterize the chemical distributions within the rhizosphere of a living plant. Here, we use Sorghum bicolor grown in a two-dimensional rhizobox that contains Turface clay as a model system, and used methanol-water as the solvent to characterize molecular distributions across the rhizosphere.

  9. Raziskava možnih izboljšav skladiščnega poslovanja žaganega lesa v izbranem podjetju

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Urška

    2013-01-01

    V magistrskem delu smo raziskovali skladiščno poslovanje žaganega lesa v Gozdnem gospodarstvu Slovenj Gradec, d.d. Problem, ki smo ga analizirali, je v neučinkovitem skladiščnem poslovanju. Skladiščenje žaganega lesa poteka kaotično, saj se žagan les uskladišči na prazno neoznačeno mesto. Označba na zložaju ne omogoča dovolj dobre sledljivosti, saj ni vidna ob tesnem skladiščenju zložajev. Tako pri odpremi prihaja do nepotrebnih prelaganj in podaljšanja celotne odpreme. Težava je tudi v preza...

  10. THE ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF A CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY. EL TRASFONDO ECONÓMICO DE UN CRIMEN DE LESA HUMANIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Vega Cantor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, as a result of research, aims to provide key elements, which take into account the links between the free trade and the permanent violation of the human rights and even with crimes against humanity; situations that do not constitute themselves in isolated, circumstantial facts, which are the product of the apparent simultaneousness between crime in abstract, developed in areas where strategic projects for the global economy are projected and developed, but in a matter related, caused, sustained by both national and international economic, political groups that make a profit with these mega-projects. RESUMEN El presente artículo resultado de investigación, pretende aportar elementos clave, que den cuenta de los nexos entre libre comercio y la violación permanente de los derechos humanos e incluso con delitos de lesa humanidad; situaciones que no se constituyen en hechos aislados, circunstanciales y producto de la simultaneidad aparente entre delincuencia en abstracto, desarrollada en zonas donde se proyectan y desarrollan proyectos estratégicos para la economía global, sino en un asunto relacionado, provocado, sostenido por los grupos económicos, políticos tanto nacionales como internacionales que ganan con estos mega-proyectos.

  11. Rebeldía, traición y lesa maiestas en Aragón durante la guerra de los Dos Pedros (1356-1366

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    Mario Lafuente Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La emisión de acusaciones de rebeldía, traición y lesa maiestas se inscribe entre las estrategias empleadas por las monarquías de la Baja Edad Media para salvaguardar su soberanía, cohesionar a sus súbditos y favorecer la reproducción del orden social. Este artículo analiza la utilización de este recurso por parte de Pedro IV, rey de Aragón, en una fase particularmente delicada de su reinado, esto es, la guerra que lo enfrentó al rey de Castilla, Pedro I, entre 1356 y 1366. Para ello, a partir de fuentes procedentes de la Cancillería real y del Archivo Histórico de Protocolos notariales de Zaragoza, se exponen los casos, los momentos y las sanciones asociadas a cada una de las citadas acusaciones, desde las más comunes (el delito de rebeldía hasta las más relevantes (los crímenes de traición y de lesa maiestas.Les accusations de rébellion, de trahison et de lesa maiestas sont des stratégies employées par les monarchies du Moyen Âge pour sauvegarder leur souveraineté, unir leurs sujets et favoriser la reproduction de l'ordre social. Cet article traite de l’utilisation de telles méthodes par Pierre IV, roi d’Aragon, dans une phase particulièrement délicate de son règne, celle de la guerre qui l’opposa au roi de Castille, Pierre I, entre 1356 et 1366. Pour ce faire, à partir de sources de la Chancellerie royale et des Archives Historiques de protocoles notariés de Saragosse, les cas, les moments et les pénalités associées à chacune de ces allégations, de la plus commune (le délit de rébellion à la plus grave (les crimes de trahison et de lesa maiestas sont ici exposés.

  12. Zmeny druhového zloženia Bábskeho lesa po ťažbe dreva

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    Pilková Ivana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Prezentovane su vysledky vyskumu uskutočneneho v juni 2011 na lokalite Babsky les (JZ Slovensko, Nitrianska sprašova pahorkatina. Na 30 trvalych plochach v Babskom lese sa zaznamenalo 117 taxonov vyššich rastlin. Na 12 trvalych plochach rubanisk sa nachadzalo 87 taxonov a na 18 lesnych plochach 61 taxonov rastlin. Vyšši počet druhov bol zaznamenany na trvalych plochach rubanisk, kde prevladali svetlomilne rastliny. Na rubaniskach bola vyššia aj pokryvnosť bylinneho poschodia. Prevladali hemikryptofyty a terofyty, na rozdiel od lesnych ploch, kde prevladali nano- a makrofanerofyty a vysoku pokryvnosť dosahovalo stromove a krovinne poschodie. Najvačšiu frekvenciu vyskytu (100 % mali na rubaniskach druhy Geum urbanum a Pulmonaria officinalis a v lesnom poraste lesne taxony Mercurialis perennis, Hedera helix a Melica uniflora. Na všetkych 30 plochach dominovali indigenne druhy a apofyty. Po ťažbe dreva v novembri 2006 vznikli štyri rubaniska a 6 presvetlenych ploch, v dosledku čoho došlo k zmene druhoveho zloženia vegetacie. Ťažba dreva vytvorila vhodne podmienky na prenikanie nepovodnych druhov z okolitych (prevažne antropogennych biotopov. Preto su na trvalych plochach založenych na rubaniskach hojne zastupene synantropne a nepovodne taxony, ktore sa ďalej širia do lesneho porastu a aj do vzdialenejšich časti Babskeho lesa.

  13. Los resultados de la Comisión de la Verdad de Guerrero. Una aproximación a su idea de crímenes de lesa humanidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Caballero, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La Comisión de la Verdad de Guerrero (México) ha investigado violaciones de derechos humanos en el período 1969-1979 de la “guerra sucia” en ese Estado. La ley que la habilita ofrece como propuesta de tipificación la figura de los crímenes de lesa humanidad según el Estatuto de Roma, pero el concepto de crimen que utiliza se aleja del texto legal. Esto contribuye a una imagen contradictoria y expansiva del delito, y pone las bases para restringir los derechos de posibles imputados.

  14. Porovnání různých přístupů k odhadu meze únavy reálného tělesa

    OpenAIRE

    Netopil, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je porovnat různé přístupy k odhadu meze únavy reálného tělesa. V oblasti vysoko-cyklické únavy jsou to koncepce nominálních napětí a koncepce podle knihy Shigley's Mechanical Engineering Design. Nejprve se v této práci čtenář seznámí s oběma přístupy a následně budou oba přístupy srovnány na příkladech z praxe. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to compare different approaches to assessment of endurance limit of a real body. In the area of the high-cycle fatigu...

  15. Le CERN et l'ESA renforcent leurs liens

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    Mr Antonio Rodotà, Director General of the European Space Agency (ESA) visited CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics on Thursday, 7 May. He was welcomed by Prof. Chris Llewellyn Smith, the Director General of CERN, together with his designated successor, Prof. Luciano Maiani. After very fruitful and positive discussions the Directors General agreed on the creation of Working Groups to study and propose systematic joint activities to be conducted on a regular basis between the two Organisations.

  16. Entre lesa-majestade e lesa-república. A transfiguração do crime político no Iluminismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Dal Ri Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o itineráriopercorrido pelos crimes políticos na experiênciapenal da Revolução Francesa, quemesmo influenciada pelos ideais iluministasde Montesquieu, Beccaria e Marat, guiousepelo espírito de um feroz direito penalpolítico que não tardou a dominar todo oconjunto da atividade repressiva. Trata-se demomento histórico relevante para o direitopenal, porque é nele que ocorre a transiçãoda noção de crimen laesae maiestatis parauma nova e potente figura delituosa: o crimede lèse-république.This paper introduces the covereditinerary due to politicians’ crimes regardingcriminal experience of French Revolutionthat even being influenced by Montesquieu,Beccaria and Marat illuminists’ ideals, conducteditself by the spirit of a threateningcriminal political law, which soon ruled thewhole group of repressive activity. This is avery important historical moment for criminallaw, since it allows the occurrence of transitionconcerning crimen laesae maiestatis conceptionto a new and powerful delinquent figure: thelèse-République crime.

  17. Derecho y pasado reciente: juicios de lesa humanidad por delitos cometidos durante la última dictadura militar

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Laura Julieta; Espíndola, Alfredo Martín

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo proponemos una aproximación a la contribución que brinda el derecho en relación a la reconstrucción de los sucesos acaecidos en el marco de la última dictadura militar (años 1976-1983). Al respecto, resulta necesario precisar que en las últimas décadas en Argentina se constata una gran proliferación de estudios desde distintos campos de las ciencias humanas que intentan aportar herramientas de análisis de las masivas violaciones a los derechos humanos ocurridas durante el últi...

  18. Stínová tělesa v OpenGL

    OpenAIRE

    Salvet, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Práce se zabývá jednou konkrétní metodou tvorby stínů v počítačové grafice. Popisuje nejen její teoretické základy, ale také se zabývá možností praktické implementace využitím moderního rozhraní OpenGL. Součástí je testování výkonu několika variant této metody pomocí testovací aplikace. Z výsledků je jasně patrný přínos výpočtu této metody na grafické kartě. This thesis is focused on one particular method of shadowing in computer graphics. It not only describes basic theory, but also deals...

  19. El trasfondo económico de un crimen de lesa humanidad

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Cantor, Renán

    2014-01-01

    This article, as a result of research, aims to provide key elements, which take into account the links between the free trade and the permanent violation of the human rights and even with crimes against humanity; situations that do not constitute themselves in isolated, circumstantial facts, which are the product of the apparent simultaneousness between crime in abstract, developed in areas where strategic projects for the global economy are projected and developed, but in a matter related, c...

  20. RABA LESA IN POTENCIALNE NALOŽBE V UČINKOVITEJŠO IZRABO BIOMASE

    OpenAIRE

    Javornik, Metka

    2013-01-01

    Les in gozd sta poleg naravnih lepot, delovnih ljudi in naravne lege ena od redkejših prednosti Slovenije. Skrajni čas je, da se pričnejo država in zaposleni v tej panogi zavedati stanja in v globalnem okviru tudi ukrepati. Ker samo ideja ni dovolj, potrebna so dejanja.

  1. Derecho y pasado reciente: juicios de lesa humanidad por delitos cometidos durante la última dictadura militar

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Laura Julieta; Espíndola, Alfredo Martín

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo proponemos una aproximación a la contribución que brinda el derecho en relación a la reconstrucción de los sucesos acaecidos en el marco de la última dictadura militar (años 1976-1983). Al respecto, resulta necesario precisar que en las últimas décadas en Argentina se constata una gran proliferación de estudios desde distintos campos de las ciencias humanas que intentan aportar herramientas de análisis de las masivas violaciones a los derechos humanos ocurridas durante el últi...

  2. Měkkýši Českého lesa – IV. Nové údaje pro jižní část Českého lesa

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    Jitka Horáčková

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on recent molluscan fauna in the southern part of the Český Les Mts., with additional data from the phytogeographic district of the Plzeňská Pahorkatina hills, are presented. Altogether, 63 species (62 species of Gastropoda and 1 species of Bivalvia were recorded at 22 selected sites. The author‘s collecting activity was focused on ruderal sites and abandoned villages along the state border. There is spruce plantation dominating in the woodlands with scarce malacofauna. The common forest species dominate there, with the presence of montane and submontane elements, such as Clausilia cruciata, Vertigo substriata, and Discus ruderatus, which occur in the rest of preserved deciduous forests. The record of Atlantic Oxychilus alliarius species is the fifth known in Czech Republic. The montane snail of Clausilia cruciata was found at one site at very low altitude of 550 m a.s.l. A slug species Arion alpinus, never found in this area before, was recorded at five sites. Its occurrence here is the westernmost one in the Czech Republic. The elements of open habitats presented by xerotherm sites and open wetlands were not recorded, except for the species Vallonia costata and Vallonia excentrica occurring only at the ruins of abandoned villages and their surroundings.

  3. Discursos, memorias y verdades. Algunas reflexiones acerca del juicio por delitos de lesa humanidad cometidos en la Norpatagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Scatizza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The realization of the public trial to the military leaders of the crimes against humanity, committeed in the Comahue region during the civil-military dictatorship was characterized by a strong tension in the discourses tha constitute it. A tension given for four differents narratives about what had happened during that period of the argentinian history on wich, at the same time, support and build the different collective memories that are recieved, transmitted, reproduced and rebuild about that period. In this article, I discribe the characteristics of this trial carried out in Neuquén city in 2008, and I explain how these narratives were articulated in the parties presentations in the oral debate. I reflect, finally, about the ways in wich historical truth articulates within right and memory

  4. THE ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF A CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY. EL TRASFONDO ECONÓMICO DE UN CRIMEN DE LESA HUMANIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Renan Vega Cantor

    2014-01-01

    This article, as a result of research, aims to provide key elements, which take into account the links between the free trade and the permanent violation of the human rights and even with crimes against humanity; situations that do not constitute themselves in isolated, circumstantial facts, which are the product of the apparent simultaneousness between crime in abstract, developed in areas where strategic projects for the global economy are projected and developed, but in a matter related, c...

  5. Arts Management - marketingová strategie symfonického tělesa (Filharmonie mladých Praha)

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhlich, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Goal of this diploma thesis is to create a marketing strategy of the Prague Youth Philharmonic symphony orchestra including marketing concept definition, audience research and marketing communication project. The marketing strategy proceeds from internal and external SWOT analysis of the subject. Theoretical part of the thesis deals with classical marketing theory and its use in arts management praxis. It focuses on strategic marketing and its instruments.

  6. Le CERN, L'ESA et L'ESO lancent la "Physique en Scène"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Physics is everywhere. The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics.

  7. La ofensa a dios y al rey: el delito de lesa majestad en la rebelión maya-yucateca de 1761

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    Jorge Castillo Canché

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the criminal proceedings against the main involved in the organization and leadership of the rebellion of 1761 Yucatecan Maya to understand budgets guided criminal prosecutions of the authorities responsible for carrying it out. The criminal-legal perspective of the analysis allows us to suggest that the crime of lese majesty by which accused the leader of the rebellion and his associates, was the legal argument to condemn the death penalty through torture and thereby restore the damage, the especially symbolic that his actions had caused the power and dominion of the king as the direct representative of god on earth.

  8. La physique à l'honneur Le CERN, l'ESA et l'ESO mettent la physique en scène

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Can you imagine how much physics is in a simple match of ping-pong, in throwing a boomerang, or in a musical concert? Physics is all around us and governs our lives. The World-Wide Web and mobile communication are only two examples of technologies that have rapidly found their way from science into the everyday life. But who is going to maintain these technologies and develop new ones in the future?

  9. A lei contra a tortura no Brasil, a construção do conceito de “crime de lesa-humanidade” e os paradoxos da punição criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Thorstensen Possas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da construção e utilização da distinção entre crimes contra a humanidade e crimes ordinários para fazer referência a duas “categorias” ou “tipos” de crimes, segundo os entrevistados da pesquisa: os crimes contra a humanidade seriam aqueles que violam diretamente ou de uma maneira especialmente agressiva os direitos humanos e os crimes ordinários ou comuns seriam todos os que não agridem diretamente os direitos humanos.  O conteúdo do texto foi extraído de tese de doutorado, realizada no Canadá, na Universidade de Ottawa, cujo tema de pesquisa é a criação legislativa em matéria criminal, especificamente a criação da lei contra a tortura no Brasil (Lei nº 9.455/97. Do ponto de vista empírico, o artigo se concentra na análise das entrevistas realizadas com políticos e militantes de direitos humanos que participaram direta ou indiretamente da produção da lei.

  10. Návrh výroby tělesa plynového analyzátoru s využitím metody Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    OpenAIRE

    Říčan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá možností výroby plynového analyzátoru technologií Rapid Prototyping a to metodou Direct Metal Laser Sintering. V teoretické části je popsána stávající výroba součásti ve společnosti Frentech Aerospace s.r.o a inovace ve firmě Innomia a.s, metodou Direct Metal Laser Sintering. Dále je proveden rozbor principu jednotlivých metod Rapid Prototyping, především metody Direct Metal Laser Sintering. Cílem experimentální části je porovnání mechanických vlastností a struk...

  11. El informe jurídico legal de crímenes sobre lesa humanidad: análisis terminológico y traductológico de Concentrations of Inhumanity

    OpenAIRE

    Ronka, Ewa Oktawia

    2016-01-01

    Las características singulares de los lenguajes de especialidad son uno de los principales problemas a los que deben enfrentarse a diario los traductores e intérpretes profesionales, así como los estudiantes de Traducción e Interpretación. Entre las lenguas de especialidad que mayores dificultades plantean a los traductores destaca, sin duda, el lenguaje jurídico, que cuenta con una significativa presencia a nivel internacional. En la presente tesis se pretende realizar un estudio detallado d...

  12. Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the salivary gland: A spectrum of lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with transformation to high-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agale Shubhangi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary gland can be either reactive or neoplastic. The reactive lesion, lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA may be associated with Sjogren′s syndrome (SS or may occur as an isolated salivary gland enlargement. Patients with LESA/SS have a particularly high risk of subsequently developing lymphoma, which is a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type lymphoma of the salivary gland. We document a rare case of primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma of the parotid gland arising in the background of LESA and with a rare example of transformation from low grade to high-grade B cell lymphoma of MALT type.

  13. Angelite: Paziteli na vhoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerov Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (bugarski Statijata prosledjava ikonografskata evoljucija na izobraženijata na arhangelite Mihail i Gavriil, pomesteni pri vhoda na pravoslavnija hram. Povraten moment v neja e 13 vek. Togava arhangel Mihail započva da se izobrazjava kato voin. S tova apotropejnite mu funkcii namirat adekvaten vizualen izraz. K'm kraja na stoletieto arhangel Gavriil započva da se izobrazjava kato pisar - ikonografija, kojato šče b'de dorazvita i utv'rdena prez 14 vek. Prez postvizantijskata epoha v obraza na Mihail se pojavjavat elementi, koito akcentirat v'rhu roljata mu na psihopomp.

  14. Genomic support for speciation and specificity of baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: baculovirus, insects, speciation, genomics, phylogeny, host specificity The Baculoviridae comprise a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting arthropods. In this thesis two baculoviruses, Leucoma salicis nucleopolyhedrovirus (LesaNPV) and Agrotis segetum (Agse) NPV, were c

  15. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... ADDRESSES. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lesa A. Johnson, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. All comments received in...

  16. Supernova deleptonization asymmetry: Impact on self-induced flavor conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    During the accretion phase of a core-collapse supernova (SN), the deleptonization flux has recently been found to develop a global dipole pattern (LESA---Lepton Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry). The $\

  17. Sobre el dominio territorial como requisito del elemento político en la definición de los crímenes de lesa humanidad. Un análisis enfocado en la calificación jurídica de los actos de la izquierda armada en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Iosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ofrezco primero una caracterización  de la teoría de los dos demonios. Esta teoría, tras gozar del rol de discurso de Estado luego de la recuperación democrática en Argentina, ha sido explícitamente rechazada en la segunda generación de juicios: aquí se consideró que sólo los militares (no las organizaciones de izquierda cometieron crímenes contra la humanidad. Mi interés está centrado en evaluar las razones que sustentan esa distinción. Con vistas a ese fin, segundo, presento la figura de los crímenes contra la humanidad tal como está fijada en el Estatuto de Roma y distingo cuatro concepciones relativas a cómo debe delinearse su  elemento político. Tercero, reconstruyo la interpretación que la Corte y los tribunales argentinos hacen de los requisitos necesarios para que un delito califique como crimen contra la humanidad. Hago foco en  el elemento político y específicamente en las condiciones que una organización debe satisfacer para ser capaz de cometer dichos crímenes. Cuarto, comparo las decisiones argentinas con las tomadas por las cortes internacionales. Quinto, ofrezco una reconstrucción de los requisitos que a mi entender deben ser tenidos en cuenta (según la concepción normativa que considero correcta en la definición legal de los crímenes contra la humanidad. Con esta herramienta conceptual en mano evalúo las decisiones jurisprudenciales mencionadas más arriba. Por último, presento la que considero como la calificación jurídica adecuada de los delitos cometidos por la izquierda armada en los setenta. 

  18. Využití čichových schopností psa pro vyhledávání kůrovci napadených stromů v rámci preventivní ochrany lesa

    OpenAIRE

    Drmla, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional ability to smell dog in human activity are used for several centuries. The dog is trained for tracking , searching for drugs , weapons, ammunition , human remains , tobacco and money . Usability dog is recorded in the health sector , where the dog can identify the smell serious illness. Deploying a dog to search for forest pests , especially bark beetle was experimentally tested in several European countries , but they were always used the associated odors from the environment bee...

  19. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Identification of Proteins by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry of Healthy and Diseased Human Liver Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsby, Joscelyn; Martin, Nicholas J.; Lalor, Patricia F.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2014-09-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA MS) has the potential to become a useful tool in the spatially-resolved profiling of proteins in substrates. Here, the approach has been applied to the analysis of thin tissue sections from human liver. The aim was to determine whether LESA MS was a suitable approach for the detection of protein biomarkers of nonalcoholic liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), with a view to the eventual development of LESA MS for imaging NASH pathology. Two approaches were considered. In the first, endogenous proteins were extracted from liver tissue sections by LESA, subjected to automated trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptide mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (bottom-up approach). In the second (top-down approach), endogenous proteins were extracted by LESA, and analyzed intact. Selected protein ions were subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. The bottom-up approach resulted in the identification of over 500 proteins; however identification of key protein biomarkers, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), and its variant (Thr→Ala, position 94), was unreliable and irreproducible. Top-down LESA MS analysis of healthy and diseased liver tissue revealed peaks corresponding to multiple (~15-25) proteins. MS/MS of four of these proteins identified them as FABP1, its variant, α-hemoglobin, and 10 kDa heat shock protein. The reliable identification of FABP1 and its variant by top-down LESA MS suggests that the approach may be suitable for imaging NASH pathology in sections from liver biopsies.

  20. Top-down and bottom-up identification of proteins by liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry of healthy and diseased human liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsby, Joscelyn; Martin, Nicholas J; Lalor, Patricia F; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J

    2014-11-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA MS) has the potential to become a useful tool in the spatially-resolved profiling of proteins in substrates. Here, the approach has been applied to the analysis of thin tissue sections from human liver. The aim was to determine whether LESA MS was a suitable approach for the detection of protein biomarkers of nonalcoholic liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), with a view to the eventual development of LESA MS for imaging NASH pathology. Two approaches were considered. In the first, endogenous proteins were extracted from liver tissue sections by LESA, subjected to automated trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptide mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (bottom-up approach). In the second (top-down approach), endogenous proteins were extracted by LESA, and analyzed intact. Selected protein ions were subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. The bottom-up approach resulted in the identification of over 500 proteins; however identification of key protein biomarkers, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), and its variant (Thr→Ala, position 94), was unreliable and irreproducible. Top-down LESA MS analysis of healthy and diseased liver tissue revealed peaks corresponding to multiple (~15-25) proteins. MS/MS of four of these proteins identified them as FABP1, its variant, α-hemoglobin, and 10 kDa heat shock protein. The reliable identification of FABP1 and its variant by top-down LESA MS suggests that the approach may be suitable for imaging NASH pathology in sections from liver biopsies.

  1. Analysis of larval excretory-secretory antigen and its immunodiagnosis of Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis infection%广州管圆线虫幼虫排泄分泌抗原及其诊断价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 刘敏; 吴雅欣; 莫泽珣; 沈浩贤; 陈代雄; 李华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic value of larval excretory-secretory antigen in Angiostrongylus cantonensis (LESA) infection.Method A.cantonensis larvae harvested from mice brain were cultured in vitro.The LESA and the adult worm antigens of A.cantonensis (AWA) were collected and analyzed using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.Two ELISA systems were established using the two antigens (LESA-ELISA and AWA-ELISA) to detect the serum spectra from different sources.Results SDS-PAGE and Western blotting displayed fewer protein and antigen bands for LESA than for the adult antigen.Two distinct bands of LESA (with relative molecular masses of 40 000 and 26 000) showed reactivity with the sera from patients with A.cantonensis infection.The serum levels of IgG and IgM antibodies to LESA increased at the beginning of infection in mice,reaching the peak on day 5 after infection and decreased on day 10.Compared with AWA-ELISA,LESA-ELISA showed a lower seropositive ratio in suspected patients with A.cantonensis,with also a lower cross-positive ratio in patients with schistosomiasis and clonorchis sinensis.Conclusion LESA possesses fewer antigen reaction bands than AWA.Although with a slightly lower positive ratio than AWA,LESA has a higher specificity for detecting serum antibodies in suspected cases of A.cantonensis infection,and therefore shows a potential for the diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis especially in the early stage and in current infection.%目的 对比分析广州管圆线虫幼虫排泄分泌抗原(LESA)与成虫抗原(AWA),探讨其诊断价值.方法 广州管圆线虫三期幼虫感染小鼠,21 d后取小鼠脑内幼虫进行体外培养,收集幼虫排泄分泌蛋白,并与广州管圆线虫成虫匀浆蛋白进行SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析,分别用两种抗原建立LESA-ELISA和AWA-ELISA以检测小鼠血清和不同人群血清.结果 SDS-PAGE和Western blot显示幼虫排泄分泌蛋白条带和抗原反应带较成虫少;LESA与小鼠感染血清和

  2. Narrativas fílmicas documentales y dilemas de subjetivación de la experiencia. Estudios de casos argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola, Mariné

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo nos abocamos al análisis de la produc-ción fílmica documental cuyas narrativas se centran enla última dictadura cívico–militar argentina (1976–1983)y sus consecuencias a instancias de los juicios orales pordelitos de lesa humanidad que se reactivaron en todoel territorio nacional a partir de la nulidad de las leyesde Obediencia Debida y Punto Final en el año 2003.En este texto trabajamos sobre la representación delos juicios orales por delitos de lesa humanidad desarro-llados...

  3. Narečie postepeno kak leksičeskij kvantifikator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Stana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (ruski V rabote na osnove analiza primerov upotreblenija narečija postepeno vyjavljajutsja ego obščie harakteristiki i opredeljajutsja grammatičesko-semantičeskie uslovija realizacii ego značenija i funkcii. Narečie postepeno otneseno k polnost'ju pragmatičeskim kvantifikatoram partitivno-distributivnogo tipa, pri ëtom ego partitivnost' organizovana v sootvetstvii s kriteriem vremennój linearnosti. Svojstva partitivnosti distributivnosti i sukcessivnosti, vyražennye u narečija postepeno predstavljajut soboj ingerentnuju harakteristiku složnoj situacii, kotoraja zapolnjaet semantičeskuju valentnost' dannogo odnomestnogo predikata. Rasčlenennost' složnoj situacii, kak neobhodimoe uslovie upotreblenija dannogo narečija, možet byt' realizovana v vide predikativnogo soderžanija i / ili v vide soderžanija argumentov predikata. Vozmožnost' zapolnenija semantičeskoj i sintaksičeskoj valentnosti predikata i / ili semantičeskoj valentnosti ego argumentov osuščestvljaetsja na osnove semantičeskih pravil dvuh tipov, kotorymi opredeljaetsja sfera dejstvija netrivial'nyh značenij narečija postepeno i ego grammatičesko-semantičeskaja sočetaemost'. Različnye grammatičesko-semantičeskie uslovija realizacii ego značenija i funkcii vyjavlennye v rabote, predstavleny v prilagaemoj tablice kak varianty osnovnyh tipov, obuslovlennyh obščimi grammatičeskimi imennymi i glagol'nymi kategorijami, takimi, kak množestvennost' / sobiratel'nost', edinstvennoe čislo i nesoveršennyj vid, soveršennyj vid.

  4. RSM Outlook Winter 2008 : Strategy: surviving in turbulent times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Q&A with Carien van der Laan (Lesa Sawahata) Her CV is impressive: an early career as a corporate attorney, an MBA from Harvard Business School, and subsequent management positions for such companies as McKinsey, KPN and Versatel. It’s clear that Carien van der Laan has succeed

  5. RSM Outlook Summer 2009 : Post-Crisis World: a change for the better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Business and Academia: The Mutual Benefits of Collaboration (Lesa Sawahata) Business is at the heart – and in the DNA – of RSM. And through collaborative activities at every level, RSM researchers, alumni and students are impacting business. #### The New Face of Capitalism As

  6. RSM Outlook Summer 2014 : A Circular Economy: the revolution begins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Project Mainstream: Changing the Shape of Business (Lesa Sawahata) It has been clear for some time that finite resources, increasing commodities costs and the ever-greater demands of the world’s growing group of middle class consumers cannot be resolved with old business models

  7. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  8. RSM Outlook Summer 2014 : A Circular Economy: the revolution begins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Whittern (Justine); D. Schreiner (Dorine)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Project Mainstream: Changing the Shape of Business (Lesa Sawahata) It has been clear for some time that finite resources, increasing commodities costs and the ever-greater demands of the world’s growing group of middle class consumers cannot be resolved with old business

  9. L'astronomie dans le monde

    OpenAIRE

    Manfroid, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Le réveil d'Huygens; à la recherche du rayonnement le plus froid; Les vagues monstrueuses qui coulent des navires sont repérées par les satellites radar de l'ESA; Exoplanète poids plume; Sinfoni à  l'ESO; TrES 1; Cassiopée A

  10. RSM Outlook Winter 2008 : Strategy: surviving in turbulent times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilbert (Russell); R. Morris (Rebecca); L. Sawahata (Lesa)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Q&A with Carien van der Laan (Lesa Sawahata) Her CV is impressive: an early career as a corporate attorney, an MBA from Harvard Business School, and subsequent management positions for such companies as McKinsey, KPN and Versatel. It’s clear that Carien van der Laan has

  11. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, John G; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2016-11-24

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  12. Fully Automated Laser Ablation Liquid Capture Sample Analysis using NanoElectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Laser ablation provides for the possibility of sampling a large variety of surfaces with high spatial resolution. This type of sampling when employed in conjunction with liquid capture followed by nanoelectrospray ionization provides the opportunity for sensitive and prolonged interrogation of samples by mass spectrometry as well as the ability to analyze surfaces not amenable to direct liquid extraction. METHODS: A fully automated, reflection geometry, laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling system was achieved by incorporating appropriate laser fiber optics and a focusing lens into a commercially available, liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA ) ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate system. RESULTS: Under optimized conditions about 10% of laser ablated material could be captured in a droplet positioned vertically over the ablation region using the NanoMate robot controlled pipette. The sampling spot size area with this laser ablation liquid capture surface analysis (LA/LCSA) mode of operation (typically about 120 m x 160 m) was approximately 50 times smaller than that achievable by direct liquid extraction using LESA (ca. 1 mm diameter liquid extraction spot). The set-up was successfully applied for the analysis of ink on glass and paper as well as the endogenous components in Alstroemeria Yellow King flower petals. In a second mode of operation with a comparable sampling spot size, termed laser ablation/LESA , the laser system was used to drill through, penetrate, or otherwise expose material beneath a solvent resistant surface. Once drilled, LESA was effective in sampling soluble material exposed at that location on the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating the capability for different laser ablation liquid capture spot sampling modes of operation into a LESA ready Advion TriVersa NanoMate enhanced the spot sampling spatial resolution of this device and broadened the surface types amenable to analysis to include absorbent and solvent resistant

  13. The exploitation of micromorphological parameters for identification in the section / Mentha Využitie mikromorfologických parametrov pri identifikácii v sekcii Mentha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fialová S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifikacia druhov v rode Mentha L. je obzvlašť naročna. Je to sposobene ľahkym križenim podporenym gynodioeciou, ktora je ďalej skomplikovana polymorfizmom, pestovanim, polyploiditou a vegetativnym rozmnožovanim, čo vysvetľuje genetickopopulačne a mikroevolučne pozadie premenlivosti v rode Mentha. V tejto praci sme študovali využitie mikromorfologickych a fytochemickych parametrov pri identifikacii a charakterizacii vybranych druhov rodu Mentha. Na spodnej pokožke listov 20 populacii Mentha sme stanovili veľkosť a počet „žliazok typu Lamiaceae“. Silicu sme analyzovali pomocou GC MS. Identifikovali a charakterizovali sme populacie druhov M. × piperita, M. spicata, M. spicata subsp. condensata, M. spicata var. crispa, M. spicata var. citrata, M. × gentilis, M. aquatic, M. arvensis a M. longifolia. Sledovanie veľkosti a počtu „žliazok typu Lamiaceae prispievaju k charakterizacii niektorych druhov Mentha (najma M. longifolia a M. × piperita.

  14. Authentication of processed meat products by peptidomic analysis using rapid ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2015-11-15

    We present the application of a novel ambient LESA-MS method for the authentication of processed meat products. A set of 25 species and protein-specific heat stable peptide markers has been detected in processed samples manufactured from beef, pork, horse, chicken and turkey meat. We demonstrate that several peptides derived from myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins are sufficiently resistant to processing to serve as specific markers of processed products. The LESA-MS technique required minimal sample preparation without fractionation and enabled the unambiguous and simultaneous identification of skeletal muscle proteins and peptides as well as other components of animal origin, including the milk protein such as casein alpha-S1, in whole meat product digests. We have identified, for the first time, six fast type II and five slow/cardiac type I MHC peptide markers in various processed meat products. The study demonstrates that complex mixtures of processed proteins/peptides can be examined effectively using this approach.

  15. Delitos Internacionales en el Proyecto del Código Penal de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Guerrero Mayorga.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available El autor de este artículo presenta de manera general la responsabilidad penal individual en Derecho Internacional y algunos aspectos fundamentales de los Delitos Internacionales, el Crimen de Genocidio, los Crímenes de Lesa Humanidad, los Crímenes de Guerra y el Crimen de Agresión, comprendidos en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional; y propone algunas modificaciones al actual Proyecto de Código Penal de Nicaragua.

  16. Mass spectrometry for high-throughput metabolomics analysis of urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrazig, Salah M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (direct ESI-MS), by omitting the chromatographic step, has great potential for application as a high-throughput approach for untargeted urine metabolomics analysis compared to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The rapid development and technical innovations revealed in the field of ambient ionisation MS such as nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) chip-based infusion and liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA...

  17. Direct Sampling and Analysis from Solid Phase Extraction Cards using an Automated Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walworth, Matthew J [ORNL; ElNaggar, Mariam S [ORNL; Stankovich, Joseph J [ORNL; WitkowskiII, Charles E. [Protein Discovery, Inc.; Norris, Jeremy L [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Direct liquid extraction based surface sampling, a technique previously demonstrated with continuous flow and autonomous pipette liquid microjunction surface sampling probes, has recently been implemented as the Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) mode on the commercially available Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system. In the present paper, the LESA mode was applied to the analysis of 96-well format custom solid phase extraction (SPE) cards, with each well consisting of either a 1 or 2 mm diameter monolithic hydrophobic stationary phase. These substrate wells were conditioned, loaded with either single or multi-component aqueous mixtures, and read out using the LESA mode of a TriVersa NanoMate or a Nanomate 100 coupled to an ABI/Sciex 4000QTRAPTM hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a Thermo LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Extraction conditions, including extraction/nanoESI solvent composition, volume, and dwell times, were optimized in the analysis of targeted compounds. Limit of detection and quantitation as well as analysis reproducibility figures of merit were measured. Calibration data was obtained for propranolol using a deuterated internal standard which demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A 10x increase in signal and cleanup of micromolar Angiotensin II from a concentrated salt solution was demonstrated. Additionally, a multicomponent herbicide mixture at ppb concentration levels was analyzed using MS3 spectra for compound identification in the presence of isobaric interferences.

  18. Cross-species approaches to seed dormancy and germination: conservation and biodiversity of ABA-regulated mechanisms and the Brassicaceae DOG1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, Kai; Linkies, Ada; Müller, Kerstin; Wunchova, Andrea; Rott, Anita; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    Seed dormancy is genetically determined with substantial environmental influence mediated, at least in part, by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA-related transcription factor ABI3/VP1 (ABA INSENSITIVE3/VIVIPAROUS1) is widespread among green plants. Alternative splicing of its transcripts appears to be involved in regulating seed dormancy, but the role of ABI3/VP1 goes beyond seeds and dormancy. In contrast, DOG1 (DELAY OF GERMINATION 1), a major quantitative trait gene more specifically involved in seed dormancy, was so far only known from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDOG1) and whether it also has roles during the germination of non-dormant seeds was not known. Seed germination of Lepidium sativum ('garden cress') is controlled by ABA and its antagonists gibberellins and ethylene and involves the production of apoplastic hydroxyl radicals. We found orthologs of AtDOG1 in the Brassicaceae relatives L. sativum (LesaDOG1) and Brassica rapa (BrDOG1) and compared their gene structure and the sequences of their transcripts expressed in seeds. Tissue-specific analysis of LesaDOG1 transcript levels in L. sativum seeds showed that they are degraded upon imbibition in the radicle and the micropylar endosperm. ABA inhibits germination in that it delays radicle protrusion and endosperm weakening and it increased LesaDOG1 transcript levels during early germination due to enhanced transcription and/or inhibited degradation. A reduced decrease in LesaDOG1 transcript levels upon ABA treatment is evident in the late germination phase in both tissues. This temporal and ABA-related transcript expression pattern suggests a role for LesaDOG1 in the control of germination timing of non-dormant L. sativum seeds. The possible involvement of the ABA-related transcription factors ABI3 and ABI5 in the regulation of DOG1 transcript expression is discussed. Other species of the monophyletic genus Lepidium showed coat or embryo dormancy and are therefore highly suited for comparative

  19. Directed evolution induces tributyrin hydrolysis in a virulence factor of Xylella fastidiosa using a duplicated gene as a template [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/48i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gouran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of genes is one of the preferred ways for natural selection to add advantageous functionality to the genome without having to reinvent the wheel with respect to catalytic efficiency and protein stability. The duplicated secretory virulence factors of Xylella fastidiosa (LesA, LesB and LesC, implicated in Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis of citrus species, epitomizes the positive selection pressures exerted on advantageous genes in such pathogens. A deeper insight into the evolution of these lipases/esterases is essential to develop resistance mechanisms in transgenic plants. Directed evolution, an attempt to accelerate the evolutionary steps in the laboratory, is inherently simple when targeted for loss of function. A bigger challenge is to specify mutations that endow a new function, such as a lost functionality in a duplicated gene. Previously, we have proposed a method for enumerating candidates for mutations intended to transfer the functionality of one protein into another related protein based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of the active site residues (DECAAF. In the current work, we present in vivo validation of DECAAF by inducing tributyrin hydrolysis in LesB based on the active site similarity to LesA. The structures of these proteins have been modeled using RaptorX based on the closely related LipA protein from Xanthomonas oryzae. These mutations replicate the spatial and electrostatic conformation of LesA in the modeled structure of the mutant LesB as well, providing in silico validation before proceeding to the laborious in vivo work. Such focused mutations allows one to dissect the relevance of the duplicated genes in finer detail as compared to gene knockouts, since they do not interfere with other moonlighting functions, protein expression levels or protein-protein interaction.

  20. La singular locura del perdón ante lo imperdonable: una respuesta al girasol del Simón Wiesenthal

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Caycedo, María Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    El perdón, como un deber moral, una práctica y una creencia, es parte de la milenaria tradición judeo-cristiana, pero desde hace poco tiempo, especialmente, desde la segunda guerra mundial y con el surgimiento del derecho internacional humanitario y el concepto de “crimen de lesa humanidad”, el perdón se ha convertido en un tema de interés a nivel mundial, que va más allá del ámbito religioso. Distintos personajes del mundo político han pedido perdón por sucesos pasados, incluso por cosas que...

  1. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior...

  2. Cadáveres impensables, cadáveres impensados. El tratamiento de los cuerpos en las violencias de masa y los genocidios, de Elizabeth Anstett, Jean-Marc Dreyfus, y Sévane Garibian (directores)

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz Pardo, Carola Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    En el contexto de una Latinoamérica convulsionada por el dolor y la indignación que generó el secuestro y la desaparición, en manos de funcionarios del Estado mexicano, de 43 estudiantes normalistas en Ayotzinapa, el libro Cadáveres impensables, cadáveres impensados. El tratamiento de los cuerpos en las violencias de masa y los genocidios provee de un valioso insumo teórico para problematizar las políticas de memoria de los Estados- Nación que han estado involucrados en delitos de lesa humani...

  3. Las masacres de Río Negro: reflexiones sobre el genocidio de las comunidades indígenas y la obligación de investigar, juzgar y castigar

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Marín, Raúl Fernando; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali; Canal Flórez, Sebastián; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali

    2013-01-01

    La defensa de los derechos humanos a nivel internacional implica el análisis de conceptos provenientes de disciplinas como el derecho penal internacional, tales como el genocidio y los crímenes de lesa humanidad. El Sistema Interamericano de Protección de los Derechos Humanos no ha sido ajeno a este fenómeno debido a los atroces actos ocurridos en las décadas de los setenta y ochenta en Centroamérica y Suramérica. El caso de Guatemala es revelador frente a las violaciones a los derechos human...

  4. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    manufacture 1,000 kW new type cell power storage system pilot plant. Also, to conduct new type cell system test using simulated power transmission ...system 1.878 r 1411 [ ESB 1.737J 1,791 r 751 LESA 1.715J To conduct operational research on a bench plant consisting of 100 kW class...as this power storage system promotes preserving the environment and can be installed in cities, it is possible to decrease transmission power

  5. Ensayos de derecho penal y procesal internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Olasolo Alonso, Hector

    2011-01-01

    Análisis pionero, serio y riguroso de las posibilidades que el marco procesal del Estatuto de Roma y de las Reglas de Procedimiento y Prueba ofrecen a la Corte Penal, y en particular a su Fiscalía, para desarrollar de manera eficaz acciones preventivas dirigidas a evitar que ciertas situaciones de crisis terminen desencadenando la comisión sistemática o generalizada de crímenes de lesa humanidad, crímenes de guerra o genocidio.

  6. iPhoto '11 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2011-01-01

    With better ways to get your photos online and new options for creating printed projects, iPhoto '11 makes it easier than ever to transfer photos from a digital camera, organize them, and publish, print, or share them in maps-but there's still no printed manual for the program. Fortunately, David Pogue and Lesa Snider team up in this witty, authoritative book that should have been in the box. Organize your collection. Discover all of the options for grouping your pictures-by events, in albums, or based on who's in the photo or where it was taken.Sharpen your editing skills. Learn how to use

  7. Hulinn heimur, um aðgengi sjónskertra og blindra að nokkrum vefum á Íslandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukur Arnþórsson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Í þessari grein eru skoðaðar heimildir um aðgengi blindra og sjónskertra að vefum og benda þær til þess að allt að 5000-8000 þúsund Íslendingar geti átt erfitt með að lesa af skjá af ýmsum orsökum. Þar er einkum eldra fólk.

  8. Photoshop CS4 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Snider, Lesa

    2009-01-01

    Photoshop is the world's most widely used photo-editing and graphics program. But with all its fantastic new features and options, the CS4 version can bewilder even the most seasoned professional. That's where Photoshop CS4: The Missing Manual comes in: packed with tips, tricks, and lots of practical advice, this visually rich four-color guidebook teaches you everything you need to know to edit photos and create beautiful documents in Photoshop. Whether you're an absolute beginner or a power user ready to try some advanced techniques, author and graphics pro Lesa Snider King offers crystal-c

  9. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Directeur de la publication : Jean Lambert (CEFAS Comité de lecture : Yusûf `Abd Allâh (Université de Sanaa Houda Ayoub (ENS Rabia Bekkar (Paris X Rabia Bekkar (Paris X Paul Bonnenfant (CNRS, IREMAM Franck Braemer (CNRS, CEPAM Jean-François Breton (CNRS, Maison René Ginouvès François Bron (CNRS-LESA, Collège de France François Burgat (CNRS, IREMAM Luc-Willy Deheuvels (INALCO Alessandro De Maigret (Istituto Orientale di Napoli Marina De Regt (Université d'Amsterdam Blandine Des...

  10. Vpliv relativne zračne vlažnosti in anoksičnih razmer na vezavo baker-etanolaminskih pripravkov v smrekovino

    OpenAIRE

    Biškup, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Med najpomembnejša zaščitna sredstva za impregnacijo lesa v 3. in 4. razredu izpostavitve spadajo baker-etanolaminski pripravki. Fiksacija teh pripravkov je v primerjavi s klasičnimi hitrejša in je končana v 2 do 24 urah po impregnaciji. Po določenem času se vezava teh pripravkov zopet poslabša. Ugotavljali smo kako različni postopki kondicioniranja vplivajo na vezavo baker-etanolaminskih pripravkov v les. Smrekove vzorce smo impregnirali s 3 koncentracijami zaščitnega pripravka Silvanolin (C...

  11. La paz es un asunto de memoria: complejidades de la barbarie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alonso Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia-barbarie acaecida en el marco del conflicto armado colombiano, constituye una de las experiencias más trágicas del siglo XX. Es así que el número de muertos, las notables y a menudo “creativas” prácticas de maldad, además, de la impunidad y estructuración de colectividades terroristas, y un sinfín de actos de lesa humanidad, dan cuenta de ello.

  12. Nuevos andares del Trabajo Social: el ejercicio del trabajador social en el acompañamiento a testigos-victimas del terrorismo de Estado

    OpenAIRE

    Ardohain, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Pensar la intervención del trabajador social en el escenario de los juicios por delitos de lesa-humanidad, llevados a cabo por la violaciones a los derechos humanos realizados en el marco del genocidio durante la última dictadura cívico militar en la Argentina (1976-83) es un desafío que en lo personal me lleva poder sistematizar y compartir el trabajo que vengo realizando desde un organismo del estado que es el Centro de Protección de los derechos de la Victima, perteneciente a la Pcia. de B...

  13. La posibilidad de alguna lágrima: Pasado y presente del bussismo en Tucumán

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ramos Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Tras la última dictadura argentina (1976-1983), los represores y sus partidarios han intentado blanquear sus actuaciones utilizando los resortes que el régimen democrático ofrece. Antonio D. Bussi, gobernador de facto de Tucumán entre 1975-1977 y gobernador democráticamente elegido en 1995, es procesado hoy por su responsabilidad en crímenes de lesa humanidad. Proponemos un acercamiento a los orígenes del bussismo en dictadura, su proceso de participación en democracia y su situación actual c...

  14. Investigation of Figopitant and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissue by Combining Whole-Body Autoradiography with Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadt, S.; Kallbach, S.; Almeida, R.;

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the combination of whole-body autoradiography with liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and mass spectrometry (MS) to study the distribution of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 antagonist figopitant and its metabolites in tissue sections of rats after intravenous...... tissue extraction, sample cleanup, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The parent drug and the N-dealkylated metabolite M474(1) (BIIF 1148) in varying ratios were the predominant compounds in all tissues investigated. In addition, several metabolites formed by oxygenation, dealkylation...

  15. Afro-reparaciones: memorias de la esclavitud y justicia reparativa para negros, afrocolombianos y raizales

    OpenAIRE

    Almario García, Óscar; Arboleda Quiñónez, Santiago; Arévalo Robles, Andrés Gabriel; Arocha Rodríguez, Jaime; Botero Arias, Waldor Federico; Camargo, Alejandro; Camargo Villarreal, Edilia; Carabalí Angola, Alexis; Chávez, María Eugenia; Delgado, Ramiro; Friedmann, Susana; García Sánchez, Andrés; Guerrero García, Clara Inés; Guevara, Natalia; Grueso Castelblanco, Libia

    2007-01-01

    En Colombia, los negros, afrocolombianos y raizales son sujetos de reparaciones no solo dentro del debate de la Ley de Justicia y Paz, debido a la embestida paramilitar y guerrillera en sus territorios colectivos, sino también porque la trata negra transatlántica, la que enmarcó la llegada masiva de esclavos a la Nueva Granada colonial, se ha considerado un crimen de lesa humanidad. La Conferencia de Durban (Sudáfrica, 2001) hizo sujetos de reparación a todos los integrantes de la diáspora af...

  16. LA EXTRATERRITORIALIDAD DE LA LEY PENAL: EL PRINCIPIO DE JUSTICIA UNIVERSAL, SU APLICACIÓN EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Torres Vásquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad en los crímenes considerados de Lesa humanidad, entre otros, se aplica el principio de jurisdicción o de justicia penal universal; de ese modo eventualmente, esta clase de delitos, pueden ser investigados y juzgados en aplicación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, o bien en ejercicio de ese mismo principio pero ejercido por cualquier país. Estados como España, Reino Unido, Bélgica, etc., vienen aplicando la jurisdicción universal en mediáticos casos de ex militares argentinos o en el sonado caso de Augusto Pinochet. En este trabajo se hace un análisis de las infracciones que logran transgredir normas con - sideradas protectoras de bienes jurídicos universales. Nuestro objetivo principal radica en explicar este principio en aras de evitar la impunidad en delitos de naturaleza internacional. Por tal razón, se matiza en el Principio de Jurisdicción Universal aplicado en España, en esa perspectiva se analizan recientes crímenes de Lesa humanidad sucedidos en Colombia que se subsumen en la categoría de delitos que podrían ser llevados a la jurisdicción universal; en ese sentido, se estudian las características de la extraterritorialidad de la ley penal colombiana en el plano internacional.

  17. Test and Evaluation Metrics of Crew Decision-Making And Aircraft Attitude and Energy State Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Stephens, Chad L.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has established a technical challenge, under the Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project, to improve crew decision-making and response in complex situations. The specific objective of this challenge is to develop data and technologies which may increase a pilot's (crew's) ability to avoid, detect, and recover from adverse events that could otherwise result in accidents/incidents. Within this technical challenge, a cooperative industry-government research program has been established to develop innovative flight deck-based counter-measures that can improve the crew's ability to avoid, detect, mitigate, and recover from unsafe loss-of-aircraft state awareness - specifically, the loss of attitude awareness (i.e., Spatial Disorientation, SD) or the loss-of-energy state awareness (LESA). A critical component of this research is to develop specific and quantifiable metrics which identify decision-making and the decision-making influences during simulation and flight testing. This paper reviews existing metrics and methods for SD testing and criteria for establishing visual dominance. The development of Crew State Monitoring technologies - eye tracking and other psychophysiological - are also discussed as well as emerging new metrics for identifying channelized attention and excessive pilot workload, both of which have been shown to contribute to SD/LESA accidents or incidents.

  18. Correlation of skin blanching and percutaneous absorption for glucocorticoid receptor agonists by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging and liquid extraction surface analysis with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter; Toteu-Djomte, Valerie; Bareille, Philippe; Perry, Hayley; Brown, Gillian; Baumert, Mark; Biggadike, Keith

    2010-09-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) with nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nESI-MS) have both been successfully employed to determine the degree of percutaneous absorption of three novel nonsteroid glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists in porcine ear sections. Historically, the ability of a glucocorticoid to elicit a skin blanching response when applied at low dose in ethanol solution to the forearms of healthy human volunteers has been a reliable predictor of their topical anti-inflammatory activity. While all three nonsteroidal GR agonists under investigation caused a skin blanching effect, the responses did not correlate with in vitro GR agonist potencies and different time courses were also observed for the skin blanching responses. MALDI MSI and LESA with nESI-MS were used to investigate and understand these different responses. The findings of the investigation was that the depth of porcine skin penetration correlates to the degree of skin blanching obtained for the same three compounds in human volunteers.

  19. Palliative treatment of patients with malignant structures of esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Kuzin, M. I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Posypanova, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), spectral- analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different localizations and different geometry of tumor, and phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with malignant strictures of esophagus is discussed. Photodynamic therapy was carried out to four patients: with esophageal cancer (3 patients) and gastric cancer with infiltration of lower esophagus (1 patient). All patients suffered from severe dysphagia. Photosensitizer was used in a dose 1-1.5 mg/kg of weight. Usually we used 3-4 seances of laser treatment 10-30 minutes long. The accumulation of photosensitizer was controlled by LESA-5. Laser induced fluorescent image was monitored by the video-imaging system in order to control laser treatment. There were no side-effects. The results show high efficiency of photodynamic therapy. There was marked reduction of dysphagia symptoms in all cases. It seems that photodynamic therapy is a good alternative to palliative surgical treatment of patients with malignant strictures of esophagus.

  20. Photodynamic therapy of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzin, N. M.; Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Sclyanskaya, Olga A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Torshina, Nadezgda L.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), the spectral-analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different tumor localizations, and Phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with gastric cancer was discussed. PDT was carried out in fifteen patients with gastric cancer. There were the following indications for PDT: early gastric cancer (3 patients), malignant stenosis of the cardia or pyloric portion of the stomach (4 patients), cancer of gastric stump with stenosis of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1 patient), preoperative treatment of patients with large but probably resectable gastric tumor size (7 patients). Usually we used 3 - 4 seances of laser treatment 10 - 30 minutes long. Concentration of photosensitizer in normal and malignant tissue was controlled by LESA-5. Treatment was monitored by spectral-analyzing video- imaging system in fluorescent light. The results show high efficiency of PDT especially in patients with early gastric cancer (necrosis of all tumor mass, i.e. complete regression of tumor). For all other patients we obtained partial regression of gastric cancer.

  1. Modelování mechatronické soustavy s poddajnými členy

    OpenAIRE

    Kšica, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá simulačním modelováním mechatronické soustavy s poddajnými tělesy v prostředí ADAMS a Matlab/Simulink. První část práce je věnována souhrnu dostupných metod modelování mechatronické soustavy s poddajnými tělesy. Další kapitoly se zabývají přístupem k modelování samotného poddajného tělesa pomocí analytických a numerických metod. V další části této práce jsem se zabýval modelováním konkrétní mechatronické soustavy, která se skládala z poddajného tělesa, elektromagnetického...

  2. Polyphenolic compounds and essential oil analysis of selected species of the genus Thymus / Analýza fenolových zložiek a analýza silice vybraných druhov rodu Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameníková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Predložena praca bola zamerana na stanovenie obsahu vybranych fenolovych zlučenin (celkove fenoly, triesloviny, flavonoidy a antokyany troch roznych druhov rodu Thymus (T. pulegioides, T. pannonicus, T. praecox s rozdielnym povodom (Českomoravska vrchovina, Křivoklat a Považsky Inovec. Na stanovenie tychto zložiek boli využite spektrofotometricke metody Europskeho liekopisu, 8. vydanie. Zaroveň bol stanoveny aj obsah silice a bola vykonana analyza jej zložiek. Obsah celkovych polyfenolov bol stanoveny spektrofotometrickou metodou s využitim Folin-Ciocalteovho činidla. Obsah kolisal od 3.87 % do 8,86 %. Obsah trieslovin bol realizovany na zaklade predošleho stanovenia obsahu celkovych fenolov, a to adsorpciou trieslovin na kožny prašok. Ich obsah sa pohyboval v rozmedzi 1,96 % do 5,65 %. Na stanovenie obsahu flavonoidov bola využita spektrofotometricka metoda s chloridom hlinitym. Obsah flavonoidov vyjadrenych ako luteolin-7-O-glukozid (λ = 392 nm kolisal od 0,59 % do 1,52 % a obsah flavonoidov vyjadrenych ako rutin (λ = 420 nm sa pohyboval v rozmedzi od 0,41 % do 1,12 %. Antokyany zaberaju v ramci fenolovych zložiek rodu Thymus len minimalny podiel. V našich vzorkach bol obsah antokyanov vyjadreny ako cyanidin-3- O-glukozid a kolisal od 0,02 % do 0,1 %. Na stanovenie obsahu silice bola využita metoda Europskeho liekopisu, 8.vydanie. Obsah silice sa pohyboval v rozmedzi od 0,2 % do 0,75 %. Na analyzu silice bola nasledne využita metoda plynovej chromatografie s hmotnostnou spektrometriou. Na zaklade tejto analyzy bola zistena pritomnosť troch chemotypov silice, a to tymoloveho, karvakroloveho a linalooloveho chemotypu. Vďaka variaciami chemickeho zloženia silice, bolo možne pozorovať vzťah medzi pritomnosťou určiteho chemotypu a povodom vzorky. Rozdiely v stanoveni obsahu flavonoidov nepreukazali žiadny vyrazny vzťah k lokalite povodu.

  3. Self-sustained asymmetry of lepton-number emission: a new phenomenon during the supernova shock-accretion phase in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene; Raffelt, Georg G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Hanke, Florian; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Müller, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Marek, Andreas [Rechenzentrum der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    During the stalled-shock phase of our three-dimensional, hydrodynamical core-collapse simulations with energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, the lepton-number flux (ν {sub e} minus ν-bar {sub e}) emerges predominantly in one hemisphere. This novel, spherical-symmetry breaking neutrino-hydrodynamical instability is termed LESA for 'Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry'. While the individual ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} fluxes show a pronounced dipole pattern, the heavy-flavor neutrino fluxes and the overall luminosity are almost spherically symmetric. Initially, LESA seems to develop stochastically from convective fluctuations. It exists for hundreds of milliseconds or more and persists during violent shock sloshing associated with the standing accretion shock instability. The ν {sub e} minus ν-bar {sub e} flux asymmetry originates predominantly below the neutrinosphere in a region of pronounced proto-neutron star (PNS) convection, which is stronger in the hemisphere of enhanced lepton-number flux. On this side of the PNS, the mass accretion rate of lepton-rich matter is larger, amplifying the lepton-emission asymmetry, because the spherical stellar infall deflects on a dipolar deformation of the stalled shock. The increased shock radius in the hemisphere of less mass accretion and minimal lepton-number flux ( ν-bar {sub e} flux maximum) is sustained by stronger convection on this side, which is boosted by stronger neutrino heating due to 〈ϵ{sub ν-bar{sub e}}〉>〈ϵ{sub ν{sub e}}〉. Asymmetric heating thus supports the global deformation despite extremely nonstationary convective overturn behind the shock. While these different elements of the LESA phenomenon form a consistent picture, a full understanding remains elusive at present. There may be important implications for neutrino-flavor oscillations, the neutron-to-proton ratio in the neutrino-heated supernova ejecta, and neutron-star kicks, which remain to be

  4. La violencia contra la mujer y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Bermúdez Valdivia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo formula algunas reflexiones en torno a las intersecciones que existen entre la violencia contra la mujer y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, desde un enfoque de derechos humanos. A tal efecto, analiza tres manifestaciones de violencia contra la mujer: la violencia sexual en el matrimonio, prácticas compulsivas de control reproductivo y la violación sexual como crimen de lesa humanidad. Todas ellas, implican una vulneración directa de sus derechos sexuales y reproductivos y proponen algunas experiencias positivas que pueden servir de pauta orientadora para el diseño de políticas públicas sobre la materia.

  5. Entre el silencio y la impunidad: violencia sexual en escenarios de conflicto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Torres Falcón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la violencia sexual contra las mujeres en escenarios de conflicto armado en América Latina. Los temas principales son el vínculo entre violencia social y violencia de género, el concepto de violencia sexual en la teoría y práctica de los derechos humanos y su alta incidencia en situaciones de conflicto. En distintos espacios sociales, la violencia contra las mujeres es invisible (o invisibilizada, aun si es extrema. La definición de la violencia sexual como crimen de lesa humanidad es muy reciente y sigue siendo controvertida. Sin embargo, se han dado ya pasos importantes en este proceso.

  6. Optimization of parodontium tissue irradiation method for fluorescent diagnostic (FD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyaeva, Maria L.; Mamedov, Ad. A.; Lervkin, V. V.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Volkova, Anna I.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Berezin, Anatoly N.; Kiselev, Gennady L.

    2004-06-01

    During the last several years research activities have been conducted to study PDT availability in stomatology for pathogenic microflora suppression, which presence causes different kinds of oral cavity inflammatory disease. Studies indicate that PDT can be alternative to traditional antibiotic therapy. We carried out research in order to determine the optimal method of tooth irradiation to provide necessary therapeutic radiation dose for affected parodontium tissue in case of inflammatory disease. These data can be used for fiber-optic catheter positioning for further influence on oral cavity nidus of inflammation during PDT and PD. 20 teeth ex vivo were examined. Teeth were irradiated with diode laser (680 nm). In different teeth regions laser radiation intensity was measured by LESA-01-Biospec spectrometer. Optimal radiation method for PDT and PD was found.

  7. Jón Þ. Þór: Winston S. Churchill ævisaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétur Berg Matthíasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnenda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Það felast mörg tækifæri í svona bókum og maður getur séð fyrir sér heilan bókaflokk í þessum stíl. Það er hins vegar ljóst að þekking höfundar og ástríða á viðfangsefninu skilar bók sem allir ættu að lesa sem einhvern áhuga hafa á sögu og stjórnmálum.

  8. Enfermedad cutánea ampollosa en el lupus eritematoso sistémico = Bullous skin disease in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Escobar, Muricio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El lupus eritematoso sistémico ampolloso (LESA es una manifestación infrecuente del lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES causada por autoanticuerpos contra el colágeno tipo VII y otros componentes esenciales de la unión dermoepidérmica. Se presenta en pacientes que cumplen los criterios revisados de clasificación para LES del Colegio Americano de Reumatología y en presencia de alta actividad sistémica. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye otras enfermedades ampollosas autoinmunes como el penfigoide ampolloso, la epidermólisis ampollosa adquirida, la dermatosis ampollosa IgA lineal y la dermatitis herpetiforme las cuales también han sido informadas en LES.

  9. Raytracing na GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Straňák, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Raytracing je základnou technikou pro vizualizaci trojrozměrných objektů. Cílem práce je demonstrovat možnost implementace sledovaní paprsků pomocí grafického akcelerátoru.  Popíšem základní algoritmus a jeho modifikovanou verzi, která byla implementována pomocí jazyka CUDA C. Výsledný raytracer je optimalizovaný pro dynamické scény. Pro tento účel byla použita akcelerační struktura KD strom, hierarchické obalové tělesa a přenos dat pomocí PBO. Pro realističtější výstupy byla také implementov...

  10. Crew State Monitoring and Line-Oriented Flight Training for Attention Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Chad; Harrivel, Angela; Prinzel, Lawrence; Comstock, Ray; Abraham, Nijo; Pope, Alan; Wilkerson, James; Kiggins, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Loss of control - inflight (LOC-I) has historically represented the largest category of commercial aviation fatal accidents. A review of worldwide transport airplane accidents (2001-2010) indicated that loss of airplane state awareness (ASA) was responsible for the majority of the LOC-I fatality rate. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) ASA study identified 12 major themes that were indicated across the ASA accident and incident events. One of the themes was crew distraction or ineffective attention management, which was found to be involved in all 18 events including flight crew channelized attention, startle/surprise, diverted attention, and/or confirmation bias. Safety Enhancement (SE)-211, "Training for Attention Management" was formed to conduct research to develop and assess commercial airline training methods and realistic scenarios that can address these attention-related human performance limitations. This paper describes NASA SE-211 research for new design approaches and validation of line-oriented flight training (LOFT). Recent accident and incident data suggests that Spatial Disorientation (SD) and Loss-of-Energy State Awareness (LESA) for transport category aircraft are becoming an increasingly prevalent safety concern in all domestic and international operations (Commercial Aviation Safety Team, 2014a). SD is defined as an erroneous perception of aircraft attitude that can lead directly to a Loss-of-Control Inflight (LOC-I) event and result in an accident or incident. LESA is typically characterized by a failure to monitor or understand energy state indications (e.g., airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, commanded thrust) and a resultant failure to maintain safe flight.

  11. Actores no estatales: grupos armados, milicias, señores de la guerra, grupos criminales organizados y paramilitares. ¿Pueden acaso estos grupos cometer crímenes internacionales conforme al Derecho penal internacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rocha Herrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El legado de los tribunales penales internacionales de la ONU, el ICTY y el ICTR han sido claros y consistentes en una jurisprudencia conducente a responder de manera afirmativa que aquéllos grupos de individuos conformados por actores ‘No Estatales’ como grupos armados, milicias, señores de la guerra, paramilitares e incluso grupos criminales organizados son susceptibles de cometer crímenes internacionales conforme al derecho penal internacional, a saber, genocidio, crímenes de lesa humanidad y crímenes de guerra. La Corte Penal Internacional ha asumido este legado y hoy sabemos que, con o sin la complicidad de las autoridades del Estado, y a partir de la escasa jurisprudencia de la Corte Penal Internacional, estos grupos cometen crímenes de guerra como bien se estableció en la sentencia de Lubanga del 2012 y en Katanga del 2014 respectivamente. Crímenes de lesa humanidad a partir concretamente de la Decisión de Apertura de una Investigación para Kenia en 2010 donde la Sala a pesar de discrepancias adoptó la posición de que estos grupos organizados, con algún tipo de jerarquía y capaces de infringir los derechos humanos pueden ser considerados ‘organización’ en el sentido del artículo 7 del Estatuto de Roma. La comisión de genocidio por estos grupos en la CPI no la encontramos aún, pero el legado dejado por el ICTR y el ICTY es poderoso y elocuente.

  12. La posibilidad de alguna lágrima: Pasado y presente del bussismo en Tucumán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ramos Ramírez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tras la última dictadura argentina (1976-1983, los represores y sus partidarios han intentado blanquear sus actuaciones utilizando los resortes que el régimen democrático ofrece. Antonio D. Bussi, gobernador de facto de Tucumán entre 1975-1977 y gobernador democráticamente elegido en 1995, es procesado hoy por su responsabilidad en crímenes de lesa humanidad. Proponemos un acercamiento a los orígenes del bussismo en dictadura, su proceso de participación en democracia y su situación actual con la reapertura de los juicios contra los criminales de la dictadura. -------------------------------------------------------------------- After the last Argentinean dictatorship (1976-1983, repressors and their supporters have tried to whiten theirs actions using the resorts that offer the democratic system. Antonio D. Bussi, governor de facto of Tucumán during 1975-1977 and governor democratically elected in 1995, is today processed due to his responsibility in crimes against humanity. We propose a rapprochement towards the origins of bussismo under the dictatorship, its process of participation in democracy and its actual situation with the reopening of the trials against the dictatorship’s criminals.

  13. La Imprescriptibilidad de la Acción Penal en Procesos por Violaciones a los Derechos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bernales Rojas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La imprescriptibilidad de la acción penal en las causas por violaciones a los derechos humanos ha sido una fuente permanente de conflicto; por lo mismo hay sentencias esencialmente contradictorias en nuestros tribunales, tanto a favor como en contra de la aplicación de la imprescriptibilidad en los crímenes de lesa humanidad, con todo el problema contingente que ello conlleva. Este trabajo presenta una posición que pretende integrar los diversos elementos que deben ser considerados al evaluar una causa de esta naturaleza, y que en razón de la misma, y el Derecho Humanitario y Constitucional vigente llevan a concluir necesariamente en que dichos crímenes, bajo nuestra normativa, son imprescriptiblesThe nonprescription of the criminal action in the cases for human right violations has been a permanent source of conflict. It is for this reason there are sentences that are essentially contradictory in our tribunals, as much in favor as against the application of the non-prescription in the crimes of humanity, with the entire contingent problem that it carries. This work puts forward an argument that pretends to integrate different elements that should be considered in evaluating a cause of this nature, and in virtue of that, the actual human and constitutional rights leads to necessarily conclude that in those crimes, under our norms, cannot be prescribed

  14. EL TRABAJO EN EL AULA UNIVERSITARIA EN LA FORMACIÓN DEL PSICÓLOGO SOBRE DERECHOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ormart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito tiene por finalidad realizar un análisis sobre las competencias que requiere un buen profesional de la psicología para desempeñarse en contextos donde los derechos humanos son avasallados. Para ello, pondremos a dialogar los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto de investigación Actitudes de estudiantes universitarios de grado y de posgrado de una Institución de Educación Superior respecto de la ética profesional y los avances logrados en el proyecto de investigación El Testigo en el entramado discursivo de la escena judicial en casos de crímenes de lesa humanidad. Derivaciones jurídicas y subjetivas. Poniendo énfasis en que el rol del investigador educativo no es sin compromiso social, nos proponemos reflexionar sobre la responsabilidad que poseen las instituciones de educación superior en la formación de futuros profesionales que se desempeñarán en las distintas áreas de incumbencia del psicólogo y para las que necesitarán competencias que involucren dimensiones comunicacionales, afectivas, éticas y morales con la finalidad de fomentar actitudes favorables hacia el desempeño profesional.

  15. La Criminalidad de los Derechos: La Resistencia a la Mina Marlin (The Criminality of Rights: the Resistance to the Marlin Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Sibrian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops different stages of resistance and criminalization of communities and their members acting in opposition to the Marlin Mine in Guatemala between 2005 and 2011. This has been one of the first conflicts related to the defence of indigenous territories facing business interests, after signing the Peace Agreements of 1996; symbolic act that closed a period of three decades of terror and crimes against humanity. The central argument is that this conflict can be seen as an experimental garden from both, indigenous people perspective and the perspective of actors seeking neutralize or break the resistance, in a context of selective presence of the State. Este ensayo desarrolla diferentes estadios de resistencia y criminalización de grupos comunitarios opuestos a la Mina Marlin en Guatemala, entre 2005 y 2011. Éste es uno de los primeros conflictos relacionados con la defensa de territorios indígenas frente a intereses empresariales que tiene lugar después de la firma de los Acuerdos de Paz de 1996; acto simbólico que cerraba un periodo de tres décadas de terror y crímenes de lesa humanidad. El argumento central es que este conflicto puede ser visto como un jardín experimental, tanto desde la perspectiva de los pueblos indígenas como desde aquélla de los actores que han buscado neutralizar o hasta quebrar la resistencia, en un contexto de presencia selectiva del Estado.

  16. POLÍTICA Y RITUAL. REFLEXIONES ETNOGRÁFICAS SOBRE UN JUICIO ORAL Y PÚBLICO: EL CASO POBLETE HLACZIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Regueiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la acción política y ritualcontemporánea vinculada a un juicio oral y público por la comisiónde delitos de lesa humanidad, desde tres perspectivas y contextosinterconectados. En primer lugar, el juicio en el tribunal puedepensarse como una “batalla ritual”, constituyendo desde el puntode vista de familiares de las víctimas una “reparación”. En segundolugar, distintas organizaciones no gubernamentales realizan ritualespolíticos fuera del tribunal, en búsqueda de efectos concretos a partirde su acción simbólica, formando parte de la trama política queatraviesa el juicio. Por último, a nivel institucional estatal, a partirde la gura del presidente de la nación y del lugar del juicio en lapolítica de construcción de legitimidad y consenso de su gobierno,se consideran algunas discusiones sobre la dimensión ideal delEstado. La política, el parentesco y la temporalidad ritual constituyencuestiones abordadas transversalmente.

  17. Naso-ethmoid schwannoma with intracranial extension: case report Schwannoma naso-etmoidal com extensão intracraniana: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Siqueira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal schwannomas are rare lesions, specially when they present with an intracranial extension. The fifth case in the medical literature of a naso-ethmoid schwannoma with extension into the anterior cranial fossa is presented. The magnetic resonance findings and the details of the combined intracranial / transfacial operative approach used are described. The possible origin and the clinical characteristics of this rare lesion are reviewed.Schwannomas intranasais são lesões raras, principalmente quando apresentam um extensão intracraniana. Estamos apresentando o quinto caso da literatura médica de um schwannoma naso-etmoidal com extensão para o interior da fossa craniana anterior. São descritos os achados da ressonância magnética e os detalhes da via de acesso cirúrgico combinada intracraniana/transfacial. A possível origem e as características clínicas dessa lesaõ rara são revistas.

  18. Plantas transgénicas: incorporar o no incorporar la moderna biotecnología agrícola parece ser la pregunta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo fantasma parece recorrer el mundo: el fantasma de las plantas transgénicas. Sólo que ahora la santa cruzada que pretende darle cacería la encabezan algunas organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG, ambientalistas, ecologistas y hasta espontáneos inquisidores de oficio que se abrogan la representación de las más caras preocupaciones públicas sobre los organismos genéticamente modificados (GMO. Al decir de los expertos más recalcitrantes y ortodoxos, estos héroes de los albores del nuevo milenio prometen poner fin al crimen transgénico organizado, talar de una vez y para siempre los bosques de "frankenstrees", adelantar todas las acciones legales nacionales e internacionales tendientes a declarar crimen de lesa humanidad la producción de GMO, e inclusive ofrecen su generosa y antigénica sombrilla para proteger a la humanidad de la más recia y chernobilesca lluvia biotecnológica.

  19. Utility of spatially-resolved atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques as alternatives to mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatherwick, Eleanor Q; Van Berkel, Gary J; Pickup, Kathryn; Johansson, Maria K; Beaudoin, Marie-Eve; Cole, Roderic O; Day, Jennifer M; Iverson, Suzanne; Wilson, Ian D; Scrivens, James H; Weston, Daniel J

    2011-08-01

    Tissue distribution studies of drug molecules play an essential role in the pharmaceutical industry and are commonly undertaken using quantitative whole body autoradiography (QWBA) methods. The growing need for complementary methods to address some scientific gaps around radiography methods has led to increased use of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) technology over the last 5 to 10 years. More recently, the development of novel mass spectrometric techniques for ambient surface sampling has redefined what can be regarded as "fit-for-purpose" for MSI in a drug metabolism and disposition arena. Together with a review of these novel alternatives, this paper details the use of two liquid microjunction (LMJ)-based mass spectrometric surface sampling technologies. These approaches are used to provide qualitative determination of parent drug in rat liver tissue slices using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and to assess the performance of a LMJ surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) interface for quantitative assessment of parent drug in brain, liver and muscle tissue slices. An assessment of the utility of these spatially-resolved sampling methods is given, showing interdependence between mass spectrometric and QWBA methods, in particular there emerges a reason to question typical MSI workflows for drug metabolism; suggesting the expedient use of profile or region analysis may be more appropriate, rather than generating time-intensive molecular images of the entire tissue section.

  20. Between language riths and languaje of risks: the informed consents in assisted human reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuando pensamos en nuestros derechos como personas, no nos percatamos que no es lo mismo el derecho a la salud, a la obligación del Estado de proporcionarnos servicios de salud adecuados, de calidad, oportunos y eficientes, a la posibilidad de tener acceso a un tratamiento equitativo e igualitario ante cualquier enfermedad y en todo local hospitalario. Así como a prever todo tipo de riesgo que ponga en peligro la salud o agrave el de enfermedad. Las garantías y derechos de lesa humanidad nos protegen del riesgo a ser violentado, agredido, reprimido, acallado, restringido entre otras acciones de vulnerabilidad.Parece fácil, entre el juego de lo posible y de lo asequible definir los riesgos, pero en este continuo existen muchos intereses financieros, personales, sociales, sanitarios y sobre todo son de tipo global porque no tienen nacionalidad en el que se encuentran el analfabetismo, la pobreza, genética, la reproducción humana asistida y terrorismo entre otros.

  1. Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae in Three Dimensions: A Sneak Preview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas; Melson, Tobias; Summa, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Nonspherical mass motions are a generic feature of core-collapse supernovae, and hydrodynamic instabilities play a crucial role in the explosion mechanism. The first successful neutrino-driven explosions could be obtained with self-consistent, first-principles simulations in three spatial dimensions. But three-dimensional (3D) models tend to be less prone to explosion than the corresponding axisymmetric two-dimensional (2D) ones. The reason is that 3D turbulence leads to energy cascading from large to small spatial scales, the inverse of the 2D case, thus disfavoring the growth of buoyant plumes on the largest scales. Unless the inertia to explode simply reflects a lack of sufficient resolution in relevant regions, some important component of robust and sufficiently energetic neutrino-powered explosions may still be missing. Such a deficit could be associated with progenitor properties such as rotation, magnetic fields, or precollapse perturbations, or with microphysics that could cause enhancement of neutrino heating behind the shock. 3D simulations have also revealed new phenomena that are not present in 2D ones, such as spiral modes of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and a stunning dipolar lepton-number emission self-sustained asymmetry (LESA). Both impose time- and direction-dependent variations on the detectable neutrino signal. The understanding of these effects and of their consequences is still in its infancy.

  2. Los efectos de la política represiva de la dictadura militar sobre la acción obrera: un análisis de los conflictos en Mercedes Benz entre 1973 y 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianina Harari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la acción gremial desarrollada por los trabajadores de la empresa automotriz Mercedes Benz entre los años 1973 y 1983. A partir de la reconstrucción de los conflictos encabezados por los trabajadores y de las acciones de represión que sufrieron por parte de la empresa y del Estado, el trabajo se adentra en el debate sobre el carácter de la acción obrera bajo la dictadura (continuidad o ruptura; ofensivo o defensivo. Para hacer la reconstrucción de las acciones obreras y represivas se utilizaron diversas fuentes: entrevistas a ex-trabajadores de la empresa, los registros de la Dirección de Inteligencia de la Policía de la provincia de Buenos Aires (DIPBA, artículos de prensa tanto de las fuerzas políticas que actuaban en la fábrica como de la prensa de circulación nacional, e información surgida de los procesos judiciales realizados por los delitos de lesa humanidad cometidos durante la dictadura militar.

  3. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Patrón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior. Ambas decisiones demuestran la intención de Uruguay de comprometerse Internacionalmente con el fin de evitar la impunidad de los responsables de la comisión de determinadas figuras delictivas, especialmente los crímenes de guerra y los crímenes contra la humanidad, ya que en tomo a estas dos infracciones internacionales gravitan los convenios internacionales a los que nos acabamos de referir.Contenido: imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el pasado. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el presente. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el futuro. Conclusiones

  4. Varicella: strategie di vaccinazione e risultati farmacoeconomici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Azzari

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Il virus varicella zoster (VZV è un herpes virus e causa, nell’uomo, due forme morbose distinte, la varicella e l’herpes zoster. La prima è dovuta all’infezione primaria da VZV, la seconda è dovuta alla riattivazione del VZV latente. Condizione necessaria allo sviluppo dello zoster è quindi un precedente episodio clinico o subclinico di varicella. La varicella è una malattia infettiva estremamente contagiosa, più frequente in età pediatrica. Ha un’incubazione di 10-21 giorni e nella fase clinica è caratterizzata da febbre, leucopenia, trombocitopenia, spesso epatite subclinica e lesioni cutanee di tipo vescicolare. Il numero delle vescicole varia da individuo ad individuo ma in media si aggira circa sui 300 elementi. L’eruzione è usualmente più intensa negli adolescenti e negli adulti. In essi la malattia ha comunemente un andamento più severo e le complicanze sono molto più frequenti. Tra le complicanze della varicella le più comuni sono certamente le superinfezioni batteriche a partenza dalla cute lesa.

    Queste sono per lo più causate da Staphylococcus aureus o Streptococcus pyogenes. Le infezioni da tali germi possono essere invasive dando artrite settica, fascite, shock settico ecc. Una complicanza frequente è la polmonite, che si verifica nel 20% delle infezioni dell’adulto mentre è meno frequente in età pediatrica. Il VZV può inoltre causare infezioni del sistema nervoso centrale

  5. Enzimas no testículo de ratos em algumas condições experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helion Póvoa Junior

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Dosou-se a atividade da GOT, GPT e ceruloplasmina no testículo de ratos normais (a atividade testicular destas enzimas é relativamente baixa e injetados com cloreto de cádmio ( que lesa o testículo, assim como em animais com este órgão lesado e que se administrou testosterona, estradiol, progesterona e gonadotrofina coriônica. Pudemos observar alterações significativas das enzimas por ação destes diferentes hormônios. Infelizmente, como pouco se sabe sobre a função destas enzimas neste órgão, torna-se difícil interpretar os nossos achados.GOT, GPT and ceruloplasmin activities have been determined in testicle of normal rats. Low activities were found for every enzyme. In animals injected with cadmium chloride, there were significant alterations in enzyme activities. Accentuated alterations in enzyme activities were also found in animals with destroyed testicles after injection of several hormones (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and chorionic gonadotrophin.

  6. Utility of spatially-resolved atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques as alternatives to mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) in drug metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatherwick, Eleanor Q. [University of Warwick, UK; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Pickup, Kathryn [AstraZeneca R& D Sweden; Johansson, Maria K. [AstraZeneca R& D Sweden; Beaudoin, Marie-Eve [AstraZeneca, USA; Cole, Roderic [ORNL; Day, Jennifer M. [AstraZeneca R& D, UK; Iverson, Suzanne [AstraZeneca R& D Sweden; Wilson, Ian D. [AstraZeneca R& D, UK; Scrivens, James H. [University of Warwick, UK; Weston, Daniel J. [AstraZeneca R& D, UK

    2011-01-01

    1. Tissue distribution studies of drug molecules play an essential role in the pharmaceutical industry and are commonly undertaken using quantitative whole body autoradiography (QWBA) methods. 2. The growing need for complementary methods to address some scientific gaps around radiography methods has led to increased use of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) technology over the last 5 to 10 years. More recently, the development of novel mass spectrometric techniques for ambient surface sampling has redefined what can be regarded as fit-for-purpose for MSI in a drug metabolism and disposition arena. 3. Together with a review of these novel alternatives, this paper details the use of two liquid microjunction (LMJ)- based mass spectrometric surface sampling technologies. These approaches are used to provide qualitative determination of parent drug in rat liver tissue slices using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and to assess the performance of a LMJ surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) interface for quantitative assessment of parent drug in brain, liver and muscle tissue slices. 4. An assessment of the utility of these spatially-resolved sampling methods is given, showing interdependence between mass spectrometric and QWBA methods, in particular there emerges a reason to question typical MSI workflows for drug metabolism; suggesting the expedient use of profile or region analysis may be more appropriate, rather than generating time-intensive molecular images of the entire tissue section.

  7. Los silencios en la memoria. Narrativa de la violencia sexual en la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Marcela Arvesú Juárez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto armado interno que asoló Perú durante las dé - cadas de 1980 y 1990 tuvo diversas y devastadoras consecuencias para mucha de la población civil y de manera particular para las mujeres. De acuerdo con el Informe Final de la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconci - liación de Perú ― CVR ― , la violencia sexual fue el principal crimen cometido en contra de ellas, considerado por primera vez en un país latinoamericano como una violación a los derechos humanos y, dado su carácter generalizado, un crimen de lesa humanidad. De ahí el interés de reflexionar en este artículo sobre el tema de la violencia sexual durante el conflicto armado interno en Perú desde la perspectiva de los estudios de la memoria, con el objetivo de analizar la narrativa construida por la Comisión sobre la violencia sexual y al mismo tiempo problematizar cómo se recuerda, quiénes recuerdan, y qué alcance ha tenido su reco - nocimiento como parte de la memoria histórica del conflicto.

  8. Auto-imagen y estabilidad emocional de homosexuales "edípicos" y "no edípicos"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O. Peretti

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The past several years have brought about some changes in the legal status of the homosexual. In some states of the USA, the homosexual ís labelled as a criminal, in others homosexualíty is not a legal affair. Psychological theories tend to consider the homosexual from two general positions the "Oedipal" and "non-Oedípal", The present study was conducted to try to determine how "Oedipal" and "non-Oedipal" male hornosexuals perceíved their self-imageand emotional stabilíty. Significant differences were found between the twogroups. Considering self-image, "Oedipal" Ss were found tI:! be more negative. They had less self-worth, self confidence and self acceptance than "non-Oedipal". They had more negative self-concepts, self-atritudes, and self-motivation. "Oedipal" Ss had lesa emotional stability, They had more emotional problema, shame, guilt, withdrawal. and depression than "non-Oedípal" Ss; as well as less success in sexual activity and commitment to the homosexual partner.

  9. El obispo Nicolás Videla y el General Belgrano. 1812-1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Pérez, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With few exceptions, and these not well defined and gross, has been passed in writing and in public opinion and among historians, that Bishop Nicholas Videla del Pino committed a crime against the state or high treason, being realistic feelings and actively collaborate with the political cause. This article documents that was, above all, a good pastor without discriminating against those who were in each of the two sides.Con escasas excepciones, y estas no bien definidas y manifiestas, se ha ido transmitiendo por escrito y en la opinión pública, y entre historiadores, que Mons. Nicolás Videla del Pino cometió delito de lesa patria o de alta traición, por ser de sentimientos realistas y colaborar activamente con esta causa política. Este artículo documenta que fue, ante todo, un celoso pastor sin discriminar a quienes estaban en cada uno de los dos bandos.

  10. La guerra en Siria y las paradojas de la Comunidad Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia López-Jacoiste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la perspectiva del Derecho Internacional, los más de tres años de conflicto armado en Siria arrojan un resultado paradójico. En primer lugar, porque resulta ineludible comparar la agilidad decisoria del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas para intervenir militarmente en la crisis de Libia de 2011 con su pasividad y bloqueo político en relación con Siria. Por otra, porque sólo la inminente amenaza de una intervención militar en Siria en otoño de 2013 llevó a las partes involucradas y sus socios más importantes a alcanzar un plan de desarme químico en Siria asumido por el Consejo de Seguridad, igualmente incomparable en cuanto a sus términos, plazos y cumplimiento al establecido para Irak tras la primera guerra del Golfo. La mayor paradoja de la Comunidad internacional radica, no obstante, en la deplorable situación de desprotección y sufrimiento de la población civil y el drama de sus refugiados. Los crímenes de guerra y los crímenes de lesa humanidad cometidos por todas las partes beligerantes –gubernamentales o no– quedarán impunes, ante el bloqueo político del Consejo de Seguridad ante la propuesta de remisión de la situación siria al Fiscal de la Corte Penal Internacional, a pesar de las declaraciones y condenas oficiales de las instituciones internacionales de derechos humanos.

  11. Photodynamic therapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Ekaterina Y.; Karimova, Lubov N.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was tested for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Patients with acne were treated with ALA plus red light. Ten percent water solution of ALA was applied with 1,5-2 h occlusion and then 18-45 J/cm2 630 nm light was given. Bacterial endogenous porphyrins fluorescence also was used for acne therapy. Treatment control and diagnostics was realized by fluorescence spectra and fluorescence image. Light sources and diagnostic systems were used: semiconductor laser (λ=630 nm, Pmax=1W), (LPhT-630-01-BIOSPEC); LED system for PDT and diagnostics with fluorescent imager (λ=635 nm, P=2W, p=50 mW/cm2), (UFPh-630-01-BIOSPEC); high sensitivity CCD video camera with narrow-band wavelength filter (central wavelength 630 nm); laser electronic spectrum analyzer for fluorescent diagnostics and photodynamic therapy monitoring (LESA-01-BIOSPEC). Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) and endogenous porphyrins concentrations were measured by fluorescence at wavelength, correspondingly, 700 nm and 650 nm. It was shown that topical ALA is converted into PP IX in hair follicles, sebaceous glands and acne scars. The amount of resulting PP IX is sufficient for effective PDT. There was good clinical response and considerable clearance of acne lesion. ALA-PDT also had good cosmetic effect in treatment acne scars. PDT with ALA and red light assist in opening corked pores, destroying Propionibacterium acnes and decreasing sebum secretion. PDT treatment associated with several adverse effects: oedema and/or erytema for 3-5 days after PDT, epidermal exfoliation from 5th to 10th day and slight pigmentation during 1 month after PDT. ALA-PDT is effective for acne and can be used despite several side effects.

  12. Large-eddy simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of rectangular interfaces accelerated by shock waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A parallel algorithm and code MVFT(multi-viscous-fluid and turbulence) of large-eddy simulation(LES) is developed from our MVPPM(multi-viscous-fluid piecewise parabolic method),and performed to solve the multi compressible Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations.The effect of the unresolved subgrid-scale(SGS) motions on the large scales is represented by different SGS stress models in LES.A Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiment of the evolution of a rectangular block of SF6,which occupies half of the height of the shock tube test section,following the interaction with a planar shock wave,is numerically and exhaustively simulated by this code.The comparison between experimental and simulated images of the evolving SF6 block shows that they are consistent.The numerical simulations reproduce the complex developing process of SF6 block,which grows overturningly.The geometric quantities that characterize the extents of SF6 block are also compared in detail between numerical simulations and experiment with good agreements between them,a quantitative demonstration of the developing law of SF6 block.There is an evident discrepancy between the three numerical simulations for the maximum position of the right edge of block at the late stage,because the right interface grows complicated and the dissipation is different for different SGS models.The SGS turbulent dissipation,molecular viscosity dissipation and SGS turbulent kinetic energy have been studied and analyzed.They have a similar distribution to the large eddy structures.The SGS turbulent dissipation is much greater than the molecular viscosity dissipation;the SGS turbulent dissipation of Vreman model is smaller than the Smagorinsky model.In general,the simulated results of Vreman SGS model are better compared with the dynamic viscosity and Smagorinsky SGS model.The vorticity and circulation deposition on the block interface have also been investigated.

  13. Política de Población

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz C. Luis B.

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available La población es la medida de la capacidad de nuestros gobiernos, El Ministro de Estado que no duplica el censo de estos pueblos cada diez años, ha perdido su tiempo en bagatelas y nimiedades. Gobernar es poblar: muy bien; pero poblar es una ciencia y esta ciencia no es otra cosa que la economía política, que considera la población como instrumento de riqueza y elemento de prosperidad “Porque poblar, repito es instruir, educar, moralizar, mejorar la raza; es enriquecer, civilizar, fortalecer y afirmar la libertad del país, dándole la inteligencia y la costumbre de su propio gobierno y los medios de hacerlo" "Poblar es enriquecer cuando se puebla con gente inteligente en la industria y habituada al trabajo que produce y enriquece". "Poblar es civilizar cuando se puebla con gente civilizada, es decir, con pobladores de Europa civilizada. Por eso he dicho en la Constitución que el gobierno debe fomentar la inmigración europea". "Pero poblar es apestar corromper, degenerar, envenenar un país cuando en vez de poblarlo con la flor de la población trabajadora de Europa, se le puebla con la basura de la Europa atrasada o menos culta" . "Gobernar es poblar: muy bien; pero poblar es una ciencia y esto ciencia no es otra cosa que la economía política. que considera la población como instrumento de riqueza y elemento de prosperidad". Juan B. Alberdi Considerar la inmigración "como instrumento de riqueza y elemento de prosperidad" y sobre todo que tal cosa vaya a hacerse en las riberas magdalenenses, es un atentado de lesa Patria.

  14. El Derecho Internacional Humanitario: Sus Reglas, Su Interpretación y la Corte Penal Internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Angarita Piña

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo está dividido en dos partes. La primera pretende, mediante resumen del Derecho Internacional Humanitario (DIH en cinco reglas, agilizar su comprensión y también manifestar que la interpretación de estas normas humanitarias no puede ser desligada de su verdadero sentido y esencia que es la asistencia y protección a una categoría de personas protegidas, como la población civil y los combatientes fuera de combate. Estas reglas de la guerra, también ponen límites y obligaciones a las partes en conflicto armado al momento de realizar operaciones militares. Estas reglas del DIH que son de obligatorio cumplimiento para todos los actores de la guerra, son: El trato humano a las personas que no participan o dejaron de participar en las hostilidades; la exigencia de diferenciar entre combatiente y no combatiente y la obligación de diferencia entren objetivos militares y bienes protegidos; la proporcionalidad; la limitación de los métodos y medios de guerra; y la no reciprocidad. En una segunda parte, miraremos la estructura, finalidad y características de la recién creada Corte Penal Internacional, que en términos generales busca castigar a las personas que hayan cometido crímenes de genocidio, de guerra (infracciones al DIH y de lesa humanidad. Menciona, al final, el papel del Comité Internacional de la Cruz Roja como promotor y guardián del DIH frente a la Corte Penal Internacional.

  15. The video fluorescent device for diagnostics of cancer of human reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysin, Nickolay N.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the advanced methods of treatment of skin cancer and surfaces of internal organs. The basic advantages of PDT are high efficiency and low cost of treatment. PDT technique is needed for providing fluorescent diagnostics. Laser-based systems are widely applied to the fluorescence excitations for diagnostic because of a narrow spectrum of fluorescence excitation and high density of radiation. Application of laser systems for carrying out fluorescent diagnostics gives the image of a tumor distorted by speckles that does not give an opportunity to obtain full information about the form of a tumor quickly. Besides, these laser excitation systems have complicated structure and high cost. As a base for the development and creation of a video fluorescent device one of commercially produced colposcopes was chosen. It allows to decrease cost of the device, and also has enabled to make modernization for already used colposcopes. A LED-based light source was offered to be used for fluorescence excitation in this work. The maximum in a spectrum of radiation of LEDs corresponds to the general spectral maximum of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) absorption. Irradiance in the center of a light spot is 31 mW/cm2. The receiving optical system of the fluorescent channel is adjusted at 635 nm where a general spectral maximum of fluorescence PPIX is located. Also the device contains a RGB video channel, a white light source and a USB spectrometer LESA-01-BIOSPEC, for measurement of spectra of fluorescence and diffusion reflections in treatment area. The software is developed for maintenance of the device. Some studies on laboratory animals were made. As a result, areas with the increased concentration of a PPIX were correctly detected. At present, the device is used for diagnostics of cancer of female reproductive system in Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow, Russia).

  16. Estetska izkušnja taekwon-do športnika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Cardozo Coelho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Članek je del širše raziskave v okviru doktorske disertacije s področja športnih znanosti na Fakulteti za šport Univerze v Portu na Portugalskem. Omenjena raziskava proučuje »gibanje telesa« in estetsko izkušnjo taekwon-do športnika med borbo in izvajanjem tehnike poomsae ter estetsko vrednost, lastno temu športu. Telo skozi igro ustvarja lepe vzvišene oblike, v času in prostoru za rekreacijo deluje kot estetski objekt. Športniki si prizadevajo preseči svoje omejitve, da bi izvedli čim lepše, zahtevnejše in natančnejše gibe, njihova izpolnitev in športnikovo samopriznanje pa postaneta vir estetske izkušnje. Trdimo, da estetski užitek, ki ga doživlja taekwon-do športnik, izhaja iz celovitega prepleta odnosov, ki združujejo med drugim občutek strahu, žalosti, negotovosti, tveganja, zmage, mehkobe, miline in agresije in ki vzbujajo hkrati privlačnost in navdušenje. Članek se sklene s trditvijo, da se taekwon-do športnik, ko med tekmo udari po glavi svojega nasprotnika, ko izvaja skladno zaporedje poomsae ali precizno tehniko, s katero bo prelomil kos lesa, sooča z izjemno lepoto, ki ga vključuje in izpolnjuje.

  17. Falsificación del sello y reales cédulas de Felipe V en tiempos del marqués de Casa Fuerte: Nueva España, 1720-1731 (Fake stamp and royal charters of Philip V in the time of the Marquis of Casa Fuerte: New Spain, 1720-1731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Diego-Fernández Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el siguiente trabajo se da cuenta del escándalo que se armó en la Nueva España en los años de 1729 a 1731, bajo el gobierno del célebre virrey Marqués de Casa Fuerte, cuando se descubrió una falsificación del sello real, así como una serie de cédulas en blanco con la firma del rey y de sus más cercanos colaboradores que desde Puebla se estaban comerciando. A pesar de tratarse a todas luces de un crimen de lesa magestad, el falsificador encontró el amparo decidido de la jerarquía eclesiástica, lo que en consecuencia generó un furioso enfrentamiento entre el poder temporal y el espiritual que desembocó, como era de esperar, en una guerra de excomuniones y recursos de fuerza.Abstract: In this paper realizes the scandal that erupted in New Spain in the years 1729-1731, under the rule of the famous Viceroy Marqués de Casa Fuerte, when a fake royal seal was found, as well as a series of bonds blank with the signature of the king and his closest collaborators from Puebla were trading. Although this is clearly a crime against majesty, the forger found the strong defense of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which consequently led to an angry confrontation between the temporal and spiritual powers that led, as expected, in a war excommunications and resources force.

  18. La violencia sexual más allá de toda duda razonable: el uso de prueba y análisis de patrones en casos internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Agirre Aranburu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El éxito de las investigaciones de crímenes internacionales (genocidio, crímenes de guerra y crímenes de lesa humanidaddepende en gran parte de poder establecer el patrón delictivo. El patrón delictivo es el conjunto de características que tienen en común varios incidentes con relación a las víctimas, los perpetradores y el modus operandi. Las pruebas y los análisis con base en patrones han sido utilizados con éxito principalmente en las investigaciones de masacres, destrucciones y desplazamiento, pero su utilización en imputaciones de violencia sexual ha sido notoriamente más limitada. Es necesario cubrir este vacío por medio del establecimiento de métodos apropiados de recolección y análisis de datos. A nivel de la recolección de pruebas, la carencia de denuncias presentadas por lasvíctimas se debe suplir por medio de encuestas a las víctimas o por medio del análisis de la información secundaria disponible en diferentes fuentes. A nivel de análisis, la evidencia disponible debe ser evaluada de manera imparcial, independientemente de las ideas preconcebidas de las partes en conflicto y de los grupos de defensa dederechos, cumpliendo con los estándares y métodos científicos para el análisis cuantitativo, cualitativo y de sistemas de información geográfica (GIS. Un análisis de varias experiencias investigativas y de la jurisprudencia permitirá establecer la metodología más apropiada y será la manera más eficiente de ayudar a poner fin a la impunidadrelacionada con los crímenes sexuales.

  19. Falsificación del sello y reales cédulas de Felipe V en tiempos del marqués de Casa Fuerte: Nueva España, 1720-1731 (Fake stamp and royal charters of Philip V in the time of the Marquis of Casa Fuerte: New Spain, 1720-1731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego-Fernández Sotelo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En el siguiente trabajo se da cuenta del escándalo que se armó en la Nueva España en los años de 1729 a 1731, bajo el gobierno del célebre virrey Marqués de Casa Fuerte, cuando se descubrió una falsificación del sello real, así como una serie de cédulas en blanco con la firma del rey y de sus más cercanos colaboradores que desde Puebla se estaban comerciando. A pesar de tratarse a todas luces de un crimen de lesa magestad, el falsificador encontró el amparo decidido de la jerarquía eclesiástica, lo que en consecuencia generó un furioso enfrentamiento entre el poder temporal y el espiritual que desembocó, como era de esperar, en una guerra de excomuniones y recursos de fuerza. Abstract: In this paper realizes the scandal that erupted in New Spain in the years 1729-1731, under the rule of the famous Viceroy Marqués de Casa Fuerte, when a fake royal seal was found, as well as a series of bonds blank with the signature of the king and his closest collaborators from Puebla were trading. Although this is clearly a crime against majesty, the forger found the strong defense of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which consequently led to an angry confrontation between the temporal and spiritual powers that led, as expected, in a war excommunications and resources force.

  20. Las políticas de justicia y paz en el reconocimiento a las víctimas del conflicto armado en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Esther Garcia Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Resumen La violencia ha sido un fenómeno imborrable y polémico que ha marcado la historia de las víctimas y ha dejado un legado bélico transmitido por la misma cultura de guerra. El generar terror y ejercer coerción a través de crímenes de lesa humanidad en estado de paz o guerra en los habitantes de una región específica se convierte en el modus operandi de los grupos terroristas. Frente a estas políticas de terror los grupos rebeldes le demuestran a toda una nación su inconformismo hacia las políticas de Estado. No obstante, esta violencia ha dejado huellas imborrables en el comportamiento y en la memoria de muchas personas, por tal motivo el presente artículo está encaminado principalmente a describir los hechos violentos ocurridos a causa de la violencia política de los grupos terroristas y los avances o acuerdo po­líticos que ha logrado el gobierno colombiano en el reconocimiento a las víctimas frente a los procesos de justicia y paz, justicia transicional y ley de víctimas y restitución de tierras.   Abstract Violence has been a lasting and controversial phenomenon that has marked the history of the victims , which has left them a war légalo transmitted by the same culture war . The generating terror and coercion through crimes against humanity in a state of peace or war on the people of a specific region, becomes the modus operandi of terrorist groups . Faced with these policies of terror rebel groups will demonstrate an entire nation his nonconformity to state policies . However, this violence has left indelible marks in behavior and in the memory of many people, for that reason this article is aimed mainly to describe the vi­olent events because of the political violence of terrorist groups and the progress or agreement politicians that the Colombian government has made in recognizing the victims against the processes of justice and peace , transitional justice and law victims and land restitution .

  1. El proceso de Ibn al-Jaṭīb. Apéndice: Epístola de al-Bunnāhī a Lisān al-dīn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero Secall, M. Isabel

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial of Ibn al-Khaṭīb has left its mark on history because of the personality of the accused. Most scholars in the past have thought that his accusation and subsequent trial on religious grounds were no more than excuses intended to bring about his death, as a trial for high treason would, for various reasons, not have been possible. For this he had to be accused of crimes against religion as this was the only sure way of mounting a successful case against him. The accusations analysed here are taken from a variety of sources including Al-Marqaba al- 'ulyā and the works of al-Maqqarī, some of which have not been translated before. We notice procedural irregularities in the course of the trial, but both in Granada and in Fez the focus is on the zindīq who is finally condemned to death.

    El proceso de Ibn al- Jaṭīb ha pasado a la historia debido a la personalidad del inculpado. La mayoría de las opiniones coinciden en declarar la acusación y el proceso como un simulacro para conseguir su muerte, pues la acusación de alta traición, por las circunstancias que incidieron en el caso, no iba a conseguir el objetivo propuesto. Por esta razón se buscaron otros motivos con que inculparle y que permitieran perseguirlo y condenarlo en cualquier parte del Islam, por eso estas acusaciones sólo podían responder a delitos de lesa religión. Y se encontraron. Las acusaciones que se analizan en este trabajo figuran en varios textos, en al-Marqaba al-'ulyà y en las obras de al-Maqqarī, algunos de ellos no traducidos hasta ahora. En el desarrollo de las actuaciones se observan irregularidades procesales, pero tanto en Granada como en Fez, la condena se centra en la figura del zindīq cuya sentencia final fue la pena de muerte.

  2. 帧间自适应语音信号压缩感知%Adaptive Inter-frame Speech Compressed Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷颖; 钱永青; 孙洪

    2012-01-01

    Compressed Sensing (CS) is a recently proposed theory that enables the exact reconstruction of signal sampled via sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The theory has been applying for simplifying the traditional sampling hardware, reducing sampling time consumption and decreasing storage space of data. Benefiting from the superiority of CS technique for speech signal transmission, we propose an adaptive inter-frame speech compressed sensing method. Under the assumption that speech signal is sparse in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain and according to the statistical behavior of speech signal frames, our proposed method takes into account both intra-frame energy and inter-frame consecution of location in our a-daptive compressed sensing algorithm. Experimental results show that, the method of intra-frame energy adaption can promote the speech recovery quality apparently and the method of location adaption can reduce the speech recovery time obviously. Namely, the proposed adaptive compressed sensing algorithm in this letter can achieve higher speech reconstruction performance with lesa time consuming.%近年来提出的压缩感知是一种以低于传统奈奎斯特速率对信号采样可得到精确恢复的理论.该理论很快应用于简化传统的采样硬件、缩短采样时间、以及减少数据的存储空间.针对语音信号的传输问题,本文提出一种帧间自适应语音信号压缩感知的方法.在离散余弦变换域的语音信号具有稀疏性的前提下,以大量语音信号帧的分析统计为依据,提出一种基于语音帧能量分级和帧间位置惯性的语音信号自适应压缩感知算法.实验结果表明,能量自适应可以显著地提高语音信号的恢复质量,而位置自适应可以明显地减少语音信号的恢复时间,从而本文提出的算法可以用较少的恢复时间获得较好的恢复效果.

  3. Current and simulated structure, growth parameters and regeneration of beech forests with different game management in the Lány Game Enclosure / Struktura, růstové parametry, obnova a modelový vývoj bukových porostů s odlišným způsobem mysliveckého hospodaření v podmínkách Lánské obory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrož Robin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V příspěvku jsou prezentovány výsledky studia struktury a dynamiky vývoje bukových porostů v Lánské oboře, která se nachází v Chráněné krajinné oblasti Křivoklátsko v České republice. Výzkum se uskutečnil v dospělém bukovém porostu na dvou trvalých výzkumných plochách (TVP, každá o velikosti 0,25 ha s použitím technologie FieldMap. Typologické, půdní, fytocenologické i porostní charakteristiky obou porovnávaných TVP jsou srovnatelné, odlišují se pouze způsobem ochrany proti zvěři. Výsledky ukázaly, že limitujícím faktorem zdárného vývoje přirozené obnovy buku (Fagus sylvatica L. je vysoká zvěř, a to jelen evropský (Cervus elaphus L. - 300 ks, jelen sika (Cervus nippon nippon Temm. - 300 ks, muflon (Ovis musimon Pallas - 250 ks a daněk skvrnitý (Dama dama L. - 300 ks. Přirozená obnova na TVP 1 s černou zvěří (Sus scrofa L. - 150 ks je dostatečná vzhledem ke stanovištním a porostním poměrům. Naproti tomu na TVP 2 s ostatními druhy zvěře se obnova nevyskytuje. Z výsledků biometrických měření a následných vizualizací pomocí simulátoru biodynamiky lesa Sibyla vyplývá, že se jedná o nevýrazně strukturované, dospělé, produktivní bukové porosty s absencí jedinců spodního stromového patra.

  4. Identification of Bio-Control Strain 1505 and Its Effect on Controlling Postharvest Citrus Anthracnose%生防细菌1505的鉴定及其对采后柑橘炭疽病的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪茜; 胡春锦; 黄思良; 柯仿钢

    2011-01-01

    采用细菌学方法及分子生物学技术对菌株1505进行鉴定,并对其在防治采后柑橘炭疽病上的效果进行研究.结果显示,菌株1505对柑橘炭疽病菌具有拮抗活性,其活菌悬浮液在PDA平板上对柑橘炭疽病菌产生明显抑制作用,而灭菌发酵液和去除菌体的发酵液均无抑菌效果;连续8次在人工培养基上转代培养,菌株1505对柑橘炭疽病菌生长的抑制力没有发生明显改变;菌株1505对胶孢炭疽菌[Colletotrichum gloeosporioides(Penz.)Sacc.]引起的柑橘炭疽病有明显的防治作用,刺伤接种的防效为48.8%,自然发病的防效为46.3%.根据形态学特征和生理生化反应,结合16SrDNA序列分析结果,将菌株1505鉴定为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis).%The present study aimed to use the bacteriological method and molecular biology technique to identify the strain 1505 and study its efficacy in controlling postarvest Citrus anthracnose. The results showed that the strain 1505 had antagonistic actwity against Colletatrichum gloeosyorioides. its cell auspension showed significant suppressive activity against C. gloeosporioides , while no suppressive activity was detected in high.temperature-sterilized fermentation fluid or cell-free fermentation fluid. Lesa change in the suppressive ability of strain 1505 against C. gloeosporioides was observed during 8 continuously subculture in artificial media. The strain 1505 had significant efficacy in controlling Citrus anthracnose disease causing by C. gloeosporioides. The average efficacies of strain 1505 in controlling the disease were 48. 8 % in artificial inoculation test and 46. 3 % in natural infection test. Strain 1505 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the physiological and biochemical properties and its 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  5. Caratteristiche sismiche e geodinamiche della Val Padana flua li risultano dali' attività sismica ivi verificatasi dall' inizio dell' Era Volgare a tutto il 1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. SPADEA

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai fllli ,li trarre (lualche elelllollto, attu a eontribuin'
    alla ,'Ulloscellza ,Iella sisillicit.i~ ,Iella Val j'a,lana - - illLesa ill sellso lato
    ~i è ritelluto utile esalilinare i terr"mo1.i, verifica1.isi nell'l'ra volgare, Ira
    le Pn'alpi (inl'luHe e l'avamJlaese degli AJlJlllllnini.
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    scala si~mi{'a (ilei easo speeil1('o, la seala .'IIen:alli a Il gradi, le Ilotizie ma(·.ro·
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  6. Effect of deforestation on watershed water balance: hydrological modelling-based approach / Vplyv odlesnenia na vodnú bilanciu povodia: prístup na báze hydrologického modelovania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlásny Tomáš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zmeny vo vegetačnom kryte a využívaní krajiny, vrátane odlesnení, môžu mať významný vplyv na hydrologickú bilanciu povodí. V tejto štúdii bol na analýzu vplyvu simulovaného odlesnenia na jednotlivé zložky vodnej bilancie použitý hydrologický model s distribuovanými parametrami. Výskum bol realizovaný v povodí Ulička na východnom Slovensku (97 km2, lesnatosť 84,3 %. Pri súčasnom využívaní krajiny pripadalo na intercepciu v priemere 21,1 % z celkového úhrnu zrážok počas kalibračného obdobia 2001 - 2013. Najväčší podiel zrážok (77 % bol infiltrovaný do pôdneho profilu a necelá polovica z tohoto množstva prenikla do vodonosnej vrstvy podzemnej vody. Zatiaľ čo podpovrchový odtok tvoril z celkového úhrnu zrážok približne 12 %, v prípade povrchového odtoku išlo len o 1,2 % podiel. Najvyššia časť úhrnu zrážok prispela k tvorbe základného odtoku (23 %. Simulované odlesnenie povodia vyvolalo významný pokles intercepcie (o 76 % a evapotranspirácie (o 12 %. Celkový, povrchový, podpovrchový a základný odtok zároveň vzrástli o 20,4; 38,8; 9,0 a 25,5 %. Denný prietok sa v priemere zvýšil o 20 %. Odlesnenie významne ovplyvnilo kulminačný prietok vyvolaný simulovanou extrémnou zrážkovou udalosťou s pravdepodobnosťou výskytu 100 rokov. V odlesnenom povodí bol kulminačný prietok o 58 % vyšší v porovnaní s prietokom pri súčasnom využití územia. Kulminačné prietoky sa vyskytli po 432 minútach od začatia zrážkovej udalosti pri súčasnom využití územia a po 378 minútach v prípade scenára odlesnenia. Prezentované výsledky poukázali na riziko nepriaznivého vplyvu rozsiahlych odlesnení na hydrologické procesy v povodí. Vyvinutý hydrologický model zároveň umožňuje testovanie vplyvu rôznych scenárov využívania krajiny, čím podporuje manažment lesa a krajiny v skúmanom povodí.

  7. Porovnání vlivu příměsi na růstové veličiny, strukturu a stabilitu porostu borovice lesní (Pinus sylvestris L. na antropogenních půdách sokolovského regionu / Influence of admixed tree species on growth, structure and stability of Scots pine stands on anthropogenic soils of the Sokolov region

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    Dragoun Lukáš

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obnova narušené krajiny povrchovou těžbou nerostných surovin je stále aktuálním tématem nejen v České republice. Cílem této studie je vyhodnotit, zda bylo zalesnění borovicí lesní s příměsí buku či lípy na antropogenních substrátech výhodné pro zvýšení produkčních schopností lesa, zvýšení stability porostu a zlepšení strukturální funkčnosti lesního ekosystému. Studie byla provedena na výsypce Antonín v blízkosti města Sokolov na jílovém substrátu v porostu starém 40 let. Pro porovnání nesmíšených borových porostů a borových porostů s příměsí listnatých dřevin (lípa a buk bylo využito základních porostních veličin a vícerozměrné analýzy rozptylu (ANOVA u stromových veličin. Porovnání ukázalo, že borovice s příměsí buku mají tendenci tvořit stabilnější porosty, zatímco u porostů s příměsí lípy byl zjištěn trend vyšší produkce. Zanedbanou výchovou bylo způsobeno snížení stability u všech porostních skupin. Celkově se na antropogenních substrátech jeví jako nejvýhodnější přimíšená dřevina borových porostů lípa, avšak k určení nejvhodnější směsi dřevin je třeba další studie.

  8. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    and anthocyanin metabolites. We describe here the metabolites present in the root exudates using high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) metabolomics approach. Using this approach, biased rhizosphere for another class of PGPR strains can now be created. In this case, lignin- and anthocyanin- utilizing strains will be selectively preferred. We have set up a platform to perform metabolomics of exudates at the root surface. This has allowed us to use the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) system using a Thermo Velos Pro Orbitrap-MS to identify differences in exudate profiles along the root system of Arabidopsis. This platform enables direct sampling and measurement from plant roots grown aeroponically. As the metabolites are extracted from root surface and directly injected into the mass spectrometer, there is minimal loss of sample in this process. This method will now allow us to further dissect rhizosphere properties from places such as young root apex, as well as from the more mature base of roots. Taken together, these resources of altered rhizosphere, nutrient utilization pathways in microbes and surface analysis technology will help in extending our understanding of the processes in the plant rhizosphere.

  9. Pierre Bourdieu (höfundur; Davíð Kristinsson (ritstjóri, ritar inngang; Björn Þorsteinsson, Egill Arnarson og Gunnar Harðarson (þýðendur: Almenningsálitið er ekki til

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    Ólafur Þ. Harðarson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ég hlakkaði til að lesa þetta kver eftir Bourdieu, enda hef ég rannsakað lýðræði, kosningar og almenningsálit í þrjátíu ár og kennt námskeið um efnið. Hafði auk þess heyrt ýmsa tala um þennan Frakka af lotningu, en er lítt eða ekki kunnugur verkum hans, enda skólaður í engilsaxneskri hefð. Ekki hafði ég lengi lesið þegar í hugann kom: Þetta hef ég lesið áður! Hressileg aðkenning að desjavú. Uppúr 1970 las ég tvo franska strúktúralíska marxista nokkuð vel (og var lengi að því, Althusser og Poulantzas. Þá voru þeir í tísku - seinna fór illa fyrir báðum en það skiptir ekki máli hér. Lesturinn á þeim tvímenningum reyndist mér afar gagnlegur. Ég lærði að tyrfinn texti þarf ekki endilega að segja mikið þegar hann hefur verið "afbyggður". Ég lærði að nokkur virðing fyrir staðreyndum getur farið saman við kennilega kreddufestu: Ný-marxistarnir uppúr 1970 sögðu m.a. að það væri að vísu rétt að ýmis svið samfélagsins byggju við tiltekið sjálfstæði (relative autonomy, t.d. pólitíska sviðið og menningarsviðið. Samfélagið væri flóknara en svo að ríkisvaldið væri einbert framkvæmdaráð borgarastéttarinnar. En - og það var stórt en - samt væri það hagkerfið sem réði þegar allt kæmi til alls (determinant in the last instance. Þótt komið væri dálítið á móts við staðreyndir og gögn var áfram trúað á kredduna.

  10. The Relationship and Covariance Trend of Species Richness between Mammals and Parasitic Fleas in China%中国哺乳类动物和寄生蚤类的丰富度关系及其协同变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连宏宇; 龚正达; 张丽云; 臧颖慧; 边长玲; 李栋; 琚俊科

    2011-01-01

    the data of the geographical distribution of each family, genus and species ( excluding subspecies) of the different mammals and Siphonaptera which baaed on China's administrative divisions, we applied the Pearson linear correlation analysis to compare and analyze the correlation relationship among animals ( including: terrestrial mammals, small mammals, rodents, fleas) , such as families-familiea, genera-genera, species-species, species-familiea,species-genera. The results ahowed that: ( 1 ) The richness of families-families, genera-genera and species-species among various mammals and parasitic fleas showed a very significant positive correlation ; (2) With the changes of taxa and groups (including: mammals → the terrestrial mammals → small mammals → rodents → fleas) , the Pearson correlation index of the richness of families-families, genera-genera and species-species was gradually reduced; (3) The Pearson correlation index of the richness in species-families ia lesa than species-genera. This result is drawn by the atatistic analysis of material collected the number of families, genus and species of various types of animals ( including: terrestrial mammals, small mammals, rodents, fleas). This reflects that the Pearson correlation index of the richness showed the increased trend with the diminished and allied taxa or groups; (4) Belonging to the correlative relationship between fleas and various types of mammals , the correlation of genera-genera ( r > 0. 803 ) or 8pecies-species ( r > 0. 768 ) between rodents and parasitic fleas showed maximum. It was confirmed that high taxa richness shows the positive correlation between mammals and fleas in the large spatial scale domain. Among them, the correlation of genera-genera and species-species between rodents and fleas,which reflects the long-term choice, co-evolution and mutual adaptation.

  11. Alguns aspectos da função endotelial em cirurgia cardíaca Some aspects of the enothelial function in cardiac surgery

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    Paulo Roberto B Évora

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo mostra alguns aspectos da função endotelial relacionados, diretamente, com a cirurgia cardíaca: 1 Após isquemia miocárdica global seguida de reperfusão, o endotélio coronariano perde a habilidade de expressar vasodilatação endotélio-dependente mediada por receptores, ao passo que o relaxamento endotélio-dependente mediado pelo cálcio ionóforo A23187 e a fosfolipasec C, que não dependem de estimulação de receptores, encontra-se inalterada. O relaxamento produzido pelo fluoreto de sódio, o qual atua através de G-proteína(s, encontra-se comprometido. Estes experimentos indicam que o comprometimento da produção de EDRF/NO mediada por receptores após a lesão de reperfusão possa ser devido a uma disfunção de G-proteínas que liga os receptores da célula endotelial à via da síntese de EDRF/ NO; 2 Quarenta e cinco minutos de parada cardioplégica de corações de cães, pela solução St.Thomas não comprometem a produção de EDRF/NO em artérias epicárdicas coronárias. Estudos farmacológicos in vitro semelhantes, testando-se os efeitos da solução UW, suportaram o conceito de que ela não lesa o endotélio coronariano sendo segura para a preservação cardíaca durante transplantes cardíacos; 3 Em segmentos de artérias coronárias, renais, femorais, e em segmentos de artéria pulmonar, a protamina induziu vasodilatação endotélio-dependente, mediada pela estimulação da liberação de EDRF/NO. Nas circulações coronariana e sistêmica, ao contrário do que se verificou nos experimentos envolvendo a circulação pulmonar, este efeito foi independente da presença de heparina; 4 Em 83% dos ensaios biológicos, o efluente da AMI esquerda induziu um relaxamento maior do anel coronariano bioensaiado do que o efluente da AMI direita,por liberação basal de EDRF/NO. Este inibe a adesividade e a agregação plaquetárias e a aterogêne, contribuindo para os resultados superiores obtidos quando se utiliza

  12. Análise estrutural da laringofaringe e suas implicações na miotomia do cricofaríngeo, na injeção de toxina botulínica e na dilatação por balão Laryngopharyngeal structural analysis and its morphofunctional correlation with cricopharyngeal myotomy, botulinum toxin injection and balloon dilation

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    Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O músculo cricofaríngeo é de tipo estriado esquelético, por conseguinte, incapaz de manter contração continuada por longos períodos. Apesar disto, tem sido considerado como o responsável pela zona de alta pressão registrada manometricamente na transição faringoesofágica. Em razão desta crença, tem sido alvo de terapêuticas cruentas que visam, por ruptura de sua integridade, franquear a comunicação entre a faringe e o esôfago. OBJETIVO: Dar as bases anatômicas que definam os limites de participação do músculo cricofaríngeo na função da transição faringoesofágica; considerar alternativa morfofuncional para explicar a zona de alta pressão desta transição e as implicações das miotomias sobre ela, uso de toxina botulínica e das dilatações pneumáticas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O total de 24 peças obtidas de cadáveres de adultos de ambos os sexos fixados em formaldeído a 10%, teve a laringofaringe estudada quanto as suas características morfológicas e relações. RESULTADOS: O músculo cricofaríngeo apresenta suas inserções ântero-laterais nas bordas póstero-laterais da cartilagem cricóide, configurando morfologia em meia calha ou de uma letra C que não permite, quando de sua contração, a geração de pressão com predomínio anterior e posterior, como a encontrada na transição faringoesofágica. Este tipo de distribuição pressórica tem sustentação na relação de pinça exercida, por um lado, pela rigidez oferecida pelos corpos vertebrais, por outro, pelo contorno posterior da cartilagem cricóide. CONCLUSÕES: A organização muscular da laringofaringe permite afiançar que a miotomia alargada da transição faringoesofágica, aquela que se estende além do fascículo transverso do cricofaríngeo, lesa musculatura ejetora e em área cuja a já maior dimensão luminar dispensaria a secção parietal. Miotomia que tome somente o fascículo transverso do cricofaríngeo poderá contribuir

  13. Úvodník 2012/VII/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dlouhá

    2012-05-01

     stanovuje dokument vytvořený expertním týmem pracujícím při dnes už neexistujícím Odboru nástrojů politiky životního prostředí MŽP ČR. A pro odlehčení starostí, které s rušením takovýchto podpůrných institucí EVVO souvisí, nás Jiří Nečas znovu uvádí do pohádkového lesa, kde Vědunka Rybníčková poučuje milou princeznu Alguelitu, tentokrát o rovnicích (neomezeného růstu. Nakonec se nám hlásí Josef Břečka z Nového Zélandu, města Hastingsu, kde se právě, tedy v únoru roku 2009, slaví svátek stylu Art Deco, který ovlivnil architekturu místa. V textu Obrat k volání přírody se Jiří Olšovský zabývá Heideggerovými Příspěvky k filosofii, jak je ve své knize interpretujeMartin Nitsche. A ještě jednou z rubriky Recenze – Marie Petrová a další účastníci konference „Naše společná přítomnost” kriticky posuzují hodnoty spojené s udržitelným rozvojem, jak se projevují v české (nejen akademické obci. Lenka Parkánová představuje soubor učebních textů nazvaný Úvod do environmentální výchovy a globálního rozvojového vzdělávání, jenž se snaží systematicky uchopit environmentální a globální rozvojové vzdělávání u nás. A nakonec zajímavý historický dokument: projev Josefa Vavrouška na konferenci v Riu de Janeiro v roce 1992, a také kritické ohlasy konference letošní, ale o tom jsme už přece psali… …takže pro tentokrát je to asi vše, o co jsme se chtěli s vámi podělit. Přejeme sobě i vám, abychom si v našich krásných Čechách nemuseli povídat jen o tom, kdo, komu, co, jak – ukradl. Jsou problémy jiné, důležitější. Třeba jak je to s hvězdami či Sluncem na letní obloze, nebo s idealistickými, neuskutečnitelnými vizemi, o kterých se naštěstí ještě pořád vede dialog. A tak do něj také vstupte, nejen poslouchejte, ale také pište. Aby nás bylo slyšet, protože naděje, že budeme slyšeni nebo se alespoň usly