WorldWideScience

Sample records for vxs 4x infiniband

  1. Monitoring Mellanox Infiniband SX6036 switches

    CERN Document Server

    Agapiou, Marinos

    2017-01-01

    The SX6036 switches addressed by my project, are part of a fully non-blocking fat-tree cluster consisting of 72 servers and 6 Mellanox SX6036 Infiniband switches. My project is about retrieving the appropriate metrics from the Infiniband switch cluster, ingesting the data to Collectd and after my data are being transfered to CERN Database, they are being visualized via Grafana Dashboards.

  2. Boosting Event Building Performance using Infiniband FDR for CMS Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bawej, Tomasz Adrian; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Forrest, Andrew Kevin; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; Vivian O'Dell; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    As part of the CMS upgrade during CERN long shutdown period (LS1), the CMS data acquisition system is incorporating Infiniband FDR technology to boost event building performance for operation from 2015 onwards. Infiniband promises to provide substantial increase in data transmission speeds compared to the older 1GE network used during the 2009-2013 LHC run. Several options exist to end user developers when choosing a foundation for software upgrades, including the uDAPL (DAT Collaborative) and Infiniband verbs libraries (OFED). Due to advances in technology, the CMS data acquisition system will be able to achieve the required throughput of 100 kHz with increased event sizes while downsizing the number of nodes by using a combination of 10GE, 40GE and 56 GB Infiniband FDR. This paper presents the analysis and results of a comparison between GE and Infiniband solutions as well as a look at how they integrate into an event building architecture, while preserving the scalability, efficiency and deterministic late...

  3. The Upgrade Path from Legacy VME to VXS Dual Star Connectivity for Large Scale Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C; Barbosa, F J; Dong, H; Gu, W; Jastrzembski, E; Kaneta, S R; Moffitt, B; Nganga, N; Raydo, B J; Somov, A; Taylor, W M

    2011-10-01

    New instrumentation modules have been designed by Jefferson Lab and to take advantage of the higher performance and elegant backplane connectivity of the VITA 41 VXS standard. These new modules are required to meet the 200KHz trigger rates envisioned for the 12GeV experimental program. Upgrading legacy VME designs to the high speed gigabit serial extensions that VXS offers, comes with significant challenges, including electronic engineering design, plus firmware and software development issues. This paper will detail our system design approach including the critical system requirement stages, and explain the pipeline design techniques and selection criteria for the FPGA that require embedded Gigabit serial transceivers. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250MHz clock with synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals distributed to each front end readout crate via the second switch slot in the 21 slot, dual star VXS backplane. The readout of the buffered detector signals relies on 2eSST over the standard VME64x path at >200MB/s. We have achieved 20Gb/s transfer rate of trigger information within one VXS crate and will present results using production modules in a two crate test configuration with both VXS crates fully populated. The VXS trigger modules that reside in the front end crates, will be ready for production orders by the end of the 2011 fiscal year. VXS Global trigger modules are in the design stage now, and will be complete to meet the installation schedule for the 12GeV Physics program.

  4. Infiniband Performance Comparisons of SDR, DDR and Infinipath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minich, M

    2006-05-30

    This technical report will be comparing the performance between the most common infiniband-related technologies currently available. Included will be TCP-based, MPI-based and low-level performance tests to see what performance can be expected from Mellanox's SDR and DDR as well as PathScale's Infinipath. Also, we will be performing comparisons of the Infinipath on both OpenIB as well as PathScale's ipath stack. Infiniband promises to bring high performance interconnects for I/O (filesystem and networking) to a new cost performance level. Thus, LLNL has been evaluating Infiniband for use as a cluster interconnect. Various issues impact the decision of which interconnect to use in a cluster. This technical report will be looking more closely at the actual performance of the major infiniband technologies present today. Performance testing will focus on latency, and bandwidth (both uni and bi-directional) using both TCP and MPI. In addition, we will be looking at an even lower-level (removing most of the upper-level protocols) and seeing what the connection can really do if the TCP or MPI layers were perfectly written.

  5. Measurement of PVFS2 performance on InfiniBand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraj, Sudhindra Prasad Tirupati [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    InfiniBand is becoming increasingly popular as a fast interconnect technology between servers and storage. It has far better price/performance ratio compared to both Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet, and hence is being increasingly used for highperformance computing applications. PVFS2, the second generation Parallel Virtual File System (PVFS), is a distributed file system for parallel data access that is being increasingly used in clustered applications. As previous studies have shown, in general, PVFS2 over InfiniBand offers enhanced I/O rates compared to PVFS2 over TCP and Gigabit Ethernet. Apart from the hardware technology, the application programming interface into the file system also makes a difference. To get better parallel performance, the choice of a file system interface is important. Our study is to benchmark and compare the performance of PVFS2 running over InfiniBand using different file system interfaces. IOR is a popular I/O benchmarking tool that supports the POSIX and MPI I/O file system interfaces. In addition to testing these already supported interfaces, we have written a PVFS2 module extension for IOR to support native PVFS2 interfaces into the PVFS2 file system. As we shall see in this study, using native PVFS2 interface offers significant performance benefit compared to other file system interfaces on the PVFS2 file system. Our benchmarking effort also involves studying the effect of a multi-client environment on the I/O performance of different file system interfaces. Based on the benchmarking results we obtain, we determine the most efficient application programming interface for parallel I/O on PVFS2 in a typical multi-client parallel application scenario.

  6. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago [IIT, Chicago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard [Fermilab; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun-Woo [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon; Raicu, Ioan [IIT, Chicago

    2014-11-11

    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  7. The InfiniBand based Event Builder implementation for the LHCb upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, A.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Marconi, U.; Neufeld, N.; Valat, S.; Voneki, B.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown (2019 - 2020). The upgrade will concern both the detector and the Data Acquisition system, which are to be rebuilt in order to optimally exploit the foreseen higher event rate. The Event Builder is the key component of the DAQ system, for it gathers data from the sub-detectors and builds up the whole event. The Event Builder network has to manage an incoming data rate of 32 Tb/s from a 40 MHz bunch-crossing frequency, with a cardinality of about 500 nodes. In this contribution we present an Event Builder implementation based on the InfiniBand network technology. This software relies on the InfiniBand verbs, which offers a user space interface to employ the Remote Direct Memory Access capabilities provided by the InfiniBand network devices. We will present the performance of the software on a cluster connected with 100 Gb/s InfiniBand network.

  8. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  9. Performance of an MPI-only semiconductor device simulator on a quad socket/quad core InfiniBand platform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Lin, Paul Tinphone

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study considers the scaling and performance of a finite element (FE) semiconductor device simulator on a capacity cluster with 272 compute nodes based on a homogeneous multicore node architecture utilizing 16 cores. The inter-node communication backbone for this Tri-Lab Linux Capacity Cluster (TLCC) machine is comprised of an InfiniBand interconnect. The nonuniform memory access (NUMA) nodes consist of 2.2 GHz quad socket/quad core AMD Opteron processors. The performance results for this study are obtained with a FE semiconductor device simulation code (Charon) that is based on a fully-coupled Newton-Krylov solver with domain decomposition and multilevel preconditioners. Scaling and multicore performance results are presented for large-scale problems of 100+ million unknowns on up to 4096 cores. A parallel scaling comparison is also presented with the Cray XT3/4 Red Storm capability platform. The results indicate that an MPI-only programming model for utilizing the multicore nodes is reasonably efficient on all 16 cores per compute node. However, the results also indicated that the multilevel preconditioner, which is critical for large-scale capability type simulations, scales better on the Red Storm machine than the TLCC machine.

  10. 4x4 optical packet switching of asynchronous burst optical packets with a prototype, 4x4 label processing and switching sub-system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Ryohei; Nakahara, Tatsushi; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Segawa, Toru; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Ohki, Akira; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Nishihara, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryo

    2010-07-19

    We report a prototype, 4x4 (4 input/4 output) label processing and switching sub-system for 10-Gb/s asynchronous burst variable-length optical packets. With the prototype, we perform a 4x4 optical packet switching demonstration, achieving error-free (BERswitching operation for all possible input/output combinations (16 switching paths) simultaneously. Power consumption and latency of the entire, self-contained sub-system is 83 W (includes fan power) and 300 ns, respectively.

  11. 4x4 Individually Addressable InGaAs APD Arrays Optimized for Photon Counting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Wu, X.; Wu, S.; Choa, F. S.; Yan, F.; Shu, P.; Krainak, M.

    2007-01-01

    InGaAs APDs with improved photon counting characteristics were designed and fabricated and their performance improvements were observed. Following the results, a 4x4 individually addressable APD array was designed, fabricated, and results are reported.

  12. Sequential Vacc-4x and romidepsin during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapia, G; Højen, J F; Ökvist, M

    2017-01-01

    -cell responses following Vacc-4x/rhuGM-CSF immunotherapy in relation to virological outcomes on the HIV reservoir. METHODS: This study, conducted in Aarhus, Denmark, enrolled participants (n = 20) with CD4>500 cells/mm(3) on cART. Six Vacc-4x (1.2 mg) intradermal immunizations using rhuGM-CSF (60 μg) as adjuvant...

  13. Molecular clusters Cs3X3 and Cs4X4 (X = Br, I: Quantum chemical study of structure and thermodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley F. Mwanga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The properties of trimer Cs3X3 and tetramer Cs4X4 (X = Br, I molecules have been studied using DFT with B3LYP5 functional and MP2 and MP4 methods. Two equilibrium geometrical structures of trimers, hexagonal (D3h and “butterfly-shaped” (Cs, and one for tetramers, distorted cubic (Td, are confirmed to exist; geometrical parameters and vibrational spectra are determined. The relative concentration of Cs3X3 isomers has been evaluated; the butterfly-shaped isomer dominates over hexagonal in saturated vapour in a broad temperature range. The dissociation reactions through different channels have been considered and enthalpies of formation ∆fH°(0 of clusters determined: ‒858 ± 20 kJ⋅mol‒1 (Cs3Br3, ‒698 ± 20 kJ⋅mol‒1 (Cs3I3, ‒1270 ± 30 kJ⋅mol‒1 (Cs4Br4 and ‒1045 ± 30 kJ⋅mol‒1 (Cs4I4. The Gibbs free energies ∆rG°(T calculated for the dissociation reactions of trimer and tetramer molecules have indicated that these molecules are resistive in narrow temperature range only and decompose spontaneously with temperature increase with elimination of dimer molecules.

  14. A High-Efficiency 4x45W Car Audio Power Amplifier using Load Current Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, C.H.J.; Mensink, C.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Mostert, F.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2010-01-01

    A 4x45W (EIAJ) monolithic car audio power amplifier is presented that achieves a power dissipation decrease of nearly 2x over standard class AB operation by sharing load currents between loudspeakers. Output signals are conditioned using a common-mode control loop to allow switch placement between

  15. Submicrosecond rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuntao; Yu, Jinzhong; Chen, Shaowu; Li, Yanping; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2007-03-15

    A rearrangeable nonblocking silicon-on-insulator-based thermo-optic 4x4 switch matrix is designed and fabricated. A spot-size converter is integrated to reduce the insertion loss, and a new driving circuit is designed to improve the response speed. The insertion loss is less than 10 dB, and the response time is 950 ns.

  16. Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x = 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x = 0–0⋅4). V SIVAKUMAR and U V VARADARAJU*. Materials Science Research Centre and Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036,. India. MS received 31 March 2005. Abstract. Rare earth based materials have ...

  17. Comments on Penrose Limit of AdS_4 x M^{1,1,1}

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Changhyun

    2002-01-01

    We construct a Penrose limit of AdS_4 x M^{1,1,1} where M^{1,1,1}= SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1)/(SU(2) x U(1) x U(1)) that provides the pp-wave geometry equal to the one in the Penrose limit of AdS_4 x S^7. There exists a subsector of three dimensional N=2 dual gauge theory which has enhanced N=8 maximal supersymmetry. We identify operators in the N=2 gauge theory with supergravity KK excitations in the pp-wave geometry and describe how the gauge theory operators made out of two kinds of chiral field...

  18. Science teachers' understanding and use of instructional strategies within the 4 x 4 block schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, Kurt

    The primary purpose of this researcher was to investigate how science teachers engage students under the 4 x 4 block schedule and how the teachers' understanding of how they use instructional strategies influenced their lessons. As an inquiry-based approach has been adopted by the National Science Standards, research has suggested that block scheduling provides more time for teachers to incorporate varied strategies such as inquiry-based and cooperative learning teaching which have philosophical roots in a social constructivist philosophy. This research investigated the questions: What instructional strategies do science teachers use to engage students on the 4 x 4 block schedule? How do science teachers understand their use of instructional strategies? The methodology was qualitative in nature and involved a multiple case study of three high school science teachers at a large rural county high school. Data sources included pre-observation interviews, classroom observations, post-observation interviews, and the collection of documents and artifacts such as lesson plans, student hand-outs, worksheets, laboratory exercises, homework and other document(s) the teacher used to prepare for or implement a lesson. The evidence observed in this study, suggests that the strategies used by these three science teachers remain mostly didactic in nature. Although the teachers reported in the interview phase of this research that they use a wide variety of strategies, what was observed within the 4 x 4 block structure was the use of different didactic strategies, not different holistic strategies. Although the teachers were aware of more holistic strategies such as inquiry-based and cooperative learning, they were not adopted nor adapted within the lesson. The three teachers used strategies that were consistent with their scientific realist views concerning the nature of science. These scientific realist philosophies are antithetical to a social constructivist approach to

  19. Une méthode en 4 x 4 pour l’analyse des besoins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Oger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La production d’une formation à distance (FAD est un processus d’analyse et de régulation permanentes centré sur les besoins du public cible. Dans la formation « Cap sur les méthodes de travail » destinée à des étudiants de l’enseignement supérieur (ES, ce processus est comparé à un parcours en « 4 x 4 circulaire et progressif ». Une boucle de ce parcours (ou boucle de régulation comporte quatre étapes permettant de s’interroger successivement sur « Qui » veut « Quoi », « Pourquoi » et « Comment » dans cette formation à distance. Quatre éclairages particuliers donnés par les concepteurs, des utilisateurs potentiels, des expérimentateurs et des utilisateurs effectifs apportent des éléments de réponse à ces questions. Tout au long du projet de production de la formation, chaque boucle de cette méthode 4 x 4 remet le dispositif en question et produit des pistes de régulation, dans un contexte où le public, les besoins et les ressources sont en continuelle évolution.

  20. Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial ferrimagnetic anti-perovskite Mn4-xDyxN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M.; Wu, S. X.; Zhou, W. Q.; Ren, L. Z.; Wang, Y. J.; Wang, G. L.; Li, S. W.

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been studied for ferrimagnetic antiperovskite Mn4-xDyxN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The introduction of Dy changes the AHE dramatically, even changes its sign, while the variations in magnetization are negligible. Two sign reversals of the AHE (negative-positive-negative) are ascribed to the variation of charge carriers as a result of Fermi surface reconstruction. We further demonstrate that the AHE current JAH is dissipationless (independent of the scattering rate), by confirming that anomalous Hall conductivity, σAH, is proportional to the carrier density n at 5 K. Our study may provide a route to further utilize antiperovskite manganese nitrides in spintronics.

  1. Structure of the SnO2(110)-(4 x 1) Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merte, Lindsay R.; Jorgensen, Mathias S.; Pussi, Katariina

    2017-01-01

    Using surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD), quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have determined the structure of the (4 x 1) reconstruction formed by sputtering and annealing of the SnO2(110) surface. We find that the reconstruction...... consists of an ordered arrangement of Sn3O3 clusters bound atop the bulk-terminated SnO2(110) surface. The model was found by application of a DFT-based evolutionary algorithm with surface compositions based on SXRD, and shows excellent agreement with LEED and with previously published scanning tunneling...... microscopy measurements. The model proposed previously consisting of inplane oxygen vacancies is thus shown to be incorrect, and our result suggests instead that Sn(II) species in interstitial positions are the more relevant features of reduced SnO2(110) surfaces....

  2. Optical spectroscopy study of c(4 x 2) Ge (001)-surfaces, covered with atomic Au wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Utz; Meyer, Sebastian; Schaefer, Joerg; Geurts, Jean [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Speiser, Eugen; Esser, Norbert [ISAS, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Novel quasi-1D systems like e.g. atomic gold chains on a c(4x2) reconstructed Ge(001)-surfaces enable the investigation of 1D-effects like the possible occurrence of the Luttinger- to Fermi liquid transition. As there is a crucial interplay of the lattice vibrations and the electrical and structural properties on such sensitive systems, phonon dynamics are in the focus of this work. The phonons were addressed by Raman spectroscopy and reveal a clear change from the Ge-oxide layer to the final surface with Au-nano wires. Thermally deoxidizing the Ge-surface under UHV leads to a distinct low-frequency vibration around 65cm-1. Its frequency range and its persistence after Gold deposition in the submonolayer range indicate that this signal is surface related. Additionally, the surface-induced anisotropy of the optical reflectance was complementary investigated by Reflectance-Anisotropy-Spectroscopy (RAS) and IR-ellipsometry.

  3. Computational identification and binding analysis of orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1 enzyme with substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-17

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are important heme-containing proteins, well known for their monooxygenase reaction. The human cytochrome P450 4X1 (CYP4X1) is categorized as "orphan" CYP because of its unknown function. In recent studies it is found that this enzyme is expressed in neurovascular functions of the brain. Also, various studies have found the expression and activity of orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1 in cancer. It is found to be a potential drug target for cancer therapy. However, three-dimensional structure, the active site topology and substrate specificity of CYP4X1 remain unclear. In the present study, the three-dimensional structure of orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1 was generated by homology modeling using Modeller 9v8. The generated structure was accessed for geometrical errors and energy stability using PROCHECK, VERFIY 3D and PROSA. A molecular docking analysis was carried out against substrates arachidonic acid and anandamide and the docked substrates were predicted for drug-likeness, ADME-Tox parameters and biological spectrum activity. The three-dimensional model of orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1 was generated and assessed with various structural validation programmes. Docking of orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1 with arachidonic acid revealed that TYR 112, ALA 126, ILE 222, ILE 223, THR 312, LEU 315, ALA 316, ASP 319, THR 320, PHE 491 and ILE 492 residues were actively participating in the interaction, while docking of CYP4X1 with anandamide showed that TYR 112, GLN 114, PRO 118, ALA 126, ILE 222, ILE 223, SER 251, LEU 315, ALA 316 and PHE 491 key residues were involved in strong interaction. From this study, several key residues were identified to be responsible for the binding of arachidonic acid and anandamide with orphan human cytochrome P450 4X1. Both substrates obeyed Lipinski rule of five in drug-likeness test and biological spectrum prediction showed anticarcinogenic activity. Compared to anandamide, arachidonic acid showed strong

  4. Preparation and electrical properties of Ni0.6Mn2.4-xSnxO4 NTC ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhongbing; Li, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ruyian; Qin, Pan; Chen, Chunnian; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper spinel-type negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramic materials with general composition Ni0.6Mn2.4 xSnxO4 (x¼0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were investigated. Powders were prepared by a solid-state reaction method and it was shown that the calcination temperature necessary for

  5. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10(19) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Backer, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Mer, H. Blu; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. de Mello; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10(18) eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional to E(-gamma), at energies between 4 x 10(18) eV and 4 x 10(19) eV is 2.69 +/- 0.02(stat) +/-

  6. POWER, HEART RATE AND PERCEIVED EXERTION RESPONSES TO 3X3 AND 4X4 BASKETBALL SMALL-SIDED GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sampaio

    2009-01-01

    significant increase in the countermovement jump posttest jump results could suggest that the 4x4 were not played as quickly nor intensely as the 3x3. Decreases of the space and number of players in game allow greater self-recreation of players and greater intervention in game. Therefore, the heart rate response during the series displays a higher physiologic impact in 3x3 than in 4x4.

  7. Assessment of genetic variability of haploids extracted from tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48) Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolano, M R; Carputo, D; Li, J; Monti, L; Barone, A; Frusciante, L

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic variability of haploids (2n = 2x = 24) extracted from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum through 4x x 2x crosses with Solanum phureja. Molecular and phenotypic analyses were performed to fingerprint the genotypes used and to evaluate their potential use in breeding programs. AFLP analysis revealed the presence of specific bands derived from the tetraploid seed parent S. phureja, as well as ex novo originated bands. On average, 210 bands were visualized per genotype, 149 (70%) of which were common to both parental genotypes. The percentage of S. tuberosum specific bands ranged from 25.1% to 18.6%, with an average of 22%. The fraction of genome coming from S. phureja ranged from 1.9% to 6.5%, with an average value of 4%. The percentage of ex novo bands varied from 1.9% to 9.0%. The presence of S. phureja DNA is very interesting because it indicated that S. phureja pollinator is involved in the mechanism of haploid formation. The characterization for resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and potato virus X (PVX) provided evidence that haploids may express traits that are lacking in the tetraploids they come from, which can be useful for both genetic studies and breeding purposes. It is noteworthy that genotypes combining resistance to both diseases and good pollen stainability were identified. Other possible breeding implications owing to the presence of S. phureja genome in the haploids analyzed are discussed.

  8. Tuning frustrated antiferromagnetism in intermetallic AFe{sub 4}X{sub 2} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Katharina [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Mufti, Nandang; Bergmann, Christoph; Kraft, Inga; Rosner, Helge; Geibel, Christoph [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Goltz, Til; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Woike, Theo [Institute for Structural Physics, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic systems with reduced dimensionality or frustration are attracting strong interest because these features lead to an increase of quantum fluctuations which often results in unusual, very interesting properties. Here we present a detailed study of the intermetallic AFe{sub 4}X{sub 2} compounds (A=Sc,Y,Lu,Zr; X=Si,Ge) crystallizing in the ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} structure type in which the Fe-sublattice is formed by chains of edge-linked tetrahedra. We synthesized polycrystalline samples of all these compounds and investigated their magnetic, thermodynamic, structural and transport properties. Our results indeed evidence this family of compounds to cover the whole regime from frustrated antiferromagnetic (AFM) order up to the quantum critical point separating the AFM ground state from the paramagnetic ground state. All compounds with trivalent A elements show frustrated AFM order. Replacement of trivalent A by tetravalent Zr shifts the system towards an unstable magnetic state. Since YFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and ZrFe{sub 4}Si{sub 2} present peculiar features, we also studied the influence of different annealing conditions and slight off-stoichiometry on their unusual properties.

  9. Simulated changes in aridity from the last glacial maximum to 4xCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Michael L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-11-01

    Aridity is generally defined as the ‘degree to which a climate lacks moisture to sustain life in terrestrial ecosystems’. Several recent studies using the ‘aridity index’ (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation), have concluded that aridity will increase with CO2 because of increasing temperature. However, the ‘aridity index’ is—counterintuitively—not a direct measure of aridity per se (when defined as above) and there is widespread evidence that contradicts the ‘warmer is more arid’ interpretation. We provide here an assessment of multi-model changes in a broad set of aridity metrics over a large range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations ranging from conditions at the last glacial maximum to 4xCO2, using an ensemble of simulations from state-of-the-art Earth system models. Most measures of aridity do not show increasing aridity on global scales under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, although we note some varying responses depending on the considered variables. The response is, furthermore, more nuanced at regional scales, but in the majority of regions aridity does not increase with CO2 in the majority of metrics. Our results emphasize that it is not the climate models that project overwhelming increases of aridity with increasing CO2, but rather a secondary, offline, impact model—the ‘aridity index’—that uses climate model output as input.

  10. Emission Spectroscopy of the 4X Source Discharge With and Without N2 Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Horace Vernon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-14

    This tech note summarizes the December, 1988 emission spectroscopy measurements made on the 4X source discharge with and without N₂ gas added to the H + Cs discharge. This study is motivated by the desire to understand why small amounts of N₂ gas added to the source discharge results in a reduction in the H⁻ beam noise. The beneficial effect of N₂ gas on H⁻ beam noise was first discovered by Bill Ingalls and Stu Orbesen on the ATS SAS source. For the 4X source the observed effect is that when N2 gas is added to the discharge the H⁻ beam noise is reduced about a factor of 2.

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Zn(sub 4-x)Cd (sub x)Sb(sub 3) Solid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Caillat, T.

    1997-01-01

    B-Zn(sub 4-x)Cd(sub x)Sb(sub 3) was recently identified at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a new high performance p-type thermoelectric material with a maximum dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 1.4 at a temperature of 673K.

  12. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Grande, N Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-08-08

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  13. Design optimization of the characters measurement system of 4 x 2 x 3 multi-slab-amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Cheng Cheng; Yu Hai Wu; He Shao Bo; Liu Yong; Zhang Xiao Min

    2002-01-01

    The soft aperture slots and multi spatial filters had been used to transmit the same phase of laser beams, the characters measurement system of 4 x 2 x 3 multi-slab-amplifier design has been optimized by a program of Fresnel, where the sizes of pinholes of spatial filters which influence laser propagation have been analyzed here, the design optimization result also discussed, and the methods and results obtained are applicable to the design of high power solid laser amplifier system

  14. Effects of Tb3+ concentration on the La2Sr3(BO3)4: X% Tb3+ polycrystalline nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotswa, D. V.; Madihlaba, R. M.; Koao, L. F.; Onani, M. O.; Dejene, F. B.

    2016-01-01

    A new green phosphor, La2Sr3(BO3)4): x% Tb3+ was fabricated by solution-combustion method using urea as a fuel and ammonium nitrate as an oxidizer. The phosphor was characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL. The results exhibit that La2Sr3(BO3)4): x% Tb3+ phosphor has the strongest excitation at 209 nm with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 20 nm, and can emit bright green light at 545 nm under 209 nm excitation. The optimum concentration for Tb3+ in La2Sr3(BO3)4): x% Tb3+ is 0.033 mol%. The prominent green luminescence was due to the 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ ion. Herein, the green phosphors are promising good candidates employed in tri-color lamps.

  15. RE{sub 13}Pd{sub 25+x}Zn{sub 28-x} (RE = Y, Ho-Lu). A 4 x 4 x 4 tungsten superstructure with short Pd/Zn dumbbells as structural motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Birgit; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2016-08-01

    The rare earth-based zinc compounds RE{sub 13}Pd{sub 25+x}Zn{sub 28-x} (RE = Y, Ho-Lu) were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules with a maximum reaction temperature of 1470 K followed by different annealing sequences. The structures of all compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, indicating substantial Zn/Pd mixing on one 8c and one 24g zinc site. Exemplarily, the homogeneity range of the solid solution Yb{sub 13}Pd{sub 25+x}Zn{sub 28-x} was manifested from samples of different starting compositions and five single crystal data sets. The RE{sub 13}Pd{sub 25+x}Zn{sub 28-x} structures are cubic, space group I anti 43m with lattice parameters ranging from 1295 to 1307 pm, as a function of the rare earth element and the Zn/Pd mixing. Hierarchically, one can derive the RE{sub 13}Pd{sub 25+x}Zn{sub 28-x} structures from the simple bcc packing. A group-subgroup scheme was developed for this new 4 x 4 x 4 tungsten superstructure which shows vacancy ordering and dumbbell formation. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements show diamagnetism for a Lu{sub 13}Pd{sub 29}Zn{sub 24} sample and Curie-Weiss paramagnetism for Tm{sub 13}Pd{sub 29}Zn{sub 24} down to 3 K.

  16. Structure determination of the indium-induced Si(111)-(4x1) reconstruction by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.; Zeysing, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed structural model for the indium-induced Si(111)-(4 x 1) surface reconstruction has been determined by analyzing an extensive set of x-ray-diffraction data recorded with monochromatic (h omega=9.1 keV) synchrotron radiation. The reconstruction is quasi-one-dimensional. The main features...... in the structure are chains of silicon atoms alternating with zigzag chains of indium atoms on top of an essentially unperturbed silicon lattice. The indium coverage corresponds to one monolayer. The structural model consistently explains all previously published experimental data....

  17. Atomic structure of a stable high-index Ge surface: G2(103)-(4x1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seehofer, L.; Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Based on scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction, we propose a complex structural model for the Ge(103)-(4 x 1) reconstruction. Each unit cell contains two (103) double steps, which gives rise to the formation of stripes of Ge atoms oriented in the [] direction....... The stripes and the spaces between them are covered with threefold-coordinated Ge adatoms. Charge is transferred from the bulk-like edge atoms of the double steps to the adatoms. The formation of the reconstruction can be explained in terms of stress relief, charge transfer, and minimization of the dangling...

  18. A New Low-Complexity Decodable Rate-1 Full-Diversity 4 x 4 STBC with Nonvanishing Determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Amr; Sari, Hikmet

    2012-01-01

    Space-time coding techniques have become common-place in wireless communication standards as they provide an effective way to mitigate the fading phenomena inherent in wireless channels. However, the use of Space-Time Block Codes (STBCs) increases significantly the optimal detection complexity at the receiver unless the low complexity decodability property is taken into consideration in the STBC design. In this letter we propose a new low-complexity decodable rate-1 full-diversity 4 x 4 STBC. We provide an analytical proof that the proposed code has the Non-Vanishing-Determinant (NVD) property, a property that can be exploited through the use of adaptive modulation which changes the transmission rate according to the wireless channel quality. We compare the proposed code to existing low-complexity decodable rate-1 full-diversity 4 x 4 STBCs in terms of performance over quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels, detection complexity and Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Our code is found to provide the best perf...

  19. A P25/(NH4)xWO3 hybrid photocatalyst with broad spectrum photocatalytic properties under UV, visible, and near-infrared irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linfen; Liu, Bin; Liu, Tongyao; Ma, Xinlong; Li, Hao; Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a series of hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts P25/(NH4)xWO3 nanocomposites with the average crystallite size of P25 and (NH4)xWO3 of the sample was calculated to be about 30 nm and 130 nm, were successfully synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The as-obtained samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which implies that the P25/(NH4)xWO3 nanocomposites are fabricated with favourable nanosizd interfacial. The XPS results confirmed that the obtained sample consists of mixed chemical valences of W5+ and W6+, the low-valance W5+ sites could be the origin of NIR absorption. As revealed by optical absorption results, P25/(NH4)xWO3 nanocomposites possess high optical absorption in the whole solar spectrum of 200-2500 nm. Benefiting from this unique photo-absorption property and the synergistic effect of P25 and (NH4)xWO3, broad spectrum response photocatalytic activities covering UV, visible and near infrared regions on degradation of Rhodamine B have been realized by P25/(NH4)xWO3 nanocomposites. Meanwhile, the stability of photocatalysts was examined by the XRD and XPS of the photocatalysts after the reaction. The results show that P25/(NH4)xWO3 photocatalysts has a brilliant application prospect in the energy utilization to solve deteriorating environmental issues.

  20. Thermodynamics, dielectric permittivity and phase diagrams of the Rb1-x(NH4xH2PO4 type proton glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Sorokov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cluster pseudospin model of proton glasses, which takes into account the energy levels of protons around the PO4 group, the long-range interactions between the hydrogen bonds, and an internal random deformational field is used to investigate thermodynamical characteristics, longitudinal and transverse dielectric permittivities of Rb1-x(ND4xD2PO4 and Rb1-x(NH4xH2AsO4 compounds. A review of experimental and theoretical works on the Rb1-x(NH4xH2PO4 type crystals is presented.

  1. Unity 4.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Cookbook. From beginners to advanced users, from artists to coders, this book is for you and everyone in your team! This book is for anyone who wants to explore a wide range of Unity scripting and multimedia features and to find ready to use solutions to many game features. Programmers can explore multimedia features, and multimedia developers can try their hand at scripting.

  2. Solution of Ge(111)-(4x4)-Ag structure using direct methods applied to X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collazo-Davila, C.; Grozea, D.; Marks, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    A structure model for the Ge(111)-(4 x 4)-Ag surface is proposed. The model was derived by applying direct methods to surface X-ray diffraction data. It is a missing top layer reconstruction with six Ag atoms placed on Ge substitutional sites in one triangular subunit of the surface unit cell....... A ring-like assembly containing nine Ge atoms is found in the other triangular subunit. The stability of the ring assembly may be due to Ge-Ge double bond formation. Trimers of Ge atoms, similar to the trimers found on the Ge(111)-(root 3 x root 3)R30 degrees-Ag surface, are placed in the corners...

  3. One-pot liquid phase synthesis of (100-x)Li3PS4-xLiI solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Nguyen Huu Huy; Hirahara, Eito; Morikawa, Kei; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2017-10-01

    (100-x)Li3PS4-xLiI solid electrolytes are successfully prepared using a simple process proposed in this study. The results show that the heat-treatment process plays a crucial role in the formation of the final product. In the case of x = 33.3%, 2Li3PS4-1LiI, a nearly pure crystalline phase of Li7P2S8I (LPSI), is obtained. The cyclic voltammogram result and DC polarization curves indicate that the interfacial layer between LPSI and the Li metal is stable. Li2S, LiI, Li5P, Li4P2S6, and some unknown substances were detected in the interfacial layer by XRD.

  4. Cation disorder in MgX2O4 (X = Al, Ga, In) spinels from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Sickafus, Kurt E.; Stanek, Christopher R.; Rudin, Sven P.; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-07-01

    We have performed first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the possible physical origins of the discrepancies between the existing theoretical and experimental studies on cation distribution in MgX2O4 (X = Al, Ga, In) spinel oxides. We show that for MgGa2O4 and MgIn2O4, it is crucial to consider the effects of lattice vibrations to achieve agreement between theory and experiment. For MgAl2O4, we find that neglecting short-range order effects in thermodynamic modeling can lead to significant underestimation of the degree of inversion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the common practice of representing disordered structures by randomly exchanging atoms within a small periodic supercell can incur large computational error due to either insufficient statistical sampling or finite supercell size effects.

  5. MRIR/Nimbus-2 Images of Daytime Brightness Temperature on 4 x 5 inch Film Sheets V001 (MRIRN2IM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRIRN2IM is the Nimbus-2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) data product consisting of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets. Each film sheet contains an...

  6. MRIR/Nimbus-3 Images of Daytime Brightness Temperature on 4 x 5 inch Film Sheets V001 (MRIRN3IM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MRIRN3IM is the Nimbus-3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) data product consisting of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets. Each film sheet contains an...

  7. Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Imagery of the Earth and Atmosphere at Daytime on 4" x 5" Film Sheets V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MRIRN3IM data product consists of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets from the Nimbus-3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer. Each film sheet contains an entire...

  8. Nimbus-2 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Imagery of the Earth and Atmosphere at Daytime on 4" x 5" Film Sheets V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MRIRN2IM data product consists of 4 x 5 inch photographic film sheets from the Nimbus-2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer. Each film sheet contains an entire...

  9. Relationship between the modified star excursion balance test and the 4x10 m shuttle run test in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Calatayud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La agilidad y el equilibrio dinámico son habilidades cruciales en la actividad física prepuberal y la participación deportiva, por lo tanto es necesaria la identificación de pruebas eficientes para su evaluación. Evaluar la correlación entre la agilidad y el equilibrio dinámico en niños escolares de primaria. Veintisiete niños y veinte niñas de 10 años participaron voluntariamente en el estudio. El Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT modificado y el 4x10 m Shuttle Run Test se utilizaron respectivamente para evaluar el equilibrio dinámico y agilidad. Las puntuaciones compuestas del equilibrio dinámico con apoyo diestro mostraron solo entre los niños una moderada correlación significativa (r = -0.51, p < 0.05 con la prueba de agilidad. Sin embargo, entre las niñas se mostró una correlación significativa (r = -0.45, p < 0.05 durante la distancia de alcance posterolateral obtenida en el SEBT. La realización del test completo o de las distancias alcanzadas a nivel posteromedial y posterolateral del SEBT se asocia moderadamente con la agilidad entre los niños, mientras que la distancia posterolateral se asocia con la agilidad entre las niñas.

  10. Subunit sequences of the 4 x 6-mer hemocyanin from the golden orb-web spider, Nephila inaurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdam, Anne; Markl, Jürgen; Burmester, Thorsten

    2003-08-01

    The transport of oxygen in the hemolymph of many arthropod and mollusc species is mediated by large copper-proteins that are referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are composed of hexamers and oligomers of hexamers. Arachnid hemocyanins usually form 4 x 6-mers consisting of seven distinct subunit types (termed a-g), although in some spider taxa deviations from this standard scheme have been observed. Applying immunological and electrophoretic methods, six distinct hemocyanin subunits were identified in the red-legged golden orb-web spider Nephila inaurata madagascariensis (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). The complete cDNA sequences of six subunits were obtained that corresponded to a-, b-, d-, e-, f- and g-type subunits. No evidence for a c-type subunit was found in this species. The inclusion of the N. inaurata hemocyanins in a multiple alignment of the arthropod hemocyanins and the application of the Bayesian method of phylogenetic inference allow, for the first time, a solid reconstruction of the intramolecular evolution of the chelicerate hemocyanin subunits. The branch leading to subunit a diverged first, followed by the common branch of the dimer-forming b and c subunits, while subunits d and f, as well as subunits e and g form common branches. Assuming a clock-like evolution of the chelicerate hemocyanins, a timescale for the evolution of the Chelicerata was obtained that agrees with the fossil record.

  11. Local structural variation with oxygen fugacity in Fe2SiO4+x fayalitic iron silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Lazareva, L.; Wilding, M. C.; Benmore, C. J.; Heald, S. M.; Johnson, C. E.; Johnson, J. A.; Hah, H.-Y.; Sendelbach, S.; Tamalonis, A.; Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Weber, J. K. R.

    2017-04-01

    The structure of molten Fe2SiO4+x has been studied using both high-energy X-ray diffraction and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, combined with aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating. A wide range of Fe3+ contents were accessed by varying the levitation and atmospheric gas composition. Diffraction measurements were made in the temperature (T) and oxygen partial pressure ranges 1624(21) Iron K-edge XANES measurements covered the ranges 1557(33) oxidation state from XANES spectra. XANES pre-edge peak areas imply average Fe-O coordination numbers, nFeO, close to 5 for all Fe3+/ΣFe. Diffraction measurements yielded values of 4.4(2) oxidation during cooling, enabled by stirring of the melt by the levitation gas flow. As such, the oxidation state of hot komatiitic and other highly fluid melts may not be retained, even during rapid cooling, as it is for cooler basaltic and more silicic magmas.

  12. CITOGENETICA DE HIBRIDOS ENTRE TURNERA GRANDIDENTATA (4x Y T. SUBULATA Y T. SCABRA (2x (TURNERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Turnera subulata y T.scabra, 2n = 2x = 10, se cruzaron con T.grandidentata, 2n = 4x = 20, y los híbridos obtenidos se estudiaron citológicamente para determinar la relación entre estas especies. Todos los híbridos presentaron 2n = 3x = 15 y meiosis irregular. En T.subulata x T.grandidentata se hallo una asociación cromosómica media de 4,28 univalentes, 4,16 bivalentes y 0,73 trivalentes. T.scabra x T.grandidentata tuvieron una asociación cromosómica media de 4,53 univalentes, 4,42 bivalentes, 0,53 trivalentes y 0.03 cuadrivalents. El estudio citogenético de estos híbridos indica que estas tres especies tienen el mismo genoma básico. 
    Las fórmulas genómicas Asu Asu para T.subulata, Asc Asc para T.scabra y AgAgArAr para T.grandidentata fueron propuestas en trabajos anteriores. Las asociaciones y las configuraciones que se encuentran en los híbridos analizados en éste estudio avalan las fórmulas genómicas propuestas.

  13. Filled Co (sub X) Ni (sub 4-x) Sb (sub 12-y) Sn (sub Y) Skutterudites: Processing and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Skutterudites have proven to be a useful thermoelectric system as a result of their enhanced figure of merit (ZT1), cheap material cost, favorable mechanical properties, and good thermal stability. The majority of skutterudite interest in recent years has been focused on binary skutterudites like CoSb3 or CoAs3. Binary skutterudites are often double and triple filled, with a range of elements from the lanthanide series, in order to reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity. Ternary and quaternary skutterudites, such as Co4Ge6Se6 or Ni4Sb8Sn4, provide additional paths to tune the electronic structure. The thermal conductivity can further be improved in these complex skutterudites by the introduction of fillers. The Co (sub X) Ni (sub 4-x) Sb (sub 12-y) Sn (sub Y) system has been investigated as both a p- and n-type thermoelectric material, and is stable up to 200 degrees Centigrade. Yb, Ce, and Dy fillers have been introduced into the skutterudite to study the influence of both the type and the quantity of fillers on processing conditions and thermoelectric properties. The system was processed through a multi-step technique that includes solidification, mechano-chemical alloying, and hot pressing which will be discussed along with thermoelectric transport properties.

  14. Co(x)Ni(4-x)Sb(12-y)Sn(y) Ternary Skutterudites: Processing and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Skutterudites have proven to be a useful thermoelectric system as a result of their high figure of merit, favorable mechanical properties, and good thermal stability. Binary skutterudites have received the majority of interest in recent years, as a result of successful double and triple filling schemes. Ternary skutterudites, such as Ni4Sb7Sn5, also demonstrate good thermoelectric performance, with high power factor and low thermal conductivity. Ternary skutterudites, as contrasted to binary systems, provide more possibility for tuning electronic structure as substitutions can be studied on three elements. The Co(x)Ni(4-x)Sb(12-y)Sn(y) system has been investigated as both a p- and n-type thermoelectric material, stable up to 200 C. The system is processed through a combination of solidification, mechanical alloying, and hot pressing steps. Rietveld structure refinement has revealed an interesting occupancy of Sn on both the 24g Wyckoff position with Sb as well as the 2a position as a rattler. In addition to thermoelectric properties, detailed processing routes have been investigated on the system.

  15. Irradiation of 4''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector by the 14 MeV neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, D; Valkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project, a new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) has been developed and installed in the Port of Rijeka in Croatia. The system was based on the examination of sea containers with the 14 MeV neutron beam. During the operation the characteristic gamma rays were produced and measured by several 5''x5''x10'' NaI(Tl) detectors. During this procedure some of the detectors were exposed to an intensive neutron beam radiation. It was necessary to check for possible radiation damage of the NaI(Tl) scintillator during the gamma detector selection phase of the project. The 4''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector was exposed to 14 MeV neutrons for 20 h. From the presented results on energy resolution and activation measurements it could be concluded that there are no significant differences in energy resolution before and after the irradiation by 4.7x10(11) of 14 MeV neutrons. The only problem could be the high level of medium and long term induced activity in the energy region below 2 MeV. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocelový příhradový stožár 4x110kV

    OpenAIRE

    Baďura, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh nosné ocelové konstrukce příhradového stožáru elektrického vedení 4 x 110 kV. Prostorová skladba nosné konstrukce je navržena v souladu s požadavky na zabezpečení účelu, jemuž má objekt sloužit – přenosu elektrické energie. Nosná konstrukce stožáru je navržena z normalizovaných ocelových válcovaných profilů, a aby vyhovovala všem změnám předpisů a technických norem, závazných k výstavbě a provozu venkovních vedení velmi vysokého napětí. Stěžejní změny byly...

  17. Corrosion of Biocompatible Mg66+xZn30-xCa4 (x=0.2 Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowosielski R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the corrosion resistance of Mg66Zn30Ca4 and Mg68Zn28Ca4 metallic glasses and evaluate the ability of this amorphous alloy use for medical applications as biodegradable medical implants. Taking into account the amount of Mg, Zn, Ca elements dissolved in multielectrolyte physiological fluid (MPF from Mg66+xZn30-xCa4 (x=0.2 alloys the daily dose of evolved ions from alloys components was determined. Additional goal of the paper was determination of corrosion rate (Vcorr and amount of hydrogen evolved from amorphous magnesium alloys in simulated environment of human body fluids during 24h immersion and during electrochemical tests. Corrosion studies were done in the multielectrolyte physiological fluid (MPF at 37°C. The amount of hydrogen evolved [ml/cm2] and corrosion rate Vcorr [mm/year] of amorphous Mg66Zn30Ca4 and Mg68Zn28Ca4 alloys were compared. The work also presents characterization of Mg-based bulk metallic glasses structure in the form of 2 mm thickness plates. Samples structure was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction. Fracture and surface morphology of magnesium alloy samples were identified using scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of Li4-xNaxTi5O12 and Li4-xNaxTi5O12/graphene composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential Lithium-ion battery anode material Li4-xNaxTi5O12 (0≤x≤0.15 has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with short processing time and low temperature. The XRD and FE-SEM results indicate that samples with Na-doped are well-crystallized and have more homogeneous particle distributions with smaller overall particle size in the range of 300-600nm. Electrochemical tests reveal that Na-doped samples exhibit impressive specific capacity and cycle stability compared to pristine Li4Ti5O12 at high rate. The Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12 electrode deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of 169mAh/g at 0.5C and maintained at 150.4mAh/g even after 40 cycles with the reversible retention of 88.99%. Finally, a simple solvothermal reduction method was used to fabricate Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12/graphene(Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12/G composite. Galvanostatic charge-discharge tests demonstrate that this sample has remarkable capacities of 197.4mAh/g and 175.5mAh/g at 0.2C and 0.5C rate, respectively. This indicates that the Li3.9Na0.1Ti5O12/G composite is a promising anode material for using in lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Charge Transport and Thermoelectric Properties of (Nd1-z Yb z ) y Fe4-x Co x Sb12 Skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Kil; Jang, Kyung-Wook; Choi, Soon-Mok; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Partially double-filled (Nd1-z Yb z ) y Fe4-x Co x Sb12 (z = 0.25, 0.75, y = 0.8, and x = 0, 0.5, 1.0) skutterudites were prepared by encapsulated melting, annealing, and hot pressing, and the effects of Nd/Yb partial double filling and Co charge compensation on the microstructure, charge transport, and thermoelectric properties were investigated. All the specimens were transformed to the skutterudite phase together with a few secondary phases such as FeSb2, but FeSb2 formation was suppressed on increasing Co content. Nd and Yb were successfully double-filled in the voids of the skutterudite lattice and Co was well substituted at Fe sites, as indicated by changes in the lattice constant with Nd/Yb filling and Fe/Co substitution. All the specimens showed p-type conduction and exhibited degenerate semiconductor characteristics at temperatures from 323 K to 823 K, and the charge transport properties depended on the filling ratio of Nd and Yb because of the difference between the valencies of Nd and Yb. The electrical conductivity decreased and the Seebeck coefficient increased owing to a decrease in the carrier concentration with increasing Co content. The lattice thermal conductivity decreased because phonon scattering was enhanced by Nd and Yb partial double filling, but partially double-filled specimens did not exhibit a further significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity compared with the completely double-filled specimens. A maximum ZT of 0.83 was obtained for (Nd0.75Yb0.25)0.8Fe3CoSb12 at 723 K.

  20. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  1. Bismuth on copper (110): analysis of the c(2x2) and p(4x1) structures by surface x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottermoser, L.; Buslaps, T.; Johnson, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Surface X-ray diffraction has been used to analyze the atomic structures of the Cu(110)-c(2 x 2)-Bi and Cu(110)-p(4 x 1)-Bi reconstructions with submonolayer coverages. A quasi-hexagonal c(2 x 2) adlayer structure is formed when half a monolayer of bismuth is deposited; the coverage corresponds...

  2. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 x 10(18) eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Pera, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaapa, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempe, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maure, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesa, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechcio, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouletl, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanca, D.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vasquez, R.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynski, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4x10(18) eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60 degrees detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux

  3. Rhythmic expression of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases CYP4x1 and CYP2c11 in the rat brain and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Koryn A; Lourim, David; Tryba, Andrew K; Harder, David R

    2014-12-01

    Mammals have circadian variation in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, thrombotic tendency, and cerebral blood flow (CBF). These changes may be in part orchestrated by circadian variation in clock gene expression within cells comprising the vasculature that modulate blood flow (e.g., fibroblasts, cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells, astrocytes, and endothelial cells). However, the downstream mechanisms that underlie circadian changes in blood flow are unknown. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (Cyp4x1 and Cyp2c11) are expressed in the brain and vasculature and metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to form epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs are released from astrocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells and act as potent vasodilators, increasing blood flow. EETs released in response to increases in neural activity evoke a corresponding increase in blood flow known as the functional hyperemic response. We examine the hypothesis that Cyp2c11 and Cyp4x1 expression and EETs production vary in a circadian manner in the rat brain and cerebral vasculature. RT-PCR revealed circadian/diurnal expression of clock and clock-controlled genes as well as Cyp4x1 and Cyp2c11, within the rat hippocampus, middle cerebral artery, inferior vena cava, hippocampal astrocytes and rat brain microvascular endothelial cells. Astrocyte and endothelial cell culture experiments revealed rhythmic variation in Cyp4x1 and Cyp2c11 gene and protein expression with a 12-h period and parallel rhythmic production of EETs. Our data suggest there is circadian regulation of Cyp4x1 and Cyp2c11 gene expression. Such rhythmic EETs production may contribute to circadian changes in blood flow and alter risk of adverse cardiovascular events throughout the day.

  4. Studies on electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4–3xFe4xO15

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The system SrBi4Ti4–3xFe4xO15 belonging to bismuth layer structured ferroelectric (BLSF) materials with x = 0, 0⋅1 and 0⋅2 has been prepared through solid-state double sintering method. Increase of iron content in SrBi4Ti4O15 resulted in densification of the samples. The normal puckering observed in the ...

  5. Effect of silicon content on the sintering and biological behaviour of Ca10(PO4)(6-x)(SiO4)x(OH)(2-x) ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palard, Mickaël; Combes, Julien; Champion, Eric; Foucaud, Sylvie; Rattner, Aline; Bernache-Assollant, Didier

    2009-05-01

    Silicated hydroxyapatite powders (Ca10(PO4)(6-x)(SiO4)x(OH)(2-x); Si(x)HA) were synthesized using a wet precipitation method. The sintering of Si(x)HA ceramics with 0 cells. The proliferation of cells on the surface of the ceramics increased up to 5 days of culture, indicating that the materials were biocompatible. However, the silicon content did not influence the cell proliferation.

  6. Superconductivity induced by external pressure in Eu3-x Sr x Bi2S4F4 (x = 1, 2) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M.; Kalai Selvan, G.; Haque, Z.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Wang, B.; Ishigaki, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, A. K.; Arumugam, S.

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the temperature-pressure phase diagram of two materials Eu3-x Sr x Bi2S4F4 (x = 1 and x = 2) by electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements down to 2 K. Semiconducting resistive behavior observed in both the materials under ambient conditions transforms into metallic behavior as externally applied pressure gradually increases. Superconductivity is observed in both the materials at and above applied pressure P = 2.37 GPa. Under the highest pressure P ˜ 2.9 GPa applied in our measurements, T c is ˜9.8 K in Eu2SrBi2S4F4 (x = 1) and 8.2 K in EuSr2Bi2S4F4 (x = 2). Upper critical field H c2(0) ˜ 3.04 T (x = 1) and 1.17 T (x = 2) is estimated from magnetic field dependent resistivity measurements at 2.9 GPa. Using the Arrhenius equation, we estimate the thermally activated flux flow activation energy U 0 as 116 K in Eu2SrBi2S4F4 and 39 K in EuSr2Bi2S4F4. At 2 K, DC magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate S-type paramagnetic behavior.

  7. Determining the effect of Ru substitution on the thermal stability of CeFe[subscript 4-x]Ru[subscript x]Sb[subscript 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Jessica A.; Walker, James D.S.; Hayes, John R.; Gaultois, Michael W.; Grosvenor, Andrew P. (Saskatchewan)

    2011-11-14

    The ternary, rare-earth filled (RE) Skutterudites (REM{sub 4}Pn{sub 12}; M = Fe-Os; Pn = P-Sb) have been proposed for use in high-temperature thermoelectric devices to convert waste heat to useful power. CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} has been one of the most popular materials proposed for this application; however, it oxidizes at relatively low temperatures. The thermal stability of Skutterudites can be enhanced by selective substitution of the constituent elements and Eu(Fe,Ru){sub 4}Sb{sub 12} variants have been found to oxidize at temperatures above that of CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}. Unfortunately, these materials have poor thermoelectric properties. In this study, the thermal stability of CeFe{sub 4-x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} was examined depending on the value of x. (These compounds have similar thermoelectric properties to those of CeFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}.) It has been found by use of TGA and XANES that the temperature at which point CeFe{sub 4-x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} oxidizes increases with greater Ru substitution. XANES was also used to confirm the general charge assignment of Ce{sup 3+}Fe{sub 4-x}{sup 2+}Ru{sub x}{sup 2+}Sb{sub 12}{sup 1-}.

  8. Determining the effect of Ru substitution on the thermal stability of CeFe 4- xRu xSb 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Jessica A.; Walker, James D. S.; Hayes, John R.; Gaultois, Michael W.; Grosvenor, Andrew P.

    2011-11-01

    The ternary, rare-earth filled (RE) Skutterudites (REM 4Pn12; M = Fe-Os; Pn = P-Sb) have been proposed for use in high-temperature thermoelectric devices to convert waste heat to useful power. CeFe 4Sb 12 has been one of the most popular materials proposed for this application; however, it oxidizes at relatively low temperatures. The thermal stability of Skutterudites can be enhanced by selective substitution of the constituent elements and Eu(Fe,Ru) 4Sb 12 variants have been found to oxidize at temperatures above that of CeFe 4Sb 12. Unfortunately, these materials have poor thermoelectric properties. In this study, the thermal stability of CeFe 4- xRu xSb 12 was examined depending on the value of x. (These compounds have similar thermoelectric properties to those of CeFe 4Sb 12.) It has been found by use of TGA and XANES that the temperature at which point CeFe 4- xRu xSb 12 oxidizes increases with greater Ru substitution. XANES was also used to confirm the general charge assignment of Ce 3+Fe 4- x2+Ru x2+Sb 121-.

  9. Structural and Magnetothermal Properties of Compounds: Yb5SixGe4-x,Sm5SixGe4-x, EuO, and Eu3O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyunghan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The family of R5SixGe4-x alloys demonstrates a variety of unique physical phenomena related to magneto-structural transitions associated with reversible breaking and reforming of specific bonds that can be controlled by numerous external parameters such as chemical composition, magnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Therefore, R5SixGe4-x systems have been extensively studied to uncover the mechanism of the extraordinary magneto-responsive properties including the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and colossal magnetostriction, as well as giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE). Until now, more than a half of possible R5SixGe4-x pseudobinary systems have been completely or partially investigated with respect to their crystallography and phase relationships (R = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, Y). Still, there are other R5SixGe4-x systems (R = Ce, Sm, Ho, Tm, and Yb) that are not studied yet. Here, we report on phase relationships and structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties in the Yb5SixGe4-xand Sm5SixGe4-x pseudobinary systems, which may exhibit mixed valence states. The crystallography, phase relationships, and physical properties of Yb5SixGe4-x alloys with 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 have been examined by using single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature, and dc magnetization and heat capacity measurements between 1.8 K and 400 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 7 T. Unlike the majority of R5SixGe4-x systems studied to date, where R is the rare earth metal, all Yb-based germanide-silicides with the 5:4 stoichiometry crystallize in the same Gd5Si4-type structure. The magnetic properties of Yb5SixGe4-x materials are nearly composition

  10. A sex-specific association of common variants of neuroligin genes (NLGN3 and NLGN4X with autism spectrum disorders in a Chinese Han cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synaptic genes, NLGN3 and NLGN4X, two homologous members of the neuroligin family, have been supposed as predisposition loci for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, and defects of these two genes have been identified in a small fraction of individuals with ASDs. But no such rare variant in these two genes has as yet been adequately replicated in Chinese population and no common variant has been further investigated to be associated with ASDs. Methods 7 known ASDs-related rare variants in NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes were screened for replication of the initial findings and 12 intronic tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for case-control association analysis in a total of 229 ASDs cases and 184 control individuals in a Chinese Han cohort, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results We found that a common intronic variant, SNP rs4844285 in NLGN3 gene, and a specific 3-marker haplotype XA-XG-XT (rs11795613-rs4844285-rs4844286 containing this individual SNP were associated with ASDs and showed a male bias, even after correction for multiple testing (SNP allele: P = 0.048, haplotype:P = 0.032. Simultaneously, none of these 7 known rare mutation of NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes was identified, neither in our patients with ASDs nor controls, giving further evidence that these known rare variants might be not enriched in Chinese Han cohort. Conclusion The present study provides initial evidence that a common variant in NLGN3 gene may play a role in the etiology of ASDs among affected males in Chinese Han population, and further supports the hypothesis that defect of synapse might involvement in the pathophysiology of ASDs.

  11. Effect of priming cooperation or individualism on a collective and interdependent task: changeover speed in the 4 x 100-meter relay race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Clémentine; Meyer, Thierry; Oberlé, Dominique; Gherson, Thibault

    2009-06-01

    Priming effects of cooperation vs. individualism were investigated on changeover speed within a 4 x 100-m relay race. Ten teams of four adult beginner athletes ran two relays, a pretest race and an experimental race 3 weeks later. Just before the experimental race, athletes were primed with either cooperation or individualism through a scrambled-sentence task. Comparing to the pretest performance, cooperation priming improved baton speed in the exchange zone (+30 cm/s). Individualism priming did not impair changeover performance. The boundary conditions of priming effects applied to collective and interdependent tasks are discussed within the implicit coordination framework.

  12. Spin-orbit corrections to the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants in XH4 (X=C, Si, Ge, and Sn)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirpekar, Sheela; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Oddershede, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Using the quadratic response function at the ab initio SCF level of approximation we have calculated the relativistic corrections from the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, HSO, to the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of XH4 (X = C, Si, Ge, and Sn). We find that the spin-orbit contributions...... to JX-H are small, amounting only to about 1% for JSn-H. For the geminal H-H coupling constants the relativistic corrections are numerically smaller than for JH-H, but in some cases relatively larger compared to the actual magnitude of JH-H. We also investigate the use of an effective one-electron spin...

  13. Magnetic excitations of Nd in Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (x=0,0.09,0.13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henggeler, W.; Furrer, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Chattopadyay, T.; Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Vorderwisch, P. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Thalmeier, P. [MPI Dresden (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    We have studied the wave vector dependence of the magnetic excitation spectrum of Nd in Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (x=0,0.09,0.13) by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on single crystals. The results are analyzed with the help of model calculations which are performed in the context of the mean field random-phase approximation. This enables us to obtain direct information on the coupling constants between the rare earth ions. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  14. Efecto del dopaje en la propiedades termoeléctricas de cerámicas Ca3Co4-xNixO9

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Gabriel; Rasekh, Shahed; Torres, Miguel Angel; Bosque, Pablo; Madre, Maria Antonieta; Sotelo, Andres; Diez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    [EN]: Ca3Co4-xNixO9 (x=0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) polycrystalline thermoelectric ceramics have been prepared by the classical solid state method. As a result of the Ni addition an increase in porosity has been detected. Moreover, the presence of Ni has been related with the increase of Ca2Co3O6 secondary phase and the appearance of a new NiO-CoO solid solution. However, for the 0.01-Ni doped samples an improvement in the thermoelectric performances has been measured. This effect has been related w...

  15. Comparison of options for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel, including reduction of nozzle area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustically significant features of the NASA 4X7m wind tunnel and the Dutch-German DNW low speed tunnel are compared to illustrate the reasons for large differences in background noise in the open jet test sections of the two tunnels. Also introduced is the concept of reducing test section noise levels through fan and turning vane source reductions which can be brought about by reducing the nozzle cross sectional area, and thus the circuit mass flow for a particular exit velocity. The costs and benefits of treating sources, paths, and changing nozzle geometry are reviewed.

  16. Structure determination of the indium induced Si(001)-(4X3) reconstruction by surface x-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.; Seehofer, L.

    1998-01-01

    The indium-induced Si(001)-(4 X 3) reconstruction has been investigated by surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements with synchrotron radiation and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The Patterson function analysis enables us to exclude In dimers as a structural element in this reconstruction....... We present a new structural model which includes 6 In atoms threefold coordinated to Si atoms and 5 displaced Si atoms per unit cell. Relaxations down to the sixth layer were determined. 'Trimers' made up of In-Si-In atoms are a key structural element. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  17. FABRIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI ANTENA PATCH MICROSTRIP ARRAY 4X4 UNTUK APLIKASI WI-FI PADA FREKUENSI 2.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Artawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fabrikasi dan karakterisasi antena patch dengan microstrip array 4x4 telah dilakukan untuk aplikasi wi-fi pada frekuensi 2,4 GHz. Desain fabrikasinya dirancang sesuai persamaan yang ada yang kemudian difabrikasi dengan metode UV Photoresist laminate. Antena yang sudah difabrikasi selanjutnya dilakukan pengukuran dengan Network Analyzer untuk mengetahui frekuensi kerja antena yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan pengukuran pola radiasi untuk mendapatkan nilai penguatan dan nilai HPBW. Data hasil pengukuran dianalisis dengan persamaan yang sesuai dengan karakteristik antena dan haruslah memenuhi spesifikasi yang dibutuhkan seperti frekuensi kerja, SWR, VSWR, koofesien refleksi yang kompatibel dan return loss yang kecil serta peguatan yang besar. Selanjutnya data hasil pengukuran dibandingkan dengan data hasil perhitungan untuk mengetahui besarnya kesalahan (error. Hasil karakterisasi antena patch dengan microstrip array 4x4 diperoleh frekuensi kerja (bandwidth 2,21 – 2,43GHz, VSWR 1,26, SWR 2,01, return loss -18.42dB, koofesien refleksi 0,12 dengan penguatan (gain untuk pola radiasi vertikal 17dB dan untuk pola radiasi horisontal 18dB. Nilai HPBW 320 untuk pola radiasi vertikal dan 370 untuk pola radiasi horisontal. Kesalahan total (total error sebesar 11,24 %.

  18. Structural origin of Si-2p core-level shifts from Si(100)-c[4x2] surface: A spectral x-ray photoelectron diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Tonner, B.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Denlinger, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)][Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have performed angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) from a Si(100)-c(4x2) surface to study the structural origin of Si-2p core-level shifts. In the experiment, the highly resolved surface Si-2p core-level spectra were measured as a fine grid of hemisphere and photon energies, using the SpectroMicroscopy Facility {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} instrument. By carefully decomposing the spectra into several surface peaks, the authors are able to obtain surface-atom resolved XPD patterns. Using a multiple scattering analysis, they derived a detailed atomic model for the Si(100)-c(4x2) surface. In this model, the asymmetric dimers were found tilted by 11.5 plus/minus 2.0 degrees with bond length of 2.32 plus/minus 0.05{angstrom}. By matching model XPD patterns to experiment, the authors can identify which atoms in the reconstructed surface are responsible for specific photoemission lines in the 2p spectrum.

  19. Gd(5)Si(4-x)Bi(x) structures: novel slab sequences achieved by turning off the directionality of nearest-slab interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Campbell, Branton J; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2009-11-02

    Substitution of Bi for Si leads to the complete cleavage of the interslab dimers T-T in the Gd(5)Si(4-x)Bi(x) system with x = 1.58 - 2.42 (T is a mixture of Si and Bi). Equivalence of the interslab T...T contacts, achieved through combination of the electronic and geometrical parameters, removes directionality of nearest-slab interactions and allows for a novel slab stacking. Two new slab sequences, ABCDABCD (x = 2.07, I4(1)/acd space group) and ABADABAD (x = 2.42, P4(2)bc), have been discovered in Gd(5)Si(4-x)Bi(x) in addition to the known one, ABAB, that is dominant among the RE(5)X(4) phases (RE is a rare-earth element, X is a p-element). The slab stacking for x = 2.07 and x = 2.42 is dictated by the second-nearest slab interactions which promote an origin shift either for the entire slab sequence as in ABCDABCD or for every other second-nearest slab pair as in ABADABAD. The loss of the directionality of the nearest-slab bonding allows for extensive stacking faults and leads to diffuse scattering.

  20. Analisa Stabilitas Transien Pada Sistem Transmisi Sumatera Utara 150 kV - 275 kV dengan Penambahan PLTA Batang Toru 4 x 125 MW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danar Tri Kumara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistem kelistrikan Sumatera Utara yang dipasok dengan menggunakan sistem Transmisi 150 kV dan 275 kV merupakan sistem transmisi dengan pusat beban terbesar di Sumatera. Dalam upaya memenuhi kebutuhan listrik, sesuai dengan RUPTL, Sistem Transmisi Sumatera Utara akan mengoperasikan PLTA Batang Toru dengan kapasitas 4 x 125 MW pada tahun 2020. Karena potensi sumber energi yang cukup besar di Sumatera Utara adalah tenaga air dan panas bumi.  Dengan penambahan PLTA Batang Toru 4 x 125 MW, perlu dilakukan studi kestabilan transien untuk mengetahui kestabilan sistem saat terjadi gangguan transien. Dari hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa case lepasnya generator, lepasnya satu saluran dan saluran ganda tidak menyebabkan sistem keluar dari batas stabil. Karena ketika generator lepas, daya supply yang hilang hanya 5-8% dari total pembangkitan. Begitu juga dengan kasus single pole auto reclosing dengan waktu Circuit Breaker kembali tertutup sebesar 500 ms setelah gangguan, hasil respon sudut rotor, frekuensi dan tegangan menunjukkan sistem masih stabil. Pada penentuan waktu pemutusan kritis (CCT, nilai CCT pada sistem 2018 dapat ditemukan pada 120 ms – 140 ms (batas rekomendasi CCT sistem besar. Sedangkan pada sistem 2020 tetap dalam keadaan stabil ketika terjadi gangguan hubung singkat 3 fasa . Sehingga penentuan CCT (Critical Clearing Time melebihi dari batas rekomendasi nilai CCT untuk sistem besar.

  1. Oxidation of cyclic amines by molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mbuvi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br react with a large excess of the nitrogen bases, 1-methylpyrrolidine, 1-methylpiperidine, 1-ethylpiperidine and 2-ethylpiperidine to give aminecarbonyl complexes of the type M(CO3L3 (L= alkylamine. Excess piperidine reacts with the tungsten halocarbonyls, [W(CO4X2]2 (X = Cl, Br, to give the trans isomer of the complex, W(CO3(C5H11N3. The halogens were recovered as the amminium salts, amine, HX. The oxidized amine dimerized to form a yellow product which was recovered as an oily liquid but in very small amounts. However, in the reaction between Mo(CO4Br2 and 1-ethylpiperidine, a yellow crystalline solid, with a melting point of 224 oC was recovered in sufficient amounts for elemental analysis, melting point and spectral data. Its mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak at m+/z = 222, a clear evidence that the oxidized amine dimerizes. The cyclic dibasic amine piperazine, C4H10N2 is not, however, oxidized by these halocarbonyls but rather it reacts by substituting some CO groups to form products of the type, M(CO3(C4H10N22X2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br. Products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF TEMPERATURE HARDENING FOR IMPROVING THE HEAT RESISTANCE OF TOOL STEEL 4X5MФ1С IN VARIOUS WORKPIECES Part 1. INFLUENCE OF HEATING TEMPERATURE 1040 °С IN THE OIL HARDENING AND HARDERING ON THE HARDNESS AND STRUCTURE OF FORGINGS AND CASTINGS MADE OF STEEL 4X5MФ1C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the oil quenching temperature with the heating 1040 °С near 1 hour of tool steel 4X5МФ1С forgings and castings on the microstructure and the ability to hardening after high temperature tempering at 500–650 °C for 1, 5 hours. It was shown that increase of hardening level in comparison with the required index has not been achieved.

  3. Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticulate LiMgxMn1-xPO4 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) Carbon Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M; Chen, Jiajun; Conry, Thomas E.; Wang, Ruigang; Wilcox, James; Aumentado, Albert

    2009-12-14

    A combustion synthesis technique was used to prepare nanoparticulate LiMgxMn1-xPO4 (x=0, 0.1,0.2)/carbon composites. Powders consisted of carbon-coated particles about 30 nm in diameter, which were partly agglomerated into larger secondary particles. The utilization of the active materials in lithium cells depended most strongly upon the post-treatment and the Mg content, and was not influenced by the amount of carbon. Best results were achieved with a hydrothermally treated LiMg0.2Mn0.8PO4/C composite, which exhibited close to 50percent utilization of the theoretical capacity at a C/2 discharge rate.

  4. Internal field effect on vortex states in the layered organic superconductor λ -(BETS)2Fe1 -xGaxCl4 (x =0.37 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uji, S.; Terashima, T.; Konoike, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yasuzuka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Zhou, B.

    2017-04-01

    Resistance and magnetic torque measurements have been performed to investigate an internal field effect on vortex states for a layered organic superconductor λ -(BETS) 2Fe1 -xGaxCl4 (x =0.37 ), where BETS = bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. Because of the internal field by the localized 3 d spins of the Fe ions, the superconducting transition temperature has a maximum at 14 T. The strongest energy dissipation due to Josephson vortex dynamics and the largest pinning of pancake vortices are observed at ˜14 T. The interlayer resistance in parallel fields shows a characteristic dip with decreasing temperature. The dip temperature decreases with increasing field, suggesting a Josephson vortex transition. At ˜23 T, we observe another small dip in the field dependence of the interlayer resistance, steep deceases of the perpendicular critical field, and diamagnetism. These results show a phase transition of the superconductivity, which is likely ascribed to an inhomogeneous superconducting transition.

  5. 400Gb/s (4 x 100Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040km SMF-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianjun; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Ming-Fang; Qian, Dayou; Ji, Philip N; Wang, Ting; Magill, Peter

    2009-09-28

    We have generated 4 x 100-Gb/s orthogonal WDM optical signal by employing polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) return-to-zero (RZ) QPSK modulation format and tight optical filtering technique. The required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) at bit error ratio (BER) of 2 x 10(-3) for the 400 Gb/s orthogonal DWDM signal is measured to be approximately 22.8 dB/0.1 nm. After transmission over 1040-km standard single mode fiber (EDFA-only amplification, 80-km amplifier span and fully receiver-side electrical dispersion compensation), the measured BER for all the four orthogonal subchannels are smaller than 2 x 10(-3).

  6. Comparison of methods for localizing the source position of deauthentication attacks on WAP 802.11n using Chanalyzer and Wi-Spy 2.4x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaweres, R. B.; Mokoginta, S.; Alaydrus, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper descnbes a comparison of three methods used to locate the position of the source of deauthentication attacks on Wi-Fi using Chanalyzer, and Wi-Spy 2.4x adapter. The three methods are wardriving, absorption and trilateration. The position of constant deauthentication attacks is more easily analyzed compared to that of random attacks. Signal propagation may provide a comparison between signal strength and distance which makes the position of attackers more easily located. The results are shown on the chart patterns generated from the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSS). And it is proven that these three methods can be used to localize the position of attackers, and can be recommended for use in the environment of organizations using Wi-Fi.

  7. Dispersion of the second harmonic generation from CdGa{sub 2}X{sub 4} (X = S, Se) defect chalcopyrite: DFT calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H. [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Khan, Saleem Ayaz, E-mail: sayaz_usb@yahoo.com [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Nonlinear optical properties of CdGa{sub 2}X{sub 4} (X = S, Se) were investigated. • The compounds have large uniaxial anisotropy and large negative birefringence. • The second order susceptibility and the first hyperpolarizability were calculated. • CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} posses huge second harmonic generation. - Abstract: All electron full potential linear augmented plane wave method was used for calculating the nonlinear optical susceptibilities of CdGa{sub 2}X{sub 4} (X = S, Se) within the framework of density functional theory. The exchange correlation potential was solved by recently developed modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) approximation. The crystal structure of CdGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} and CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} reveals a large uniaxial dielectric anisotropy ensuing the birefringence of −0.036 and −0.066 which make it suitable for second harmonic generation. The second order susceptibility |χ{sub ijk}{sup (2)}(ω)| and microscopic first hyperpolarizability β{sub ijk}(ω) were calculated. The calculated |χ{sub 123}{sup (2)}(ω)| and |χ{sub 312}{sup (2)}(ω)| static values for the dominant components found to be 18.36 pm/V and 22.23 pm/V for CdGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} and CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4}. Both values shifted to be 60.12 pm/V and 108.86 pm/V at λ = 1064 nm. The calculated values of β{sub 123}(ω) is 6.47 × 10{sup −30} esu at static limit and 12.42 × 10{sup −30} esu at λ = 1064 nm for CdGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}, whereas it is 8.82 × 10{sup −30} esu at static limit and 20.51 × 10{sup −30} esu at λ = 1064 nm for CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4}. The evaluation of second order susceptibilities and first hyperpolarizabilties suggest that CdGa{sub 2}X{sub 4} possess huge second harmonic generation.

  8. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.6, 0.7, 0.8) ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Shahida; Paul, D. P.; Hoque, S. M.; Hakim, M. A.; Hudl, M.; Mathieu, R.; Nordblad, P.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of Zn substitution on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.6, 0.7, 0.8) ferrites over a wide temperature range has been investigated. The polycrystalline samples were synthesized using the solid-state reaction at sintering temperature 1050 °C (1323 K) for 2 h and has been characterized by SQUID magnetometry. Magnetization versus temperature showed that all samples exhibit a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature. The Curie temperature Tc is found to decrease from 373 K for x=0.6 to 140 K for x=0.8 as well as the saturation magnetization Ms which shifts from 100 to 44 emu/gm. The magnetocaloric effect was obtained by measuring a family of M-H curves at set temperature intervals and calculating the entropy change, ΔS for this system using the Maxwell relation. The ΔS of all samples increased with increasing applied field and showed a maximum around their respective Tc. The entropy change (ΔS) decreased with increasing Zn content, whereas the relative cooling power (RCP) slightly increased. The large RCP and ΔS found in Zn substitution Cu-Zn ferrites will be interesting for magnetic refrigeration near room temperature.

  9. N=1 supersymmetric $SU(4) x SU(2)_{L} x SU(2)_{R}$ effective theory from the weakly coupled heterotic superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, George K

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we construct a three generation N=1 supersymmetric SU(4)xSU(2)LxSU(2)R model supplemented by an SU(8) hidden gauge symmetry and five Abelian factors. The symmetry breaking to the standard model is achieved using vacuum expectation values of a Higgs pair in (4bar,2R)+(4,2R) at a high scale. One linear combination of the Abelian symmetries is anomalous and is broken by vacuum expectation values of singlet fields along the flat directions of the superpotential. All consistent string vacua of the model are completely classified by solving the corresponding system of F- and D-flatness equations including non-renormalizable terms up to sixth order. The requirement of existence of electroweak massless doublets further restricts the phenomenologically viable vacua. The third generation fermions receive masses from the tree-level superpotential. Further, a complete calculation of all non-renormalizable fermion mass terms up to fifth order s...

  10. Theoretical investigation of water oxidation processes on small Mn(x)Ti(2-x)O4 (x = 0-2) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongkeun; Aikens, Christine M

    2014-09-18

    Understanding the water oxidation process on small metal oxide complexes is fundamental for developing photocatalysts for solar fuel production. Titanium oxide and manganese oxide complexes have high potential as components of a cheap, nontoxic, and stable photocatalyst. In this theoretical work, the water oxidation process on Mn(x)Ti(2-x)O4 (x = 0-2) clusters is investigated at the BP86 level of theory using two water molecules and fully saturated systems. In the oxidation cycle using two water molecules, Mn reduces the reaction energy; however, Mn does not reduce the reaction energy on the fully saturated system. When two water molecules are used, the highest reaction energy in the water oxidation cycle is lower than 3 eV, but the highest reaction energy is higher than 3 eV on fully saturated systems except for the pure titanium oxide complex which has a highest reaction energy of 2.56 eV. Dehydrogenation processes in the water oxidation cycle require higher energy than the O-O formation or water adsorption processes. The overall dehydrogenation energy is usually smaller on complexes including at least one Mn atom and it is smallest on the Mn2O4 complex that has two water molecules. Considering the highest reaction energy in the overall water oxidation cycle, water oxidation at the manganese atom of MnTiO4 hydrated with two water molecules is the most favorable in energy.

  11. Influence of Concentration and Temperature on Tunneling and Rotational Dynamics of Ammonium in $Rb_{1-x}(NH_{4})_{x}$ Mixed Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Natkaniec, I; Martínez-Sarrion, M L; Mestres, L; Herraiz, M; Smirnov, L S; Shuvalov, L A

    2001-01-01

    The Rb_{1-x}(NH_{4})_{x} mixed crystals are studied by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering using time-of-flight spectrometers in the concentration region of the x-T phase diagram 0.01\\lq x \\lq 0.66 at 5\\lq T \\lq 150 K, where dynamic and static orientational disorder phases are generally found. It is shown that at 5 K rotational tunneling levels for ammonium concentrations x=0.01,0.02 and 0.06 are similar. Additional tunneling levels are observed for x=0.16 which can be explained as the result of T-states splitting for annount of NH_{4}-NH_{4} interaction. Tunneling levels are not observed for 0.40 as the result of forming orientational glass state. The elastic incoherent structure factors for concentrations 0.01\\lq x \\lq 0.16 (dynamic orientational disordered \\alpha-phase), x=0.40 (orientational glass state) and 0.50\\lq x \\lq 0.66 (orientational ordered state) have different temperature dependences.

  12. N = 1 supersymmetric SU(4) x SU(2) sub L x SU (2) sub R effective theory from the weakly coupled heterotic superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Leontaris, George K

    1999-01-01

    In the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we construct a three-generation N = 1 supersymmetric SU(4) x SU(2) sub L x SU(2) sub R model supplemented by an SU(8) hidden gauge symmetry and five Abelian factors. The symmetry breaking to the standard model is achieved using vacuum expectation values of a Higgs pair in (4,2 sub R) + (4-bar,2 sub R) at a high scale. One linear combination of the Abelian symmetries is anomalous and is broken by vacuum expectation values of singlet fields along the flat directions of the superpotential. All consistent string vacua of the model are completely classified by solving the corresponding system of F- and D-flatness equations including non-renormalizable terms up to sixth order. The requirement of existence of electroweak massless doublets imposes further restrictions to the phenomenologically viable vacua. The third generation fermions receive masses from the tree-level superpotential. Further, a complete calculation of all non-renormaliz...

  13. Hierarchical Heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) as an Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Wang, Linlin

    2016-05-01

    Hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) were developed as an electrode material for supercapacitor with improved pseudocapacitive performance. Within these hierarchical heterostructures, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays directly grown on the Ni foam can not only act as an excellent pseudocapacitive material but also serve as a hierarchical scaffold for growing NiMoO4 or CoMoO4 electroactive materials (nanosheets). The electrode made of NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 presented a highest areal capacitance of 3.74 F/cm2 at 2 mA/cm2, which was much higher than the electrodes made of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 (2.452 F/cm2) and NiCo2O4 (0.456 F/cm2), respectively. Meanwhile, the NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 electrode exhibited good rate capability. It suggested the potential of the hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  14. Diamagnetic nuclear 119Sn probes in the copper chromites CuCr2X4 (X = O, S, Se) with a spinel structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, T. V.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Stepin, A. S.; Dubinskaya, Yu. L.; Smirnovskaya, E. M.; Berry, F. J.; Thomas, M. F.

    2007-04-01

    The CuCr2X4 (X = O, S, Se) spinel system has been studied by the Mössbauer spectroscopy of the nuclear diamagnetic 119Sn probe at low temperatures in an external magnetic field. The hyperfine magnetic fields H Sn induced by paramagnetic ions at tin nuclei in the CuCr2S4 and CuCr2Se4 chalcogenides have giant values and are somewhat higher than those detected in the CuCr2O4 oxide. This behavior is caused by the strong covalence of the chalcogenides, which is supported by the experimentally found isomer shifts. The H Sn field is found to be mainly contributed by superexchange 90° interactions in the B-sublattice along the Cr[B]-X-Sn[B] bond chain, whose role increases in the series O-S-Se. In the oxygen CuCr2O4 spinel, the partial contributions to the H Sn field induced by the Cu2+ and Cr3+ ions are estimated. The local magnetic structure of the CuCr2O4 spinel is refined, and its total magnetization is shown to be directed along the magnetic moment of copper in the A sublattice.

  15. Preparation, crystallography, magnetic and magnetothermal properties of Ce5SixGe4-x alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rangarajan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of the crystal structure and the phase relationships in the Ce5Si4-xGex system has been carried out. The crystal structures of the single phase intermetallics were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction and subsequent refinement employing the Rietveld analysis technique was performed. The intermetallic system was found to crystallize in three distinct crystal structures. The Ce5Si4-based solid solution extends from x = 0 to x = 2.15 and it was found to crystallize in the well-known Zr5Si4-type tetragonal structure. The germanium rich alloys, where 3.1 ≤} x ≤ 4, crystallized in the Sm5Ge4-type orthorhombic structure. The crystal structure of the intermediate phase, when 2.35 ≤ x ≤ 2.8, was found out to be of the Gd5Si2Ge2-type monoclinic structure. Microhardness tests were conducted on the samples in order to probe the trend in mechanical properties in this alloy system as a function of Ge concentration. The magnetic, thermal and magnetocaloric properties of the Ce5Si4-xGex alloy system have been investigated for x = 0, 1.0, 1.8, 2.5, 2.8, 3.5, 3.8 and 4.0. The phases with x = 0, 1.0 and 1.8 crystallize in the tetragonal Zr5Si4 structure and those with x = 2.5, 2.8 form in the Gd5Si2Ge2-type monoclinic structure. The alloys with x = 3.5, 3.8 and 4.0 crystallize in the Sm5Ge4-type orthorhombic structure. The Curie temperature of the tetragonal phases increases with increasing Ge content. The ordering temperatures of the monoclinic and orthorhombic phases remain nearly unaffected by the composition, with the Curie temperatures of the latter slightly higher than those of the former. All the alloys display evidence of antiferromagnetic interactions in the ground state. The orthorhombic and the

  16. Crystal structure and physical properties of conducting molecular antiferromagnets with a halogen-substituted donor: (EDO-TTFBr2)2FeX4 (X = Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, A; Yamazaki, H; Aimatsu, M; Enoki, T; Watanabe, R; Ogura, E; Kuwatani, Y; Iyoda, M

    2007-04-16

    The crystal structure and physical properties of radical ion salts (EDO-TTFBr2)2FeX4 (X = Cl, Br) based on halogen-substituted organic donor and magnetic anions are investigated, including the comparison with the isomorphous compounds (EDO-TTFBr2)2GaX4 with nonmagnetic anions. The crystal structure of these four salts consists of uniformly stacked donor molecules and tetrahedral counter anions, and the Br substituents of the donor molecules are connected to halide ligands of anions with remarkably short intermolecular atomic distances. These salts show metallic behavior around room temperature and undergo a spin-density-wave transition in the low-temperature range, as confirmed with the divergence of the electron spin resonance (ESR) line width. Although close anion-anion contacts are absent in these salts, the FeCl4 salt undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at TN = 4.2 K, and the FeBr4 salt shows successive magnetic transitions at TN = 13.5 K and TC2 = 8.5 K with a helical spin structure as a candidate for the ground state of the d-electron spins. The magnetoresistance of the FeCl4 salt shows stepwise anomalies, which are explained qualitatively using a pi-d interaction-based frustrated spin system model composed of the donor pi-electron and the anion d-electron spins. Although on the ESR spectra of the FeX4 salts signals from the pi- and d-electron spins are separately observed, the line width of the pi-electron spins broadens under the temperature where the susceptibility deviates from the Curie-Weiss behavior, showing the presence of the pi-d interaction.

  17. LiFePO4 Nanostructures Fabricated from Iron(III) Phosphate (FePO4 x 2H2O) by Hydrothermal Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Viswanathan S; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Electrode materials having nanometer scale dimensions are expected to have property enhancements due to enhanced surface area and mass/charge transport kinetics. This is particularly relevant to intrinsically low electronically conductive materials such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), which is of recent research interest as a high performance intercalation electrode material for Li-ion batteries. Many of the reported works on LiFePO4 synthesis are unattractive either due to the high cost of raw materials or due to the complex synthesis technique. In this direction, synthesis of LiFePO4 directly from inexpensive FePO4 shows promise.The present study reports LiFePO4 nanostructures prepared from iron (III) phosphate (FePO4 x 2H2O) by precipitation-hydrothermal method. The sintered powder was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Two synthesis methods, viz. bulk synthesis and anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted synthesis are reported. By bulk synthesis, micro-sized particles having peculiar surface nanostructuring were formed at precipitation pH of 6.0 to 7.5 whereas typical nanosized LiFePO4 resulted at pH ≥ 8.0. An in-situ precipitation strategy inside the pores of AAO utilizing the spin coating was utilized for the AAO-template-assisted synthesis. The template with pores filled with the precipitate was subsequently subjected to hydrothermal process and high temperature sintering to fabricate compact rod-like structures.

  18. Proton conductivity, structural and thermal properties of (1- x) CsH2PO4- xBa(H2PO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, V. G.; Bagryantseva, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electrotransport, and thermodynamic properties of the (1- x)CsH2PO4- xBa(H2PO4)2 system in a wide range of compositions ( x = 0.1-0.4) were firstly studied to develop the highly conductive proton electrolytes within the medium-temperature range. At x = 0—0.1, formation of disordered substitutional solid solutions, isostructural to CsH2PO4 ( P21/ m), with a decrease of the unit cell parameters and considerable increase of proton conductivity as a result of formation of vacancies in the cesium sublattice and weakening of the system of hydrogen bonds, was observed. At x = 0.15-0.4, the heterophase highly conductive systems demonstrating high values of proton conductivity 10-2 S/cm at x = 0.15—0.2, stable under the long-term isothermal exposures and low humidity ( T 200—210°C, RH 15%), are formed. The phase transition disappears, the energy of activation of conductivity decreases from 0.9 to 0.55 eV at x = 0.2. The conductivity of high-temperature phase does not vary with Ba(H2PO4)2 fraction increase to x = 0.2. The mechanisms of transfer of protons were discussed. It has been shown that when x > 0.10 the contribution to proton conductivity of molecules of the water adsorbed on the phase boundary of the composite systems increases.

  19. Synthesis, structure and magnetic ordering of the mullite-type Bi2Fe(4-x)CrxO9 solid solutions with a frustrated pentagonal Cairo lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozova, M G; Grigoriev, V V; Bobrikov, I A; Filimonov, D S; Zakharov, K V; Volkova, O S; Vasiliev, A N; Antipov, E V; Tsirlin, A A; Abakumov, A M

    2016-01-21

    Highly homogeneous mullite-type solid solutions Bi2Fe(4-x)CrxO9 (x = 0.5, 1, 1.2) were synthesized using a soft chemistry technique followed by a solid-state reaction in Ar. The crystal structure of Bi2Fe3CrO9 was investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (S.G. Pbam, a = 7.95579(9) Å, b = 8.39145(9) Å, c = 5.98242(7) Å, RF(X-ray) = 0.022, RF(neutron) = 0.057). The ab planes in the structure are tessellated with distorted pentagonal loops built up by three tetrahedrally coordinated Fe sites and two octahedrally coordinated Fe/Cr sites, linked together in the ab plane by corner-sharing forming a pentagonal Cairo lattice. Magnetic susceptibility measurements and powder neutron diffraction show that the compounds order antiferromagnetically (AFM) with the Néel temperatures decreasing upon increasing the Cr content from TN ∼ 250 K for x = 0 to TN ∼ 155 K for x = 1.2. The magnetic structure of Bi2Fe3CrO9 at T = 30 K is characterized by a propagation vector k = (1/2,1/2,1/2). The tetrahedrally coordinated Fe cations form singlet pairs within dimers of corner-sharing tetrahedra, but spins on the neighboring dimers are nearly orthogonal. The octahedrally coordinated (Fe,Cr) cations form antiferromagnetic up-up-down-down chains along c, while the spin arrangement in the ab plane is nearly orthogonal between nearest neighbors and collinear between second neighbors. The resulting magnetic structure is remarkably different from the one in pure Bi2Fe4O9 and features several types of spin correlations even on crystallographically equivalent exchange that may be caused by the simultaneous presence of Fe and Cr on the octahedral site.

  20. The Optical Stark Spectrum of the A3Φ4-X3Φ4 Band System of Iridium Monofluoride, IrF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.; Linton, Colan

    2010-06-01

    Recently the New Brunswick group reported on the field-free detection and analysis of the A3Φ4-X3Φ4 band system of IrF. Here we report on the analysis Q(4)(15922 cm-1) branch feature of the (1,0) band of the 191IrF isotopologue of that system recorded at field strengths of up to 3000 V/cm. The spectra are surprisingly complex at the achieved resolution of 40 MHz due to the presence of both the 191Ir(I=3/2) and 19F(I=1/2) magnetic hyperfine splitting. The determined permanent electric dipole moment, μel, for the X3Φ4 state is compared with that recently determined for the X3Φ4 state of isovalent CoF. The trend in μel amongst the ground states of IrF, IrC and IrN will be discussed. Finally, a simple molecular orbital correlation diagram will be used to rationalize the change in μel upon excitation from the X3Φ4 to A3Φ4 state. A.G. Adam; A.D. Granger; L.E. Downie; D.W. Tokaryk and C. Linton Can.J. Phys. 87 557, 2009. H. Wang; X. Zhaung; and T.C. Steimle J. Chem. Phys. 131 114315, 2009. A.J.Marr; M.E. Flores; and T.C. Steimle J. Chem. Phys. 104 8183, 1996.

  1. Real-Time 200 Gb/s (4x56.25 Gb/s) PAM-4 Transmission over 80 km SSMF using Quantum-Dot Laser and Silicon Ring-Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC......We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC...

  2. The Ordered K2NiF4-type Structure of Mixed Crystals La2-xSrxLi1/2Co1/2O4 (x

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, S.A.; Massa, Werner; Reinen, Dirk; Hu, Zhiwei; Kaindl, Günter; Groot, F.M.F. de

    1999-01-01

    Solids of the composition La2-xSrxLi1/2Co1/2O4 (x50, x=0.2) crystallize in a superstructure of the K2NiF4 lattice with a doubled unit cell in the (001) plane (space group Ammm; a=b=J2a0), caused by cation ordering between lithium and cobalt on the octahedral sites. The electronic structure of the

  3. Combustion synthesis and luminescent properties of red-emitting Ca4-xAl6WO16:xEu3+ phosphors and photoluminescence enhancement by Bi3+ co-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fei; Zhou, Liqun; Li, Ling; Xia, Qinghua; Luo, Xinru

    2014-04-01

    A series of Ca4-xAl6WO16:xEu3+ and Ca4-x-yAl6WO16:xEu3+, yBi3+ red-emitting phosphors have been successfully synthesized by the combustion method and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectra (EDS) and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicated that the samples were well crystallized with irregular lamellar-like shape and belonged to the tetragonal structure and space group P4c2. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-UV light and exhibited a characteristic red luminescence corresponding to the electric dipole transition 5D0→7F2 at 618 nm. The emission intensity of Eu3+ ions in the Ca4Al6WO16 (CAWO) host largely enhanced with the concentration increasing of activator (Eu3+) ion and sensitizer (Bi3+) ion, and the emission intensity reached the maximum at x=0.4 and y=0.02 in Ca4-x-yAl6WO16:xEu3+, yBi3+ phosphor. Addition of Bi3+ ions drastically improved Eu3+ ions emission owing to its strong absorption of excitation energy and effectively energy transfer to Eu3+ emission center. It is shown that Ca4-xAl6WO16:xEu3+ phosphors are promising red-emitting candidates for near-UV LED-based solid-state-lighting (SSL).

  4. Effects of Tb{sup 3+} concentration on the La{sub 2}Sr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}: X% Tb{sup 3+} polycrystalline nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlotswa, D.V. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Private Bag x13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Madihlaba, R.M. [Chemistry Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag x17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Koao, L.F. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Private Bag x13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, M.O., E-mail: monani@uwc.ac.za [Chemistry Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag x17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Private Bag x13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    A new green phosphor, La{sub 2}Sr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}): x% Tb{sup 3+} was fabricated by solution-combustion method using urea as a fuel and ammonium nitrate as an oxidizer. The phosphor was characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL. The results exhibit that La{sub 2}Sr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}): x% Tb{sup 3+} phosphor has the strongest excitation at 209 nm with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 20 nm, and can emit bright green light at 545 nm under 209 nm excitation. The optimum concentration for Tb{sup 3+} in La{sub 2}Sr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4}): x% Tb{sup 3+} is 0.033 mol%. The prominent green luminescence was due to the {sup 5}D{sub 4}–{sup 7}F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+} ion. Herein, the green phosphors are promising good candidates employed in tri-color lamps.

  5. Preparation, performances and reaction mechanism of the Li{sub 4+x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 4} pebbles for advanced tritium breeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Maoqiao; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@126.com; Zhang, Yun; Li, Guangbin; Dong, Jinquan; Wang, Zimeng

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Two alternative lithium sources were used for fabricating Li{sub 4+x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 4} pebbles. • The Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} chemical reaction had three stages. • The LiAlO{sub 2} can not be incorporated into the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. • Solid solutions Li{sub 4+x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 4} can be fabricated from Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 5}AlO{sub 4}. • The optimal x value was 0.1. - Abstract: The interstitial solid solution Li{sub 4+x}Si{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4} (x > 0) pebbles have been considered as potential candidates for the next generation of advanced tritium breeders. In this paper, Li{sub 4+x}Si{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) pebbles were fabricated by a graphite bed method using two alternative raw materials (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 5}AlO{sub 4}). The reaction process of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated by thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), which can be divided into two steps. LiAlO{sub 2} would be formed inevitably in the first step (400–700 °C) during the calcination process of the Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} raw materials, and it can hardly be incorporated into Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, resulting biphasic Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}-LiAlO{sub 2} pebbles. The interstitial solid solution Li{sub 4+x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}O{sub 4} pebbles can be fabricated by the graphite bed method using Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 5}AlO{sub 4} as raw materials. The Al replacement increased the grain growth of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. The optimal x values seemed to be 0.1. Crush load and density of the Li{sub 4.1}Al{sub 0.1}Si{sub 0.9}O{sub 4} pebbles reached 48.2 N and 86.4% TD, respectively.

  6. P-T PHASE DIAGRAM AND GOLD VALENCE STATE OF NEW GOLD MIXED-VALENCE COMPLEXES, Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4](X, Y = Cl, Br, I; X ¹ Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ikeda

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIX4](X = Cl, Br, and I is well known for the perovskite-type gold mixed-valence system. This system undergoes pressure-induced and photo-induced Au valence transition from the mixed valence state of AuI,III to the single valence state of AuII. Recently, we have succeeded in synthesizing new gold mixed-valence complexes having perovskite-type structure, Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4](X, Y = halogen, X ¹ Y, in organic solvent by using a new method. This hetero-halogen bridged gold mixed-valence system was confirmed by means of Raman spectroscopy. From the analysis of 197Au Mössbauer spectra, it was elucidated that the charge transfer interaction between AuI(5dx2-y2 and AuIII(5dx2-y2in the a-b plane becomes dominant for the AuI-AuIII interaction in Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4] (X, Y = Cl, Br, and I in the order of X = Cl < Br < I, where Y is fixed. In order to elucidate the Au valence transition for Cs2[AuIX2][AuIIIY4], we have investigated the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra under high pressure. Moreover, we have synthesized TlAuX3(X = Cl and Br having cubic perovskite structure and highly conducting behavior. The Au valence state in TlAuX3 is considered to be AuII at ambient pressure.

  7. Tune color of single-phase LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Sm3+, Tb3+ via adjusting the proportion of matrix and energy transfer to create white-light phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyue; Yang, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaoxue; Gan, Shucai; Li, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    A series of LiGd(MO4)2: Sm3+, Tb3+ (M = Mo, W) phosphors was prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method. Powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the compounds are of the same structure type. Their luminescent properties have been studied. The optimal doping concentrations are 8% for Sm3+ and 18% for Tb3+ in the LiGd(MoO4)2 host. Sm3+ and Tb3+ have different sensitivity to the Mo/W ratio. For LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Sm3+ (X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0), the strongest emission intensity is 1.766 times than that of the weakest, while 171 times for LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Tb3+. The experimental results show that Mo/W ratio strong influences on the properties of LiGd(MoO4)2-X(WO4)X: Tb3+. With the increasing of WO42- groups concentration, the shape of characteristic excitation peaks of Tb3+ is almost the same and the excitation intensity gradually increase. Moreover, the energy transfer from Tb3+ to Sm3+ has been realized in the co-doped phosphors. The experimental analysis and theoretical calculations reveal that the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is the dominant mechanism for the Tb3+→Sm3+ energy transfer. Therefore, luminous intensity can be adjusted by different sensitivities to matrix composition and energy transfer from Tb3+→Sm3+. By this tuning color method, white-light-emitting phosphor has been prepared. The excitation wavelength is 378 nm, and this indicates that the white-light-emitting phosphor could be pumped by near-UV light.

  8. Study of the electronic properties of Zn{sub 0.8–4x}Ho{sub x}O{sub y} (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.09) by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekicibil, A. [Physic Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Ozkendir, O.M. [Tarsus Technology Faculty, Mersin University, 33400 Tarsus (Turkey); Farha, A.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Ufuktepe, Y., E-mail: ufuk@cu.edu.tr [Physic Department, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The electronic structure of Ho doped ZnO was investigated by XANES and XPS. • The electronic structure was directly influenced by the Ho concentration in the ZnO. • The crystal structure showed little/no correlation to the substitution of Ho. • The substitution of Ho causes a weaker antiferromagnetic interaction. • The blue shift in band gap is observed and discussed. - Abstract: The electronic structure of Zn{sub 0.8–4x}Ho{sub x}O{sub y} (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.09) was investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples were prepared by the solid state reaction method. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the investigation of M{sub 4,5} absorption edge of Ho revealed that the electronic structure was directly influenced by the Ho concentration in the Zn{sub 0.8–4x}Ho{sub x}O{sub y} sample whereas the crystal structure properties showed little/no correlation to the substitution of Ho. The electronic structure differs substantially from those of the reference ZnO. The O K-edge spectra suggest that the combination of the Ho with ZnO enhances the effective charge of the O ions. A systematic study on the composition from lower to higher value of Ho dopant showed the blue shift in band gaps and is discussed in the view of the electronic structure of the Zn{sub 0.8–4x}Ho{sub x}O{sub y} samples. The inverse susceptibility (1/χ) against temperature curves is plotted to identify the magnetic contribution. Those curves indicate that the substitution of Ho into the ZnO compound causes a weaker antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction.

  9. Comparison of the Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of the three subspecies of Psathyrostachys fragilis, subspp. villosus (2x), secaliformis (2x, 4x), and fragilis (2x) (Poaceae), with notes on chromosome pairing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, I.; Baden, C.

    1994-01-01

    The karyotypes of diploid P. fragilis subsp. villosus (2n = 2x = 14) and tetraploid subsp. secaliformis (2n = 4x = 28) were studied by Giemsa C- and N-banding, and AgNO3 staining and compared with the karyotype of subsp. fragilis (2x). The complements of subsp. villosus and subsp. fragilis were...... metacentrics. Chromocentres were very small and the amount of constitutive heterochromatin was low. N-banding stained chromosomes uniformly. The basic karyotypes of the P. fragilis taxa were similar to those of P. juncea, P. lanuginosa, and P. stoloniformis supporting a close relationship and the presence...

  10. NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) Advanced Technology AT5 Virtualized Infiniband Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John H.; Bledsoe, Benjamin C.; Wagner, Mark; Shakshober, John; Fromkin, Russ

    2013-01-01

    The NCCS is part of the Computational and Information Sciences and Technology Office (CISTO) of Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Sciences and Exploration Directorate. The NCCS's mission is to enable scientists to increase their understanding of the Earth, the solar system, and the universe by supplying state-of-the-art high performance computing (HPC) solutions. To accomplish this mission, the NCCS (https://www.nccs.nasa.gov) provides high performance compute engines, mass storage, and network solutions to meet the specialized needs of the Earth and space science user communities

  11. Improved Ammonolytic Synthesis, Structure Determination, Electronic Structure, and Magnetic Properties of the Solid Solution Sn(x)Fe(4-x)N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tanja; Dronskowski, Richard

    2015-09-08

    We report a synthetic and theoretical study of the solid solution Sn(x)Fe(4-x)N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9). A previously published ammonolytic synthesis was successfully modified to achieve the metastable nitrides in phase-pure quality out of many competing phases. As TG-DSC measurements show, the thermal stability of the nitrides increases with increasing tin content. The Sn(x)Fe(4-x)N series of compounds adopts an antiperovskite-like structure in space group Pm3̅m. Various experimental and theoretical methods provide evidence that the iron substitution by tin exclusively takes place at Wyckoff position 1a and leads to a Vegard-type behavior of the lattice parameter over the compositional range, with an expection for a small internal miscibility gap around Sn(0.33)Fe(3.67)N of unknown cause. For highly tin-substituted iron nitrides the composition was clarified by prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) and determined as Sn(0.78(3))Fe(3.22(4))N(0.95(3)) evidencing a fully occupied nitrogen position. Magnetic measurements reveal a linear weakening of ferromagnetic interactions with increasing tin concentration.

  12. Pressure tuning of structure, superconductivity, and novel magnetic order in the Ce-underdoped electron-doped cuprate T '-Pr1.3 -xLa0.7CexCuO4 (x =0.1 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guguchia, Z.; Adachi, T.; Shermadini, Z.; Ohgi, T.; Chang, J.; Bozin, E. S.; von Rohr, F.; dos Santos, A. M.; Molaison, J. J.; Boehler, R.; Koike, Y.; Wieteska, A. R.; Frandsen, B. A.; Morenzoni, E.; Amato, A.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Uemura, Y. J.; Khasanov, R.

    2017-09-01

    High-pressure neutron powder diffraction, muon-spin rotation, and magnetization studies of the structural, magnetic, and the superconducting properties of the Ce-underdoped superconducting (SC) electron-doped cuprate system with the Nd2CuO4 (the so-called T')structure T '-Pr1.3 -xLa0.7CexCuO4 with x =0.1 are reported. A strong reduction of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice constants is observed under pressure. However, no indication of any pressure-induced phase transition from T'to the K2NiF4 (the so-called T) structure is observed up to the maximum applied pressure of p = 11 GPa. Large and nonlinear increase of the short-range magnetic order temperature Tso in T '-Pr1.3 -xLa0.7CexCuO4 (x =0.1 ) was observed under pressure. Simultaneous pressure causes a nonlinear decrease of the SC transition temperature Tc. All these experiments establish the short-range magnetic order as an intrinsic and competing phase in SC T '-Pr1.3 -xLa0.7CexCuO4 (x =0.1 ). The observed pressure effects may be interpreted in terms of the improved nesting conditions through the reduction of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice constants upon hydrostatic pressure.

  13. Preparation and physical properties of (PVA0.7(NaBr0.3(H3PO4xM solid acid membrane for phosphoric acid – Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solid acid membranes based on poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA, sodium bromide (NaBr and phosphoric acid (H3PO4 were prepared by a solution casting method. The morphological, IR, electrical and optical properties of the (PVA0.7(NaBr0.3(H3PO4xM solid acid membranes where x = 0.00, 0.85, 1.7, 3.4, 5.1 M were investigated. The variation of film morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to characterize the structure of polymer and confirms the complexation of phosphoric acid with host polymeric matrix. The temperature dependent nature of ionic conductivity and the impedance of the polymer electrolytes were determined along with the associated activation energy. The ionic conductivity at room temperature was found to be strongly depends on the H3PO4 concentration which it has been achieved to be of the order 4.3 × 10−3 S/cm at ambient temperature. Optical measurements showed a decrease in optical band gap and an increase in band tail width with the increase of phosphoric acid. The data shows that the (PVA0.7(NaBr0.3(H3PO4xM solid acid membrane is promising for intermediate temperature phosphoric acid fuel cell applications.

  14. Engineering oxygen vacancies towards self-activated BaLuAl(x)Zn(4-x)O(7-(1-x)/2) photoluminescent materials: an experimental and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Xia, Zhiguo; Atuchin, Victor; Molokeev, Maxim; Auluck, S; Reshak, A H; Liu, Quanlin

    2015-12-14

    Novel self-activated yellow-emitting BaLuAlxZn4-xO7-(1-x)/2 photoluminescent materials were investigated by a combined experimental and theoretical analysis. The effects of Al/Zn composition modulation, calcination atmosphere and temperature on the crystal structure and photoluminescence properties have been studied via engineering oxygen vacancies. Accordingly, BaLuAl0.91Zn3.09O7 prepared in an air atmosphere was found to be the stable crystalline phase with optimal oxygen content and gave a broad yellow emission band with a maximum at 528 nm. The self-activated luminescence mechanism is ascribed to the O-vacancies based on the density functional theory (DFT) calculation. A theoretical model originating from the designed oxygen vacancies has been proposed in order to determine the influence of O-vacancies on the band structure and self-activated luminescence. Therefore, the appearance of a new local energy level in the band gap will cause the wide-band optical transitions in the studied BaLuAlxZn4-xO7-(1-x)/2 materials.

  15. In contrast to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines, 4xM2e.HSP70c fusion protein fully protected mice against lethal dose of H1, H3 and H9 influenza A isolates circulating in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud, E-mail: smebrahimi@shirazu.ac.ir [Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-3651,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Virus and Vaccine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, P.O.Box 14155-3651, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabaghian, Mehran [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tebianian, Majid [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabeh Jazi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Ideal vaccines against influenza viruses should elicit not only a humoral response, but also a cellular response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70) have been found to promote immunogenic APCs function, elicit a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, and prevent the induction of tolerance. Moreover, it showed linkage of antigens to the C-terminus of mHSP70 (mHSP70c) can represent them as vaccines resulted in more potent, protective antigen specific responses in the absence of adjuvants or complex formulations. Hence, recombinant fusion protein comprising C-terminus of mHSP70 genetically fused to four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (M2e) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified under denaturing condition, refolding, and then confirmed by SDS-PAGE, respectively. The recombinant fusion protein, 4xM2e.HSP70c, retained its immunogenicity and displayed the protective epitope of M2e by ELISA and FITC assays. A prime-boost administration of 4xM2e.HSP70c formulated in F105 buffer by intramuscular route in mice (Balb/C) provided full protection against lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1, H3N2, or H9N2 influenza A isolates from Iran compared to 0-33.34% survival rate of challenged unimmunized and immunized mice with the currently in use conventional vaccines designated as control groups. However, protection induced by immunization with 4xM2e.HSP70c failed to prevent weight loss in challenged mice; they experienced significantly lower weight loss, clinical symptoms and higher lung viral clearance in comparison with protective effects of conventional influenza vaccines in challenged mice. These data demonstrate that C-terminal domain of mHSP70 can be a superior candidate to deliver the adjuvant function in M2e-based influenza A vaccine in order to provide significant protection against multiple influenza A virus strains.

  16. Magnetocrystalline interactions and oxidation state determination of Mn{sub (2−x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3 and 1) magnetorresistive spinel family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomiro, F. [INFIQC-CONICET, Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Ceppi, S. [IFEG-CONICET and Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); De Paoli, J.M. [INFIQC-CONICET, Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Sánchez, R.D. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica e Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (RN) (Argentina); Mesquita, A. [Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, São Pablo (Brazil); Tirao, G., E-mail: gtirao@famaf.unc.edu.ar [IFEG-CONICET and Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2013-09-15

    Oxidation states of transition metal cations in spinels-type oxides are sometimes extremely difficult to determine by conventional spectroscopic methods. One of the most complex cases occurs when there are different cations, each one with several possible oxidation states, as in the case of the magnetoresistant Mn{sub (2−x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3 and 1) spinel-type family. In this contribution we describe the determination of the oxidation state of manganese and vanadium in Mn{sub (2−x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3,1) spinel-type compounds by analyzing XANES and high-resolution Kβ X-ray fluorescence spectra. The ionic models found are Mn{sup 2+}{sub 2}V{sup 4+}O{sub 4}, Mn{sup 2+}{sub 5/3}V{sup 3.5+}{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} and Mn{sup 2+}V{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Combination of the present results with previous data provided a reliable cation distribution model. For these spinels, single magnetic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lines are observed at 480 K showing the interaction among the different magnetic ions. The analysis of the EPR parameters show that g-values and relative intensities are highly influenced by the concentration and the high-spin state of Mn{sup 2+}. EPR broadening linewidth is explained in terms of the bottleneck effect, which is due to the presence of the fast relaxing V{sup 3+} ion instead of the weak Mn{sup 2+} (S state) coupled to the lattice. The EPR results, at high temperature, are well explained assuming the oxidation states of the magnetic ions obtained by the other spectroscopic techniques. - Graphical abstract: View of the crystallographic structure of a spinel. It shows as an example one of the models of ion distribution determined for the spinels Mn{sub (2−x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3,1). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Determination of oxidation state of the metallic ions in Mn{sub (2−x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0,1/3,1) by XAS and XES techniques. • The ionic models found are Mn{sup 2+}{sub 2}V{sup 4+}O

  17. Microwave-assisted optimization of the manganese redox states for enhanced capacity and capacity retention of LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0 and 0.3) spinel materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, FP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available -microwaved samples. Note that the nMn values for LMO-a and LMO-comm are less than 3.5+, contradicting the general notion that LMO powders should be nMn ≈ 3.5+.Perhaps, more interesting is that when the LMO-a was subjected to microwave irradiation to obtain...-assisted optimization of the manganese redox states for enhanced capacity and capacity retention of LiAlxMn2-xO4 (x = 0 and 0.3) spinel materials Funeka P. Nkosi1,2, Charl J. Jafta2, Mesfin Kebede2, Lukas le Roux2, Mkhulu K. Mathe2, and Kenneth I. Ozoemena,1...

  18. Defect Chemistry of a Zinc-Doped Lepidocrocite Titanate CsxTi2−x/2Znx/2O4 (x = 0.7) and its Protonic Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tao; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Norby, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A zinc-doped layered titanate CsxTi2−x/2Znx/2O4 (x = 0.7) with lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH)-type layered structure was prepared via solid-state calcination. A complete extraction of both lattice Zn atoms and interlayer Cs ions was observed upon acid exchange, producing a protonic form H2xTi2−x/2x/2O4·H2....... The protonic titanate H2xTi2−x/2x/2O4·H2O readily underwent delamination to produce its molecular single sheets Ti1−δδO24δ− (δ = 0.175) with distinctive two-dimensional morphology and small thickness (1 nm), suggesting promising applications in the assembly of functional nanostructures....

  19. Structural and electromagnetic characteristics of perovskites in La1–c–xSrc+xMn1–xMe4+xO3 systems (Me=Ge, Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpasyuk V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data are shown for the influence of substituting quadrivalent ions on the concentration phase transitions “rhombohedral-orthorhombic structure” and “semiconductor-metal” in ceramic manganites of specifically designed system La3+1–c–xSr2+c+xMn3+1–c–xMn4+cMe4+xO3 (c=0.15, 0.17, 0.19; 0.025≤x≤0.125. Regularities in the concentration dependences of unit cell volume, saturation magnetization, Curie point, and resistivity were established. Ge-substituted manganites had essentially higher values of magnetization and Curie temperature than analogous compositions with Ti. The approach to the interpretation of experimental results is discussed in terms of electron configurations and ionic radii of substituents taking into account oxygen nonstoichiometry and cation vacancies.

  20. An investigation on the physicochemical properties of the nanostructured [(4-X)PMAT][N(CN)2] ion pairs as energetic and tunable aryl alkyl amino tetrazolium based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Behzad; Rimaz, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    In this study the different class of tunable and high nitrogen content ionic liquids termed TAMATILs (Tunable Aryl Methyl Amino Tetrazolium based Ionic Liquids) were designed. The physicochemical properties of the nanostructured TAMATILs composed of para substituted phenyl methyl amino tetrazolium cations [(4-X)PMAT]+ (X = H, Me, OCH3, OH, NH2, NO2, F, CN, CHO, CF3, COMe and CO2Me) and dicyanimide anion [N(CN)2]- were fully investigated using M06-2X functional in conjunction with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. For all of the studied nanostructured ILs the structural parameters, interaction energy, cation's enthalpy of formation, natural charges, charge transfer values and topological properties were calculated and discussed. The substituent effect on the interaction energy and physicochemical properties also is taking into account. The results showed that the strength of interaction has a linear correlation with electron content of the phenyl ring in a way the substituents with electron withdrawing effects lead to make more stable ion pairs with higher interaction energies. Some of the main physical properties of ILs such as surface tension, melting point, critical-point temperature, electrochemical stability and conductivity are discussed and estimated for studying ion pairs using quantum chemical computationally obtained thermochemical data. Finally the enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation for twelve nanostructured individual cations with the general formula of [(4-X)PMAT]+ (X = 4-H, 4-Me, 4-OMe, 4-OH, 4-NH2, 4-NO2, 4-F, 4-CN, 4-CHO, 4-CF3, 4-COMe and 4-CO2Me) are calculated.

  1. The luminescent properties and crystal structure of Sr(1.5-x)-(1.5y) Mg0.5 SiO4 :xEu2+ ,yCe3+ blue phosphor synthesized by co-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Shan; Zhu, Da-Chuan; Zhao, Cong; Han, Tao; Liu, ShaSha

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the luminescent performance of silicate blue phosphors, Sr(1.5-x)-(1.5y) Mg0.5 SiO4 :xEu2+ ,yCe3+ phosphors were synthesized using one-step calcination of a precursor prepared by chemical co-precipitation. The crystal structure and luminescent properties of the phosphors were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectrophotometry, respectively. Because the activated ions (Eu2+ ) can occupy two different types of sites (Sr1 and Sr2 ), the emission spectrum of Eu2+ excited at 350 nm contains two single bands (EM1 and EM2 ) in the wavelength range 400-550 nm, centered at 463 nm, and the emission intensity first increases and then decreases with increasing concentrations of Eu2+ ions. Co-doping of Ce3+ ions can greatly enhance the emission intensity of Eu2+ by transferring its excitation energy to Eu2+ . Because of concentration quenching, a higher substitution concentration of Ce3+ can lead to a decrease in the intensity. Meanwhile, the quantum efficiency of the phosphor is improved after doping with Ce3+ , and a blue shift phenomenon is observed in the CIE chromaticity diagram. The results indicate that Sr(1.5-x)-(1.5y) Mg0.5 SiO4 :xEu2+ ,yCe3+ can be used as a potential new blue phosphor for white light-emitting diodes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXI. Synthesis and characterization of tetranuclear Me2N- and Me2NCH2-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion compounds (Vi2Cu4X2) containing bridging propenyl ligands. Isolation of a thermally stable mixed diarylpropenyl/arylcopper compound (Vi2Cu4Ar2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    Thermally stable 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds (ViCu{2}X){n} (Vi = (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)(C{6}H{4}Me-4), X = Br (n = 2) or OTf2OTf = trifluoromethanesulphonate = triflate. and Vi = (2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)(C{6}H{4}Me-4), X = Br (n = 2)) have been prepared by reaction of

  3. New methods for the preparation and dielectric properties of La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} (x = 1/8) ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chupakhina, T.I., E-mail: chupakhina@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 91, Pervomaiskaya str., Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Kadyrova, N.I. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 91, Pervomaiskaya str., Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Melnikova, N.V. [Ural Federal University, 19, Mira str., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gyrdasova, O.I. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 91, Pervomaiskaya str., Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Yakovleva, E.A. [Ural Federal University, 19, Mira str., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zainulin, Yu.G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, UB RAS, 91, Pervomaiskaya str., Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A new fuel in solution combustion synthesis of fine powder La{sub 15/8}Sr{sub 1/8}NiO{sub 4}. • Changes in the morphology of the ceramic La{sub 15/8}Sr{sub 1/8}NiO{sub 4} after thermobaric treatment. • Changes in structural parameters of the La{sub 15/8}Sr{sub 1/8}NiO{sub 4} after thermobaric treatment. • Increase of the dielectric constant of the thermobaric treated ceramic La{sub 15/8}Sr{sub 1/8}NiO{sub 4}. • Using of dielectric modulus and impedance formalisms, of equivalent circuits method. - Abstract: The perovskite-type oxide La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} (x = 1/8) was prepared by a new precursor route. The reaction proceeds in the self-ignition mode. Single-phase powder and gas-tight ceramic samples can be produced by single annealing of decomposition products. It was shown that as a result of thermobaric treatment of La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} (x = 1/8) the solid solution La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} with a higher concentration of strontium and the second phase La{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}O{sub 7} are formed. Short-term (5 min) thermobaric treatment (P = 2.5 GPa) at t° = 900 °C changes the unit cell parameters, but is not accompanied by structural transitions. At the same time, morphological restructuring of the sample occurs—the agglomerates delaminate into thin plates crystals. It was established that the permittivity of the material exposed to thermobaric treatment is much higher compared to that of the sample annealed at atmospheric pressure and virtually does not depend on frequency in a wide temperature range.

  4. Study of the conductivity of Na{sub x{minus}{delta}}Fe{sub x}Ti{sub 2{minus}x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.875, 0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.40)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, A.; Garcia-Alvarado, F. [Univ. San Pablo-CEU, Madrid (Spain); Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; Moran, E.; Alario-Franco, M.A. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    Complex admittance measurements are performed on Na{sub x{minus}{delta}}Fe{sub x}Ti{sub 2{minus}x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.875, 0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.40) polycrystalline samples, which have been prepared by the standard ceramic method and further treated by soft chemistry extraction reactions. The parent, nonextracted sample has a Na content of 0.875 ions per formula and shows a single activation energy in the dc conductivity of 1.1 eV. The conduction process is due to ion motion along the double tunnels parallel to the short b axes of the quadruple rutile structure. When Na is removed, a decrease in the activation energy is observed. This can be interpreted in terms of an increased ion mobility due to the increased number of vacancies created on sodium extraction. In addition, a second, less activated process, which is attributed to an electronic contribution produced by the partial oxidation of Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 4+}, appears on Na removal.

  5. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol-gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x (x=0.5-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    We report a direct sol-gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x (x=0.5-1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N2 sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts.

  6. Theoretical estimates of the anapole magnetizabilities of C{sub 4}H{sub 4}X{sub 2} cyclic molecules for X=O, S, Se, and Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagola, G. I.; Ferraro, M. B. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, and IFIBA, CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Provasi, P. F. [Departamento de Física, Northeastern University, Av. Libertad 5500, W3400 AAS, Corrientes (Argentina); Pelloni, S.; Lazzeretti, P., E-mail: lazzeret@unimo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 183, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2014-09-07

    Calculations have been carried out for C{sub 4}H{sub 4}X{sub 2} cyclic molecules, with X=O, S, Se, and Te, characterized by the presence of magnetic-field induced toroidal electron currents and associated orbital anapole moments. The orbital anapole induced by a static nonuniform magnetic field B, with uniform curl C=∇×B, is rationalized via a second-rank anapole magnetizability tensor a{sub αβ}, defined as minus the second derivative of the second-order interaction energy with respect to the components C{sub α} and B{sub β}. The average anapole magnetizability a{sup ¯} equals −χ{sup ¯}, the pseudoscalar obtained by spatial averaging of the dipole-quadrupole magnetizability χ{sub α,βγ}. It has different sign for D and L enantiomeric systems and can therefore be used for chiral discrimination. Therefore, in an isotropic chiral medium, a homogeneous magnetic field induces an electronic anapole A{sub α}, having the same magnitude, but opposite sign, for two enantiomorphs.

  7. Co-precipitation synthesis, humidity sensing and photoluminescence properties of nanocrystalline Co2+ substituted zinc(II)molybdate (Zn1-xCoxMoO4; x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeseentharani, V.; Dayalan, A.; Nagaraja, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc-cobalt molybdate composites (Zn1-xCoxMoO4; x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1) were synthesised by a simple co-precipitation method and characterised by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface area was calculated by BET analysis in the adsorption/desorption isotherm. The humidity sensing properties of zinc-cobalt molybdates were tested by dc electrical measurements at different relative humidity environments (RH = 5-98%). The electrical resistance of the composites linearly decreases and the maximum sensitivity of 3672 ± 110 was observed for the Zn0.3Co0.7MoO4 (ZnCM-4) composite towards humidity, which is calculated by the relation Sf = R5%/R98%, where the response time is 200 s and the recovery time is 100 s. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement at the room temperature of ZnM-1 composite exhibited a blue emission peak at 475 nm (λem) when excited at a wavelength (λex) of 430 nm. During Co2+ substitution in Zn2+ matrix, a green and red emission peak was observed when excited at a wavelength (λex) of 520 nm.

  8. Impact of nickel substitution on the structural and conduction behaviour of YBaCo{sub 4-x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 7} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) cobaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Masroor Ahmad; Modi, Anchit; Gaur, N.K. [Barkatullah University, Department of Physics, Bhopal (India); Bhattacharya, Shovit [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Technical Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Kurchania, Rajnish [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), Department of Physics, Bhopal (India)

    2016-10-15

    A systematic series of polycrystalline compounds of YBaCo{sub 4-x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 7} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) have been synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction technique in order to scrutinize comprehensively the effect of Ni substitution on structural, micro-structural and electrical transport properties. X-ray diffraction patterns recorded at room temperature illustrate the structural phase transition with Ni from hexagonal (P6{sub 3}mc) phase symmetry to trigonal (P31c) phase symmetry. The grain morphology observed via scanning electron microscopy indicates the decrease in grain size with increasing Ni percentage. The EDS analysis indicates that Ni is distributed randomly on Co sites also supports the change in crystal structure. The calculated electrical resistivity revealed the semiconducting nature of all compound with and without magnetic field. The resistivity data supported by using Mott's variable range hopping (VRH) model to calculate the hopping distance (R{sub h}), hopping energy (E{sub h}) and density of states at Fermi level N(E{sub F}). Moreover, resistivity data are well fitted with small polaron hopping (SPH) model to investigate the conduction behaviour in the system. Thus, conduction mechanism carried out electronically induced structural phase changes involves in Ni-O-Ni and Ni-O-Co bond angles and bond lengths. (orig.)

  9. ''114''-type nitrides LnAl(Si{sub 4-x}Al{sub x})N{sub 7}O{sub δ} with unusual [AlN{sub 6}] octahedral coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Saifang; Ouyang, Xin [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Huang, Zhaohui; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-gai [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing (China); Cao, Peng; Gao, Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Zujovic, Zoran; Soehnel, Tilo [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Price, Jason R. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Avdeev, Maxim [Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Que, Meidan [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University (China); Suzuki, Furitsu; Kido, Tsuyoshi; Kaji, Hironori [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2017-03-27

    Aluminum-nitrogen six-fold octahedral coordination, [AlN{sub 6}], is unusual and has only been seen in the high-pressure rocksalt-type aluminum nitride or some complex compounds. Herein we report novel nitrides LnAl(Si{sub 4-x}Al{sub x})N{sub 7}O{sub δ} (Ln=La, Sm), the first inorganic compounds with [AlN{sub 6}] coordination prepared via non-high-pressure synthesis. Structure refinements of neutron powder diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data show that these compounds crystallize in the hexagonal Swedenborgite structure type with P6{sub 3}mc symmetry where Ln and Al atoms locate in anticuboctahedral and octahedral interstitials, respectively, between the triangular and Kagome layers of [SiN{sub 4}] tetrahedra. Solid-state NMR data of high-purity La-114 powders confirm the unusual [AlN{sub 6}] coordination. These compounds are the first examples of the ''33-114'' sub-type in the ''114'' family. The additional site for over-stoichiometric oxygen in the structure of 114-type compounds was also identified. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}Zn(Sn{sub 1−x}Si{sub x})S{sub 4} (x = 0.1, x = 0.4) compounds for absorber materials in solar-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, M., E-mail: hamdymed@gmail.com [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes cedex 03 44322 (France); Chrif, B. [Laboratoire de Physiques des Matériaux et Nanomatériaux appliqués à l’environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabés, 6072 Gabés (Tunisia); Lafond, A. [Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes cedex 03 44322 (France); Louati, B. [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Guillot-Deudon, C. [Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes cedex 03 44322 (France); Hlel, F. [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Frequency dependence of Z′ and Z″ and equivalent circuit model. - Highlights: • An equivalent circuit model is proposed for both compounds. • The electrical conductivities are dominated by band conduction and NNH. • The conductivities are dominated by “variable range hopping” mechanism. • In both materials, the ac conductivity is dominated by CBH and NSPT mechanisms. - Abstract: The electrical properties of two compounds Cu{sub 2}Zn(Sn{sub 1−x}Si{sub x})S{sub 4} (x = 0.1, x = 0.4) derived from the family of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSiS{sub 4} have been prepared via a ceramic route, were investigated by conductivity measurements in a temperature range of 80–300 K. Structural characterizations of the materials were performed by powder X-ray diffraction. It was found that at high temperatures (160–300 K), in the studied range, the electrical conductivity was dominated by band conduction and nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH). However, Mott law with the variable range hopping (VRH) mechanism is predominant in the low temperature region (80–160 K). Characteristic parameters describing conductivity, such as the characteristic temperature (T{sub 0}), hopping distance, average hopping energy, localization length and density of states were determined, and their values were discussed. These results are critical for understanding the behavior of solar cells based on polycrystalline CZTSiS absorber layers.

  11. Color-tunable light emission of SrLa4-x-ySi3O13:xTb3+, yEu3+ phosphors by energy transfer process for warm white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bing; Song, Kaixin; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Shen, Shaohua; Xu, Junming; Wu, Jun; Su, Weitao

    2018-01-01

    SrLa4-x-ySi3O13: xTb3+, yEu3+ phosphor was prepared by high temperature solid-state method. The luminescent centers of Eu3+ and Tb3+ occupying La3+ lattice sites in hosts were confirmed by Rietevld refinement method. The phenomenon of self-cross-relaxation energy transfer is observed between Tb3+ ions from 5D4-7FJ to 7F6-5D4 transition. Additionally, the direction of energy transfer (ET) was observed from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions, and ET efficiency became more efficient as the concentration of activator increases. The type of ET between Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions was demonstrated to be the dipole-dipole mechanism. The multi-color lights were realized covering the green to red visible region by the route of energy transfer. Furthermore, the decrease of Eu3+ emission intensity resulting from thermal quenching can be effectively compensated by Tb3+→Eu3+ ET. The excellent luminescent properties and thermal stability show this phosphor to be a promising candidate for white LEDs.

  12. Investigation of B-site doped perovskites Sr2Fe1.4X0.1Mo0.5O6-δ (X=Bi, Al, Mg) as high-performance anodes for hybrid direct carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kening; Liu, Jia; Feng, Jie; Yuan, Hong; He, Minjie; Xu, Chunming; Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Wang; Qiao, Jinshuo

    2017-10-01

    B-site substituted Sr2Fe1.4X0.1Mo0.5O6-δ (SFXM, X = Bi, Al and Mg) are evaluated as anode materials for hybrid direct carbon fuel cells (HDCFCs). The structure, morphology, conductivity and catalytic activity of the as-prepared SFXM anode are systematically investigated. Under a reducing atmosphere, the exsolution of metallic Fe from the SFXM perovskite lattice are demonstrated by the XRD, SEM and TEM observations. Further element valence analysis on reduced SFXM suggests the X doping significantly alters the Fe3+/Fe2+ and Mo6+/Mo5+ ratio, and thus beneficial to the intrinsic conductivity of SFXM. All these advantages are responsible for the good electrochemical performances of SFXM anodes. Meanwhile, among these SFXM anodes, the conductivity, catalytic activity and electrochemical performance all obey the order of SFBM > SFAM > SFMM. The maximum power densities of the La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3 electrolyte supported single cell with SFBM as the anode reaches 399, 287 and 141 mW cm-2 at 800 °C, 750 °C and 700 °C, respectively. Such designed B-site substitution perovskites have great potential to be applied as HDCFC anode materials.

  13. Structural, electric and dielectric properties of Ca0.85Er0.1Ti1- x Co4 x/3O3(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayssi, Ch.; Rhouma, F. I. H.; Dhahri, J.; Khirouni, K.; Zaidi, M.; Belmabrouk, Hafedh

    2017-12-01

    The structural and physical properties of Ca0.85Er0.1Ti1- x Co4 x/3O3 (CETCo x ) ( x = 0.00, 0.05 and 0.10), synthesized by sol-gel method were studied. The polycrystalline sample of CETCo x was investigated by X-ray diffraction and morphological properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as the electrical characterizations. A single orthorhombic perovskite structure with a Pbnm space group was obtained. The electrical properties were studied by impedance complex spectroscopy in the frequency range (102-107 Hz) at different temperatures. The electrical properties showed that all samples have a semiconductor behavior. Conductivity decreased with increasing Co rate. At a specific temperature, a saturation region was marked in the conductivity curve as a function of temperature. From the curve of the average normalized change with temperature dependence, we deduced the temperature in which the density of trapped charge is vanished, confirming the saturation which appears at the temperature dependence of conductivity. The complex impedance analysis confirmed the existence of electrical relaxation in the materials, which may be responsible for the electrical conduction. CETCo x presented a decrease of the real and imaginary part of permittivity and dielectric loss with increasing frequency. This can be explained by Maxwell-Wagner type of polarization in accordance with Koop's theory and can also explain the increase of conductivity with frequency.

  14. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4 - x Fx (x=0, 0.08 Synthesized by Solid-State Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the cycle performance of spinel LiMn2O4 as the cathode of 4-V-class lithium secondary batteries, spinel phases Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4 - xFx (x=0, 0.08 have been successfully prepared by a conventional solid-state method. The structure and physicochemical properties of this as-prepared powder were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and galvanostatic charge-discharge test in detail. The results reveal that the multiple doping spinel Li1.02Mn1.92Al0.02Fe0.02Cr0.02O4F0.08 have better electrochemical performance than the undoped or only metal-element doped material, which may be contributed to the multiple cation and anion doping to lead to a more stable spinel framework with good capacity retention rate.

  15. Unusual ground states in {R_5T_4X_{10}} (R  =  rare earth; T  =  Rh, Ir; and X  =  Si, Ge, Sn): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, S.; van Smaalen, Sander

    2017-11-01

    Rare earth compounds of the type R_5T_4X10 (R  =  rare earth; T  =  Rh, Ir, and X  =  Si, Ge, Sn) display a variety of phase transitions towards exotic states, including charge density waves (CDW), local moment magnetism, antiferromagnetism in the heavy fermion state, superconductivity and giant positive magnetoresistance. They support strongly correlated electron systems. In particular, R 5Ir4 Si10 (R  =  Dy-Lu) exhibit strong coupling CDWs with high transition temperatures, and superconductivity or magnetic ordering at lower temperatures. R_5T4 Ge10 (R  =  Gd-Tm T  =  Co, Rh, Ir) show multiple magnetic transitions with large magnetoresistance below the magnetic transitions. Finally, the light rare earth series R_5T4 Sn10 (R  =  Ce, Pr, Nd; T  =  Rh, Ir) display heavy fermion behaviour (for Ce and Pr) or possess giant positive magnetoresistance (for Nd) at low temperatures. This review provides a comprehensive overview of compounds, crystal structures and phase transitions. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of the mechanisms of the phase transitions and the properties of the ordered states.

  16. Dysprosium doping induced shape and magnetic anisotropy of Fe{sub 3−x}Dy{sub x}O{sub 4} (x=0.01–0.1) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Richa [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110068 (India); Department of Physics, ARSD college, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110021 (India); Luthra, Vandna [Department of Physics, Gargi College, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049 (India); Gokhale, Shubha, E-mail: sgokhale@ignou.ac.in [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110068 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The effect of dysprosium doping on evolution of structural and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles is reported. A standard route of co-precipitation was used for the synthesis of undoped and doped magnetite nanoparticles Fe{sub 3−x}Dy{sub x}O{sub 4} (x=0.0–0.1). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows formation of round shaped particles with diameter in the range of 8–14 nm for undoped sample. On doping beyond x=0.01, the formation of rod like structures is initiated along with the round shaped particles. The number of rods is found to increase with increasing doping concentration. Magnetic characterization using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) revealed doping dependent magnetic properties which can be correlated with the crystallite size as determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD). Enhancement in the saturation magnetization in the initial stages of doping can be explained on the basis of incorporation of Dy{sup 3+} ions in the inverse spinel structure at the octahedral site in place of Fe{sup 3+} ions. Subsequent decrease in saturation magnetization observed beyond x=0.03 could be attributed to precipitation of excess Dy in form of dysprosium ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Report on formation of nanorods in magnetite prompted by Dy doping. • Observation of anisotropic magnetic behaviour emanating from the shape anisotropy. • Evidence of Dy{sup 3+} ions occupying octahedral site in place of Fe{sup 3+} ions. • Nanorods envisaged to be useful as catalysts and in biomedical applications.

  17. Critical behavior in the La0.6Ca0.4-xSrxMnO3 nano-particle compounds for x = 0, 0.05 and 0.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah, H.; Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    The critical behavior associated with the magnetic phase transition has been investigated by magnetization isotherms in La0.6Ca0.4-xSrxMnO3 nano-particle compounds for x = 0 (S0C1), 0.05 (SC. 4-4) and 0.4 (S1C0). The critical exponents are estimated by various techniques, such as the Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm techniques. Thus, the average values of the critical exponent and the critical temperature obtained by the different methods are (βmoy = 0.47 ;γmoy = 1.02 ; δmoy = 3.00 ;TC = 230.6 K) for S0C1, (βmoy = 0.47 ;γmoy = 1.00 ;δmoy = 3.21 ;TC = 361.9 K) for S1C0, and (βmoy = 0.26 ;γmoy = 1.02 ;δmoy = 4.92 ;TC = 286.4 K) for SC. 4-4. These values are in good agreement with those given by the theoretical models: Mean-Field model (β = 0.5, γ = 1 and δ = 3) for S0C1 and S1C0 compounds; and Tricritical mean-Field model (β = 0.25, γ = 1 and δ = 5) for SC. 4-4 one. The reliability of the critical exponent values was confirmed by the Widom scaling relation and the universal scaling hypothesis.

  18. One-dimensional infinite chain structures of [Al2(OH)4(H2O)4]X2 (X = I, Br, Cl): an aggregate of Al2 species and a precursor of Al(OH)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jingshuang; Zhao, Yang; Jiang, Wuning; Wang, Li

    2013-09-28

    By a combination of the Rietveld full-profile fitting technique based on powder X-ray diffraction data and the single-crystal structure solving and refining method, one-dimensional infinite zigzag chain structures were observed in the structures of [Al2(OH)4(H2O)4]X2 (X = I, Br, Cl). These crystallize in the same monoclinic system and the same C2/c space group with different unit cell parameters from spontaneously hydrolyzed solutions of AlX3. Each chain is composed of a significant number of AlO6 octahedra that fall into two groups with reverse orientations and connect to each other by edge-sharing. Furthermore, the counterions intersperse among the chains forming strong van der Waals interactions. It was also discovered that each chain was an aggregate formed from the further hydrolysis of the Al2 species (Al2(OH)2(H2O)8(4+), a dimer formed by two octahedral Al(H2O)6(3+) monomers sharing an edge) and a building unit for constructing the infinite hexameric ring sheet in nordstrandite and gibbsite. These are three new structures, rarely solved from powder XRD data, of polyaluminum compounds, and they provide the first direct evidence of the aggregation processes of Al2 species and their subsequent evolution into an infinite zigzag chain as well as further evolution into an infinite hexameric ring layer as found in nordstrandite and gibbsite. Furthermore, they also represent the first three examples in which each polyaluminum species possesses a one-dimensional infinite chain structure formed by AlO6 octahedra via edge-sharing only.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye and magneto-optical studies of magnetically recyclable spinel NixMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathubala, G.; Manikandan, A.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramar, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nickel doped spinel manganese ferrite (NixMn1-xFe2O4: x = 0.0-1.0) nanoparticles were prepared successfully by a superficial microwave irradiation technique using urea as the fuel. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was recognized the configuration of single phase spinel structure of NixMn1-xFe2O4. Debye Sherrer's formula was used to calculate the average crystallite size of the samples, which were found in the range of 15-20 nm. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the samples, which showed the particle like-morphology with smaller agglomeration, and it was also confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental composition, which also evidence for the formation of single pure phase. Microwave heating method produced well crystalline nature of the products, which was confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to calculate the energy band gap and the observed values are increased slightly from 2.05 eV to 2.44 eV with increasing the Ni-dapant. Magnetic characterization of the samples were analyzed by room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique and the observed magnetization (Ms) values are decreased with increasing Ni content, due to the different magnetic moments of Mn2+ and Ni2+ cations. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of methylene blue dye was carried out by self designed photo-catalytic reactor. It was observed that PCD efficiency is increased with increase in concentration of Ni and the sample Ni0.6Mn0.4Fe2O4 shows better photocatalytic activity (96.73%) than other samples.

  20. Influence of varying hydrogen bond strength resulting from compositional variation on the vibration spectra of proton glasses: K1-x(NH4)xH2PO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rajul Ranjan; Chitra, R.; Abraham, Geogy J.

    2014-07-01

    Single crystal neutron diffraction investigation [Choudhury and Chitra, J. Phys. Condense Matter, 25 (2013) 075902] on four mixed crystals with composition (K1-x(NH4)xH2PO4) where x=0.0, 0.29, 0.67, and 1.0 belonging to the potassium dihydrogen phosphate family of hydrogen bonded ferroelectric crystals had revealed that the compositional variation results in subtle structural differences primarily in the hydrogen bonds of these crystals. The study indicated that there is a change in hydrogen bond strengths with the change in crystal composition. Spectral investigation of the same set of four mixed crystals is undertaken with an intention to study the influence of the varying hydrogen bond strength on the vibrational properties of the crystals. Room temperature Raman spectra for all the four crystals are recorded in the range 100-4000 cm-1. This Raman investigation correlates the structural changes observed from neutron diffraction investigations to the changes in the vibration spectra of the crystals. The varying N-H-O hydrogen bond strength in the mixed crystals is found to have an observable effect on the librational frequencies of the molecular components of these crystals. The strong OHO hydrogen bonds in these crystals give rise to four spectral bands in the 1500-3000 cm-1 spectral region; this is in accordance with the theoretical prediction from the tunneling model for the very strong OHO hydrogen bonds. These OHO bonds can be described by a low barrier double well potential; the vibrational energy levels of the potential are split due to quantum tunneling effects. It is observed that the varying OHO hydrogen bond strength of these crystals results in a variation in the splitting of the vibrational energy levels of the hydrogen bond potential. It is attempted to correlate the varying OHO hydrogen bond strength with the expected variation in the freezing temperature with composition of these proton glasses.

  1. Density functional theory calculations for the band gap and formation energy of Pr4-xCaxSi12O3+xN18-x; a highly disordered compound with low symmetry and a large cell size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Un; Singh, Satendra Pal; Pyo, Myoungho; Park, Woon Bae; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2017-06-28

    A novel oxynitride compound, Pr4-xCaxSi12O3+xN18-x, synthesized using a solid-state route has been characterized as a monoclinic structure in the C2 space group using Rietveld refinement on synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. The crystal structure of this compound was disordered due to the random distribution of Ca/Pr and N/O ions at various Wyckoff sites. A pragmatic approach for an ab initio calculation based on density function theory (DFT) for this disordered compound has been implemented to calculate an acceptable value of the band gap and formation energy. In general, for the DFT calculation of a disordered compound, a sufficiently large super cell and infinite variety of ensemble configurations is adopted to simulate the random distribution of ions; however, such an approach is time consuming and cost ineffective. Even a single unit cell model gave rise to 43 008 independent configurations as an input model for the DFT calculations. Since it was nearly impossible to calculate the formation energy and the band gap energy for all 43 008 configurations, an elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to find the plausible configurations. In the NSGA-II, all 43 008 configurations were mathematically treated as genomes and the calculated band gap and the formation energy as the objective (fitness) function. Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was first employed in the preliminary screening using NSGA-II, and thereafter a hybrid functional calculation (HSE06) was executed only for the most plausible GGA-relaxed configurations with lower formation and higher band gap energies. The final band gap energy (3.62 eV) obtained after averaging over the selected configurations, resembles closely the experimental band gap value (4.11 eV).

  2. Optoelectronic properties of XIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (X = Cd, Mg) thiospinels through highly accurate all-electron FP-LAPW method coupled with modified approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Masood [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Dalhatu, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Islamia College, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Sajjad, M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Musa, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A. [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeed, M.A., E-mail: saeed@utm.my [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Highly accurate all-electron FP-LAPW+lo method is used. • New physical parameters are reported, important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. • A comparative study that involves FP-LAPW+lo method and modified approximations. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. • Optoelectronic results of fundamental importance can be utilized for the fabrication of devices. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic and optical properties of the thiospinels XIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (X = Cd, Mg), using highly accurate all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. In order to calculate the exchange and correlation energies, the method is coupled with modified techniques such as GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, which yield improved results as compared to the previous studies. GGA+SOC approximation is also used for the first time on these compounds to examine the spin orbit coupling effect on the band structure. From the analysis of the structural parameters, robust character is predicted for both materials. Energy band structures profiles are fairly the same for GGA, GGA+SOC, GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, confirming the indirect and direct band gap nature of CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} materials, respectively. We report the trend of band gap results as: (mBJ-GGA) > (GGA+U) > (GGA) > (GGA+SOC). Localized regions appearing in the valence bands for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} tend to split up nearly by ≈1 eV in the case of GGA+SOC. Many new physical parameters are reported that can be important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Optical spectra namely, dielectric function (DF), refractive index n(ω), extinction coefficient k(ω), reflectivity R(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), absorption coefficient α(ω) and electron loss function are discussed. Optical’s absorption edge is noted to be 1.401 and 1.782 for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, respectively. The

  3. NMR espectroscopic parameters of HX and Si (Sn)X{sub 4} (X = H, F, Cl, Br and I) and SnBr{sub 4-n}I{sub n} model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Alejandro F.; Gimenez, Carlos A. [Physics Department, Natural and Exact Science Faculty, Northeastern University of Argentina and Institute of Modelling and Innovation on Technology, IMIT Avda Libertad 5460, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Aucar, Gustavo A., E-mail: gaa@unne.edu.ar [Physics Department, Natural and Exact Science Faculty, Northeastern University of Argentina and Institute of Modelling and Innovation on Technology, IMIT Avda Libertad 5460, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina)

    2012-02-20

    Graphical abstract: Optimized fully relativistic calculations of NMR J-couplings (HBr, HI), chemical shifts (Si, Sn) and absolute shielding for reference compounds of heavy atoms (Si, Sn) are given. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this article we show a procedure to get accurate NMR {sigma}{sup Ref} of Si and Sn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations of {sigma} on more than three heavy-atom-containing molecules are given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results are closer to {delta}{sup exp} than previous calculations for SnX{sub 4} (X = H, Cl, Br, I). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimized basis sets were considered for full R and NR calculations of NMR J and {sigma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relativistic effects enlarge electron correlation effects on J-couplings. - Abstract: The NMR spectroscopic parameters are largely influenced by relativistic effects. They are highly dependent on the electronic behavior inside the spatial regions occupied by nuclei. Full relativistic calculations of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings at random phase level of approach (RPA) in the title compounds with reoptimized Dyall cVTZ basis sets are given. A comparison with the results of calculations with other basis sets that are mostly used within the non-relativistic (NR) domain is presented. We analyzed the dependence of that couplings with the speed of light over the whole range of values, from the full relativistic to the NR regimes. Within this last regime, calculations at the second-order level of approach (SOPPA) indicated that electron correlation effects may not be as important for nuclear magnetic shieldings, but they must be included with care for J-coupling calculations. From these calculations, we determined that relativity enlarges the electron correlation effects of the J-couplings of HBr and HI. Because the results of nuclear magnetic shielding calculations within polarization propagators at the RPA level were reliable, we were able to show a new

  4. A phase width for CaGaSn. Crystal structure of mixed intermetallic Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x} and SmGa{sub x}Sn{sub 3−x}, stability, geometry and electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillard, Monique, E-mail: mtillard@univ-montp2.fr

    2016-10-15

    X-ray single-crystal structure has been established for new compositions in intermetallic systems of tin and gallium. Crystals were successfully obtained in alloys prepared from elements. The structure of SmGaSn{sub 2} (cubic Pm3̄m, a=4.5778(8) Å, Z=1, R1=0.012) is described with atomic disorder at all Sn/Ga positions and the structure of Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4.9}Sn{sub 3.1} (hexagonal, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a=4.2233(9), c=17.601(7) Å, Z=1, R1=0.062) raises an interesting question about existence of a composition domain for CaGaSn. Finally, Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4.9}Sn{sub 3.1} should be considered as a particular composition of Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x}, a compound assumed to exist in the range x ~ 0−1. Partial atomic ordering characterizes the Sn/Ga puckered layers of hexagons whose geometries are analyzed and discussed comparatively with analogous arrangements in AlB{sub 2} related hexagonal compounds. The study is supported by rigid band model and DFT calculations performed for different experimental and hypothetic arrangements. - Graphical abstract: A phase width for Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x} belonging to the hexagonal YPtAs structure-type. - Highlights: • Single crystals of mixed tin gallium ternary intermetallics were obtained. • Partial ordering at metal sites and phase width are evidenced for Ca{sub 4}Ga{sub 4+x}Sn{sub 4−x}. • Layer deviation to flatness is studied comparatively with related structures. • Geometry and stability analyses based on DFT calculations are provided.

  5. Contributions on the investigation of inorganic nonstoichiometric compounds. XLV. New thermal decomposition products of Ln{sub 2}CeMO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3} - preparation of structure-related (La,Tb){sub 3.5}TaO{sub 6}Cl{sub 4-x}; Beitraege zur Untersuchung anorganischer nichtstoechiometrischer Verbindungen. XLV. Neue thermische Abbauprodukte von Ln{sub 2}CeMO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3} (M = Nb,Ta; Ln = La-Sm) - Darstellung von strukturverwandtem (La,Tb){sub 3,5}TaO{sub 6}Cl{sub 4-x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, H.; Behler, B.; Gruehn, R. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    1999-02-01

    The thermal decomposition (T {approx} 900-1050 C) of Ln{sub 2}CeMO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3} (M = Nb, Ta; Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) leads to the formation of two mixed-valenced phases (Ln, Ce){sub 3.25}MO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3.5-x} (phase ``AB``) and (Ln, Ce){sub 3.5}MO{sub 6}Cl{sub 4-x} (phase ``BB``) and to the formation of chlorine according to redox-reactions between Ce{sup 4+} and Cl{sup -}. Single crystals of both phases (Ln, Ce){sub 3.25}MO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3.5-x} (``AB``) and (Ln, Ce){sub 3.5}MO{sub 6}Cl{sub 4-x} (``BB``) were obtained by chemical transport reactions using both powder of Ln{sub 2}CeMO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3} (phase ``A``) and powder of (Ln, Ce){sub 3.25}MO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3.5-x} (phase ``AB``) as starting materials and chlorine (p{l_brace}Cl{sub 2}; 298 K{r_brace} = 1 atm) or HCl (p{l_brace}HCl; 298 K{r_brace} = 1 atm) as transport agent. A crystal of (La, Ce){sub 3.25}NbO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3.5-x} (``AB``) (space group: C2/m, a = 35.288(1) A, b = 5.418(5) A, c = 9.522(1) A, {beta} = 98.95(7) , Z = 4) was investigated by X-ray diffraction methods, a crystal of (Pr, Ce){sub 3.5}NbO{sub 6}Cl{sub 4-x} (``BB``) was investigated by synchrotron radiation ({lambda} = 0.56 A) diffraction methods. The lattice constants are a = 18.863(6) A, b = 5.454(5) A, c = 9.527(6) A, {beta} = 102.44(3) and Z = 4. Structure determination in the space group C2/m (No. 12) let to R1 = 0.0313. Main building units are NbO{sub 6}-polyhedra with slightly distorted trigonally prismatic environment for Nb and chains of face-sharing Cl{sub 6}-octahedra along [010]. The rare earth ions are coordinated by chlorine and oxygen atoms. These main structure features confirmed the expected relation to the starting material Ln{sub 2}CeMO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3} (phase ``A``) and to (Ln, Ce){sub 3.25}MO{sub 6}Cl{sub 3.5-x} (phase ``AB``). (orig.)

  6. A Three-level 4 x 3 Conventinal Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Runjie; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology of a three-level 4 × 3 conventional matrix converter with 12 bi-directional switches. PWM control and modulation index compensation have been investigated. Operation theory has been verified by the simulation results using Matlab. The simulation results show...... that the switching output performance of the proposed matrix converter is more efficient than that of existing matrix converters....

  7. "4 x 4 vasovasostomy": A simplified technique for vasectomy reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions : The "4 × 4" modified two-layer vasovasostomy is a simple technique that can be performed in quick time with excellent results. It may allow a common ground between the complex microdot two-layer technique and the over-simplified single-layer procedure.

  8. Dentistry 4. X-ray diagnostics; Zahnheilkunde 4. Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    DIN pocketbook 267/4 gives an overview of the normative requirements of the new X-Ray and Radiation Protection Ordinance, which has been in effect since 1 November 2011. This DIN pocketbook is intended for anyone charged with professional responsibility for the use of ionizing radiation in dentistry, operators and users of x-ray devices, radiation protection officers, accredited experts, manufacturers as well as for anyone with an interest in radiation protection or optimal radiological diagnostics. It contains standards relating to the following areas: acceptance and constancy testing; devices for evaluating findings (monitors, film viewing devices), films, printers; archiving, designating, labelling. Adherence to the standards makes it possible to avoid distractive artefacts in x-ray images and optimise the quality of x-ray diagnostics in dentistry.

  9. Microstructural and magnetic studies on BaMg{sub x}Zn{sub x}X{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} (X=Zr,Ce,Sn) prepared via mechanical activation method to act as a microwave absorber in X-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed [Department of Engineering, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, Mojtaba, E-mail: m.jafarian@iau-shahrood.ac.ir [Department of Material Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atassi, Yomen [Department of Applied Physics, Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, doped barium hexaferrite with the composition of BaMg{sub x}Zn{sub x}X{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} (where x= 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and X= Zr, Ce, Sn) was prepared via mechanical activation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), FTIR spectrophotometer, Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA) were used to analyze its phases, structure, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties respectively. Based on the results, single phase barium hexaferrite was obtained in all cases after milling the mixed powders for 20 h plus calcination at 1000 °C for 5 h. Morphology of the particles in all of the doped samples was completely hexagonal shape and they had an appropriate distribution. It was found that the sample of BaMg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 8.4}O{sub 19} with saturation magnetization and coercive force of 37.3 emu/g and 94 Oe respectively possessed the maximum reflection loss of −19.3 dB at 12.3 GHz with 1.7 GHz bandwidth. - Highlights: • The mechanical activation method was used to prepare: BaMg{sub x}Zn{sub x}X{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19}(X=Zr, Ce, and Sn) with values of xequal to 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9. • Morphology of the particles in all of the doped samples was completely hexagonal shape and they had an appropriate distribution. • BaMg{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 8.4}O{sub 19} possesses the maximum reflection loss of −19.3 dB at 12.3 GHz with 1.7 GHz bandwidth.

  10. Structural evolution of Ba{sub 8}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 24} from BaTiO{sub 3} using a series of Ba(Ti{sub 1−5x}Nb{sub 4x})O{sub 3} solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrientos Hernández, F.R., E-mail: frbh68@hotmail.com [Academic Area of Earth Sciences and Materials, Autonomous University of Hidalgo State, Road Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma zip code 42184, Hidalgo (Mexico); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, ESIQIE, National Polytechnic Institute, UPALM, Zacatenco, Mexico City, zip code 07738 (Mexico); Lira Hernández, I.A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, ESIQIE, National Polytechnic Institute, UPALM, Zacatenco, Mexico City, zip code 07738 (Mexico); Industrial Engineering Department, Technological Institute of Pachuca, Road México-Pachuca km. 87.5, Pachuca de Soto zip code 42080, Hidalgo (Mexico); Gómez Yáñez, C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, ESIQIE, National Polytechnic Institute, UPALM, Zacatenco, Mexico City, zip code 07738 (Mexico); Arenas Flores, A. [Academic Area of Earth Sciences and Materials, Autonomous University of Hidalgo State, Road Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma zip code 42184, Hidalgo (Mexico); Cabrera Sierra, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, ESIQIE, National Polytechnic Institute, UPALM, Zacatenco, Mexico City, zip code 07738 (Mexico); Pérez Labra, M. [Academic Area of Earth Sciences and Materials, Autonomous University of Hidalgo State, Road Pachuca-Tulancingo km 4.5, Mineral de la Reforma zip code 42184, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The evolution phase Ba{sub 8}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 24} was obtained through the mechanism Ba(Ti{sub 1-5x}Nb{sub 4x})O{sub 3}. • Addition of niobium can accelerate grain growth of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. • Ba{sub 8}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 24} presents a dielectric loss of 0.0035 and permittivity value of 54.6. • Electrical measurements showed that Nb{sup 5+} content drops Curie temperature. • Samples with x ⩾ 0.0625 shows an insulating behavior. -- Abstract: In this work, the structural evolution of hexagonal phase Ba{sub 8}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 24} by adding Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} to perovskite structure of BaTiO{sub 3} was investigated. The compositions Ba(Ti{sub 1-5x}Nb{sub 4x})O{sub 3} ceramics, with 0.00025 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.125 were prepared by the conventional solid state route in air atmosphere, the powders precursors, BaTiO{sub 3}, BaCO{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, were mixed in stoichiometric proportions and ground in a ball mill using alumina balls and acetone. The mixed powders were calcined at temperatures up to 1500 °C. The phase transformation of Ba{sub 8}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 24} from BaTiO{sub 3} was studied by DRX, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, electrical measurements (relative permittivity and P–E hysteresis loops); Rietveld’s refinement was used to structurally characterize the samples. For the devices obtained capacitance was measured at 1 kHz; with these values we calculated the relative permittivity. The samples show typical P–E hysteresis loops at room temperature accompanied by saturation polarization (Ps) and remnant polarization (Pr). The DRX and Rietveld’s refinement results show x ⩽ 0.01 has a ferroelectric behavior. When the doped level is increased x ⩾ 0.02, a peak displacement is observed, this is due to the phase transformation of tetragonal to cubic into the unit cell. Finally, with x = 0.125 the crystal structure transforms to the characteristic hexagonal phase Ba{sub 8}Ti{sub 3}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 24} which

  11. Valence state of transition metal ions in Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5) ceramics from X-ray photoelectron and Mössbauer spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochur, A.G., E-mail: agk@rgups.ru [Rostov State Transport University, 2 Narodnogo Opolcheniya, Rostov on Don 344038 (Russian Federation); Kozakov, A.T.; Googlev, K.A.; Kubrin, S.P.; Nikolskii, A.V. [Scientific Research Institute of Physics at Southern Federal University, 194 Stachki, Rostov on Don 344191 (Russian Federation); Torgashev, V.I. [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, 5 Zorge, Rostov-on-Don 344090 (Russian Federation); Bush, A.A.; Shkuratov, V.Ya. [Moscow State Technical University of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation, Vernadskogo 78, Moscow 119454 (Russian Federation); Shevtsova, S.I. [Scientific Research Institute of Physics at Southern Federal University, 194 Stachki, Rostov on Don 344191 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • Ceramics Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5) are synthesized. • Valence state of 3d metal ions is studied with XPS and Mössbauer spectroscopy. • Ionic states of Co and Cr are 2+ and 3+; Fe ions are Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} prevailing. • Relative Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} content grows with x; it is the same in the bulk and near surface. • Fe atoms substitute both Co and Cr atoms forming partly inverse spinel structure. - Abstract: Ceramics with nominal composition Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5) are synthesized via a solid state reaction method. Crystal structure of samples is studied with X-ray diffraction. Actual elemental composition is determined using X-ray microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples’ morphology is studied with scanning electron microscopy. Valence state of the Co, Fe and Cr ions is determined from 2p X-ray photoelectron spectra and Mössbauer spectra. XPS are assigned based on calculations with allowance for the multiplet splitting, crystal field, and the charge-transfer effects. Cobalt ions are found to be bivalent in tetrahedral coordination; chromium ions are trivalent in octahedral coordination. Fe ions are mostly in trivalent states, although Fe{sup 2+} ions are also present in significant amounts. Fe{sup 2+} ions are in tetrahedral coordination while Fe{sup 3+} ions occupy both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Bulk and near-surface elemental compositions of the ceramic grains are noticeably different. Relative Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} contents are the same in the volume and at the surface of the samples; relative number of Fe{sup 3+} ions increases upon the increase of x. A model of partly inverse spinel structure is suggested where the atoms of iron substitute both Co and Cr atoms.

  12. Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance study of La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x Cu sub 1 sub - sub y Zn sub y O sub 4 (x=0.10, 0.15 and 0.20). Zn-induced wipeout effect near the magnetic and electric instability

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagata, H; Nakamura, K; Matsumura, M; Itoh, Y

    2003-01-01

    We studied Zn-substitution effect on the high-T sub c superconductors, underdoped La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x Cu sub 1 sub - sub y Zn sub y O sub 4 (x=0.10; y=0, 0.01, 0.02), optimally doped (x=0.15; y=0, 0.02), and overdoped (x=0.20; y=0, 0.03, 0.06) in a temperature range of T=4.2-300 K, using Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echo technique. We found full disappearance of the Cu NQR signals for the Zn-substituted, Sr-underdoped x=0.10 samples below about 40 K, partial disappearance for the Sr-optimally doped ones below about 50 K, but not for the overdoped x=0.20 ones. From the Zn-doping, the Sr-doping and the temperature dependence of the wipeout effect, we associate the wipeout effect with Zn-induced Curie magnetism or its extended glassy charge-spin stripe formation. (author)

  13. Speeds of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} with x = (0.10001, 0.19999, and 0.5422) at temperatures between 170 K and 400 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estela-Uribe, J.F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Javeriana-Cali, Calle 18, 118-250 Cali (Colombia); Trusler, J.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.trusler@imperial.ac.uk; Chamorro, C.R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Segovia, J.J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Martin, M.C. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Villamanan, M.A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion (TERMOCAL), Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in {l_brace}(1 - x)CH{sub 4} + xN{sub 2}{r_brace} has been measured with a spherical acoustic resonator. Two mixtures with x = (0.10001 and 0.19999) were studied along isotherms at temperatures between 220 K and 400 K with pressures up to 20 MPa; a few additional measurements at p = (25 and 30) MPa are also reported. A third mixture with x = 0.5422 was studied along pseudo-isochores at amount-of-substance densities between 0.2 mol . dm{sup -3} and 5 mol . dm{sup -3}. Corrections for molecular vibrational relaxation are discussed in detail and relaxation times are reported. The overall uncertainty of the measured speeds of sound is estimated to be not worse than {+-}0.02%, except for those measurements in the mixture with x = 0.5422 that lie along the pseduo-isochore at the highest amount-of-substance density. The results have been compared with the predictions of several equations of state used for natural gas systems.

  14. The effects of magnetic field and polarization on the permeability and permittivity of (1 – x)Ni0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4+x Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 composites at high frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Peng-Fei; You, Caiyin

    2018-02-01

    (1 – x)Ni0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4+x Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (x  =  0–1) multiferroic composite materials were prepared by a conventional sintering process. The magnetic permeability and permittivity were researched at high frequency in detail. The permittivity ε‧ decreases slightly with the frequency and the permittivity ε″ shows a peak in the 3 MHz–1 GHz range. The permeability displays a relaxation resonance within the 3 MHz–1 GHz frequency range. The magnetic resonances of the domain wall and spin rotation were excited by the external dc magnetic field in the microwave frequency. The resonance peaks in the imaginary permeability move to high frequency with the magnetic field, but shift to low frequency in the composite samples. The permittivity spectra exhibit two resonance peaks after polarization. The changes of the permittivity and permeability under magnetic field or/and after polarization confirm the interaction between ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in the microwave frequency. The observed phenomena were understood by employing a resonance equation for the domain wall motion and a Landau–Gilbert equation for the spin rotation. The results indicate that permittivity and permeability can be adjusted by the magnetic field or electric field.

  15. Relação cinemática em um trator 4x2 com tração dianteira auxiliar equipado com pneus radiais na eficiência de tração Kinematic relation on radial tires in a front wheel assist tractor on traction efficience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fernando Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes combinações de pressões internas dos pneus do trator pode afetar a interferência entre eixos motrizes dos tratores agrícolas, principalmente com pneus do tipo radial. Um trator 4x2 com tração dianteira auxiliar foi analisado quanto a seu desempenho em tração. Pneus de carcaça radial com diferentes pressões internas foram utilizados, com o objetivo de variar as relações cinemá ticas entre os eixos. Mediram-se o patinamento das rodas dianteiras e traseiras, a resistência ao rolamento e a força de tração, em duas condições de solo (firme e solto. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que a eficiência de tração não foi significativamente influenciada pela variação das relações cinemáticas de 0,962 a 1,102. As máximas eficiências de tração ocorreram com relaçõ es cinemáticas variáveis dentro da faixa estudada e de acordo com as cargas impostas à barra de tração.Different combinations of tractor tire inflating pressure may affect interference between tractor axles, mainly with radial tires type. A front wheel assist tractor was studied in its traction performance. Radial tires with different inflation pressure were used, changing kinematic relations between axles. The measured parameters were: front and rear slip, rolling resistence and drawbar pull in two soil conditions (firm and loose. The results indicate that traction efficience was not significantly influenced by kinematic relations variation between 0.962 to 1.102. The maximum traction efficiency ocurred within the range studied and according to drawbar pull.

  16. On the magnetic properties of pseudo-Laves phases RE{sub 1-y}Y{sub y}Ni{sub 4-x}Al{sub x}Mg with RE = La, Ce and Gd prepared by both melting and ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, S.; Chevalier, B. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Paul-Boncour, V. [ICMPE-CMTR, CNRS-UPEC, UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Bobet, J.-L., E-mail: bobet@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LaNi{sub 4}Mg did not exhibit any magnetic ordering but a paramagnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the compounds with Gd order ferromagnetically at a temperature ranging from 77 to 15 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dilution of Gd atom by Y leads to a decrease of the Curie temperature below a critical number of Gd atoms. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of RE{sub 1-y}Y{sub y}Ni{sub 4-x}Al{sub x}Mg (RE = La, Ce and Gd) are reported. LaNi{sub 4}Mg displays a weak magnetization indicating that Ni is non magnetic as often observed in RENi{sub 2} compounds. The magnetization of CeNi{sub 4}Mg compounds shows a Curie Weiss behaviour with an effective paramagnetic moment {mu}{sub eff} = 2.2 {mu}{sub B}. The magnetization of Gd compounds is dominated by the contribution of Gd moment with a paramagnetic effective moment close to 7.7 {mu}{sub B}/Gd for all studied compounds. The Curie temperature, which is 75 K for GdNi{sub 2}, decreases almost linearly with the number of Gd neighbours when more than half Gd is replaced by Y. The decrease of crystallinity of GdNi{sub 4}Mg, which is monitored by ball milling and heat treatment, strongly influences the magnetic properties and a relationship between the transition temperature and the crystallites size is reported.

  17. Manipulation of polar order in the “empty” tetragonal tungsten bronzes: Ba{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Dy{sub 0.67}□{sub 1.33}Nb{sub 10}O{sub 30}, x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Jonathan; Morrison, Finlay D., E-mail: finlay.morrison@st-andrews.ac.uk [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A series of “empty” tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) ferroelectrics, Ba{sub 4-x}Sr{sub x}Dy{sub 0.67}□{sub 1.33}Nb{sub 10}O{sub 30} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3; □ = vacancy), is reported. With increasing x the unit cell contracts in both the ab plane and c-axis; x ≤ 1 compounds are normal ferroelectrics (FE) with decreasing T{sub C} as x increases, while x ≥ 2 are relaxor ferroelectrics (RFE) with associated frequency dependent permittivity peaks and with similar T{sub m} and T{sub f} (Vogel-Fulcher freezing temperatures) values. This observation is rationalised by differing cation occupancies: for x ≤ 1, Sr{sup 2+} principally occupies the A2-site (co-occupied by Ba{sup 2+} with the A1-site occupied by Dy{sup 3+} and vacancies); for x ≥ 2 significant Sr A1-site occupation leads to the observed RFE characteristics. This FE to RFE crossover is consistent with a previously proposed TTB crystal chemical framework where both a decrease in average A-site size and concurrent increase in A1-site tolerance factor (t{sub A1}) favour destabilization of long range polar order and relaxor behaviour. The effect of increasing t{sub A1} as a result of Sr occupancy at the A1 site is dominant in the compounds reported here.

  18. Homo-polymerization of α-Olefins and Co-polymerization of Higher α-Olefins with Ethylene in the Presence of CpTiCl2(OC6H4X-p/MAO Catalysts (X = CH3, Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wieczorek

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopentadienyl-titanium complexes containing –OC6H4X ligands (X = Cl,CH3 activated with methylaluminoxane (MAO were used in the homo-polymerizationof ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, and also in co-polymerization of ethylene with the α-olefins mentioned. The -X substituents exhibitdifferent electron donor-acceptor properties, which is described by Hammett’s factor (σ.The chlorine atom is electron acceptor, while the methyl group is electron donor. Thesecatalysts allow the preparation of polyethylene in a good yield. Propylene in the presenceof the catalysts mentioned dimerizes and oligomerizes to trimers and tetramers at 25oCunder normal pressure. If the propylene pressure was increased to 7 atmospheres,CpTiCl2(OC6H4CH3/MAO catalyst at 25oC gave mixtures with different contents ofpropylene dimers, trimers and tetramers. At 70oC we obtained only propylene trimer.Using the catalysts with a -OC6H4Cl ligand we obtained atactic polymers with Mw182,000 g/mol (at 25oC and 100,000 g/mol (at 70oC. The superior activity of theCpTiCl2(OC6H4Cl/MAO catalyst used in polymerization of propylene prompted us tocheck its activity in polymerization of higher α-olefins (1-butene, 1-pentene, 1-hexeneand in co-polymerization of these olefins with ethylene. However, when homo-polymerization was carried out in the presence of this catalyst no polymers wereobtained. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the presence of dimers. The activity ofthe CpTiCl2(OC6H4Cl/MAO catalyst in the co-polymerization of ethylene with higher α-olefins is limited by the length of the co-monomer carbon chain. Hence, the highest catalyst activities were observed in co-polymerization of ethylene with propylene (here a lower pressure of the reagents and shorter reaction time were applied to obtain catalytic activity similar to that for other co-monomers. For other co-monomers the activity of the catalyst

  19. MIMO 4x4 Link Level Simulations in Anisotropic Channel Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Buris, Nick

    in a Multi Probe Anechoic Chamber (MPAC) to serve as a reference for MIMO OTA performance certification for 2x2 downlink only. While efforts were made to cenverge MIMO OTA Measurements with simulations, the closest results were achieved when adopting the concept of Absolute Data Throughput Framework (ADTF...

  20. Finite-size corrections for quantum strings on AdS4 x CP3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astolfi, D.; Puletti, V.G.M.; Grignani, G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of curvature corrections to the pp-wave energy of type IIA string states on AdS4×CP3 initiated in arXiv:0807.1527. Using the near pp-wave Hamiltonian found in arXiv:0912.2257, we compute the first non-vanishing correction to the energy of a set of bosonic string states...

  1. Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x= 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rare earth based materials have recently attracted considerable attention as potential eco-friendly colourants for low temperature as well as high temperature applications. In the present study, we have synthesized a series of Ca-doped PrPO4 compounds with the general formula, Pr1–CaPO4 ( = 0–0.4 in steps of 0.1) ...

  2. Page 1 1. Phase transformations 869 s 4) ------- X A. N O N Figure 29 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 29. Projections of the critical manifold (Wf = 0) on the (a, b) and (a, x) planes. vis-a-vis problems of materials science, see Venkataraman and Balakrishnan 1977;. Venkataraman 1982). The Fokker-Planck equation is sometimes written as a continuity equation i.e. as. o d. P--- is. -- dx 0, (43) where j the probability ...

  3. Thermoelectric doping effect in Ca3Co4-xNixO9 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantinescu

    2015-01-01

    The raise in the power factor for the 0.01-Ni doped samples, compared with the undoped ones, is between 10 and 25% at 50 and 800 °C respectively. Moreover, the maximum power at 800 °C, around 0.25 mW/K2.m, is significantly higher than the best results obtained in Ni doped samples reported previously in the literature.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by PbXO4 (X=Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Yu; Chaonan, Dong; Ruiying, Qiu; Lijin, Xu; Aihua, Zheng

    2015-01-15

    PbMoO4 and PbWO4 are prepared by the simple precipitation method in this work, they show the photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange in water under the UV light illumination. In the above photocatalytic degradation processes, methyl orange concentration decreases quickly, the total organic carbon (TOC) decreases slowly; inorganic ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-), NO2(-), NH4(+)) can be formed and measured by the ion chromatograph; the pH value in the systems decreases gradually; a small quantity of HO˙(-)·can be generated and measured by the terephthalic acid (TA) indirectly. In order to estimate the roles of active species during the above photocatalytic degradation processes, isopropanol, (NH4)2C2O4, and 1,4-benzoquinone as the scavengers for HO˙, h(+), O2˙(-) are introduced into the systems, respectively. Isopropanol and (NH4)2C2O4 are effective scavengers for active species HO˙ and h(+) respectively, but 1,4-benzoquinone is not a satisfactory scavenger in all cases to capture O2˙(-), at least in this work. At last, PbMoO4 and PbWO4 are characterized by nitrogen sorption, DRS, SEM, TEM and XRD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0832 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available no Acid sequence ps*rlltngstpkefiqlrkvfssrvssiittsstgsnag*vlkrlatnaklsfwkpvti sfg...stfn*itctninnittnxfc*intk--- ---vxs*rlltngstpkefiqlrkvfssrvssiittsstgsnag*vlkrlatnaklsfwk pvti...scxxrxxsg*xvxxirankpxl iichvkpiik*aatfkxitxtnxpvmracxllhi*iqs Frame B: ps*rlltngstpkefiqlrkvfssrvssiittsstgsnag*vlkrlatnaklsfwkpvti

  6. Comparative studies of the dielectric properties of (1−x)BiFeO{sub 3}-xNi{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) multiferroic nanocomposite with their single phase BiFeO{sub 3} and Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Angom Devadatta, E-mail: angomdevadattamani@gmail.com; Soibam, Ibetombi

    2017-02-15

    BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) and nickel zinc ferrite Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) were prepared by sol gel and auto combustion route respectively. Stoichiometric proportions were mixed to obtain the multiferroic nanocomposites having the compositional formula (1−x)BiFeO{sub 3}-x Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0). The phases were confirmed by XRD analyses. SEM micrographs showed the agglomerated nature of the particles with continuous grain growth in all directions. Elemental compositions were confirmed from EDAX studies. FTIR studies showed the stretching and bending vibrations of the various bonds present in the samples. The dielectric properties such as dielectric constant, ε′ and dielectric loss tangent, tanδ were studied for the spinel, perovskite and nanocomposite ferrites. Experimental result shows an increasing trend in the value of dielectric constant in going from spinel to perovskite phase. The frequency dependence of tanδ showed minimum loss for x=0.5 nanocomposite. Possible mechanisms explaining the above results were being discussed.

  7. PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI PANTAI BERPASIR LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 100 METER DARIPADA PELATIHAN LARI INTERVAL 4 X 50 METER DI LAPANGAN PADA SISWA KELAS XSMK N KAKULUK MESAK NTT.

    OpenAIRE

    Benediktus Nahak; Alex Pangkahila; Susy Purnawati

    2014-01-01

    The speed is one of the biomotoriccomponents which dominantin the run race100 meters. 100 meters run is part of athletics which has a short duration, highintensity and anaerobic systems develop. The purpose of this study was todetermine the increasing of 100 meter run speed, therefore this research is anexperimental study was conducted in SMK N Kakulukmesak Belu regency NTT,for 6 months from March - May 2014, with the frequency of exercise 3 times aweek. This study uses two types of training,...

  8. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and flight testing that verifies transition flight control. A final down-selected vehicle is also presented.

  9. 4x4 planar array antenna on indium phosphide substrate for 0.3-THz band application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Haruichi; Koga, Masahiko; Tsugami, Kota; Eu, Guan Chai; Kato, Kazutoshi

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a design and fabrication of 4 × 4 one-sided directional slot array antenna on indium phosphide (InP) substrate for 0.3 THz (300 GHz) wireless link. The antenna has top antenna metal layer and bottom floating metal layer. Polyimide dielectric layer is stacked between each metal layer. The antenna is placed on the deep etched InP substrate. By optimizing the length of the bottom floating metal layer, one-sided directional radiation can be realized. The branched coplanar wave guide (CPW) transmission line is connected to each antenna element with the same electrical length. The size of the 4 × 4 array antenna is 2,730 μm x 3,000 μm with uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes, DC bias and ground lines. Simulated realized gain in peak direction of the proposed antenna is 11.7 dBi. The transmission measurement is carried and measured received power.

  10. Fully Printed Flexible 4-Bit 2D (4x4) 16-Element Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable...

  11. Subchannel Code Benchmarking to Columbia University 4x4 and Pacific Northwest Laboratory 2x6 Bundle Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kang Hoon; Oezdemir, Erdal; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The subchannel code is used to assess the safety of a reactor core at the steady-state and transient conditions. KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF) has been developed new subchannel code, THALES, for PWR core design application. In this study, we are comparing the THALES result with VIPRE-01 code result utilizing bundle test data. VIPRE-01 was developed under EPRI sponsorship and has been used by U.S. PWR commercial nuclear utilities, historically. THALES and VIPRE-01 codes were benchmarked to two kind of bundle test data which were at the steady-state and transient conditions. THALES predicted fluid velocity and temperature profile of bundle test data well and the error rate between THALES and VIPRE-01 was very small.

  12. ATHENA model for 4 x 350 MW(t) HTGR plant side-by-side steel vessel prismatic core concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosek, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    ATHENA is a computer code being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under US Department of Energy support. The code will provide advanced best-estimate predictive capability for a wide spectrum of applications. The code has capability for modeling independent hydrodynamic systems which can currently include water, helium, Freon-II, idealgas, lithium, or lithium-lead as fluids. ATHENA was modified to allow point reactor kinetics evaluations for two nuclear reactor cores. Capability for specifying gas circulators was added and representative homologous curves were added for a helium circulator. A full system model was developed for a High Temperature Gas Reactor modular concept with a full secondary system model. The code capability to model the complete system was demonstrated and a representative transient for a circulator coastdown without reactor scram was modeled and evaluated to the point of flow stagnation.

  13. Anion/Cation-Controlled Morphology Evolution of Bi1- x PO4: xEu3+ and Enhanced Luminescence Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yubai; Zhang, Kun; Qiao, Xianrong; Zuo, Haoqiang; Li, Peng; Li, Jinyang

    2016-01-01

    A series of BiPO4:Eu3+ phosphors were hydrothermally synthesized by varying the molar ratio of PO4 3-/[Bi3++Eu3+] and the Eu3+ ions concentration in the precursor mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the structure, morphology and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized phosphors. The XRD results indicate that the crystal structure of the BiPO4:Eu3+ samples are low-temperature monoclinic phase. The SEM observations reveal that the BiPO4:Eu3+ powders morphologies vary from octahedral-like to rod-like with increasing molar ratio of PO4 3-/[Bi3++Eu3+]. The PL spectra suggest that the emission intensity of the BiPO4:Eu3+ phosphors significantly enhances when the molar ratio of PO4 3-/[Bi3++Eu3+] is greater than 1.0. Therefore, the luminescence properties of BiPO4:Eu3+ phosphors can be improved effectively through controlling the molar ratio of PO4 3-/[Bi3++Eu3+] in the precursor mixture, which may provide an important reference for designing new luminescent materials.

  14. Vehicle Useful Life Study for Truck, 1/4 Ton, 4x4, M151A1/A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    cocncxjcjicoLnoi— cri«xiLncoOi— .— r^o.— CM KO 00 LO in <C •^j-CMLnooLni— uD«^-cn cocricococ\\ JUDO ^t£)^r^c\\jr-^c\\j<^|-<Njcoo"=rLnco«^-Ln Oi ’* 0 CO ^0 1— r-.’^t

  15. Evaluation of the Siemens SCM21130LS 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Color CRT Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...) has very good image quality and features that make it an excellent candidate display device for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Capability workstations, Based on our evaluation, NIDL certifies the Siemens...

  16. Evaluation of the Viewsonic P817 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Color CRT Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Viewsonic P817 21 inch monitor (20" viewable area; the selling price is $1600) is a color monitor with image quality and features that make it an excellent candidate display device for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Capability workstations...

  17. Evaluation of the Precision Imaging Corporation 21si 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Monochrome Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... This COTS monitor is an excellent display for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Workstations. Accordingly, NIDL certifies the PIC 21 Si and the Siemens look-alike monochrome monitor as being suitable for IEC workstations requiring a monochrome monitor...

  18. Evaluation of the Hitachi CM814U 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Color CRT Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Hitachi CM814U 21 inch color monitor (20' viewable area, selling price $1200) has very good image quality and features that make it an excellent candidate display device for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Capability workstations...

  19. Evaluation of the Clinton Electronics DS2100HB-ST 4 X 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Monochrome Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... is $1995) is a relatively low cost, 1600 x 1280 pixel, monochrome gray scale monitor. It has good image quality and features that make it an attractive candidate display device for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Capability workstations...

  20. OpenNebula KVM SR-IOV driver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macleod, D

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent release of an OFED which supports SR-IOV on Infiniband HCAs it is now possible to use verbs from inside a VM. This VMM driver supports these Infiniband HCAs, and any other SR-IOV network device, in OpenNebula....

  1. Spectroscopic properties of MgAl{sub 2−x}O{sub 4}:xCr{sup 3+} nanoparticles prepared by a high-temperature calcination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xinhua [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tian, Hai [Science and Technology on Vacuum Technology and Physics Laboratory, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Yao, Shiyue [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Long, Yumei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liang, Bo, E-mail: liangbo@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-12-01

    In this study, Cr{sup 3+}-doped MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanophosphors have been prepared via a facile high-temperature calcination route. The structure and morphology of the products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, which confirmed the typical spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and sphere-like shape with particle size distribution of 50–80 nm. It was found that the Cr{sup 3+}-doped MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be efficiently excited by visible light and exhibits intense red emission peaking at 695 nm, corresponding to the {sup 2}E{sub g}→{sup 4}A{sub 2g} transition of Cr{sup 3+} ions. The evolution of the luminescent properties on the Cr-doping concentration (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 mol%) was then investigated and the optimal concentration was 3.0 mol%. It is believed that active intermediates and gases created in the calcining process play important roles not only on the formation of the monodispersed nanoparticles, but also on the homogeneous doping of Cr{sup 3+} at high concentration.

  2. Prediction study of structural, electronic and optical properties of XIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (X = Hg, Zn) thiospinels under pressure effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Masood [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Inam, F. [School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Opposite Sector U, D.H.A. Lahore 54792 (Pakistan); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Isa, A.R.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Saeed, M.A., E-mail: saeed@utm.my [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Pressure effect is employed for the first time on HgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} thiospinels. • A number of physical parameters are calculated and equations are developed. • FP-LAPW+lo method is coupled with different approximations (GGA+U and mBJ-GGA). • Relationships between pressure and parameters are in accordance with the theory. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. -- Abstract: First principle calculations are carried out to study the effect of pressure (up to 30 GPa) on physical properties of HgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} thiospinels. A number of structural, electronic and optical parameters are calculated, and equations are developed for their prediction at different pressures. Highly effective all electron FP-LAPW+lo method coupled with two different approximations (GGA+U and mBJ-GGA) provides very accurate results. All relationships developed between pressure and structural parameters are in full accordance with the established theory thus validating the approach used in the current study. Computed In–S bond length for ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} matches closely with the experimental value. The band gap values of 0.920 eV (1.851 eV) and 1.68 eV (2.733 eV) are obtained with GGA+U (mBJ-GGA) at 0 GPa for HgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, respectively. Additionally, we have calculated the optical properties, namely, the complex dielectric function, refractive index, extinction coefficient, reflectivity, optical conductivity, absorption coefficient and electron energy loss function under pressure effect for radiation up to 30.0 eV. The first critical point also known as optical’s absorption edge calculated with GGA+U (mBJ-GGA) appears at 0.939 eV (1.891 eV) and 1.701 eV (2.981 eV) for HgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, respectively. Variation of the absorption spectrum indicates the prospective use of both compounds for device applications, which can be operated on a wide range of the energy scale. The entire work gives useful results of fundamental importance, which can be utilized for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  3. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 x 10(18) eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 8 (2015), 049 ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra high energy cosmic rays * cosmic ray experiments Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.634, year: 2015

  4. The exchange biaslike effect in tetrahedral spinels Cu1-xZnxCr2O4(x=0.1,0.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L. Q.; Ren, W.; Shen, J.; Sun, Z. H.; Wang, F. W.

    2009-04-01

    Exchange biaslike phenomenon is observed in the Zn doped spinel polycrystalline CuCr2O4. The magnetic hysteresis loop shifts in both horizontal and vertical directions at 5 K after the samples are cooled down to 5 K in a magnetic field. The nature of this magnetic anisotropy arises from the freezing properties of the local anisotropy in the cluster glass system. The magnetic shifts along both directions can be observed directly under the principle that the spins of a cluster are frozen in random orientations upon zero field, and aligned to the field direction upon field cooling.

  5. First-principles study of the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of ZnX2O4 (X=Al, Cr and Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Ji, Guang-Fu; Zhao, Feng; Gong, Zi-Zheng

    2011-04-01

    This paper performs first-principles calculations to study the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the spinels ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnCr2O4, using density functional theory with the plane-wave pseudopotential method. Our calculations are in good agreement with previous theoretical calculations and the available experimental data. The studies in this paper focus on the evolution of the mechanical properties of ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnCr2O4 under hydrostatic pressure. The results show that the cubic phases of ZnAl2O4, ZnGa2O4 and ZnCr2O4 become unstable at about 50 GPa, 40 GPa and 25 GPa, respectively. From analysis of the band structure of the three compounds at equilibrium volume, it obtains a direct band gap of 4.35 eV for ZnAl2O4 and 0.89 eV for ZnCr2O4, while ZnGa2O4 has an indirect band gap of 2.73 eV.

  6. Structural and optical effects induced by gamma irradiation on NdPO{sub 4}: X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and luminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhasivam, S.; Rajesh, N.P., E-mail: rajeshnp@hotmail.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Inorganic NdPO{sub 4} crystal was grown first time using potassium polyphosphate (K{sub 6}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) flux. • NdPO{sub 4} crystal is insoluble in water, non-hygroscopic and high radiation resistance favoring for actinides host. • Actinide immobilization can be made at 1273 K. • High yield of 1061 nm photon emission. - Abstract: Rare earth orthophosphate (NdPO{sub 4}) monazite single crystals were grown using high temperature flux growth method employing K{sub 6}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} (K{sub 6}) as molten solvent. Their structural parameters were studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The grown crystals were examined by SEM and EDX techniques for their homogeniousity and inclusion in the crystals. The influence of gamma irradiation in structural and optical absorption properties were studied by the powder XRD, FTIR and reflectance spectroscopy. The effect of gamma irradiation on luminescence properties was recorded. No significant structural change is observed up to 150 kGy gamma dose. The gamma ray induced charge trap in the crystal was saturated to 40 kGy dose. The luminescence intensity decreases with an increase in the irradiation. The emission of luminescence intensity stabilizes above 40 kGy gamma dose.

  7. 4x10Gb/s WDM Bi-directional Gating in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by Using Polarization Multiplexing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s.......Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s....

  8. Analisis Pengaruh Parameter Operasional dan Penggunaan Stabilizer terhadap Perilaku Arah Belok Mobil Toyota Fortuner 4.0 V6 SR (AT 4X4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deva Andriansyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu tipe mobil yang diminati oleh masyarakat Indonesia yaitu Toyota Fortuner yang termasuk dalam kelas mobil SUV (sport utility vehicle. Dalam pengoperasiannya mobil SUV harus mampu memberikan keamanan dan kenyamanan bagi pengendaranya. Salah satu faktor penunjang dari segi keamanan mobil ini yaitu perilaku arah beloknya. Dengan harga jual yang relatif tinggi di Indonesia, diharapkan mobil ini dapat memberikan perilaku arah belok yang baik. Terdapat dua tahapan dalam peneltian ini yaitu tahap analisis dan uji jalan pada radius belok tetap, 10 meter. Pada tahap analisis dilakukan perhitungan berdasarkan analisa slip, skid, dan guling untuk mengetahui perilaku arah belok mobil dengan variasi pada parameter operasionalnya yaitu: jumlah penumpang, kecepatan, sudut belok, kondisi permukaan jalan, dan tekanan ban. Selain itu, analisis pengaruh penggunaaan stabilizer terhadap perilaku arah belok mobil juga dilakukan. Uji jalan dilakukan untuk mengetahui Koefisien Understeer (KUS dari mobil tersebut pada jalan aspal dan tanah dengan kondisi mobil tanpa dan menggunakan stabilizer. Hasil yang didapatkan dari uji jalan akan dibandingkan dengan hasil dari analisis perhitungan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa mobil Toyota Fortuner mengalami kondisi belok paling baik ketika dinaiki oleh 2 orang penumpang dengan tekanan ban sebesar 35 Psi dan melintas pada jalan aspal karena kendaraan lebih sedikit mengalami oversteer dan memiliki (KUS positif terkecil serta tidak mudah mengalami skid. Penggunaan stabilizer pada mobil Toyota Fortuner tidak berpengaruh terhadap perilaku arah beloknya karena KUS yang dihasilkan pada uji jalan nilainya hampir sama yaitu 1,8045 dan 1,8115 pada jalan aspal serta 2,151 dan 2,1641 pada jalan tanah. Namun, penggunaan stabilizer bermanfaat untuk memperkecil sudut guling ketika mobil berbelok.

  9. Nonlinear Optical Properties of XPh4 (X = B-, C, N+, P+): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2015-06-22

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B-, C, N+, and P+, that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: these systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly-studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  10. The xenograft antigen bound to Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1-B(4). X-ray crystal structure of the complex and molecular dynamics characterization of the binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Wolfram; Tschampel, Sarah; Woods, Robert J

    2002-02-22

    The shortage of organs for transplantation into human patients continues to be a driving force behind research into the use of tissues from non-human donors, particularly pig. The primary barrier to such xenotransplantation is the reaction between natural antibodies present in humans and Old World monkeys and the Gal alpha(1-3)Gal epitope (xenograft antigen, xenoantigen) found on the cell surfaces of the donor organ. This hyperacute immune response leads ultimately to graft rejection. Because of its high specificity for the xenograft antigen, isolectin 1-B(4) from Griffonia simplicifolia (GS-1-B(4)) has been used as an immunodiagnostic reagent. Furthermore, haptens that inhibit natural antibodies also inhibit GS-1-B(4) from binding to the xenoantigen. Here we report the first x-ray crystal structure of the xenograft antigen bound to a protein (GS-1-B(4)). The three-dimensional structure was determined from orthorhombic crystals at a resolution of 2.3 A. To probe the influence of binding on ligand properties, we report also the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on this complex as well as on the free ligand. The MD simulations were performed with the AMBER force-field for proteins augmented with the GLYCAM parameters for glycosides and glycoproteins. The simulations were performed for up to 10 ns in the presence of explicit solvent. Through comparison with MD simulations performed for the free ligand, it has been determined that GS-1-B(4) recognizes the lowest energy conformation of the disaccharide. In addition, the x-ray and modeling data provide clear explanations for the reported specificities of the GS-1-B(4) lectin. It is anticipated that a further understanding of the interactions involving the xenograft antigen will help in the development of therapeutic agents for application in the prevention of hyperacute xenograft rejection.

  11. First and second harmonic generation of the XAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (X=Zn,Cd,Hg) defect chalcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik, E-mail: tarik_ouahrani@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Ecole Preparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, Depertement de Physique EPST-T, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Lasri, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P.230,13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Universite Dr Tahar Moulay de Saida, B.P. 138, Cite el Nasr, Saida 20000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [School of Complex systems, FFPW- South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin-Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-15

    The chemical bonding of the ZnAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4}, CdAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and HgAl{sub 2}Se{sub 4} defect chalcopyrites has been studied in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). The GW quasi-particle approximation is used to correct the DFT-underestimation of energy gap, and as a consequence the linear and nonlinear optical properties are significantly enhanced. The second harmonic generation (SHG) displays certain dependence with the ionicity degree decrease through the dependency of the SHG on the band gap. The occurrence of the AIM saddle point is characterized and some clarifying features in relationship with the density topology are exposed, which enable to understand the relation with the second harmonic generation effect.

  12. Five-coordinate complexes [FeX(depe)(2)]BPh(4), X = Cl, Br: electronic structure and spin-forbidden reaction with N(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Oliver; Wiesler, Beatrix E; Lehnert, Nicolai; Näther, Christian; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Neuhausen, Jörg; Tuczek, Felix

    2002-07-01

    The bonding of N(2) to the five-coordinate complexes [FeX(depe)(2)](+), X = Cl (1a) and Br (1b), has been investigated with the help of X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations. Complexes 1a and 1b are found to have an XP(4) coordination that is intermediate between square-pyramidal and trigonal-bipyramidal. Mössbauer and optical absorption spectroscopy coupled with angular overlap model (AOM) calculations reveal that 1a and 1b have (3)B(1) ground states deriving from a (xz)(1)(z(2))(1) configuration. The zero-field splitting for this state is found to be 30-35 cm(-1). In contrast, the analogous dinitrogen complexes [FeX(N(2))(depe)(2)](+), X = Cl (2a) and Br (2b), characterized earlier are low-spin (S = 0; Wiesler, B. E.; Lehnert, N.; Tuczek, F.; Neuhausen, J.; Tremel, W. Angew. Chem, Int. Ed. 1998, 37, 815-817). N(2) bonding and release in these systems are thus spin-forbidden. It is shown by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the chloro complex that the crossing from the singlet state (ground state of 2a) to the triplet state (ground state of 1a) along the Fe-N coordinate occurs at r(C) = 2.4 A. Importantly, this intersystem crossing lowers the enthalpy calculated for N(2) release by 10-18 kcal/mol. The free reaction enthalpy Delta G degrees for this process is calculated to be 4.7 kcal/mol, which explains the thermal instability of N(2) complex 2a with respect to the loss of N(2). The differences in reactivity of analogous trans hydrido systems are discussed.

  13. Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhemadou, A.; Khenata, R.; Zerarga, F.

    2007-03-01

    We perform ab initio calculations using a pseudo-potential plane-wave method based on density functional theory, within the local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation, in order to determine and predict the pressure dependence of structural and elastic properties of spinel compounds: MgAl2O4, MgGa2O4 and MgIn2O4. The results are in agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations.

  14. All-optical clear/drop optimisation for a 4x40 Gbit/s signal in Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Based on Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Optimisation of the all-optical clear and drop functionality using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is investigated for 2, 4 and 8x40 Gbit/s signals. The performance of different devices is compared, and critical design issues are discussed.......Optimisation of the all-optical clear and drop functionality using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer is investigated for 2, 4 and 8x40 Gbit/s signals. The performance of different devices is compared, and critical design issues are discussed....

  15. Electronic and optical properties of Cu2XSnS4 (X = Be, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni) and the impact of native defect pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas

    2017-05-01

    Reducing or controlling cation disorder in Cu2ZnSnS4 is a major challenge, mainly due to low formation energies of the anti-site pair ( CuZn - + ZnCu +) and the compensated Cu vacancy ( VCu - + ZnCu +). We study the electronic and optical properties of Cu2XSnS4 (CXTS, with X = Be, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Ni) and the impact of defect pairs, by employing the first-principles method within the density functional theory. The calculations indicate that these compounds can be grown in either the kesterite or stannite tetragonal phase, except Cu2CaSnS4 which seems to be unstable also in its trigonal phase. In the tetragonal phase, all six compounds have rather similar electronic band structures, suitable band-gap energies Eg for photovoltaic applications, as well as good absorption coefficients α(ω). However, the formation of the defect pairs ( C u X + X Cu) and ( V Cu + X Cu) is an issue for these compounds, especially considering the anti-site pair which has formation energy in the order of ˜0.3 eV. The ( C u X + X Cu) pair narrows the energy gap by typically ΔEg ≈ 0.1-0.3 eV, but for Cu2NiSnS4, the complex yields localized in-gap states. Due to the low formation energy of ( C u X + X Cu), we conclude that it is difficult to avoid disordering from the high concentration of anti-site pairs. The defect concentration in Cu2BeSnS4 is however expected to be significantly lower (as much as ˜104 times at typical device operating temperature) compared to the other compounds, which is partly explained by larger relaxation effects in Cu2BeSnS4 as the two anti-site atoms have different sizes. The disadvantage is that the stronger relaxation has a stronger impact on the band-gap narrowing. Therefore, instead of trying to reduce the anti-site pairs, we suggest that one shall try to compensate ( C u X + X Cu) with ( V Cu + X Cu) or other defects in order to stabilize the gap energy.

  16. Temperature- and pressure-induced lattice distortion in CdCr2-xGaxSe4 (x = 0, 0.06, and 0.12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Structural changes in the cubic spinels CdCr2-xGaxSe4 have been studied by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction at low temperature and energy-dispersive diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell at high pressure. In stoichiometric samples (x = 0), a spontaneous magnetostriction reduces the thermal...... with changes in the electronic configuration of the Jahn-Teller-active Cr cations. The magnetostriction is apparently not very sensitive to the Ga3+ admixtures in the present concentration range. At high pressure the cubic unit cell transforms to a tetragonal one with c/a = 0.91. The Jahn-Teller effect...... expansion coefficient from 6.7 x 10(-6) K-1 in the paramagnetic phase to 2.2 x 10(-6) K-1 in the ferromagnetic phase (T-C = 130 K). In the samples with Ga3+ admixtures (x = 0.06 and 0.12), a slight structural distortion causes an order-disorder-type phase transition at T-d approximate to 285 K connected...

  17. Investigation of xFe2O4 (x = Mn, Co) doped hydroxylapatite ferromagnetic biomaterials for the treatment of damaged bone and magnetically targeted drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vikas; Singh, K. J.; Kaur, Kulwinder; Bhatia, Gaurav

    2016-05-01

    Magnetically attracted MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 doped hydroxylapatite samples have been prepared by using co-precipitation method in the laboratory. Bioactive nature of samples has been confirmed from XRD spectra. Ferromagnetic behavior of samples has been studied by using vibration sample magnetometer. Human osteoblast cell line MG63 has been used to explore the cell viability of samples. Drug carrier ability of samples has been checked with gentamycin as an antibiotic and results show that samples can be used as excellent drug carriers. Drug loaded samples can be easily targeted to specific area due to their attractive nature towards external magnetic field. Our results indicate that prepared samples possess good bioactive as well as ferromagnetic behavior with drug carrier ability and hence, our samples can be potential candidates for the clinical applications.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of CoFe2-xYxO4 (x = 0.05-0.2) by auto combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, K. K.; Jadhav, P. S.; Devkar, Jyoti; Ghone, D. M.; Kaushik, S. D.

    2017-05-01

    The Yttrium doped Co ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by Auto combustion route. The XRD of the synthesized ferrites revealed cubic spinel phase formation whereas their Neutron diffraction studies confirmed the existence of secondary phase formation. The average lattice parameters calculated was 8.384Å and the estimated particle size was around 20 nm. SEM results revealed exaggerated grain growth with agglomeration of grains and non uniform grain structure. Resistivity measured was found to increase with increase in Yttrium content. Dielectric dispersion curve revealed Maxwell-Wagner type of polarization asserting Koop's model in these particular compositions. The two important parameters namely retentivity and coercivity show random variation with change in Y3+ ion concentration. It is observed that x=0.15 compositions has almost square wave loop type characteristic suggesting its application in memory devices.

  19. Induced effects by the substitution of Zn in Cu {sub 2}ZnSnX{sub 4} (X = S and Se)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Guohua [Center for Photovoltaic Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tse, Kinfai; Zhang, Yiou [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Li, Xiaoguang [Center for Photovoltaic Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Huang, Li [Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Yang, Chunlei, E-mail: cl.yang@siat.ac.cn [Center for Photovoltaic Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhu, Junyi, E-mail: jyzhu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [International Center for Quantum Design of Functional Materials (ICQD), Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscales, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xiao, Xudong [Center for Photovoltaic Solar Energy, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-03-31

    Based on the density functional theory with hybrid functional approach, we have studied the structural and thermodynamic stabilities of Cu{sub 2}MSnX{sub 4} (M = Zn, Mg, and Ca; X = S and Se) alloy, and have further investigated the electronic and optical properties of stable Cu{sub 2}MgSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}MgSnSe{sub 4} phases. Thermal stability analysis indicates that Cu{sub 2}MgSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}MgSnSe{sub 4} are thermodynamically stable, while Cu{sub 2}CaSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CaSnSe{sub 4} are unstable. The ground state configuration of the compound changes from kesterite into stannite structure when Zn atoms are substitued by larger Mg or Ca atoms. An energy separation between stannite and kesterite phase similar to that of CZTS is observed. Calculated electronic structures and optical properties suggest that Cu{sub 2}MgSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}MgSnSe{sub 4} can be efficient photovoltaic materials. - Highlights: • The substitution for Zn atom induced the different ground state structures. • The substitution of Mg is thermodynamically stable, while the Ca case is unstable. • Mg-substituted compounds can be efficient photovoltaic materials.

  20. Studies on electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4–3xFe4xO15

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 5 ... The system SrBi4Ti4–3Fe4O15 belonging to bismuth layer structured ferroelectric (BLSF) materials with = 0, 0.1 and 0.2 has been prepared through ... Impedance spectroscopy measurements confirm insulating behaviour at lower temperatures.

  1. Evaluation of the Data-Ray DR96L 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 22-Inch Diagonal Flat Screen Monochrome CRT Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... It is the only commercially available monochrome monitor that has a perfectly flat face and other features that make it a potential candidate display device for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Capability workstations...

  2. Evaluation of the Orwin Associates DEX 2102L, 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 21-Inch Diagonal Monochrome Monitor (a.k.a DEX 2101L in NIDL Report)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... This COTS monitor is an excellent display for NIMA Imagery Exploitation Workstations. Accordingly, NIDL certifies the Orwin Associates DEX 21 02L Monochrome CRT Monitor as being suitable for IEC workstations requiring a monochrome monitor...

  3. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  4. Multi-Stage Maximum Likelihood Target Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Vxs 1 Rx. + Vys1 Ryi (89) cRsi + VxtRxi + VytRyi 7 where c is the average speed of sound. 8 c. Compute the frequency residual 9 (RESfi ) : 10 RESf...16 respect to the sensor associated with the ith 17 measurement: 18 f = Fb cRs1 + VxsiRx, + VysiRy1 (313) cRsi + VxtRx, + VytRy1 19 5.) Compute the

  5. Electrochemical performance of LiFe(1-x)MnxPO4 (x = 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2) synthesized by solid state process as cathode material for Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwibowo, J.; Priyono, S.; Purawiardi, R. I.; Ratri, C. R.; Suwandi, E.

    2016-02-01

    Mn-doped LiFePO4 was synthesized through solid state process. Starting materials as LiOH.2H2O, Fe2O3, MnO2, H3PO4 and citric acid were technical grade materials. Synthesis process was conducted in two step heating process. The first heating process was purposed to remove organic materials at temperature of 320 °C for 10 hours in inert atmosphere. Subsequently, the second heating process was conducted at 800 °C for 8 hours also in inert atmosphere. Obtained phase was further observed by means of XRD. Morphology of the obtained powder was analyzed by SEM. The electrochemical performance was observed by cyclic voltammetry with the potential range 2 - 4.2 V under the scan rate mV/s. The rate capability of the obtained material was determined by charge-discharge test under various C-rates (0.5-10C) for potential range of 2 - 4.2 V.

  6. Systems analysis of the prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1 supports roles in DNA repair and luminal cell differentiation [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4x1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NKX3.1 is a homeobox transcription factor whose function as a prostate tumor suppressor remains insufficiently understood because neither the transcriptional program governed by NKX3.1, nor its interacting proteins have been fully revealed. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we have established an extensive NKX3.1 interactome which contains the DNA repair proteins Ku70, Ku80, and PARP, thus providing a molecular underpinning to previous reports implicating NKX3.1 in DNA repair. Transcriptomic profiling of NKX3.1-negative prostate epithelial cells acutely expressing NKX3.1 revealed a rapid and complex response that is a near mirror image of the gene expression signature of human prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN. Pathway and network analyses suggested that NKX3.1 actuates a cellular reprogramming toward luminal cell differentiation characterized by suppression of pro-oncogenic c-MYC and interferon-STAT signaling and activation of tumor suppressor pathways. Consistently, ectopic expression of NKX3.1 conferred a growth arrest depending on TNFα and JNK signaling. We propose that the tumor suppressor function of NKX3.1 entails a transcriptional program that maintains the differentiation state of secretory luminal cells and that disruption of NKX3.1 contributes to prostate tumorigenesis by permitting luminal cell de-differentiation potentially augmented by defects in DNA repair.

  7. Improving the sodium storage capacity of tunnel structured NaxFexTi2-xO4 (x = 1, 0.9 & 0.8) anode materials by tuning sodium deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhange, Deu S.; Ali, Ghulam; Kim, Ji-Young; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Nam, Kyung-Wan

    2017-10-01

    Due to their abundance and environmentally benign nature, iron and titanium present as the most attractive potential elements for use in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Accordingly, two structurally different Fe and Ti based compounds, stoichiometric NaFeTiO4 and sodium deficient NaxFexTi2-xO4 (where x = 0.9, and 0.8), are explored as anode materials for SIBs. Their structure and sodium storage capacity are systematically investigated by using combined structural and electrochemical analysis. Rietveld refinement analysis reveals that the sodium deficiency leads to the structural transformation from a single-tunnel structure (NaFeTiO4) to a zigzag-type double-tunnel structure (Na0.9Fe0.9Ti1.1O4 and Na0.8Fe0.8Ti1.2O4). The series of sodium deficient compounds bears systematic sodium ion vacancies in their structure up to 20%. Sodium deficiency in the NaxFexTi2-xO4 logically provides additional space for accommodating the excess sodium ions as such the NaxFexTi2-xO4 compounds with higher level of sodium deficiency show higher specific capacities than the stoichiometric NaFeTiO4. All the compounds exhibited very good electrochemical cycling stability, with minimal capacity loss during cycling. The present approach is a model example of improvement in the sodium storage capacity of the anode materials by tuning the chemical composition, and could facilitate the performance improvement of known or new electrode materials for SIBs.

  8. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  9. HREM study of the La/K ordering in superconducting La[sub 2[minus]x]K[sub x]CuO[sub 4] (x =. 22 and x =. 27)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senaris-Rodriguez, M.A.; Alario-Franco, M.A. (Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-09-01

    Electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy studies on La[sub 2[minus]x]K[sub x]CuO[sub 4] superconducting samples (x = .22 and x = .27) reveal that the microstructure of these materials is very complex due to a partial ordering between the La and K cations. This ordering presents different characteristics along each of the three space directions: it is long range in two directions, and along one of these (the [00l]) it is incommensurably modulate; in the third direction it is short range, with a coherence length of [approx equal]23-40 [angstrom].

  10. The intermolecular interaction in D2 - CX4 and O2 - CX4 (X = F, Cl) systems: Molecular beam scattering experiments as a sensitive probe of the selectivity of charge transfer component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, David; Falcinelli, Stefano; Pirani, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Gas phase collisions of a D2 projectile by CF4 and by CCl4 targets have been investigated with the molecular beam technique. The integral cross section, Q, has been measured for both collisional systems in the thermal energy range and oscillations due to the quantum "glory" interference have been resolved in the velocity dependence of Q. The analysis of the measured Q(v) data provided novel information on the anisotropic potential energy surfaces of the studied systems at intermediate and large separation distances. The relative role of the most relevant types of contributions to the global interaction has been characterized. Extending the phenomenology of a weak intermolecular halogen bond, the present work demonstrates that while D2 - CF4 is basically bound through the balance between size (Pauli) repulsion and dispersion attraction, an appreciable intermolecular bond stabilization by charge transfer is operative in D2 - CCl4. We also demonstrated that the present analysis is consistent with that carried out for the F(2P)-D2 and Cl(2P)-D2 systems, previously characterized by scattering experiments performed with state-selected halogen atom beams. A detailed comparison of the present and previous results on O2-CF4 and O2-CCl4 systems pinpointed striking differences in the behavior of hydrogen and oxygen molecules when they interact with the same partner, mainly due to the selectivity of the charge transfer component. The present work contributes to cast light on the nature and role of the intermolecular interaction in prototype systems, involving homo-nuclear diatoms and symmetric halogenated molecules.

  11. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  12. Group ib organometallic chemistry. XXXIV. Thermal behaviour and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarypropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Koten, G. van; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1,2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi2CU4Br2 and Z-Vi2Cu4R2 [Vi = (2-Me2NC6H4)C=C(Me)-(C6H4Me-4), R = 2-Me2NC6H4 or 4-MeC6H4CC] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were formed on thermolysis of (Z-ViCu2OTf)η

  13. Monohalogenated ferrocenes C5H5FeC5H4 X (X = Cl, Br and I) and a second polymorph of C5H5FeC5H4I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Alexander S.; Mulroy, Joseph M.; Khrustalev, Victor N.; Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of the three title monosubstituted ferrocenes, namely 1-chloro­ferrocene, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H4Cl)], (I), 1-bromo­ferrocene, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H4Br)], (II), and 1-iodo­ferrocene, [Fe(C5H5)(C5H4I)], (III), were determined at 100 K. The chloro- and bromo­ferrocenes are isomorphous crystals. The new triclinic polymorph [space group P , Z = 4, T = 100 K, V = 943.8 (4) Å3] of iodo­ferrocene, (III), and the previously reported monoclinic polymorph of (III) [Laus, Wurst & Schottenberger (2005 ▶). Z. Kristallogr. New Cryst. Struct. 220, 229–230; space group Pc, Z = 4, T = 100 K, V = 924.9 Å3] were obtained by crystallization from ethanolic solutions at 253 and 303 K, respectively. All four phases contain two independent mol­ecules in the unit cell. The relative orientations of the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) rings are eclipsed and staggered in the independent mol­ecules of (I) and (II), while (III) demonstrates only an eclipsed conformation. The triclinic and monoclinic polymorphs of (III) contain nonbonded inter­molecular I⋯I contacts, causing different packing modes. In the triclinic form of (III), the mol­ecules are arranged in zigzag tetra­mers, while in the monoclinic form the mol­ecules are arranged in zigzag chains along the a axis. Crystallographic data for (III), along with the computed lattice energies of the two polymorphs, suggest that the monoclinic form is more stable. PMID:19893225

  14. Novel phenomenon of magnetism and superconductivity in Fe-doped superconductor Bi{sub 4-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 4}S{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Shanghai University, Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai (China); Wang, Difei; Yu, Chuan; Yin, Xunqing; Kang, Jian; Cheng, Cheng; Deng, Dongmei; Jing, Chao [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Feng, Zhenjie; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Shanghai University, Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai (China); Chu, Hao [California Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Pasadena, CA (United States); Li, Xiaolong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    We report the effects of Fe doping on the BiS{sub 2}-based superconductor Bi{sub 4}O{sub 4}S{sub 3}. It has been found that the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub C}{sup onset}) is slightly enhanced by Fe doping. The magnetic susceptibility results reveal the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range ferrimagnetism in these samples. A new magnetic transition temperature T{sub V} (Verwey transition) from the M-T curves at ∝112 K is observed. The isothermal magnetization curves (M-H) indicate a weak ferrimagnetism, which is probably due to the antiparallel ordering of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} magnetic moments. The coexistence of superconductivity and ferro/ferrimagnetism makes bismuth oxysulfide superconductor a platform for understanding superconductivity from a new perspective. (orig.)

  15. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn{sub 1-x}Si{sub x}S{sub 4} (x = 0.8, x = 1) for solar-cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, M., E-mail: hamdymed@gmail.com [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 03 44322 (France); Oueslati, A. [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Lafond, A.; Guillot-Deudon, C. [Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes Cedex 03 44322 (France); Hlel, F. [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-07-25

    The electrical properties of p-type semiconductor compounds derived from the family of Cu{sub 2}Zn(Sn,Si)S{sub 4}, namely materials with Si-content x = Si/(Sn + Si); (x = 0.8 and x = 1) have been prepared by solid–state reaction method. Structural characterizations of the materials were performed by powder X-ray diffraction and by Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) at room temperature. The materials were investigated by impedance spectroscopy technique measured in the 40 Hz–6 MHz frequency range from 100 to 300 K. Besides, the Cole–Cole (Z″ versus Z′) plots were well fitted to the equivalent circuits. Furthermore, the AC conductivity was investigated as a function of temperature and frequency in the same range. The different hopping models were used to investigate the characteristics of electrical conduction by hopping in employed temperature range. It was shown that two types of behavior can be expected, nearest-neighbour hopping for temperatures greater then 220 K (region I) and the Mott variable-range hopping for temperatures lower then 220 K (region II). Characteristic parameters describing conductivity, such as the activation energy (E{sub NNH}), the critical concentration n{sub C} of the charge carriers and the acceptor concentration (N{sub A}), in region (I). Moreover, the characteristic temperature (T{sub 0}), the density of states at the Fermi levels N(E{sub F}), localization length (ξ), hopping distance and average hopping energy, in region (II) were determined and their values were discussed. These results are critical for understanding the behavior of based on polycrystalline from the family of Cu{sub 2}Zn(Sn,Si)S{sub 4} for absorber materials in solar-cells. - Highlights: • Equivalent circuits models are proposed for the materials. • The AC conductivity is dominated by NSPT and CBH mechanisms. • The electrical conductivities are dominated by band conduction and NNH. • The conductivities are dominated by “VRH” mechanism.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}Zn(Sn{sub 1−x}Si{sub x})S{sub 4} (x = 0, x = 0.5) materials for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, M., E-mail: hamdymed@gmail.com [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes cedex 03 44322 (France); Louati, B. [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Lafond, A.; Guillot-Deudon, C. [Institut des matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes – CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 32229, Nantes cedex 03 44322 (France); Chrif, B.; Khirouni, K. [Laboratoire de Physiques des Matériaux et Nanomatériaux appliqués à l’environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabés, 6072 Gabés (Tunisia); Gargouri, M. [Laboratoire de l’état solide, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); and others

    2015-01-25

    This work studied the electrical effects of the substitution of tin with silicon on p-type Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} semiconductor compounds. To this purpose, two samples, namely Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5}S{sub 4}, were prepared. The samples purities and homogeneities were characterized by both Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). We observed that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of materials exhibits a crossover from T{sup −1/4} to T{sup −1} dependence in the temperature range between 130 and 140 K. The characteristic temperature (T{sub 0,Mott}), the hopping distance (R{sub hop}), the average hopping energy (Δ{sub hop}), the localization length (ξ) and the density of states (N(E{sub F})), were determined, and their values were discussed within the models describing conductivity in p-type semiconductor.

  17. W3CoB3-type {Y, Gd - Ho}3Co4-xAlx (x=0.5-1) rare earth compounds: Specific features of crystal structure and magnetic ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Isnard, O.; Yao, Jinlei; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2017-07-01

    The crystal structure of new W3CoB3-type {Y, Gd - Ho}3Co3.25Al0.75, Gd3Co3.5Al0.5 and Tb3Co3Al compounds (Cmcm. N 63, oC28) has been established using powder X-ray diffraction studies. The magnetic properties of Gd3Co3.5Al0.5, Gd3Co3.25Al0.75 and Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 were determined by bulk magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction studies. Gd3Co0.5Al0.5, Gd3Co3.25Al0.75 and Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 exhibit ferrimagnetic ordering below 196 K, 161 K and 151 K, respectively. Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 shows a spin-reorientation transition at 42 K. Below the ferrimagnetic ordering temperature Gd3Co3.25Al0.75 and Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 are soft ferrimagnets, meanwhile Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 shows magnetic hardness below the spin-reorientation transition with remanent magnetization per formula unit of 9.7 μB and coercive field of 15 kOe at 2 K. The magnetocaloric effects of Gd3Co3.25Al0.75 and Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and they reach maximum values of -4.9 J/kg·K at 135-145 K and -3.7 J/kg·K at 115-135 K, respectively, for a field change of 0-50 kOe. Low temperature magnetic ordering in Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +13.6 J/kg·K at 10 K for a field change of 0-50 kOe and +0.9 J/kg K at 45 K for a field change of 0-10 kOe. Neutron diffraction study in zero applied field shows mixed ferro-antiferromagnetic ordering of Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 with a wave vector K0=[0, 0, 0]. Below 137 K Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 exhibits non-collinear ferrimagnetic ordering of terbium and cobalt sublattices with resulting of b-axis ferromagnetic and c-axis antiferromagnetic components of Cmc‧m={1, mx}×{1, mz/[0, 0, 1/2]}×{1, i‧}×{1, 1/[1/2, 1/2, 0]} magnetic space group. The spin-reorientation transition in Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 below 38 K corresponds to appearance of additional a-axis ferromagnetic component and decreasing of symmetry of magnetic ordering down to C2‧/c={1, mz/[0, 0, 1/2]}×{1, i‧}×{1, 1/[1/2, 1/2, 0]} magnetic space group. The magnetocaloric effects (isothermal magnetic entropy change) of Gd3Co3.25Al0.75 and Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 reach maximum values of -4.9 J/kg K at 135-145 K and -3.7 J/kg·K at 115-135 K, respectively, for a field change of 0-50 kOe. Low temperature magnetic ordering in Tb3Co3.25Al0.75 is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect of +13.6 J/kg K at 10 K for a field change of 0-50 kOe and +0.9 J/kg·K at 45 K for a field change of 0-10 kOe.

  18. Estudio e implementación de un sistema de suspensión neumática a un vehículo 4x4 GMC modelo JYMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Muy Landi, Mauro Oswaldo; Ochoa Cabrera, Galo Xavier; Quinteros Peñafiel, Santiago Israel; Romoleroux Urgiles, Hamilton Hernán

    2010-01-01

    La tesis que se ha puesto en consideración se realizara en un vehículo GMC JIMMY año 1982, que está dotado de un sistema de suspensión de ballestas de eje rígido; en el cual se implementara un sistema de suspensión neumática. El estudio de la rigidez neumática exigía el conocimiento preciso de los factores que influían en un proceso de compresión - expansión como el de la suspensión. En esta tesis se consideró un requisito imprescindible la definición y comprensión de la característica o c...

  19. Temperature- and pressure-induced lattice distortion in CdCr sub 2 sub - sub x Ga sub x Se sub 4 (x = 0, 0.06, and 0.12)

    CERN Document Server

    Waskowska, A; Olsen, J S; Malicka, E

    2002-01-01

    Structural changes in the cubic spinels CdCr sub 2 sub - sub x Ga sub x Se sub 4 have been studied by means of single-crystal x-ray diffraction at low temperature and energy-dispersive diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell at high pressure. In stoichiometric samples (x = 0), a spontaneous magnetostriction reduces the thermal expansion coefficient from 6.7 x 10 sup - sup 6 K sup - sup 1 in the paramagnetic phase to 2.2 x 10 sup - sup 6 K sup - sup 1 in the ferromagnetic phase (T sub C = 130 K). In the samples with Ga sup 3 sup + admixtures (x = 0.06 and 0.12), a slight structural distortion causes an order-disorder-type phase transition at T sub d approx 285 K connected with changes in the electronic configuration of the Jahn-Teller-active Cr cations. The magnetostriction is apparently not very sensitive to the Ga sup 3 sup + admixtures in the present concentration range. At high pressure the cubic unit cell transforms to a tetragonal one with c/a 0.91. The Jahn-Teller effect is combined with the rocking motions...

  20. Battalion Command in Combat. Forward Edge of Combat Power: A Leadership Analysis of Selected Battalion Commanders in Combat in World War II, Korea and Vietnam with Implications for Future Combat Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    cr-V] 96 LU of -j 0 z C~J = n c 3UOT42n4TS STtq; UT ATQCV 4ON S900 VXS-O = 3aAtresqo ;ou ;riq p9 ~dr uOT4Rz~.suOuISCQI I aeaboa mo7 P oq Pa ;auomea-Z...anthills, and bushes in front of their positions. Within seconds the "mad minute" produced results - a forty-man NVA platoon which had creeped to within

  1. An Application-Based Performance Characterization of the Columbia Supercluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Djomehri, Jahed M.; Hood, Robert; Jin, Hoaqiang; Kiris, Cetin; Saini, Subhash

    2005-01-01

    Columbia is a 10,240-processor supercluster consisting of 20 Altix nodes with 512 processors each, and currently ranked as the second-fastest computer in the world. In this paper, we present the performance characteristics of Columbia obtained on up to four computing nodes interconnected via the InfiniBand and/or NUMAlink4 communication fabrics. We evaluate floating-point performance, memory bandwidth, message passing communication speeds, and compilers using a subset of the HPC Challenge benchmarks, and some of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks including the multi-zone versions. We present detailed performance results for three scientific applications of interest to NASA, one from molecular dynamics, and two from computational fluid dynamics. Our results show that both the NUMAlink4 and the InfiniBand hold promise for application scaling to a large number of processors.

  2. Scalability of DL_POLY on High Performance Computing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabule Samuel Mabakane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on the scalability of several versions of the molecular dynamics code (DL_POLY performed on South Africa‘s Centre for High Performance Computing e1350 IBM Linux cluster, Sun system and Lengau supercomputers. Within this study different problem sizes were designed and the same chosen systems were employed in order to test the performance of DL_POLY using weak and strong scalability. It was found that the speed-up results for the small systems were better than large systems on both Ethernet and Infiniband network. However, simulations of large systems in DL_POLY performed well using Infiniband network on Lengau cluster as compared to e1350 and Sun supercomputer.

  3. ATONISHING [CO2SO3H]-: CARBONATO AND SULFITO NEW ADDUCTS DERIVING FROM THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN R4NCO2SO3H (R=Et, Me AND HgX2, SnX4 (X=Cl, Br, SbCl5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINORA DE BARROS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In ethanol, a C-S cleavage occurs in final products on allowing R4NCO2SO3H – R = Me, Et - to react with HgX2, SnX4 (M = Hg, X= Cl, Br, leading to carbonate and sulfite adducts and complexes ,infrared study of which have been carried out, then structures suggested on the basis of spectroscopic data. When (Me4NCO2SO3H is allowed to react with SbCl5, HgX2 (X = Cl, Br, sulfite adducts were obtained, studied by infrared. The suggested structures are discrete, the sulfite anion behaving as a bidentate ligand.

  4. HClO4 x SiO2 catalysed synthesis of alkyl 3-deoxy-hex-2-enopyranosides from 2-hydroxy glucal ester: application in the synthesis of a cis-fused bicyclic ether and a 4-amino-C-glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Preeti; Kumari, Nitee; Agarwal, Aditi; Vankar, Yashwant D

    2008-11-07

    A variety of alcohols react with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-D-arabino-hex-1-enopyranose 1 in the presence of a catalytic amount of HClO(4) supported on silica gel to give the corresponding alkyl 3-deoxy-hex-2-enopyranosides 2 in high yield, with short reaction times (10-45 mins) and good alpha-selectivity. Work-up merely involves filtration of the reagent, followed by chromatographic purification of the crude product. This methodology has also been employed in the synthesis of a bicyclic ether, a useful precursor for cyclic polyethers, and a 4-amino-C-glucoside.

  5. EXAFS and magnetic studies of two new mixed-valence hexanuclear manganese complexes of formula [Mn{sub 6} O{sub 2}(X-benzoato){sub 1}0 (EtOH){sub 4}] (X=2-Cl and 3-Cl). Comparison with the benzoate analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, J.; Diaz, C.; Castro, I.

    1997-09-01

    Two new mixed-valence hexanuclear manganese complexes of formula [Mn{sub 6} O{sub 2} (X-benzoato){sub 1}0 (EtOH){sub 4}] being X=2-Cl and 3-Cl have been synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis and X-ray absorption measurements which were compared with the benzoate analogue, whose X-ray structure has been previously reported. The analysis of XANES and EXAFS spectra indicates that the core of the two new hexanuclear complexes is almost identical to the benzoate derivative, consisting of two Mn{sub 4} O tetrahedra that share an edge giving a global formula of Mn{sub 6} O{sub 2}. The two manganese ions shared in these tetrahedra are Mn``III and the four non shared manganese ions are Mn``II. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from room temperature to 4 K have been made for the two complexes together with the benzoate analogue. In the three cases there is a clear global antiferromagnetic coupling giving a ground state S=0. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. Defect chemistry and oxygen transport of (La0.6Sr0.4-xMx)(0.99)Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta, M = Ca (x=0.05, 0.1), Ba (x=0.1, 0.2), Sr Part I: Defect chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Søgaard, Martin; Bouwmeester, Henry J.M.

    2009-01-01

    composition while keeping the average valence of the cations constant. The Ba2+ containing materials show the largest oxygen loss at elevated temperatures, while the purely Sr2+ doped material showed the smallest oxygen loss. This was reflected in the partial oxidation entropy of the materials. The measured...... oxygen loss was modelled with point defect chemistry models. Measurements at very low pO2 showed several phase transitions....

  7. Conducted noise suppression up to GHz range by spin-sprayed Ni{sub 0.2}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2.8-x}O{sub 4} (x=0.3, 0.6) films having different natural resonance frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Koichi [NEC Tokin Corporation, 6-7-1 Koriyama, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: kondok@nec-tokin.com; Chiba, Tatsuya [NEC Tokin Corporation, 6-7-1 Koriyama, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8510 (Japan); Ono, Hiroshi [NEC Tokin Corporation, 6-7-1 Koriyama, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8510 (Japan); Yoshida, Shigeyoshi [NEC Tokin Corporation, 6-7-1 Koriyama, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8510 (Japan); Shimada, Yutaka [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Abe, Masanori [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    In order to apply to a novel, flexible type of GHz noise suppressors, we prepared Ni{sub 0.2}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2.8-x}O{sub 4} films with x=0.3 and 0.6 and thicknesses of 2 and 5{mu}m, by spin spray ferrite plating from an aqueous solution on polyimide sheets at 90 deg. C. Placing the films onto a microstrip line, we measured transmission loss {delta}P{sub loss} and reflection parameter S{sub 11} at 10MHz-10GHz. As x increased from 0.3 to 0.6, f{sub r} (natural resonance frequency) decreased from 350 to 50MHz, which resulted in decreasing f{sub c} (a frequency from which {delta}P{sub loss} begins rising) from 400 to 100MHz. This means we can tune f{sub c} of the films by changing the Zn concentration x. At 8GHz, {delta}P{sub loss} obtained by the ferrite films increased from 40% to 70% when their thickness increased from 2 to 5{mu}m. We obtained S{sub 11}<10%, irrespective of Zn concentration, in the whole measurement frequency range. By the films with x=0.3 and 2{mu}m thickness we obtained {delta}P{sub loss}=40%, which was as strong as that obtained by a commercially available composite sheet type noise suppressor of 25{mu}m thickness that are made of ferromagnetic metal flakes embedded in a flexible polymer matrix. Moreover, {delta}P{sub loss} by the ferrite film increased to 70% when the thickness was increased to 5{mu}m. Therefore, our NiZn ferrite films are promising to be actually used as GHz noise suppressors with tunable working frequencies that exhibit stronger noise suppression than the commercialized composite type of noise suppressors.

  8. Temperature and composition dependent density of states extracted using overlapping large polaron tunnelling model in Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Arifa; Afsar, M.F. [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Sher, F. [Department of Chemistry, SSE, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rafiq, M.A., E-mail: aftab@cantab.net [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, PO Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2017-03-15

    We report detailed ac electrical and structural characterization of manganese cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, prepared by coprecipitation technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed single-phase cubic spinel structure of the nanoparticles. Tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) group complexes were present in the spinel lattice as determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images revealed presence of spherical shape nanoparticles having an average diameter ~50–80 nm. Composition, temperature and frequency dependent ac electrical study of prepared nanoparticles interpreted the role of cationic distribution between A and B sites. Overlapping large polaron tunnelling (OLPT) conduction mechanism was observed from 290 to 200 K. Frequency exponent s was fitted theoretically using OLPT model. High values of Density of States (DOS) of the order of 10{sup 22}–10{sup 24} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −3} were extracted from ac conductivity for different compositions. We found that DOS was dependent on distribution of cations in the tunnel-type cavities along the a and b axis.

  9. Single Sided Messaging v. 0.6.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-20

    Single-Sided Messaging (SSM) is a portable, multitransport networking library that enables applications to leverage potential one-sided capabilities of underlying network transports. It also provides desirable semantics that services for highperformance, massively parallel computers can leverage, such as an explicit cancel operation for pending transmissions, as well as enhanced matching semantics favoring large numbers of buffers attached to a single match entry. This release supports TCP/IP, shared memory, and Infiniband.

  10. Elastic online analytical processing on RAMCloud

    OpenAIRE

    Christian TinnefeldDonald KossmannMartin GrundJoos-Hendrik BoeseFrank RenkesVishal SikkaH

    2013-01-01

    A shared nothing architecture is state of the art for deploying a distributed analytical in memory database management system: it preserves the in memory performance advantage by processing data locally on each node but is difficult to scale out. Modern switched fabric communication links such as InfiniBand narrow the performance gap between local and remote DRAM data access to a single order of magnitude. Based on these premises we introduce a distributed in memory database architecture that...

  11. High-throughput and low-latency network communication with NetIO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    HPC network technologies like Infiniband, TrueScale or OmniPath provide low-latency and high-throughput communication between hosts, which makes them attractive options for data-acquisition systems in large-scale high-energy physics experiments. Like HPC networks, DAQ networks are local and include a well specified number of systems. Unfortunately traditional network communication APIs for HPC clusters like MPI or PGAS target exclusively the HPC community and are not suited well for DAQ applications. It is possible to build distributed DAQ applications using low-level system APIs like Infiniband Verbs, but it requires a non-negligible effort and expert knowledge. At the same time, message services like ZeroMQ have gained popularity in the HEP community. They allow building distributed applications with a high-level approach and provide good performance. Unfortunately their usage usually limits developers to TCP/IP-based networks. While it is possible to operate a TCP/IP stack on top of Infiniband and OmniPath...

  12. High-Throughput and Low-Latency Network Communication with NetIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörn; Plessl, Christian; Vandelli, Wainer

    2017-10-01

    HPC network technologies like Infiniband, TrueScale or OmniPath provide low- latency and high-throughput communication between hosts, which makes them attractive options for data-acquisition systems in large-scale high-energy physics experiments. Like HPC networks, DAQ networks are local and include a well specified number of systems. Unfortunately traditional network communication APIs for HPC clusters like MPI or PGAS exclusively target the HPC community and are not suited well for DAQ applications. It is possible to build distributed DAQ applications using low-level system APIs like Infiniband Verbs, but it requires a non-negligible effort and expert knowledge. At the same time, message services like ZeroMQ have gained popularity in the HEP community. They make it possible to build distributed applications with a high-level approach and provide good performance. Unfortunately, their usage usually limits developers to TCP/IP- based networks. While it is possible to operate a TCP/IP stack on top of Infiniband and OmniPath, this approach may not be very efficient compared to a direct use of native APIs. NetIO is a simple, novel asynchronous message service that can operate on Ethernet, Infiniband and similar network fabrics. In this paper the design and implementation of NetIO is presented and described, and its use is evaluated in comparison to other approaches. NetIO supports different high-level programming models and typical workloads of HEP applications. The ATLAS FELIX project [1] successfully uses NetIO as its central communication platform. The architecture of NetIO is described in this paper, including the user-level API and the internal data-flow design. The paper includes a performance evaluation of NetIO including throughput and latency measurements. The performance is compared against the state-of-the- art ZeroMQ message service. Performance measurements are performed in a lab environment with Ethernet and FDR Infiniband networks.

  13. A new approach to front-end electronics interfacing in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00015561; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Roich, Alexander; Ryu, Soo; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Wu, Weihao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    For new detector and trigger systems to be installed in the ATLAS experiment after LHC Run 2, a new approach will be followed for Front-End electronics interfacing. The FELIX (Front-End LInk eXchange) system will function as gateway connecting: on one side to detector and trigger electronics links, as well as providing timing and trigger (TTC) information; and on the other side a commodity switched network built using standard technology (either Ethernet or Infiniband). The new approach is described in this paper, and results achieved so far are presented.

  14. A new approach to front-­‐end electronics interfacing in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borga, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Roich, Alexander; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, J\\"orn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Ryu, Soo; Zhang, Jinlong; Anderson, John Thomas; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Kai; Chen, Hucheng; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David

    2015-01-01

    For new detector and trigger systems to be installed in the ATLAS experiment after LHC Run 2 a new approach will be followed for front-end electronics interfacing. The FELIX (Front-End Link eXchange) system will interface to links connecting to front-end detector and trigger electronics instead of the RODs (ReadOut Drivers) currently used. FELIX will function as a gateway to a commodity switched network built using standard technology (either Ethernet or Infiniband). In the paper the new approach will be described and results of the demonstrator program currently in progress will be presented.

  15. A Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solver on Graphics Processing Units

    KAUST Repository

    Haase, Gundolf

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a multi-GPU implementation of the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm with an algebraic multigrid preconditioner (PCG-AMG) for an elliptic model problem on a 3D unstructured grid. An efficient parallel sparse matrix-vector multiplication scheme underlying the PCG-AMG algorithm is presented for the many-core GPU architecture. A performance comparison of the parallel solver shows that a singe Nvidia Tesla C1060 GPU board delivers the performance of a sixteen node Infiniband cluster and a multi-GPU configuration with eight GPUs is about 100 times faster than a typical server CPU core. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  16. FELIX: the detector readout upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Soo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange(FELIX) system will be the interface between the readout system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a gateway to a commodity switched network which will use standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with data collecting and processing components. In this talk the system architecture of FELIX will be described and the testing results of the FELIX demonstrator will be presented

  17. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kai; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The FELIX system provides this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, routing between custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via FPGA PCIe Gen3 cards, and a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favor of software on commercial servers. The FELIX system, results of demonstrator, design and testing of prototype are described.

  18. FELIX: The new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00370160; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrades (2019) of the ATLAS experiment, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data acquisition system and the detector front-end and trigger electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network using standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with commercial data collecting and processing components. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the status of the firmware implementation and hardware development currently in progress will be presented.

  19. FELIX: The new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Soo; ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    After the Phase-I upgrades (2019) of the ATLAS experiment, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data acquisition system and the detector front-end and trigger electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network using standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with commercial data collecting and processing components. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the status of the firmware implementation and hardware development currently in progress will be presented.

  20. FELIX : The new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Soo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data handling system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network which will use standard technologies (Ethernet or Infiniband) to communicate with data collecting and processing components. The system architecture of FELIX will be described and the results of the demonstrator program currently in progress will be presented.

  1. Aho-Corasick String Matching on Shared and Distributed Memory Parallel Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    String matching is at the core of many critical applications, including network intrusion detection systems, search engines, virus scanners, spam filters, DNA and protein sequencing, and data mining. For all of these applications string matching requires a combination of (sometimes all) the following characteristics: high and/or predictable performance, support for large data sets and flexibility of integration and customization. Many software based implementations targeting conventional cache-based microprocessors fail to achieve high and predictable performance requirements, while Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementations and dedicated hardware solutions fail to support large data sets (dictionary sizes) and are difficult to integrate and customize. The advent of multicore, multithreaded, and GPU-based systems is opening the possibility for software based solutions to reach very high performance at a sustained rate. This paper compares several software-based implementations of the Aho-Corasick string searching algorithm for high performance systems. We discuss the implementation of the algorithm on several types of shared-memory high-performance architectures (Niagara 2, large x86 SMPs and Cray XMT), distributed memory with homogeneous processing elements (InfiniBand cluster of x86 multicores) and heterogeneous processing elements (InfiniBand cluster of x86 multicores with NVIDIA Tesla C10 GPUs). We describe in detail how each solution achieves the objectives of supporting large dictionaries, sustaining high performance, and enabling customization and flexibility using various data sets.

  2. High-Throughput Network Communication with NetIO

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, J\\"orn; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, Wainer

    2016-01-01

    HPC network technologies like Infiniband, TrueScale or OmniPath provide low-latency and high-throughput communication between hosts, which makes them attractive options for data-acquisition systems in large-scale high-energy physics experiments. Like HPC networks, DAQ networks are local and include a well specified number of systems. Unfortunately traditional network communication APIs for HPC clusters like MPI or PGAS target exclusively the HPC community and are not suited well for DAQ applications. It is possible to build distributed DAQ applications using low-level system APIs like Infiniband Verbs (and this has been done), but it requires a non negligible effort and expert knowledge. On the other hand, message services like 0MQ have gained popularity in the HEP community. Such APIs allow to build distributed applications with a high-level approach and provide good performance. Unfortunately their usage usually limits developers to TCP/IP-based networks. While it is possible to operate a TCP/IP stack on to...

  3. High-speed interconnection for storage area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ZhaoBin; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Fu, Xianglin

    2003-04-01

    The steady and fast increase of data intensive application is violently driving the demand for more data storage capacity and new storage architecture. The server-attached storage approach is being replaced by storage area networks (SANs), whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements or among storage elements, allowing storage devices to be shared among multiple servers. In this paper, we mainly analyze the different characters of Fibre Channel, iSCSI and InfiniBand used within the SANs environment. This paper discusses the issues of protocol performance, protocol scalability, the security mechanism, the interoperability and adaptability with SAN environments, the cost of investment of each architecture and so on. Comparing the performance of traditional direct attached storage, the findings show that all Fibre Channel, InfiniBand and iSCSI are the competent gigabit networking technology for storage area networks. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to the overwhelming benefits of economy, covenience and high performance/cost ratio, more enterprise can deploy iSCSI SAN based on mature and existing TCP/IP infrastructure.

  4. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by the RPS4X gene. The. cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown- ...

  5. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by the RPS4X gene. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown-PCR technology ...

  6. VSX1 gene analysis in keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Mukesh; Kumar, Manoj; Nayak, Bhagabat; Pathak, Dhananjay; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Dada, Rima

    2010-11-16

    To screen the visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene in keratoconus patients. The enntire coding region of VSX1, including intron-exon boundaries were amplified in keratoconus cases (n=50) and controls (n=50). All sequences were analyzed against the ensemble sequence (ENSG00000100987) for VXS1. Sequencing analysis showed four alterations (p.A182A, p.R217H, p.P237P, and g.25059612C>T) in VSX1 of which g.25059612C>T (in intron 2) was found to be novel. Of these four, p.A182A and p.P237P were present in both cases as well as controls while p.R217H and g.25059612C>T were limited to cases only. All these changes were non-pathogenic. In our study no pathogenic VSX1 mutation was identified. The role of VSX1 in the pathogenesis of keratoconus is still controversial. VSX1 mutations are responsible for a very small fraction of all observed keratoconus cases. The absence of pathogenic mutations in VSX1 in our patients indicates that other genetic loci like 13q32 as suggested by a recent study may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  7. Development and Performance Verification of the GANDALF High-Resolution Transient Recorder System

    CERN Document Server

    Bartknecht, Stefan; Herrmann, Florian; Königsmann, Kay; Lauser, Louis; Schill, Christian; Schopferer, Sebastian; Wollny, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    With present-day detectors in high energy physics one often faces fast analog pulses of a few nanoseconds length which cover large dynamic ranges. In many experiments both amplitude and timing information have to be measured with high accuracy. Additionally, the data rate per readout channel can reach several MHz, which leads to high demands on the separation of pile-up pulses. For an upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN we have designed the GANDALF transient recorder with a resolution of 12bit@1GS/s and an analog bandwidth of 500\\:MHz. Signals are digitized with high precision and processed by fast algorithms to extract pulse arrival times and amplitudes in real-time and to generate trigger signals for the experiment. With up to 16 analog channels, deep memories and a high data rate interface, this 6U-VME64x/VXS module is not only a dead-time free digitization unit but also has huge numerical capabilities provided by the implementation of a Virtex5-SXT FPGA. Fast algorithms implemented in the FPGA may b...

  8. Development of a 1 GS/s high-resolution transient recorder

    CERN Document Server

    Bartknecht, S; Herrmann, F; Königsmann, K; Lauser, L; Schill, C; Schopferer, S; Wollny, H

    2009-01-01

    With present-day detectors in high energy physics one is often faced with short analog pulses of a few nanoseconds length which may cover large dynamic ranges. In many experiments both amplitude and timing information have to be measured with high accuracy. Additionally, the data rate per readout channel can reach several MHz, which makes high demands on the separation of pile-up pulses. For such applications we have built the GANDALF transient recorder with a resolution of 12bit@1GS/s and an analog bandwidth of 500 MHz. Signals are digitized and processed by fast algorithms to extract pulse arrival times and amplitudes in real-time and to generate experiment trigger signals. With up to 16 analog channels, deep memories and a high data rate interface, this 6U-VME64x/VXS module is not only a dead-time free digitization unit but also has huge numerical capabilities provided by the implementation of a Virtex5-SXT FPGA. Fast algorithms implemented in the FPGA may be used to disentangle possible pile-up pulses and...

  9. Final Report for Project DE-FC02-06ER25755 [Pmodels2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Dhabaleswar [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sadayappan, P. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-03-12

    In this report, we describe the research accomplished by the OSU team under the Pmodels2 project. The team has worked on various angles: designing high performance MPI implementations on modern networking technologies (Mellanox InfiniBand (including the new ConnectX2 architecture and Quad Data Rate), QLogic InfiniPath, the emerging 10GigE/iWARP and RDMA over Converged Enhanced Ethernet (RoCE) and Obsidian IB-WAN), studying MPI scalability issues for multi-thousand node clusters using XRC transport, scalable job start-up, dynamic process management support, efficient one-sided communication, protocol offloading and designing scalable collective communication libraries for emerging multi-core architectures. New designs conforming to the Argonne’s Nemesis interface have also been carried out. All of these above solutions have been integrated into the open-source MVAPICH/MVAPICH2 software. This software is currently being used by more than 2,100 organizations worldwide (in 71 countries). As of January ’14, more than 200,000 downloads have taken place from the OSU Web site. In addition, many InfiniBand vendors, server vendors, system integrators and Linux distributors have been incorporating MVAPICH/MVAPICH2 into their software stacks and distributing it. Several InfiniBand systems using MVAPICH/MVAPICH2 have obtained positions in the TOP500 ranking of supercomputers in the world. The latest November ’13 ranking include the following systems: 7th ranked Stampede system at TACC with 462,462 cores; 11th ranked Tsubame 2.5 system at Tokyo Institute of Technology with 74,358 cores; 16th ranked Pleiades system at NASA with 81,920 cores; Work on PGAS models has proceeded on multiple directions. The Scioto framework, which supports task-parallelism in one-sided and global-view parallel programming, has been extended to allow multi-processor tasks that are executed by processor groups. A quantum Monte Carlo application is being ported onto the extended Scioto framework. A

  10. GlusterFS One Storage Server to Rule Them All

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Broomfield, Matthew C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perrotti, Terrell A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    GlusterFS is a Linux based distributed file system, designed to be highly scalable and serve many clients. Some reasons to use GlusterFS are: No centralized metadata server, Scalability, Open Source, Dynamic and live service modifications, Can be used over Infiniband or Ethernet, Can be tuned for speed and/or resilience and Flexible administration. It's useful for enterprise environments - virtualization; high performance computing (HPC) and it works with Mac, Linux and Windows clients. Conclusions are: (1) GlusterFS proved to have widespread capabilities as a virtual file system; (2) Scalability is very dependent upon the underlying hardware; (3) Lack of built-in encryption and security paradigm; and (4) Best suited in a general purpose computing environment.

  11. Performance of the CMS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Jean-Marc Olivier; Branson, James; Brummer, Philipp Maximilian; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; Craigs, Benjamin Gordon; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Gladki, Maciej Szymon; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Janulis, Mindaugas; Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrova, Petia; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Zejdl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz. It transports event data at an aggregate throughput of ~100 GB/s to the high-level trigger (HLT) farm. The CMS DAQ system has been completely rebuilt during the first long shutdown of the LHC in 2013/14. The new DAQ architecture is based on state-of-the-art network technologies for the event building. For the data concentration, 10/40 Gb/s Ethernet technologies are used together with a reduced TCP/IP protocol implemented in FPGA for a reliable transport between custom electronics and commercial computing hardware. A 56 Gb/s Infiniband FDR CLOS network has been chosen for the event builder. We report on the performance of the event builder system and the steps taken to exploit the full potential of the network technologies.

  12. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS Upgrade framework

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00015561; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Borga, Andrea; Boterenbrood, Henk; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Donszelmann, Mark; Francis, David; Guest, Daniel; Gorini, Benedetto; Joos, Markus; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Roich, Alexander; Ryu, Soo; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Whiteson, Daniel; Wu, Weihao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade (2018) requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system provides an infrastructure to achieve this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, interfacing custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via FPGA PCIe Gen3 cards, to a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favour of software running on commercial servers. The FELIX system, the design of the PCIe prototype card and the integration test results are presented in this paper.

  13. Efficiently passing messages in distributed spiking neural network simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Corey M; Minkovich, Kirill; O'Brien, Michael J; Harris, Frederick C; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently passing spiking messages in a neural model is an important aspect of high-performance simulation. As the scale of networks has increased so has the size of the computing systems required to simulate them. In addition, the information exchange of these resources has become more of an impediment to performance. In this paper we explore spike message passing using different mechanisms provided by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). A specific implementation, MVAPICH, designed for high-performance clusters with Infiniband hardware is employed. The focus is on providing information about these mechanisms for users of commodity high-performance spiking simulators. In addition, a novel hybrid method for spike exchange was implemented and benchmarked.

  14. A New Event Builder for CMS Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Albertsson, Kim; Andronidis, Anastasios; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Roberts, Penelope Amelia; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Zaza, Salvatore; Zejdl, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) assembles events at a rate of 100kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of 100GB/s to the high-level trigger (HLT) farm. The DAQ system has been redesigned during the LHC shutdown in 2013/14. The new DAQ architecture is based on state-of-the-art network technologies for the event building. For the data concentration, 10/40Gbps Ethernet technologies are used together with a reduced TCP/IP protocol implemented in FPGA for a reliable transport between custom electronics and commercial computing hardware. A 56Gbps Infiniband FDR CLOS network has been chosen for the event builder. This paper discusses the software design, protocols, and optimizations for exploiting the hardware capabilities. We present performance measurements from small-scale prototypes and from the full-scale production system.

  15. Power Aware Dynamic Provisioning of HPC Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Future exascale systems are under increased pressure to find power savings. The network, while it consumes a considerable amount of power is often left out of the picture when discussing total system power. Even when network power is being considered, the references are frequently a decade or older and rely on models that lack validation on modern inter- connects. In this work we explore how dynamic mechanisms of an Infiniband network save power and at what granularity we can engage these features. We explore this within the context of the host controller adapter (HCA) on the node and for the fabric, i.e. switches, using three different mechanisms of dynamic link width, frequency and disabling of links for QLogic and Mellanox systems. Our results show that while there is some potential for modest power savings, real world systems need to improved responsiveness to adjustments in order to fully leverage these savings. This page intentionally left blank.

  16. Direct exploitation of a top 500 Supercomputer for Analysis of CMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrillo, I.; Cabellos, L.; Marco, J.; Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Altamira Supercomputer hosted at the Instituto de Fisica de Cantatbria (IFCA) entered in operation in summer 2012. Its last generation FDR Infiniband network used (for message passing) in parallel jobs, supports the connection to General Parallel File System (GPFS) servers, enabling an efficient simultaneous processing of multiple data demanding jobs. Sharing a common GPFS system and a single LDAP-based identification with the existing Grid clusters at IFCA allows CMS researchers to exploit the large instantaneous capacity of this supercomputer to execute analysis jobs. The detailed experience describing this opportunistic use for skimming and final analysis of CMS 2012 data for a specific physics channel, resulting in an order of magnitude reduction of the waiting time, is presented.

  17. Accelerating Climate Simulations Through Hybrid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujia; Sinno, Scott; Cruz, Carlos; Purcell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Unconventional multi-core processors (e.g., IBM Cell B/E and NYIDIDA GPU) have emerged as accelerators in climate simulation. However, climate models typically run on parallel computers with conventional processors (e.g., Intel and AMD) using MPI. Connecting accelerators to this architecture efficiently and easily becomes a critical issue. When using MPI for connection, we identified two challenges: (1) identical MPI implementation is required in both systems, and; (2) existing MPI code must be modified to accommodate the accelerators. In response, we have extended and deployed IBM Dynamic Application Virtualization (DAV) in a hybrid computing prototype system (one blade with two Intel quad-core processors, two IBM QS22 Cell blades, connected with Infiniband), allowing for seamlessly offloading compute-intensive functions to remote, heterogeneous accelerators in a scalable, load-balanced manner. Currently, a climate solar radiation model running with multiple MPI processes has been offloaded to multiple Cell blades with approx.10% network overhead.

  18. Performance of space charge simulations using High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bartosik, Hannes; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In 2016 a collaboration agreement between CERN and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) through its Centro Nazionale Analisi Fotogrammi (CNAF, Bologna) was signed [1], which foresaw the purchase and installation of a cluster of 20 nodes with 32 cores each, connected with InfiniBand, at CNAF for the use of CERN members to develop parallelized codes as well as conduct massive simulation campaigns with the already available parallelized tools. As outlined in [1], after the installation and the set up of the first 12 nodes, the green light to proceed with the procurement and installation of the next 8 nodes can be given only after successfully passing an acceptance test based on two specific benchmark runs. This condition is necessary to consider the first batch of the cluster operational and complying with the desired performance specifications. In this brief note, we report the results of the above mentioned acceptance test.

  19. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  20. Performance of the CMS Event Builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.M.; et al.

    2017-11-22

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of to the high-level trigger farm. The DAQ architecture is based on state-of-the-art network technologies for the event building. For the data concentration, 10/40 Gbit/s Ethernet technologies are used together with a reduced TCP/IP protocol implemented in FPGA for a reliable transport between custom electronics and commercial computing hardware. A 56 Gbit/s Infiniband FDR Clos network has been chosen for the event builder. This paper presents the implementation and performance of the event-building system.

  1. FELIX: a PCIe based high-throughput approach for interfacing front-end and trigger electronics in the ATLAS Upgrade framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Bauer, K.; Borga, A.; Boterenbrood, H.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Drake, G.; Dönszelmann, M.; Francis, D.; Guest, D.; Gorini, B.; Joos, M.; Lanni, F.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Levinson, L.; Narevicius, J.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Roich, A.; Ryu, S.; Schreuder, F.; Schumacher, J.; Vandelli, W.; Vermeulen, J.; Whiteson, D.; Wu, W.; Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade (2019) requires a Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system able to trigger and record data from up to three times the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system provides an infrastructure to achieve this in a scalable, detector agnostic and easily upgradeable way. It is a PC-based gateway, interfacing custom radiation tolerant optical links from front-end electronics, via PCIe Gen3 cards, to a commodity switched Ethernet or InfiniBand network. FELIX enables reducing custom electronics in favour of software running on commercial servers. The FELIX system, the design of the PCIe prototype card and the integration test results are presented in this paper.

  2. OpenMPI and ExxonMobil Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelm, Nathan Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchard, Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-09

    These are a series of slides for a presentation for ExxonMobil's visit to Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered are: Open MPI - The Release Story, MPI-3 RMA in Open MPI, MPI dynamic process management and Open MPI, and new options with CLE 6. Open MPI RMA features are: since v2.0.0 full support for the MPI-3.1 specification, support for non-contiguous datatypes, support for direct use of the RDMA capabilities of high performance networks (Cray Gemini/Aries, Infiniband), starting in v2.1.0 will have support for using network atomic operations for MPI_Fetch_and_op and MPI_Compare_and_swap, tested with MPI_THREAD_MULTIPLE.

  3. Performance of the CMS Event Builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, J.-M.; Behrens, U.; Branson, J.; Brummer, P.; Chaze, O.; Cittolin, S.; Contescu, C.; Craigs, B. G.; Darlea, G.-L.; Deldicque, C.; Demiragli, Z.; Dobson, M.; Doualot, N.; Erhan, S.; Fulcher, J. F.; Gigi, D.; Gładki, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Janulis, M.; Jimenez-Estupiñán, R.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; Morovic, S.; O’Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrova, P.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Sakulin, H.; Schwick, C.; Simelevicius, D.; Zejdl, P.

    2017-10-01

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of {\\mathscr{O}}(100 {{GB}}/{{s}}) to the high-level trigger farm. The DAQ architecture is based on state-of-the-art network technologies for the event building. For the data concentration, 10/40 Gbit/s Ethernet technologies are used together with a reduced TCP/IP protocol implemented in FPGA for a reliable transport between custom electronics and commercial computing hardware. A 56 Gbit/s Infiniband FDR Clos network has been chosen for the event builder. This paper presents the implementation and performance of the event-building system.

  4. Superhalogens as Building Blocks of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Superhalogens are species whose electron affinity (EA) or vertical detachment energy (VDE) exceed to those of halogen. These species typically consist of a central electropositive atom with electronegative ligands. The EA or VDE of species can be further increased by using superhalogen as ligands, which are termed as hyperhalogen. Having established BH4- as a superhalogen, we have studied BH4-x(BH4)x- (x = 1 to 4) hyperhalogen anions and their Li-complexes, LiBH4-x(BH4)x using density functional theory. The VDE of these anions is larger than that of BH4-, which increases with the increase in the number of peripheral BH4 moieties (x). The hydrogen storage capacity of LiBH4-x(BH4)x complexes is higher but binding energy is smaller than that of LiBH4, a typical complex hydride. The linear correlation between dehydrogenation energy of LiBH4-x(BH4)x complexes and VDE of BH4-x(BH4)x- anions is established. These complexes are found to be thermodynamically stable against dissociation into LiBH4 and borane. This stud...

  5. Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Science Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Webster, W. P.; Sinno, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Carroll, M.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of climate change are being revealed at alarming rates in the Arctic and Boreal regions of the planet. NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program has launched a major field campaign to study these effects over the next 5 to 8 years. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will challenge scientists to take measurements in the field, study remote observations, and even run models to better understand the impacts of a rapidly changing climate for areas of Alaska and western Canada. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has partnered with the Terrestrial Ecology Program to create a science cloud designed for this field campaign - the ABoVE Science Cloud. The cloud combines traditional high performance computing with emerging technologies to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale climate analytics. The ABoVE Science Cloud utilizes (1) virtualized high-speed InfiniBand networks, (2) a combination of high-performance file systems and object storage, and (3) virtual system environments tailored for data intensive, science applications. At the center of the architecture is a large object storage environment, much like a traditional high-performance file system, that supports data proximal processing using technologies like MapReduce on a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Surrounding the storage is a cloud of high performance compute resources with many processing cores and large memory coupled to the storage through an InfiniBand network. Virtual systems can be tailored to a specific scientist and provisioned on the compute resources with extremely high-speed network connectivity to the storage and to other virtual systems. In this talk, we will present the architectural components of the science cloud and examples of how it is being used to meet the needs of the ABoVE campaign. In our experience, the science cloud approach significantly lowers the barriers and risks to organizations

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XI-2ATKA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4XI-2ATKA 1E4X 2ATK I A QVQLQQPGAELVKPGPSVKLSCKASGFTFTNYWMHWVKQ...RPGQGLEWIGEILPSNGRTNYNEKFKTKATLTVDKSSNTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARSPS----DYWGQGTTLTVSSAKTTAPSVYPLAPVCGDTTGSSVTLGCLV...dbChain> 2ATKA ARERGDGYFAVWGA EEE

  7. The AD and ELENA orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Hernández, R.; Alves, D.; Angoletta, M. E.; Marqversen, O.; Molendijk, J.; Oponowicz, E.; Ruffieux, R.; Sánchez-Quesada, J.; SØby, L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) orbit measurement system and the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement system. The AD machine at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presently being used to decelerate antiprotons from 3.57 GeV/c to 100 MeV/c for matter vs anti-matter comparative studies. The ELENA machine, presently under commissioning, has been designed to provide an extra deceleration stage down to 13.7 MeV/c. The AD orbit system is based on 32 horizontal and 27 vertical electrostatic Beam Position Monitor (BPM) fitted with existing low noise front-end amplifiers while the ELENA system consists of 24 \\gls{BPM}s equipped with new low-noise head amplifiers. In both systems the front-end amplifiers generate a difference (delta) and a sum (sigma) signal which are sent to the digital acquisition system, placed tens of meters away from the AD or ELENA rings, where they are digitized and further processed. The beam position is calculated by dividing the difference signal by the sum signal either using directly the raw digitized data for measuring the turn-by-turn trajectory in the ELENA system or after down-mixing the signals to baseband for the orbit measurement in both machines. The digitized sigma signal will be used in the ELENA system to calculate the bunched beam intensity and the Schottky parameters with coasting beam after passing through different signal processing chain. The digital acquisition arrangement for both systems is based on the same hardware, also used in the ELENA Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system, which follows the VME Switched Serial (VXS) enhancement of the Versa Module Eurocard 64x extension (VME64x) standard and includes VITA 57 standard Field Programmable Gate Array Mezzanine Card (FMC). The digital acquisition Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) firmware shares many common functionalities with the LLRF system but

  8. Scalable Parallel Distributed Coprocessor System for Graph Searching Problems with Massive Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanrong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet applications, such as network searching, electronic commerce, and modern medical applications, produce and process massive data. Considerable data parallelism exists in computation processes of data-intensive applications. A traversal algorithm, breadth-first search (BFS, is fundamental in many graph processing applications and metrics when a graph grows in scale. A variety of scientific programming methods have been proposed for accelerating and parallelizing BFS because of the poor temporal and spatial locality caused by inherent irregular memory access patterns. However, new parallel hardware could provide better improvement for scientific methods. To address small-world graph problems, we propose a scalable and novel field-programmable gate array-based heterogeneous multicore system for scientific programming. The core is multithread for streaming processing. And the communication network InfiniBand is adopted for scalability. We design a binary search algorithm to address mapping to unify all processor addresses. Within the limits permitted by the Graph500 test bench after 1D parallel hybrid BFS algorithm testing, our 8-core and 8-thread-per-core system achieved superior performance and efficiency compared with the prior work under the same degree of parallelism. Our system is efficient not as a special acceleration unit but as a processor platform that deals with graph searching applications.

  9. Oxide confined 850-nm VCSELs for high-speed datacom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Philip; Mutig, Alex; Lott, James A.; Blokhin, Sergey; Fiol, Gerrit; Nadtochiy, Alexey M.; Ledentsov, Nikolai N.; Bimberg, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are low cost and reliable light sources for high-speed local area and storage area network (LAN/SAN) optical fiber data communication systems and all other short-reach high-speed data transfer applications. The intrinsic limitations of copper-based electrical links at data rates exceeding 10 Gbit/s leads to a progressive movement wherein optical communication links replace traditional short-reach (300 m or shorter) copper interconnects. The wavelength of 850 nm is the standard for LAN/SAN applications as well as for several other evolving short-reach application areas including Fibre Channel, InfiniBand, Universal Serial Bus (optical USB), and active optical cables. Here we present our recent results on 850 nm oxide-confined VCSELs operating at data bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s at low current densities of ~10 kA/cm2 ensuring device reliability and long-term stability based on conventional industry certification specifications. The relaxation resonance frequencies, damping factors, and parasitic cut-off frequencies are determined for VCSELs with oxide-confined apertures of various diameters. At the highest optical modulation rates the VCSELs' high speed operation is limited by parasitic cut-off frequencies of 24-28 GHz. We believe that by further reducing device parasitics we will produce current modulated VCSELs with optical modulation bandwidths larger than 30 GHz and data bit rates beyond 40 Gbit/s.

  10. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the Phase-I upgrade and onward, the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system will be the interface between the data handling system and the detector front-end electronics and trigger electronics at the ATLAS experiment. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network which will use standard technologies to communicate with data collecting and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed by using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card interfacing to GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. Dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software will provide the required functionality. On the network side, the FELIX unit connects to both Ethernet-based network and Infiniband. The system architecture of FE...

  11. High Performance Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jesse E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-10

    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  12. Managing the CMS Online Software integrity through development and production cycles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The Data Acquisition system of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN is a distributed system made of several different network technologies and computers to collect data from more than 600 custom detector Front-End Drivers. It assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz, transporting event data at an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/s. The architecture takes advantage of the latest developments in the computing industry. For data concentration, 10/40 Gbit Ethernet technologies are used while a 56Gbps Infiniband FDR CLOS network has been chosen for the event builder with a throughput of ~4 Tbps. The CMS Online Software (CMSOS) infrastructure is a complex product created specifically for the development of large distributed data acquisition systems as well as all application components to achieve the CMS data acquisition task. It is designed to benefit from different networking technologies, parallelism available on a processing platform such as multi-core or multi-processor systems. It provides platform i...

  13. Exploiting communication concurrency on high performance computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimov, Nicholas [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iancu, Costin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Although logically available, applications may not exploit enough instantaneous communication concurrency to maximize hardware utilization on HPC systems. This is exacerbated in hybrid programming models such as SPMD+OpenMP. We present the design of a "multi-threaded" runtime able to transparently increase the instantaneous network concurrency and to provide near saturation bandwidth, independent of the application configuration and dynamic behavior. The runtime forwards communication requests from application level tasks to multiple communication servers. Our techniques alleviate the need for spatial and temporal application level message concurrency optimizations. Experimental results show improved message throughput and bandwidth by as much as 150% for 4KB bytes messages on InfiniBand and by as much as 120% for 4KB byte messages on Cray Aries. For more complex operations such as all-to-all collectives, we observe as much as 30% speedup. This translates into 23% speedup on 12,288 cores for a NAS FT implemented using FFTW. We also observe as much as 76% speedup on 1,500 cores for an already optimized UPC+OpenMP geometric multigrid application using hybrid parallelism.

  14. Parallel file system performances in fusion data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannone, F., E-mail: francesco.iannone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R.ENEA Frascati, via E.Fermi, 45 - 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Podda, S.; Bracco, G. [ENEA Information Communication Tecnologies, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy); Manduchi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 - 35127 Padua (Italy); Maslennikov, A. [CASPUR Inter-University Consortium for the Application of Super-Computing for Research, via dei Tizii, 6b - 00185 Rome (Italy); Migliori, S. [ENEA Information Communication Tecnologies, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy); Wolkersdorfer, K. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre-FZJ, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    High I/O flow rates, up to 10 GB/s, are required in large fusion Tokamak experiments like ITER where hundreds of nodes store simultaneously large amounts of data acquired during the plasma discharges. Typical network topologies such as linear arrays (systolic), rings, meshes (2-D arrays), tori (3-D arrays), trees, butterfly, hypercube in combination with high speed data transports like Infiniband or 10G-Ethernet, are the main areas in which the effort to overcome the so-called parallel I/O bottlenecks is most focused. The high I/O flow rates were modelled in an emulated testbed based on the parallel file systems such as Lustre and GPFS, commonly used in High Performance Computing. The test runs on High Performance Computing-For Fusion (8640 cores) and ENEA CRESCO (3392 cores) supercomputers. Message Passing Interface based applications were developed to emulate parallel I/O on Lustre and GPFS using data archival and access solutions like MDSPLUS and Universal Access Layer. These methods of data storage organization are widely diffused in nuclear fusion experiments and are being developed within the EFDA Integrated Tokamak Modelling - Task Force; the authors tried to evaluate their behaviour in a realistic emulation setup.

  15. A parallel solution for high resolution histological image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, G; González, R; Déniz, O; García-Rojo, M; González-García, J; Fernández-Carrobles, M M; Vállez, N; Salido, J

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a general methodology for developing parallel image processing algorithms based on message passing for high resolution images (on the order of several Gigabytes). These algorithms have been applied to histological images and must be executed on massively parallel processing architectures. Advances in new technologies for complete slide digitalization in pathology have been combined with developments in biomedical informatics. However, the efficient use of these digital slide systems is still a challenge. The image processing that these slides are subject to is still limited both in terms of data processed and processing methods. The work presented here focuses on the need to design and develop parallel image processing tools capable of obtaining and analyzing the entire gamut of information included in digital slides. Tools have been developed to assist pathologists in image analysis and diagnosis, and they cover low and high-level image processing methods applied to histological images. Code portability, reusability and scalability have been tested by using the following parallel computing architectures: distributed memory with massive parallel processors and two networks, INFINIBAND and Myrinet, composed of 17 and 1024 nodes respectively. The parallel framework proposed is flexible, high performance solution and it shows that the efficient processing of digital microscopic images is possible and may offer important benefits to pathology laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Starting during the upcoming major LHC shutdown from 2019-2021, the ATLAS experiment at CERN will move to the the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system as the interface between the data acquisition system and the trigger and detector front-end electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network, which will use industry standard technologies to communicate with data collection and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card hosting GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. FELIX functions will be implemented with dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software. On the network side, FELIX is able to connect to both Ethernet or Infiniband network a...

  17. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  18. Massively parallel electrical conductivity imaging of the subsurface: Applications to hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerable attention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oil and gas reservoirs. The imaging technology employs controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) fields and treats geological media exhibiting transverse anisotropy. Moreover when combined with established seismic methods, direct imaging of reservoir fluids is possible. Because of the size of the 3D conductivity imaging problem, strategies are required exploiting computational parallelism and optimal meshing. The algorithm thus developed has been shown to scale to tens of thousands of processors. In one imaging experiment, 32,768 tasks/processors on the IBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L supercomputer were successfully utilized. Over a 24 hour period we were able to image a large scale field data set that previously required over four months of processing time on distributed clusters based on Intel or AMD processors utilizing 1024 tasks on an InfiniBand fabric. Electrical conductivity imaging using massively parallel computational resources produces results that cannot be obtained otherwise and are consistent with timeframes required for practical exploration problems.

  19. LHCb; DAQ Architecture for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    LHCb will have an upgrade of its detector in 2018. After the upgrade, the LHCb experiment will run at a high luminosity of 2x 10$^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ . s$^{-1}$. The upgraded detector will be read out at 40 MHz with a highly flexible software-based triggering strategy. The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of HCb reads out the data fragments from the Front-End Electronics and transports them to the High-Lever Trigger farm at an aggregate throughput of 32 Tbit/s. The DAQ system will be based on high speed network technologies such as InfiniBand and/or 10/40/100 Gigabit Ethernet. Independent of the network technology, there are different possible architectures for the DAQ system. In this paper, we present our studies on the DAQ architecture, where we analyze size, complexity and (relative) cost. We evaluate and compare several data-flow schemes for a network-based DAQ: push, pull and push with barrel-shifter traffic shaping. We also discuss the requirements and overall implications of the data-flow schemes on the DAQ ...

  20. Scalable fault tolerant algorithms for linear-scaling coupled-cluster electronic structure methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Matthew L.; Nielsen, Ida Marie B.; Janssen, Curtis L.

    2004-10-01

    By means of coupled-cluster theory, molecular properties can be computed with an accuracy often exceeding that of experiment. The high-degree polynomial scaling of the coupled-cluster method, however, remains a major obstacle in the accurate theoretical treatment of mainstream chemical problems, despite tremendous progress in computer architectures. Although it has long been recognized that this super-linear scaling is non-physical, the development of efficient reduced-scaling algorithms for massively parallel computers has not been realized. We here present a locally correlated, reduced-scaling, massively parallel coupled-cluster algorithm. A sparse data representation for handling distributed, sparse multidimensional arrays has been implemented along with a set of generalized contraction routines capable of handling such arrays. The parallel implementation entails a coarse-grained parallelization, reducing interprocessor communication and distributing the largest data arrays but replicating as many arrays as possible without introducing memory bottlenecks. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by several series of runs for glycine chains using a Linux cluster with an InfiniBand interconnect.

  1. Online & Offline data storage and data processing at the European XFEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasthuber, Martin; Dietrich, Stefan; Malka, Janusz; Kuhn, Manuela; Ensslin, Uwe; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    For the upcoming experiments at the European XFEL light source facility, a new online and offline data processing and storage infrastructure is currently being built and verified. Based on the experience of the system being developed for the Petra III light source at DESY, presented at the last CHEP conference, we further develop the system to cope with the much higher volumes and rates ( 50GB/sec) together with a more complex data analysis and infrastructure conditions (i.e. long range InfiniBand connections). This work will be carried out in collaboration of DESY/IT, European XFEL and technology support from IBM/Research. This presentation will shortly wrap up the experience of 1 year runtime of the PetraIII ([3]) system, continue with a short description of the challenges for the European XFEL ([2]) experiments and the main section, showing the proposed system for online and offline with initial result from real implementation (HW & SW). This will cover the selected cluster filesystem GPFS ([5]) including Quality of Service (QOS), extensive use of flash based subsystems and other new and unique features this architecture will benefit from.

  2. VCSEL modal dynamics and implications for 100Gbps links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Stephen E.; Lavrencik, Justin

    2017-02-01

    Modulation rates of VCSELs within multimode fiber links are now 25Gbps as standardized by both IEEE and Infiniband. Yet the need continues to advance the serial data rates to 50Gbps and higher to more readily support 100Gbps links with manageable fiber count. At these higher modulation rates the multimode VCSEL dynamics cannot be accurately modeled as single mode sources coupled into a MMF modeled as a simple filter. Specifically, our recent experimental results demonstrate the limitations of the standard mode partition noise and relative intensity noise models. By direct measurement of VCSEL mode dynamics we have shown modal statistics to be comprised of a mix of both correlated and anti-correlated components with a correlation time of a few symbol periods at 100G. Through simulations and experiments we demonstrate that MPN is significantly over estimated in the standard modeling tools and that RIN is enhanced by fiber dispersive effects, an effect not currently captured by current standard modeling methods and potentially underestimated.

  3. Implementation and Optimization of miniGMG - a Compact Geometric Multigrid Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Samuel; Kalamkar, Dhiraj; Singh, Amik; Deshpande, Anand M.; Straalen, Brian Van; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Almgren, Ann; Dubey, Pradeep; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid

    2012-12-01

    Multigrid methods are widely used to accelerate the convergence of iterative solvers for linear systems used in a number of different application areas. In this report, we describe miniGMG, our compact geometric multigrid benchmark designed to proxy the multigrid solves found in AMR applications. We explore optimization techniques for geometric multigrid on existing and emerging multicore systems including the Opteron-based Cray XE6, Intel Sandy Bridge and Nehalem-based Infiniband clusters, as well as manycore-based architectures including NVIDIA's Fermi and Kepler GPUs and Intel's Knights Corner (KNC) co-processor. This report examines a variety of novel techniques including communication-aggregation, threaded wavefront-based DRAM communication-avoiding, dynamic threading decisions, SIMDization, and fusion of operators. We quantify performance through each phase of the V-cycle for both single-node and distributed-memory experiments and provide detailed analysis for each class of optimization. Results show our optimizations yield significant speedups across a variety of subdomain sizes while simultaneously demonstrating the potential of multi- and manycore processors to dramatically accelerate single-node performance. However, our analysis also indicates that improvements in networks and communication will be essential to reap the potential of manycore processors in large-scale multigrid calculations.

  4. FELIX: the new detector readout system for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Kevin Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Starting during the upcoming major LHC shutdown from 2019-2021, the ATLAS experiment at CERN will move to the the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system as the interface between the data acquisition system and the trigger and detector front-end electronics. FELIX will function as a router between custom serial links and a commodity switch network, which will use industry standard technologies to communicate with data collection and processing components. The FELIX system is being developed using commercial-off-the-shelf server PC technology in combination with a FPGA-based PCIe Gen3 I/O card hosting GigaBit Transceiver links and with Timing, Trigger and Control connectivity provided by an FMC-based mezzanine card. FELIX functions will be implemented with dedicated firmware for the Xilinx FPGA (Virtex 7 and Kintex UltraScale) installed on the I/O card alongside an interrupt-driven Linux kernel driver and user-space software. On the network side, FELIX is able to connect to both Ethernet or Infiniband network a...

  5. The 40 MHz trigger-less DAQ for the LHCb upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, A.; Manzali, M.; Marconi, U.

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment focuses on flavour physics, aiming to enhance the current knowledge of CP violation parameters and exploit new physics signatures studying rare decays of b and c hadrons. A major upgrade of the detector is foreseen during the second long shutdown (2018-2019) to allow to collect an order of magnitude more data with respect to Run 1 and Run 2. The current maximum readout rate of 1 MHz is a limitation for the hadronic trigger. The upgraded detector will implement a full read-out running at the LHC bunch crossing frequency, using a software trigger. A high-throughput interface board has been designed to read-out the detector at 40MHz. The read-out boards allow a cost-effective implementation of the DAQ by means of a high-speed PC network. The redesigned DAQ system collects data fragments from the subdetector, performs the event building, and transports data to the High-Level software trigger at an estimated aggregate rate of ˜32{ Tbit/s} . Possible technologies candidates for the high-speed network under study are InfiniBand and Gigabit Ethernet. In order the explore and find the best implementation we performed several tests using an Event Builder evaluator on small size test beds and HPC scale facilities. Up to date performance results are presented.

  6. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum taxa from North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding patterns of Hordeum pusillum, H. intercedens, H. brachyantherum (2x, 4x, 6x), H. jubatum, H. arizonicum, and H. depressum (2x and 4x) were rather similar, with mostly small to very small bands with no preferential disposition. The use of C-banding patterns did not improve the lev...

  7. Selective removal of chromium (VI) from sulphates and other metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... (Leonberg, Germany) equipped with a Lambda 1010 UV-Vis absorbance detector was ... AG 7 (4 x 50 mm) guard column and Dionex IonPac® AS7 (4 x. 250 mm) analytical ...... and equilibrium characterization of uranium(VI) adsorption onto .... netic nanoparticles in a polyvinylpyridine matrix. Polymer 41.

  8. Ploidy variation of Musa hybrids from crosses | Oselebe | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantain and banana (Musa spp) breeding involves crossing 3x (triploid) landraces to 2x (diploid) accessions as female and male parents, respectively, selecting 4x (tetraploid) and 2x primary hybrids from the 3x - 2x progenies, and crossing 4x - 2x hybrids to produce secondary 3x hybrids. In these crosses, complex ploidy ...

  9. NiFe(C2O4)xas a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for removal of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Chang, Huazhen; Huang, Ting; Fang, Shunyan

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x , which showed better catalytic activity than Ni(C 2 O 4 ) x and better re-usability than Fe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The methyl orange removal efficiency was 98% in heterogeneous Fenton system using NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The prepared NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a laminated shape and the size was in the range of 2-4 μm, and Ni was doped into catalyst's structure successfully. The NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a synergistic effect of catalyst of 24.7 for methyl orange removal, and the dope of Ni significantly reduced the leaching of Fe by 77%. The reaction factors and kinetics were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 0.4 g/L of catalyst dose and 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 98% of methyl orange was removed within 20 min. Analysis showed that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals participated in the reaction. With NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x catalyst, the suitable pH range for heterogeneous Fenton system was wide from 3 to 10. The catalyst showed good efficiency after five times re-use. NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x provided great potential in treatment of refractory wastewater with excellent property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taxonomy, Variation, and Relationships in the Hordeum parodii Group (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Jacobsen, N.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The Hordeum parodii group contains three species, viz. H. parodii Covas (6x), H. tetraploidum Covas (4x), and H. fuegianum Bothmer, Jacobsen, et Jorgensen, sp. nov. (4x). The former two species mainly occur in C and S Argentina, while H. fuegianum is native to Tierra del Fuego. All three species...

  11. Does Adhesive Resin Application Contribute to Resin Bond Durability on Etched and Silanized Feldspathic Ceramic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of adhesive application and aging on the bond durability of resin cement to etched and silanized feldspathic ceramic. Materials and Methods: Twenty blocks (6.4 x 6.4 x 4.8 mm) of feldspathic ceramic (Vita VM7) were produced. The ceramic surfaces were conditioned with

  12. The ten-channel pulsed radar reflectometer at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, J. C.; van de Pol, M.J.; Donne, A. J. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ten-channel pulsed radar reflectometer has been taken into operation at the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research-94. The system will be used simultaneously as a density profile and as a density fluctuation diagnostic. Ten density layers from 0.4 x 10(19) to 4 x 10(19) m(-3) can be

  13. Determination of digestibility of different forages in dairy cows using indigestible NDF as marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Four 4 x 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with four cannulated dairy cows. Eight forages were fed ad libitum or supplemented with concentrate.......Four 4 x 4 Latin square experiments were conducted with four cannulated dairy cows. Eight forages were fed ad libitum or supplemented with concentrate....

  14. Process modelling and optimization of osmotic dehydration assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4X4X4 factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the pretreatment and pretreated samples were later dried in a fabricated ... Drying rate was estimated for all test runs while vitamin C, vitamin A, ash content, water loss and solid gain were estimated as quality parameters.

  15. Rare Earth Doped Semiconductors, Symposium Held in San Francisco, California on April 13-15, 1993. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-04

    K.R. EVANS, 4 AND C.R. JONES 4 I Departamento de Ffsica, ICEN/LNETI, Estrada Nacional nQ 10, 2685, Sacav6m, Portugal 2 Centro de Fisica Nuclear da...10" See 5 X101, sec 5 x 10" BT cm’lsec 4 x M"’ I- cml/sec x 019ŕ, BTI, Cm’/sec 1.2 X 10-11 Boa cmI1sec 1.2 X 10"t- BSM cMI/sec 4 x 10" BcrmI/sec 4 X

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Implementing a Car-Sharing Model to the Navy’s Passenger Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Hourly Car-Sharing Costs versus GSA Fleet Lease. Adapted from Aiken (2016) Hourly Car-sharing GSA Fleet Lease Average Hourly Rate ( economy sedan...8.14 (includes fuel) N/A Average Daily Rate ( economy sedan) $55 (Unlimited mileage) $5.56 *(based on $169/mo and $0.15/mi) Vehicle Types Sedans...4x2, Crew Cab 0327 32 Truck, 1/2T Pickup 4x2 0313 7 Truck, Sport Utility, Commercial, 4x2 Midsize 0308 2 Truck, Van, 7 Pass, Compact 0330-08 24 Truck

  17. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of manganese in ferric oxide; Determinacion espectrografica cuantitativa de trazas de manganeso en oxido ferrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1968-07-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity, different electrode types and sweeping substances have been studied. Graphite anodes, with 5 x 2,5, 4 x 4,5, 4 x 8 and 7 x 10 mm crater, as well as CuF{sub 2}, AgCl, ZnO and graphite powder as sweeping materials, have been tested. A JACO-Ebert grating spectrograph and 10 amp. d.c. arc have been employed, choosing the proper exposure times from moving-plate studies. Using 4 x 4,5 mm electrodes and 75% AgCl a detection limit of 0,2 ppm is attainable. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Speeding up parallel GROMACS on high-latency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Carsten; van der Spoel, David; Fechner, Martin; Lindahl, Erik; Schmitt, Udo W; de Groot, Bert L; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the parallel scaling of the GROMACS molecular dynamics code on Ethernet Beowulf clusters and what prerequisites are necessary for decent scaling even on such clusters with only limited bandwidth and high latency. GROMACS 3.3 scales well on supercomputers like the IBM p690 (Regatta) and on Linux clusters with a special interconnect like Myrinet or Infiniband. Because of the high single-node performance of GROMACS, however, on the widely used Ethernet switched clusters, the scaling typically breaks down when more than two computer nodes are involved, limiting the absolute speedup that can be gained to about 3 relative to a single-CPU run. With the LAM MPI implementation, the main scaling bottleneck is here identified to be the all-to-all communication which is required every time step. During such an all-to-all communication step, a huge amount of messages floods the network, and as a result many TCP packets are lost. We show that Ethernet flow control prevents network congestion and leads to substantial scaling improvements. For 16 CPUs, e.g., a speedup of 11 has been achieved. However, for more nodes this mechanism also fails. Having optimized an all-to-all routine, which sends the data in an ordered fashion, we show that it is possible to completely prevent packet loss for any number of multi-CPU nodes. Thus, the GROMACS scaling dramatically improves, even for switches that lack flow control. In addition, for the common HP ProCurve 2848 switch we find that for optimum all-to-all performance it is essential how the nodes are connected to the switch's ports. This is also demonstrated for the example of the Car-Parinello MD code. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multi-GPGPU Tsunami simulation at Toyama-bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Shoichi; Ueda, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Accelerated multi General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) calculation for Tsunami run-up simulation was achieved at the wide area (whole Toyama-bay in Japan) by faster computation technique. Toyama-bay has active-faults at the sea-bed. It has a high possibility to occur earthquakes and Tsunami waves in the case of the huge earthquake, that's why to predict the area of Tsunami run-up is important for decreasing damages to residents by the disaster. However it is very hard task to achieve the simulation by the computer resources problem. A several meter's order of the high resolution calculation is required for the running-up Tsunami simulation because artificial structures on the ground such as roads, buildings, and houses are very small. On the other hand the huge area simulation is also required. In the Toyama-bay case the area is 42 [km] × 15 [km]. When 5 [m] × 5 [m] size computational cells are used for the simulation, over 26,000,000 computational cells are generated. To calculate the simulation, a normal CPU desktop computer took about 10 hours for the calculation. An improvement of calculation time is important problem for the immediate prediction system of Tsunami running-up, as a result it will contribute to protect a lot of residents around the coastal region. The study tried to decrease this calculation time by using multi GPGPU system which is equipped with six NVIDIA TESLA K20xs, InfiniBand network connection between computer nodes by MVAPICH library. As a result 5.16 times faster calculation was achieved on six GPUs than one GPU case and it was 86% parallel efficiency to the linear speed up.

  20. Running climate model in the commercial cloud computing environment: A case study using Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Huang, X.; Jiao, C.; Flanner, M.; Raeker, T.; Palen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical model is the major tool used in the studies of climate change and climate projection. Because of the enormous complexity involved in such climate models, they are usually run on supercomputing centers or at least high-performance computing clusters. The cloud computing environment, however, offers an alternative option for running climate models. Compared to traditional supercomputing environment, cloud computing offers more flexibility yet also extra technical challenges. Using the CESM (community earth system model) as a case study, we test the feasibility of running the climate model in the cloud-based virtual computing environment. Using the cloud computing resources offered by Amazon Web Service (AWS) Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and an open-source software, StarCluster, which can set up virtual cluster, we investigate how to run the CESM on AWS EC2 and the efficiency of parallelization of CESM on the AWS virtual cluster. We created virtual computing cluster using StarCluster on the AWS EC2 instances and carried out CESM simulations on such virtual cluster. We then compared the wall-clock time for one year of CESM simulation on the virtual cluster with that on a local high-performance computing (HPC) cluster with infiniband connections and operated by the University of Michigan. The results show that the CESM model can be efficiently scaled with number of CPUs on the AWS EC2 virtual computer cluster, and the parallelization efficiency is comparable to that on local HPC cluster. For standard configuration of the CESM at a spatial resolution of 1.9-degree latitude and 2.5-degree longitude, increasing the number of CPUs from 16 to 64 leads to a more than twice reduction in wall-clock running time and the scaling is nearly linear. Beyond 64 CPUs, the communication latency starts to overweight the saving of distributed computing and the parallelization efficiency becomes nearly level off.

  1. The 40 MHz trigger-less DAQ for the LHCb Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora Perez, D. H.; Falabella, A.; Galli, D.; Giacomini, F.; Gligorov, V.; Manzali, M.; Marconi, U.; Neufeld, N.; Otto, A.; Pisani, F.; Vagnoni, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown (2018-2019), aiming to let LHCb collect an order of magnitude more data with respect to Run 1 and Run 2. The maximum readout rate of 1 MHz is the main limitation of the present LHCb trigger. The upgraded detector, apart from major detector upgrades, foresees a full read-out, running at the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz, using an entirely software based trigger. A new high-throughput PCIe Generation 3 based read-out board, named PCIe40, has been designed for this purpose. The read-out board will allow an efficient and cost-effective implementation of the DAQ system by means of high-speed PC networks. The network-based DAQ system reads data fragments, performs the event building, and transports events to the High-Level Trigger at an estimated aggregate rate of about 32 Tbit/s. Different architecture for the DAQ can be implemented, such as push, pull and traffic shaping with barrel-shifter. Possible technology candidates for the foreseen event-builder under study are InfiniBand and Gigabit Ethernet. In order to define the best implementation of the event-builder we are performing tests of the event-builder on different platforms with different technologies. For testing we are using an event-builder evaluator, which consists of a flexible software implementation, to be used on small size test beds as well as on HPC scale facilities. The architecture of DAQ system and up to date performance results will be presented.

  2. Optimizing Blocking and Nonblocking Reduction Operations for Multicore Systems: Hierarchical Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Shamis, Pavel [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Ladd, Joshua S [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific simulations, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, are sensitive to the performance and scalability of reduction collective operations such as MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce. These operations are the most widely used abstractions to perform mathematical operations over all processes that are part of the simulation. In this work, we propose a hierarchical design to implement the reduction operations on multicore systems. This design aims to improve the efficiency of reductions by 1) tailoring the algorithms and customizing the implementations for various communication mechanisms in the system 2) providing the ability to configure the depth of hierarchy to match the system architecture, and 3) providing the ability to independently progress each of this hierarchy. Using this design, we implement MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce operations (and its nonblocking variants MPI Iallreduce and MPI Ireduce) for all message sizes, and evaluate on multiple architectures including InfiniBand and Cray XT5. We leverage and enhance our existing infrastructure, Cheetah, which is a framework for implementing hierarchical collective operations to implement these reductions. The experimental results show that the Cheetah reduction operations outperform the production-grade MPI implementations such as Open MPI default, Cray MPI, and MVAPICH2, demonstrating its efficiency, flexibility and portability. On Infini- Band systems, with a microbenchmark, a 512-process Cheetah nonblocking Allreduce and Reduce achieves a speedup of 23x and 10x, respectively, compared to the default Open MPI reductions. The blocking variants of the reduction operations also show similar performance benefits. A 512-process nonblocking Cheetah Allreduce achieves a speedup of 3x, compared to the default MVAPICH2 Allreduce implementation. On a Cray XT5 system, a 6144-process Cheetah Allreduce outperforms the Cray MPI by 145%. The evaluation with an application kernel, Conjugate

  3. A Case for Application Oblivious Energy-Efficient MPI Runtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, Akshay; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hamidouche, Khaled; Tallent, Nathan R.; Panda, Dhabaleswar; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-10-19

    Power has become the major impediment in designing large scale high-end systems. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is the {\\em de facto} communication interface used as the back-end for designing applications, programming models and runtime for these systems. Slack --- the time spent by an MPI process in a single MPI call --- provides a potential for energy and power savings, if an appropriate power reduction technique such as core-idling/Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) can be applied without perturbing application's execution time. Existing techniques that exploit slack for power savings assume that application behavior repeats across iterations/executions. However, an increasing use of adaptive, data-dependent workloads combined with system factors (OS noise, congestion) makes this assumption invalid. This paper proposes and implements Energy Aware MPI (EAM) --- an application-oblivious energy-efficient MPI runtime. EAM uses a combination of communication models of common MPI primitives (point-to-point, collective, progress, blocking/non-blocking) and an online observation of slack for maximizing energy efficiency. Each power lever incurs time overhead, which must be amortized over slack to minimize degradation. When predicted communication time exceeds a lever overhead, the lever is used {\\em as soon as possible} --- to maximize energy efficiency. When mis-prediction occurs, the lever(s) are used automatically at specific intervals for amortization. We implement EAM using MVAPICH2 and evaluate it on ten applications using up to 4096 processes. Our performance evaluation on an InfiniBand cluster indicates that EAM can reduce energy consumption by 5--41\\% in comparison to the default approach, with negligible (less than 4\\% in all cases) performance loss.

  4. Efficient development of memory bounded geo-applications to scale on modern supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Licul, Aleksandar; Podladchikov, Yuri; Herman, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Numerical modeling is an actual key tool in the area of geosciences. The current challenge is to solve problems that are multi-physics and for which the length scale and the place of occurrence might not be known in advance. Also, the spatial extend of the investigated domain might strongly vary in size, ranging from millimeters for reactive transport to kilometers for glacier erosion dynamics. An efficient way to proceed is to develop simple but robust algorithms that perform well and scale on modern supercomputers and permit therefore very high-resolution simulations. We propose an efficient approach to solve memory bounded real-world applications on modern supercomputers architectures. We optimize the software to run on our newly acquired state-of-the-art GPU cluster "octopus". Our approach shows promising preliminary results on important geodynamical and geomechanical problematics: we have developed a Stokes solver for glacier flow and a poromechanical solver including complex rheologies for nonlinear waves in stressed rocks porous rocks. We solve the system of partial differential equations on a regular Cartesian grid and use an iterative finite difference scheme with preconditioning of the residuals. The MPI communication happens only locally (point-to-point); this method is known to scale linearly by construction. The "octopus" GPU cluster, which we use for the computations, has been designed to achieve maximal data transfer throughput at minimal hardware cost. It is composed of twenty compute nodes, each hosting four Nvidia Titan X GPU accelerators. These high-density nodes are interconnected with a parallel (dual-rail) FDR InfiniBand network. Our efforts show promising preliminary results for the different physics investigated. The glacier flow solver achieves good accuracy in the relevant benchmarks and the coupled poromechanical solver permits to explain previously unresolvable focused fluid flow as a natural outcome of the porosity setup. In both cases

  5. CBM First-level Event Selector Input Interface Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Dirk; de Cuveland, Jan; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2017-10-01

    CBM is a heavy-ion experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Featuring self-triggered front-end electronics and free-streaming read-out, event selection will exclusively be done by the First Level Event Selector (FLES). Designed as an HPC cluster with several hundred nodes its task is an online analysis and selection of the physics data at a total input data rate exceeding 1 TByte/s. To allow efficient event selection, the FLES performs timeslice building, which combines the data from all given input links to self-contained, potentially overlapping processing intervals and distributes them to compute nodes. Partitioning the input data streams into specialized containers allows performing this task very efficiently. The FLES Input Interface defines the linkage between the FEE and the FLES data transport framework. A custom FPGA PCIe board, the FLES Interface Board (FLIB), is used to receive data via optical links and transfer them via DMA to the host’s memory. The current prototype of the FLIB features a Kintex-7 FPGA and provides up to eight 10 GBit/s optical links. A custom FPGA design has been developed for this board. DMA transfers and data structures are optimized for subsequent timeslice building. Index tables generated by the FPGA enable fast random access to the written data containers. In addition the DMA target buffers can directly serve as InfiniBand RDMA source buffers without copying the data. The usage of POSIX shared memory for these buffers allows data access from multiple processes. An accompanying HDL module has been developed to integrate the FLES link into the front-end FPGA designs. It implements the front-end logic interface as well as the link protocol. Prototypes of all Input Interface components have been implemented and integrated into the FLES test framework. This allows the implementation and evaluation of the foreseen CBM read-out chain.

  6. Determination of an optimum voxel size based on statistical methods in the Kahang Cu porphyry deposit, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasrebi A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine an optimum voxel size in the Kahang Cu porphyry deposit (Central Iran using statistical parameters and vector analysis based on the 26 drilled boreholes. The mean, median and Median Absolute Deviation (MAD were calculated for total distances between 14 pairs of closest boreholes in terms of X and Y directions. Based on the results, three block models were determined with 3 x 3 x 10 m3, 4 x 4 x 10 m3 and 5 x 5 x 10 m3 of voxel volumes for Cu distribution utilising inverse distance weighted (IDW method. According to calculation of Non-Zero voxel numbers and decreasing of standard deviations and Cu average values, the block model with 4 x 4 x 10 m3 voxel sizes determined as an optimum block model.

  7. Space Interferometry Mission Instrument Mechanical Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Stubbs, D.; Kroening, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission, planned for launch in 2006, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4x10 to the power of negative six arc (about 1 billionth of a degree).

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Plan Curvature of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Plan Curvature GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Rugosity of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Rugosity GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Multibeam Backscatter for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Multibeam Backscatter GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the geomorphology of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Depth of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Depth GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric PCA GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Slope of Slope for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Slope of Slope GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  14. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Mean Depth of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Mean Depth GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  15. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Depth Range of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Depth Range GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Curvature of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Curvature GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Profile Curvature of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Profile Curvature GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Sun Illuminated Bathymetry for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Sun Illuminated Bathymetry GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  19. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Slope of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric Slope GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  20. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XH-2ATKA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4XH-2ATKA 1E4X 2ATK H A QVQLQQPGAELVKPGASVKLSCKASGFTFTNYWMHWVKQ...RPGQGLEWIGEILPSNGRTNYNEKFKTKATLTVDKSSNTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARSPS----DYWGQGTTLTVSSAKTTAPSVYPLAPVCGDTTGSSVTLGCLV... 272 2ATK A 2ATKA ARERGDGYFAVWGA EEE

  2. SiC Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aymont Technology, Inc. (Aymont) will demonstrate the feasibility of SiC p-i-n avalanche photodiodes (APD) arrays. Aymont will demonstrate 4 x 4 arrays of 2 mm2 APDs...

  3. Noore kirjanduse potentsiaalist / Juko-Mart Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Juko-Mart

    2002-01-01

    Vastukaja Berk Vaheri arvustusele (kogumikule 4 x 4 / Tiit Kuuskmäe, Henrik Sova, Jarno Edur, Juko-Mart Kõlar. Tallinn, 2002) "Noormeeste kvartett kihutab neljarattaveol kirjandusse" (Postimees, 2002, 2. sept., lk. 17)

  4. NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data is from NMC initialized reanalysis (4x/day). It consists of most variables interpolated to pressure surfaces from model (sigma) surfaces.

  5. Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of the Homework Intervention Strategy (eHIS) Program to Enhance Male Condom Use: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Marta; Yardley, Lucy; Stone, Nicole; Graham, Cynthia A

    2018-01-02

    types of condoms and lubricants on their own in a no-pressure situation. Following T1, participants are asked to complete the T2 and T3 measures at 4 and 10 weeks, respectively. Data collection for the study is completed. Data analysis is in progress and is expected to be completed by February 2018. This brief, home-based, self-guided program may lead to increased consistent and correct condom use. Online delivery can make the program an easily accessible and low-cost health promotion intervention, which has the potential to reach a wide and diverse audience. If results of the current study show the program's feasibility and preliminary effectiveness in changing condom use related outcomes, a larger scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted. Research Registry: researchregistry2325; http://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry.html# home/registrationdetails/58da6cad1d7ab0314337d076/ (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6vXs6S9XW).

  6. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  7. Large changes in anatomy and physiology between diploid Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) and its autotetraploid are not associated with large changes in leaf gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, Thierry; Brumos, Javier; Colmenero-Flores, Jose Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Froelicher, Yann; Talon, Manuel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2011-05-01

    Very little is known about the molecular origin of the large phenotypic differentiation between genotypes arising from somatic chromosome set doubling and their diploid parents. In this study, the anatomy and physiology of diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) seedlings has been characterized. Growth of 2x was more vigorous than 4x although leaves, stems, and roots of 4x plants were thicker and contained larger cells than 2x that may have a large impact on cell-to-cell water exchanges. Leaf water content was higher in 4x than in 2x. Leaf transcriptome expression using a citrus microarray containing 21 081 genes revealed that the number of genes differentially expressed in both genotypes was less than 1% and the maximum rate of gene expression change within a 2-fold range. Six up-regulated genes in 4x were targeted to validate microarray results by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Five of these genes were apparently involved in the response to water deficit, suggesting that, in control conditions, the genome expression of citrus autotetraploids may act in a similar way to diploids under water-deficit stress condition. The sixth up-regulated gene which codes for a histone may also play an important role in regulating the transcription of growth processes. These results show that the large phenotypic differentiation in 4x Rangpur lime compared with 2x is not associated with large changes in genome expression. This suggests that, in 4x Rangpur lime, subtle changes in gene expression may be at the origin of the phenotypic differentiation of 4x citrus when compared with 2x.

  8. Flow Conditions in a Mechanically Ventilated Room with a Convective Heat Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The ventilation of a test room (LxWxH = 5.4x3.6x2.4 m) with a wall mounted heat source is investigated for two different air terminal devices.......The ventilation of a test room (LxWxH = 5.4x3.6x2.4 m) with a wall mounted heat source is investigated for two different air terminal devices....

  9. Measurements of nuclear deexcitation times down to 10/sup -19/ sec using crystal blocking of /sup 16/O on diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez del Campo, J.; Shapira, D.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Moak, C.D.; Miller, P.D.; Neskovic, N.; Fearick, R.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1983-08-08

    The crystal-blocking technique was used to measure the deexcitation times of the evaporation residues of 120-MeV /sup 16/O on /sup 12/C, emerging along the <110> axis of a 12-..mu..m-thick diamond crystal. The extracted times ranged from 4 x 10/sup -19/ sec for Mg to 4 x 10/sup -18/ sec for N, and they are consistent with statistical-model predictions.

  10. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6 7 6 (= 262 ). 9 6 1 (= 3121. (iii) 1 2 1 (= 1T21. 2 8 9 I = 172). 9 6 (=142 1. Can you find a 4 x 4 square array of squares reading the same across and down? What about 5 x 5, 6 x 6,. 7 x 7, .. . ? There are at least 13 arrays of 4 x 4 squares that read the same across and down if all the digits are allowed to appear, but if.

  11. Application of risk assessment techniques to microbial monitoring data: a South-African perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rodda, N

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available in the range 2x10(-2) - 7x10(-1). If levels of viruses in treated drinking water were approximated from those in raw water by assuming reductions during treatment of 4 log, 5 log and 6 log, maximum daily risk estimates were 4x10(-2) - 4x10(-1), 5x10(-3) - 1x10...

  12. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Triflumizole 68694-11-1 X FY 2007 Trinexapac-ethyl 95266-40-3 X FY 2008 Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) 76-87-9 X... FY 2007 Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 71283-80-2 X FY 2007 Fenoxycarb 72490-01-8 X FY 2007 Flumetsulam 98967-40...-4 X FY 2008 Quinoline 91-22-5 X Quizalofop-P-ethyl 100646-51-3 X FY 2008 RDX 121-82-4 X sec...

  13. Integrated Warfighter Biodefense Program (IWBP) - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    screen typically consists of 4 X-ray images; 2 images of each breast from different directions (these views are called MLO and CC). Thus, most (but not...all) patients would have MLO and CC images of both their breasts, giving a total of 4 images per patient. Each image is represented by several...cancer screen typically consists of 4 X-ray images; 2 images of each breast from different directions (these views are called MLO and CC). Thus

  14. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  15. Carbon stock quantification of Morella pubescens (H. & B. ex Willd. Wilbur in two agroecosystems (Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Andrés Delgado Vargas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon stored in radical biomass of Morella pubescens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Wilbur, was quantified, in San Pablo, Nariño, Colombia, with height of 2010 m, average annual rainfall of 1300 mm and average temperature of 17ºC. Three experimental unites: silvopastoral system pasture alley cropping (Ac in two planting distances 4x3m and 4x4m, and natural regeneration system (Rn, 7 individual ware taken by experimental unite with (diameters 5 – 7 cm, by experimental unit, the sample was taken to 70 cm and 140 cm from the tree and three depths (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm. In total 24 simples/trees were taken in 21 selected individuals. The mayor quantity of radical biomass and C stock was presented in the Ac arrangement 4x3 m of 27.6 t.ha-1 (14.1 t.C.ha-1; 24 4 t.ha-1 (12.1 t.C.ha-1 distance 4x4 m and 7.5 t.ha-1 and 2.9 t.ha-1In natural regeneration. In system Ac distance 4x4 m there were not differences in C stored by tree Rn, there was a decrease by 4x3 m, thus, the differences of accumulation between the systems, can obey to the density of the sowing.

  16. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Filho, Mauricio Antônio; Morillon, Raphaël; Bonatto, Diego; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2017-01-01

    Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively), as well as common to both networks (773) were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants. PMID:28545114

  17. Heart rate differences in small sided games in formative basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gracia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and learn the heart rate responses of basketball players in small-sided or modified games, in order to develop a more effective workout plan in the future. The study sample consisted of 19 basketball players from a National Championship Club, 12 of them in the U’14 category and the remaining 7 belonging to the U’16 category. Small-sided games were 3x3 and 4x4 with a duration of 4 minutes and an active break of 3 minutes. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found referring to the relations established between 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in vigorous exercise; in 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in moderate exercise; in 3x3 and 3x3 with average heart rate; in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate and in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate related to game categories.Keywords:

  18. Induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic human keratinocytes by transfection with thymosin beta 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu Kiyoshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the recombination of cells liberated from developing tooth germs develop into teeth. However, it is difficult to use human developing tooth germ as a source of cells because of ethical issues. Previous studies have reported that thymosin beta 4 (Tmsb4x is closely related to the initiation and development of the tooth germ. We herein attempted to establish odontogenic epithelial cells from non-odontogenic HaCaT cells by transfection with TMSB4X. TMSB4X-transfected cells formed nodules that were positive for Alizarin-red S (ALZ and von Kossa staining (calcium phosphate deposits when cultured in calcification-inducing medium. Three selected clones showing larger amounts of calcium deposits than the other clones, expressed PITX2, Cytokeratin 14, and Sonic Hedgehog. The upregulation of odontogenesis-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, Amelogenin (AMELX, Ameloblastin (AMBN and Enamelin (ENAM was also detected. These proteins were immunohistochemically observed in nodules positive for the ALZ and von Kossa staining. RUNX2-positive selected TMSB4X-transfected cells implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of nude mice formed matrix deposits. Immunohistochemically, AMELX, AMBN and ENAM were observed in the matrix deposits. This study demonstrated the possibility of induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic HaCaT cells by TMSB4X.

  19. Bioavailability of zinc in two zinc sulfate by-products of the galvanizing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H M; Boling, S D; Emmert, J L; Baker, D H

    1998-10-01

    Two Zn depletion/repletion assays were conducted with chicks to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Zn from two new by-products of the galvanizing industry. Using a soy concentrate-dextrose diet, slope-ratio methodology was employed to evaluate two different products: Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O with 20.2% Fe and 13.0% Zn, and Zn-FeSO4 x H2O with 14.2% Fe and 20.2% Zn. Feed-grade ZnSO4 x H2O was used as a standard. Weight gain, tibia Zn concentration, and total tibia Zn responded linearly (P 0.10) from the ZnSO4 standard (100%). Slope-ratio calculations based on total tibia Zn established average Zn RBV values of 126% for Fe-ZnSO4 x H2O and 127% for Zn-FeSO4 x H2O, and these values were greater (P < 0.01) than those of the ZnSO4 standard (100%). It is apparent that both mixed sulfate products of Fe and Zn are excellent sources of bioavailable Zn.

  20. Induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic human keratinocytes by transfection with thymosin beta 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Wada, Hiroko; Ookuma, Yukiko F; Shiotsuka, Maho; Kihara, Makiko; Hasegawa, Kana; Someya, Hirotaka; Sakai, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the recombination of cells liberated from developing tooth germs develop into teeth. However, it is difficult to use human developing tooth germ as a source of cells because of ethical issues. Previous studies have reported that thymosin beta 4 (Tmsb4x) is closely related to the initiation and development of the tooth germ. We herein attempted to establish odontogenic epithelial cells from non-odontogenic HaCaT cells by transfection with TMSB4X. TMSB4X-transfected cells formed nodules that were positive for Alizarin-red S (ALZ) and von Kossa staining (calcium phosphate deposits) when cultured in calcification-inducing medium. Three selected clones showing larger amounts of calcium deposits than the other clones, expressed PITX2, Cytokeratin 14, and Sonic Hedgehog. The upregulation of odontogenesis-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Amelogenin (AMELX), Ameloblastin (AMBN) and Enamelin (ENAM) was also detected. These proteins were immunohistochemically observed in nodules positive for the ALZ and von Kossa staining. RUNX2-positive selected TMSB4X-transfected cells implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of nude mice formed matrix deposits. Immunohistochemically, AMELX, AMBN and ENAM were observed in the matrix deposits. This study demonstrated the possibility of induction of dental epithelial cell differentiation marker gene expression in non-odontogenic HaCaT cells by TMSB4X. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Parallel Grid approach to solve Feature Selection problem in volcanic infrasound signals classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitano, Danilo; Pistagna, Fabrizio; Russo, Gaetano; Valenti, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The continuous monitoring of an active volcano, such as Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), represents one of the main tasks for the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Catania Branch. Around the volcano summit area, four infrasound sensors have been installed during the last recent years, which allow to acquire, real time waveforms that are subsequently stored on a server, located inside the INGV Control Room. A new method here introduced, based on Genetic Algorithms (GA), has been used to analyze the data coming from the remote infrasound sensors stations. In particular, the acquired signals have been processed by a custom modular software: the first module allows the visual manipulation, filtering and, in order to optimize performances, resampling the data to better elaborate them. The second module, using an alghorithm (G. Russo, 2009 ) based on two different thresholds (upper and lower) and the standard deviation, is able to recognize and collect infrasound events (IE) from the stored data. In the third step, the Green & Nueberg algorithm (2006) is used to correlate different families of IE and define the clusters nodes. Once a minimum number of families are characterized, they define the main features inside each cluster. Feature extraction process is a very complex algorithm due to the large number of requested correlations. In order to speed up the time needed to carry out so many simulations, the code has been deployed and executed on the Sicilian Grid infrastructure owned and managed by the Consorzio Cometa, a not-for-profit organisation including INGV among its members. The infrastructure, distributed across the Sicilian territory, is composed of 7 sites for a total of about 2000 CPU cores and more than 250 TB of storage. All the sites of the infrastructure are equipped with low latency Infiniband networks and are installed with MPI libraries. A complete workflow has been created from scratch to execute the various phases of the

  2. Parallel calculations on shared memory, NUMA-based computers using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkiewski, Marcin; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    cores and 8 NUMA-nodes interconnected with Infiniband network. We present the results of a MATLAB implementation of the STREAM memory bandwidth benchmark and discuss performance problems that we have identified.

  3. An investigation of mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1019 eV via the study of extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doostmohammadi S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron and muon components of extensive air shower (EAS with energies above 1019 eV are analyzed via various giant EAS arrays. A varying property of showers is observed for two energy ranges; higher and lower than (3 − 4 x 1019 eV. The age parameter, zenith angle, shower size dependence on muon size and shower size dependence on primary energy show an increment of mass composition (MC above (3−4x 1019eV. Comparison of the observed EAS results with the simulations of Capdevielle et al. (2000 and Shinozaki et al. (2005 gives at most 20% photon fraction for primary energies above 1019 eV. The arrival directions of showers above 4x1019 eV indicate an increasing concentration towards the super galactic plane.

  4. Allopolyploid speciation and ongoing backcrossing between diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages in the Achillea millefolium species complex: analyses of single-copy nuclear genes and genomic AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrendorfer Friedrich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the flowering plants, many polyploid species complexes display evolutionary radiation. This could be facilitated by gene flow between otherwise separate evolutionary lineages in contact zones. Achillea collina is a widespread tetraploid species within the Achillea millefolium polyploid complex (Asteraceae-Anthemideae. It is morphologically intermediate between the relic diploids, A. setacea-2x in xeric and A. asplenifolia-2x in humid habitats, and often grows in close contact with either of them. By analyzing DNA sequences of two single-copy nuclear genes and the genomic AFLP data, we assess the allopolyploid origin of A. collina-4x from ancestors corresponding to A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x, and the ongoing backcross introgression between these diploid progenitor and tetraploid progeny lineages. Results In both the ncpGS and the PgiC gene tree, haplotype sequences of the diploid A. setacea-2x and A. asplenifolia-2x group into two clades corresponding to the two species, though lineage sorting seems incomplete for the PgiC gene. In contrast, A. collina-4x and its suspected backcross plants show homeologous gene copies: sequences from the same tetraploid individual plant are placed in both diploid clades. Semi-congruent splits of an AFLP Neighbor Net link not only A. collina-4x to both diploid species, but some 4x individuals in a polymorphic population with mixed ploidy levels to A. setacea-2x on one hand and to A. collina-4x on the other, indicating allopolyploid speciation as well as hybridization across ploidal levels. Conclusions The findings of this study clearly demonstrate the hybrid origin of Achillea collina-4x, the ongoing backcrossing between the diploid progenitor and their tetraploid progeny lineages. Such repeated hybridizations are likely the cause of the great genetic and phenotypic variation and ecological differentiation of the polyploid taxa in Achillea millefolium agg.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis reveals differential gene expressions for cell growth and functional secondary metabolites in induced autotetraploid of Chinese woad (Isatis indigotica Fort..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhou

    Full Text Available The giant organs and enhanced concentrations of secondary metabolites realized by autopolyploidy are attractive for breeding the respective medicinal and agricultural plants and studying the genetic mechanisms. The traditional medicinal plant Chinese woad (Isatis indigotica Fort., 2n = 2x = 14 is now still largely used for the diseases caused by bacteria and viruses in China. In this study, its autopolyploids (3x, 4x were produced and characterized together with the 2x donor for their phenotype and transcriptomic alterations by using high-throughput RNA sequencing. With the increase of genome dosage, the giantism in cells and organs was obvious and the photosynthetic rate was higher. The 4x plants showed predominantly the normal meiotic chromosome pairing (bivalents and quadrivalents and equal segregation and then produced the majority of 4x progeny. The total 70136 All-unigenes were de novo assembled, and 56,482 (80.53% unigenes were annotated based on BLASTx searches of the public databases. From pair-wise comparisons between transcriptomic data of 2x, 3x, 4x plants, 1856 (2.65%(2x vs 4x, 693(0.98%(2x vs 3x, 1045(1.48%(3x vs 4x unigenes were detected to differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including both up- and down-regulated ones. These DEGs were mainly involved in cell growth (synthesis of expansin and pectin, cell wall organization, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, response to stress and photosynthetic pathways. The up-regulation of some DEGs for metabolic pathways of functional compounds in the induced autotetraploids substantiates the promising new type of this medicinal plant with the increased biomass and targeted metabolites.

  6. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  7. Characteristics of the Binary Decision Diagrams of Boolean Bent Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the highest order monomial of the ANF with a nonzero coefficient [2]. In the function f  x1x2  x3x4 x5 the algebraic degree is 3 due to the... monomial x3x4x5. 3. Linear Functions A linear function is any function of algebraic degree one and for which a0=0. The notation for a linear function...section C. They are easy to construct, since they consist of disjoint monomials and their BDDs are minimum when the variables of the tree have the

  8. Effects of Pregnancy on Responses to Exercise Above and Below the Ventilatory Anaerobic THreshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    management of maternal-fetal disease human pregnancy; and to demonstrate the usefulness of hu- states (e.g., preeclampsia , gestational diabetes mellitus). man...severe 1500m 1. 4 x -400m @ 60s 1/1 74 26 ,lowing salicylate treatment 2. 4 x -400m @ 60s 2/1 78 22 .nd hemodynamic function 3. 8 x -200m @ 30s 1/1 73...animals were administdned an equal volume of administered the chelated vs. the salt or control treatments . These results water, or equimnlar amounts

  9. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum secalinum, H. capense and their interspecific hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    The European H. secalinum (2n = 4x = 48) and the South African H. capense (2n = 4x = 28) had similar karyotypes with ten pairs of metacentrics, three of submetacentrics, and one of SAT-chromosomes. The C-banded karyotypes of H. secalinum from northern Europe were characterized by banding patterns...... reproductive system. No banding pattern polymorphism was present within plants of H. secalinum from Spain and H. capense, suggesting self-pollination. In both species banding pattern polymorphism was prevalent among plants. Together with other evidence the fairly similar basic C-banded karyotypes of the two...

  10. Obtaining of nectarinum (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. polyploid plants in Nikitsky Botanical Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly in Ukraine as the result of resiprocal interbreedings of autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 / diploid (2n=2x=16 and diploid (2n=2x=16 / autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 four sintetic triploid (2n=3x=24 hybrid forms (611-91, 13-93, 14-93, 18-93 have been obtained. Spontaneous triploid nectarinum 166-80 has been shared out from diploid hybrid seedlings population. Tetraploid and triploid nectarinum forms are valuable sources for directoinal selection and making hybrids with the complex of new signs, which are difficult or impossible to receive on diploid level.

  11. Combining Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy to Target Survivin in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    EL4 ). All mice apart from the 20Gy-irradiated...4x 4G y 5G y 10 G y 20 G y control EL4 EG7.OVA IF N γ sp ot s/ 1 x1 05 s pl en oc yt es OVA-specific immune responses IFNγ -ELISPOT 0 0.1 0.2 0.3...300 350 ELISPOT 1-4-09 control EL4 EG7.OVA OVA peptide IF Nγ s po ts / 1x 10 5 sp le no cy te s no treatment 4x4Gy MIS416

  12. Cytogenetic studies in some representatives of the subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae in South Africa. 2. The tribe Aveneae, subtribes Phalaridinae and Alopecurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on chromosome numbers for the subtribes Phalaridinae and Alopecurinae (tribe Aveneae which are. to a large extent, naturalized in South Africa. Chromosome numbers of 34 specimens, representing nine species and four genera, are presented. These numbers include the first report on Agrostis avenacea Gmel. (n = 4x = 28. New ploidv levels are reported for Phalaris aquatica L. (n = x = 7, Agrostis barbuligera Stapf var. barbuligera (n = 2x = 14 and n = 4x = 28 and A.  lachnantha Nees var.  lachnantha (n = 3x = 21.

  13. A Retrospective Quantitative Assessment of Trichloroethylene Exposure of Workers at Aircraft Maintenance Facilities at Hill Air Force Base Through the Use of Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    industrial metal cleaning applications. Other uses are found in the electronics industry, in dry-cleaning and textile treatment processes, and the 7... neoplasia (Steinberg, 1993:137). Steinberg and DeSesso also note that the aforementioned sequence of events occurs when high doses of chloral hydrate...1990:766): C = [S/(27i x D x x)] [exp(-u x y 21(4 x D x x))] [exp(-u x z2/(4 x D x x))] (4) where: u = cross draft velocity in the x direction Most

  14. Chemical Composition and Acceptability of Rain Damaged, Field Dried Alfalfa Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Araque, Cesar Augusto, H.

    1984-01-01

    Water was applied to swaths of cut alfalfa forage with oscillating sprinklers to stimulate rain damage to field drying alfalfa hay to determine the changes in chemical composition, loss of yield, and acceptability of rain damaged hay to sheep. An additional objective was to develop models to estimate yield losses form experimental hay. The experimental hay was prepared with a 2x2x4x4x2 factorial design. The factors were two different cuttings (July and September), two width of swath (3.05 m a...

  15. Retrato. Hombre de cuerpo entero, con barba, bigote y sombrero. Manuel Bartolomé Cossío. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Padro

    2010-01-01

    1 fot.; papel; imagen 17,4 x 24,8 cm. - Retrato. Hombre de cuerpo entero, con barba, bigote y sombrero. Manuel Bartolomé Cossío, pedagogo krausista de la Institición Libre de Enseñanza. Madrid. (Gelatina D. O. P. texturada montada sobre cartulina, medida total 17,4 x 24,8. Negativo totalmente retocado. Leve arruga en ángulo superior izquierdo. Sello impreso del fotógrafo en margen inferior derecho de cartulina: "Padró, Huertas 70 - Madrid" y en reverso: "Padró. Estudio de pintura. Galería fo...

  16. BER Analysis Of IEEE802.11n MIMO System Using MMSE And ZF Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Lwin Oo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the increasing demand of higher data rate for telecommunication the IEEE802.11n standard was constituted in 2009. The most important character of the standard is MIMO-OFDM which not only improves the throughput but also the spectrum efficiency and channel capacity. And in wireless communication the role of MIMO detectors plays an important part to remove inter-symbol interference ISI caused by multipath fading channel. In this paper the BER performance of IEEE 802.11n for 3x2 4x2 and 4x3 antennas are compared using MMSE and ZF detectors in Matlab Simulink.

  17. Graphics shaders theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Graphics Shaders: Theory and Practice is intended for a second course in computer graphics at the undergraduate or graduate level, introducing shader programming in general, but focusing on the GLSL shading language. While teaching how to write programmable shaders, the authors also teach and reinforce the fundamentals of computer graphics. The second edition has been updated to incorporate changes in the OpenGL API (OpenGL 4.x and GLSL 4.x0) and also has a chapter on the new tessellation shaders, including many practical examples. The book starts with a quick review of the graphics pipeline,

  18. Oxidation of cyclic amines by molybdenum(II) and tungsten(II) halocarbonyls, [M(CO)4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br)

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Mbuvi; C.O. Onindo; N.T. Muriithi; D.M. Andala

    2013-01-01

    The molybdenum(II) and tungsten(II) halocarbonyls, [M(CO)4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br) react with a large excess of the nitrogen bases, 1-methylpyrrolidine, 1-methylpiperidine, 1-ethylpiperidine and 2-ethylpiperidine to give aminecarbonyl complexes of the type M(CO)3L3 (L= alkylamine). Excess piperidine reacts with the tungsten halocarbonyls, [W(CO)4X2]2 (X = Cl, Br), to give the trans isomer of the complex, W(CO)3(C5H11N)3. The halogens were recovered as the amminium salts, amine, HX. The ox...

  19. Maritime Domain Awareness: Assessment of Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    AT3 X X Y AT4 X Y AT5 Y AT6 X Y Disseminate DT1 X Y DT2 Y DT3 X X X Y DT4 ...nate DT1 X Y DT2 Y DT3 X X X Y DT4 X Y DT5 X X Y DT6 X Y DT7 X Y DT8 X X X Y Observe & Orient Act Decide F; P; E; C; B F; P; E; C; B F; P; E; C; B F; P

  20. Connecting The Non-Singular Origin of the Universe, The Vacuum Structure and The Cosmological Constant Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Labrana, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    We consider a non-singular origin for the Universe starting from an Einstein static Universe, the so called "emergent universe" scenario, in the framework of a theory which uses two volume elements $\\sqrt{-{g}}d^{4}x$ and $\\Phi d^{4}x$, where $\\Phi $ is a metric independent density, used as an additional measure of integration. Also curvature, curvature square terms and for scale invariance a dilaton field $\\phi$ are considered in the action. The first order formalism is applied. The integrat...

  1. Creating the Universe Without a Singularity and the Cosmological Constant Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, E. I.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a non singular origin for the Universe starting from an Einstein static Universe in the framework of a theory which uses two volume elements $\\sqrt{-{g}}d^{4}x$ and $\\Phi d^{4}x$, where $\\Phi $ is a metric independent density, also curvature, curvature square terms, first order formalism and for scale invariance a dilaton field $\\phi$ are considered in the action. In the Einstein frame we also add a cosmological term that parametrizes the zero point fluctuations. The resulting eff...

  2. Design Analysis of a Prepackaged Nuclear Power Plant for an Ice Cap Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-15

    Carbon Steel - C-1015 (f-- 7.ÖU gm/cm3) Carbon 0.15^ by weight Manganese 0.^3 Phosphorus 0.018 Sulphur 0.031 Silicon 0.17 Cobalt 0.01 Iron (by...2.69 6.2 x 10-k 1.4 x IQ Ŗ ^U) 3.98 x 10c 5.57 x 10k 91.44 ld2,88 Ba(b ) H*^, Btu/ln. 3-8ec 3.6 6.7 5.63 x 10 1.4? x 10 •10 •11 From 2nd 3

  3. I-spline Smoothing for Calibrating Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Jihoon; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    We proposed the I-spline Smoothing approach for calibrating predictive models by solving a nonlinear monotone regression problem. We took advantage of I-spline properties to obtain globally optimal solutions while keeping the computational cost low. Numerical studies based on three data sets showed the empirical evidences of I-spline Smoothing in improving calibration (i.e.,1.6x, 1.4x, and 1.4x on the three datasets compared to the average of competitors-Binning, Platt Scaling, Isotonic Regression, Monotone Spline Smoothing, Smooth Isotonic Regression) without deterioration of discrimination.

  4. Evolution of genome size in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J Spencer; Pepper, Alan E; Hall, Anne E; Chen, Z Jeffrey; Hodnett, George; Drabek, Janice; Lopez, Rebecca; Price, H James

    2005-01-01

    Brassicaceae, with nearly 340 genera and more than 3350 species, anchors the low range of angiosperm genome sizes. The relatively narrow range of DNA content (0.16 pg Lepidium virginicum and Brassica rapa. Branches in the phylogenetic tree that represent probable evolutionary increases in genome size terminate in Arabidopsis halleri, A. lyrata, Arabis hirsuta, Capsella rubella, Caulanthus heterophyllus, Crucihimalaya, Lepidium sativum, Sisymbrium and Thlaspi arvense. Branches within one clade containing Brassica were identified that represent two ancient ploidy events (2x to 4x and 4x to 6x) that were predicted from published comparative mapping studies.

  5. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  6. Validation of the Operating and Support Cost Model for Avionics Automatic Test Equipment (OSCATE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    model has been applied in acquisitions, a "road map " of the sources for the individual variables and equation costs was not available. If available, it...would have greatly simplified the data collection effort due to the commonality of a num- ber of variables. The necessary "road map " was developed in...FORNAT(2-4X,-TRUSW//4X,UUUC-,5X,"DNDNEANW ,6X,h.XBO,6X, 54003 iAU-,9X,-STK,6X,5PIPE-p2X,"TOTCOND-//) 5410 Do 530 NUZI ,I 5420 PRINT 520,XTRU(NU,1),(TRUNAT

  7. Produtividade e pseudoperfilhamento do alho influenciados pelo nitrogênio, potássio e cobertura morta

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Espíndola Trani; Mônica Sartori de Camargo; Dulcinéia Elizabete Foltran; Rúter Hiroce; Arruda,Flávio B.; Haiko Enok Sawazaki

    2008-01-01

    Os alhos nobres vernalizados apresentam tendência ao pseudoperfilhamento, podendo ser influenciados pelo nitrogênio, potássio e cobertura vegetal, mas há poucos estudos sobre o assunto. O experimento foi realizado em Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, textura média, em Campinas-SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 x 2, composto de quatro doses de N (0; 50; 100 e 150 kg ha-1), quatro doses de K(2)0 (0; 50; 100 e 150 kg ha-1), dois sistemas de manejos ...

  8. Qualidade de grãos de arroz irrigado colhidos com diferentes graus de umidade em função da aplicação de fungicida

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Mack Teló; Enio Marchesan; Rafael Bruck Ferreira; Alessandro Dal’Col Lúcio; Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi Sartori; Diogo Machado Cezimbra

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar o efeito de fungicida aplicado na parte aérea das plantas, na quantidade de grãos inteiros de cultivares de arroz irrigado colhidos com diferentes graus de umidade. O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 2007/08 e 2008/09, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial, com cultivo em faixas (4x4x6) e quatro repetições. O fator principal, em faixas, foi composto por quatro cultivares de arroz irrigado: 'BR-IRGA 409', 'IR...

  9. Intertwined Electronic and Structural Phase Transitions in the In/Si(111) Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiandong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lee, G. [Inha University, Korea; Plummer, E Ward [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    The structural (4 x 1) to (8 x 2) transition and the electronic metal to semimetal transition at the In/Si interface are studied with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Both transitions are gradual, resulting in a complex domain structure in the transition temperature regime. At these intermediate temperatures, the metallic (4 x 1) and semimetallic (8 x 2) domains coexist with each other and with new nanophases. By probing the two intertwined but distinguishable transitions at the atomic level, the interaction between different phases is visualized directly.

  10. Genetic characterization of Kyrgyzstan fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca germplasm for use in semi-arid low-maintenance turf applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca Shleidcher ex. Gaudin (2n = 2x-4x) is native to heavily grazed, cold, semi-arid, Asian rangelands. However, its potential for low-maintenance turf applications in the semi-arid western United States and its relatedness to other agriculturally important Festuca species ...

  11. CARess, a gentle touch informs the driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    A prototype of Human Machine Interface (HMI) used to de- liver information to the driver in cars is described in this paper. The de- livery of information is based on the Informative Interruptive Cue (IIC) approach. The interface is a matrix of 4 x 3 vibrating motors, controlled through a real-ti...

  12. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0046: Multiscale Modeling of Composite Structures Subjected to Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    reinforced composites, cyclic loading, fatigue loading, spatial scale effects, X-ray radiography , X-ray computed tomography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...5 3.1.4 X-ray Radiography ......................................................................................... 5...Subjected to Cyclic Loading ................................................................................................ 50 24 Quasi-isotropic Virtual

  13. Nitrogen fertilisation of weeping love grass (Eragrostis curvula) at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field trials on the nitrogen fertilization of the Ermelo cultivar of Eragrostis curvula conducted over seven years were collated and reviewed. Dry matter yields in tons obtained from these trials, excluding first year results, were used to derive the regression equation y = 3.9x - 0.4 x squared + 1.3 for the yield response to ...

  14. Reliability and factorial validity of agility tests for soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporis, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Milanovic, Luka; Vucetic, Vlatko

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and factorial validity of agility tests used in soccer. One hundred fifty (n = 150), elite, male, junior soccer players, members of the First Junior League Team, volunteered to participate in the study. The slalom test (ST) sprint 4 x 5 m (S4 x 5) and sprint 9-3-6-3-6-9 m with 180 degree turns (S180 degrees) tests had a greater reliability coefficient (alpha = 0.992, 0.979, and 0.976), whereas the within-subject variation ranged between 2.9 and 5.6%. The mentioned 6 agility tests resulted in the extraction of 2 significant components. The S4 x 5 test had the lowest correlation coefficient with the first component (r = 0.38), whereas the correlation coefficients of the other 5 agility tests were higher than 0.63. The T-test (TT) showed statistically significant differences between the defenders and midfielders (p agility tests used in this study, the SBF, TT, and S180 degrees are the most reliable and valid tests for estimating the agility of soccer players. According to the results of the study, the TT proved to be the most appropriate for estimating the agility of defenders, the SBF, and S180 degrees for estimating the agility of midfielders, whereas the S4 x 5 test can be used for estimating the agility of attackers.

  15. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  16. Population genetic structure based on SSR markers in alfalfa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1988). Cultivated alfalfa is autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) (McCoy and Bingham 1988), cross-pollinated (allogamous) and seed propagated. Severe inbreeding depression and tetrasomic inheritance make it dif- ficult to carry out many types of population-genetic stud- ies in this species. Therefore, breeding approaches to de-.

  17. On the Benefit of Forward Error Correction at IEEE 802.11 Link Layer Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nee, Floris; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    This study examines the error distribution of aggregated MPDUs in 802.11n networks and whether or not forward error correction like raptor coding at the link layer would be useful in these networks. Several experiments with Qualcomm 4x4 802.11n hardware were performed. Two devices were used in a

  18. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  19. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the first two specific insect myosuppressin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Hauser, Frank

    2003-01-01

    expressed the coding regions of the two corrected receptor genes in Chinese hamster ovary cells and found that each of them coded for a receptor that could be activated by low concentrations of Drosophila myosuppressin (EC50,4 x 10(-8) M). The insect myosuppressins are decapeptides that generally inhibit...

  20. Structures of a CO adlayer on a Pt(100) electrode in HClO4 solution studied by in situ STM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Mitsuru; Ohkanda, Takaharu; Yoneyama, Toshiki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2005-06-07

    We have obtained the first in situ STM atomic images of a CO adlayer on a Pt(100)-(1 x 1) electrode in 0.1 M HClO(4) solution, exhibiting a phase transition from c(6 x 2)-10CO to c(4 x 2)-6CO at E > 0.3 V vs. RHE.

  1. Tracking of wild allele introgressions in a peanut chromosome segment substitution line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated peanut arose from the hybridization of the diploids Arachis duranensis (A genome progenitor) and Arachis ipaensis (B genome progenitor), followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling to yield the current allotetraploid state (AABB; 2n=4x=40). This genetic heritage, short period since polyp...

  2. Fixação de frutos de limeiras ácidas 'Tahiti' aneladas e tratadas com ácido giberélico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira; Dalmo Lopes De Siqueira; Luiz Carlos Chamum Salomão; Paulo Roberto Cecon

    2010-01-01

    ... a abscisão de estruturas florais e o pegamento de frutos em limeira ácida 'Tahiti'. Para as variáveis relacionadas à abscisão de estruturas reprodutivas, o esquema experimental foi em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com o fatorial 4 x 3 nas parcelas...

  3. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF AN ADVANCED INTERSTITIAL PREGNANCY BY SEQUENTIAL SYSTEMIC AND LOCAL-ADMINISTRATION OF METHOTREXATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEK, A; BROEKMANS, FJ; VERHEIJEN, RHM; SCHATS, R

    A patient is presented with an advanced interstitial pregnancy, diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound and confirmed by laparoscopy, Amenorrhoea at the time of diagnosis was 57 days, Methotrexate was given systemically (4x50 mg i.m.), Because of persisting viability of the fetus, systemic methotrexate

  4. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ni doped spinel LiNi (subx)Mn (sub2-x)O(sub)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) cathode materials for Li-Ion battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn(sub2)O(sub4) and Ni doped LiNixMn(sub2-x)O(sub)4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using...

  6. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Ni Doped Spinel LiNixMn2-xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn2O4 and Ni doped LiNixMn2-xO4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using the solution...

  7. Functional Paraganglioma: A Rare Conus‑cauda Lesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traumatic injury, disk herniation, spinal stenosis, spinal tumors, infectious conditions, and accidental causes by medical intervention (iatrogenic causes). .... Figure 4: X-ray of the Dorso-lumbar region showing significant scalloping of posterior margin of L1 vertebral bodies and their posterior elements. Figure 2: T2W axial ...

  8. Effect of Tillage and Mulch Combination on Soil Physical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tillage method and mulching on selected soil physical properties and performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was studied in rainforest zone of South West Nigeria. Treatments were 4 x 2 factorial combination of tillage methods (zero tillage, manual clearing, heap, ridge), 12t/ha dry plant residue mulch, and ...

  9. The Indian Ocean Nodule Field: Petrotectonic evolution and ferromanganese deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Ghosh, A

    and 49 Ma under three variable spreading conditions. Since two decades, an area 0.4x106 km super(2) has been surveyed and a huge geophysical data set and geological samples were collected. Several seamounts, hills and ridge-normal and ridge...

  10. Combining ability and heterotic relationships between CIMMYT and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inbred lines C2 and C6 were good general combiners for plant height and days to silking, respectively. Hybrids E4 x C2 and E5 x C3 showed superior SCA effects for grain yield while few other combinations showed desirable SCA effects for days to anthesis, ear and plant heights. The results of this study indicated potential ...

  11. AN X-RAY-DIFFRACTION STUDY ON THE TEMPERATURE AND CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION DEPENDENCE OF THE MODULATION WAVE-VECTOR IN [(CH3)(4)N]2ZNCL4-XBRX COMPOUNDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOGELS, LJP; MEEKES, H; DEBOER, JL

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the behaviour of the modulation wave vector in [(CH3)(4)N]2ZnCl4-xBrx compounds as a function of composition (x) and temperature. We compare the results of this x-ray study with those of morphological experiments. The two results are quite well correlated, showing several

  12. Repair of class IV Ellis Fracture in the Permanent Central Incisor with a Crown Restoration and Fiberglass Post

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dian Erlinda; Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2017-01-01

    ....5,6 Traumatized anterior teeth need both functional and aesthetic treatments, with metal fused to a porcelain crown with a fiberglass post being the preferred material for aesthetic reasons. [...]a glass fiber post (FibreKleer™ 4x, number 1.5...

  13. Leaf Chlorophyll Content and Tuberous Root Yield of Cassava in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field trials were established in 1996 and 1997 to assess genotypic variability of four cassava (Manihot esculanta) cultivars for adaptability in the inland valley in terms of leaf chlorophyll content and tuberous root yield, using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four replications arranged along the toposequence.

  14. Giemsa C-banding Karyotypes of Two Subspecies of Hordeum brevisubulatum from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R.

    1984-01-01

    C-banding patterns ofH. brevisubulatum subsp.brevisubulatum (2x) and subsp.turkestanicum (4x) had conspicuous telomeric C-bands in at least one chromosome arm with a minor difference in average band size between subspecies. Other conspicuous bands were few in number as in other taxa of the specie...

  15. Karyotype studies on Tagetes erecta L. and Tagetes patula L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karyotypes of nine Tagetes erecta L. accessions and three Tagetes patula L. accessions were studied. The chromosome numbers of T. erecta and T. patula were 2n=2x=24 and 2n=4x=48, respectively. The karyotype formulae of T. erecta L. 'Scarletade' and 'Perfection Yellow' are 2n=2x=24=4sm+20m; '9901AB' and ...

  16. 78 FR 53174 - Agency Forms Submitted for OMB Review, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... lost shall constitute sufficient evidence unless there is conflicting evidence. Further, under 20 CFR... qualifying earnings in the applicable base year. In addition, to qualify for extended or accelerated benefits...; Form ID-4U, Advising of Service/Earnings Requirements for Unemployment Benefits; Form ID-4X, Advising...

  17. 78 FR 38412 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... work on any day claimed and did not receive income such as vacation pay or pay for time lost shall... Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (RUIA), a railroad employee must have certain qualifying earnings in..., Advising of Service/Earnings Requirements for Unemployment Benefits; Form ID-4X, Advising of Service...

  18. Sobre los galicismos hispánicos del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Mira Rueda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de la obra de Curell Aguilà, Diccionario de galicismos del español peninsular contemporáneo (Estrasburgo, Éditions de Linguistique et de Philologie, colección “Bibliothèque de Linguistique Romane” 5, 2009. 524 pp. ISBN: 978-2-9518355-4-X.

  19. Induced Chromosome Doubling of Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum propinquum Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (2n=2x=20) and S. propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. (2n=2x=20) have a significantly higher degree of interfertility than S. bicolor and S. halepense (L.) Pers. (2n=4x=40), which occurs rarely and results in largely sterile triploids (2n=3x=30). Interspecific hybridization betwe...

  20. Nitrogen fertilization effects on sorghum forage yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn. This study was a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged in a 4 x 8 factorial...

  1. A 3D porous lanthanide-fumarate framework with water hexamer occupied cavities, exhibiting a reversible dehydration and rehydration procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2006-02-14

    [Sm2(fumarate)3(H2O)4] x 3 H2O, a new porous pillared layer framework with 0D cavities for the accommodation of chair-like hexameric water clusters, possesses three kinds of fumarate ligand with their two COO ends adopting different coordination modes and shows reversible de- and re-hydration behavior.

  2. Protoplasting impact on polyketide activity and characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of protoplasting and protoplast regeneration on antibiotic activity, transfer of biosynthesis encoding genes in local Streptomyces spp. CN207 was studied. The frequency of regenerated protoplasts in the lag phase was 1.7x103 CFU/ml, in the beginning of the exponential phase 0.4x102 CFU/ml, in the ...

  3. Leaf size and surface characteristics of Betula papyrifera exposed to elevated CO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanna Riikonen; Kevin E. Percy; Minna Kivimaenpaa; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil D. Nelson; Elina Vapaavuori; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    Betula papyrifera trees were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 (1.4 x ambient), O3 (1.2 x ambient) or CO2 + O3 at the Aspen Free-air CO2 Enrichment Experiment. The treatment effects on leaf surface characteristics were studied...

  4. Bidirectional Four-Wave Mixing in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: Theory and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Buxens, Alvaro A.; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    ) is theoretically predicted for bit rates of 10, 20 and 40 Gb/s and is shown to be in agreement with measurements performed at 10 and 20 Gb/s. Measurements of the clear/drop functionality using the bidirectional technique show excellent performance for a 4 x 10 Gb/s signal and is again in good agreement...

  5. Drought-resistant of nectarine varieties and forms (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. with the sign of male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Іващенко

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought-resistance of 15 nectarine varieties and forms with a sign of male infertility is studied. The research identified genotypes with varying degrees of drought-resistance. The greatest degree of drought-resistance demonstrated the form 33-3-1, 512-86,41-15-2, and grade Kul'dzhinskiy 4x, Krymtsuht, Elbertaziya.

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Multibeam Bathymetry , W00216 USVI 2011 , Seafloor Characterization of the US Caribbean - Nancy Foster - NF-11-1 (2011), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a GeoTIFF with 4x4 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of a sharply sloping swath of the St. John Shelf, a selected portion of seafloor...

  7. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to assess dry matter production and partitioning in relation to root yield was conducted in 3 positions along inland valley toposequence using 4 x 4 Latin square design. Dry matter partitioning differed among cultivars, ...

  8. Effect on School Language in Assessment of Achievement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eric Wilmot

    4×2×2 pre-test, post–test experimental design with a control group was used in which two hundred ..... Research Design. A 4x2x2 pre-test, post-test randomized factorial group design was used for the study in which there were three experimental groups and one control group. ... Research Instruments and their Validation.

  9. Inherited coding variants at the CDKN2A locus influence susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Wenjian

    2015-01-01

    in CDKN2A associated with the development of ALL at genome-wide significance (rs3731249, P = 9.4 x 10-23, odds ratio = 2.23). Functional studies indicate that this hypomorphic variant results in reduced tumour suppressor function of p16INK4A, increases the susceptibility to leukaemic transformation...

  10. Influence of Nd substitution on thermoelectric power of Zn–Mg ferrite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    substitution on thermoelectric power of. Zn–Mg ferrite system. B P LADGAONKAR, P N VASAMBEKAR and A S VAINGANKAR*. Department of Electronics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, India. MS received 26 August 1999; revised 17 January 2000. Abstract. Polycrystalline ferrites, ZnxMg1 – xFe2 – yNdyO4 (x ...

  11. Efficacy of Reality Therapy and Cognitive Coping Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of Reality Therapy and Cognitive Coping Behaviour Training and their combination in handling psychological adjustment problems of the empty nesters after retirement. The study adopted the pre-test, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design using a 4x2 factorial matrix.

  12. Numerical study of a Projected Hubbard Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De

    The extension of a generalized Hubbard model, recently introduced by A. Montorsi and M. Rasetti, is studied by means of numerical diagonalization, Quantum Monte Carlo and variational methods. Exact results for lattices up to 4 x 4 are presented. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations reproduce our exact

  13. Vibrational Spectroscopy of the CCI[subscript 4]?[subscript 1] Mode: Effect of Thermally Populated Vibrational States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, James D.; Wetterer, Anna M.; Cochran, Rea M.; Valente, Edward J.; Mayer, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous article on CCl[subscript 4] in this "Journal," we presented an investigation of the fine structure of the symmetric stretch of carbon tetrachloride (CCl[subscript 4]) due to isotopic variations of chlorine in C[superscript 35]Cl[subscript x][superscript 37]Cl[subscript 4-x]. In this paper, we present an investigation of…

  14. A routine test for the relative susceptibility of potato genotypes with resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.; Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.

    2016-01-01

    The population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on eight potato genotypes was compared to the susceptible cv. Desiree in four glasshouse experiments. The initial nematode densities consisted of log series 2x , with −4 < x < 8. Seinhorst’s logistic model was fitted to the final population

  15. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Multibeam Bathymetry , W00216 USVI 2011 , Seafloor Characterization of the US Caribbean - Nancy Foster - NF-11-1 (2011), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a GeoTIFF with 4x4 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of a sharply sloping swath of the St. John Shelf, a selected portion of seafloor...

  16. Effects of malting conditions on the properties of malt flour from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malting conditions on some biochemical and functional properties of malt flours of grains of four selected maize cultivars was studied in a 3x4x5 factorial design. The studied factors were: the hydration levels of the gains prior to germination (30%, 45%, 60%), the maize cultivars used (CMS 8501, CMS 8704, ...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fertilization and occasional genetic recombination. (Tesfaye Tessema, 1991; Harlan, 1971; Vavilov,. 1951). This may have been favoured greatly to gene exchange and reassortrnent in the variation of. Ethiopian 4x wheat. The fact that the with-in accession variation (Gst) for the landraces is relatively lower compared to ...

  18. Arthroscopy of septic carpitis in donkeys ( Equus asinus ) | Elkasapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental septic arthritis was induced in the radiocarpal joint of 18 donkeys by intra-articular injection of Staphylococcus aureus (3-4X106 CFU). The inoculated animals were divided into three groups (6 donkeys in each group). The arthroscopic examination was carried out before induction of septic carpitis and 3 days ...

  19. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part... milepost 48.422 near Fergus Falls, and milepost 47.60 near Hoot Lake, in Otter Tail County, Minn.\\1\\ The...

  20. Structures Flight Test Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    to . . 3.5.4 X-RAY Deep voids and flaws can be found in virtually any material through this process. Consid- erable skill and expensive equipment is...external stores are most common. It will be obvious whether a vertical, lateral or longitudinal excitation is best, especially ULZtL,’.,i~ aULa 1 alaay. [i

  1. Molecular cloning of a functional allatostatin gut/brain receptor and an allatostatin preprohormone from the silkworm Bombyx mori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas; Lenz, C; Cazzamali, G

    2001-01-01

    on the addition of 4 x 10(-9)M Bombyx A-type allatostatins with a second messenger cascade (measured as bioluminescence), showing that BAR is a functional A-type allatostatin receptor. Southern blots suggest that Bombyx has at least one other BAR-related gene in addition to the BAR gene described in this paper...

  2. 65NM sub-threshold 11T-SRAM for ultra low voltage applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Wisland, Dag T.; Aunet, Snorre

    simulated results. The circuit was simulated for supply voltages from 0.2 V to 0.35 V verifying the robustness of the proposed circuit for different supply voltages. The simulations show a significant improvement in SNM and a 4X improvement in read speed still maintaining a satisfactory write noise margin...

  3. Agro. no 1 June Latest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    purpose tree on agricultural farm land and as a .... The design was a 4 x 4 factorial combination replicated three times. The pots ..... Promote Sustainable Forest Management(ed (s) Ciccarese, L. and Finno, A.) Rome,. Italy. International Union of Forest ...

  4. Modification of silicon nitride and silicon carbide surfaces for food and biosensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) is a robust insulating material widely used for the coating of microdevices: its high chemical and mechanical inertness make it a material of choice for the reinforcement of fragile microstructures (e.g. suspended microcantilevers, micro-fabricated

  5. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.T-Lymphocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.T-Lymphocytes mm9 Input control Blood T-Lymphocytes SRX484257,SRX4...X132017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.T-Lymphocytes.bed ...

  6. A Warm Magnet for the ALICE Muon Arm - Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, Detlef; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    The ALICE detector is extended in the forward direction by a large dipole magnet of Å 4 x 4 m2 aperture. This report describes the conceptual design of this magnet with resistive coils under the assumption that part of the UA1 - NOMAD magnet can be re-used. A first cost optimization for the coils is also included.

  7. On the nature of iron-chromium oxides in stainless steel steelmaking slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteazzi, P.; Magrini, M.; Ramous, E.

    1986-02-01

    A number of slags from electric steelmaking production of AISI 420 and AISI 304 steels, were examined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The slag samples were taken before and after oxygen blowing. The slag constitution showed the presence of a metallic part, MO mixed oxide and Fe-Cr spinel (Fe2+ Fe{x/3+} Cr2-xO4' x<1).

  8. Metingen van TNT in Gebouw El van de Bewapeningswerkplaatsem der Koninklijke Marine (TNT-Measurements in Building El of the Araments-workshop of the Royal Dutch Navy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    lucht constant open staan. De ruimte heeft een aftnering van 5 x 4 x 3 m. Via een grof filter in de uitspuirinstallatie en een centrifuge filter worden...adsorptiebuizen werden elk geextraheerd met 1 ml acetonitril. Het stof van de vloeren werden met een zeef (maasgrootte 1 num) gescheiden in grof en fijn

  9. Dissecting the sea wheatgrass genome to transfer biotic stress resistance and abiotic stress tolerance into wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat production is facing numerous challenges from biotic and abiotic stresses. Alien gene transfer has been an effective approach for wheat germplasm enhancement. Sea wheatgrass (SWG) (Thinopyrum junceiforme, 2n = 4x = 28, genomes J1J1J2J2) is a distant relative of wheat and a relatively untapped ...

  10. Personality and Dutch emigrants' reactions to acculturation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Winny; Van der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    2006-01-01

    This experimental questionnaire study examined individual differences in affective and normative reactions to acculturation strategies. A sample of 265 Dutch emigrants with a dual cultural background read scenarios describing the experiences of an emigrant. Eight (4 x 2) different scenario versions

  11. Dynamics of MODIS evapotranspiration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available dependent on rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in 4 climatically different regions of South Africa. Average ET in South Africa (2000–2012) was estimated to be 303 mm·a-1 or 481.4 x 109 m3·a1 (14% of PET and 67% of rainfall), mainly in the form...

  12. Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...

  13. Page 1 Electrons Magnetic Fields in the Galaxy 279 Table II that the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus in the North Halo direction, thc contribution of radio emission comes mainly from the Halc. Assuming, therefore, a value LH = 4x10 cm. for the Halo towards the North Galactic pole, We obtain a magnetic ficld. (H) = 2x10 Gauss to get the best fit to the radio brightness distribution. (Fig. 3 a) using the electron spectrum as ...

  14. Localized chiasmata and meiotic nodules in the tetraploid onion Allium porrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stack, S M; Roelofs, D

    Allium porrum L. (cultivated leek) (2n = 4x = 32) is a fertile tetraploid that forms bivalents with pericentric chiasmata at metaphase I. To investigate the basis of this unusual behavior for a tetraploid, we describe the karyotype, axial cores, synaptonemal complexes (SCs), and meiotic nodules of

  15. 78 FR 48864 - Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Manufacturing Extension...) package rooftop units (gasheat/electric cool) at the City of La Ca ada Flintridge City Hall building...-leveled using sloped 4x lumber to match the original rooftop duct work bottom layout and be attached to...

  16. On generalizations of two Ramanujan's summations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Nidhi; Prakash, Om; Rathie, Arjun K.

    2016-05-01

    As pointed out by Professor Berndt that the following two interesting summations due to Ramanujan [1] 1 +(x/1! ) 2x/3 x +(x/(x-1 ) 2 ! ) 2x/(x -1 ) 3 x (3 x -1 ) +…=Γ/3(2 x +1 ) Γ3(x +1 )Γ (3 x +1 ) 1 +x/1 ! (x/-1 ) (x +1 ) x/(4 x -1 ) +x/(x -1 ) 2 ! (x/-1 )(x -2 ) (x +1 )(x +2 ) x/(x -1 ) (4 x -1 )(4 x -2 ) +…=8/Γ3(3 x +1 )Γ (x +1 ) 9 Γ3(2 x +1 )Γ (4 x +1 ) can be obtained quite simply by employing the classical Saalschutz's summation theorem. Recently an interesting extension of the classical Saalschutzs summation theorem has been given by Rakha and Rathie. The aim of this paper is to provide entensions of the above summation formulae due to Ramanujan. The results obtained in this paper are interesting, easily established and useful.

  17. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber harvesting machines amount was reduced to 20 tractors (4 x 4 and assembled shovel), 133 skidding winches, 5 tractors with equipment of snow cleaner, 38 forklifts, 18 loaders, 30 skylines, 61 agricultural tractors, 3 agricultural tractors with shovel, 67 trucks, 1 barking machines as at 2009. In spite of existence of ...

  18. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates II : Implications for remote detection by colonizing zooplankters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2001-01-01

    estimates of size-dependent aggregate leakage rates of amino acids, we estimate that a threshold sensitivity to amino acids of 0.4 x 10(-7) M is required to account for observed abundances of colonizers. This is consistent with knowledge of the amino acid concentrations needed to elicit behavioral responses...

  19. SChiSM: creating interactive web page annotations of molecular structure models using chime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammer, S A

    2000-07-01

    SChiSM is a program for creating World Wide Web (WWW) pages that include embedded interactive molecular models using the browser plug-in, CHIME:, for visualization. The program works with Netscape 4.x and Internet Explorer 5 browsers to facilitate Chime/Rasmol scripting control of a molecular display.

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Slaughter slab 110 5 4.55. Commercial poultry farm 110 5 4.55. Total 330 21 6.4. X = 3.662, p = 0.210. TABLE II: Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in some avian species in Kano. Metropolis, Nigeria. Bird specie Total number of faecal Number of positive Occurrence samples examined samples %. Turkeys 16 3 18.75.

  1. Lahkunud 1999

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Ilmar Torn (10. I), Leopold Ennosaar (21. I), Voldemar Vaga (23. II), Ilmar Laasi (15. VIII), Voldemar Peil (17. X), Ludvig Kruusmaa (7. XII), Aksel Vallaste (13. XII), Aldo van Eyck (1919-14. I 1999), Bernard Buffet (1928-4. X 1999), Tibor Kalman (1950-5. V 1999).

  2. Desynapsis and FDR 2N-megaspore formation in diploid potato : potentials and limitations for breeding and for the induction of diplosporic apomixis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid (2n=4x=48) plant species, which after its introduction into Europe in the 16th century has become one of the world's major food crops. The potato has traditionally been grown from

  3. Open Scenario Study, Phase I. Volume 3. Questionnaire Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Other 3 X Other 4 X Other 5 X Comments: 1. Polictial, Economic, Cultural, and Sociological Data 2. Geospatial and Enviromental ...notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not

  4. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  5. design, construction and performance analysis of a maize thresher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    ANALYSIS OF A MAIZE THRESHER FOR RURAL. DWELLER ... Keywords: thresher, performance Analysis, design, rural dweller. 1. Introduction. Maize .... bigger pulley. The length of pulley is given as L = 2x + (π/2XD + d)+(D − d)2/4x. The minimum shaft diameter is determined using the [10] code equation which states that.

  6. INITIAL ACYTOKINESIS DURING LEAF PROTOPLAST CULTURE OF DIHAPLOID AND TETRAPLOID SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM AND DIPLOID S-BULBOCASTANUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANEVERDINK, WJ; PIJNACKER, LP

    1994-01-01

    Leaf protoplasts of dihaploid (2n=2x=24) and tetraploid (2n=4x=48) Solanum tuberosum, rr, and diploid S. bulbocastanum (2n=2x=24) were cultured in liquid medium. The cultures were studied for early karyological changes during their development. Giemsa staining of spread preparations revealed

  7. Tera-OP Reliable Intelligently Adaptive Processing System (TRIPS) Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    ITs in a two-dimensional, wormhole -routed, 5x5 mesh topology. The OPN has separate control and data channels, and can deliver one 64-bit data operand...communicate through the secondary memory system, which is interconnected by the On-Chip Network (OCN). The OCN is a 4x10, wormhole -routed mesh network

  8. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  9. HARP : A submillimetre heterodyne array receiver operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, H.; Buckle, J.; Hills, R.; Bell, G.; Richer, J.; Curtis, E.; Withington, S.; Leech, J.; Williamson, R.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the key design features and performance of HARP, an innovative heterodyne focal-plane array receiver designed and built to operate in the submillimetre on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii. The 4x4 element array uses SIS detectors, and is the first

  10. All-optical wavelength multicasting with extinction ratio enhancement using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon

    2006-01-01

    All optical wavelength multicasting at 4 x 10 Gb/s with extinction ratio enhancement has been demonstrated based on pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. We show that the input signal wavelength can simultaneously convert to four different wavelengths, with a powe...

  11. Estimate for the size of the compactification radius of a one extra dimension universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pascoal, F [DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA; Oliveira, L F [CIDADE UNIV; Farina, C [INSTITUTO DE FISICA

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we use the Casimir effect to probe the existence of one extra dimension. We begin by evaluating the Casimir pressure between two plates in a M{sup 4} x S{sup 1} manifold, and then use an appropriate statistical analysis in order to compare the theoretical expression with a recent experimental data and set bounds for the compactification radius.

  12. Critical red Components for Next-Generation White LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Chun; Meijerink, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986; Liu, R.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Warm white LEDs with a high color rendering index and a low correlated color temperature have undergone rapid development. In this regard, red-emitting materials-such as fluoride phosphors, namely, A2MF6:Mn(4+) (A = K, Na, and Cs; M = Si, Ge, Zr, Sn, and Ti) and XSiF6:Mn(4+) (X = Ba or Zn),

  13. Moodne materjal / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Uusim betoonarhitektuur maailmas: Chichu Kunstimuuseum Naoshima saarel ja eramu "4x4" (arhitekt Tadao Ando), Wolfsburgi teaduskeskus Saksamaal (arhitekt Zaha Hadid), krematoorium Berliinis (arhitekt Axel Schultes), Utrechti ülikooli raamatukogu (arhitekt Wiel Arets), tuleviku betoonmaja The Concrete House (arhitektid Peter Poulet, Michael Harvey). 10 värv. ill

  14. Growth and grazing on the 'Texas brown tide' alga Aureoumbra lagunensis by the tintinnid Amphorides quadrilineata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hyatt, C.; Buskey, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    Growth and ingestion by the loricate ciliate Amphorides quadrilineata exposed to increasing dietary doses of the Texas brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis were investigated. The ciliate grew at a maximum rate of 0.38 d(-1), ingesting 0.032 ppm (similar to6.4 x 10(2) cells) prey d(-1) on a diet...

  15. FULL LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE Hassan et al. (2008) SWJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    INTRODUCTION. From hydrological statistics, the volume of water world-wide amounts to some 1.4 x 109 km3. This quantity of water should have been sufficient to meet all human needs as well as the existing supplies in order to satisfy the demands created by the rapidly increasing world population. However the current ...

  16. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  17. Enhanced Photoluminescent Properties and Crystalline Morphology of LiBaPO4:Tm3+ Phosphor through Microwave Sintering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsuan-Lin; Weng, Min-Hang; Yang, Ru-Yuan; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of the photoluminescent properties and crystalline morphology of blue emitting LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors with various concentrations (x = 0.005–0.030) of Tm3+ ions were synthesized by microwave sintering. For comparison, the LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ powders sintered at the same sintering condition but in a conventional furnace were also investigated. LiBaPO4 without second phase was formed no matter which furnace was used. More uniform grain size distributions are obtained by microwave sintering. When the concentration of Tm3+ ion was x = 0.015, the luminescence intensity reached a maximum value, and then decreased with the increases of the Tm3+ concentration due to concentration quenching effect. The microwave sintering significantly enhanced the emission intensity of LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors. Additionally, the d-d interaction is the key mechanism of concentration quenching for LiBaPO4:Tm3+. The chromaticity (x, y) for all LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors are located at (0.16, 0.05), which will be classified as a blue region. PMID:28773483

  18. Enhanced Photoluminescent Properties and Crystalline Morphology of LiBaPO4:Tm3+ Phosphor through Microwave Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Lin Lai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the photoluminescent properties and crystalline morphology of blue emitting LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors with various concentrations (x = 0.005–0.030 of Tm3+ ions were synthesized by microwave sintering. For comparison, the LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ powders sintered at the same sintering condition but in a conventional furnace were also investigated. LiBaPO4 without second phase was formed no matter which furnace was used. More uniform grain size distributions are obtained by microwave sintering. When the concentration of Tm3+ ion was x = 0.015, the luminescence intensity reached a maximum value, and then decreased with the increases of the Tm3+ concentration due to concentration quenching effect. The microwave sintering significantly enhanced the emission intensity of LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors. Additionally, the d-d interaction is the key mechanism of concentration quenching for LiBaPO4:Tm3+. The chromaticity (x, y for all LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors are located at (0.16, 0.05, which will be classified as a blue region.

  19. MIMO System Setup and Parameter Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnas, J; Shao, X.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    There is a rat race in wireless communication to achieve higher spectral efficiency. One technique to achieve this is the use of multiple antenna systems i.e. MIMO systems. In this paper we describe a wireless 4x4 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) testbed in the 2.2 GHz band including results

  20. Network Coded Cooperation Over Time-Varying Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamfroush, Hana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2014-01-01

    for WiFi using Aalborg University’s Raspberry Pi testbed. We compare our results with random linear network coding (RLNC) broadcasting schemes showing that our heuristics can provide up to 2x gains in completion time and up to 4x gains in terms of reliably serviced data packets....

  1. Simultaneous NIR/sub-mm observation of flare emission from Sagittarius A*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckart, A.; Schödel, R.; García-Marín, M.; Witzel, G.; Weiss, A.; Baganoff, F.K.; Morris, M.R.; Bertram, T.; Dovčiak, M.; Duschl, W.J.; Karas, V.; König, S.; Krichbaum, T.P.; Krips, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lu, R.-S.; Markoff, S.; Mauerhan, J.; Meyer, L.; Moultaka, J.; Mužić, K.; Najarro, F.; Pott, J.-U.; Schuster, K.F.; Sjouwerman, L.O.; Straubmeier, C.; Thum, C.; Vogel, S.N.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Zamaninasab, M.; Zensus, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Context. We report on a successful, simultaneous observation and modeling of the sub-millimeter to near-infrared flare emission of the Sgr A* counterpart associated with the super-massive (4 x 10(6) M-circle dot) black hole at the Galactic center. Aims. We study and model the physical processes

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African CropScience Journal, Vol. 12. ... The 4x hybrids are crossed with improved 2x accessions to produce secondary .... varieties. The purpose of this study is to show that banana breeding for the ... technologies can play a role in increasing banana .... Summary of seed set by clone sets in east African highland banana ...

  3. New experiment in the advertising world! / Alina Lisina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lisina, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Lätis Siguldas viidi läbi kolme reklaamiagentuuri Y&R Garage 4x4, Balta Communication'i ja Metro Leo Burnett'i nädalane seminar, mille käigus loodi ühiselt reklaam Adazhu cipsi'le. Oma teadmisi jagas reklaaminduse maailmaklassi ekspert Bob Kincey

  4. Clone-specific differences in Pragmites australis: Effects of ploidy level and geographic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D.; Lambertini, Carla; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2007-01-01

    by the geographic origin, the euploidy level (4x, 6x, 8x and 12x), and to assess differences between native and introduced clones in North America. Growth, morphology, photosynthetic characteristics, photosynthetic pigments and enzymes were measured on 11 geographically distinct clones propagated in a common...

  5. UJAS 25.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    option since it enhanced feed intake and the output and quality of faeces that could be recycled within the crop-livestock production systems. Key words: Calliandra, Centrosema, dairy cows, ... in concrete-floored stalls. Four diets were offered to cows in a 4 x 4 switchover Latin square design.The diets comprised P.

  6. Comparison of the Giemsa C-banded and N-banded karyotypes of two Elymus species, E. dentatus and E. glaucescens (Poaceae; Triticeae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, I.; Seberg, O.; Salomon, B.

    1994-01-01

    The karyotypes of Elymus dentatus from Kashmir and E. glaucescens from Tierra del Fuego, both carrying genomes S and H, were investigated by C- and N-banding. Both taxa had 2n = 4x = 28. The karyotype of E. dentatus was symmetrical with large chromosomes. It had 18 metacentric, four submetacentric...

  7. On integrability of a (2+1)-dimensional perturbed KdV equation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakovich, S Yu

    1998-01-01

    A (2+1)-dimensional perturbed KdV equation, recently introduced by W.X.Ma and B.Fuchssteiner, is proven to pass the Painleve test for integrability well, and its 4x4 Lax pair with two spectral parameters is found. The results show that the Painleve classification of coupled KdV equations by A.Karasu should be revised.

  8. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of fruits per bunch and nutritional quality of the fruits are important horticultural and breeding selection indices in Musa improvement programs. Three plantain hybrids ('30456-3', 'PITA 14' and '29525') and a landrace genotype, 'Agbagba', were evaluated for response to organic and inorganic fertilizers in a 4 x ...

  9. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospore production using liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agitation and 1 v/v/m (volume air/volume liquid.min) aeration, while only 2.4 x 108/ml were produced with M1. In addition, the microorganisms in medium M1 grew more slowly during log phase and reached an earlier plateau at 36 h fermentation. The medium containing collagen peptone and yeast extract is an excellent ...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of VIPoma in a female patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; de Groot, Gerrit H.; Schrijver, Gideon

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of VIPoma in an 83-year-old female patient, who presented with frequent and excessive diarrhoea, muscle weakness, and severe hypokalaemia. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 4x6 cm mass in the body of the pancreas. Laboratory analysis showed elevated levels of both

  11. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

    2012-01-01

    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian

  12. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 All antigens Larvae Eye-antennal discs SRX4...X209934,SRX457601 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 All antigens Larvae Eye-antennal discs SRX4...X457599,SRX386289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 All antigens Larvae Eye-antennal discs SRX4...X457601,SRX457599 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  15. The effect of reducing agents on the electronic, magnetic and electrocatalytic properties of thiol-capped Pt/Co and Pt/Ni nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, NR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic, magnetic and electrocatalytic properties of bimetallic thiol-capped Pt/Co and Pt/Ni nanoparticles were synthesised using two reducing agents, NaBH(sub4) and N(sub2)H(sub4). X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticles showed Pt...

  16. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 All antigens Larvae Eye-antennal discs SRX4...X457601,SRX386289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  17. Influence of fermentation and cowpea steaming on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and cowpea steaming can be used to improve the protein quality and quantity of fermented maize dough. In the production of maize-cowpea blends, it is important that the quality characteristics are evaluated to determine their functionality in the products. A 5x4x2x2 factorial experiment with cowpea level, ...

  18. Effects of salinity on the reproduction of Tilapia guineensis in Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The effect of salinity on reproduction of Tilapia guineensis in brackish water estuary of Niger Delta was investigated. Adult male and female T. guineensis ofrelatively uniform sizes were paired for spawning in 17ppt, 12ppt, 5ppt and Oppt salinity levels. The treatments were replicated four times in 4 x 7 completely ...

  19. The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake on the utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of supplements of cotton seed cake (CSC) on the voluntary intake and utilization of sorghum glume (SG) by the goat. was studied in a 4 x 4 Latin Square digestibility trial. The study involved a total of 12 West African dwarf goats made up of 8 dry, non-pregnant does and 4 bucks aged between 14 and 20 ...

  20. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) in tumor adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna C; Antillon, Kresta S; Jenkins, Shannon M; Janos, Sara N; Overton, Heidi N; Shoshan, Dor S; Fischer, Edgar G; Trujillo, Kristina A; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (pcancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (pcancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative biopsies, identify areas of repeat biopsy, and add molecular information to surgical margins.

  1. Practical gamma-ray spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, G.R

    2008-01-01

    ... of Photons 1.7.1 Annihilation radiation 1.7.2 Bremsstrahlung 1.7.3 Prompt gammas 1.7.4 X-rays 1.8 The Mathematics of Decay and Growth of Radioactivity 1.8.1 The decay equation 1.8.2 Growth of activity in reac...

  2. Effect of feeding Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal on the physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-03-08

    Mar 8, 2014 ... with an MOL diet produced chevon with the highest physico-chemical characteristics and consumer sensory scores. .... the green standard. Blocks of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle, measuring approximately 7 x 4 x 4 cm, were used to determine cooking loss and shear force values.

  3. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  4. bioelectricity production from cassava mill effluents using microbial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-04-02

    Apr 2, 2016 ... materials such as organic wastes and wastewaters that can constitute environmental pollution if not disposed without proper .... water. The salt bridge was fixed between washers and clamped in the hollow tube (50 mm diameter) attaching both chambers. Carbon rods (4x5cm; 10mm thickness) coated with ...

  5. Effect of fertilization regime on nutrient and plankton development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups of three such ponds measuring 9 x4x1.5m each were fertilized with chicken droppings (to obtain higher quantities of phosphorus) (treatment 1) and organic matter (to obtain higher levels of organic matter) (treatment 2). Composite water and sediment samples were collected weekly from transects of the reservoir, ...

  6. Effects of Guidance Techniques and Initial/Entry Career Maturity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    while the fourth group was exposed to a non-specific treatment (drug abuse). The design is a 4 x 2 factorial with fixed effect consisting of initial/entry career behaviour (high & low) and treatment/control groups. Data d erived from the post treatment were subjected to 2-way analysis of variance. The results of the study show ...

  7. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Ara

    . In the spirit of understanding this problem better, the thesis discusses the divergences appearing in the calculation of structure constants involving two giant and one point-like gravitons in the string theories on AdS_5 x S^5 and AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k backgrounds. Coherent state approach for the tree-level...

  8. Structural stability and hydraulic conductivity of Nkpologu sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vincent

    The 4 x 3 factorial experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Fruit fibre incorporation in .... Seed bed preparation and mulching effectively suppressed weed growth, severity and disease incidence but improved soil health through increased populations of termites, earthworms, snails,.

  9. row and intra-row spacing on land use efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ngetta Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P. O. Box 52, Lira, Uganda. Author for correspondence: ... A 4 x 4 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was used to determine performance of sunflower and soybean under four inter-row spacings. (75, 90, 105 and 120 cm) and four ...

  10. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the postharvest fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30456-3', 'PITA 14' and Agbagba) to fertilizer types (inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer and control (no fertilizer) were evaluated in 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a 4 x 3 factorial in randomized block ...

  11. The taxonomy and growth of a Crypthecodinium species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prominent characteristics of this dinoflagellate included a cingulum that did not fully encircle the motile cell, cell division in non-motile cysts, and a theca composed of thin but structured plates. Morphological analysis of flagellate cells by scanning electron microscopy revealed a Kofoid thecal plate tabulation of 4', 4a, 4'', 'X', ...

  12. Optimizing timing resolution for TOF PET detectors based on monolithic scintillation crystals using fast photosensor arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Ruud; Lohner, Herbert; Schaart, Dennis R.; van Dam, Herman T.; Seifert, Stefan; Beekman, Freek J.; Dendooven, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the time-of-flight (TOF) capability of a monolithic 20 rum x 20 mm x 12 mm LYSO crystal coupled to a Hamamatsu position-sensitive H8711-03 4x4 multi-anode photomultiplier tube. The x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the photoconversion location inside the crystal are determined using

  13. Adaptability of four cassava ( Manihot esculenta crantz ) cultivars in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava is a popular dry season crop grown to utilize residual soil moisture in inland valleys. Trials to evaluate growth rates of four cultivars (TMS 4(2) 1425, TMS 91/02324, TMS 91/02327 and Isunikankiyan) were conducted along the toposequence in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Effects of toposequence position, site, year ...

  14. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective activity of extracts of aerial parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and may be therapeutically useful as a protective agent in acute liver injury. Keywords: Bidens pilosa .... dexamethasone (4 g/mL). Cells (4 x 106 cells/ml) ..... pilosa L. (TFB) on animal liver injury and liver fibrosis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 116: ...

  15. Cations in Octahedral Sites: A Descriptor for Oxygen Electrocatalysis on Transition-Metal Spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Chao; Feng, Zhenxing; Scherer, Günther G.; Barber, James; Shao-Horn, Yang; Xu, Zhichuan J. (Nanyang); (ICL); (Oregon State U.); (TUM-CREATE); (MIT)

    2017-04-10

    Exploring efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) is critical for developing renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells, metal–air batteries, and water electrolyzers. A rational design of a catalyst can be guided by identifying descriptors that determine its activity. Here, a descriptor study on the ORR/OER of spinel oxides is presented. With a series of MnCo2O4, the Mn in octahedral sites is identified as an active site. This finding is then applied to successfully explain the ORR/OER activities of other transition-metal spinels, including MnxCo3-xO4 (x = 2, 2.5, 3), LixMn2O4 (x = 0.7, 1), XCo2O4 (X = Co, Ni, Zn), and XFe2O4 (X = Mn, Co, Ni). A general principle is concluded that the eg occupancy of the active cation in the octahedral site is the activity descriptor for the ORR/OER of spinels, consolidating the role of electron orbital filling in metal oxide catalysis.

  16. Inelastic collision rates of trapped metastable hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landhuis, D; Matos, L; Moss, SC; Steinberger, JK; Vant, K; Willmann, L; Greytak, TJ; Kleppner, D

    We report the first detailed decay studies of trapped metastable (2S) hydrogen. By two-photon excitation of ultracold H samples, we have produced clouds of at least 5x10(7) magnetically trapped 2S atoms at densities greater than 4x10(10) cm(-3) and temperatures below 100 muK. At these densities and

  17. Reduced nursing frequency during prolonged lactation in the mouse decreases milk production and increases mammary expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), but does not accelerate mammary gland remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have observed that lactating mouse dams nursed 4 times per day (4X) maintained lactation, but had lower milk yields by the weigh-suckle-weigh method, than dams nursed ad libitum (AL). Therefore, we hypothesized that decreased nursing frequency would also decrease lactation persistence, increase m...

  18. Smoked Cannabis' Psychomotor and Neurocognitive Effects in Occasional and Frequent Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (

  19. Removal of leukocytes from blood by fibre filtration. A comparison study on the performance of two commercially available filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink, H. W.; Veldman, H.; Henrichs, H. J.; Prins, H. K.; Loos, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Two different kinds of filters suitable for the almost complete removal of leukocytes from blood-cell concentrates were tested. The maximal retention of filter I was 1.9-3.4 x 10(9) leukocytes per filter, whereas filter II could retain 3.6 - 7.8 x 10(9) leukocytes per filter before the leukocyte

  20. Effects of cutting frequency and levels of nitrogen fertilizer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fertilizer-N application and cutting frequency on the herbage yield of Panicum maximum pasture were investigated in 2001 through 2004 in a sandy loam soil at Nsukka. The experiment was a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments ...