WorldWideScience

Sample records for vx vapor exposure

  1. Low-Level Effects of VX Vapor Exposure on Pupil Diameter and Cholinesterase Levels in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, B. J; Crosier, R. B; Sommerville, D. R; Jakubowski, E. M., Jr; Anthony, J. S., Jr; Scotto, J; Hulet, S. W; Whalley, C. E; Crouse, C. L; Matson, K. L; Miller, D. B

    2004-01-01

    .... Results show that the median effective dosages (ECt sub 50) for miosis are approximately an order of magnitude lower than the calculated ECt sub 50 values for both GB and GF at each of the 3 exposure durations...

  2. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process.

  3. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Hess, Zoe A; Brickhouse, Mark D; McVey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2003-01-01

    Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) has been utilized for more than a decade to sterilize clean rooms and pharmaceutical processing equipment and, quite recently, to decontaminate anthrax-ridden buildings...

  4. Evaluation of Veriox as a Skin Decontamination Product after Dermal Exposure to the Nerve Agent VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    was to determine whether Veriox® had efficacy as a decontamination product (DC) after skin exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX. This study...countermeasure, decontamination , RSDL, VX, nerve agent, cutaneous exposure, chemical warfare agent 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...invested considerable resources in developing detectors, protective garments, and products to remove and/or decontaminate chemical agent exposure on

  5. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chambers, Amanda E; Benton, Bernard J; Valdes, James J; Sekowski, Jennifer W

    2006-01-01

    .... The traditional approaches to determine OP exposure are invasive (e.g. require blood samples) laboratory-based assays that are not ideal for rapid, reliable testing in the event of a mass exposure scenario...

  6. Comparison of Four Skin Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    DC) product following cutaneous exposure to VX was affected by the DC procedure. Fur-clipped, male, unanesthetized guinea pigs were used as subjects...RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs Irwin Koplovitz Susan Schulz Julia Morgan Robert Reed Edward Clarkson C. Gary Hurst...Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs 5b

  7. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-08-01

    The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the

  8. Galantamine is a novel post-exposure therapeutic against lethal VX challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmas, Corey J.; Poole, Melissa J.; Finneran, Kathryn; Clark, Matthew G.; Williams, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of galantamine hydrobromide (GAL HBr) treatment to antagonize O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX)-induced lethality, impairment of muscle tension, and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes was assessed in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were challenged with 16.8 μg/kg VX (2LD50). One min after challenge, animals were administered 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate (ATR) and 25 mg/kg pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM). In addition, guinea pigs were given 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 10 mg/kg GAL as a post-exposure treatment immediately prior to ATR and 2-PAM. Animals were either monitored for 24-h survival, scheduled for electroencephalography (EEG) recording, or euthanized 60 min later for measurement of indirectly-elicited muscle tension in the hemidiaphragm. Post-exposure GAL therapy produced a dose-dependent increase in survival from lethal VX challenge. Optimal clinical benefits were observed in the presence of 10 mg/kg GAL, which led to 100% survival of VX-challenged guinea pigs. Based on muscle physiology studies, GAL post-exposure treatment protected the guinea pig diaphragm, the major effector muscle of respiration, from fatigue, tetanic fade, and muscular paralysis. Protection against the paralyzing effects of VX was dose-dependent. In EEG studies, GAL did not alter seizure onset for all doses tested. At the highest dose tested (10 mg/kg), GAL decreased seizure duration when administered as a post-exposure treatment 1 min after VX. GAL also reduced the high correlation associated between seizure activity and lethality after 2LD50 VX challenge. GAL may have additional benefits both centrally and peripherally that are unrelated to its established mechanism as a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI).

  9. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.; Rezk, Peter E.; Katos, Alexander M.; Wajda, Nikolai A.; Moran, Theodore S.; Steele, Keith E.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Sciuto, Alfred M.

    2007-01-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m 3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  11. Female Rats are Less Susceptible during Puberty to Lethal Effects of Percutaneous Exposure to VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    lethal dose determination for percutaneous exposure to soman and VX in guinea pigs and the effectiveness of decontamination with M291 SDK or SANDIA...di-isopropylamino) ethyl] methyl phosphonthioate) through pig , human and guinea pig skin in vitro, Toxicol. In Vitro 20 (2006) 1532–1536. [6] R... production and transepidermal water loss [TEWL]) change with age [3,14,15]. As reviewed in Ref. [28], the barrier function of the stratum corneum is

  12. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: Physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi

    2008-01-01

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 μg/kg/day, 0.05 LD 50 ) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition (∼ 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction (∼ 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures

  13. Repeated low-dose exposures to sarin, soman, or VX affect acoustic startle in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C D; Lee, R B; Moran, A V; Sipos, M L

    2016-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are known to cause behavioral abnormalities in cases of human exposures and in animal models. The behavioral consequences of single exposures to CWNAs that cause observable toxic signs are particularly well characterized in animals; however, less is known regarding repeated smaller exposures that may or may not cause observable toxic signs. In the current study, guinea pigs were exposed to fractions (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4) of a medial lethal dose (LD50) of sarin, soman, or VX for two weeks. On each exposure day, and for a post-exposure period, acoustic startle response (ASR) was measured in each animal. Although relatively few studies use guinea pigs to measure behavior, this species is ideal for CWNA-related experiments because their levels of carboxylesterases closely mimic those of humans, unlike rats or mice. Results showed that the 0.4 LD50 doses of soman and VX transiently increased peak startle amplitude by the second week of injections, with amplitude returning to baseline by the second week post-exposure. Sarin also increased peak startle amplitude independent of week. Latencies to peak startle and PPI were affected by agent exposure but not consistently among the three agents. Most of the changes in startle responses returned to baseline following the cessation of exposures. These data suggest that doses of CWNAs not known to produce observable toxic signs in guinea pigs can affect behavior in the ASR paradigm. Further, these deficits are transient and usually return to baseline shortly after the end of a two-week exposure period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Median Lethal Doses Associated with Intravenous Exposure to the Optically Pure Enantiomers of VX in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    in Guinea Pigs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wright, Linnzi K. M.; Forster, Jeffry S...intravenous exposure of adult, male guinea pigs to the individual VX enantiomers, and we compared those potencies to that for a racemic mixture. The P...highly toxic based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Guinea pig

  15. Median lethal dose determination for percutaneous exposure to soman and VX in guinea pigs and the effectiveness of decontamination with M291 SDK or SANDIA foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Edward D; Schulz, Susan M; Railer, Roy F; Smith, Kelly H

    2012-08-03

    Soman (GD) and VX are chemical warfare agents that can be absorbed through the skin. We determined the median lethal dose (MLD) for the cutaneous application of GD and VX in anesthetized haired guinea pigs and then tested the ability of a currently fielded decontamination kit, the M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK), and decontaminating foam made by SANDIA Labs to decontaminate areas that have been exposed to cutaneous applications of GD and VX. The fur of guinea pigs was clipped on the left flank 24h prior to exposure. Animals were anesthetized and 5 min later neat GD or neat VX was applied. The MLD for percutaneous exposure to GD was 11.6 mg/kg, and to VX it was 0.10mg/kg. To test the ability of the M291 SDK, either GD or VX was applied and removed 1 min later with the pads of the M291 SDK clasped in a pair of forceps and wiped across the flank of the animal. The MLDs for GD and VX removed with the M291 SDK pads were 76.9 mg/kg and 0.87 mg/kg, respectively. When neat GD or neat VX was applied and removed 1 min later in the same manner with gauze soaked in SANDIA foam (MDF-100), the MLDs were 412 mg/kg and 10.4 mg/kg respectively. These data demonstrate that GD and VX are significantly less potent when applied cutaneously than previously reported for subcutaneous injections and indicate that improvement is needed on the limited protective ratio provided by the M291 SDK. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. GCMS/MS Analyses of Biological Samples in Support of Evaluation of Toxicity Associated with Intravenous Exposure to VX Stereoisomers in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ASSOCIATED WITH INTRAVENOUS EXPOSURE TO VX STEREOISOMERS IN GUINEA PIGS ECBC-TR-1465 Disclaimer The findings in this report are not to be...VX Stereoisomers in Guinea Pigs 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) McGuire, Jeffrey M.; Wright...lung, liver, kidney, and brain) that were obtained from guinea pigs intravenously exposed to various concentrations of O-ethyl S-(2

  17. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  18. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Berg, R.M. van den; Jong, A.L. de; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless

  19. Vapor-Phase Infrared Spectral Study of Weapons-Grade O-Ethyl S-2(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    tank, across an alumina Soxhlet -shaped wick positioned in a glass holder filled with the analyte. This technique yields a saturated vapor-liquid...solutions with only two components, particularly when the two compounds are chemically similar, the use of Raoult’s law can yield predicted pressures...approaches 1, na in the lower part of the fraction in eq 2 can be ignored, and the equation can then be rearranged and combined with eq 1 to yield n

  20. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  1. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS and EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors

  2. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged from 10 to 17 degrees C, and wind velocity was 2-4 m/s. The climatic conditions were very similar on the measurement days. Based on this study it was found

  3. Efficacy studies of Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion, M291 Skin Decontamination Kit, 0.5% bleach, 1% soapy water, and Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents, part 1: guinea pigs challenged with VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braue, Ernest H; Smith, Kelly H; Doxzon, Bryce F; Lumpkin, Horace L; Clarkson, Edward D

    2011-03-01

    This report, first in a series of five, directly compares the efficacy of 4 decontamination products and Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents (SERPACWA) in the haired guinea pig model following exposure to VX. In all experiments, guinea pigs were close-clipped and given anesthesia. In the decontamination experiments, the animals were challenged with VX and decontaminated after a 2-minute delay for the standard procedure or at longer times for the delayed-decontamination experiments. Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents was applied as a thin coating (0.1 mm thick), allowed to dry for 15 minutes, and challenged with VX. After a 2-hour challenge, any remaining VX was blotted off the animal, but no additional decontamination was done. Positive control animals were challenged with VX in the same manner as the treated animals, except that they received no treatment. In addition, the positive control animals were always challenged with 5% VX in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solution, whereas the treatment animals received either neat (undiluted) VX or 5% VX in IPA solution. All animals were observed during the first 4 hours and again at 24 hours after exposure for signs of toxicity and death. The protective ratio (PR, defined as the median lethal dose [LD(50)] of the treatment group divided by the LD(50) of the untreated positive control animals) was calculated from the probit dose-response curves established for each treatment group and nontreated control animals. Significance in this report was defined as p decontamination experiments, the calculated PRs for Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), 0.5% bleach, 1% soapy water, and the M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK) were 66, 17, 16, and 1.1, respectively. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion was by far the most effective decontamination product tested and was significantly better than any of the other products. Bleach and soapy water provided equivalent and good (PR

  4. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller's earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Dorandeu, F; Daulon, S; Foquin, A; Perrier, N; Lallement, G; Breton, P

    2011-06-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µg.kg(-1) of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants.

  5. Relationship between vapor intrusion and human exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Villanacci, John F; Crain, Neil E; Corsi, Richard L; Chambers, David M; Burk, Tonia; Blount, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater has the potential to volatilize through soil into indoor air where it can be inhaled. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals living above TCE-contaminated groundwater are exposed to TCE through vapor intrusion. We examined associations between TCE concentrations in various environmental media and TCE concentrations in residents. For this assessment, indoor air, outdoor air, soil gas, and tap water samples were collected in and around 36 randomly selected homes; blood samples were collected from 63 residents of these homes. Additionally, a completed exposure survey was collected from each participant. Environmental and blood samples were analyzed for TCE. Mixed model multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine associations between TCE in residents' blood and TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas. Blood TCE concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (LOQ; ≥ 0.012 µg L(-1)) in 17.5% of the blood samples. Of the 36 homes, 54.3%, 47.2%, and >84% had detectable concentrations of TCE in indoor air, outdoor air, and soil gas, respectively. Both indoor air and soil gas concentrations were statistically significantly positively associated with participants' blood concentrations (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Geometric mean blood concentrations of residents from homes with indoor air concentrations of >1.6 µg m(-3) were approximately 50 times higher than geometric mean blood TCE concentrations in participants from homes with no detectable TCE in indoor air (P < .0001; 95% CI 10.4-236.4). This study confirms the occurrence of vapor intrusion and demonstrates the magnitude of exposure from vapor intrusion of TCE in a residential setting.

  6. Whole body exposure of rats to sulfur mustard vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Yaacov, Guy; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-11-24

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis. Results showed that following a latency-period of several hours, rats typical symptoms developed over a period of more than one week. The initial symptoms, characterized by swollen and erythematic nose, deteriorated into extensive rhinorrhea, eye closure, excessive lacrimation as well as rhonchi, wheezing and breathing difficulties. Alopecia and behavioral abnormality were also recorded. A weight loss of up to 40% was measured within one week with spontaneous recovery to baseline level within three weeks after exposure. Blood counts revealed leukopenia during the first three days post-exposure. Histological evaluation revealed a long lasting damage to the trachea, lungs and eyes. Thus, WBE to SM, was found to closely mimic the deleterious effects of SM on the sensitive tissues previously described in human victims during WWI and the Iran-Iraq war. The use of this animal model will enable comprehensive characterization of changes in biological processes that may lead to the development of therapeutic measures to ameliorate SM induced multi-system injuries.

  7. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  8. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  9. Pathogenesis of Acute and Delayed Corneal Lesions after Ocular Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    14. ABSTRACT See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mustard gas keratopathy, ocular toxicity , vapor exposure , sulfur mustard, chemical warfare agent, medical...had poor outcomes . Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae...the appearance of BCN between one and two weeks suggests that necrosis is either due to delayed SM toxicity or a second-order effect indirectly

  10. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  11. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  12. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M

    2015-04-08

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro . The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  13. Electrospray droplet exposure to organic vapors: metal ion removal from proteins and protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, J Corinne; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-01-20

    The exposure of aqueous nanoelectrospray droplets to various organic vapors can dramatically reduce sodium adduction on protein ions in positive ion mass spectra. Volatile alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol lead to a significant reduction in sodium ion adduction but are not as effective as acetonitrile, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Organic vapor exposure in the negative ion mode, on the other hand, has essentially no effect on alkali ion adduction. Evidence is presented to suggest that the mechanism by which organic vapor exposure reduces alkali ion adduction in the positive mode involves the depletion of alkali metal ions via ion evaporation of metal ions solvated with organic molecules. The early generation of metal/organic cluster ions during the droplet desolvation process results in fewer metal ions available to condense on the protein ions formed via the charged residue mechanism. These effects are demonstrated with holomyoglobin ions to illustrate that the metal ion reduction takes place without detectable protein denaturation, which might be revealed by heme loss or an increase in charge state distribution. No evidence is observed for denaturation with exposure to any of the organic vapors evaluated in this work.

  14. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  15. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Nathalie; Der-Avakian, Andre; Semenova, Svetlana; Lee, Soon; Markou, Athina

    2016-09-15

    Adolescent ethanol exposure increases risky choice and alters corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in adulthood. The impact of stress on risky choice after adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure is not known. We investigated time-specific effects of AIE vapor exposure during early adolescence on risky choice after stress or no stress in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were exposed to air or AIE vapor on postnatal days 28-42 (adolescence) and were exposed to 10days of social defeat or no stress on postnatal days 172-181 (adulthood). Risky choice was assessed in the probability discounting task under baseline conditions and after days 1 and 10 of social defeat. CRF and CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) mRNA levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) 24h post-stress to evaluate persistent effects of stress on the brain. AIE exposure had no effect on risky choice either at baseline or after social defeat. Additionally, neither acute nor chronic social defeat affected risky choice in air-exposed rats. In the PFC, chronic social defeat selectively decreased CRF mRNA levels in air-exposed rats and increased CRFR1 mRNA levels in all rats. AIE exposure increased CRF mRNA levels in the CeA with no effect of social stress. Our results indicate no effect of ethanol exposure via vapor during early adolescence on risky choice, while our previous findings indicated that AIE exposure via gavage affected risky choice. Both AIE exposure and social defeat altered CRF and CRFR1 mRNA levels in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  17. Sensor-triggered sampling to determine instantaneous airborne vapor exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip A; Simmons, Michael K; Toone, Phillip

    2018-06-01

    It is difficult to measure transient airborne exposure peaks by means of integrated sampling for organic chemical vapors, even with very short-duration sampling. Selection of an appropriate time to measure an exposure peak through integrated sampling is problematic, and short-duration time-weighted average (TWA) values obtained with integrated sampling are not likely to accurately determine actual peak concentrations attained when concentrations fluctuate rapidly. Laboratory analysis for integrated exposure samples is preferred from a certainty standpoint over results derived in the field from a sensor, as a sensor user typically must overcome specificity issues and a number of potential interfering factors to obtain similarly reliable data. However, sensors are currently needed to measure intra-exposure period concentration variations (i.e., exposure peaks). In this article, the digitized signal from a photoionization detector (PID) sensor triggered collection of whole-air samples when toluene or trichloroethylene vapors attained pre-determined levels in a laboratory atmosphere generation system. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of whole-air samples (with both 37 and 80% relative humidity) collected using the triggering mechanism with rapidly increasing vapor concentrations showed good agreement with the triggering set point values. Whole-air samples (80% relative humidity) in canisters demonstrated acceptable 17-day storage recoveries, and acceptable precision and bias were obtained. The ability to determine exceedance of a ceiling or peak exposure standard by laboratory analysis of an instantaneously collected sample, and to simultaneously provide a calibration point to verify the correct operation of a sensor was demonstrated. This latter detail may increase the confidence in reliability of sensor data obtained across an entire exposure period.

  18. Use of biocidal products (insect sprays and electro-vaporizer) in indoor areas--exposure scenarios and exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Appel, Klaus E

    2009-09-01

    Five commercially available insect sprays were applied in a model room. Spraying was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions and in an overdosed manner in order to simulate worst-case conditions or an unforeseeable misuse. In addition, we examined electro-vaporizers. The Respicon aerosol monitoring system was applied to determine inhalation exposure. During normal spraying (10 seconds) and during the following 2-3 minutes, exposure concentrations ranged from 70 to 590 microg/m3 for the pyrethroids tetramethrin, d-phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, and the pyrethrins. Calculated inhalable doses were 2-16 microg. A concentration of approximately 850 microg chlorpyrifos/m(3) (inhalable dose: approximately 20 microg) was determined when the "Contra insect fly spray" was applied. Highest exposure concentrations (1100-2100 microg/m3) were measured for piperonyl butoxide (PBO), corresponding to an inhalation intake of 30-60microg. When simulating worst-case conditions, exposure concentrations of 200-3400microg/m3 and inhalable doses of 10-210microg were determined for the various active substances. Highest concentrations (4800-8000 microg/m3) were measured for PBO (inhalable: 290-480 microg). By applying the electro-vaporizer "Nexa Lotte" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations for d-allethrin were in the range of 5-12microg/m3 and 0.5-2 microg/m3 for PBO while with the "Paral" plug-in mosquito killer concentrations of 0.4-5microg/m3 for pyrethrins and 1-7 microg/m3 for PBO were measured. Potential dermal exposures were determined using exposure pads. Between 80 and 1000microg active substance (tetramethrin, phenothrin, cyfluthrin, bioallethrin, pyrethrins, chlorpyrifos) were deposited on the clothing of the total body surface area of the spray user. Highest levels (up to 3000 microg) were determined for PBO. Worst-case uses of the sprays led to 5-9 times higher concentrations. Also a 2-hour stay nearby an operating electro-vaporizer led to a

  19. RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Lindberg, S; Johansson, S; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-03-05

    Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis. In particular, the impact of timing in the initiation of decontamination and agent dilution in water was studied. The impact of the lipophilic properties of VX in the RSDL decontamination was additionally addressed by comparing chemical degradation in RSDL and decontamination efficacy between the VX and the hydrophilic OPC triethyl phosphonoacetate (TEPA). The epidermal membrane was exposed to 20, 75 or 90% OPC diluted in deionized water and the decontamination was initiated 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120min post-exposure. Early decontamination of VX with RSDL, initiated 5-10min after skin exposure, was very effective. Delayed decontamination initiated 30-60min post-exposure was less effective but still the amount of penetrated agent was significantly reduced, while further delayed start of decontamination to 120min resulted in very low efficacy. Comparing RSDL decontamination of VX with that of TEPA showed that the decontamination efficacy at high agent concentrations was higher for VX. The degradation mechanism of VX and TEPA during decontamination was dissected by 31 P NMR spectroscopy of the OPCs following reactions with RSDL and its three nucleophile components. The degradation rate was clearly associated with the high pH of the specific solution investigated; i.e. increased pH resulted in a more rapid degradation. In addition, the solubility of the OPC in RSDL

  20. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals

  1. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  2. Neurophysiological Assessment of Auditory, Peripheral Nerve, Somatosensory, and Visual System Function After Developmental Exposure to Gasoline, E15 and E85 Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of gasolines blended with a range of ethanol concentrations may result in inhalation of vapors containing a variable combination of ethanol with other volatile gasoline constituents. The possibility of exposure and potential interactions between vapor constituents suggest...

  3. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzyński, Jakub J.; Christensen, Jan H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial...... functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial...... microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient...

  4. Endothelial disruptive proinflammatory effects of nicotine and e-cigarette vapor exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Kelly S; Chen, Steven X; Law, Sarah; Van Demark, Mary; Poirier, Christophe; Justice, Matthew J; Hubbard, Walter C; Kim, Elena S; Lai, Xianyin; Wang, Mu; Kranz, William D; Carroll, Clinton J; Ray, Bruce D; Bittman, Robert; Goodpaster, John; Petrache, Irina

    2015-07-15

    The increased use of inhaled nicotine via e-cigarettes has unknown risks to lung health. Having previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) extract disrupts the lung microvasculature barrier function by endothelial cell activation and cytoskeletal rearrangement, we investigated the contribution of nicotine in CS or e-cigarettes (e-Cig) to lung endothelial injury. Primary lung microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to nicotine, e-Cig solution, or condensed e-Cig vapor (1-20 mM nicotine) or to nicotine-free CS extract or e-Cig solutions. Compared with nicotine-containing extract, nicotine free-CS extract (10-20%) caused significantly less endothelial permeability as measured with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Nicotine exposures triggered dose-dependent loss of endothelial barrier in cultured cell monolayers and rapidly increased lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. The endothelial barrier disruptive effects were associated with increased intracellular ceramides, p38 MAPK activation, and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, and was critically mediated by Rho-activated kinase via inhibition of MLC-phosphatase unit MYPT1. Although nicotine at sufficient concentrations to cause endothelial barrier loss did not trigger cell necrosis, it markedly inhibited cell proliferation. Augmentation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via S1P1 improved both endothelial cell proliferation and barrier function during nicotine exposures. Nicotine-independent effects of e-Cig solutions were noted, which may be attributable to acrolein, detected along with propylene glycol, glycerol, and nicotine by NMR, mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography, in both e-Cig solutions and vapor. These results suggest that soluble components of e-Cig, including nicotine, cause dose-dependent loss of lung endothelial barrier function, which is associated with oxidative stress and brisk inflammation.

  5. VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marburg virus hemorrhagic fever Melioidosis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei ) Plague ( Yersinia pestis ) FAQ About Plague (as a bioweapon) Facts About ... Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact Sheets Case Definitions Training Surveillance Preparation & ...

  6. Evaluation of RSDL, M291 SDK, 0.5 Bleach, 1% Soapy Water and SERPACWA: Part 11: Challenge with EA4243 (VR, Russian VX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    listed decontamination products in the haired guinea pig model following exposure to VR (Russian VX, EA4243). 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination...the efficacy of the barrier skin cream SERPACWA and the four listed decontamination products in the haired guinea pig model following exposure to VR...four listed decontamination products and SERPACWA in the haired guinea pig model following exposure to VR (Russian VX, EA4243, Soviet V-gas

  7. Phytoforensics: Trees as bioindicators of potential indoor exposure via vapor intrusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan L Wilson

    Full Text Available Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs via vapor intrusion (VI is an emerging public health concern with notable detrimental impacts on public health. Phytoforensics, plant sampling to semi-quantitatively delineate subsurface contamination, provides a potential non-invasive screening approach to detect VI potential, and plant sampling is effective and also time- and cost-efficient. Existing VI assessment methods are time- and resource-intensive, invasive, and require access into residential and commercial buildings to drill holes through basement slabs to install sampling ports or require substantial equipment to install groundwater or soil vapor sampling outside the home. Tree-core samples collected in 2 days at the PCE Southeast Contamination Site in York, Nebraska were analyzed for tetrachloroethene (PCE and results demonstrated positive correlations with groundwater, soil, soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air samples collected over a 2-year period. Because tree-core samples were not collocated with other samples, interpolated surfaces of PCE concentrations were estimated so that comparisons could be made between pairs of data. Results indicate moderate to high correlation with average indoor-air and sub-slab PCE concentrations over long periods of time (months to years to an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface, with Spearman's correlation coefficients (ρ ranging from 0.31 to 0.53 that are comparable to the pairwise correlation between sub-slab and indoor-air PCE concentrations (ρ = 0.55, n = 89. Strong correlations between soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air PCE concentrations and an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface indicate that trees are valid indicators of potential VI and human exposure to subsurface environment pollutants. The rapid and non-invasive nature of tree sampling are notable advantages: even with less than 60 trees in the vicinity of the source area, roughly 12 hours of tree

  8. Phytoforensics: Trees as bioindicators of potential indoor exposure via vapor intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Samaranayake, V A; Limmer, Matt A; Burken, Joel G

    2018-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via vapor intrusion (VI) is an emerging public health concern with notable detrimental impacts on public health. Phytoforensics, plant sampling to semi-quantitatively delineate subsurface contamination, provides a potential non-invasive screening approach to detect VI potential, and plant sampling is effective and also time- and cost-efficient. Existing VI assessment methods are time- and resource-intensive, invasive, and require access into residential and commercial buildings to drill holes through basement slabs to install sampling ports or require substantial equipment to install groundwater or soil vapor sampling outside the home. Tree-core samples collected in 2 days at the PCE Southeast Contamination Site in York, Nebraska were analyzed for tetrachloroethene (PCE) and results demonstrated positive correlations with groundwater, soil, soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air samples collected over a 2-year period. Because tree-core samples were not collocated with other samples, interpolated surfaces of PCE concentrations were estimated so that comparisons could be made between pairs of data. Results indicate moderate to high correlation with average indoor-air and sub-slab PCE concentrations over long periods of time (months to years) to an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface, with Spearman's correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.31 to 0.53 that are comparable to the pairwise correlation between sub-slab and indoor-air PCE concentrations (ρ = 0.55, n = 89). Strong correlations between soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air PCE concentrations and an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface indicate that trees are valid indicators of potential VI and human exposure to subsurface environment pollutants. The rapid and non-invasive nature of tree sampling are notable advantages: even with less than 60 trees in the vicinity of the source area, roughly 12 hours of tree-core sampling with minimal

  9. Phytoforensics: Trees as bioindicators of potential indoor exposure via vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Samaranayake, V.A.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Burken, Joel G.

    2018-01-01

    Human exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via vapor intrusion (VI) is an emerging public health concern with notable detrimental impacts on public health. Phytoforensics, plant sampling to semi-quantitatively delineate subsurface contamination, provides a potential non-invasive screening approach to detect VI potential, and plant sampling is effective and also time- and cost-efficient. Existing VI assessment methods are time- and resource-intensive, invasive, and require access into residential and commercial buildings to drill holes through basement slabs to install sampling ports or require substantial equipment to install groundwater or soil vapor sampling outside the home. Tree-core samples collected in 2 days at the PCE Southeast Contamination Site in York, Nebraska were analyzed for tetrachloroethene (PCE) and results demonstrated positive correlations with groundwater, soil, soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air samples collected over a 2-year period. Because tree-core samples were not collocated with other samples, interpolated surfaces of PCE concentrations were estimated so that comparisons could be made between pairs of data. Results indicate moderate to high correlation with average indoor-air and sub-slab PCE concentrations over long periods of time (months to years) to an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface, with Spearman’s correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.31 to 0.53 that are comparable to the pairwise correlation between sub-slab and indoor-air PCE concentrations (ρ = 0.55, n = 89). Strong correlations between soil-gas, sub-slab, and indoor-air PCE concentrations and an interpolated tree-core PCE concentration surface indicate that trees are valid indicators of potential VI and human exposure to subsurface environment pollutants. The rapid and non-invasive nature of tree sampling are notable advantages: even with less than 60 trees in the vicinity of the source area, roughly 12 hours of tree-core sampling with

  10. Low Level Exposure to GB Vapor in Air: Diagnosis/Dosimetry, Lowest Observable Effect Levels, Performance-Incapacitation, and Possible Delayed Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: (I) A glass exposure chamber for whole-body exposure of unanesthetized guinea pigs and marmosets to low levels of OB vapor in air has been designed and constructed, and is in the implementation stage...

  11. Determining the Optimum Exposure and Recovery Periods for Efficient Operation of a QCM Based Elemental Mercury Vapor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mohibul Kabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mass based transducers such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM have gained huge interest as potential sensors for online detection of elemental mercury (Hg0 vapor from anthropogenic sources due to their high portability and robust nature enabling them to withstand harsh industrial environments. In this study, we determined the optimal Hg0 exposure and recovery times of a QCM based sensor for ensuring its efficient operation while monitoring low concentrations of Hg0 vapor (<400 ppbv. The developed sensor was based on an AT-cut quartz substrate and utilized two gold (Au films on either side of the substrate which functions as the electrodes and selective layer simultaneously. Given the temporal response mechanisms associated with mass based mercury sensors, the experiments involved the variation of Hg0 vapor exposure periods while keeping the recovery time constant following each exposure and vice versa. The results indicated that an optimum exposure and recovery periods of 30 and 90 minutes, respectively, can be utilized to acquire the highest response magnitudes and recovery rate towards a certain concentration of Hg0 vapor whilst keeping the time it takes to report an accurate reading by the sensor to a minimum level as required in real-world applications.

  12. Intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor affects osteoblast behaviour more severely than estrogen deficiency does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Paola; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Borsari, Veronica; Rimondini, Lia; Rimondini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio; Giardino, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    With rising rates of alcohol consumption acute and chronic damage from alcohol is expected to increase all over the world. Habitual excessive alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate comparatively the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts (OB) isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor, sham-aged rats and long-term estrogen deficient rats. Cell proliferation (WST1) and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen I (CICP), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα) were measured at 3, 7 and 14 days of culture. Osteoblast proliferation rate and TGF-β1, IL-6 and TNFα syntheses were significantly affected by alcohol exposure. Estrogen deficiency and alcohol consumption share many common pathophysiological mechanisms of damage to bone, but alcohol affects OB proliferation and TNFα synthesis significantly more than menopause does. Therefore, these in vitro data suggest that alcohol has even more deleterious effects on bone than estrogen deficiency does

  13. Distribution of mercury in guinea pig offspring after in utero exposure to mercury vapor during late gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Minoru; Yamamura, Yukio; Sataoh, Hiroshi

    1986-04-01

    Organ distribution of mercury after in utero mercury vapor exposure was investigated in neonatal guinea pigs. Mother guinea pigs in late gestation were exposed to 0.2-0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ mercury vapor 2 h per day until giving birth. Mercury concentrations in neonatal brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, plasma and erythrocytes were much lower than those of maternal organs and tissues. Neonatal liver, however, showed a mercury concentration twice as high as maternal liver. Mercury concentration ratios of erythrocytes to plasma in offspring were quite different from those of mothers, being 0.2-0.4 for offspring, and 1.3-3.0 for mothers. These results suggested that mercury vapor metabolism in fetuses was quite different from that in their mothers. This may be due to the different blood circulation, as mercury vapor transferred through the placental barrier would be rapidly oxidized into ionic mercury in fetal liver and accumulated in the organ. The different mercury vapor metabolism may prevent fetal brain, which is rapidly developing, and thus vulnerable, from being exposed to excessive mercury vapor.

  14. Hydrolysis of VX on concrete: rate of degradation by direct surface interrogation using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Gary S; Williams, John M; Appelhans, Anthony D; Gresham, Garold L; Olson, John E; Jeffery, Mark T; Rowland, Brad

    2002-11-15

    The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation when in contact with concrete surfaces. The degradation was directly interrogated at submonolayer concentrations by periodically performing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses after exposure of the concrete to VX. The abundance of the [VX + H]+ ion in the SIMS spectra was observed to decrease in an exponential fashion, consistent with first-order or pseudo-first-order behavior. This phenomenon enabled the rate constant to be determined at 0.005 min(-1) at 25 degrees C, which corresponds to a half-life of about 3 h on the concrete surface. The decrease in [VX + H]+ was accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the principal degradation product diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), which arises by cleavage of the P-S bond. Degradation to form DESH is accompanied by the formation of ethyl methylphosphonic acid, which is observable only in the negative ion spectrum. A second degradation product was also implicated, which corresponded to a diisopropylvinylamine isomer (perhaps N,N-diisopropyl aziridinium) that arose via cleavage of the S-C bond. No evidence was observed for the formation of the toxic S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioic acid. The degradation rate constants were measured at four different temperatures (24-50 degrees C), which resulted in a linear Arrhenius relationship and an activation energy of 52 kJ mol(-1). This value agrees with previous values observed for VX hydrolysis in alkaline solutions, which suggests that the degradation of submonolayer VX is dominated by alkaline hydrolysis within the adventitious water film on the concrete surface.

  15. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  16. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  17. Mercury accumulation and its distribution to metallothionein in mouse brain after sub-chronic pulse exposure to mercury vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto 867-0008 (Japan); Sawada, M.; Shimada, A. [Department of Veterinary Pathology, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyamacho, Minami, Tottori 680-0945 (Japan); Satoh, M. [Department of Hygienics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 5-6-1 Mitahora-higashi, Gifu 502-8585 (Japan); Tohyama, C. [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    Previously we found that exposure to mercury vapor effectively induced metallothionein (MT) biosynthesis in rat brain. Although the induction of not only MT-I/II but also MT-III was evident, the induction rate of the latter was much lower than that of the former. The brain of an MT-null mouse lacks MT-I/II, but has MT-III. Here we examined the effects of sub-chronic pulse exposure to mercury vapor on the brain MT in MT-null mice and their wild type controls. MT-null and wild type mice were preliminarily exposed to mercury vapor for 2 weeks at 0.1 mg Hg/m{sup 3} for 1 h/day for 3 days a week, and then exposed for 11 weeks at 4.1 mg Hg/m{sup 3} for 30 min/day for 3 days a week. This exposure caused no toxic signs such as abnormal behavior or loss of body weight gain in the mice of either strain throughout the experimental period. Twenty-four hours after the termination of the exposure, mice were sacrificed and brain samples were subjected to mercury analysis, MT assay, and pathological examination. The MT-null mice showed lower accumulation of mercury in the brain than the wild type mice. Mercury exposure resulted in a 70% increase of brain MT in the wild type mice, which was mostly accounted for by the increase in MT-I/II. On the other hand, the brain MT in the MT-null mice increased by 19%, suggesting less reactivity of the MT-III gene to mercury vapor. Although histochemical examination revealed silver-mercury grains in the cytoplasm of nerve cells and glial cells throughout the brains of both strains, no significant difference was observed between the two strains. (orig.)

  18. Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y

    2017-07-01

    A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m -3 . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m -3 gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m -3 . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. In vivo decontamination of the nerve agent VX using the domestic swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlik, Michal; Novotny, Ladislav; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Chilcott, Robert P; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to assess a new, putatively optimised method for mass casualty decontamination ("ORCHIDS protocol") for effectiveness in removing the chemical warfare agent VX from the skin of anaesthetised, domestic white pigs. ORCHIDS protocol consists of a 1.5-minute shower with a mild detergent (Argos™) supplemented by physical removal. A standard method of wet decontamination was used for comparison. Experimental animals were divided into four groups (A-D). Two groups were exposed to a supra-lethal percutaneous dose (5 × LD(50); 300 μg kg(-1)) of VX for 1 h prior to decontamination with either the ORCHIDS (C) or standard protocol (D). A third (B, positive control) group was exposed but not subject to decontamination. Blank controls (A) received anaesthesia and the corresponding dose of normal saline instead of VX. Observations of the clinical signs of intoxication were supplemented by measurements of whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) performed on samples of arterial blood acquired at 30-minute intervals for the duration of the study (up to 6 h). Untreated (B) animals displayed typical cholinergic signs consistent with VX intoxication (local fasciculation, mastication, salivation, pilo-erection and motor convulsions) and died 165-240 min post exposure. All animals in both decontamination treatment groups (C, D) survived the duration of the study and exhibited less severe signs of cholinergic poisoning. Thus, both the standard and ORCHIDS protocol were demonstrably effective against exposure to the potent nerve agent VX, even after a delay of 1 h. A critical advantage of the ORCHIDS protocol is the relatively short shower duration (1½ min compared to 3 min). In practice, this could substantially improve the rate at which individuals could be decontaminated by emergency responders following exposure to toxic materials such as chemical warfare agents.

  20. VX Toxicity in the Gottingen Minipig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    animals were fed twice daily in accordance with vendor/breeder recommendations and given a small amount of fruit or vegetable enrichment (e.g., string...beans, kale ) each afternoon. Procedure The 24 h intramuscular LD50 of VX was determined using the up-and-down dosing method (Dixon and Massey

  1. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  2. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    amphetamine, methamphetamine, heroin , marijuana, and steroids), therapeutic drugs (e.g. ephedrine, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates), and inorganic heavy...Urine, Hair, Sweat and Saliva to Detect Drug Use. Drug and Alcohol Review 2004, 23, 213-217. 13. Kidwell, D.A.; Lee, E.H.; DeLauder, S.F. Evidence...Tomic, M. Effect of Soman Intoxication on the Organization of Rat Brain Ribosomes and the Translational Activity of mRNA in a Cell-free System

  3. Clinical aspects of percutaneous poisoning by the chemical warfare agent VX: effects of application site and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Murray G; Hill, Ira; Conley, John; Sawyer, Thomas W; Caneva, Duane C; Lundy, Paul M

    2004-11-01

    O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) is an extremely toxic organophosphate nerve agent that has been weaponized and stockpiled in a number of different countries, and it has been used in recent terrorist events. It differs from other well-known organophosphate nerve agents in that its primary use is as a contact poison rather than as an inhalation hazard. For this reason, we examined the effects of application site and skin decontamination on VX toxicity in anesthetized domestic swine after topical application. VX applied to the surface of the ear rapidly resulted in signs of toxicity consistent with the development of cholinergic crisis, including apnea and death. VX on the epigastrium resulted in a marked delayed development of toxic signs, reduced toxicity, and reduction in the rate of cholinesterase depression compared with animals exposed on the ear. Skin decontamination (15 minutes post-VX on the ear) arrested the development of clinical signs and prevented further cholinesterase inhibition and death. These results confirm earlier work that demonstrates the importance of exposure site on the resultant toxicity of this agent and they also show that decontamination postexposure has the potential to be an integral and extremely important component of medical countermeasures against this agent.

  4. Single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats: Long-term neuronal and behavioral deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, Ettie; Chapman, Shira; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Weissman, Ben-Avi; Kadar, Tamar; Allon, Nahum

    2008-01-01

    Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 ± 0.8 μg/l) for 10 min. Mortality at 24 h was 35% and toxic sings in the surviving rats ranged from sever (prolonged convulsions) through moderate to almost no overt signs. Some of the surviving rats developed delayed, intermittent convulsions. All rats were evaluated for long-term functional deficits in comparison to air-exposed control rats. Histological analysis revealed typical cell loss at 1 week post inhalation exposure. Neuronal inflammation was demonstrated by a 20-fold increase in prostaglandin (PGE 2 ) levels 24 h following exposure that markedly decreased 6 days later. An additional, delayed increase in PGE 2 was detected at 1 month and continued to increase for up to 6 months post exposure. Glial activation following neural damage was demonstrated by an elevated level of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) seen in the brain 4 and 6 months after exposure. At the same time muscarinic receptors were unaffected. Six weeks, four and six months post exposure behavioral evaluations were performed. In the open field, sarin-exposed rats showed a significant increase in overall activity with no habituation over days. In a working memory paradigm in the water maze, these same rats showed impaired working and reference memory processes with no recovery. Our data suggest long lasting impairment of brain functions in surviving rats following a single sarin exposure. Animals that seem to fully recover from the exposure, and even animals that initially show no toxicity signs, developed some adverse neural changes with time

  5. Short-term exposure of mice to gasoline vapor increases the metallothionein expression in the brain, lungs and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebić, D; Jakovac, H; Mrakovcić-Sutić, I; Tomac, J; Bulog, A; Micović, V; Radosević-Stasić, B

    2007-06-01

    Environmental airborne pollution has been repeatedly shown to affect multiple aspects of brain and cardiopulmonary function, leading to cognitive and behavioral changes and to the pronounced inflammatory response in the respiratory airways. Since in the cellular defense system the important role might have stress proteins-metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II, which are involved in sequestration and dispersal of metal ions, regulation of the biosynthesis and activities of zinc-dependent transcription factors, as well as in cellular protection from reactive oxygen species, genotoxicity and apoptosis, in this study we investigated their expression in the brain, lungs and kidney, following intermittent exposure of mice to gasoline vapor. Control groups consisted of intact mice and of those closed in the metabolic chamber and ventilated with fresh air. The data obtained by immunohistochemistry showed that gasoline inhalation markedly upregulated the MTs expression in tissues which were directly or indirectly exposed to toxic components, significantly increasing the number of MT I+II positive cells in CNS (the entorhinal cortex, ependymal cells, astroglial cells in subventricular zone and inside the brain parenchyma, subgranular and CA1-CA3 zone of the dentate gyrus in hippocampus and macrophages-like cells in perivascular spaces), in the lungs (pneumocytes type I and type II) and in the kidneys (parietal wall of Bowman capsule, proximal and distal tubules). The data point to the protective and growth-regulatory effects of MT I + II on places of injuries, induced by inhalation of gasoline vapor.

  6. Metabonomics of Pig Blood Plasma Following Whole Body Exposure to Low Levels of Gb Vapor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bevilacqua, Vicky L; D'Onofrio, Terreiice G; Jakubowski, K. M; Hulet, Stanley W; Maguire, Kelly J; Edwards, Jennifer L; Laramee, James A; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    ...), for which complex data must be analyzed. Therefore, we have begun an exploration of the use of chemometrics for the correlation of metabolic change with low-level CWA exposure in animal models...

  7. Toxic Effects of a Whole-Body Inhalation Sarin (GR) Vapor Exposure in the Gottingen Minipig

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hulet, S. W; Jakubowski, E. M; Dabisch, P. A; Foster, J. S; Miller, D. B; Benton, B. J; Muse, W. T; Way, R. A; Edwards, J. L; McGuire, J.M

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to assess the toxic hazards of such exposures and define chemical defense materiel requirements, it is essential to fill gaps in toxicological databases that define the physiological progression...

  8. Recombinant butyryl-cholinesterase (RBuChe) therapy following VX poisoning by the percutaneous route: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speakman, P.; Armstrong, S.

    2009-01-01

    Medical countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the effects of nerve agent poisoning are part of the UK MoD's integrated approach to CBRN defence. Protexia is currently in advanced development as a pretreatment for nerve agent poisoning by PharmAthene in collaboration with US DoD. The principle of its use in this context has been demonstrated in a model of inhalation exposure. Nerve agent poisoning by the percutaneous route poses additional challenges for medical countermeasures. The present study investigates the effects of non-pegylated rBuChE administered following poisoning by VX in an animal model of percutaneous exposure. This investigation is part of an ongoing programme of work assessing the potential of candidate medical interventions. Male guinea pigs implanted with dermal and blood microdialysis probes were maintained under anaesthesia. VX (296 micro g/kg or 740 micro g/kg) was applied to the dorsal skin and non-pegylated rBuChE or placebo was administered (i.v.) 30 minutes later. Dialysate fractions were collected for 8 hours and VX was analysed by LC-MS-MS. Cholinesterase levels were measured in selected tissues post mortem. Following VX (296 micro g/kg), non-pegylated rBuChE significantly reduced the concentration of VX in the blood but had no effect on dermal concentrations; additionally following VX (740 micro g/kg), non-pegylated rBuChE prevented lethality. Tissue cholinesterase activity was inhibited following VX exposure but in those animals treated with rhBuChE, activities were similar to control values. To our knowledge these results provide the first evidence of the mechanism of therapeutic intervention with rBuChE. Further work is necessary to increase confidence in these preliminary observations by conducting confirmatory studies. Crown Copyright 2008. This work was carried out as part of the UK MoD NBC Research Programme. Non-pegylated rBuChE was supplied by PharmAthene under a materials transfer and non-disclosure agreement. (author)

  9. Structural, Morphological, and Functional Correlates of Corneal Endothelial Toxicity Following Corneal Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    States Depart- ment of Agriculture certificate No. 51-F-0006). All procedures were in compliance with the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in...exposure: pathological mechanism and poten- tial therapy. Toxicology. 2009;263:59–69. 9. Gordon MK, Desantis A, Deshmukh M, et al. Doxycycline hydrogels

  10. Low Level Exposure to GB Vapor in Air: Diagnosis/Dosimetry, Lowest Observable Effect Levels, Performance-Incapacitation, and Possible Delayed Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helden, Herman

    2002-01-01

    .... 2001 under experimental conditions similar to those in Nov. 2000 when they were first 5 h exposed to air followed by 5 h exposure to low levels of GB vapor in air in a concentration range of 7.5 - 150 micron/m3...

  11. Effect of honey supplementation on toxicity of gasoline vapor exposure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    M B Abubakar; W Z Abdullah; S A Sulaiman; F E Uboh; B S Ang

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Different health risks including haematotoxicity and weight loss have been reported for gasoline. Supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E has been shown to ameliorate the toxicity effects of gasoline vapours exposure. Honey contains vitamins, and polyphenols that possess good antioxidant properties. The potential role of honey in preventing gasoline-induced haematotoxicity and weight loss was assessed in male rats. The rats were exposed to gasoline (11.13±1.1cm...

  12. Worker exposure to methanol vapors during cleaning of semiconductor wafers in a manufacturing setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon; Moody, Emily; McKinley, Meg; Knutsen, Jeffrey; Madl, Amy; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2008-05-01

    An exposure simulation was conducted to characterize methanol exposure of workers who cleaned wafers in quality control departments within the semiconductor industry. Short-term (15 min) and long-term (2-4 hr) personal and area samples (at distances of 1 m and 3-6 m from the source) were collected during the 2-day simulation. On the first day, 45 mL of methanol were used per hour by a single worker washing wafers in a 102 m(3) room with a ventilation rate of about 10 air changes per hour (ACH). Virtually all methanol volatilized. To assess exposures under conditions associated with higher productivity, on the second day, two workers cleaned wafers simultaneously, together using methanol at over twice the rate of the first day (95 mL/hr). On this day, the ventilation rate was halved (5 ACH). Personal concentrations on the first day averaged 60 ppm (SD = 46 ppm) and ranged from 10-140 ppm. On the second day, personal concentrations for both workers averaged 118 ppm (SD = 50 ppm; range: 64-270 ppm). Area concentrations measured on the first day at 1 m from the source and throughout the balance of the room averaged 29 ppm (SD = 19 ppm; range: 4-83 ppm) and 18 ppm (SD = 12 ppm; range: 3-42 ppm), respectively. As expected, area concentrations measured on the second day were higher than the first and averaged 73 ppm (SD = 25 ppm; range: 27-140 ppm) at 1 meter and 48 ppm (SD = 13 ppm; range: 21-67 ppm) throughout the balance of the room. The results of this simulation suggest that the use of methanol to clean semiconductor wafers without the use of local exhaust ventilation and with relatively low room ventilation rates is unlikely to result in worker exposures exceeding the current ACGIH(R) threshold limit value of 200 ppm. This study also confirmed prior studies suggesting that when a relatively volatile chemical is located within arm's length (near field), breathing zone concentrations will be about two- to threefold greater than the room concentration when the air

  13. Intermittent Access to Ethanol Drinking Facilitates the Transition to Excessive Drinking After Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kim, Sarah; Cole, Maury; Brennan, Molly; George, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol binge drinking in humans is thought to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unclear is whether drinking patterns (e.g., bingelike or stable drinking) differentially affect the transition to compulsive-like drinking in dependent individuals. We examined whether chronic bingelike drinking facilitates the transition to compulsive-like drinking in rats. Male Wistar rats were given 5 months of intermittent access to ethanol (EtOH) (IAE) or continuous access to EtOH (CAE) in a 2-bottle choice paradigm. Then, rats were given chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure. Escalation of EtOH intake and compulsive-like responding for EtOH, using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and quinine-adulterated EtOH, were measured. IAE rats escalated EtOH drinking after 2 weeks of 2-bottle choice, whereas CAE rats exhibited stable EtOH drinking for 5 months. After 8 weeks of CIE, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats escalated their EtOH intake. However, IAE rats escalated their EtOH intake weeks sooner than CAE rats and exhibited greater EtOH intake. No differences in compulsive-like responding were found between IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats. However, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats showed strong compulsive-like responding compared with rats without prior IAE or CAE. Chronic EtOH drinking at stable or escalated levels for several months is associated with more compulsive-like responding for EtOH in rats that are exposed to CIE compared with rats without a prior history of EtOH drinking. Moreover, IAE facilitated the transition to compulsive-like responding for EtOH after CIE exposure, reflected by the escalation of EtOH intake. These results suggest that IAE may facilitate the transition to AUD. This study indicates that despite a moderate level of EtOH drinking, the IAE animal model is highly relevant to early stages of alcohol abuse and suggests that it may be associated with neuroadaptations that produce a faster transition to

  14. Modified model of VX2 tumor overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Florentina; Ghegediban, Saida-Homayra; Bonneau, Michel; Bedouet, Laurent; Namur, Julien; Verret, Valentin; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Wassef, Michel; Laurent, Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in VX2 cells can increase vessel density (VD) and reduce tumor necrosis. The VX2 cell line was transfected with expression vectors containing cDNA for rabbit VEGF. Stable clones producing rabbit VEGF (VEGF-VX2) were selected. VEGF-VX2 cells (n = 5 rabbits) or nontransfected VX2 cells (controls; n = 5 rabbits) were implanted into leg muscle of 10 rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at day 21. Tumor volume, percentage of necrosis, VD, and VEGF concentration in tumor protein extract were quantified. Overexpression of VEGF by VX2 cells augmented tumor implantation efficiency 100% and favored cyst formation. The tumor volume was significantly larger for VEGF-VX2 transfected tumors versus controls (P = .0143). Overexpression of VEGF in VX2 cells significantly increased the VD of the tumors (P = .0138). The percentage of necrosis was reduced in VEGF-VX2 tumors versus controls (19.5% vs 38.5 %; P = .002). VEGF concentration in VEGF-VX2 tumors was significantly higher than in control tumors (P = .041) and was correlated with tumor volume (ρ = .883, P = .012). The overexpression of VEGF increased tumor growth and vascularization, favored cyst formation, and reduced tumor necrosis. This new phenotype of the VX2 tumor may offer some advantages over classic models of VX2 tumor for evaluating anticancer therapies. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deterioration in brain and heart functions following a single sub-lethal (0.8 LCt50) inhalation exposure of rats to sarin vapor:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allon, N.; Chapman, S.; Egoz, I.; Rabinovitz, I.; Kapon, J.; Weissman, B.A.; Yacov, G.; Bloch-Shilderman, E.; Grauer, E.

    2011-01-01

    The main injuries among victims of the terrorist act in the Tokyo subway resulted from sub-lethal inhalation and whole body exposure to sarin vapor. In order to study the long term effects of such exposure and to simulate these conditions, freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (27.2 ± 1.7 μg/l) for 10 min. About 50% of the rats showed no overt symptoms and the rest had mild to moderate clinical symptoms that subsided within 4 h following exposure. A reduction of weight was noted during the first 3 days with full recovery on the 4th day. Rat's heart was challenged with epinephrine 1 and 6 months post exposure. A significant reduction in the threshold for epinephrine-induced arrhythmia (EPIA) was noted in rats exposed to sarin. A time dependent increase in the kD and Bmax values of muscarinic auto receptors (M2) was recorded in the rat's cortex and striatum. No changes were recorded in the rats' brain trans locator protein (TSPO) levels, concomitant with no observed changes in the animals' performance in A Morris water maze test. A significant increase in open field activity was noted 6 months following exposure to sarin vapor as well as a significant decrease in prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) production in the brain. It is speculated that down regulation of the M2 auto receptor function, caused hyper reactivity of the cholinergic system which leads to the changes described above. The continuous reduction in M2 auto-receptor system through an unknown mechanism may be the cause for long lasting decline in sarin-exposed casualties' health.

  16. Preservation Study for Ultra-Dilute VX Standards | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supplies ultra-dilute (10 µg/mL) chemical warfare agent (CWA) standards to the Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) laboratories to allow the use of authentic standards to assist in analyses required for a remediation event involving CWAs. For this reason, it is important to collect data regarding the shelf-lives of these standards. The instability has the potential to impact quality control in regional ERLN laboratories, resulting in data that are difficult to interpret. Thus, this study investigated the use of chemical stabilizers to increase the shelf-life of VX standards. VX standards with long shelf-lives are desirable, as long shelf-life would significantly reduce the costs associated with synthesizing and resupplying the ERLN laboratories with VX.

  17. Structural effect of ferrocenecarboxymethylated polymers on their electrical behavior under the exposure to methanol and acetone vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachawee, Kosin; Lerdwijitjarud, Wanchai; Sittattrakul, Amnard; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-01-01

    Functionalized ferrocenecarboxymethylated polymers, i.e. poly(vinylbenzyl ferrocenecarboxymethylate) (PVBFCC), poly(vinylbenzyl ferrocenecarboxymethylate-co-ethoxyethylmethacrylate) with the mole ratio between vinylbenzyl ferrocenecarboxymethylate and ethoxyethylmethacrylate of 75:25 (Co-PVBFCC 75/25) and 50:50 (Co-PVBFCC 50/50), and ferrocenecarboxymethylated polysulfone (BPSFCC) were investigated for their electrical behavior under the vapors of methanol and acetone and nitrogen gas. Electrical conductivity responses of the four ferrocenecarboxymethylated polymers in the presence of lithium perchlorate were measured when they were exposed to nitrogen gas, and methanol and acetone vapors. Main factors that affect the electrical conductivity and sensitivity of these electroactive ferrocene polymers originate from the polymer structure and the type of the passing gas or vapor. Ferrocenecarboxymethylated polymers with higher degrees of substitution of ferrocene units possess good electrical conductivity under the atmosphere of mixed N 2 /methanol vapor, while ferrocenecarboxymethylated polymers with more flexible chain and/or larger free volumes give higher electrical conductivity under the atmosphere of mixed N 2 /acetone vapor. The gas or vapor molecule with higher polarity and smaller size enhances the electrical conductivity of the ferrocene polymers. Our results clearly indicate that the synthesized ferrocenecarboxymethylated polymers have potential to be used as methanol or acetone sensor materials

  18. SIGNALING PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH VX EXPOSURE IN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Director, ECBC, ATTN: RDCB-DRB-D, APG, MD 21010-5424 Excet, Inc., 8001 Braddock Road , Suite 303...Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that are key regulators of tissue maintenance and repair. These cells have been identified in...adipocytes) and play a significant role in tissue maintenance and repair (15, 16). MSCs have been shown to be capable of self-renewal and can be maintained

  19. [The VR, the Russian version of the nerve agent VX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuquel, A-C; Dorandeu, F; Ceppa, F; Renard, C; Burnat, P

    2015-05-01

    A product of the arms race during the Cold War, the Russian VX, or VR, is an organophosphorus compound that is a structural isomer of the western VX compound (or A4), with which it shares a very high toxicity. It is much less studied and known than VX because the knowledge of its existence is relatively recent. A very low volatility and high resistance in the environment make it a persistent agent. Poisoning occurs mainly following penetration through skin and mucosa but vapour inhalation is a credible risk in some circumstances. The clinical presentation may be differed by several hours and despite the absence of signs and symptoms, the casualty should not be considered as contamination or intoxication-free. This agent has a long residence time in blood, a characteristics that clearly differentiates it from other compounds such as sarin. The protocols for antidote administration may thus have to be changed accordingly. The fact that VR poisoned individuals will less respond to the current oxime therapy used in France, the 2-PAM and that VR represents a higher threat than VX, being probably possessed by some proliferating states, justify the interest for this toxic product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurophysiological Assessment of Auditory, Peripheral Nerve, Somatosensory, and Visual System Functions after Developmental Exposure to Ethanol Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol-blended gasoline entered the market in response to demand for domestic renewable energy sources, and may result in increased inhalation of ethanol vapors in combination with other volatile gasoline constituents. It is important to understand potential risks of inhalation ...

  1. Nano-scale topography of bearing surface in advanced alumina/zirconia hip joint before and after severe exposure in water vapor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Saito, Takuma; Padeletti, Giuseppina; Cossari, Pierluigi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a surface morphology assessment with nanometer scale resolution on femoral heads made of an advanced zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) composite. Femoral heads were characterized to a degree of statistical accuracy in the as-received state and after exposures up to 100 h in severe vapor-moist environment. Surface screening was made using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Scanning was systematically repeated on portions of surface as large as several tens of micrometers, randomly selected on the head surface, to achieve sufficient statistical reliability without lowering the nanometer-scale spatial resolution of the roughness measurement. No significant difference was found in the recorded values of surface roughness after environmental exposure (at 134 degrees C, under 2 bar), which was always comparable to that of the as-received head. Surface roughness safely lay <10 nm after environmental exposures up to 100 h, which corresponded to an exposure time in vivo of several human lifetimes (i.e., according to an experimentally derived thermal activation energy). In addition, the roughness results were significantly (about one order of magnitude) lower as compared to those recorded on femoral heads made of monolithic zirconia tested under the same conditions. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Differentiated NSC-34 cells as an in vitro Cell Model for VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-11

    principally as potent cholinesterase inhibitors . The toxicity of these compounds and their mode of action are attributed to the inhibition of the enzyme...necrosis, with more cells undergoing apoptosis. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by VX Since VX is an AChE inhibitor , the amount of VX-induced AChE...acetyl- cholinesterase by in vitro methods. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 48:81–6. Landshamer S, Hoehn M, Barth N, et al. (2008). Bid-induced release of

  3. Fluoride Ion Regeneration of Cyclosarin (GF) From Rat Blood Following Whole-Body Exposure to Lethal Levels of GF Vapor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakubowski, E. M; Anthony, J. S; Mioduszewski, R. J; Manthei, J. H; Burnett, D. C; Way, R. A; Gaviola, B. I; Scotto, J. A; Muse, W. T; Whalley, C. E

    2003-01-01

    .... Levels of exposure ranged from 2 mg/m3 for 240 min to 41.9 mg/m3 for 10 min. The GF biomarker found in rat plasma and red blood cell samples was regenerated GF, which is the product of adding fluoride ion at pH 4 to the post exposure samples...

  4. Assessment of the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in healthy Japanese smokers using a novel tobacco vapor product compared with conventional cigarettes and smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Dai; Takeshige, Yuki; Nakaya, Kyoko; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2018-07-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to demonstrate a reduction in exposure to selected harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), and to assess product use behavior, in Japanese healthy adult smokers who switched to a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). 60 smokers were randomly assigned for 5 days to either (a) a group who switched to an NTV (n = 20), (b) a group who continued to smoke their own brand of conventional cigarettes (CC, n = 20) or (c) a smoking abstinence group (SA, n = 20). Fifteen biomarkers of exposure (BoEs) to 14 HPHCs and pyrene were measured at baseline, day 3 and 5. Product use behavior was assessed by measuring product consumption, nicotine uptake and puffing topography. During investigations, increases were observed in product consumption and total puff volume in NTV group subjects as compared to baseline. Additionally, nicotine uptake in the NTV group was approximately half that observed in the CC group. BoE values were significantly reduced in the NTV group as compared to those in the CC group. Significantly, the magnitude of the reduction in exposure to HPHCs observed in the NTV group (49-94%) was close to that observed for the SA group (39-95%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. VX hydrolysis by human serum paraoxonase 1: a comparison of experimental and computational results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Peterson

    Full Text Available Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1 is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of magnitude would make the enzyme suitable for this purpose. The binding interaction between HuPON1 and VX has recently been modeled, but the mechanism for VX hydrolysis is still unknown. In this study, we created a transition state model for VX hydrolysis (VX(ts in water using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, and docked the transition state model to 22 experimentally characterized HuPON1 variants using AutoDock Vina. The HuPON1-VX(ts complexes were grouped by reaction mechanism using a novel clustering procedure. The average Vina interaction energies for different clusters were compared to the experimentally determined activities of HuPON1 variants to determine which computational procedures best predict how well HuPON1 variants will hydrolyze VX. The analysis showed that only conformations which have the attacking hydroxyl group of VX(ts coordinated by the sidechain oxygen of D269 have a significant correlation with experimental results. The results from this study can be used for further characterization of how HuPON1 hydrolyzes VX and design of HuPON1 variants with increased activity against VX.

  6. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  7. Occupational exposures to styrene vapor in a manufacturing plant for fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Duane; Garcia, Alberto; Feng, H Amy

    2011-07-01

    A utility-scale wind turbine blade manufacturing plant requested assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in controlling worker exposures to styrene at a plant that produced 37 and 42 m long fiber-reinforced wind turbine blades. The plant requested NIOSH assistance because previous air sampling conducted by the company indicated concerns about peak styrene concentrations when workers entered the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. NIOSH researchers conducted two site visits and collected personal breathing zone and area air samples while workers performed the wind turbine blade manufacturing tasks of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), gelcoating, glue wiping, and installing the safety platform. All samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed for styrene using NIOSH Method 1501. All sampling was task based since full-shift sampling from a prior Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance inspection did not show any exposures to styrene above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. During the initial NIOSH site visit, 67 personal breathing zone and 18 area air samples were collected while workers performed tasks of VARTM, gelcoating, glue wipe, and installation of a safety platform. After the initial site visit, the company made changes to the glue wipe task that eliminated the need for workers to enter the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. During the follow-up site visit, 12 personal breathing zone and 8 area air samples were collected from workers performing the modified glue wipe task. During the initial site visit, the geometric means of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 1.8 p.p.m. (n = 21) for workers performing the VARTM task, 68 p.p.m. (n = 5) for workers installing a safety platform, and 340 p.p.m. (n = 14) for workers performing the glue wipe task, where n is the number of workers sampled for a

  8. Occupational exposure to vapor, gas, dust, or fumes and chronic airflow limitation, COPD, and emphysema: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study (SCAPIS pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kjell Torén,1 Jenny Vikgren,2 Anna-Carin Olin,1 Annika Rosengren,3 Göran Bergström,3 John Brandberg2 1Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, 2Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the occupational burden of airflow limitation, chronic airflow limitation, COPD, and emphysema.Materials and methods: Subjects aged 50–64 years (n=1,050 were investigated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC. Airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7 before bronchodilation. Chronic airflow limitation was defined after bronchodilation either according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD as FEV1/FVC <0.7 or according to the lower limit of normal (LLN approach as FEV1/FVC < LLN. COPD was defined as chronic airflow limitation (GOLD in combination with dyspnea, wheezing, or chronic bronchitis. Emphysema was classified according to findings from computed tomography of the lungs. Occupational exposure was defined as self-reported occupational exposure to vapor, gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF. Odds ratios (OR were calculated in models adjusted for age, gender, and smoking; population-attributable fractions and 95% CI were also calculated.Results: There were significant associations between occupational exposure to VGDF and COPD (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–51, airflow limitation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5, and emphysema (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1. The associations between occupational exposure to VGDF and chronic airflow limitation were weaker, and for the OR, the CIs included unity. The population-attributable fraction for occupational exposure to VGDF was 0.37 (95% CI 0.23–0.47 for COPD and 0.23 (95% CI 0.05–0.35 for emphysema.Conclusion: The

  9. Interferometric phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of VX2 rabbit cancer at 35keV X-ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    Imaging of large objects at 17.7-keV low x-ray energy causes huge x-ray exposure to the objects even using interferometric phase-contrast x-ray CT (PCCT). Thus, we tried to obtain PCCT images at high x-ray energy of 35keV and examined the image quality using a formalin-fixed VX2 rabbit cancer specimen with 15-mm in diameter. The PCCT system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon (220) crystal, a monolithic x-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell and an x-ray CCD camera. The PCCT at 35 keV clearly visualized various inner structures of VX2 rabbit cancer such as necrosis, cancer, the surrounding tumor vessels, and normal liver tissue. Besides, image-contrast was not degraded significantly. These results suggest that the PCCT at 35 KeV is sufficient to clearly depict the histopathological morphology of VX2 rabbit cancer specimen.

  10. The oxime pro-2-PAM provides minimal protection against the CNS effects of the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, and VX in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Guarisco, John A; Myers, Todd M; Kan, Robert K; McDonough, John H

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether pro-2-PAM, a pro-drug dihydropyridine derivative of the oxime 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM) that can penetrate the brain, could prevent or reverse the central toxic effects of three nerve agents; sarin, cyclosarin, and VX. The first experiment tested whether pro-2-PAM could reactivate guinea pig cholinesterase (ChE) in vivo in central and peripheral tissues inhibited by these nerve agents. Pro-2-PAM produced a dose-dependent reactivation of sarin- or VX-inhibited ChE in both peripheral and brain tissues, but with substantially greater reactivation in peripheral tissues compared to brain. Pro-2-PAM produced 9-25% reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited ChE in blood, heart, and spinal cord, but no reactivation in brain or muscle tissues. In a second experiment, the ability of pro-2-PAM to block or terminate nerve agent-induced electroencephalographic seizure activity was evaluated. Pro-2-PAM was able to block sarin- or VX-induced seizures (16-33%) over a dose range of 24-32 mg/kg, but was ineffective against cyclosarin-induced seizures. Animals that were protected from seizures showed significantly less weight loss and greater behavioral function 24 h after exposure than those animals that were not protected. Additionally, brains were free from neuropathology when pro-2-PAM prevented seizures. In summary, pro-2-PAM provided modest reactivation of sarin- and VX-inhibited ChE in the brain and periphery, which was reflected by a limited ability to block or terminate seizures elicited by these agents. Pro-2-PAM was able to reactivate blood, heart, and spinal cord ChE inhibited by cyclosarin, but was not effective against cyclosarin-induced seizures.

  11. Staphylococcus xylosus PCR-validated Decontamination of Murine Individually Ventilated Cage Racks and Air Handling Units by Using ‘Active–Closed’ Exposure to Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Natalie H; Miedel, Emily L; Gomez, Jose M; Engelman, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) is used to decontaminate clinical, biocontainment, and research animal rooms and equipment. To assist with its implementation in a murine facility, we developed a safe and effective method of VHP sterilization of IVC racks and air handling units (AHU). Safety of VHP decontamination was assessed by ensuring VHP levels dissipated to less than 1 ppm in the room prior to personnel reentry and inside the primary enclosure prior to the return of mice; this condition occurred at least 18 h after the VHP cycle. Efficacy of VHP sterilization was assessed by using chemical indicators, biologic indicators, and PCR testing for Staphylococcus xylosus, a commensal organism of murine skin and an opportunistic pathogen, which was present in 160 of 172 (93%) of specimens from occupied IVC racks and the interior surfaces of in-use AHU. Neither mechanized washing nor hand-sanitizing eradicated S. xylosus from equipment airway interiors, with 17% to 24% of specimens remaining PCR-positive for S. xylosus. ‘Static–open’ VHP exposure of sanitized equipment did not ensure its sterilization. In contrast, ‘active–closed’ VHP exposure, in which IVC racks were assembled, sealed, and connected to AHU set to the VHP cycle, increased the proportion of chemical indicators that detected sterilizing levels of VHP inside the assembled equipment, and significantly decreased PCR-detectable S. xylosus inside the equipment. Supplementing bulk steam sterilization of the primary enclosure with VHP sterilization of the secondary housing equipment during room change-outs may help to mitigate opportunistic agents that jeopardize studies involving immunodeficient strains. PMID:29256369

  12. Staphylococcus xylosus PCR-validated Decontamination of Murine Individually Ventilated Cage Racks and Air Handling Units by Using 'Active-Closed' Exposure to Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Natalie H; Miedel, Emily L; Gomez, Jose M; Engelman, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) is used to decontaminate clinical, biocontainment, and research animal rooms and equipment. To assist with its implementation in a murine facility, we developed a safe and effective method of VHP sterilization of IVC racks and air handling units (AHU). Safety of VHP decontamination was assessed by ensuring VHP levels dissipated to less than 1 ppm in the room prior to personnel reentry and inside the primary enclosure prior to the return of mice; this condition occurred at least 18 h after the VHP cycle. Efficacy of VHP sterilization was assessed by using chemical indicators, biologic indicators, and PCR testing for Staphylococcus xylosus, a commensal organism of murine skin and an opportunistic pathogen, which was present in 160 of 172 (93%) of specimens from occupied IVC racks and the interior surfaces of in-use AHU. Neither mechanized washing nor hand-sanitizing eradicated S. xylosus from equipment airway interiors, with 17% to 24% of specimens remaining PCR-positive for S. xylosus. 'Static-open' VHP exposure of sanitized equipment did not ensure its sterilization. In contrast, 'active-closed' VHP exposure, in which IVC racks were assembled, sealed, and connected to AHU set to the VHP cycle, increased the proportion of chemical indicators that detected sterilizing levels of VHP inside the assembled equipment, and significantly decreased PCR-detectable S. xylosus inside the equipment. Supplementing bulk steam sterilization of the primary enclosure with VHP sterilization of the secondary housing equipment during room change-outs may help to mitigate opportunistic agents that jeopardize studies involving immunodeficient strains.

  13. GenomeVx: simple web-based creation of editable circular chromosome maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Gavin C; Wolfe, Kenneth H

    2008-03-15

    We describe GenomeVx, a web-based tool for making editable, publication-quality, maps of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes and of large plasmids. These maps show the location of genes and chromosomal features as well as a position scale. The program takes as input either raw feature positions or GenBank records. In the latter case, features are automatically extracted and colored, an example of which is given. Output is in the Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) and can be edited by programs such as Adobe Illustrator. GenomeVx is available at http://wolfe.gen.tcd.ie/GenomeVx

  14. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  15. Effectiveness of air vapor barriers combined with ventilated crawlspaces in decreasing residential exposure to radon daughters to radon daughters: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, T.D.; Arundel, A.; McIntyre, D.; Sterling, E.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    Radon gas is present in many homes. Concentrations may be increased in airtight, energy-efficient structures. This is especially true in cold climates where energy conservation is an important factor leading to the widespread application of sealing and tightening techniques both in older renovated homes and new construction. To reduce radon concentrations, it may be effective to ventilate crawlspaces and prevent infiltration of radon gas into the house by means of an air/vapor barrier. The authors report first results of comparing radon levels in homes with and without ventilated crawlspaces and air/vapor barriers. Radon emissions were measured in a tightly sealed home with ventilated crawlspaces and an air/vapor barrier and in two homes without such vapor barriers and ventilated crawlspaces, but differing in ventilation. Preliminary results suggest that use of ventilated crawlspaces and bottomside vapor barriers may reduce indoor radon levels by approximately 60%. 15 references, 1 table

  16. Persistence and Effective Half-Life of Chemical Warfare Agent VX on Grass Foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    the plant leaves, including leaf epicuticular waxes and cuticle (Sanyal et al., 2006; Simini et al., 2016). The extent of persistence, penetration...diameter pots had been lined with two pieces of absorbent paper , then filled with 170 g (77.1 g dry mass) of the potting mix. After 7d post...replicate VX-contaminated leaves and respective negative (no VX) control leaves were removed from plants at specified times for analytical determination of

  17. MR and pathologic correlation of rabbit VX-2 carconoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.S.; Kim, S.M.; Im, J.G.; Kim, C.W.; Han, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the reliability of MR imaging in tissue characterization and depiction of tumor boundaries. The authors performed MR-pathologic correlation using parosteally implanted VX-2 carcinoma in 17 rabbit thighs. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted axial images were obtained 10-20 days after tumor implantation. After the animals were killed, freezing, sectioning along the MR imaging planes, and histopathologic examination were done. For accurate MR-pathologic correlation, rabbits were fixed on the cardboard plate to minimize position change during the procedures. Tumor boundaries depicted on MR images were larger than those depicted on the specimen. Small tumors were surrounded by capsule-like, hypervascular (mainly lymphatics), loose connective tissue. Loose connective tissue became compact with tumor growth. This connective tissue showed high signal intensity on both T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted images. Muscle atrophy with development of lymphatics around the tumor also contributed high signal intensity on MR images. Peritumoral edema and inflammatory reaction were not remarkable. Peritumoral lymphatics, rich connective tissue, and muscle atrophy exaggerated the size of experimentally induced malignant musculoskeletal tumors on MR images

  18. The experimental study on liver VX-2 tumor by using MR diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Youhong; Xiao Enhua; Jin Ke; Yan Ronghua; He Zhong; Shang Quanliang; Hu Weizhou; Yuan Shiwen; Xiang Jun; Tang Keli; Yi Shijian; Yin Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging characteristics of rabbit's liver VX-2 tumor on MR diffusion-weighted imaging. Methods: Of the 35 New Zealand rabbits, 14 were implanted under the skin while 6 were implanted in liver with VX-2 tumor in preparing experiment, and 12 were implanted in liver and 3 as controls in formal experiment. Before and after the implantation, MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T 1 -weighted and T 2 -weighted images were performed respectively and periodically in 15 tumors including 12 liver tumor implantations in formal experiment. DWI parameters including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were acquired and statistically analyzed by SPSS 10.0. Results: (1) The successful rate of implantation was 29% (4/14) under the skin and 33% (2/6) in the liver in preparing experiment. And the successful rate of formal experiment was 83% (10/12). (2) DWI signal of VX-2 tumor was high and the signal became lower and lower with b value increased step by step. The signal of VX-2 tumor on ADC map was low. The ADC value of normal group was (2.57 ± 0.26) mm 2 /s (b=100 s/mm 2 ) and (1.73 ± 0.31) mm 2 /s (b=300 s/mm 2 ), and ADC value of VX-2 tumor group was (1.87 ± 0.25) mm 2 /s (b=100 s/mm 2 ) and (1.57 ± 0.23) mm 2 /s (b=300 s/mm 2 ), respectively.The F value of analysis of variance was 43.26 (P<0.001). The distinction of tumor ADC value in different b values was significant (P<0.05), and the distinction of ADC value between VX-2 tumor and normal liver was also significant (P<0.01). (3) VX-2 tumor developed quickly and metastasized early to all parts of the body, especially to the lung, the liver, the lymph nodes of mediastinum and so on. Conclusion: DWI signal of VX-2 tumor has its characteristic and DWI has important value in reflecting the movement of water molecules, discovering the VX-2 tumor, and tracking its progress. (authors)

  19. The Parallax of the Red Hypergiant VX Sgr with Accurate Tropospheric Delay Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuangjing; Zhang, Bo; Reid, Mark J.; Menten, Karl M.; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Guangli

    2018-05-01

    We report astrometric results of VLBI phase-referencing observations of 22 GHz H2O masers emission toward the red hypergiant VX Sgr, one of most massive and luminous red hypergiant stars in our Galaxy, using the Very Long Baseline Array. A background source, J1820‑2528, projected 4.°4 from the target VX Sgr, was used as the phase reference. For the low decl. of these sources, such a large separation normally would seriously degrade the relative astrometry. We use a two-step method of tropospheric delay calibration, which combines the VLBI geodetic-block (or Global Positioning System) calibration with an image-optimization calibration, to obtain a trigonometric parallax of 0.64 ± 0.04 mas, corresponding to a distance of {1.56}-0.10+0.11 kpc. The measured proper motion of VX Sgr is 0.36 ± 0.76 and ‑2.92 ± 0.78 mas yr‑1 in the eastward and northward directions. The parallax and proper motion confirms that VX Sgr belong to the Sgr OB1 association. Rescaling bolometric luminosities in the literature to our parallax distance, we find that the luminosity of VX Sgr is (1.95 ± 0.62) × 105 L ⊙, where the uncertainty is dominated by differing photometry measurements.

  20. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid - Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS

  1. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  2. Hyperplasia of the lymphoepithelium of NALT in rats but not in mice upon 28-day exposure to 15ppm formaldehyde vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C. F.; Oostrum, L. van; Ma-Hock, L.; Durrer, S.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if local lymphoid tissues are a target of FA, nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) and upper-respiratory tract-draining lymph nodes were examined in a 28-day inhalation study with FA vapor in Fischer-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.Paraffin-embedded tissues were sectioned and

  3. Hyperplasia of the lymphoepithelium of NALT in rats but not in mice upon 28-day exposure to 15 ppm formaldehyde vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Oostrum, van L.; Ma-Hock, I.; Durrer, S.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if local lymphoid tissues are a target of FA, nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) and upper-respiratory tract-draining lymph nodes were examined in a 28-day inhalation study with FA vapor in Fischer-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Paraffin-embedded tissues were sectioned and

  4. Imaging of Rabbit VX-2 Hepatic Cancer by Cold and Thermal Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takeda, Tohoru; Lwin, Thet Thet; Wu, Jin; Yoneyama, Akio; Matsumura, Akira; Hori, Tomiei; Itai, Yuji

    2003-11-01

    Neutron radiography is based on differences in neutron mass attenuation coefficients among the elements and is a non-destructive imaging method. To investigate biomedical applications of neutron radiography, imaging of rabbit VX-2 liver cancer was performed using thermal and cold neutron radiography with a neutron imaging plate. Hepatic vessels and VX-2 tumor were clearly observed by neutron radiography, especially by cold neutron imaging. The image contrast of this modality was better than that of absorption-contrast X-ray radiography.

  5. Algorithm Design of CPCI Backboard's Interrupts Management Based on VxWorks' Multi-Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingyuan; An, Qi; Yang, Junfeng

    2006-09-01

    This paper begins with a brief introduction of the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks and CompactPCI standard, then gives the programming interfaces of Peripheral Controller Interface (PCI) configuring, interrupts handling and multi-tasks programming interface under VxWorks, and then emphasis is placed on the software frameworks of CPCI interrupt management based on multi-tasks. This method is sound in design and easy to adapt, ensures that all possible interrupts are handled in time, which makes it suitable for data acquisition systems with multi-channels, a high data rate, and hard real-time high energy physics.

  6. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  7. The Inhalation Toxicity of VX Aerosols Assessed in the McNamara Glove Box Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpin, John C; McCaskey, David A; Cameron, Kenneth P

    2005-01-01

    ... in this facility and to serve as a benchmark for ranking the toxicity of other agents. Neat VX challenge aerosols were generated by feeding micro-liter quantities of agent from a loaded syringe to a custom-made air assist atomizer...

  8. VX2 Carcinoma in rabbit liver: Different radiologic features according to innoculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Choi, Guk Myeong; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Joon Il; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung

    2000-01-01

    To investigate radiologic features about hepatic VX2 carcinoma induced by two methods, direct intraparenchymal innoculation vs transpotal approach, focus on enhancement pattern and comparison of each imaging modalities and innoculation methods. VX2 carcinomas were induced in 11 rabbit livers by direct inoculation (n=7) or infusion into mesenteric vein (n=4). After two weeks, spiral CT, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), intravenous contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography, intraarterial CO 2 sonography were done. The enhancement patterns were assessed independently and correlated with histopathologic features. With direct intraprenchymal innoculation, localized hepatic VX2 tumors were developed. Considering all imaging modalities, six of 7 tumors appeared peripheral hypervascularity, one hypovascularity. On pathologic and radiologic correlations, the enhancing portions of 4 tumors corresponded to viable tumor and pseudo-capsule portion, the other enhancing portions of 2 tumors corresponded to sinusoidal vascular spaces. With the transportal approaches, diffuse hepatic tumors were developed. Spiral CT and DSA revealed these tumors as marked peripheral hypervascular tumors with multiple A-P shunts. On pathologic findings, multiple thin walled sinusoidal spaces were seen at periphery of nodule. Spiral CT was superior to the other modalities in evaluation of enhancement characteristics. VX2 carcinomas in rabbit livers showed different radiologic and histopathologic features according to the innoculation methods.

  9. Antiviral activity of telaprevir (VX-950) and peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forestier, Nicole; Reesink, Hendrik W.; Weegink, Christine J.; McNair, Lindsay; Kieffer, Tara L.; Chu, Hui-May; Purdy, Susan; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Telaprevir (VX-950), an inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease, substantially decreased plasma HCV RNA levels in a prior clinical study. The present study evaluated viral kinetics and safety during dosing with telaprevir alone and in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a for 14

  10. Assessing the reactivation efficacy of hydroxylamine anion towards VX-inhibited AChE: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Abdul Shafeeuulla; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2012-05-01

    Oximate anions are used as potential reactivating agents for OP-inhibited AChE because of they possess enhanced nucleophilic reactivity due to the α-effect. We have demonstrated the process of reactivating the VX-AChE adduct with formoximate and hydroxylamine anions by applying the DFT approach at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The calculated results suggest that the hydroxylamine anion is more efficient than the formoximate anion at reactivating VX-inhibited AChE. The reaction of formoximate anion and the VX-AChE adduct is a three-step process, while the reaction of hydroxylamine anion with the VX-AChE adduct seems to be a two-step process. The rate-determining step in the process is the initial attack on the VX of the VX-AChE adduct by the nucleophile. The subsequent steps are exergonic in nature. The potential energy surface (PES) for the reaction of the VX-AChE adduct with hydroxylamine anion reveals that the reactivation process is facilitated by the lower free energy of activation (by a factor of 1.7 kcal mol(-1)) than that of the formoximate anion at the B3LYP/6-311 G(d,p) level of theory. The higher free energy of activation for the reverse reactivation reaction between hydroxylamine anion and the VX-serine adduct further suggests that the hydroxylamine anion is a very good antidote agent for the reactivation process. The activation barriers calculated in solvent using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the reactivation of the VX-AChE adduct with hydroxylamine anion were also found to be low. The calculated results suggest that V-series compounds can be more toxic than G-series compounds, which is in accord with earlier experimental observations.

  11. Thermochemical ablation therapy of VX2 tumor using a permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available Alkali metal appears to be a promising tool in thermochemical ablation, but, it requires additional data on safety is required. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal in the thermochemical ablation of tumors.Permeable oil-packed sodium-potassium (NaK was prepared using ultrasonic mixing of different ratios of metal to oil. The thermal effect of the mixture during ablation of muscle tissue ex vivo was evaluated using the Fluke Ti400 Thermal Imager. The thermochemical effect of the NaK-oil mixture on VX2 tumors was evaluated by performing perfusion CT scans both before and after treatment in 10 VX2 rabbit model tumors. VX2 tumors were harvested from two rabbits immediately after treatment to assess their viability using trypan blue and hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. staining.The injection of the NaK-oil mixture resulted in significantly higher heat in the ablation areas. The permeable oil controlled the rate of heat released during the NaK reaction with water in the living tissue. Perfusion computed tomography and its parameter map confirmed that the NaK-oil mixture had curative effects on VX2 tumors. Both trypan blue and H.E. staining showed partial necrosis of the VX2 tumors.The NaK-oil mixture may be used successfully to ablate tumor tissue in vivo. With reference to the controlled thermal and chemical lethal injury to tumors, using a liquid alkali in ablation is potentially an effective and safe method to treat malignant tumors.

  12. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  13. Lax-Phillips scattering theory with two Hilbert spaces V(x)=0((1)/|x|β), β>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambila Paz, F.

    1988-10-01

    A scattering theory for the wave equation with a perturbation with compact support was developed by Lax and Phillips in 1967. Using Enss approach Phillips developed a Lax-Phillips scattering theory for perturbations V such that V(x)=0((1)/|x| β ), β>2. In this paper we develop a scattering theory for more general perturbations V, i.e. for V(x)=0((1)/|x| β ), β>1. (author). 8 refs

  14. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation of RSDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    USAMRICD-TR-15-01 Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER guinea pig skin and the evaluation of RSDL 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Braue, EH...upper skin layers of hairless guinea pigs and to determine the ability of Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) to remove or degrade VX from

  15. OpenVX-based Python Framework for real-time cross platform acceleration of embedded computer vision applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Heimlich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedded real-time vision applications are being rapidly deployed in a large realm of consumer electronics, ranging from automotive safety to surveillance systems. However, the relatively limited computational power of embedded platforms is considered as a bottleneck for many vision applications, necessitating optimization. OpenVX is a standardized interface, released in late 2014, in an attempt to provide both system and kernel level optimization to vision applications. With OpenVX, Vision processing are modeled with coarse-grained data flow graphs, which can be optimized and accelerated by the platform implementer. Current full implementations of OpenVX are given in the programming language C, which does not support advanced programming paradigms such as object-oriented, imperative and functional programming, nor does it have runtime or type-checking. Here we present a python-based full Implementation of OpenVX, which eliminates much of the discrepancies between the object-oriented paradigm used by many modern applications and the native C implementations. Our open-source implementation can be used for rapid development of OpenVX applications in embedded platforms. Demonstration includes static and real-time image acquisition and processing using a Raspberry Pi and a GoPro camera. Code is given as supplementary information. Code project and linked deployable virtual machine are located on GitHub: https://github.com/NBEL-lab/PythonOpenVX.

  16. Cross-compilation of ATLAS online software to the power PC-Vx works system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuren; Li Jin; Ren Zhengyu; Zhu Kejun

    2005-01-01

    BES III, selected ATLAS online software as a framework of its run-control system. BES III applied Power PC-VxWorks system on its front-end readout system, so it is necessary to cross-compile this software to PowerPC-VxWorks system. The article demonstrates several aspects related to this project, such as the structure and organization of the ATLAS online software, the application of CMT tool while cross-compiling, the selection and configuration of the cross-compiler, methods to solve various problems due to the difference of compiler and operating system etc. The software, after cross-compiling, can normally run, and makes up a complete run-control system with the software running on Linux system. (authors)

  17. Scattering theory for one-dimensional systems with ∫dx V(x) = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Gesztesy, F.; Klaus, M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-energy scattering for Schroedinger operators of the type H=- Δ + V in L 2 (IR) with ∫sub(R)dx V(x) = 0 is considered. The possibility of zero-energy eigenstates of H is taken into account explicitly. In particular, a Laurent expansion for the transition operator and recursion relations for its coefficients are provided and the leading behavior of the scattering operator is given all in possible cases

  18. Pembuatan Game Fruit Entrepreneur Dengan Menggunakan Engine RPG Maker VX Ace

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain, M. Rizki

    2015-01-01

    Game merupakan salah satu industry di dunia saat ini. Perkembangan game begitu pesat dengan jenis yang beragam, mulai dari game yang hanya dapat di mainkan oleh satu orang saja hingga game yang dapat dimainkan oleh beberapa orang sekaligus. RPG maker VX Ace merupakan perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk membuat sebuah game ber-genre RPG. Tujuan tugas akhir ini adalah untuk membuat sebuah game bertema wirausaha namun dengan gaya bermain RPG (role playing game). 112406244

  19. Access to CAMAC from VxWorks and UNIX in DART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, J.; Meadows, J.; Moore, C.

    1995-05-01

    As part of the DART Project the authors have developed a package of software for CAMAC access from UNIX and VxWorks platforms, with support for several hardware interfaces. They report on developments for the CES CBD8210 VME to parallel CAMAC, the Hytec VSD2992 VME to serial CAMAC and Jorway 411S SCSI to parallel and serial CAMAC branch drivers, and give a summary of the timings obtained

  20. Contact Transfer of VX from Contaminated Grass onto Army Combat Uniform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    for low levels of VX and confirmation of GC results, were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry...HPLC–MS/MS) with an Agilent 1260 liquid chromatography (LC) triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer and MassHunter data acquisition and analysis...is based on the determination of a relative potency factor (RPF), which is derived from the ratio of toxicity data from a reference chemical with an

  1. Natural Detoxification Capacity to Inactivate Nerve Agents Sarin and VX in the Rat Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The method of continual determination of the rat blood cholinesterase activity was developed to study the changes of the blood cholinesterases following different intervetions. Aims: The aim of this study is registration of cholinesterase activity in the rat blood and its changes to demonstrate detoxification capacity of rats to inactivate sarin or VX in vivo. Methods: The groups of female rats were premedicated (ketamine and xylazine and cannulated to a. femoralis. Continual blood sampling (0.02 ml/min and monitoring of the circulating blood cholinesterase activity were performed. Normal activity was monitored 1–2 min and then the nerve agent was administered i.m. (2× LD50. Using different time intervals of the leg compression and relaxation following the agent injection, cholinesterase activity was monitored and according to the inhibition obtained, detoxification capacity was assessed. Results: Administration of sarin to the leg, then 1 and 5 min compression and 20 min later relaxation showed that further inhibition in the blood was not observed. On the other hand, VX was able to inhibit blood cholinesterases after this intervention. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that sarin can be naturally detoxified on the contrary to VX. Described method can be used as model for other studies dealing with changes of cholinesterases in the blood following different factors.

  2. JANUS: A Compilation System for Balancing Parallelism and Performance in OpenVX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidian, Hossein; Lemieux, Guy G. F.

    2018-04-01

    Embedded systems typically do not have enough on-chip memory for entire an image buffer. Programming systems like OpenCV operate on entire image frames at each step, making them use excessive memory bandwidth and power. In contrast, the paradigm used by OpenVX is much more efficient; it uses image tiling, and the compilation system is allowed to analyze and optimize the operation sequence, specified as a compute graph, before doing any pixel processing. In this work, we are building a compilation system for OpenVX that can analyze and optimize the compute graph to take advantage of parallel resources in many-core systems or FPGAs. Using a database of prewritten OpenVX kernels, it automatically adjusts the image tile size as well as using kernel duplication and coalescing to meet a defined area (resource) target, or to meet a specified throughput target. This allows a single compute graph to target implementations with a wide range of performance needs or capabilities, e.g. from handheld to datacenter, that use minimal resources and power to reach the performance target.

  3. Experiment of embolizing hepatocarcinoma with heated lipiodol via hepatic artery in VX2 rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin; Wan Yi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX 2 hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX 2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX 2 rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92± 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48±) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69±0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P 0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6±6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)

  4. The efficacy of HI-6 DMS in a sustained infusion against percutaneous VX poisoning in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, C; Cook, A R; Mann, T; Price, M E; Emery, E; Roughley, N; Flint, D; Stubbs, S; Armstrong, S J; Rice, H; Tattersall, J E H

    2018-09-01

    Post-exposure nerve agent treatment usually includes administration of an oxime, which acts to restore function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). For immediate treatment of military personnel, this is usually administered with an autoinjector device, or devices containing the oxime such as pralidoxime, atropine and diazepam. In addition to the autoinjector, it is likely that personnel exposed to nerve agents, particularly by the percutaneous route, will require further treatment at medical facilities. As such, there is a need to understand the relationship between dose rate, plasma concentration, reactivation of AChE activity and efficacy, to provide supporting evidence for oxime infusions in nerve agent poisoning. Here, it has been demonstrated that intravenous infusion of HI-6, in combination with atropine, is efficacious against a percutaneous VX challenge in the conscious male Dunkin-Hartley guinea-pig. Inclusion of HI-6, in addition to atropine in the treatment, improved survival when compared to atropine alone. Additionally, erythrocyte AChE activity following poisoning was found to be dose dependent, with an increased dose rate of HI-6 (0.48mg/kg/min) resulting in increased AChE activity. As far as we are aware, this is the first study to correlate the pharmacokinetic profile of HI-6 with both its pharmacodynamic action of reactivating nerve agent inhibited AChE and with its efficacy against a persistent nerve agent exposure challenge in the same conscious animal. Copyright © 2017 Crown Copyright. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated Exposure to Sublethal Doses of the Organophosphorus Compound VX Activates BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    urinary and fecal incontinence , and bronchial constriction (reviewed in Russell and Overstreet, 1987). Acute toxic levels of CWNA, particularly at...neuronal remodeling, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined the time course of BDNF expression in C57BL/6 mouse brain following...with known trophic effects may be unique targets of intoxication and important factors in the recovery of surviving subjects. In addition, some

  6. Effects of intra-arterial infusion therapy or systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel for VX2 tumor in rabbit hind limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yuanxin; Wu Xiaomei; He Miao; Liu Tao; Deng Duo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial infusion therapy with docetaxel. Methods: Animal model of VX2 tumor in rabbit hind limb was set up. Intra-arterial infusion therapy or systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel was performed. Concentrations of docetaxel in VX2 tumor, wall of stomach, liver, kidney and plasma of rabbits with VX2 tumors in hind limbs were determined. Difference of drug concentrations between intra-arterial infusion therapy and systemic chemotherapy was compared using Student t-test. Results: Concentrations of docetaxel in VX2 tumor and wall of stomach of rabbits with intra-arterial infusion therapy were significantly higher than those with systemic chemotherapy (p<0.05). The drug concentration in VX2 tumor of rabbits with intra-arterial infusion was 14 times higher than that with systemic chemotherapy. Concentration of docetaxel in plasma of rabbits with intra-arterial infusion therapy was not significantly lower than that with systemic chemotherapy (P<0.05). Conclusion: Intra-arterial infusion therapy with docetaxel for tumor is effective. However, there is increased risk of toxicity and the dose should adjusted accordingly. (authors)

  7. Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar Surfaces of Living Plants Maintained in a Surety Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    RAIN-INDUCED WASH-OFF OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT (VX) FROM FOLIAR SURFACES OF LIVING PLANTS MAINTAINED IN A...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2014 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rain-Induced Wash-Off of Chemical Warfare Agent (VX) from Foliar...galli Foliage Chemical warfare agent (CWA) O-ethyl-S-(2

  8. Efficacy of VX-509 (decernotinib) in combination with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Mark C.; Yang, Fang; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess early effects on joint structures of VX-509 in combination with stable disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy using MRI in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods This phase II, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging study randomised patients with RA......), and the RA MRI scoring (RAMRIS) system. Results ACR20 response at week 12 was 63.6%, 60.0% and 60.0% in the VX-509 100-mg, 200-mg and 300-mg groups, respectively, compared with 25.0% in the placebo group. DAS28-CRP scores decreased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing VX-509 doses. Decreases in RAMRIS...... to a DMARD alone. MRI responses were detected at week 12. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT01754935; results....

  9. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Li Haiming

    2011-01-01

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  10. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  11. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    is decontaminated that could pose an exposure hazard to unprotected personnel. The chemical contaminants may include chemical warfare agents (CWAs... decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial...a range of test articles from coupons, panels, and small fielded equipment items. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor hazard; vapor sampling; chemical warfare

  12. MR muscle tractography study on VX2 soft-tissue tumor in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Guo Liang; Xie Daohai; Hu Chunhogn; Guo Maofeng; Zhu Wei; Chen Jianhua; Xing Jianming; Wang Renfa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and muscle fiber tracts of muscle disease are feasible. Methods: Twenty Newzealand white rabbits were implanted with 0.2 ml VX 2 tumor tissue suspension in the right proximal thighs. MRI and DTI were performed on these rabbits and DTI of muscle fiber tracts in the muscles around the lesions were reconstructed. The fractional anisotropy(FA) and volume ratio anisotropy(VrA) of the tumor and the normal muscle were analyzed. The correlation study between MRI and pathological findings was done. Results: All experimental animal models of rabbit VX 2 soft tissue tumors were successfully established. The difference of FA between the central parenchyma area and the necrosis area, the peripheral area of the tumor, the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was statistically significant (P 0.05). The difference of FA and VrA between the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The arrangement of normal muscle was regular on DTI of muscle tract. The muscle around the tumor lesions was infiltrated and destructed, which demonstrated irregular and interrupted muscle fiber on muscle tractography. Conclusion: DTI is advantageous to demonstrate the structure of soft tissue tumors and its border, which should be helpful in the structure and function research of muscle, as well as in the diagnosis of muscle diseases. (authors)

  13. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  14. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  15. Gram-scale synthesis of the p38α MAPK-inhibitor VX-745 for preclinical studies into Werner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Dix, Matthew C; Fusillo, Vincenzo; Pigeaux, Morgane; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David

    2010-09-01

    The ATP-competitive p38α MAPK inhibitor VX-745 exhibits an exquisite kinase selectivity profile, is effective in blocking p38 stress signaling in Werner syndrome dermal fibroblasts, has efficacy in clinical trials and may have therapeutic value against Werner syndrome. Previous synthetic routes, however, have only resulted in milligram quantities suitable for cell-based studies, whereas gram quantities would be required for in vivo use. Microwave irradiation using a stop-flow monomodal microwave reactor has been found to facilitate scale-up of the synthesis of VX-745. Ullmann-type C-S bond formation using thiophenol, chloropyridazine, copper(I) catalyst and diol ligand proceeds rapidly and efficiently in this apparatus for elaboration to the pyrimido[1,6-b]pyridazinone core of VX-745 on gram scale and with good overall yield. This method delivers the p38 inhibitor VX-745 in sufficient quantities for preclinical studies to rescue the aging phenotype in Werner syndrome.

  16. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  17. Improvements to vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arthur; Monroe, Neil.

    1976-01-01

    A supporting system is proposed for vapor generators of the 'supported' type. Said supporting system is intended to compensate the disparities of thermal expansion due to the differences in the vertical dimensions of the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber and their collectors compared to that of the balloon tanks and the connecting tube clusters of vaporization, the first one being longer than the second ones. Said system makes it possible to build said combustion chamber higher than the balloon tanks and the tube clusters of vaporization. The capacity of steam production is thus enhanced [fr

  18. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  19. Make a 2D RPG in a weekend with RPG maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2015-01-01

    Make a 2D RPG in a Weekend shows you how to create your very own dungeon crawler game in RPG Maker VX Ace in a single weekend. The entire process, from start to finish, is covered within this book. You will see a variety of dungeon maps and events, all broken down for your convenience. One of the hardest parts of game development is actually finishing a game, but it is also one of the most important steps on the way to becoming a game developer. If you have yet to finish a game, this book will give you the confidence and resources you need to finally be able to create your very own RPG. Once

  20. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  1. Study of CT-guided iodine-125 implantation in the treatment of rabbit VX2 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kewu; Gao Bin; Li Jiajia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of CT-guided iodine-125 seed( 125 I) implantation to rabbit model VX2 tumor cell apoptosis. Methods: VX2 tumor cells were implanted into muscle of 40 rabbits legs, 3 weeks later, as the diameter of tumor reached 2 cm available for test. Randomly selected the sampling tumor on one leg of rabbit as for the test team and tumor on the contralateral leg as for control team. Under CT guidance, 125 I seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the test team, and hollow seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the control team. Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after operation, percutaneous tumor tissue sampling was done 0.5-1.0 cm and 1.0-1.5 cm away from seed implanted site under CT guidance; and apoptosis was investigated by FCM. Results: Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after treatment with iodine-125 ( 125 I) implantation, the tissue sampling away from seed 0.5-1.0 cm showed the apoptosis rates of control team and test team were respectively as follows: (5.43±0.67)% and (5.48±0.66)%, (P>0.05), (5.45±0.58)% and (11.60±0.87)%, (P O.05)of the control team and test team. Conclusions: 125 I seeds implantation can induce tumor cell apoptosis, beginning at 72 h and reached peak at 2 w and kept the high level here afterword. The apoptosis rate descended rapidly along with the increase of distance away from the 125 I seedling. (authors)

  2. LP-THAE induced tumor cell apoptosis of rabbit VX2 liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengli; Quan Yi; Huang Zicheng; Chen Guodong; Zhu Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research tumor cell apoptosis induced by Lp-THAE of rabbit VX2 liver implanted tumor. Methods: 27 New Zealand white rabbits implanted with VX2 tumor at left middle lobe of the liver divided into three groups: Group A(n= 9) Lp-THAE: treated through transhepatic artery catheterization; Group B(n=9) THAI and Group C(n=9) as control. The rabbits were executed at second to fifth day after treatment. HE dye microscopy was taken for counting the typical apoptosis cells and calculating apoptosis index (ApI). FITC-AnnexinV/PI assay was used for measuring apoptosis by flow cytometry. Results: The ApI of tumor central area and marginal area were (17.769±2.417)%, (4.129±1.172)%, P<0.01. The percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and tumor cell necrosis were (16.483±1.404)%, (9.478±0.964)%, P<0.01 and (43.559±5.053)%, (33.460±1.840)%, P=0.093. The total percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis were (60.042±13.979)%, (42.938±8.979)%, P< 0.01, at tumor center and marginal area in THAE group respectively. The ApI, percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis in THAE group were significantly higher than those of THAI group (P<0.01). The percentages of tumor cell apoptosis at tumor center area in THAE group were significantly higher than those of tumor marginal area(P<0.01). Conclusion: Induced tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis are two mechanisms of action for Lp-THAE treatment of liver carcinoma. (authors)

  3. Optical acetone vapor sensors based on chiral nematic liquid crystals and reactive chiral dopants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cachelin, P.; Green, J.P.; Peijs, T.; Heeney, M.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate monitoring of exposure to organic vapors, such as acetone, is an important part of maintaining a safe working environment and adhering to long- and short-term exposure limits. Here, a novel acetone vapor detection system is described based on the use of a reactive chiral dopant in a nematic

  4. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  5. On the inclusive reaction e+e- → VX with regard for polarization states of generated vector meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachtryan, G.N.; Shakhnazaryan, Yu.G.

    1977-01-01

    The e + e - →VX inclusive process has been considered with allowance made for polarization states of a vector meson. The tensor that describes the vortex of the γ→VX transition has also been considered. In the general case the tensor contains eight structural functions. The elements of the vector meson density matrix have been calculated in the spiral representation. These elements are expressed in terms of the given structural functions and polarization vectors of annihilating particles. It is shown that the structural functions can be determined from the study of angular distribution of products of the meson vector decay on pseudoscalar particles (p→2π, ω→3π, phi→2K) and on a lepton-antilepton pair (PSI, PSI'→e + e - )

  6. Microwave-assisted Ullmann C-S bond formation: synthesis of the P38alpha MAPK clinical candidate VX-745.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Dix, Matthew C; Fusillo, Vincenzo; Pigeaux, Morgane; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David

    2009-11-06

    Microwave irradiation promotes the rapid and efficient reaction of a thiophenol and aryl or heteroaryl halide using a copper or palladium catalyst and a range of ligands, depending upon substrate. Of particular utility is the use of copper(I) iodide (5 mol %) and trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diol as ligand under basic conditions and microwave irradiation to give the corresponding sulfide in high yield. This method for C-S bond formation is applied in the four-step synthesis of the clinical candidate VX-745 in 38% overall yield. The inhibitory activity of VX-745 against p38alpha MAPK is confirmed in Werner syndrome dermal fibroblasts at 1.0 microM concentration by immunoblot assay.

  7. The driving and controlling techniques of compactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Anzong; Ju Xiaodong; Qiao Wenxiao

    2005-01-01

    CompactPCI bus and interface featuring, the content and function of PCI configuration register are introduced herein. The driving and controlling techniques of CompactPCI bus in VxWorks real-time operating system are detailed. Hardware interrupt handling is one of key significance in real-time systems, because it is usually through interrupts that the system is informed of external events. VxWorks allows C functions to be connected to any interrupt. A routine connected to an interrupt in this way is called an interrupt service routine (ISR). For response of interrupt, interrupt control/status register of PCI 9054 interface chip needs to be set. The general-purpose binary semaphore used in ISR is capable of addressing the requirements of both forms of task coordination: mutual exclusion and synchronization. Therefore, the system runs stably and reliably. (authors)

  8. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Jin; Li, Chao; Lv, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Cong; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hui; Luo, Yun-Xiu; Li, Yan; Xiao, Mingyong; Yin, Jun; Lang, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3-127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2-53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7-124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2-62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14-47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice.

  9. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x = Ax2α + Bx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al Sdran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x = Ax2α + Bx2, (A>0, B<0, with (α = 2 for quadratic, (α =3 for sextic and (α =4 for octic anharmonic oscillators. The Airy function approach is based on the replacement of the real potential V(x by a piecewise-linear potential v(x, while, the Numerov method is based on the discretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It’s found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  10. Brachytherapy Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides with (131)I Inhibit Tumor Growth in Rabbits with VX2 Liver Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinpei; Shen, Yiming; Zhang, Xuqian; Lin, Rui; Jia, Qiang; Chang, Yixiang; Liu, Wenge; Liu, Wentian

    2016-10-01

    Brachytherapy is a targeted type of radiotherapy utilized in the treatment of cancers. Elastin-like polypeptides are a unique class of genetically engineered peptide polymers that have several attractive properties for brachytherapy. To explore the feasibility and application of brachytherapy for VX2 liver tumor using elastin-like polypeptides with (131)I so as to provide reliable experimental evidence for a new promising treatment of liver cancer. Elastin-like polypeptide as carrier was labeled with (131)I using the iodogen method. Ten eligible rabbits with VX2 liver tumor were randomly divided into the treatment group (n = 5) and control group (n = 5). The treatment group received brachytherapy using elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I, and in the control group, elastin-like polypeptide was injected into the VX2 liver tumor as a control. Periodic biochemical and imaging surveillances were required to assess treatment efficacy. The stability of elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I in vitro was maintained at over 96.8 % for 96 h. Biochemistry and imaging indicated brachytherapy using elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I for liver tumor can improve liver function and inhibit tumor growth (P Elastin-like polypeptide can be an ideal carrier of (131)I and have high labeling efficiency, radiochemical purity and stability. Brachytherapy using elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I for liver tumor is a useful therapy that possesses high antitumor efficacy advantages.

  11. Targeted hyperthermia after selective embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a VX2 rabbit liver tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hongliang Sun,1 Linfeng Xu,1 Tianyuan Fan,2 Hongzhi Zhan,3 Xiaodong Wang,3 Yanfei Zhou,2 Ren-jie Yang3 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 2Pharmacy School of Beijing University, Beijing, 3Department of Interventional Therapy, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect and feasibility of hyperthermia and the influence of heat on surrounding organs in a VX2 rabbit liver model exposed to an alternating magnetic field after embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Methods: Forty rabbits containing implanted hepatic VX2 carcinomas were divided into four groups, each containing ten rabbits. Fourteen days after tumor transplantation, we opened the abdomen to observe the size and shape of the tumor. A transfemoral retrograde approach was then used for hepatic arterial catheterization in groups B, C, and D to perform angiography and embolization. The next day, three rabbits in group B and all rabbits in group D were exposed to an alternating magnetic field, and the temperature was recorded simultaneously in the center of the tumor, at the edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma. On day 28, all animals was euthanized to observe changes in the implanted liver tumor and the condition of the abdomen. A pathologic examination was also done. Results: Before surgery, there was no significant difference in tumor volume between the four groups. Three different temperature points (center of the tumor, edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma of group B under an alternating magnetic field were 37.2°C ± 1.1°C, 36.8°C ± 1.2°C, and 36.9°C ± 2.1°C, none of which were significantly different from pretreatment values. Three points basal temperature in group D showed no significant difference (F = 1.038, P = 0.413. Seven to 26

  12. Toxicity of vapor phase petroleum contaminants to microbial degrader communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.C.; Davey, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum products constitute the largest quantity of synthetic organic chemical products produced in the US. They are comprised of mostly hydrocarbon constituents from many different chemical classes including alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Many petroleum constituents are classified as volatile organic compounds or VOCs. Petroleum products also constitute a major portion of environmental pollution. One emerging technology, with promise for applications to VOCs in subsurface soil environments, is bioventing coupled with soil vapor extraction. These technologies involve volatilization of contaminants into the soil gas phase by injection and withdrawal of air. This air movement causes enhancement of the aerobic microbial degradation of the mobilized vapors by the indigenous populations. This study investigated the effects of exposure of mixed, subsurface microbial communities to vapor phase petroleum constituents or vapors of petroleum mixtures. Soil slurries were prepared and plated onto mineral salts agar plates and exposed to vapor phase contaminants at equilibrium with pure product. Representative n-alkane, branched alkane, cycloalkane, and aromatic compounds were tested as well as petroleum product mixtures. Vapor exposure altered the numbers and morphologies of the colonies enumerated when compared to controls. However, even at high, equilibrium vapor concentrations, microbial degrader populations were not completely inhibited

  13. Vaporization of irradiated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Zardecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The vaporization of a spherically symmetric liquid droplet subject to a high-intensity laser flux is investigated on the basis of a hydrodynamic description of the system composed of the vapor and ambient gas. In the limit of the convective vaporization, the boundary conditions at the fluid--gas interface are formulated by using the notion of a Knudsen layer in which translational equilibrium is established. This leads to approximate jump conditions at the interface. For homogeneous energy deposition, the hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically with the aid of the CON1D computer code (''CON1D: A computer program for calculating spherically symmetric droplet combustion,'' Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LA-10269-MS, December, 1984), based on the implict continuous--fluid Eulerian (ICE) [J. Comput. Phys. 8, 197 (1971)] and arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) [J. Comput. Phys. 14, 1227 (1974)] numerical mehtods. The solutions exhibit the existence of two shock waves propagating in opposite directions with respect to the contact discontinuity surface that separates the ambient gas and vapor

  14. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  15. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  16. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  17. Bioevaluation study of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle brachytherapy in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Yang Min, E-mail: ymzfk@yahoo.com.hk [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Pan Donghui; Wang Lizhen [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Liu Lu; Huang Peilin [Nuclear Medicine Institute of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shao Guoqiang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University, Nanjing 210006 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapy effects of intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. Methods: 16 rabbits with tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. 4 rabbits served as untreated controls, and others received intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles with CT guidance. The total radioactivities in treated groups were as follows: a low activity was 93 MBq (n=4) (group 1), a medium activity was 185 MBq (n=4) (group 2) and a high activity was 370 MBq (n=4) (group 3). Brachytherapy treated VX2 tumors underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at 0 day, 3 day, 7 day and 14 day postinjection. In control group, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without any treatment. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images were performed at 14 days after intratumoral brachytherapy in treated groups. After Bremsstrahlung SPECT and last {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imagings, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological examination. Results: Bremsstrahlung SPECT images study indicated that there was no leakage of {sup 32}P out of the injection site at 14 days after treatment. Compared with the control, the tumor volumes in treated groups significantly decreased, and {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle produced a reduction in maximum or mean SUV of VX2 tumor (p<0.05). The percentage changes in maximum and mean SUV gradually decreased in group 1 and group 2 from day 3 to day 14 (p<0.05). A transient increase in {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation at group 3 occurred due to the inflammatory reaction elements. Activity dependence was seen in HE and PCNA staining after 14 days treatment among three treated groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggested that {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle localized on the injecting sites. This novel brachytherapy device efficiently suppressed the growth of the VX2 tumors implanted in the rabbit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 32

  18. Cooperative effect of radiation and vapor environments on the deterioration of insulator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Yasuo; Okada, Sohei; Yagi, Toshiaki; Ito, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kenzo; Tamura, Naoyuki

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results and speculations are described on the cooperative effect of radiation and vapor environments for the deterioration of insulator cable cladding materials such as polyethylene chlorosulphonate, ethylene propylene rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, chloroprene and silicone rubber, by the separate, simultaneous or subsequent exposure of the above-mentioned two kinds of exposure factors. These experiment was carried out by considering main environmental factors in the LOCA (loss of coolant accident) conditions. Radiation experiment was made by employing 60 Co source of 9.7 kGy/h at a room-temperature air condition. Vapor environment exposure was conducted by the conditions of 120 to 160 deg C steam-saturated air conditions and others. With the experimental results described on the characteristics of the five kinds of the above-mentioned insulator materials in radiation and saturated vapor conditions, the following conclusions were obtained. Acceleration of deterioration by the cooperative action of radiation and saturated vapor was found for the examined materials except the cross-linked polyethylene. In the subsequent exposure of radiation and saturated vapor, deterioration behavior was dependent on insulator materials and component ratios of the insulator materials. For the cross-linked polyethylene, annealing effect by heat was found, and the effect was less significent in the simultaneous exposure. Restoration phenomenon was found in the cross-linked polyethylene even in the saturated vapor exposure stage of the subsequent exposure conditions of radiation exposure followed by saturated vapor. (Takagi, S.)

  19. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  20. Hepatic VX2 tumor after portal vein occlusion in rabbits: evaluation with DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Zhang Qichuan; Chen Lin; Huang Xiaobing; Huan Guangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of DSA for hepatic vascular anatomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of portal vein occlusion in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups with 10 in each group, including test group A and positive control group B of ham operation. For the test group A, portal branch ligation (PBL) was performed for the left external branch after 3 weeks of the tumor implantation to the left external lobe. Two weeks later, the DSA of hepatic artery and portal vein were performed in all of the rabbits. Results: The total displaying effectiveness of the branches of hepatic artery by DSA was better than that by vascular perfusion. There was hypovascular blood supply to hepatic artery implantation of the tumor in the test group A, comparing with that of the group B. Conclusion: DSA can clearly display special details of the hepatic vascular anatomy in rabbits, and play an important role in post-procedural evaluation of the portal vein occlusion in rabbits. (authors)

  1. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Radiofrequency Ablation of VX2 Liver Tumor: Intraarterial versus Intravenous Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) can be used as a possible pharmaceutical alternative that augments radiofrequency (RF) ablation by reducing tumor blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intraarterial and intravenous administration of As 2 O 3 on RF-induced ablation in an experimentally induced liver tumor. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of 30 rabbits. As 2 O 3 (1 mg/kg) was administered through the hepatic artery (n = 10, group A) or ear vein (n = 10, group B), 30 minutes before RF ablation (125 mA ± 35; 90 ± 5 degrees Celsius). As a control group, 10 rabbits were treated with RF ablation alone (group C). RF was intentionally applied to the peripheral margin of the tumor so that ablation can cover the tumor and adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Ablation areas of the tumor and adjacent parenchymal changes among three groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The overall ablation areas were 156 ± 28.9 mm 2 (group A), 119 ± 31.7 (group B), and 92 ± 17.4 (group C, p 2 ) than both group B (50 ± 19.4, p = 0.02) and group C (28 ± 2.2, p 2 O 3 . The intraarterial administration of As 2 O 3 seems to be helpful for the selective ablation of the tumor.

  2. Experimental study of chemical embolus therapy combined with radiotherapy for VX2 bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Ishii, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study, using a combination of coarse crystal cisplatin and radiotherapy for bone tumors, to evaluate the possibility of the clinical application of chemical embolus therapy in the field of orthopedic surgery. Experimental femoral bone tumors were produced, in rabbits, using VX2 carcinoma. The rabbits were allocated to five groups: untreated control, embolus, chemical embolus, irradiation alone, and chemical embolus and irradiation combination. These therapies were evaluated comparatively, in terms of local antitumor effects (including body weight, X-ray findings, angiography, and histopathology) and in terms of inhibition of pulmonary metastasis. Local antitumor effects, as evaluated by all parameters, except for body weight, were significantly greater for the chemical and irradiation combination group than for the chemical embolus, irradiation alone, untreated control, and embolus groups. There was no significant difference in the inhibition of pulmonary metastasis among the chemical embolus and irradiation combination, chemical embolus, and irradiation alone groups. These findings demonstrated the synergistic effect of the combination of chemical embolus therapy and radiotherapy. In this study, however, no significant difference was found between the chemical embolus therapy alone and the combination therapy groups in the inhibitory effect on pulmonary tumor metastasis, suggesting the need to conduct combination therapy repeatedly in the clinical setting. (author)

  3. Effect of hyperthermia on blood flow in VX2 tumor transplanted in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Takeshi

    1994-01-01

    Effect of hyperthermia on blood flow was evaluated using VX 2 rabbit carcinoma in both legs. Microwave energy at 2450 MHz was used to heat tumors for 40 minutes. An outer canula of 18 G Erasta was implanted in the depth of 2 cm in tumor to measure the temperature and to maintain at 43.0degC-44.0degC. The blood flow in tumors was evaluated by color doppler flow imaging and dynamic MRI. Disturbance of blood flow in the depth of surface 0 cm to 2 cm in tumors was showed at 10 minutes starting 43.0degC heating and at almost all sites disappearance of blood flow was showed at 40 minutes using color doppler flow imaging. But the blood flow beyond the depth of 2 cm was not so disturbed at 40 minutes, relatively. After hyperthermia T1WI and T2WI in heated tumor were no difference comparing with those in control tumor, but heated tumor showed no enhancement using dynamic MRI with TURBO-FLASH technique and post-enhanced T1WI. Histologically, there was extensive tumor necrosis and thrombus formation in heated tumor after 3 days and 1 week. Therefore color doppler flow imaging and dynamic MRI were considered to be useful for evaluation of blood flow in tumor after and during hyperthermia. (author)

  4. Intratumoral vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma : comparison of power doppler sonography and microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kil Sun; Won, Hyung Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and limitations of power Doppler sonography in determining the tumor vascularity Power Doppler sonography was performed on VX2 carcinomas present in rabbit thighs, and the findings were compared with those of microangiography in an almost identical plane. Tumor vascularity was qualitatively analysed on the basis of tumor vessel distribution and density, and the presence of thick and thin vesels;for a comparison of tumor vascularity as seen on microangiography, tumor blood flow signals shown by power Doppler sonography were graded 3, 2, 1, 0. For quantitative analysis, a comparison was made of the percentage of tumor area occupied by vessels, as shown in each study. Data analysis utilized the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman correlation test. Mean tumor vascularity scores, as seen on power Doppler sonography and relating to tumor vessel distribution and density, and the presence of thick and thin vessels, were 2.87, 2.73, 2.93 and 2.73, respectively. The means and medians of the percentages of tumor area occupied by vessels were 22.7% and 23.5% and 36.4% and 34.7% on microangiography and power Doppler sonography, respectively. Thus, there was good correlation between these two modes. Power doppler sonography could demonstrate the tumor vascularity on microangiography relatively well but tend to overestimate it

  5. Physical properties of sand parts produced using a Voxeljet VX1000 three-dimensional printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, Kasongo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful case studies of metal casting applications using sand moulds and cores produced by additive manufacturing (AM processes have been widely reported in the literature. The layered- based manufacturing process has revolutionised traditional sand moulding methods. This is essentially due to the numerous advantages of AM, including the reduction of design lead time and the ability to manufacture objects with complex geometry in a rapid turnaround time. Locally-available AM processes that are capable of producing sand moulds and cores include laser sintering (LS and three-dimensional printing (3DP, with the latter AM process growing in dominance over the former. However, a better understanding of the properties of parts produced by AM processes is required in order for the processes to be fully adopted by the foundry industry. Crucial characteristics of 3DP sand parts related to strength, dimensional accuracy, and hardness are not well- known in terms of their magnitude and in comparison with conventionally-moulded sand parts. In this investigation, the physical properties of test specimens produced under standard manufacturing conditions, using a Voxeljet VX1000 machine, were assessed for bend and tensile strength, hardness, friability, and surface finish. The physical properties of the 3DP test specimens were then compared with the properties of laboratory hand- rammed test specimens. The results of the investigation suggest that the properties of AM-fabricated sand parts are inferior to sand parts produced by conventional moulding processes.

  6. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of linear aliphatic alkanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, Vasiliy A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressure of diamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = 3 to 12. → Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Enthalpies of vaporization show linear dependence on numbers n. → Enthalpies of vaporization correlate linearly with Kovat's indices. - Abstract: Vapor pressures and the molar enthalpies of vaporization of the linear aliphatic alkanediamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = (3 to 12) have been determined using the transpiration method. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization (at T = 298.15 K) of the alkanediamines with the number n and with the Kovat's indices has been found, proving the internal consistency of the measured data.

  7. Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi

    2002-11-01

    Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.

  8. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  9. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  10. Tumor hepático experimental (VX-2 em coelho: implantação do modelo no Brasil Experimental liver tumor (VX-2 in rabbits: implantation of the model in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad Hossne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos para a investigação de novas modalidades terapêuticas em biologia tumoral, deveriam passar por estudos experimentais prévios. Neste sentido dispõem-se hoje de uma grande variedade de modelos tumorais experimentais; em determinadas investigações faz-se necessária a adequação do modelo tumoral às necessidades biológicas, patológicas e experimentais dos estudos. Desta forma, em nosso serviço, buscávamos um modelo tumoral hepático para estudos experimentais que se adequasse às seguintes características: fácil manipulação, crescimento controlável, evolução e agressividade semelhantes aos seres humanos. Os dados da literatura nos levaram a busca do tumor hepático VX-2, em coelhos. Neste artigo discutimos as vantagens da utilização deste modelo experimental e a sua introdução em nosso país.Studies for investigation of new therapeutic modalities in tumoral biology should be based on previous experimental studies. Then, there are a great variety of tumoral experimental models today. Some investigations have been done necessary an adaptation of the tumoral model to the needing of the studies biological and pathological. So, in our laboratory, we looked for a tumoral hepatic model for experimental studies with the following characteristics: easy manipulation, control of growing, evolution and aggressiveness like to humans. Data of the literature took us the search of the hepatic tumor VX-2, in rabbits. In this article we discussed the advantages of use this experimental model and its introduction in our country. Experimental hepatic tumor (VX-2 in rabbit. Implantation of the model in Brazil.

  11. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  12. The inhibition, reactivation and mechanism of VX-, sarin-, fluoro-VX and fluoro-sarin surrogates following their interaction with HuAChE and HuBuChE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chih-Kai; Balasubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Gerdes, John M; Thompson, Charles M

    2018-06-16

    In this study, the mechanisms of HuAChE and HuBChE inhibition by Me-P(O) (OPNP) (OR) [PNP = p-nitrophenyl; R = CH 2 CH 3 , CH 2 CH 2 F, OCH(CH 3 ) 2 , OCH(CH 3 ) (CH 2 F)] representing surrogates and fluoro-surrogates of VX and sarin were studied by in vitro kinetics and mass spectrometry. The in vitro measures showed that the VX- and fluoro-VX surrogates were relatively strong inhibitors of HuAChE and HuBChE (k i  ∼ 10 5 -10 6  M -1 min -1 ) and underwent spontaneous and 2-PAM-mediated reactivation within 30 min. The sarin surrogates were weaker inhibitors of HuAChE and HuBChE (k i  ∼ 10 4 -10 5  M -1 min -1 ), and in general did not undergo spontaneous reactivation, although HuAChE adducts were partially reactivatable at 18 h using 2-PAM. The mechanism of HuAChE and HuBChE inhibition by the surrogates was determined by Q-TOF and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analyses. The surrogate-adducted proteins were trypsin digested and the active site-containing peptide bearing the OP-modified serine identified by Q-TOF as triply- and quadruply-charged ions representing the respective increase in mass of the attached OP moiety. Correspondingly, monoisotopic ions of the tryptic peptides representing the mass increase of the OP-adducted peptide was identified by MALDI-TOF. The mass spectrometry analyses validated the identity of the OP moiety attached to HuAChE or HuBChE as MeP(O) (OR)-O-serine peptides (loss of the PNP leaving group) via mechanisms consistent with those found with chemical warfare agents. MALDI-TOF MS analyses of the VX-modified peptides versus time showed a steady reduction in adduct versus parent peptide (reactivation), whereas the sarin-surrogate-modified peptides remained largely intact over the course of the experiment (24 h). Overall, the presence of a fluorine atom on the surrogate modestly altered the rate constants of inhibition and reactivation, however, the mechanism of inhibition (ejection of PNP group) did not change

  13. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH and Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations

  14. Effect of interventional treatment with p53 on the invasion and metastasis of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Caixia; Feng Yan; Gu Tao; Li Chunmei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of interventional treatment with p53 on the invasion and metastasis of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits. Methods: VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe in 48 New Zealand white rabbits, and the rabbit hepatic carcinoma models were thus established. The rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups with 12 rabbits in each group. After hepatic arterial catheterization was completed physiological saline (control group), Lipiodol (Group A), Ad-p53 (Group B) and Lipiodol+Ad-p53 (Group C) were respectively infused into the rabbits of four groups via common hepatic artery. One week after the procedure the rabbits were sacrificed and the livers were removed for the determination of matrix metalloprotein-2 (MMP-2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of the tumor with immunohistochemistry technique. Results: The tumor growth in study groups (group A, B and C) was markedly suppressed, which was significantly different in comparison with that in control group (P 0.05). The positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF in group B and C were significantly lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). The positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF of the rabbits with metastasis were markedly higher than those without metastasis(P < 0.05). MMP-2 bore a certain relationship with VEGF and PCNA (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of the positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF indicates that the tumor possesses higher possibility for developing metastasis, proliferation and vascular formation. The interventional treatment with Adp53 or Lipiodol+Ad-p53 can inhibit the growth, metastasis and vascular formation of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits. (J Intervent Radiol, 2010, 19 : 800-804) (authors)

  15. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Li Jing; Wu Zhiqun; Zhou Changxi; Liu Xi; Wan Yi; Duan Yunyou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 °C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 °C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  16. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Li Chao; Lv Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3–127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2–53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7–124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2–62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14–47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice. (author)

  17. Detection of hepatic VX2 carcinomas with ferucarbotran-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in rabbits: Comparison of nine pulse sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Kim, Min Ju; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Jongmee; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, in order to identify the most effective ferucarbotran-enhanced sequence for the detection of multiple small hepatic VX2 carcinomas in rabbits. Methods: Fifteen rabbits with experimentally induced 135 VX2 carcinomas in the liver underwent ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: a fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE) sequence with two echo times (TE) (proton density- and T2-weighted images), four different T2*-weighted fast multiplanar GRASS (gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state) (FMPGR) with the combination of three TEs (9, 12, 15 ms, respectively) and two flip angles (20 deg., 80 deg., respectively), T2*-weighted fast multiplanar spoiled GRASS (FMPSPGR), T1-weighted FMPSPGR, and dynamic T1-weighted FMPSPGR. All images were reviewed by three radiologists with quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio of the proton density-weighted FSE sequence was significantly higher than those of the others (p o ) images were superior to those of the others and for the detection of very small hepatic tumors of less than 5 mm, the sensitivities of these sequences were less than 30%. Conclusion: Ferucarbotran-enhanced T2- and proton density-weighted FSE and T2*-weighed FMPGR (TE/flip angle, 12/20 o ) images were found to be the most effective pulse sequences for the detection of multiple small hepatic VX2 carcinomas but these sequences were limited in the detection of very small hepatic tumors of less than 5 mm in size

  18. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei, E-mail: cawe-001@163.com [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Li Jing, E-mail: lijing02@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery (China); Wu Zhiqun, E-mail: zhiqunwu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhou Changxi, E-mail: changxizhou@163.com [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Disease (China); Liu Xi, E-mail: xiliu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China); Wan Yi, E-mail: yiwan@163.com [The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Health Statistics, Institute for Health Informatics (China); Duan Yunyou, E-mail: yunyouduan@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  19. Experiment of embolizing hepatocarcinoma with heated lipiodol via hepatic artery in VX{sub 2} rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Cao; Zhimin, Wang; Hongxin, Zhang [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical Univ., Xi' an (China); Yi, Wan

    2006-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX{sub 2} hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX{sub 2} carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX{sub 2} rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92{+-} 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48{+-}) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69{+-}0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P<0.05). The survival period of Lipiodol (60 degree C) group (41.0{+-}3.0) d was significantly longer than the control group (31.5{+-}3.0) d (t=29.18, P<0.05). Four days after the embolization, the serum level of AST of Lipiodol (60 degree C) (148.2{+-}11.3) U/L was not higher than that of Lipiodol (37 degree C) (139.7{+-}12.3) U/L (t=1.61, P>0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6{+-}6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)

  20. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Shengyong; Wang, Mei; Lu, Li; Chen, Bo; Jin, Lixin; Wang, Jiandong; Larson, Andrew C.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  1. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation of lung VX2 tumors in a rabbit model: evaluation with helical CT findings for the complete and partal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Lim, Yeong Su; Jang, Kyu Yun; Lee, Sang Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings for complete and partial ablation after percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung VX2 tumor implanted in rabbits. Thirteen rabbits with successfully implanted lung VX2 were used. Three rabbits as controls did not receive RFA while the other ten rabbits underwent RFA; 5 complete and 5 partial. RFA was performed using an internally cooled, 17-gauge electrode (Radionics, Burlington, MA) with a 1-cm active tip under CT guidance. Postprocedural CT was performed within 3 days, and we analyzed the ablated size, enhancement pattern, shape, margin, and complications of the complete and partial ablation groups. Rabbits were sacrificed after postprocedural CT with an overdose of ketamine, and pathologic findings of the ablated groups were compared with those of the control group. The size of the ablated lesions and the enhancement pattern differed between the completely and partially ablated groups on chest CT. The size of the ablated lesions was increased by 47.1% in the completely ablated group and by 2.1% in the partially ablated group. In the completely ablated group, VX2 tumor showed absolutely no enhancement, whereas only ablated pulmonary parenchyma outside VX2 showed mild enhancement on enhanced CT. In the partial ablated group, a part of VX2 became strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. On microscopic examination, the completely ablated group demonstrated that a viable tumor cell was not visible. In the partially ablated group, however, a viable tumor cell within the surrounding fibrous capsule on the peripheral area of the VX2 was observed. The important CT findings for evaluation of complete and partial RFA are the ablated size and enhancement pattern of the ablated lesion.

  2. The establishment of implanted VX2 liver tumor model in rabbits and discussion on superselective left hepatic arterial catheterization with micro-catheter technique via femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiongying; Luo Rongguang; Huang Jinhua; Miao Bijian; Wang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the implanted VX2 liver tumor model in rabbits and to discuss the feasibility and technical features of superselective left hepatic arterial catheterization by using micro-catheter through the femoral artery catheter sheath. Methods: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with fragments of VX2 tumor into the medial left lobe of liver by using a 16G lumbar puncture needle through laparotomy route. Two weeks later, all the rabbits were proved to be successfully inoculated with liver neoplasm on CT scanning. Then, the catheter sheath was inserted into one of the femoral arteries, which was followed by celiac artery angiography and left hepatic artery catheterization with a micro-catheter under DSA guidance in order to evaluate the main branches of celiac artery and the imaging manifestations of VX2 liver tumor. After that, some scheduled interventional experiments were carried out. Results: Imaging examination and histopathologic study showed that the successful rate of implanted rabbit VX2 liver tumor was 100% (40/40). And the successful rate of the catheter sheath inserted to femoral artery was 97.5% (39/40). The successful rate of celiac artery, gastro-hepatic artery, common hepatic artery, proper hepatic artery and left hepatic artery catheterizations was 100% (39/39), 100% (39/39), 100% (39/39), 94.9% (37/39) and 71.2% (28/39) respectively. Conclusion: To implant tumor tissue mass through laparotomy is a stable and reliable method to establish rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The insertion of micro-catheter through rabbit femoral catheter sheath approach is a convenient and simple technique to be carried out for the left hepatic artery catheterization and it can efficiently solve the technical difficulties when performing the interventional treatment of the rabbit VX2 hepatic tumor via left hepatic artery approach. (authors)

  3. Quantitative MRI assessment of VX2 tumour oxygenation changes in response to hyperoxia and hypercapnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jeff D; Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret [Research Institute and Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto M5G 1X8 (Canada); Akens, Margarete K, E-mail: Hai-Ling.Cheng@sickkids.ca [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Health Science, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2011-03-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times provide indirect estimates of tissue O{sub 2} for monitoring tumour oxygenation. This study provides insight into mechanisms underlying longitudinal (R{sub 1} = 1/T{sub 1}) and transverse effective (R{sub 2}* = 1/T{sub 2}*) relaxation rate changes during inhalation of 100% O{sub 2} and 3%, 6% and 9% CO{sub 2} (balanced O{sub 2}) in a rabbit tumour model. Quantitative R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}*, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging was performed in six rabbits 12-23 days following implantation of VX2 carcinoma cells in the quadricep muscle. Invasive measurements of tissue partial pressure of O{sub 2} (pO{sub 2}) and perfusion were also performed, which revealed elevated pO{sub 2} levels in all tumour regions for all hyperoxic gases compared to baseline (air) and reduced perfusion for carbogen. During 100% O{sub 2} breathing, an R{sub 1} increase and R{sub 2}* decrease consistent with elevated pO{sub 2} were observed within tumours. DCE-derived blood flow was weakly correlated with R{sub 1} changes from air to 100% O{sub 2}. Further addition of CO{sub 2} (carbogen) did not introduce considerable changes in MR relaxation rates, but a trend towards higher R{sub 1} relative to breathing 100% O{sub 2} was observed, while R{sub 2}* changes were inconsistent. This observation supports the predominance of dissolved O{sub 2} on R{sub 1} sensitivity and demonstrates the value of R{sub 1} over R{sub 2}* for tissue oxygenation measures.

  4. Development of a VxWorks-based distributed power quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, M.J.; Kim, S.J.; Son, Y.I.; Kang, S.H. [Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of). Next-generation Power Technology Center

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are becoming increasingly concerned about power quality because end user equipment is more sensitive to disturbances within the power supply system and also within the consumer facilities. In order to improve the quality of electricity, the sources and causes of disturbances must be known. However, voltage sag and swell, wave-faults and momentary interruptions are difficult to detect and avoid unless power quality monitoring devices are installed permanently. The impact that alternative energy sources have on power quality was also discussed. When distributed generation is connected to the power grid, it can generate and supply more reliable power to the grid. For a reliable interconnection of distributed power to the grid, monitoring systems should display the status of distributed power and record power events. Lack of source stability in distributed generation such as solar-cells or wind-power creates events that should be measured and stored immediately. This paper presented a newly developed real-time power quality monitoring system for distributed power systems. The system is based on a real-time operating system (OS) and can therefore handle many events that happen simultaneously. The proposed system contains a digital signal processor (MPC7410, Motorola) and an A/D board (VMIVME3122, GE). VxWorks was used to implement the monitoring algorithm. This paper outlined the structure and the functions of the developed Distributed Power Quality Monitoring System. Some experiments were conducted to test the performance of the proposed system. According to test results, the system is compatible with standards of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for power quality monitoring. 15 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  5. Comparative studies on the effect of radiation-sensitizing agents used in radiating VX2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migita, Hidenobu

    1975-01-01

    The effects of 5-Fu and BUdR as radiation-sensitizing agents macroscopically were investigated in 122 VX2 Carcinomas transplanted into the calves of the hind legs of rabbits. Experimental groups and contrast groups are divided into six as follows: A: No treatment, B: 5-Fu infusion, C: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion, D: Radiation, E: 5-Fu infusion and radiation, and F: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion and radiation. The amount of agent given to each was 5 mg/kg/day of 5-Fu and 50 mg/kg/day of BUdR, and the amount of radiation was 300 rad/day. 5-Fu was used as the Antimetabolite, and its amount was one-tenth of that in the 5-Fu Infusion Group. The agent and the radiation were given for five days. 1. In the 300 rad/day Group, the radiation was not enough to result in a complete cure. 2. In the two Agent Infusion Group, 5-Fu and BUdR+Antimetabolite proved to be anti-cancer, but neither of them resulted in effective treatment. 3. The 5-Fu Infusion and Radiation Group, showed a strong degenerative change in the tumor cell and a radiosensitive effect from 5-Fu, but the tumor was not lessened. 4. In the BUdR-Antimetabolite Infusion and Radiation Group, the tumor began to reduce on the third day. On the seventh and fourteenth days, necrosis of the greater part of tumor was seen, and the rest of the tumor cells were found to be in degenerative change. On the twenty first day, no live tumor cell was found, only dead remains of tumor cells. The results were confirmed both macroscopically and histopathologically. 5. BUdR can be expected to be effective in clinical application to oral malignant tumors. (Evans, J.)

  6. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of VX-2 carcinoma of the rabbit kidney on Tl weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, J.M.; Ackerman, N.; Kaude, J.V.; Googe, R.E.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.; Scott, K.N.; Mancuso, A.A.; Hackett, R.L.; Hager, D.A.; Caballero, S.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    Experimental renal carcinoma was induced by percutaneous injection of VX-2 carcinoma cells into the left kidney in New Zealand white rabbits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 0.15 T before and after intravenous injection of 0.3 mmol gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) per kg body weight. Gd-DTPA enhanced the tumors by increasing the signal intensity on T1 weighted images. The enhancement was evident immediately after Gd-DTPA injection, increasing during the observation time of 30 minutes. Histologically the areas of enhancement corresponded well to the viable tumor tissue. (orig.)

  7. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  8. Uptake of mercury vapor by wheat. An assimilation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, C.L.; Fang, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Using a whole-plant chamber and 203 Hg-labeled mercury, a quantitative study was made of the effect of environmental parameters on the uptake, by wheat (Triticum aestivum), of metallic mercury vapor, an atmospheric pollutant. Factors were examined in relation to their influence on components of the gas-assimilation model, U(Hg) = (C/sub A' -- C/sub L')/(r/sub L.Hg/ + r/sub M.Hg/) where U(Hg) is the rate of mercury uptake per unit leaf surface, C/sub A'/ is the ambient mercury vapor concentration, C/sub L'/ is the mercury concentration at immobilization sites within the plant (assumed to be zero), r/sub L.Hg/ is the total leaf resistance to mercury vapor exchange, and r/sub M.Hg/ is a residual term to account for unexplained physical and biochemical resistances to mercury vapor uptake. Essentially all mercury vapor uptake was confined to the leaves. r/sub L.Hg/ was particularly influenced by illumination (0 to 12.8 klux), but unaffected by ambient temperature (17 to 33 0 C) and mercury vapor concentration (0 to 40 μg m -3 ). The principal limitation to mercury vapor uptake was r/sub M.Hg/, which was linearly related to leaf temperature, but unaffected by mercury vapor concentration and illumination, except for apparent high values in darkness. Knowing C/sub A'/ and estimating r/sub L.Hg/ and r/sub M.Hg/ from experimental data, mercury vapor uptake by wheat in light was accurately predicted for several durations of exposure using the above model

  9. Nuclear system vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A particular case of the hot nuclei de-excitation is the total nuclear dislocation into light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He and α). Such events were first observed at bombarding energies lower than 100 MeV/nucleon due to high detection performances of the INDRA multidetector. The light system Ar + Ni was studied at several bombarding energies ranging from 32 to 95 MeV/nucleon. The events associated to a total vaporization of the system occur above the energy threshold of ∼ 50 MeV/nucleon. A study of the form of these events shows that we have essentially two sources. The excitation energy of these sources may be determined by means of the kinematic properties of their de-excitation products. A preliminary study results in excitation energy values of the order 10 - 14 MeV/nucleon. The theoretical calculation based on a statistical model modified to take into account high excitation energies and excited levels in the lightest nuclei predicts that the vaporization of the two partner nuclei in the Ar + Ni system takes place when the excitation energy exceeds 12 MeV/nucleon what is qualitatively in agreement with the values deduced from calorimetric analysis

  10. Evaluation for intravenous, arterial and local infusion of a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 on rabbit VX2 tumor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramitsu, Tatsuya

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the radiosensitizing effect of intraarterial, intravenous and local infusion of a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 on rabbit VX2 tumor system. Six rabbits were treated in each infusion group. VX2 tumor was implanted in the left hind leg. Tumor grown up to 3 cm in diameter was treated with 15 Gy of X-ray irradiation just after infusion of radiosensitizer RK28 (80 mg/kg.b.w.). Intratumoral and serum mean concentration of RK28 and its metabolites were measured. Tumor regression curve and survival time were analyzed. The following results were obtained. Mean concentration of RK28 was about 2.5 times greater in local infusion and 1.5 times in intraarterial infusion than in intravenous infusion. Significant regression of tumor was obtained in intraarterial infusion (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in survival time. These data suggest that the usefulness of intraarterial infusion of RK28 for local control using intraoperative radiation therapy and brachytherapy. (author)

  11. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Radiofrequency Ablation of VX2 Liver Tumor: Intraarterial versus Intravenous Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) can be used as a possible pharmaceutical alternative that augments radiofrequency (RF) ablation by reducing tumor blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intraarterial and intravenous administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on RF-induced ablation in an experimentally induced liver tumor. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of 30 rabbits. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 mg/kg) was administered through the hepatic artery (n = 10, group A) or ear vein (n = 10, group B), 30 minutes before RF ablation (125 mA {+-} 35; 90 {+-} 5 degrees Celsius). As a control group, 10 rabbits were treated with RF ablation alone (group C). RF was intentionally applied to the peripheral margin of the tumor so that ablation can cover the tumor and adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Ablation areas of the tumor and adjacent parenchymal changes among three groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The overall ablation areas were 156 {+-} 28.9 mm{sup 2} (group A), 119 {+-} 31.7 (group B), and 92 {+-} 17.4 (group C, p < 0.04). The ablation area of the tumor was significantly larger in group A (73 {+-} 19.7 mm{sup 2}) than both group B (50 {+-} 19.4, p = 0.02) and group C (28 {+-} 2.2, p < 0.01). The ratios of the tumoral ablation area to the overall ablation area were larger in group A (47 {+-} 10.5%) than that of the other groups (42 {+-} 7.3% in group B and 32 {+-} 5.6% in group C) (p < 0.03). Radiofrequency-induced ablation area can be increased with intraarterial or intravenous administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The intraarterial administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} seems to be helpful for the selective ablation of the tumor.

  12. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  13. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  14. Part 3: Solid phase extraction of Russian VX and its chemical attribution signatures in food matrices and their detection by GC-MS and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Audrey M; Vu, Alexander K; Mayer, Brian P; Hok, Saphon; Valdez, Carlos A; Alcaraz, Armando

    2018-08-15

    Chemical attribution signatures indicative of O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Russian VX) synthetic routes were investigated in spiked food samples. Attribution signatures were identified using a multifaceted approach: Russian VX was synthesized using six synthetic routes and the chemical attribution signatures identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. Three synthetic routes were then down selected and spiked into complex matrices: bottled water, baby food, milk, liquid eggs, and hot dogs. Sampling and extraction methodologies were developed for these materials and used to isolate the attribution signatures and Russian VX from each matrix. Recoveries greater than 60% were achieved for most signatures in all matrices; some signatures provided recoveries greater than 100%, indicating some degradation during sample preparation. A chemometric model was then developed and validated with the concatenated data from GC-MS and LC-MS analyses of the signatures; the classification results of the model were > 75% for all samples. This work is part three of a three-part series in this issue of the United States-Sweden collaborative efforts towards the understanding of the chemical attribution signatures of Russian VX in crude materials and in food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  16. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of aliphatic propanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Chernyak, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured vapor pressure of four aliphatic 1,3-diamines. ► Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. ► We examined consistency of new and available data in the literature. ► A group-contribution method for prediction was developed. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of four aliphatic propanediamines including N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine (MPDA), N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DMPDA), N,N-diethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DEPDA) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine (4MPDA) were measured using the transpiration method. The vapor pressures developed in this work and reported in the literature were used to derive molar enthalpy of vaporization values at the reference temperature 298.15 K. An internal consistency check of the enthalpy of vaporization was performed for the aliphatic propanediamines studied in this work. A group-contribution method was developed for the validation and prediction vaporization enthalpies of amines and diamines.

  17. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  18. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  19. Detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits: comparison of conventional US and phase- inversion harmonic US during the liver- specific late phase of contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Youk, Ji Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo; Li, Chun Ai

    2003-01-01

    To compare phase-inversion sonography during the liver-specific phase of contrast enhancement using a microbubble contrast agent with conventional B-mode sonography for the detection of VX2 liver tumors. Twenty-three rabbits, 18 of which had VX2 liver tumor implants, received a bolus injection of 0.6 g of Levovist (200 mg/ml). During the liver-specific phase of this agent, they were evaluated using both conventional sonography and contrast-enhanced phase-inversion harmonic imaging (CEPIHI). Following sacrifice of the animals, pathologic analysis was performed and the reference standard thus obtained. The conspicuity, size and number of the tumors before and after contrast administration, as determined by a sonographer, were compared between the two modes and with the pathologic findings. CE-PIHI demonstrated marked hepatic parenchymal enhancement in all rabbits. For VX2 tumors detected at both conventional US and CE- PIHI, conspicuity was improved by contrast-enhanced PIHI. On examination of gross specimens, 52 VX2 tumors were identified. Conventional US correctly detected 18 of the 52 (34.6%), while PIHI detected 35 (67.3%) (p < 0.05). In particular, conventional US detected only three (8.3%) of the 36 tumors less than 10 mm in diameter, but CE-PIHI detected 19 such tumors (52.8%) (p < 0.05). Compared to conventional sonography, PIHI performed during the liver-specific phase after intravenous injection of Levovist is markedly better at detecting VX2 liver tumors

  20. Whole-liver MR perfusion imaging in rabbit liver VX2 tumors: early findings of coagulative necrosis after percutaneous ethanol injection therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanshi; Wang Dong; Meng Limin; Shi Huiping; Song Yunlong; Wu Bing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of whole-liver MR perfusion imaging (MRPI) for early detection of coagulative necrosis after percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in rabbit liver VX 2 tumors. Methods: VX 2 tumor cell suspension was inoculated into rabbit liver and liver VX 2 tumors [diameter of (2.6 ± 0.6) cm] were induced in 10 male rabbits. MR T 1 WI and T 2 WI were performed to monitor the development of the liver tumor on the 2 nd and 3 rd week after inoculation. Whole-liver MRPI was performed in the 10 rabbits with liver VX 2 tumors before and 6 days after PEI therapy (1.0 ml ethanol was injected into the most enhanced tumor region under CT guiding). Signal intensity (SI) values of untreated tumor parts and treated areas 6 days after PEI were recorded respectively. The steepest slope (SS) and bolus arrival time (T0) of SI-time curves were measured. The t-Student test was used in statistical analysis of the data. Results: There was significant difference in MRPI data between untreated tumor parts [T0: (16.0 ± 1.2) s and SS: 38.9 ± 2.2] and treated areas [T0: (50.8 ± 5.9) s and SS: 6.0 ± 1.2] 6 days after PEI(t was 15.8 and -39.6 respectively, P 1 WI and T 2 WI could not show any differences between untreated tumor parts and treated areas. Conclusion: Whole-liver MRPI could detect coagulative necrosis of rabbit liver VX 2 tumors after PEI early. Disappearance of early enhancement can be a potential marker for efficacy of PEI. (authors)

  1. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Pinnau, Ingo; He, Zhenjie; Da Costa, Andre R.; Daniels, Ramin; Amo, Karl D.; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2003-06-03

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  2. Carbonyl Compounds Produced by Vaporizing Cannabis Oil Thinning Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Cannabis use has increased in the United States, particularly the use of vaporized cannabis oil, which is often mixed with thinning agents for use in vaporizing devices. E-cigarette research shows that heated thinning agents produce potentially harmful carbonyls; however, similar studies have not been conducted (1) with agents that are commonly used in the cannabis industry and (2) at temperatures that are appropriate for cannabis oil vaporization. The goal of this study was to determine whether thinning agents used in the cannabis industry produce potentially harmful carbonyls when heated to a temperature that is appropriate for cannabis oil vaporization. Four thinning agents (propylene glycol [PG], vegetable glycerin [VG], polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], and medium chain triglycerides [MCT]) were heated to 230°C and the resulting vapors were tested for acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde. Each agent was tested three times. Testing was conducted in a smoking laboratory. Carbonyl levels were measured in micrograms per puff block. Analyses showed that PEG 400 produced significantly higher levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde than PG, MCT, and VG. Formaldehyde production was also significantly greater in PG compared with MCT and VG. Acrolein production did not differ significantly across the agents. PG and PEG 400 produced high levels of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde when heated to 230°C. Formaldehyde production from PEG 400 isolate was particularly high, with one inhalation accounting for 1.12% of the daily exposure limit, nearly the same exposure as smoking one cigarette. Because PG and PEG 400 are often mixed with cannabis oil, individuals who vaporize cannabis oil products may risk exposure to harmful formaldehyde levels. Although more research is needed, consumers and policy makers should consider these potential health effects before use and when drafting cannabis-related legislation.

  3. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Wan Yi; Liang Zhihui; Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi; Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao; Zhang Hongxin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 ± 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 ± 435 to 1670 ± 564 mm 3 ) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 ± 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 ± 756 to 5747 ± 1341 mm 3 ) (P 3 ) (P -1 ) and the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (139.7 ± 12.3 U L -1 ) (P > 0.05). However, the serum AST level in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group was significantly higher at 4 days after injection (P -1 ). Conclusions: Treatment with lipiodol (60 deg. C) resulted in an effect on serum AST levels similar to that caused by treatment with doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C). Thus, lipiodol (60 deg. C) treatment could greatly prolong the survival period of rabbits with VX2 cancer by inhibiting tumor growth.

  4. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the priorities, logic, work breakdown structure (WBS), task descriptions, and program milestones required for the resolution of tank vapor issues associated with the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST). The primary objective of this plan is to determine whether a health (personnel exposure) and/or safety (flammability) hazard exists. This plan is focused upon one waste tank, 241-C-103, but contains all elements required to bring the vapor issues to resolution

  5. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  6. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  7. Dimers in nucleating vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kulmala, M.

    1998-09-01

    The dimer stage of nucleation may affect considerably the rate of the nucleation process at high supersaturation of the nucleating vapor. Assuming that the dimer formation limits the nucleation rate, the kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is studied starting with the definition of dimers as bound states of two associating molecules. The partition function of dimer states is calculated by summing the Boltzmann factor over all classical bound states, and the equilibrium population of dimers is found for two types of intermolecular forces: the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and rectangular well+hard core (RW) potentials. The principle of detailed balance is used for calculating the evaporation rate of dimers. The kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is then investigated under the assumption that the trimers are stable with respect to evaporation and that the condensation rate is a power function of the particle mass. If the power exponent λ=n/(n+1) (n is a non-negative integer), the kinetics of the process is described by a finite set of moments of particle mass distribution. When the characteristic time of the particle formation by nucleation is much shorter than that of the condensational growth, n+2 universal functions of a nondimensional time define the kinetic process. These functions are calculated for λ=2/3 (gas-to-particle conversion in the free molecular regime) and λ=1/2 (formation of islands on surfaces).

  8. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of hematogenous metastases of the VX2 tumor to the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.A.; Girton, M.; Dwyer, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a reproducible model of hematogenous spread of malignancy to the eye of the rabbit. VX2 tumor cells (10/sup 6/ cells) were infused into the internal carotid artery of 15 New Zealand white rabbits weighting 2.5-3.5 kg. Ocular metastases developed in more than 90% of animals within 3-11 days. MR images were obtained 6-12 days after tumor inoculation (Picker, 0.5 T, saddle-shaped surface coil, 15-cm FOV, 5-mm section thickness). Tl-weighted SE550/40 images obtained after administration of Gd-DPTA (0.1) mmol/kg, given intravenously) demonstrated enhancement of aqueous humor due to disruption of the blood-ocular barrier and delineated tumor within the choroid. Metastases were confirmed at autopsy. The findings suggest the potential use of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging for detecting ocular metastases and monitoring their growth

  9. Comparative study of rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue on magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Zimei; Wang Xizhen; Wang Bin; Liu Feng; Li Haiqing; Sun Yequan; Dong Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in evaluating the blood perfusion of tumor by analyzing the features and indexes of PWI on rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 carcinoma were established under direct surgical vision embedding tumor tissue. MR examination was performed at 21 days after the tumor implantation. The signal intensity -time curve of hepatic tumor and normal liver tissue were obtained. Mean time to enhance (MTE), negative enhancement integral (NEI), time to minimum (TM), maximum slope of decrease (MSD) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were measured. Results: MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the normal liver tissue were 208.341±2.226 ms, 78.334±8.152, 24.059±1.927 ms, 38.221±2.443, and 15.389±2.526, respectively. MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the tumor tissue were 175.437±4.182 ms, 123.203±19.455, 17.061±1.834 ms, 125.740±4.842, and 67.832±2.882, respectively. The MTE and TM of tumor were shorter than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). NEI, MSD, and MSI of tumor were higher than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). Conclusion: PWI can distinguish the normal liver tissue from the tumor tissue, which is helpful in evaluating blood perfusion of different hepatic tissues. (authors)

  10. Pure Ethiodized Oil-based Transcatheter Ablative Therapy in Normal Rabbit Kidneys and Kidneys Inoculated with VX-2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kónya, András; Stephens, L. Clifton; Wright, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of ablation with selective arterial injection of pure ethiodized oil followed by arterial occlusion with 9:1 ethanol–Ethiodol mixture (EEM) and coil placement in normal rabbit kidneys and kidneys inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma. Materials and Methods: All experiments were conducted with Animal Care and Use Committee approval. In six rabbits (group 1), one kidney was embolized with pure Ethiodol until capillary stasis, followed by injection of 9:1 EEM until arterial stasis and then coil placement into the main renal artery. In 12 other rabbits, one kidney was inoculated with VX-2 tumor. Ethiodol and EEM embolization and coil placement followed 7 days later (group 2, n = 6) or 11–14 days later (group 3, n = 6). Kidneys were evaluated (angiography, computed tomography, macro- and microscopy) 7 days after treatment. Results: Capillary stasis was achieved in groups 1, 2, and 3 with (mean ± standard deviation) 0.47 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.02, and 0.56 ± 0.04 ml of pure Ethiodol, followed by 0.47 ± 0.05, 0.42 ± 0.03, and 0.38 ± 0.04 ml of EEM, respectively, which caused complete arterial occlusion in 17 of 18 kidneys. In group 1, all but one kidney showed at least 95% generalized coagulative necrosis. In group 2, all six kidneys exhibited 100% coagulative necrosis, with no viable tumor present. In group 3, 100% coagulative necrosis was present in all kidneys, with a small viable tumor in one. Conclusion: In the rabbit, selective arterial injection of pure Ethiodol can cause complete renal parenchyma and tumor ablation when it is followed by prompt, contiguous, and permanent occlusion of the arterial compartment.

  11. Hemocoagulase Combined with Microbubble-Enhanced Ultrasound Cavitation for Augmented Ablation of Microvasculature in Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Tang, Peng; He, Guangbin; Ge, Shuping; Liu, Liwen; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    We investigated a new method for combining microbubble-enhanced ultrasound cavitation (MEUC) with hemocoagulase (HC) atrox. Our goal was to induce embolic effects in the vasculature and combine these with an anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. Fourteen days after being implanted with a single slice of the liver VX2 tumor, rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: (i) a control group injected intra-venously with saline using a micropump; (ii) a group given only an injection of HC; (iii) a group treated only with ultrasound cavitation; (iv) a group treated with MEUC; (v) a group treated with MEUC + HC. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed before treatment and 1 h and 7 d post-treatment to measure tumor size, enhancement and necrosis range. QontraXt software was used to determine the time-intensity curve of tumor blood perfusion and microvascular changes. At 1 h and 7 d after treatment with MEUC + HC, the parameters of the time-intensity curve, which included peak value, regional blood volume, regional blood flow and area under the curve value and which were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, were significantly lower than those of the other treatment groups. The MEUC + HC treatment group exhibited significant growth inhibition relative to the ultrasound cavitation only, HC and MEUC treatment groups. No damage was observed in the surrounding normal tissues. These results support the feasibility of reducing the blood perfusion of rabbit VX2 liver tumors using a new method that combines MEUC and HC. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  12. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  13. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  14. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  15. Melting temperature, vapor density, and vapor pressure of molybdenum pentafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Jr, R F; Douglas, T B [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (USA). Inst. for Materials Research

    1977-12-01

    A sample of MoF/sub 5/ was prepared by reaction of MoF/sub 6/(g) and Mo(c). Melting curves of temperature against time established the melting temperature at zero impurity to be 318.85 K, the enthalpy of fusion to be 6.1 kJ mol/sup -1/ (+ - 5 per cent), and the cryoscopic impurity of the sample to be 0.15 mole per cent. In the presence of MoF/sub 6/(g) which was added to suppress disproportionation, the vapor density of MoF/sub 5/ over the liquid was measured by the transpiration method at 343, 363, and 383 K, the total MoF/sub 5/ that evaporated being determined by permanganate titration. The total vapor pressure of MoF/sub 5/ oligomers over the liquid was measured by a simple static method at 373 and 392 K, while melting temperatures were taken alternately to monitor possible contamination of the sample. Although the vapor pressures were adjusted for disproportionation, solution of MoF/sub 6/ in MoF/sub 5/ (1), and wall adsorption of MoF/sub 6/ their percentage uncertainty is probably several times that of the vapor densities. A combination of the two properties indicates the average extent of association of the saturated vapor to be near 2, which is the value for the dimer species (MoF/sub 5/)/sub 2/.

  16. Neurodevelopmental effects of inhaled vapors of gasoline and ethanol in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline-ethanol blends comprise the major fraction of the fuel used in the US automotive fleet. To address uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to gasoline with more than 10% ethanol, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapor...

  17. Changes of serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels after treatment with 131I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in VX2 rabbit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wen; Liu Lu; Zhou Yun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of 131 I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin( 131 I-17-AAG) therapy on immune function in VX2 rabbit models with transplanted liver cancer. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured with RIA in 8 VX2 rabbit models with transplanted liver cancer 1-2 weeks after 10mCi 131 I-17-AAG treatment as well as in 8 controls rabbits (models with tumor but without treatment). Results: 1 week after 10mCi 131 I treatment, the serum IL - 2 and IFN-γ levels were significantly lower in the treated rabbits than those in controls (P 0.05). Serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the treated rabbits (both at 1 and 2 week) were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: 131 I-17-AAG treatment had transient effects on cellular immunity with no influence on humoral immunity. As a whole, it is a safe to treat VX2 rabbit models with this preparation. (authors)

  18. Efficacy and safety of 32P-nanocolloid for treatment of distant lymph node metastasis in VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shengxiang; Huang Gang; Liu Penan; Ma Yubo; Yan Weili; Wan Liangrong; Zhu Changqing

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of micrometastases present in lymph nodes of cancer patients improves their prognosis significantly. Radionuclide therapy possesses the potential to eliminate such metastases. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 32 P-nanocolloid therapy in the treatment of distant carcinoma cell metastases in lymph nodes of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits. The Method of this study was to obtain VX2 tumor micrometastases in right armpit lymph nodes of 12 male New Zealand white rabbits, VX2 tumors were implanted by hypodermal inoculation into the right anterior limb. Animals were randomly divided into therapy (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. 32 P-nanocolloid (0.5 mCi), 95% of which was >50 nm in diameter, was administered to the therapy group, and saline was administered to the control group. Injections were given once weekly for 4 weeks. 2-Deoxy-2[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography revealed that the number of involved lymph nodes and the maximum standardized uptake value decreased in the 32 P-nanocolloid therapy group as compared with the baseline or saline control group (P 32 P-nanocolloid. These findings support treatment with 32 P-nanocolloid as a safe and effective approach for eradication of lymph node micrometastases. (author)

  19. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces.

  20. Airy function approach and Numerov method to study the anharmonic oscillator potentials V(x) = Ax{sup 2α} + Bx{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sdran, N. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Najran University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Maiz, F., E-mail: fethimaiz@gmail.com [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department P.O. Box 9004 Abha (Saudi Arabia); Thermal Process Laboratory Research and Technologies Centre of Energy, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    The numerical solutions of the time independent Schrödinger equation of different one-dimensional potentials forms are sometime achieved by the asymptotic iteration method. Its importance appears, for example, on its efficiency to describe vibrational system in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the Airy function approach and the Numerov method have been used and presented to study the oscillator anharmonic potential V(x) = Ax{sup 2α} + Bx{sup 2}, (A>0, B<0), with (α = 2) for quadratic, (α =3) for sextic and (α =4) for octic anharmonic oscillators. The Airy function approach is based on the replacement of the real potential V(x) by a piecewise-linear potential v(x), while, the Numerov method is based on the discretization of the wave function on the x-axis. The first energies levels have been calculated and the wave functions for the sextic system have been evaluated. These specific values are unlimited by the magnitude of A, B and α. It’s found that the obtained results are in good agreement with the previous results obtained by the asymptotic iteration method for α =3.

  1. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: zjfurong2008@126.com; Wan Yi [Department of Health Statistics, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liang Zhihui [Department of Radiology, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050082 (China); Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi [Department of Ultrasonography, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 1 Xinshi Road, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhang Hongxin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: cawe-001@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 {+-} 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 {+-} 435 to 1670 {+-} 564 mm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 {+-} 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 {+-} 756 to 5747 {+-} 1341 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05) and in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (1.69 {+-} 0.26, tumor volume from 1881 {+-} 641 to 2428 {+-} 752 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05). Consequently, the survival period of the animals in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (41.0 {+-} 3.0 days) was significantly greater than that in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (38.0 {+-} 2.5 days) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in serum AST levels between the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (148.2 {+-} 11

  2. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  3. E-Cigarette Vapor Induces an Apoptotic Response in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Through the Caspase-3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Park, Hyun Jin; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Chmielewski, Witold; Chakir, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes represent an increasingly significant proportion of today's consumable tobacco products. E-cigarettes contain several chemicals which may promote oral diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of e-cigarette vapor on human gingival epithelial cells. Results show that e-cigarette vapor altered the morphology of cells from small cuboidal form to large undefined shapes. Both single and multiple exposures to e-cigarette vapor led to a bulky morphology with large faint nuclei and an enlarged cytoplasm. E-cigarette vapor also increased L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the targeted cells. This activity was greater with repeated exposures. Furthermore, e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic/necrotic epithelial cell percentages compared to that observed in the control. Epithelial cell apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay showing that exposure to e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic cell numbers, particularly after two and three exposures. This negative effect involved the caspase-3 pathway, the activity of which was greater with repeated exposure and which decreased following the use of caspase-3 inhibitor. The adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor on gingival epithelial cells may lead to dysregulated gingival cell function and result in oral disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Targeting of VX2 Rabbit Liver Tumor by Selective Delivery of 3-Bromopyruvate: A Biodistribution and Survival Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Mustafa; Vossen, Josephina A.; Buijs, Manon; Engles, James M.; Liapi, Eleni; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Khwaja, Afsheen; Acha-Ngwodo, Obele; Shanmugasundaram, Ganapathy; Syed, Labiq; Wahl, Richard L.; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biodistribution and tumor targeting ability of 14C-labeled 3-bromopyruvate ([14C]3-BrPA) after i.a. and i.v. delivery in the VX2 rabbit model. In addition, we evaluated the effects of [14C]3-BrPA on tumor and healthy tissue glucose metabolism by determining 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Last, we determined the survival benefit of i.a. administered 3-BrPA. In total, 60 rabbits with VX2 liver tumor received either 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.a., 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.v., 20 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.v., or 25 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All rabbits (with the exception of the 20 mM i.v. group) received FDG 1 h before sacrifice. Next, we compared survival of animals treated with i.a. administered 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA in 25 ml of PBS (n = 22) with controls (n = 10). After i.a. infusion, tumor uptake of [14C]3-BrPA was 1.8 ± 0.2% percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), whereas other tissues showed minimal uptake. After i.v. infusion (1.75 mM), tumor uptake of [14C]3-BrPA was 0.03 ± 0.01% ID/g. After i.a. administration of [14C]3-BrPA, tumor uptake of FDG was 26 times lower than in controls. After i.v. administration of [14C]3-BrPA, there was no significant difference in tumor FDG uptake. Survival analysis showed that rabbits treated with 1.75 mM 3-BrPA survived longer (55 days) than controls (18.6 days). Intra-arterially delivered 3-BrPA has a favorable biodistribution profile, combining a high tumor uptake resulting in blockage of FDG uptake with no effects on healthy tissue. The local control of the liver tumor by 3-BrPA resulted in a significant survival benefit. PMID:18591216

  5. Effect of Angelica Sinensis on liver fibrosis after radiotherapy combined with transarterial chemoembolization for rabbits with VX 2 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qingyun; Zhou Yunfeng; Hu Jinxiang; Zhou Jun; Le Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on liver fibrosis after radiotherapy (RT) combined with transarterial chemoembolization(TACE) for rabbits with VX 2 tumor, and the mechanism of anti-hepatic fibrosis. Methods: Fifty New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: Control group (n=10) was given saline 2 ml by gastroduodenal artery, model group (n=10) was given pingyangmycin 1 mg and iodized oil 0.2 ml, and exposed to single fraction of 20 Gy, Angelica group (n=30) undergoing RT combined with TACE was given Angelica Sinensis injection. According to different doses of Angelica Sinensis, Angelica group was divided into low-dose group (4 ml/kg), middle dose group (6 ml/kg) and high-dose group (8 ml/kg), twice per week for 4 weeks. Serum levels of HA, LN, PCIII, CIV and liver specimens were obtained at the end of 6th week after RT combined with TACE. The histological changes were determined by HE, VG staining and TGF-β1 immunohistochemistry staining. Results: Stages of liver fibrosis in the model group were mostly stages II and III, and stages of liver fibrosis in the Angelica group were mostly stages I, there was significant difference between the model group and the Angelica group, and stages of liver fibrosis were associated with Angelica intercention treatment (r=0.7631, P<0.01). Serum HA, LN, PCIII and CIV in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.01), TGF-β1 expression in the Angelica group was significantly reduced compared with the wodel group and different doses of Angelica group showed dose-effect (r=0.4427, P<0.01). Conclusions: Angelica Sinensis injection has inhibitive effect on liver fibrosis after RT combined with TACE for rabbits with VX 2 tumor, the mechanism of anti-hepatic fibrosis might possibly be associated with down-regulating TGF-β1. (authors)

  6. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  7. Anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus through US guided injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Park, Byeong Ho; Kang, Myong Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Choi, Sun Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Tae Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) (Thymidine kinase (-)/GM-CSF (+)) that was administered as a US guided intratumoral injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 12 rabbits. US was performed at every week interval to detect hepatic mass after the implantation of VX2 carcinoma. The accurate tumor size and volume was evaluated with CT when the tumor was detected on US. US guided injection of rVV (10{sup 9} pfu/ml) was preformed in three rabbits, intravenous injection of the same dose of rVV was done in two rabbits and another seven rabbits that were without any treatment were selected as a control group. We evaluated the change of the hepatic tumor size and extrahepatic metastasis on serial CT. Tumor specimens were harvested from rabbits that were killed at 8 weeks after VX2 implantation. These tissues were histoimmuopathologically compared to each other (the virus injection group and the control group). The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with student t-tests. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the US guided injection group compared with the intravenous injection group or the control group ({rho} < 0.01). The intravenous injection group showed statistically significant tumor suppression compared to the control group ({rho} < 0.01) until 2 weeks after virus injection. Quantification of the pulmonary metastatic nodules was performed in view of both the number and volume. The average number or volume of the pulmonary metastatic nodules in the US injection group was much smaller than these in the control group. Histopathologically, the tumors of the US guided injection group showed less extensive necrosis than those of the control group. Immunohistochemically, the tumor of the US guided injection group showed more prominent infiltration of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes than did the tumors of the other group

  8. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40{degrees}C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54{degrees}C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  9. Removal of gasoline vapors from air streams by biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.A.; Kant, W.D.; Colwell, F.S.; Singleton, B.; Lee, B.D.; Andrews, G.F.; Espinosa, A.M.; Johnson, E.G.

    1993-03-01

    Research was performed to develop a biofilter for the biodegradation of gasoline vapors. The overall goal of this effort was to provide information necessary for the design, construction, and operation of a commercial gasoline vapor biofilter. Experimental results indicated that relatively high amounts of gasoline vapor adsorption occur during initial exposure of the biofilter bed medium to gasoline vapors. Biological removal occurs over a 22 to 40[degrees]C temperature range with removal being completely inhibited at 54[degrees]C. The addition of fertilizer to the relatively fresh bed medium used did not increase the rates of gasoline removal in short term experiments. Microbiological analyses indicated that high levels of gasoline degrading microbes are naturally present in the bed medium and that additional inoculation with hydrocarbon degrading cultures does not appreciably increase gasoline removal rates. At lower gasoline concentrations, the vapor removal rates were considerably lower than those at higher gasoline concentrations. This implies that system designs facilitating gasoline transport to the micro-organisms could substantially increase gasoline removal rates at lower gasoline vapor concentrations. Test results from a field scale prototype biofiltration system showed volumetric productivity (i.e., average rate of gasoline degradation per unit bed volume) values that were consistent with those obtained with laboratory column biofilters at similar inlet gasoline concentrations. In addition, total benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal over the operating conditions employed was 50 to 55%. Removal of benzene was approximately 10 to 15% and removal of the other members of the BTEX group was much higher, typically >80%.

  10. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  11. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  12. Vapor generating unit blowdown arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    A vapor generating unit having a U-shaped tube bundle is provided with an orificed downcomer shroud and a fluid flow distribution plate between the lower hot and cold leg regions to promote fluid entrained sediment deposition in proximity to an apertured blowdown pipe

  13. Influence of soil properties on vapor-phase sorption of trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekele, Dawit N.; Naidu, Ravi; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor intrusion is a major exposure pathway for volatile hydrocarbons. • Certainty in transport processes enhances vapor intrusion model precision. • Detailed understanding of vadose zone vapor transport processes save resources. • Vapor sorption near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years. • Type of clay fractions equitably affects sorption of trichloroethylene vapor. - Abstract: Current practices in health risk assessment from vapor intrusion (VI) using mathematical models are based on assumptions that the subsurface sorption equilibrium is attained. The time required for sorption to reach near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years to achieve. This study investigated the vapor phase attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in five soils varying widely in clay and organic matter content using repacked columns. The primary indicators of TCE sorption were vapor retardation rate (R_t), the time required for the TCE vapor to pass through the soil column, and specific volume of retention (V_R), and total volume of TCE retained in soil. Results show TCE vapor retardation is mainly due to the rapid partitioning of the compound to SOM. However, the specific volume of retention of clayey soils with secondary mineral particles was higher. Linear regression analyses of the SOM and clay fraction with V_R show that a unit increase in clay fraction results in higher sorption of TCE (V_R) than the SOM. However, partitioning of TCE vapor was not consistent with the samples' surface areas but was mainly a function of the type of secondary minerals present in soils.

  14. Influence of soil properties on vapor-phase sorption of trichloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekele, Dawit N. [Global Center for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment, Building X (Environmental Sciences Building), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [Global Center for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment, Building X (Environmental Sciences Building), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu [Global Center for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment & Remediation of the Environment, Building X (Environmental Sciences Building), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Vapor intrusion is a major exposure pathway for volatile hydrocarbons. • Certainty in transport processes enhances vapor intrusion model precision. • Detailed understanding of vadose zone vapor transport processes save resources. • Vapor sorption near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years. • Type of clay fractions equitably affects sorption of trichloroethylene vapor. - Abstract: Current practices in health risk assessment from vapor intrusion (VI) using mathematical models are based on assumptions that the subsurface sorption equilibrium is attained. The time required for sorption to reach near-steady-state conditions at sites may take months or years to achieve. This study investigated the vapor phase attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in five soils varying widely in clay and organic matter content using repacked columns. The primary indicators of TCE sorption were vapor retardation rate (R{sub t}), the time required for the TCE vapor to pass through the soil column, and specific volume of retention (V{sub R}), and total volume of TCE retained in soil. Results show TCE vapor retardation is mainly due to the rapid partitioning of the compound to SOM. However, the specific volume of retention of clayey soils with secondary mineral particles was higher. Linear regression analyses of the SOM and clay fraction with V{sub R} show that a unit increase in clay fraction results in higher sorption of TCE (V{sub R}) than the SOM. However, partitioning of TCE vapor was not consistent with the samples' surface areas but was mainly a function of the type of secondary minerals present in soils.

  15. High Temperature Corrosion of Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride in Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are proposed for applications in high temperature combustion environments containing water vapor. Both SiC and Si3N4 react with water vapor to form a silica (SiO2) scale. It is therefore important to understand the durability of SiC, Si3N4 and SiO2 in water vapor. Thermogravimetric analyses, furnace exposures and burner rig results were obtained for these materials in water vapor at temperatures between 1100 and 1450 C and water vapor partial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 3.1 atm. First, the oxidation of SiC and Si3N4 in water vapor is considered. The parabolic kinetic rate law, rate dependence on water vapor partial pressure, and oxidation mechanism are discussed. Second, the volatilization of silica to form Si(OH)4(g) is examined. Mass spectrometric results, the linear kinetic rate law and a volatilization model based on diffusion through a gas boundary layer are discussed. Finally, the combined oxidation and volatilization reactions, which occur when SiC or Si3N4 are exposed in a water vapor-containing environment, are presented. Both experimental evidence and a model for the paralinear kinetic rate law are shown for these simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions.

  16. The Dynamics of Glutathione Species and Ophthalmate Concentrations in Plasma from the VX2 Rabbit Model of Secondary Liver Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Available tumor markers have low sensitivity/specificity for the diagnosis of liver tumors. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidoreductive status of the liver as surrogates of tumor subsistence and growth. Methods. Glutathione species (GSH:GSSG, ophthalmate (OA concentrations, and their turnover were measured in plasma of rabbits (n=6 in their healthy state and in the state of tumor growth after implantation of the VX2 carcinoma in their liver. Tumors were allowed to grow for a period of 14 days when rabbits were sacrificed. Livers were removed and cysteine concentration was measured in liver tissue. Results. Tumor growth was found in 100% of the rabbits. Concentration and labeling of GSH/GSSG were similar in experimental animals before and after tumor implantation and to sham animals. In contrast, OA concentration increased significantly in experimental animals after tumor implantation when compared to same animals prior to tumor implantation and to sham animals (P<.05. The concentration of cysteine, a precursor of GSH, was found to be significantly lower in the liver tissue adjacent to the tumor (P<.05. Conclusion. Disturbances in the oxidoreductive state of livers appear to be a surrogate of early tumor growth.

  17. MR staging of malignant musculoskeletal tumors: An experimental study on MR and pathologic correlation of rabbit VX-2 carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Chung, Sung Hoon; KIm, Cheol Woo; Kim, Seong Moon; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of MR imaging in tissue characterization and depiction of tumor boundaries, we performed MR pathologic correlation using parosteally implanted VX-2 carcinoma in 17 rabbit thighs. T1-weighted, T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted axial images were obtained 10-30 days after tumor implantation. After the animals were killed, frozen and sectioned along the MR imaging planes, and histopathologic examination were done. For accurate MR pathologic correlation, rabbit were fixed on the cardboard plate to minimize position change during the procedure. Tumor boundaries depicted on MR images were larger than those depicted on the specimen. Small tumors were surrounded by capsule-like loose connective tissue. Loose connective tissue became compact with tumor growth. This connective tissue showed high signal intensity on both T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images. Muscle atrophy with fatty tissue accumulation around the tumor also contributed to the high signal intensity on MR images. Peritumoral edema and inflammatory reaction were not remarkable. Six of 8 cases with bone marrow fibrosis were detected on MR images. We concluded that peritumoral loose connective tissue and muscle atrophy exaggerated the size of experimentally induced malignant musculoskeletal tumors on MR images

  18. The impact of vaporized nanoemulsions on ultrasound-mediated ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Kopechek, Jonathan A; Porter, Tyrone M

    2013-01-01

    . Broadband emissions detected during HIFU exposure coincided in time with measured accelerated heating, which suggested that IC played an important role in bubble-enhanced heating. In the presence of bubbles, the acoustic power required for the formation of a 9-mm(3) lesion was reduced by 72% and the exposure time required for the onset of albumin denaturation was significantly reduced (by 4 s), provided that the PSNE volume fraction in the polyacrylamide gel was at least 0.008%. The time or acoustic power required for lesion formation in gel phantoms was dramatically reduced by vaporizing PSNE into bubbles. These results suggest that PSNE may improve the efficiency of HIFU-mediated thermal ablation of solid tumors; thus, further investigation is warranted to determine whether bubble-enhanced HIFU may potentially become a viable option for cancer therapy.

  19. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  20. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    near 8, 2000, and 200, respectively. The A (or a) value is directly related to vapor pressure and will be greater for high vapor pressure materials...1, (10) where n is the number of data points, Yi is the natural logarithm of the i th experimental vapor pressure value, and Xi is the...VAPOR PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS ECBC-TR-1422 Ann Brozena RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE

  1. Layered Black Phosphorus as a Selective Vapor Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-23

    Black phosphorus is a layered material that is sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. This is generally considered as a disadvantage, especially when compared to more stable layered compounds, such as graphite or MoS2. This sensitivity is now turned into an advantage. A vapor sensor that is based on layered black phosphorus and uses electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as the detection method is presented; the device selectively detects methanol vapor. The impedance phase measured at a constant frequency is used as a distinctive parameter for the selective quantification of methanol, and increases with the methanol concentration. The low detection limit of 28 ppm is well below the approved exposure limit of 200 ppm. The results are highly reproducible, and the vapor sensor is shown to be very selective in the presence of other vapors and to have long-term stability. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  2. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene sutures and mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, David; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Complications from polypropylene mesh after surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may require tedious surgical revision and removal of mesh materials with risk of damage to healthy adjacent tissue. This study explores selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials commonly used in SUI. A compact, 7 Watt, 647-nm, red diode laser was operated with a radiant exposure of 81 J/cm2, pulse duration of 100 ms, and 1.0-mm-diameter laser spot. The 647-nm wavelength was selected because its absorption by water, hemoglobin, and other major tissue chromophores is low, while polypropylene absorption is high. Laser vaporization of ~200-μm-diameter polypropylene suture/mesh strands, in contact with fresh urinary tissue samples, ex vivo, was performed. Non-contact temperature mapping of the suture/mesh samples with a thermal camera was also conducted. Photoselective vaporization of polypropylene suture and mesh using a single laser pulse was achieved with peak temperatures of 180 and 232 °C, respectively. In control (safety) studies, direct laser irradiation of tissue alone resulted in only a 1 °C temperature increase. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials is feasible without significant thermal damage to tissue. This technique may be useful for SUI procedures requiring surgical revision.

  3. Estimating enthalpy of vaporization from vapor pressure using Trouton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2007-04-15

    The enthalpy of vaporization of liquids and subcooled liquids at 298 K (delta H(VAP)) is an important parameter in environmental fate assessments that consider spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions. It has been shown that delta H(VAP)P for non-hydrogen-bonding substances can be estimated from vapor pressure at 298 K (P(L)) using an empirically derived linear relationship. Here, we demonstrate that the relationship between delta H(VAP)and PL is consistent with Trouton's rule and the ClausiusClapeyron equation under the assumption that delta H(VAP) is linearly dependent on temperature between 298 K and the boiling point temperature. Our interpretation based on Trouton's rule substantiates the empirical relationship between delta H(VAP) degree and P(L) degrees for non-hydrogen-bonding chemicals with subcooled liquid vapor pressures ranging over 15 orders of magnitude. We apply the relationship between delta H(VAP) degrees and P(L) degrees to evaluate data reported in literature reviews for several important classes of semivolatile environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans and illustrate the temperature dependence of results from a multimedia model presented as a partitioning map. The uncertainty associated with estimating delta H(VAP)degrees from P(L) degrees using this relationship is acceptable for most environmental fate modeling of non-hydrogen-bonding semivolatile organic chemicals.

  4. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H. H.; Farrar, M. E.; Fink, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  5. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  6. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  7. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  8. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  9. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  10. Vapor Pressure of Antimony Triiodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    unlimited. iii Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Vapor Pressure 1 3. Experiment 3 4. Discussion and Measurements 5 5...SbI3 as a function of temperature ......................... 6 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction ...single-crystal thin films of n-type (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 materials presents new doping challenges because it is a nonequilibrium process. (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3

  11. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: immunotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kimber L; Peachee, Vanessa L; Armstrong, Sarah R; Twerdok, Lorraine E; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A

    2014-11-01

    Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential immunotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) administered for 6h/day, 5days/week for 4weeks. The antibody-forming cell (AFC) response to the T-dependent antigen, sheep erythrocyte (sRBC), was used to determine the effects of the gasoline vapor condensates on the humoral components of the immune system. Exposure to BGVC, G/MTBE, G/TAME, and G/TBA did not result in significant changes in the IgM AFC response to sRBC, when evaluated as either specific activity (AFC/10(6) spleen cells) or as total spleen activity (AFC/spleen). Exposure to G/EtOH and G/DIPE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the AFC response, reaching the level of statistical significance only at the high 20,000mg/m(3) level. Exposure to G/ETBE resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the AFC response at the middle (10,000mg/m(3)) and high (20,000mg/m(3)) exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 3.0 T MR diffusion weighted imaging in the evaluation of radio-frequency ablation of the liver VX2 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yubao; Liang Changhong; Wang Qiushi; Xie Shufei; Yu Yuanxin; Liu Zaiyi; Zhang Zhonglin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3.0 T MR DWI techniques in detecting the lesions of pre and post-radiofrequency ablation of the rabbit liver VX2 tumors. Methods: Twenty two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this experiment. Twenty tumor fragments were implanted into the livers of 20 rabbits respectively. Two normal rabbits were used as controls for radiofrequency ablation of the normal liver. 3. 0 T MR DWI was performed 14 to 21 days after tumor implantation (mean, 17 days) in the tumor-bearing animals. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the 18 tumor-bearing animals and in the two healthy animals. 3.0 T MRI and DWI were performed 7 to 10 days after radiofrequency ablation (mean, 8 days). Pathology was obtained immediately after the completion of post radiofrequency ablation MR imaging. The MRI features and ADC values of pre- and post -radiofrequency ablation lesions in the livers with VX2 tumors and normal rabbits were analyzed and correlation was made with histopathologic findings. Analysis of variance repeated measures were performed in analyzing the differences among the ADC values of different tissues with the same b value. Results: All 20 rabbit liver models of VX2 tumors were constructed successfully. One rabbit died of anesthetic overdose, another one showed necrosis within the implanted tumor. All 18 untreated VX2 tumors had predominantly low or iso-signal intensity on T 1 WI and high signal intensity on T 2 WI. All 18 VX2 tumors and 2 normal rabbits were treated by radiofrequency ablation successfully. Lesions treated by Radiofrequency ablation displayed low signal intensity on T 1 WI, and high signal intensity on T 2 WI. Seven to 10 days after radiofrequency ablation, lesions varied from having low signal intensity to slightly increased signal intensity on T 1 WI, with areas of mixed (high, intermediate, and low) signal intensity. A peripheral rim of high signal intensity with varying thickness on T 2 WI correlated with granulation tissue, which

  14. [Effects of intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate on metastases and survival benefit of hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-ying; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Huang, Jin-hua; Luo, Rong-guang; Miao, Bi-jian; Wang, Yan

    2013-10-22

    To evaluate the metastasis and survival of an intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits. VX2 tumor was implanted in left lateral lobe of liver of 18 white New Zealand rabbits. The animals were randomized into 3 groups (n = 6 each) and underwent an intra-arterial infusion of phosphate-buffered saline or 3-BrPA via hepatic artery at 14 days post-implantation. At 28 days post-implantation, 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed. The abdomen of these rabbits was opened and inspected for metastases. Then the survival of the remaining rabbits was observed. At 28 days post-implantation, in PBS group, there were intrahepatic metastasis and abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 3), renal metastases (n = 2) and lung metastases (n = 2); in early 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 2), abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1); in late 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1). The survival of the remaining animals was observed. Rabbits in early 3-BrPA infusion group survived significantly longer than those in PBS group [(27 ± 5) vs (17 ± 3) days, P = 0.041]; rabbits in late 3-BrPA infusion group [(42 ± 6) days] survived significantly longer than those in early 3-BrPA infusion group (P = 0.007). An intra-arterial infusion of 3-BrPA could reduce metastasis and prolong survival in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. The earlier the infusion, the better the outcome.

  15. Tumor vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh: evaluation with enhanced power doppler sonography and DSA correlated with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Seog Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To describe findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA in experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh and to correlate the imaging findings with the histopathologic features. A total of 30 VX2 carcinomas were implanted in rabbit thigh, and after conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, histopathologic examination was performed. Enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, were used to determine the distribution pattern of tumor vascularity; to assess its grade and the percentage of a tumor area occupied by vessels, conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography, as well as DSA, were used. The grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and capsule were histopathologically determined. The findings of power Doppler sonography were compared with those of DSA and the imaging features were correlated with the histopathologic features. At enhanced power Doppler sonography, the signal was either avascular (n=9), peripheral (n=15) or diffuse (n=6), while at DSA, the corresponding totals were eight, fourteen and eight. There was statistically significant corelation between enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy and DSA, both in their depiction of the distribution of patterns of tumor vascularity and as regards their findings of grade and percentage of vascular area. As determined by both conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy, and by DSA, grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule correlated with grade and the percentage of vascular area. Experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh demonstrated various patterns of tumor vascularity, and the findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography correlated with those of DSA. Tumor vascularity, as demonstrated by two imaging modalities, correlated closely with grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule, as revealed by histopathologic examination.

  16. Tumor vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh: evaluation with enhanced power doppler sonography and DSA correlated with histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Seog Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chang, Kee Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To describe findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA in experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh and to correlate the imaging findings with the histopathologic features. A total of 30 VX2 carcinomas were implanted in rabbit thigh, and after conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, histopathologic examination was performed. Enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, were used to determine the distribution pattern of tumor vascularity; to assess its grade and the percentage of a tumor area occupied by vessels, conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography, as well as DSA, were used. The grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and capsule were histopathologically determined. The findings of power Doppler sonography were compared with those of DSA and the imaging features were correlated with the histopathologic features. At enhanced power Doppler sonography, the signal was either avascular (n=9), peripheral (n=15) or diffuse (n=6), while at DSA, the corresponding totals were eight, fourteen and eight. There was statistically significant corelation between enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy and DSA, both in their depiction of the distribution of patterns of tumor vascularity and as regards their findings of grade and percentage of vascular area. As determined by both conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy, and by DSA, grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule correlated with grade and the percentage of vascular area. Experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh demonstrated various patterns of tumor vascularity, and the findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography correlated with those of DSA. Tumor vascularity, as demonstrated by two imaging modalities, correlated closely with grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule, as revealed by histopathologic examination

  17. Combination of vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy increases the curative effects against maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Linfeng, E-mail: zhenglinfeng04@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Li Yujie, E-mail: yujieli01@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Han, E-mail: bingowh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhao Jinglong, E-mail: jinglongz@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Xifu, E-mail: wangxiechen001@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Hu Yunsheng, E-mail: springmorninghu@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhang Guixiang, E-mail: guixiangzhang@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To study the effects of combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy on maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits. Methods: We used 24 New Zealand white rabbits as a model to induce maxillofacial VX2 tumor. The rabbits were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: radiotherapy group (group A), treated with 16 Gy of radiotherapy; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide treatment group (group B), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide combined with radiotherapy group (group C), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor immediately after 16 Gy of radiotherapy; and control group (group D), treated with an injection of 300 {mu}l 5% aqueous glucose solution into the local tumor. On days 3 and 14 after treatment, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed to calculate maximal enhancement ratio (MER), slope of enhancement (SLE), and tumor volume change. Rabbits were killed on day 14 to obtain samples for pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF. Results: In group C, tumor volume was significantly reduced on day 14 after treatment, and the difference was statistically different as compared to that before treatment, on day 3 after treatment and other groups (P < 0.01). Values of both MER and SLE after treatment were significantly lower than the values before treatment (P < 0.05). Pathological specimen revealed tumor cell edema, bleeding, necrosis, vascular wall thickening and occlusion, and decreased VEGF expression. The immunohistochemical score (IHS) of group C was significantly different from groups A and D respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Injecting the tumor with VEGF antisense oligonucleotide immediately after radiotherapy can enhance the curative effect on rabbit maxillofacial VX2 tumor, and DCE-MRI can serve

  18. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87±1.51 [mean SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72±0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05±1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41±0.73) than that before treatment (p 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48%±15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor

  19. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87{+-}1.51 [mean SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72{+-}0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05{+-}1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41{+-}0.73) than that before treatment (p 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48%{+-}15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor.

  20. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Jae, Hwan Jun; Kim, Young Il; Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Min Jong; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Won Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Chung, Hesson; Lee, Kichang

    2007-01-01

    Objective We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Materials and Methods VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. Results The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87 ±1.51 [mean ±SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72 ±0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05 ±1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41 ±0.73) than that before treatment (p = 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48% ±15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Conclusion Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor. PMID:17554189

  1. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal uptake directly from air is a potentially important yet largely overlooked pathway for human exposure to organic vapors indoors. We recently reported (Indoor Air 2012, 22, 356) that transdermal uptake directly from air could be comparable to or larger than intake via inhalation for many......, formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal......-to-inhalation uptake; for such compounds, the estimates reported here require experimental verification. In accounting for total exposure to indoor organic pollutants and in assessing potential health consequences of such exposures, it is important to consider direct transdermal absorption from air....

  2. The Oxidation Rate of SiC in High Pressure Water Vapor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    CVD SiC and sintered alpha-SiC samples were exposed at 1316 C in a high pressure burner rig at total pressures of 5.7, 15, and 25 atm for times up to 100h. Variations in sample emittance for the first nine hours of exposure were used to determine the thickness of the silica scale as a function of time. After accounting for volatility of silica in water vapor, the parabolic rate constants for Sic in water vapor pressures of 0.7, 1.8 and 3.1 atm were determined. The dependence of the parabolic rate constant on the water vapor pressure yielded a power law exponent of one. Silica growth on Sic is therefore limited by transport of molecular water vapor through the silica scale.

  3. Determination of Vaporization Properties and Volatile Hazardous Components Relevant to Kukersite Oil Shale Derived Fuel Oil Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada TRAUMANN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate vaporization properties of shale fuel oil in relation to inhalation exposure. The shale fuel oil was obtained from kukersite oil shale. The shale oil and its light fraction (5 % of the total fuel oil were characterized by vapor pressure curve, molecular weight distribution, elemental composition and functional groups based on FTIR spectra. The rate of vaporization from the total fuel oil at different temperatures was monitored as a function of time using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. It is shown that despite its relatively low vapor pressure at room temperature a remarkable amount of oil vaporizes influencing air quality significantly. From the TGA data the changes in the vapor pressure during vaporization process were estimated. Although the shale fuel oil has a strong, unpleasant smell, the main hazards to workplace air quality depend on the vaporization rate of different toxic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, xylene or phenolic compounds. The presence of these hazardous substances in the vapor phase of shale fuel oil was monitored using headspace analysis coupled with selective ion monitoring (SIM and confirmed by the NIST Mass Spectral library and retention times of standards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4549

  4. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  5. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  6. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  7. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yunhong; Gregson, Christopher M.; Parker, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  8. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  9. CT spectral imaging for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of VEGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG-013736 in rabbit VX2 liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Yan, Xiaopeng; Chai, Yaru; Chen, Yan; Gao, Jianbo; Pan, Yuanwei; Li, Shuai; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Yue [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, The Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, Henan Province (China)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor AG-013736 in rabbit VX2 liver tumours. Twenty-three VX2 liver tumour-bearing rabbits were scanned with CT in spectral imaging mode during the arterial phase (AP) and portal phase (PP). The iodine concentrations(ICs)of tumours normalized to aorta (nICs) at different time points (baseline, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after treatment) were compared within the treated group (n = 17) as well as between the control (n = 6) and treated groups. Correlations between the tumour size, necrotic fraction (NF), microvessel density (MVD), and nICs were analysed. The change of nICs relative to baseline in the treated group was lower compared to the control group. A greater decrease in the nIC of a tumour at 2 days was positively correlated with a smaller increase in tumour size at 14 days (P < 0.05 for both). The tumour nIC values in AP and PP had correlations with MVD (r = 0.71 and 0.52) and NF (r = -0.54 and -0.51) (P < 0.05 for all). CT spectral imaging allows for the evaluation and early prediction of tumour response to AG-013736. (orig.)

  10. Selective enhancement of boron accumulation with boron-entrapped water-in-oil-water emulsion in VX-2 rabbit hepatic cancer model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Shushi; Ikushima, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons. It is necessary for effective BNCT therapy to accumulate 10 B atoms in the tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy cells. Water-in-oil-water (WOW) emulsion was used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on arterial injections in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion for selective arterial infusion for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. WOW emulsion was administrated by arterial injections via proper hepatic artery. The anti-tumor activity of the emulsion was compared with 10 BSH-Lipiodol mix emulsion or 10 BSH solutions on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumor models. The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumor on delivery with WOW emulsion was superior to those by conventional lipiodol mix emulsion. Electro-microscopic figures of WOW emulsion delineated the accumulation of fat droplets of WOW emulsion in the tumor site, but there was no accumulation of fat droplets in lipiodol emulsion. These results indicate that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion is most useful carrier for arterial delivery of boron agents on BNCT to cancer. (author)

  11. GENERALISATION DE LA METHODE VARIATIONNELLE DE KLEINERT A LA FAMILLE DE POTENTIELS V(x = ∑CiX2i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GRIGAHCENE

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La méthode variationnelle de Feynman-kleinert a été initialement conçue pour le calcul des grandeurs de la physique statistique. Son développement par Kleinert a permis de déterminer le spectre d’énergie d’un système soumis à un potentiel V(x = x2 + λx4. Nous nous proposons dans ce travail de généraliser la méthode de Kleinert au cas de la famille de potentiel du type V(x = Σi CiX2i . Cette classe de potentiels comprend notamment les potentiels doublement anharmoniques et celui de Varshni. Les résultats ainsi obtenus sont confrontés à ceux donnés par la littérature, et seront utilisés pour le calcul de l’énergie libre de Helmotz. Cette dernière sera comparée à celle donnée par la méthode de Feynman-Kleinert directe.

  12. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues.

  13. Necrosis targeted radiotherapy with iodine-131-labeled hypericin to improve anticancer efficacy of vascular disrupting treatment in rabbit VX2 tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibo; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Ziping; Chen, Feng; Dai, Xu; Li, Yaming; Ni, Yicheng; Xu, Ke

    2015-06-10

    A viable rim of tumor cells surrounding central necrosis always exists and leads to tumor recurrence after vascular disrupting treatment (VDT). A novel necrosis targeted radiotherapy (NTRT) using iodine-131-labeled hypericin (131I-Hyp) was specifically designed to treat viable tumor rim and improve tumor control after VDT in rabbit models of multifocal VX2 tumors. NTRT was administered 24 hours after VDT. Tumor growth was significantly slowed down by NTRT with a smaller tumor volume and a prolonged tumor doubling time (14.4 vs. 5.7 days), as followed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging over 12 days. The viable tumor rims were well inhibited in NTRT group compared with single VDT control group, as showed on tumor cross sections at day 12 (1 vs. 3.7 in area). High targetability of 131I-Hyp to tumor necrosis was demonstrated by in vivo SPECT as high uptake in tumor regions lasting over 9 days with 4.26 to 98 times higher radioactivity for necrosis versus the viable tumor and other organs by gamma counting, and with ratios of 7.7-11.7 and 10.5-13.7 for necrosis over peri-tumor tissue by autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. In conclusion, NTRT improved the anticancer efficacy of VDT in rabbits with VX2 tumors.

  14. VOC composition of current motor vehicle fuels and vapors, and collinearity analyses for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A

    2012-03-01

    The formulation of motor vehicle fuels can alter the magnitude and composition of evaporative and exhaust emissions occurring throughout the fuel cycle. Information regarding the volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of motor fuels other than gasoline is scarce, especially for bioethanol and biodiesel blends. This study examines the liquid and vapor (headspace) composition of four contemporary and commercially available fuels: gasoline (gasoline), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and B20 (20% soy-biodiesel and 80% ULSD). The composition of gasoline and E85 in both neat fuel and headspace vapor was dominated by aromatics and n-heptane. Despite its low gasoline content, E85 vapor contained higher concentrations of several VOCs than those in gasoline vapor, likely due to adjustments in its formulation. Temperature changes produced greater changes in the partial pressures of 17 VOCs in E85 than in gasoline, and large shifts in the VOC composition. B20 and ULSD were dominated by C(9) to C(16)n-alkanes and low levels of the aromatics, and the two fuels had similar headspace vapor composition and concentrations. While the headspace composition predicted using vapor-liquid equilibrium theory was closely correlated to measurements, E85 vapor concentrations were underpredicted. Based on variance decomposition analyses, gasoline and diesel fuels and their vapors VOC were distinct, but B20 and ULSD fuels and vapors were highly collinear. These results can be used to estimate fuel related emissions and exposures, particularly in receptor models that apportion emission sources, and the collinearity analysis suggests that gasoline- and diesel-related emissions can be distinguished. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  16. Experiences of marijuana-vaporizer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.

  17. Reaction of water vapor with a clean liquid uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-01-01

    To study the reaction of water vapor with uranium, we have exposed clean liquid uranium surfaces to H 2 O under UHV conditions. We have measured the surface concentration of oxygen as a function of exposure, and determined the maximum attainable surface oxygen concentration X 0 /sup s/ as a function of temperature. We have used these measurements to estimate, close to the melting point, the solubility of oxygen (X 0 /sup b/, -4 ) and its surface segregation coefficient β/sup s/(> 10 3 ). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Vapor pressures and thermophysical properties of selected hexenols and recommended vapor pressure for hexan-1-ol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Matějka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 402, Sep (2015), 18-29 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alcohols * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  19. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  20. Colorimetric Detection of Water Vapor Using Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: Water vapor trapped in encapsulation materials or enclosed volumes leads to corrosion issues for critical NW components. Sandia National Laboratories has created a new diagnostic to indicate the presence of water in weapon systems. Impact: Component exposure to water now can be determined instantly, without need for costly, time-consuming analytical methods.

  1. Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection

  2. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

  3. Enthalpy of vaporization and vapor pressure of whiskey lactone and menthalactone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Chickos, James

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpies of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated. • Enthalpies of vaporization and vapor pressures of (+)-isomintlactone and (−)-mintlactone were also evaluated. • The sublimation enthalpy and corresponding vapor pressure of (+) -isomintlactone at T = 298.15 K is estimated. - Abstract: Enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography to be (68.4 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 and (67.5 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 , respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization of isomintlactone and mintlactone also evaluated by correlation gas chromatography have been found to have vaporization enthalpies of (74.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 and (73.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 respectively. The vapor pressures for cis and trans-whiskey lactone at T = 298.15 K have been evaluated as (1.5 ± 0.09) Pa and (2.0 ± 0.1) Pa using vapor pressures of a series of lactones as standards. Vapor pressures for isomintlactone and mintlactone were evaluated as (0.26 ± 0.012) Pa and (0.33 ± 0.02) Pa, respectively. Fusion and sublimation enthalpies for (+)-isomintlactone as well as the vapor pressure of the solid have been estimated.

  4. A glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction of basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Vijay; Kabra, Ankur; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2015-12-24

    In this work, a glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction (μ-EME) was demonstrated for the first time. The device was made by connecting an auxillary borosilicate glass tubing (O.D. 3mm, I.D. 2mm) perpendicular to main borosilicate glass capillary just below one end of the capillary (O.D. 8mm, I.D. 1.2mm). It generated the distorted T-shaped device with inlet '1' and inlet '2' for the introduction of sample and acceptor solutions, respectively. At one end of this device (inlet '2'), a microsyringe containing acceptor solution along with hollow fiber (O.D. 1000μm) was introduced. This configuration creates the micro-channel between inner wall of glass capillary and outer surface of hollow fiber. Sample solution was pumped into the system through another end of glass capillary (inlet '1'), with a micro-syringe pump. The sample was in direct contact with the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisted of 20% (w/w) di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. In the lumen of the hollow fiber, the acceptor phase was present. The driving force for extraction was direct current (DC) electrical potential sustained over the SLM. Highly polar (logP=-2.5 to 1.4) basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX were selected as model analytes. The influence of chemical composition of SLM, extraction time, voltage and pH of donor and acceptor phase were investigated. The model analytes were extracted from 10μL of pure water with recoveries ranging from 15.7 to 99.7% just after 3min of operation time. Under optimized conditions, good limits of detection (2-50ngmL(-1)), linearity (from 5-1000 to 100-1000ngmL(-1)), and repeatability (RSDs below 11.9%, n=3) were achieved. Applicability of the proposed μ-EME was proved by recovering triethanolamine (31.3%) from 10μL of five times diluted original water sample provided by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 28th official

  5. The cooperative effect of p53 and Rb in local nanotherapy in a rabbit VX2 model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shengli Dong,1 Qibin Tang,2 Miaoyun Long,3 Jian Guan,4 Lu Ye,5 Gaopeng Li6 1Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, 2Department of Hepatobiliopancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 3Department of Thyroid and Vascular Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 4Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 5Infection Department, Guangzhou No 8 Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 6Department of Ultrasound, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China Background/aim: A local nanotherapy (LNT combining the therapeutic efficacy of trans-arterial embolization, nanoparticles, and p53 gene therapy has been previously presented. The study presented here aimed to further improve the incomplete tumor eradication and limited survival enhancement and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the LNT. Methods: In a tumor-targeting manner, recombinant expressing plasmids harboring wild-type p53 and Rb were either co-transferred or transferred separately to rabbit hepatic VX2 tumors in a poly-L-lysine-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticle nanoplex and Lipiodol® (Guerbet, Villepinte, France emulsion via the hepatic artery. Subsequent co-expression of p53 and Rb proteins within the treated tumors was investigated by Western blotting and in situ analysis by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by the tumor growth velocity, apoptosis and necrosis rates, their sensitivity to Adriamycin® (ADM, mitomycin C, and fluorouracil, the microvessel density of tumor tissue, and the survival time of animals. Eventually, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting

  6. Ubiquitinated proteins enriched from tumor cells by a ubiquitin binding protein Vx3(A7) as a potent cancer vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldarouish, Mohanad; Wang, Huzhan; Zhou, Meng; Hu, Hong-Ming; Wang, Li-Xin

    2015-04-16

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that autophagosome-enriched vaccine (named DRibbles: DRiPs-containing blebs) induce a potent anti-tumor efficacy in different murine tumor models, in which DRibble-containing ubiquitinated proteins are efficient tumor-specific antigen source for the cross-presentation after being loaded onto dendritic cells. In this study, we sought to detect whether ubiquitinated proteins enriched from tumor cells could be used directly as a novel cancer vaccine. The ubiquitin binding protein Vx3(A7) was used to isolate ubiquitinated proteins from EL4 and B16-F10 tumor cells after blocking their proteasomal degradation pathway. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with different doses of Ub-enriched proteins via inguinal lymph nodes or subcutaneous injection and with DRibbles, Ub-depleted proteins and whole cell lysate as comparison groups, respectively. The lymphocytes from the vaccinated mice were re-stimulated with inactivated tumor cells and the levels of IFN-γ in the supernatant were detected by ELISA. Anti-tumor efficacy of Ub-enriched proteins vaccine was evaluated by monitoring tumor growth in established tumor mice models. Graphpad Prism 5.0 was used for all statistical analysis. We found that after stimulation with inactivated tumor cells, the lymphocytes from the Ub-enriched proteins-vaccinated mice secreted high level of IFN-γ in dose dependent manner, in which the priming vaccination via inguinal lymph nodes injection induced higher IFN-γ level than that via subcutaneous injection. Moreover, the level of secreted IFN-γ in the Ub-enriched proteins group was markedly higher than that in the whole cell lysate and Ub-depleted proteins. Interestingly, the lymphocytes from mice vaccinated with Ub-enriched proteins, but not Ub-depleted proteins and whole cell lysates, isolated from EL4 or B16-F10 tumor cells also produced an obvious level of IFN-γ when stimulated alternately with inactivated B16-F10 or EL4 tumor cells. Furthermore, Ub

  7. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip A., E-mail: Smith.Philip.A@dol.gov [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States); Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada); Savage, Paul B. [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT, 84602 (United States); Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D. [Torion Technologies Inc., 796 East Utah Valley Drive, Suite 200, American Fork, UT, 84003 (United States); Lukacs, Michael J. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H]{sup +}) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H]{sup +} ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d{sub 15} provided evidence that [M+H]{sup +} production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H]{sup +} ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  8. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip A.; Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson; Savage, Paul B.; Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D.; Lukacs, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H] + ) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H] + ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d 15 provided evidence that [M+H] + production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H] + ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  9. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  10. Managing amalgam phase down: An evaluation of mercury vapor levels in a dental center in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolphous Odofin Loto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor in a dental setting is mainly through inhalation exposure during preparation, insertion, polishing, and removal of amalgam fillings including storage of amalgam waste before disposal. This study aims to determine the indoor air levels of elemental mercury vapor in the dental operatories and ancillary sites at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH. Materials and Methods: Samples of the ambient air were taken at seven locations the Dental Center of LASUTH by a trained technician between 9:00 and 11:00 a.m. This was done at a predetermined height (41/2feet above the floor for mercury vapor concentration using Lumex 915 light data logger mercury vapor analyzer manufactured by Ohio Lumex Company Incorporation, USA®. Results: The highest level of 1434 ng/m3 of mercury vapor in the air was found in the restorative clinic while the lowest of 23 ng Hg/m3 was found in the ambient air at the entrance of the dental Center. The Oral Surgery clinic had mercury vapor level of 318 ng/m3 which was slightly higher than Environmental Protection Agency recommended value of 0.3 μg/m3. Conclusion: An unacceptably high level of mercury vapor was detected, especially in the restorative clinic. Every dental clinic should have its ambient air evaluated for mercury vapor level for the purpose of forming a baseline data for monitoring purposes during the period of phase down of amalgam use. Best practices should also be instituted to reduce the level of exposure of patients and dental care workers to mercury vapor.

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  12. Chronic Carcinogenicity Study of Gasoline Vapor Condensate (GVC) and GVC Containing Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in F344 Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Janet M.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; March, Thomas H.; Barr, Edward B.; Tibbetts, Brad M.; Skipper, Betty J.; Clark, Charles R.; Twerdok, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of evaporative emissions from unleaded gasoline (GVC) and gasoline containing the oxygenate methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE; GMVC). The test materials were manufactured to mimic vapors people would be exposed to during refueling at gas stations. Fifty F344 rats per gender per exposure level per test article were exposed 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 104 wk in whole body chambers. Target total vapor concentra...

  13. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  14. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  15. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine,

  16. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  17. Effect of granosan vapors on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishenko, N P; Lishenko, I D

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of granosan on the germination of vetch seeds. Vetch seeds were stored from 4-6 days in ethyl mercuric chloride vapors. Results indicated that the vapors caused a sharp decrease in germination and caused chromosomal aberrations during the anaphase.

  18. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  19. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a.... In addition, chemicals that are likely to be gases at ambient temperatures and which have low water... gases until the measured vapor pressure is constant, a process called “degassing.” Impurities more...

  20. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  1. Loop system for creating jet fuel vapor standards used in the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and gas chromatographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboulet, James; Cunningham, Robert; Gunasekar, Palur G; Chapman, Gail D; Stevens, Sean C

    2009-02-01

    A whole body inhalation study of mixed jet fuel vapor and its aerosol necessitated the development of a method for preparing vapor only standards from the neat fuel. Jet fuel is a complex mixture of components which partitions between aerosol and vapor when aspirated based on relative volatility of the individual compounds. A method was desired which could separate the vapor portion from the aerosol component to prepare standards for the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and a head space gas chromatography system. A re-circulating loop system was developed which provided vapor only standards whose composition matched those seen in an exposure system. Comparisons of nominal concentrations in the exposure system to those determined by infrared spectrophotometry were in 92-95% agreement. Comparison of jet fuel vapor concentrations determined by infrared spectrophotometry compared to head space gas chromatography yielded a 93% overall agreement in trial runs. These levels of agreement show the loop system to be a viable method for creating jet fuel vapor standards for calibrating instruments.

  2. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  3. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Portnova, Svetlana V.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Schubert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 . → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  4. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: neurotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess potential neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions. Test articles included vapor condensates prepared from "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/mg(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. The functional observation battery (FOB) with the addition of motor activity (MA) testing, hematoxylin and eosin staining of brain tissue sections, and brain regional analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to assess behavioral changes, traditional neuropathology and astrogliosis, respectively. FOB and MA data for all agents, except G/TBA, were negative. G/TBA behavioral effects resolved during recovery. Neuropathology was negative for all groups. Analyses of GFAP revealed increases in multiplebrain regions largely limited to males of the G/EtOH group, findings indicative of minor gliosis, most significantly in the cerebellum. Small changes (both increases and decreases) in GFAP were observed for other test agents but effects were not consistent across sex, brain region or exposure concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  6. Hepatic Intra-arterial Delivery of a "Trojan-horses" Gene Therapy: A Pilot Study on Rabbit VX2 Hepatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Olivier; Amara, Ikram; Sapoval, Marc; Méachi, Tchao; Déan, Carole; Beaune, Philippe; de Waziers, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a "Trojan-horses" suicide gene therapy that consists of tumor-targeted gene delivery (vectorized by mesenchymal stem cells MSCs) encoding an enzyme that converts a harmless prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites in situ. Then, cytotoxic metabolites passively diffuse in the neighboring tumor cells and kill them (bystander effect). The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of intra-arterial administration of MSCs transduced with an optimized gene (MSC-CYP2B6TM-RED) followed by intravenous administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA) into the VX2 rabbit liver tumor. Nine rabbits with a VX2 liver tumor were randomly assigned into three groups: Control group A (one rabbit) free of any treatment; Control group B (two rabbits) receiving intravenous injection of cyclophosphamide at day 3 and CPA at day 14; and Group C (six rabbits) receiving the GDEPT treatment, consisting of successive intra-arterial injection of transduced-MSCs at days 0 (n = 6) and 11 (n = 3), followed by injection of CPA at days 3 (n = 6) and 14 (n = 3). The tumor response was assessed by ultrasound scan every 7 days and histopathological analysis at sacrifice (D25). There was a significant difference in the tumor volume between control groups (A + B) and group C at D7: 38/19 cm 3 (p = 0.024); D11: 51/20 cm 3 (p = 0.024), and D25: 121/37 cm 3 (p = 0.048). Tumor necrosis was significantly greater and metastatic spread was lower for rabbits who received GDEPT (78% of total tumor surface) than for control animals (A + B) (22% of total tumor surface (p = 0.006). Intra-arterial delivery of transduced-MSCs is feasible and, after CPA injection, resulted in 78% tumor necrosis (p = 0.006) and less metastasis in a VX2 liver tumor model.

  7. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  8. Effect of hepatic blood flow alteration on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhi; Ni Hong; Li Baoguo; Hu Yonghua; Xing Wenge; Liu Fang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of alteration of blood flow in the hepatic artery on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit model. Methods: Thirty rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumor were divided into three groups according to hepatic artery blood flow: complete occlusion of the hepatic artery(group A), partial occlusion of the hepatic artery (group B), and no occlusion of the hepatic artery (group C). With conventional CT scan and perfusion scan, the values of blood flow (BF) and blood volume(BV) of VX 2 tumor were computed and the differences among the three groups were analyzed. After cryoablation, the animals were euthanized and the livers were removed. The hepatic tissue from the cryoablation area and surrounding area underwent both methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTY) diaphorase staining and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The gross pathology and histopathological changes were observed. Results: (1)The BF and BV in the three groups were: (7.23 + 2. 15 ) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and (1.63±0.52) ml/100 g in group A; (32.65±6.12) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and (9.32±2.63) ml/100 g in group B; (61.34±12.15) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and (17.51± 3.14) ml/100 g in group C, respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups in the BF and BV (F value was 452.16 and 421.33 in the BF and BV, respectively, P <0.01); (2) The maximum diameter of cryoablation-induced necrosis was (2.3±0.3)cm in group A, (1.5±0.2) cm in group B, and (0.8±0.1) cm in group C, respectively. The difference was significant among the groups (F value was 315.32,P <0.01). (3) There were well-defined frozen areas, bordering areas and normal surrounding areas in MTT staining. In group C, positive staining around some blood vessels could be seen. Conclusion: Alteration of the blood flow in the hepatic artery can affect the cryoablation efficacy. With the decrease of hepatic artery blood flow, the efficacy of cryoablation on liver tumor

  9. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in VX2 carcinoma cells: In vitro analysis Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético sobre o carcinoma vx-2: Análise in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in suspension and to examine the correlation between these effects and neoplastic cell death. METHODS: The VX2 tumor cells (10(7 cells/ml were incubated in solutions containing differing concentrations (2.5% and 5% of either acetylsalicylic acid or acetic acid, or in saline solution (controls. Every five minutes, cell viability was tested (using the trypan blue test and analyzed under light microscopy. RESULTS: Tumor cell viability (in % decreased progressively and, by 30 minutes, neoplastic cell death had occurred in all solutions. CONCLUSION: Based on this experimental model and the methodology employed, we conclude that these solutions cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de ácido acetil salicílico (aspirina e de ácido acético, in vitro, sobre células em suspensão do carcinoma VX-2, verificando-se as mesmas causam a morte das células neoplásicas. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se a incubação das células tumorais VX-2 (10(7 células/ml com diferentes concentrações do ácido acetil salicílico (2,5% e 5% e de ácido acético (2,5% e 5%, sendo estudada a viabilidade celular pelo teste do azul tripian a cada 5 minutos; procedeu-se à análise à microscopia ótica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o percentual de viabilidade das células tumorais foi progressivamente diminuindo, sendo que ao final de 30 minutos todas as células neoplásicas estavam inviáveis em todas as soluções e concentrações utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste modelo experimental e com a metodologia empregada, concluiu-se que in vitro, estas soluções causam a morte (inviabilidade das células neoplásicas.

  10. Relationship between the evaporation rate and vapor pressure of moderately and highly volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John

    2008-04-01

    Volatilization of chemicals can be an important form of dissipation in the environment. Rates of evaporative losses from plant and soil surfaces are useful for estimating the potential for food-related dietary residues and operator and bystander exposure, and can be used as source functions for screening models that predict off-site movement of volatile materials. A regression of evaporation on vapor pressure from three datasets containing 82 pesticidal active ingredients and co-formulants, ranging in vapor pressure from 0.0001 to >30,000 Pa was developed for this purpose with a regression correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  11. The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available. (orig.)

  12. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  13. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  14. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  15. Biochemical Markers for Exposure to Low Doses of Organophosphorus Insecticides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    2003-01-01

    Though acetylcholinesterase is the primary target of organophosphorus toxicants, our finding that acetylcholinesterase knockout mice are supersensitive to the lethal effects of VX, DFP, chlorpyrifos...

  16. Biochemical Markers for Exposure to Low Doses of Organophosphorus Insecticides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Though acetylcholinesterase is the primary target of organophosphorus toxicants, our finding that acetylcholinesterase knockout mice are supersensitive to the lethal effects of VX, DFP, chlorpyrifos...

  17. Biochemical Markers for Exposure to Low Doses of Organophosphorus Insecticides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    2002-01-01

    Though acetyicholinesterase is the primary target of organophosphorus toxicants, our finding that acetyicholinesterase knockout mice are supersensitive to the lethal effects of VX, DFP, chlorpyrifos...

  18. Intratumoral distribution of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and {sup 18}F-FDG in VX2 tumor bearing rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ran Ji; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Won Ho; Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Kyo Chul; Chung, Wee Sup; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Imaging acquisition and analysis of hypoxic region within solid tumor is essential for understanding the microenvironment of tumor, and is also important for the establishment of proper therapeutic strategy and evaluation for radiation therapy (1-5). {sup 64}Cu-labeled diacetyl-bis (N{sub 4}-methylthiosemicarbazone) ({sup 64}Cu-ATSM) is a promising agent for imaging of hypoxic tissues and internal radiation therapy for tumor. In this study, we obtained PET/CT images of tumor using {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and {sup 18}F-FDG, and then evaluated the distribution of hypoxic region after comparing with oxygen partial pressure in VX2 tumor bearing rabbit model. MR images are also obtained for precise anatomical information

  19. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  20. A dynamic study of correlation between the MR diffusion weighted imaging findings and the expression of proliferation-related and metastasis-related genes in rabbit models of liver VX2 tumor before and after chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Youhong; Liu Jianbin; Xiao Enhua; He Zhong; Ma Cong; Xiang Jun; Jin Ke; Chen Wenjian; Xiao Jiehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, non-metastasis 23(nm23) and E-cadherin (E-cad) genes in rabbit models of liver VX 2 tumor before and after chemoembolization. Methods: Forty rabbit models of liver VX 2 tumor were divided into four groups with 10 rabbits in each group. The first group was the control group which didn't undergo chemoembolization. The second, third and fourth groups underwent chemoembolization, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed at 16 h, 32 h and 48 h after chemoembolization respectively. The pathological and immunohistological examinations were carried out right after DWI. The sampling areas included the normal liver parenchyma around the tumor, the outer- layer area, the peripheral area, and the central area. The expression indices of PCNA, Bax, nm23, E-cad in all the samples were recorded and their correlation with corresponding ADC value were analyzed. Results: (1) PCNA expression indices in the outer layer area, the peripheral area and central area of VX 2 tumors(65.1%, 74.7%, and 59.0% respectively) were higher than that in the area of normal parenchyma around tumor (8.3%) (X 2 =19.08, P 2 tumors (nm 23: 1.7%, 0.4% , and 6.2% respectively; Bax: 2. 0%, 1.2% , and 2. 2% respectively; E-cad:6.2%, 2.0%, and 1.6% respectively) were lower than that in the area of normal parenchyma around tumor (nm23 16.5%; Bax 40.0%; E-cad 78.0%. χ 2 =12.86, 20.17, and 22.20 respectively; P 2 tumor periphery were 83.0%, 92.6% and 85.7% in 16 h group, 32 h group and 48 h group respectively after chemoembolization and those of nm23 expression indices were 2.3%, 7.4%, 4.2% and those of Bax expression index were 0.8%, 0.5%, 0.9% and those of E-cad expression indices were 2.8%, 1.0%, 1.1%. The PCNA and nm23 expression in the area of VX 2 tumor periphery increased at the beginning and then decreased (χ 2 =14.37, 8.94; P 2

  1. Early quantification of the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular disrupting agent, CKD-516, using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in rabbit VX2 liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) in the early quantification of hemodynamic change following administration of the vascular disrupting agent (VDA) CKD-516 using a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. This study was approved by our institutional animal care and use committee. Eight VX2 liver-tumor-bearing rabbits were treated with intravenous CKD-516, and all underwent DCE-US using SonoVue before and again 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours following their treatment. The tumor perfusion parameters were obtained from the time-intensity curve of the DCE-US data. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess any significant change in tumor perfusion over time. Relative changes in the DCE-US parameters between the baseline and follow-up assessments were correlated with the relative changes in tumor size over the course of seven days using Pearson correlation. CKD-516 treatment resulted in significant changes in the DCE-US parameters, including the peak intensity, total area under the time-intensity curve (AUCtotal), and AUC during wash-out (AUCout) over time (P<0.05). Pairwise comparison tests revealed that the AUCtotal and AUC during wash-in (AUCin) seen on the two-hour follow-up were significantly lower than the baseline values (P<0.05). However, none of early changes in the DCE-US parameters until 24-hour follow-up showed a significant correlation with the relative changes in tumor size during seven days after CKD-516 treatment. Our results suggest that a novel VDA (CKD-516) can cause disruption of tumor perfusion as early as two hours after treatment and that the therapeutic effect of CKD-516 treatment can be effectively quantified using DCE-US.

  2. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Zhen, E-mail: leizhen2004@163.com [Department of Anatomy, Chinese Medical University, No. 92, Beiermalu Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China) and Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Ma Heji, E-mail: maheji9831@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xu Na, E-mail: xuna821230@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xi Huanjiu, E-mail: xihuanjiu2004@yahoo.cn [Anthropology Institute, Liaoning Medical College, No. 40, Sanduan, Songpo Rd, Jinzhou, 121001 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  3. The Antitumor Effect and Hepatotoxicity of a Hexokinase II Inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate: In Vivo Investigation of Intraarterial Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatoma Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, He Son

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3- BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% ± 7.6 [mean ± SD]) than that in the control group (48% ± 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% ± 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% ± 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method

  4. The antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of a hexokinase II inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate: in vivo investigation of intraarterial administration in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Chung, Hesson; Park, Jae Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% +/- 7.6 [mean +/- SD]) than that in the control group (48% +/- 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% +/- 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% +/- 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method.

  5. The Antitumor Effect and Hepatotoxicity of a Hexokinase II Inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate: In Vivo Investigation of Intraarterial Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatoma Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, He Son [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3- BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% +- 7.6 [mean +- SD]) than that in the control group (48% +- 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% +- 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% +- 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method

  6. Empirical study of 99Tcm-HYNIC-A(D) A(D) APRPG in rabbit model of inflammation and VX2 tumor xenografted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ciyi; Song Shaoli; Xie Wenhui; Cai Xiaojia; Zhang Lihua; Huang Gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the uptake of 99 Tc m -hydrazinonicotinamide-D-alanine- D-alanine-alanine-proline-arginine-proline-glycine (HYNIC-A(D) A(D) APRPG) in rabbit models of inflammation and VX2 tumor xenografted, so as to evaluate its use as a new tracer for tumor angiogenesis. Methods: Ten rabbit models of xenoplanted VX2 tumor and inflammation were randomly divided into two groups which were injected with different injected tracers, 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D) A (D)APRPG 99 Tc m -RGD, followed by serial Gamma images at various time points. The first group underwent 18 F-FDG PET ahead of 99 Tc m -HYNICA(D)A (D) APRPG SPECT. Analysis of variance and t-test were performed with SPSS 10.0. Results: 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D) A (D)APRPG scan showed negative uptake at inflammation focus but positive uptake at tumor. Pathological examination confirmed high 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D)A(D) APRPG accumulation in tumor cells, with the highest tumor/inflammation ratio (3.25±0.171) at 2 h post-injection, which was significantly higher than that of 99 Tc m -RGD (2.37±0.076) (F = 15.63, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D)A(D)APRPG, 99 Tc m -RGD, 18 F-FDG were significantly different at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6 h (F=13.83∼26.41; t =23.84, 12.75; all P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A (D) A (D)APRPG can be used as a potential tracer for tumor angiogenesis. (authors)

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a macromolecular MR contrast agent (P792): Evaluation of antivascular drug effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Sung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Il [Dept. of Radiology, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates); Choi, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent.

  8. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zhen; Ma Heji; Xu Na; Xi Huanjiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  9. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a macromolecular MR contrast agent (P792): Evaluation of antivascular drug effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sun; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Sung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Young Il; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent

  10. Cutaneous Uptake of 14C-HD Vapor by the Hairless Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    guinea pig (HGP) is used by our laboratory to model the human cutaneous response to sulfur mustard (HD) exposure. We have determined the HD content in the skin of HOP after 7-minute exposures to vapors saturated with a mixture of HD and 14C-HD. Concentration/time (C1) values in the range of 2 mg/sq cm/min were determined by counting skin 14C disintegrations per minute (dpm) in animals euthanized immediately after exposure. These values are similar to human penetration rates obtained by other investigators. A direct relationship between C1 and relative humidity was

  11. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  12. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  13. Point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.; Zuber, N.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented directed at predicting the point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling. It is shown that the point of net vapor generation depends upon local conditions--thermal and fluid dynamic. Thus, at low mass flow rates the net vapor generation is determined by thermal conditions, whereas at high mass flow rates the phenomenon is hydrodynamically controlled. Simple criteria are derived which can be used to predict these local conditions for net vapor generation. These criteria are used to determine the vapor void fraction is subcooled boiling. Comparison between the results predicted by this analysis and experimental data presently available shows good agreement for wide range of operating conditions, fluids and geometries. (U.S.)

  14. Benzene exposure in a Japanese petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Yamaoka, K; Uchida, Y; Ikeda, M

    1990-07-01

    Time-weighted average (TWA) intensity of exposure of workers to benzene vapor during a shift was monitored by diffusive sampling technique in a Japanese petroleum refinery. The subjects monitored (83 in total) included refinery operators, laboratory personnel and tanker-loading workers. The results showed that the time-weighted average exposures are well below 1 ppm in most cases. The highest exposure was recorded in 1 case involved in bulk loading of tanker ships, in which exposure of over 1 ppm might take place depending on operational conditions. The observation was generally in agreement with levels previously reported.

  15. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  16. Vaporization of Samarium trichloride studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Marcelo R.; Pasquevich, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the vaporization reaction of SmCl 3 (l) obtained from the 'in situ' reaction of Sm 2 O 3 (s) and Cl 2 (g)-C(s) was studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere. The effects of both the temperature between 825 C degrees and 950 C degrees and the total flow gas on the vaporization rate of the following reaction: SmCl 3 (l) = SmCl 3 (g) were analyzed. The vaporization rate of the process was found to be independent of then total gas flow rate and highly dependent on the temperature. E ap calculation led to a value of 240 ± 10 kJ.mol -1 . A comparison between this value and that of the molar enthalpy of vaporization allow to the conclusion that the reaction occur in conditions near to equilibrium. The SmCl 3 identity was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (author)

  17. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  18. Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...

  19. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products spanning the 1987/1988 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...

  20. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    , we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development

  1. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  2. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... revise the substance As noted in the NPRM, the changes in this section were of this section. intended... the vapor-moving device, as recommended by CTAC in 1997 to maintain a minimum size of non-flammable...

  3. Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Ali; Baig, Umair; Khalid, Mohd

    2011-02-28

    In this study, the electrically conducting polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate (PANI-TiP) cation exchange nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The cation exchange nanocomposite based sensor for detection of ammonia vapors was developed at room temperature. It was revealed that the sensor showed good reversible response towards ammonia vapors ranging from 3 to 6%. It was found that the sensor with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) doped exhibited higher sensing response than hydrochloric acid doped. This sensor has detection limit ≤1% ammonia. The response of resistivity changes of the cation exchange nanocomposite on exposure to different concentrations of ammonia vapors shows its utility as a sensing material. These studies suggest that the cation exchange nanocomposite could be a good material for ammonia sensor at room temperature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physico-chemical mechanism for the vapors sensitivity of photoluminescent InP quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosposito, P.; De Angelis, R.; De Matteis, F.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Zhang, H.; Casalboni, M.

    2016-03-01

    InP/InGaP surface quantum dots are interesting materials for optical chemical sensors since they present an intense emission at room temperature, whose intensity changes rapidly and reversibly depending on the composition of the environmental atmosphere. We present here their emission properties by time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy investigation and we discuss the physico-chemical mechanism behind their sensitivity to the surrounding atmosphere. Photoluminescence transients in inert atmosphere (N2) and in solvent vapours of methanol, clorophorm, acetone and water were measured. The presence of vapors of clorophorm, acetone and water showed a very weak effect on the transient times, while an increase of up to 15% of the decay time was observed for methanol vapour exposure. On the basis of the vapor molecule nature (polarity, proticity, steric hindrance, etc.) and of the interaction of the vapor molecules with the quantum dots surface a sensing mechanism involving quantum dots non-radiative surface states is proposed.

  5. Physico-chemical mechanism for the vapors sensitivity of photoluminescent InP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosposito, P.; De Angelis, R.; De Matteis, F.; Casalboni, M.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W.T.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    InP/InGaP surface quantum dots are interesting materials for optical chemical sensors since they present an intense emission at room temperature, whose intensity changes rapidly and reversibly depending on the composition of the environmental atmosphere. We present here their emission properties by time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy investigation and we discuss the physico-chemical mechanism behind their sensitivity to the surrounding atmosphere. Photoluminescence transients in inert atmosphere (N 2 ) and in solvent vapours of methanol, chloroform, acetone and water were measured. The presence of vapors of chloroform, acetone and water showed a very weak effect on the transient times, while an increase of up to 15% of the decay time was observed for methanol vapour exposure. On the basis of the vapor molecule nature (polarity, proticity, steric hindrance, etc.) and of the interaction of the vapor molecules with the quantum dots surface a sensing mechanism involving quantum dots non-radiative surface states is proposed. (paper)

  6. A technique to depress desflurane vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether the vapor pressure of desflurane could be decreased by using a solvent to reduce the anesthetic molar fraction in a solution (Raoult's Law). We hypothesized that such an anesthetic mixture could produce anesthesia using a nonprecision vaporizer instead of an agent-specific, electronically controlled, temperature and pressure compensated vaporizer currently required for desflurane administration. One healthy adult female dog. Propylene glycol was used as a solvent for desflurane, and the physical characteristics of this mixture were evaluated at various molar concentrations and temperatures. Using a circle system with a breathing bag attached at the patient end and a mechanical ventilator to simulate respiration, an in-circuit, nonprecision vaporizer containing 40% desflurane and 60% propylene glycol achieved an 11.5% +/- 1.0% circuit desflurane concentration with a 5.2 +/- 0.4 (0 = off, 10 = maximum) vaporizer setting. This experiment was repeated with a dog attached to the breathing circuit under spontaneous ventilation with a fresh gas flow of 0.5 L minute(-1). Anesthesia was maintained for over 2 hours at a mean vaporizer setting of 6.2 +/- 0.4, yielding mean inspired and end-tidal desflurane concentrations of 8.7% +/- 0.5% and 7.9% +/- 0.7%, respectively. Rather than alter physical properties of vaporizers to suit a particular anesthetic agent, this study demonstrates that it is also possible to alter physical properties of anesthetic agents to suit a particular vaporizer. However, propylene glycol may not prove an ideal solvent for desflurane because of its instability in solution and substantial-positive deviation from Raoult's Law.

  7. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  8. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  9. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  10. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  11. Effect of impact angle on vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1996-09-01

    Impacts into easily vaporized targets such as dry ice and carbonates generate a rapidly expanding vapor cloud. Laboratory experiments performed in a tenuous atmosphere allow deriving the internal energy of this cloud through well-established and tested theoretical descriptions. A second set of experiments under near-vacuum conditions provides a second measure of energy as the internal energy converts to kinetic energy of expansion. The resulting data allow deriving the vaporized mass as a function of impact angle and velocity. Although peak shock pressures decrease with decreasing impact angle (referenced to horizontal), the amount of impact-generated vapor is found to increase and is derived from the upper surface. Moreover, the temperature of the vapor cloud appears to decrease with decreasing angle. These unexpected results are proposed to reflect the increasing roles of shear heating and downrange hypervelocity ricochet impacts created during oblique impacts. The shallow provenance, low temperature, and trajectory of such vapor have implications for larger-scale events, including enhancement of atmospheric and biospheric stress by oblique terrestrial impacts and impact recycling of the early atmosphere of Mars.

  12. Mercury exposure in children: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to toxic mercury (Hg) is a growing health hazard throughout the world today. Recent studies show that mercury exposure may occur in the environment, and increasingly in occupational and domestic settings. Children are particularly vulnerable to Hg intoxication, which may lead to impairment of the developing central nervous system, as well as pulmonary and nephrotic damage. Several sources of toxic Hg exposure in children have been reported in biomedical literature: (1) methylmercury, the most widespread source of Hg exposure, is most commonly the result of consumption of contaminated foods, primarily fish; (2) ethylmercury, which has been the subject of recent scientific inquiry in relation to the controversial pediatric vaccine preservative thimerosal; (3) elemental Hg vapor exposure through accidents and occupational and ritualistic practices; (4) inorganic Hg through the use of topical Hg-based skin creams and in infant teething powders; (5) metallic Hg in dental amalgams, which release Hg vapors, and Hg 2+ in tissues. This review examines recent epidemiological studies of methylmercury exposure in children. Reports of elemental Hg vapor exposure in children through accidents and occupational practices, and the more recent observations of the increasing use of elemental Hg for magico-religious purposes in urban communities are also discussed. Studies of inorganic Hg exposure from the widespread use of topical beauty creams and teething powders, and fetal/neonatal Hg exposure from maternal dental amalgam fillings are reviewed. Considerable attention was given in this review to pediatric methylmercury exposure and neurodevelopment because it is the most thoroughly investigated Hg species. Each source of Hg exposure is reviewed in relation to specific pediatric health effects, particularly subtle neurodevelopmental disorders

  13. PET/CT及DWI-MRI早期评估兔VX2肉瘤射频消融效果%FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI evaluation of the early therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation for VX2 sarcomas in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石华铮; 刘士远; 朱海云; 杨春山; 高欣; 平照福; 寿毅; 华威; 吴翔

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨弥散加权(DWI)-MRI和18F-FDG-PET/CT评估兔VX2肉瘤射频消融(RFA)治疗早期效果的价值。方法14只新西兰白兔双侧后肢接种VX2肉瘤建模,一侧后肢VX2肉瘤接受超声引导下RFA治疗(RFA组),对侧后肢不进行射频治疗(对照组)。 RFA治疗后2 d行DWI-MRI检查,治疗后3 d行PET/CT检查。分别计算肿瘤病灶和消融灶表观弥散系数(ADC)值和标准摄取值(SUV)值。根据外科切除病灶组织病理学检查结果金标准,分别对DWI-MRI、PET/CT及两者联合等3种方法评估RFA瘤灶行临床诊断一致性Kappa检验。结果 VX2肉瘤RFA前,DWI-MRI显示T1低信号,T2高信号,T1加权像环状强化,PET/CT显示18F-FDG呈结节状或环状聚集;消融后DWI-MRI显示T1高信号, T2轻度高密度,T1加权像轻度强化,PET/CT显示18F-FDG浓聚程度减低。消融瘤灶ADC值为(1.52±0.24)×10-3 mm2/s,明显高于未消融瘤灶(1.09±0.12)×10-3 mm2/s(P0.05),DWI-MRI联合PET/CT评估结果与组织病理学诊断结果的一致性Kappa值为0.786,与前两者均有显著性差别(P0.05). The Kappa value of the consistency between combination of DWI-MRI with PET/CT and pathology was 0.786, which was significantly different from the result by simple DWI-MRI or simple PET/CT evaluation (P< 0.05). Conclusion Both ADC value of DWI-MRI and SUV value of PET/CT are useful indexes for evaluating the early therapeutic effect of RFA. Both DWI-MRI and PET/CT have their respective advantages, nevertheless, combination use of both can effectively improve the evaluation of curative effect for VX2 tumor after RFA in experimental rabbits.

  14. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  15. Acute and long-term ocular effects of acrolein vapor on the eyes and potential therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Cohen, Maayan; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Buch, Hillel; Kadar, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a potent irritant and a vesicant that was used by the French during WWI as the warfare agent named: "papite". Nowadays, it is produced in large amounts all over the world in the industry for the production of acrylic acid and for agriculture use as herbicide. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of acute eye exposure to acrolein vapor and to evaluate the efficacy of a topical post-exposure combination treatment with a local anesthetic and a steroid. Rabbit eyes were exposed to three doses of acrolein vapor (low, intermediate and high) and treated topically with either 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride (localin, for 2 h) or dexamethasone (dexamycin, for 6 days) or a combination of both drugs. Clinical follow-up using slit lamp examinations and histological evaluation was performed 4 weeks post-exposure. Acrolein vapor caused immediate eye closure with excess tearing, corneal erosions and severe inflammation of the anterior chamber. This was followed by corneal neovascularization (NV) starting as early as 1 week post-exposure. The damage to the eyes was long lasting, and at 4 weeks following exposure, significant pathological changes were observed. Immediate post-exposure application of the local anesthetic, localin, prevented the eye closure, and the dexamycin treatment reduced significantly the initial inflammation as well as the extent and incidence of corneal NV. Short-term eye exposure to the irritant acrolein may result in immediate eye closure and long lasting pathologies that could lead to blindness. An anti-inflammatory treatment combined with short-term application of a local anesthetic prevents incapacitation and might minimize significantly the extent of eye injuries.

  16. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  17. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of oil of catnip by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vaporization enthalpies of the nepetalactones from oil of catnip have been evaluated. • Vapor pressures from T = (298.15 to 350) K have been evaluated. • Oil of catnip has a vapor pressure similar to DEET at T = 298.15 K. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of the two nepetalactones found in Nepeta cataria have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography. Vaporization enthalpies at T = 298.15 K of {(68.0 ± 1.9) and (69.4 ± 1.9)} kJ ⋅ mol"−"1 have been derived for the minor diastereomer, (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and major one, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, respectively. Vapor pressures also at T = 298.15 K of p = (1.2 ± 0.04) Pa and (0.91 ± 0.03) Pa have been evaluated for the minor and the major stereoisomer. In addition to being of interest because of the remarkable effect it has on various felids, oil of catnip is also quite effective in repelling mosquitoes, comparable to diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The vapor pressures evaluated in this work suggest that the two stereoisomers have similar volatility to DEET at ambient temperatures.

  18. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the linear aliphatic aldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verevkin, S. P.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Vasiltsova, T. V.; Koutek, Bohumír; Doubský, Jan; Heintz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 206, - (2003), s. 331-339 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : aldehydes * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2003

  19. Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Shannon M.; Harris, Harold H.; Chickos, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of codlemone has been evaluated. • The vapor pressure of codlemone has been evaluated from T = (298.15 to T b ) K. • Vapor pressures for the 1-alkanols standards are available from T = (298.15 to 500) K. - Abstract: The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone (trans, trans 8,10-dodecadien-1-ol), the female sex hormone of the codling moth is evaluated by correlation gas chromatography using a series of saturated primary alcohols as standards. A vaporization enthalpy of (92.3 ± 2.6) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p/Pa = (0.083 ± 0.012) were evaluated at T = 298.15 K. An equation for the evaluation of vapor pressure from ambient temperature to boiling has been derived by correlation for codlemone. The calculated boiling temperature of T B = 389 K at p = 267 Pa is within the temperature range reported in the literature. A normal boiling temperature of T B = (549.1 ± 0.1) K is also estimated by extrapolation

  20. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  1. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  2. Control of sodium vapor transport in annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Bohringer, A.P.

    1983-11-01

    The method used to control sodium vapor transport in the annuli of various components at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a downward purge of the annuli with high purity argon. The purge rates for the FFTF were selected by calculating the gas velocity required to overcome thermal convection transport in the annuli. To evaluate the effectiveness of the gas purge, laboratory apparatus was fabricated which simulated selected annuli in the FFTF In-Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) and the Instrument Tree (IT) annuli. Tests were conducted at temperatures similar to FFTF conditions. Gas purge rates ranged from zero to 130% of FFTF flow rates. Test results show the effectiveness of a high purity gas purge in decreasing the accumulation of sodium vapor deposits in an annulus. The presence of water vapor and oxygen in the purge gas increased the sodium deposition rate by a factor of three over other tests usig high purity argon. The presence of a vapor control collar used in the IT annulus was shown to be beneficial for controlling vapor transport into the upper region of the annulus

  3. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of beryllium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.; Behrens, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The vapor pressure of beryllium carbide has been measured over the temperature range 1388 to 1763 K using Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurs incongruently according to the reaction Be 2 C(s) = 2Be(g) + C(s). The equilibrium vapor pressure above the mixture of Be 2 C and C over the experimental temperature range is (R/J K -1 mol -1 )ln(p/Pa) = -(3.610 +- 0.009) x 10 5 (K/T) + (221.43 +- 1.06). The third-law enthalpy change for the above reaction obtained from the present vapor pressures is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (740.5 +- 0.1) kJ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (732.0 +- 1.8) kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation for Be 2 C(s) calculated from the present third-law vaporization enthalpy and the enthalpy of formation of Be(g) is ΔH 0 sub(f)(298.15 K) = -(92.5 +- 15.7) kJ mol -1 . (author)

  4. Vapor pumps and gas-driven machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, R.

    1991-01-01

    The vapor pump, patented in 1979 by Gaz de France, is an additional mass and heat exchanger which uses the combustion air of fuel-burning machines as an additional cold source. This cold source is preheated and, above all, humidified before reaching the burner, by means of the residual sensible and latent heat in the combustion products of the fuel-burning process. This final exchanger thus makes it possible, in many cases, to recover all the gross calorific value of natural gas, even when the combustion products leave the process at a wet temperature greater than 60 0 C, the maximum dew point of the products of normal combustion. Another significant advantage of the vapor pump being worth highlighting is the selective recycling of water vapor by the vapor pump which reduces the adiabatic combustion temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, two factors which lead to considerable reductions in nitrogen oxides formation, hence limiting atmospheric pollution. Alongside a wide range of configurations which make advantageous use of the vapor pump in association with gas-driven machines and processes, including gas turbines, a number of boiler plant installations are also presented [fr

  5. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  6. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  7. A sensitive, handheld vapor sensor based on microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Boiadjiev, V. I.; Hawk, J. E.; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, T.; Houser, E. J.; Stepnowski, S.; McGill, R. A.; Deel, L.; Lareau, R. T.

    2004-11-01

    We report the development of a handheld sensor based on piezoresistive microcantilevers that does not depend on optical detection, yet has high detection sensitivity. The sensor is able to detect vapors from the plastic explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate and hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine at levels below 10 parts per trillion within few seconds of exposure under ambient conditions. A differential measurement technique has yielded a rugged sensor that is unaffected by vibration and is able to function as a "sniffer." The microelectromechanical system sensor design allows for the incorporation of hundreds of microcantilevers with suitable coatings in order to achieve sufficient selectivity in the future, and thus could provide an inexpensive, unique platform for the detection of chemical, biological, and explosive materials.

  8. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  9. Removal of styrene vapor from atmospheric air using a pulsed corona discharge and UV-irridiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedchikov, A.P.; Belousova, E.V.; Polyakova, A.V.; Ponizovskii, A.Z.; Goncharov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have investigated processes for removal of styrene vapor from atmospheric air (volume content 0.007-0.06%) upon exposure to UV radiation and dc and pulsed corona discharges. The authors have studied the dependence of the degree of purification on various parameters (flow rate, temperature, composition, pulse frequency). It has been shown that the purification rate increases when UV radiation is combined with the discharge. A possible mechanism for the purification process is considered

  10. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  12. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  13. Monochromatic Spectral Computed Tomography with Low Iodine Concentration Contrast Medium in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Model:: Investigation of Image Quality and Detection Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Xu, Han; Hou, Ping; Dong, Jun Q; Wang, Ming Y; Gao, Jian B

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate the feasibility of using virtual monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) with isotonic low iodine concentration contrast medium for VX2 hepatic tumors. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits with implanted VX2 hepatic tumors underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging on the 14th day after tumor implantation. They were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C, with 20 rabbits each (group A: 270 mg I/mL, monochromatic spectral images; group B: 370 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% filtered back projection [FBP]; group C: 270 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% FBP). Group A was further divided into two subgroups (subgroup A1: 100% FBP; subgroup A2: 50% FBP + 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction). Objective evaluation (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR], and image noise), subjective rating score (image noise score, anatomical details score, overall image quality score, and lesion conspicuity score), CT dose index volume, and dose length product were compared between groups during two-phase contrast enhancement. The detection rates of the four groups were calculated as percentages. Image noise (SNR and CNR) among the four groups was statistically significant (P noise in group A2 was lower than in group A1, but higher than that in groups B and C (P noise score of group A2 was higher than that of the other three groups. In terms of the anatomic details score, the overall image quality score, and the lesion conspicuity score, the images of group A2 were superior to that of groups A1 and C. For hepatic tumor diameters more than or equal to 1.0 cm and less than 3.0 cm, group A achieved a higher detection rate than groups B and C. The CT dose index volume, dose length product, and effective dose in group A were significantly lower than that in groups B and C (P noise, increase detection rate for small tumors, and decrease radiation dose and iodine load in

  14. A comparison of perfusion computed tomography and contrast enhanced computed tomography on radiation target volume delineation using rabbit VX2 brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Luo Yunxiu; Yu Jinming; Lu Haibo; Li Chao; Zhang Dekang; Huang Jianming; Wang Jie; Lang Jinyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of blood volume perfusion imaging (perfusion CT)with contrast enhanced 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CECT) in the evaluation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) using rabbits with VX2 brain tumor. Methods: Perfusion CT and CECT were performed in 20 rabbits with VX2 brain tumor. The GTV and CTV calculated with the maximal and minimal diameter of each tumor in the blood volume (BV) maps and CECT were measured and compared to those in pathological specimens. Results: The mean value of the maximal and minimal diameter of GTV was (8.19 ± 2.29) mm and (4.83 ± 1.31) mm in pathological specimens, (11.98 ±3.29) mm and (7.03±1.82) mm in BV maps, while (6.36±3.85) mm and (3.17±1.93) mm in CECT images, which were significantly different (pathological specimen vs. BV map, t = 7.17, P =0.000;pathological specimen vs. CECT, t = 8.37, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean value of the maximal and minimal diameter of CTV in pathologic specimens was (12.87 ± 3.74) mm and (7.71 ± 2.15) mm, which was significantly different from that of GTV and CTV in CECT (t = - 3. 18, P = 0. 005 and t = - 4.24, P =0.000; t= -11.59,P=0.000 and t= -9.39, P=0.000), while similar with that of GTV in BV maps (t = - 1.95,P = 0. 067; t = - 2. 06, P = 0. 054). For CECT, the margin from GTV to CTV was 81.83% ±40.33% for the maximal diameter and 276.73% ± 131.46% for the minimal. While for BV maps, the margin was 7.93% ± 17. 84% and 12.52% ± 27. 83%, which was significant different from that for CECT images (t=7.36, P=0. 000 and t= -8.78, P=0.000). Conclusions: Compared with CECT, the BV map from 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging might have higher accuracy in target volume delineation for brain tumor. (authors)

  15. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program

  16. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  17. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  18. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  19. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  20. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  1. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  2. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  3. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  4. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  5. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Vitamin A against Gasoline Vapor Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E; Ekaidem, Itemobong S; Ebong, Patrick E; Umoh, Ime B

    2009-06-01

    Changes in the activities of plasma alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are used to assess the functional state of the liver. Significant increase in the activities of these enzymes commonly indicates the hepatotoxicity of chemical agent(s) in the body. Exposure of male and female rats to 17.8 cm 3 h -1 m -3 of Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) blend unleaded gasoline (UG) vapors for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 20 weeks have been observed to cause hepatotoxicity. In this study, the potential hepatoprotective effect of vitamin A (retinol) against gasoline vapours-induced toxicity was investigated in male and female rats. Retinol (400 IU/kg/day) was orally administered to the test rats concomitant with the gasoline vapor exposure in the last two weeks of the experiment. The results obtained from this study showed that exposure to gasoline vapors caused significant increase (P produced a significant decrease (P gasoline vapours hepatotoxicity in male and female rats, thereby suggesting that retinol may be used to prevent hepatotoxicity in individuals frequently exposed to gasoline vapours.

  6. Pulmonary fibrosis in cable plant workers exposed to mist and vapor of petroleum distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyberg, K; Rønneberg, A; Kamøy, J I; Dale, K; Borgersen, A

    1986-08-01

    Twenty-five cable plant workers exposed to mists and vapors of mineral oils and kerosene for 5-35 years have been investigated in a cross-sectional, matched pairs study. The exposed cohort and the referents were examined by radiology, pulmonary function measurements, and a questionnaire for symptoms of respiratory disease. Lung tissue from a deceased worker with 35 years of exposure was investigated by histopathologic methods and by scanning electron microscopy. Exposure measurements were performed by personal sampling. Previous employment and smoking habits were recorded for all subjects. An increased prevalence of slight basal lung fibrosis was found in chest films of the exposed workers. Pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed histopathologically. A moderately decreased vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was found. Oil mist was measured to time-weighted average levels of 0.15-0.30 mg/m3 with short-term vapor exposure of up to 4000 mg/m3. It is concluded that mists and vapors from petroleum distillates are the most probable causes of the findings.

  7. Separation of aromatics by vapor permeation through solvent swollen membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, A.; Adachi, K.; Feng, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A vapor permeation process for aromatics separation from a hydrocarbon mixture was studied by means of the simultaneous permeation of dimethylsulfoxide vapor as an agent for membrane swelling and preferential permeation of aromatics. The separation performance of the process was demonstrated by a polyvinylalcohol membrane for mixed vapors of benzene/cyclohexane, xylene/octane and a model gasoline. The aromatic vapors preferentially permeated from these mixed vapor feeds. The separation factor was over 10. The separation mechanism of the process mainly depends on the relative salability of the vapors between aromatics and other hydrocarbons in dimethylsulfoxide. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A Local Propagation for Vapor Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, M.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive boiling, defined as energy transfer leading to formation of vapor rapidly enough to produce large shock waves, has been widely studied in a number of contexts. Depending upon the nature and temperatures of the liquids and mode of contacting, large-scale mixing and explosive vaporization may occur, or alternatively, only relatively non-energetic, film-type boiling may exist. The key difference is whether a mechanism is operative for increasing the liquid-liquid interfacial area in a time scale consistent with the formation of a detonation wave. Small drops of a cold volatile liquid were dropped onto a free surface of a hot, non-volatile liquid. The critical Weber number for coalescence is obtained from the envelope of the film boiling region. Markedly different behavior for the two hot liquids is observed. A 'splash' theory for local propagation of vapor explosions in spontaneously nucleating liquid-liquid systems is now formulated. After a random contact is made, explosive growth and coalescence of the vapor bubbles occurs as soon as the surrounding pressure is relieved, resulting in a high-pressure vapor layer at the liquid-liquid contact area. This amounts to an impact pressure applied to the free surface, with a resulting velocity distribution obtained from potential flow theory. The peak pressure predictions are. consistent with data for Freon-oil mixing, but further evaluation will await additional experimental data. Nevertheless, the current inference is that a UO 2 -Na vapor explosion in a reactor environment cannot be visualized. In conclusion: The propagation model presented here differs in some details from that of Henry and Fauske, although both are consistent with some peak pressure data obtained by Henry, et al. Clearly, additional experimental information is needed for further evaluation of these theories. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that even at this time a number of important observations concerning the requirements for a vapor

  9. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable ma...

  10. Knudsen cell vaporization of rare earth nitrides: enthalpy of vaporization of HoN098

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Clark, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 was measured by the weight-loss Knudsen cell technique using Motzfeldt-Whitman extrapolations to zero orifice area. A third-law enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 of 155.9 +- 5 kcal mole -1 was obtained compared to a second-law value of 162.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 . Similar measurements on the nitrides of samarium, erbium, and ytterbium gave third-law enthalpies of vaporization of 126.8 +-- 5 kcal mole -1 ; 159.6 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , and 121.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , respectively. 7 tables

  11. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, Roy; Harari, Ronen; Sher, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux during the cooling

  12. Technology assessment for the determination of chemical agent vapors in demilitarization facilities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Wise, M.B.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of analytical methods for the determination of chemical agents GB, VX, and HD was made. HD, or mustard, is bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, and is classified as a blishtering agent. GB, or Sarin, is isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate. VX is O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)methylphosphonothioate. Both GB and VX are nerve agents. Included were methods capable of providing for monitoring requirements at the time weighted average (TWA) and allowable stack concentration (ASC) levels in near real time. A review of the currently used automatic continuous air monitoring system (ACAMS) was made as well as a review of the recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (APIMS). This report recommends a strategy for research and development for near term and medium term improvement of the overall monitoring program. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging allows monitoring the effect of combretastatin A4 phosphate on rabbit implanted VX2 tumor model: 12-Day dynamic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Haibo; Ni Yicheng; Dai Xu; Zhang Jian; Chen Feng; Fan, Guoguang; Sun Ziping; Li Yaming; Zhou Hongxu; Xu Ke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the 12-day dynamic characteristics of tumor response to intravenous administration of CA4P in rabbit VX2 tumor models. Methods: Study protocol was approved by local ethical committee for animal care and use. Sixteen rabbits with 32 tumors on bilateral legs were randomly divided into treated and control groups. Conventional and DWI images were acquired before and 24 h, 4 days, 8 days and 12 days after treatment. The dynamic changes of tumor on images were correlated with histological results. ADCs were compared among and between groups at different time points. Results: The tumors in treated group grew slower than those in control group. In treaded group, the mean ADC decreased slightly at 24 h point due to cell edema caused by ischemia. Then, it increased significantly at 4 days and 8 days because of progressive central necrosis. Finally, peripheral tumor proliferation caused a second decrease of ADC at 12 days. The significant difference of ΔADC% between the two groups at 24 h, 4 days and 8 days indicated that the change of ADC in treated group was really caused by CA4P. Conclusion: The dynamic histological changes of tumor caused by CA4P as reflected exactly by diffusion-weighted MR imaging indicate a noninvasive measure for monitoring tumor vascular targeting treatment.

  14. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  15. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  16. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  17. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  18. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  19. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  20. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  1. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  2. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures

  3. Fractional condensation of biomass pyrolysis vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Garcia Perez, M.; Wang, Zhouhong; Oudenhoven, Stijn; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the possibilities to steer the composition and, thus, the quality of pyrolysis liquids by the reactor temperature and the pyrolysis vapor condenser temperature. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor operated at 330 or 480 °C. The

  4. 75 FR 65151 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Classification UFL Upper flammable limit USCG U.S. Coast Guard VCS Vapor control system VOC Volatile organic... transfer substance to new Subpart P, beginning with 33 CFR 154.2000, to facilitate the substantive changes... that guidance. Limit requirements for flame arresters or flame screens to the flammable, combustible...

  5. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  6. Similarities and differences in vapor explosion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of recent ideas pertaining to vapor explosion criteria indicates that in general sense, a consensus of opinion is emerging on the conditions applicable to explosive vaporization. Experimental and theoretical work has lead a number of investigators to the formulation of such conditions which are quite similar in many respects, although the quantitative details of the model formulation of such conditions are somewhat different. All model concepts are consistent in that an initial period of stable film boiling, separating molten fuel from coolant, is considered necessary (at least for large-scale interactions and efficient intermixing), with subsequent breakdown of film boiling due to pressure and/or thermal effects, followed by intimate fuel-coolant contact and a rapid vaporization process which is sufficient to cause shock pressurization. Although differences arise as to the conditions for and the energetics associated with film boiling destabilization and the mode and energetics of fragmentation and intermixing. However, the principal area of difference seems to be the question of what constitutes the requisite condition(s) for rapid vapor production to cause shock pressurization

  7. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  8. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  9. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  10. Vapor pressure of selected organic iodides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, M.; Růžička, K.; Morávek, P.; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Kozyrkin, B.; Shatunov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2010), 4780-4784 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * static method * organic iodides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.089, year : 2010

  11. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  12. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, S J; Seiler, F A; Bechtold, W E; Eidson, A F

    1988-12-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 {+-} 0.1 (SE) kj/ g{center_dot}mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 ({+-} 0.1) (SE) kjg{center_dot}mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization ({delta}Cpdeg.) of 35 {+-} 3 (SE) J/g{center_dot}mol{center_dot}K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  13. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, S.J.; Seiler, F.A.; Bechtold, W.E.; Eidson, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 ± 0.1 (SE) kj/ g·mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 (± 0.1) (SE) kjg·mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization (ΔCpdeg.) of 35 ± 3 (SE) J/g·mol·K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  14. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.480 Flammable vapor... permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere. (g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a...

  15. Ammonia IR Absorbance Measurements with an Equilibrium Vapor Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) absorbance spectra were acquired for 18 ammonia vapor pressures. The vapor pressures were generated with 15 gravimetrically prepared aqueous solutions and three commercial aqueous solutions using a dynamic method I.E...

  16. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  17. Bionanomaterials and Bioinspired Nanostructures for Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    agricultural crops. To meet the requirements for these and other demanding applications, new sensing approaches with improved sensor selectivity are required...of these vapors with key side- chain amino acids. DNT-binding peptide receptors were further conjugated to an oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel for vapor...coefficient for DNT over TNT vapor. Vapor-phase binding performance was attributed to the ability of the oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to maintain the

  18. DSMC simulations of vapor transport toward development of the lithium vapor box divertor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, Christopher; Schwartz, Jacob; Goldston, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The lithium vapor divertor box concept attempts to achieve volumetric dissipation of the high heat efflux from a fusion power system. The vapor extracts the heat of the incoming plasma by ionization and radiation, while remaining localized in the vapor box due to differential pumping based on rapid condensation. Preliminary calculations with lithium vapor at densities appropriate for an NSTX-U-scale machine give Knudsen numbers between 0.01 and 1, outside both the range of continuum fluid dynamics and of collisionless Monte Carlo. The direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, however, can simulate rarefied gas flows in this regime. Using the solver contained in the OpenFOAM package, pressure-driven flows of water vapor will be analyzed. The use of water vapor in the relevant range of Knudsen number allows for a flexible similarity experiment to verify the reliability of the code before moving to tests with lithium. The simulation geometry consists of chains of boxes on a temperature gradient, connected by slots with widths that are a representative fraction of the dimensions of the box. We expect choked flow, sonic shocks, and order-of-magnitude pressure and density drops from box to box, but this expectation will be tested in the simulation and then experiment. This work is supported by the Princeton Environmental Institute.

  19. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 {mu} g/dl(mean, 5.3 {mu} g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 {mu} g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 {mu} g/l(mean, 291.4 {mu} g/l; normal value is less than 20 {mu} g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic.

  20. Progress Toward Meeting NIF Specifications for Vapor Deposited Polyimide Ablator Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, Stephan A.; Anthamatten, Mitchell; Buckley, Steven R.; Fearon, Evelyn; Nissen, April E.H.; Cook, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing an evaporative coating technique for deposition of thick polyimide (PI) ablator layers on ICF targets. The PI coating technique utilizes stoichiometrically controlled fluxes from two Knudsen cell evaporators containing a dianhydride and a diamine to deposit a polyamic acid (PAA) coating. Heating the PAA coating to 300 deg. C converts the PAA coating to a polyimide. Coated shells are rough due to particles on the substrate mandrels and from damage to the coating caused by the agitation used to achieve a uniform coating. We have developed a smoothing process that exposes an initially rough PAA coated shell to solvent vapor using gas levitation. We found that after smoothing the coatings developed a number of wide (low-mode) defects. We have identified two major contributors to low-mode roughness: surface hydrolysis, and deformation during drying/curing. By minimizing air exposure prior to vapor smoothing, avoiding excess solvent sorption during vapor smoothing, and using slow drying we are able to deposit and vapor smooth coatings 160 μm thick with a surface roughness less than 20 nm RMS

  1. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: generation and characterization of test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Michael; Letinski, Daniel J; Carr, John; Caro, Mario L; Daughtrey, Wayne; White, Russell

    2014-11-01

    In compliance with the Clean Air Act regulations for fuel and fuel additive registration, the petroleum industry, additive manufacturers, and oxygenate manufacturers have conducted comparative toxicology testing on evaporative emissions of gasoline alone and gasoline containing fuel oxygenates. To mimic real world exposures, a generation method was developed that produced test material similar in composition to the re-fueling vapor from an automotive fuel tank at near maximum in-use temperatures. Gasoline vapor was generated by a single-step distillation from a 1000-gallon glass-lined kettle wherein approximately 15-23% of the starting material was slowly vaporized, separated, condensed and recovered as test article. This fraction was termed vapor condensate (VC) and was prepared for each of the seven test materials, namely: baseline gasoline alone (BGVC), or gasoline plus an ether (G/MTBE, G/ETBE, G/TAME, or G/DIPE), or gasoline plus an alcohol (G/EtOH or G/TBA). The VC test articles were used for the inhalation toxicology studies described in the accompanying series of papers in this journal. These studies included evaluations of subchronic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity. Results of these studies will be used for comparative risk assessments of gasoline and gasoline/oxygenate blends by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo

    1993-01-01

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 μ g/dl(mean, 5.3 μ g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 μ g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 μ g/l(mean, 291.4 μ g/l; normal value is less than 20 μ g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic

  3. Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Suuberg, Eric M

    2016-02-01

    There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building. A three-dimensional finite element model was employed with consideration of daily and seasonal variations in these factors. From the results, the variations of indoor air pressure and air exchange rate are seen to contribute to significant variations in indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations. Depending upon the assumptions regarding the variations in these parameters, the results are only sometimes consistent with the reports of several orders of magnitude in indoor air concentration variations from field studies. The results point to the need to examine more carefully the interplay of these factors in order to quantitatively understand the variations in potential indoor air exposures.

  4. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  5. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  6. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  7. Review of literature on the asymmetric collapse of vapor bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremd, R.; Froehlich, G.

    1977-06-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the asymmetric collape of vapor bubbles by cavitation with special consideration to vapor explosions. Two numerical models, which describe the collapse of cavities in the neighbourhood of a solid surface, are presented. Moreover experimental results for this case are provided. Propositions to apply the numerical models to vapor explosions are made. (orig.) [de

  8. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  9. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  10. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor compressors and blowers....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles...

  11. The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine at T = 298.15 K by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Melissa; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of (d)-methamphetamine was measured. • The vapor pressure of (d)-methamphetamine as a function of temperature was evaluated. • The vapor pressure of 4-benzylpiperidine as a function of temperature was evaluated. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine is evaluated by correlation-gas chromatography. A vaporization enthalpy of (58.7 ± 4.3) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p = (38 ± 9) Pa has been obtained using a variety of secondary aliphatic amines as standards. In addition, equations describing the vapor pressure temperature dependence are provided for standards and S (+)-methamphetamine covering the temperature range from T = 298.15 K to the boiling temperature. Boiling temperatures are reproduced within an interval of 8 K or less

  12. Temperature dependences of saturated vapor pressure and the enthalpy of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, S. V.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Levanova, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The saturated vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of linear C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids are determined by the transpiration method in the temperature range of 309.2-361.2 K. The dependences of enthalpies of vaporization on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and on the retention indices have been determined. The predictive capabilities of the existing calculation schemes for estimation of enthalpy of vaporization of the studied compounds have been analyzed.

  13. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  14. The reaction kinetics of lithium salt with water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balooch, M.; Dinh, L.N.; Calef, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of lithium salt (LiH and/or LiD) with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10 -5 -2657 Pa has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with LiH cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiH surface temperature, suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to 0.007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product approached full coverage. As the film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from 0 deg. C to 20 deg. C and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit (∼10 -4 ). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion-limited process in this regime. For micrometer thick hydroxide films grown in high moisture concentration environment on LiD and LiH, the reaction probability reduced to ∼4x10 -7 and was independent of exposure time. In this regime of thick hydroxide films (LiOH and/or LiOD), microcracks generated in the films to release stress provided easier pathways for moisture to reach the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, was also employed to investigate the surface morphology of hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH · H 2 O and/or LiOD · H 2 O) grown on hydroxide at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth

  15. Research Update: A minimal region of squid reflectin for vapor-induced light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflectins are a family of proteins found in the light manipulating cells of cephalopods. These proteins are made up of a series of conserved repeats that contain highly represented amino acids thought to be important for function. Previous studies demonstrated that recombinant reflectins cast into thin films produced structural colors that could be dynamically modulated via changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate light scattering from reflectin films following exposure to a series of water vapor pulses. Analysis of film surface topography shows that the induction of light scatter is accompanied by self-assembly of reflectins into micro- and nanoscale features. Using a reductionist strategy, we determine which reflectin repeats and sub-repeats are necessary for these events following water vapor pulsing. With this approach, we identify a singly represented, 23-amino acid region in reflectins as being sufficient to recapitulate the light scattering properties observed in thin films of the full-length protein. Finally, the aqueous stability of reflectin films is leveraged to show that pre-exposure to buffers of varying pH can modulate the ability of water vapor pulses to induce light scatter and protein self-assembly.

  16. Research Update: A minimal region of squid reflectin for vapor-induced light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Patrick B.; Singh, Kristi M.; Vasudev, Milana C.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J.

    2017-12-01

    Reflectins are a family of proteins found in the light manipulating cells of cephalopods. These proteins are made up of a series of conserved repeats that contain highly represented amino acids thought to be important for function. Previous studies demonstrated that recombinant reflectins cast into thin films produced structural colors that could be dynamically modulated via changing environmental conditions. In this study, we demonstrate light scattering from reflectin films following exposure to a series of water vapor pulses. Analysis of film surface topography shows that the induction of light scatter is accompanied by self-assembly of reflectins into micro- and nanoscale features. Using a reductionist strategy, we determine which reflectin repeats and sub-repeats are necessary for these events following water vapor pulsing. With this approach, we identify a singly represented, 23-amino acid region in reflectins as being sufficient to recapitulate the light scattering properties observed in thin films of the full-length protein. Finally, the aqueous stability of reflectin films is leveraged to show that pre-exposure to buffers of varying pH can modulate the ability of water vapor pulses to induce light scatter and protein self-assembly.

  17. Mass spectrometric study of Nd2S3 vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenochka, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors conduct a mass-spectrometric study of neodymium(III) sulfide vaporization. The chemical composition of the samples was stoichiometric and the samples were vaporized from tantalum effusion cells. When the vapor over Nd 2 S 3 is ionized by electrons the mass spectra shows monovalent cations of Nd, S, NdS, and NdO. The enthalpy of vaporization if Nd atoms from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction is shown. Also presented is the enthalpy of vaporization of NdS molecules from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction

  18. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  19. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  20. Thermodynamics of the vaporization of uranium tetrabromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Z.; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, P.V.; Roy, K.N.; Sood, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Vapour pressures of solid and liquid uranium tetrabromide have been measured in the temperature range of 696 to 805 K and 805 to 1003 K respectively by transpiration and evaporation-temperature techniques. The vapour pressures obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement and have been combined to give the reported vapour-pressure equations for solid and liquid uranium tetrabromide. The melting temperature, the normal boiling temperature, the standard enthalpy of vaporization ΔH 0 (vap, 298.15 K), and the standard entropy of vaporization ΔS 0 (vap, 298.15 K) are reported. The enthalpy of fusion ΔH 0 (fus, 802 K) is also reported. The thermodynamic quantities from the present study are compared with those in the literature and critically analysed. (author)

  1. Vaporization of structural materials in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vaporized structural materials form the bulk of aerosol particles that can transport fission products in severe LWR accidents. As part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a model has been developed based on a mass transport coefficient to describe the transport of materials from the surface of a molten pool. In many accident scenarios, the coefficient can be calculated from existing correlations for mass transfer by natural convection. Data from SASCHA fuel melting tests (Karlsruhe, Germany) show that the partial pressures of many of the melt components (Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Sn) required for the model can be calculated from the vapor pressures of the pure species and Raoult's law. These calculations indicate much lower aerosol concentrations than reported in previous studies

  2. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  3. Improved cell for water-vapor electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous-flow electrolytic cells decompose water vapor in steam and room air into hydrogen and oxygen. Sintered iridium oxide catalytic anode coating yields dissociation rates hundredfold greater than those obtained using platinum black. Cell consists of two mirror-image cells, with dual cathode sandwiched between two anodes. Gas traverses serpentine channels within cell and is dissociated at anode. Oxygen mingles with gas stream, while hydrogen migrates through porous matrix and is liberated as gas at cathode.

  4. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  5. Discharge characteristics of copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Koshichi; Fujii, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    This report describes about the copper vapor laser and experimental results of it's discharge characteristics. We measured time varing of plasma regist, and analyzed electron density. (1) The plasma regist is larger than 100Ω at the beginning of discharge, and is rapidly reduced to about 10Ω. (2) The electron density is estimated about 1∼2 x 10 12 /cc at the begining of discharge. (author)

  6. Transport properties of fission product vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1983-07-01

    Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors

  7. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  8. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  9. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  10. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  11. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  12. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  13. Vapor-Driven Propulsion of Catalytic Micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renfeng; Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Ezhilan, Barath; Xu, Tailin; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Wei; Saintillan, David; Ren, Biye; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Chemically-powered micromotors offer exciting opportunities in diverse fields, including therapeutic delivery, environmental remediation, and nanoscale manufacturing. However, these nanovehicles require direct addition of high concentration of chemical fuel to the motor solution for their propulsion. We report the efficient vapor-powered propulsion of catalytic micromotors without direct addition of fuel to the micromotor solution. Diffusion of hydrazine vapor from the surrounding atmosphere into the sample solution is instead used to trigger rapid movement of iridium-gold Janus microsphere motors. Such operation creates a new type of remotely-triggered and powered catalytic micro/nanomotors that are responsive to their surrounding environment. This new propulsion mechanism is accompanied by unique phenomena, such as the distinct off-on response to the presence of fuel in the surrounding atmosphere, and spatio-temporal dependence of the motor speed borne out of the concentration gradient evolution within the motor solution. The relationship between the motor speed and the variables affecting the fuel concentration distribution is examined using a theoretical model for hydrazine transport, which is in turn used to explain the observed phenomena. The vapor-powered catalytic micro/nanomotors offer new opportunities in gas sensing, threat detection, and environmental monitoring, and open the door for a new class of environmentally-triggered micromotors.

  14. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  15. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of test, the diode detectors were operated in the square-law region, and a K-band noise diode was used as the broadband input power source to the CWVR over a period of 64 hours. Results indicate that the fluctuations in output counts are negatively correlated to the CWVR enclosure ambient temperature, with a change of ~ 405 counts per 1° C change in temperature.A correction for the CWVR ambient temperature makes a considerable improvement in stability for τ > 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  16. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  17. A multistratum approach to soil vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhr, J.M.; Giesler, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    An innovative soil remediation design was implemented to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in a gradationally stratified subsurface environment containing alternating layers of clay, sand and clayey sand, and perched water tables in north Florida. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) design enables remediation to focus on distinct subsurface intervals depending on changing site conditions such as constituent concentration levels and periodic water-table fluctuations. Contaminated soils were assessed from the land surface to the top of a two foot thick perched water table located at 13 feet below land surface (bls), and also were encountered below the perched water table downward to another perched water table at 45 feet bls. Use of an organic vapor analyzer equipped with a flame ionization detector revealed hydrocarbon vapor concentrations in soil samples ranging to greater than 1,000 parts per million (ppm). Nonaqueous phase liquids were encountered on both perched water tables. Based on the site assessment, a multistratum soil and ground-water remediation system was designed and constructed. A pilot test was conducted to aid in the design of an effective SVE system

  18. Experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Maria-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The object of this thesis is an experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The test section is locally heated by focusing a laser beam: heat fluxes from 1 e4 to 1.5 e6 W/m 2 and water temperature between 100 and 88 C have been considered. Three boiling regimes have been observed. Under saturated conditions and with low heat fluxes a developed nucleate boiling regime has been observed. Under higher sub-cooling and still with low heat fluxes an equilibrium regime has been observed in which the liquid flowrate evaporating at the bubble base is compensated by the vapor condensing flowrate at bubble top. A third regime have been observed at high heat fluxes for all water conditions: it is characterized by the formation of a large dry spot on the heated surface that keeps the nucleation site dry after bubble detachment. The condensation phase starts after bubble detachment. Bubble equivalent radius at detachment varies between 1 and 2.5 mm. Bubble properties have been measured and non-dimensional groups have been used to characterize bubble dynamics. Capillary waves have been observed on the bubble surface thanks to high-speed images acquisition. Two main phenomena have been proposed to explain capillary waves effects on bubble condensation: increasing of the phases interface area and decreasing of vapor bubble translation velocity, because of the increased drag force on the deformed bubble. (author) [fr

  19. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y.; McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF 4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (∼100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development

  20. Calculating the enthalpy of vaporization for ionic liquid clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Manish S; Maginn, Edward J

    2007-08-16

    Classical atomistic simulations are used to compute the enthalpy of vaporization of a series of ionic liquids composed of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion. The calculations show that the enthalpy of vaporization is lowest for neutral ion pairs. The enthalpy of vaporization increases by about 40 kJ/mol with the addition of each ion pair to the vaporizing cluster. Non-neutral clusters have much higher vaporization enthalpies than their neutral counterparts and thus are not expected to make up a significant fraction of volatile species. The enthalpy of vaporization increases slightly as the cation alkyl chain length increases and as temperature decreases. The calculated vaporization enthalpies are consistent with two sets of recent experimental measurements as well as with previous atomistic simulations.

  1. Pulse sequence optimization for superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhaced MR imaging in the detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the optimal pulse sequences for SPIO-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of multiple hepatic tumors. Twelve rabbits with multiple VX2 liver tumors underwent SPOI-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: TSE T2-weighted imaging (T2W1), TSE proton density-weighted imaging(PDWI), and GRE T2*-weighted imaging (T2*W1) with seven different echo times (TE). Liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and images were also assessed qualitatively by two radiologists, who reached a consensus as to lesion conspicuity and imaging artifacts using a four-level scale. By means of pathologic correlation, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of each sequence was calculated. TSE T2W1 and long-TE (35 msec) FLASH T2*W1 showed the highest liver-lesion CNR. The best lesion conspicuity was seen at TSE T2W1 and medium-TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1. Short TE GRE T2*W1 showed the least imaging artifacts. The four sequences which demonstrated the best sensitivity were medium-TE (12 msec), GRE T2*W1 (FLASH, 84%; FISP, 82%), TSE W2T1 (79%), and TSE PDWI (76%). All nine sequences showed overall high positive predictive value (86-97%), with no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In terms of image quality and the detection of sensitivity, TSE T2W1 and medium TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1 were the top two pulse sequences among the various sequences used for no SPIO-enhanced MRI. They are thus considered to be optimal sequences for evaluating multiple malignant hepatic tumors

  2. Comparative studies on the effect of radiation-sensitizing agents used in radiating VX2 Carcinoma. With reference to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migita, H [Kyushu Dental Coll., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1975-11-01

    The effects of 5-Fu and BUdR as radiation-sensitizing agents macroscopically were investigated in 122 VX2 Carcinomas transplanted into the calves of the hind legs of rabbits. Experimental groups and contrast groups are divided into six as follows: A: No treatment, B: 5-Fu infusion, C: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion, D: Radiation, E: 5-Fu infusion and radiation, and F: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion and radiation. The amount of agent given to each was 5 mg/kg/day of 5-Fu and 50 mg/kg/day of BUdR, and the amount of radiation was 300 rad/day. 5-Fu was used as the Antimetabolite, and its amount was one-tenth of that in the 5-Fu Infusion Group. The agent and the radiation were given for five days. 1. In the 300 rad/day Group, the radiation was not enough to result in a complete cure. 2. In the two Agent Infusion Group, 5-Fu and BUdR+Antimetabolite proved to be anti-cancer, but neither of them resulted in effective treatment. 3. The 5-Fu Infusion and Radiation Group, showed a strong degenerative change in the tumor cell and a radiosensitive effect from 5-Fu, but the tumor was not lessened. 4. In the BUdR-Antimetabolite Infusion and Radiation Group, the tumor began to reduce on the third day. On the seventh and fourteenth days, necrosis of the greater part of tumor was seen, and the rest of the tumor cells were found to be in degenerative change. On the twenty first day, no live tumor cell was found, only dead remains of tumor cells. The results were confirmed both macroscopically and histopathologically. 5. BUdR can be expected to be effective in clinical application to oral malignant tumors.

  3. Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric plutonium dioxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    Vapor pressures and vapor compositions have been calculated for 1500 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 4000 0 K. Thermodynamic functions for the condensed phase and for each of the gaseous species were combined with an oxygen-potential model extended into the liquid region to obtain the partial pressures of O 2 , O, Pu, PuO and PuO 2 . The calculated oxygen pressures increase very rapidly as stoichiometry is approached. At least part of this increase is a consequence of the exclusion of Pu 6 + from the oxygen-potential model. No reliable method was found to estimate the importance of this ion. As a result of large oxygen potentials at high temperatures, extremely high total pressures that produced unreasonably high vapor densities were calculated. The highest temperature was therefore limited to 400 K, and the range of oxygen-to-metal ratios was limited to 1.994 to 1.70. These calculations show that vapor in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric plutonium dioxide is poorly approximated as PuO 2 for most of the temperture and composition range of interest. The vapor is much more oxygen-rich than the condensed phase. Implications for the (U,Pu)O/sub 2-x/ system are discussed

  4. Spectral and photometric observations of fast irregular variables. 3. VX Cas, UX Ori, BN Ori and WW Vul - results of U,B,V,J,H,K,L photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotilov, E.A.; Zajtseva, G.V.; Chenavrin, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    In the 1975-76 period photometric observations of the variable stars VX Cas, BN Ori and WW Vul in the optical (U,B,V) and infrared (J,H,K,L) spectral ranges have been conducted on the 60-cm and 125-cm reflector at the GAISh station in the Crimea. In most cases the optical and infrared measurements were carried out concurrently for each star. The photometric behavior of the variables during the observation period is described and, where possible, radiation variabilities in the different spectra ranges are compared

  5. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  6. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2016-01-01

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  7. Ultrahigh Responsivity and Detectivity Graphene-Perovskite Hybrid Phototransistors by Sequential Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Han; Liu, Shang-Yi; Lan, Yu-Bing; Tsai, Yi-Chen; You, Xue-Qian; Li, Chia-Shuo; Huang, Kuo-You; Chou, Ang-Sheng; Cheng, Tsung-Chin; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wu, Chih-I.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, graphene-methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite hybrid phototransistors fabricated by sequential vapor deposition are demonstrated. Ultrahigh responsivity of 1.73 × 107 A W-1 and detectivity of 2 × 1015 Jones are achieved, with extremely high effective quantum efficiencies of about 108% in the visible range (450-700 nm). This excellent performance is attributed to the ultra-flat perovskite films grown by vapor deposition on the graphene sheets. The hybrid structure of graphene covered with uniform perovskite has high exciton separation ability under light exposure, and thus efficiently generates photocurrents. This paper presents photoluminescence (PL) images along with statistical analysis used to study the photo-induced exciton behavior. Both uniform and dramatic PL intensity quenching has been observed over entire measured regions, consistently demonstrating excellent exciton separation in the devices.

  8. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) grown bi-layer graphene transistor characteristics at high temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2014-05-15

    We report the characteristics of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition grown bilayer graphene transistors fabricated on ultra-scaled (10 nm) high-κ dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) at elevated temperatures. We observed that the drive current increased by >400% as temperature increased from room temperature to 250 °C. Low gate leakage was maintained for prolonged exposure at 100 °C but increased significantly at temperatures >200 °C. These results provide important insights for considering chemical vapor deposition graphene on aluminum oxide for high temperature applications where low power and high frequency operation are required. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) grown bi-layer graphene transistor characteristics at high temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We report the characteristics of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition grown bilayer graphene transistors fabricated on ultra-scaled (10 nm) high-κ dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) at elevated temperatures. We observed that the drive current increased by >400% as temperature increased from room temperature to 250 °C. Low gate leakage was maintained for prolonged exposure at 100 °C but increased significantly at temperatures >200 °C. These results provide important insights for considering chemical vapor deposition graphene on aluminum oxide for high temperature applications where low power and high frequency operation are required. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Complete long-term corrosion protection with chemical vapor deposited graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Feng; Camilli, Luca; Wang, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous reports regarding the potential of graphene for corrosion protection, examples of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene-based anticorrosive coatings able to provide long-term protection (i.e. several months) of metals have so far been absent. Here, we present a polymer-graphene......Despite numerous reports regarding the potential of graphene for corrosion protection, examples of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene-based anticorrosive coatings able to provide long-term protection (i.e. several months) of metals have so far been absent. Here, we present a polymer......-graphene hybrid coating, comprising two single layers of CVD graphene sandwiched by three layers of polyvinyl butyral, which provides complete corrosion protection of commercial aluminum alloys even after 120 days of exposure to simulated seawater. The essential role played by graphene in the hybrid coating...

  11. Copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Tianru; Wang, Haomin; Zhang, Xuefu; Shi, Zhiyuan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality graphene on dielectric substrates is important for its application in electronics. In this work, we report the process of copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of high-quality and large graphene domains on various dielectric substrates. The copper vapor plays a vital role on the growth of transfer-free graphene. Both single-crystal domains that are much larger than previous reports and high-coverage graphene films can be obtained by adjusting the growth duration. The quality of the obtained graphene was verified to be comparable with that of graphene grown on Cu foil. The progress reported in this work will aid the development of the application of transfer-free graphene in the future.

  12. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Roy [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: freud@bgu.ac.il; Harari, Ronen [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, Eran [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux

  13. Molecular dynamics study of the vaporization of an ionic drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N

    2010-09-28

    The melting of a microcrystal in vacuum and subsequent vaporization of a drop of NaCl were studied through molecular dynamics simulations with the Born-Mayer-Huggins-Tosi-Fumi rigid-ion effective potential. The vaporization was studied for a single isochor at increasing temperatures until the drop completely vaporized, and gaseous NaCl formed. Examination of the vapor composition shows that the vapor of the ionic drop and gaseous NaCl are composed of neutral species, the most abundant of which, ranging from simple NaCl monomers (ion pairs) to nonlinear polymers, (Na(n)Cl(n))(n=2-4). The enthalpies of sublimation, vaporization, and dissociation of the different vapor species are found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The decrease of the enthalpy of vaporization of the vapor species, with the radius of the drop decrease, accounts for a larger fraction of trimers and tetramers than that inferred from experiments. Further, the rhombic dimer is significantly more abundant than its linear isomer although the latter increases with the temperature. The present results suggest that both trimers and linear dimers may be important to explain the vapor pressure of molten NaCl at temperatures above 1500 K.

  14. Molecular dynamics study of the vaporization of an ionic drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N.

    2010-09-01

    The melting of a microcrystal in vacuum and subsequent vaporization of a drop of NaCl were studied through molecular dynamics simulations with the Born-Mayer-Huggins-Tosi-Fumi rigid-ion effective potential. The vaporization was studied for a single isochor at increasing temperatures until the drop completely vaporized, and gaseous NaCl formed. Examination of the vapor composition shows that the vapor of the ionic drop and gaseous NaCl are composed of neutral species, the most abundant of which, ranging from simple NaCl monomers (ion pairs) to nonlinear polymers, (NanCln)n=2-4. The enthalpies of sublimation, vaporization, and dissociation of the different vapor species are found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The decrease of the enthalpy of vaporization of the vapor species, with the radius of the drop decrease, accounts for a larger fraction of trimers and tetramers than that inferred from experiments. Further, the rhombic dimer is significantly more abundant than its linear isomer although the latter increases with the temperature. The present results suggest that both trimers and linear dimers may be important to explain the vapor pressure of molten NaCl at temperatures above 1500 K.

  15. Effect of vapor-phase oxygen on chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Tomo-o.; Saiki, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a large-area single-crystal graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on Cu is considered the most promising. Recently, the surface oxygen on Cu has been found to suppress the nucleation of graphene. However, the effect of oxygen in the vapor phase was not elucidated sufficiently. Here, we investigate the effect of O2 partial pressure (PO2) on the CVD growth of graphene using radiation-mode optical microscopy. The nucleation density of graphene decreases monotonically with PO2, while its growth rate reaches a maximum at a certain pressure. Our results indicate that PO2 is an important parameter to optimize in the CVD growth of graphene.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA ANCA RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of human exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI, an aromatic compound, may be dangerous for human health. Diisocyanates have wide industrial use in the fabrication of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, elastomers, and coatings such as paints and varnishes. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapor; exposure to TDI vapors is well documented to increase asthma risk. The study focused on the exposure of workers and nearby populations to toluene diisocyanate in a Polyurethane Foam Factory located in Baia Mare, Romania. Workplace air measurements were performed in different departments of the plant, after sampling either in fixed points or as personal monitoring. Sampling in four different locations of Baia Mare town was carried out, - during and after the foaming process. TDI sampling was performed on silica cartridge followed by GC-MS analysis. TDI concentration at workplace was lower than 0,035 mg/m³, which represents the permissible exposure limit, while in the city the TDI concentration had shown values below 0,20 μg/m³. Health assessment of a group of 49 workers was based on questionnaire interview, determination of TDI antibodies and lung function tests. Data collected until this stage do not show any negative effects of TDI on the employees health. Since this plant had only recently begun operating, continuous workplace and ambient air TDI monitoring, along with workers health surveillance, is deemed necessary.

  17. Boundary vapor contentsin an annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remizov, O.V.; Shurkin, N.G.; Podgornyj, K.K.; Gal'chenko, Eh.F.; Bukhteev, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The work is aimed at the experimental investigation of the worsening of the heat transfer in an annular channel. The experiments have been carried out on the annular channel 32x28x3000 mm with the even distribution of the heat flux along the length at pressures of 6.9-19.6 MPa, flow rate of 350-1000 kg/m 2 s, and specific heat fluxes from 0.18 up to 0.6 MW/m 2 . Heating is external, oneside. Water monodistillate of the following composition has been used as a coolant: pH 9; dry residue - 0.8-1.2 mg/kg, oxygen -10-15 mg/kg. It is found out that the change character of the temperature field of the heating surface of the annular channel at the regime with the worsen of heat emission depends on the ratio of regime parameters. At pressures of 6.9-13.7 MPa and flow rate of 350-500 kg/m 2 s the channel wall temperature rises monotoneously, never reaching its maximum. With pressure rise > 13.7 MPa and mass velocity > 500 kg/m 2 s the temperature of the heat emitting surface reaches its maximum, and then slowly falls. At pressures of 6.9-11.8 MPa the boundary vapor content value within the whole range of mass velocities does not depend on the specific heat flux q. At pressures higher than 13.7 MPa and mass velocities of 350-1000 kg/m 2 s the boundary vapor content depends on q. The heating of the external or internal surface of the annular channel affects the value of the boundary vapor content within the whole range of regime parameters' change under investigation

  18. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Ovicidal activity of acrolein vapors to Indian meal moth eggs of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr

    2007-09-01

    The effect of acrolein vapors against carefully aged eggs of Indian meal moth at 27 +/- 1 and 17 +/- 1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acrolein over various exposure times was determined. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. At both temperatures and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acrolein than other age groups. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acrolein developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17 +/- 1 to 27 +/- 1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acrolein. Overall, at 27 +/- 1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-fourth of the dosage required for control at 17 +/- 1 degrees C. Acrolein achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 3.80 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27 +/- 1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly reduced when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 32 mg L(-1) of acrolein for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17 +/- 1 or 27 +/- 1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  20. Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.

  1. Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W.S.

    1989-07-01

    The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures

  2. Systemic molecular and cellular changes induced in rats upon inhalation of JP-8 petroleum fuel vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, Jay S; Bruce Briggs, G; Lerner, Megan R; Lightfoot, Stan A; Larabee, Jason L; Karsies, Todd J; Epstein, Robert B; Hanas, Rushie J; Brackett, Daniel J; Hocker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding systemic changes in mammals associated with exposures to petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, systemic toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel was observed in a rat inhalation model at different JP-8 fuel vapor concentrations (250, 500, or 1000 mg/m(3), for 91 days). Gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry sequencing identified the alpha-2 microglobulin protein to be elevated in rat kidney in a JP-8 dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of kidney and lung tissue extracts revealed JP-8 dependent elevation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Tissue changes were observed histologically (hematoxylin and eosin staining) in liver, kidney, lung, bone marrow, and heart, and more prevalently at medium or high JP-8 vapor phase exposures (500-1000 mg/m(3)) than at low vapor phase exposure (250 mg/m(3)) or non-JP-8 controls. JP-8 fuel-induced liver alterations included dilated sinusoids, cytoplasmic clumping, and fat cell deposition. Changes to the kidneys included reduced numbers of nuclei, and cytoplasmic dumping in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules. JP-8 dependent lung alterations were edema and dilated alveolar capillaries, which allowed clumping of red blood cells (RBCs). Changes in the bone marrow in response to JP-8 included reduction of fat cells and fat globules, and cellular proliferation (RBCs, white blood cells-WBCs, and megakaryocytes). Heart tissue from JP-8 exposed animals contained increased numbers of inflammatory and fibroblast cells, as well as myofibril scarring. cDNA array analysis of heart tissue revealed a JP-8 dependent increase in atrial natriuretic peptide precursor mRNA and a decrease in voltage-gated potassium (K+) ion channel mRNA.

  3. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  4. Design and physical features of inductive coaxial copper vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenin, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Karpukhin, V. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Lyabin, N. A. [Istok Research and Production Corporation (Russian Federation); Malikov, M. M., E-mail: mmalikov@oivtran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A physical model of a copper vapor laser pumped by a pulse-periodic inductive (electrodeless) discharge is considered. The feasibility of efficient laser pumping by an inductive discharge and reaching high output parameters comparable to those of conventional copper vapor lasers pumped by a longitudinal electrode discharge is demonstrated. The design and physical features of an inductive copper vapor laser with an annular working volume are discussed.

  5. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper

  6. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  7. Comparative study of the vapor analytes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Cindy C.; Gibb, Julie; Dugan, Regina E.

    1998-12-01

    Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a high explosive used in most antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The Institute for Biological Detection Systems (IBDS) has developed a quantitative vapor delivery system, termed olfactometer, for conducting canine olfactory research. The research is conducted utilizing dynamic conditions, therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the headspace of TNT to ensure consistency with the dynamic generation of vapor. This study quantified the vapor headspace of military- grade TNT utilizing two different vapor generated methodologies, static and dynamic, reflecting differences between field and laboratory environments. Static vapor collection, which closely mimics conditions found during field detection, is defined as vapor collected in an open-air environment at ambient temperature. Dynamic vapor collection incorporates trapping of gases from a high flow vapor generation cell used during olfactometer operation. Analysis of samples collected by the two methodologies was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the results provided information with regard to the constituents detected. However, constituent concentration did vary between the sampling methods. This study provides essential information regarding the vapor constituents associated with the TNT sampled using different sampling methods. These differences may be important in determining the detection signature dogs use to recognize TNT.

  8. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  9. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  10. Water Vapor Remote Sensing Techniques: Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    The high variability of atmospheric water vapor content plays an important role in space geodesy, climatology and meteorology. Water vapor has a strong influence on transatmospheric satellite signals, the Earth's climate and thus the weather forecasting. Several remote sensing techniques have been developed for the determination of inte- grated precipitable water vapor (IPWV). The Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL) utilizes the methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry to quantify the amount of tropospheric water vapor and its temporal variations. The Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) measures the radiation intensity of the atmosphere in a frequency band ranging from 20 to 32 GHz. The Solar Atmospheric MOnitoring Spectrome- ter (SAMOS) of GGL is designed for high-resolution measurements of water vapor absorption lines using solar radiation. In the framework of the ESCOMPTE (ExpÊrience sur Site pour COntraindre les Mod- Éles de Pollution atmosphÊrique et de Transport d'Emissions) field campaign these instruments have been operated near Marseille in 2001. They have aquired a long time series of integrated precipitable water vapor content (IPWV). The accuracy of IPWV measured by WVR and SAMOS is 1 kg/m2. Furthermore meteorological data from radiosondes were used to calculate the IPWV in order to provide comparisons with the results of WVR and SAMOS. The methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and So- lar Spectrometry will be discussed and first preliminary results retrieved from WVR, SAMOS and radiosondes during the ESCOMPTE field campaign will be presented.

  11. A heated vapor cell unit for DAVLL in atomic rubidium

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm-long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field...

  12. Water vapor permeabilities through polymers: diffusivities from experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seethamraju, Sindhu; Ramamurthy, Praveen Chandrashekarapura; Madras, Giridhar

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally determines water vapor permeabilities, which are subsequently correlated with the diffusivities obtained from simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used for determining the diffusion of water vapor in various polymeric systems such as polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (vinyl acetate), poly (vinyl butyral), poly (vinylidene chloride), poly (vinyl chloride) and poly (methyl methacrylate). Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) based methodology has been used to determine the water vapor transmission rates. These values were then used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for water vapor through these polymers. A comparative analysis is provided for diffusivities calculated from CRDS and MD based results by correlating the free volumes. (paper)

  13. Ultrasound-assisted vapor generation of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Vieira, Mariana A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Willie, Scott; Sturgeon, Ralph E. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Cold vapor generation arising from reduction of both Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} occurs using ultrasonic (US) fields of sufficient density to achieve both localized heating as well as radical-based attack in solutions of formic and acetic acids and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). A batch sonoreactor utilizing an ultrasonic probe as an energy source and a flow through system based on a US bath were optimized for this purpose. Reduction of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} to Hg{sup 0} occurs only at relatively high US field density (>10 W cm{sup -3} of sample solution) and is thus not observed when a conventional US bath is used for cold vapor generation. Speciation of mercury is thus possible by altering the power density during the measurement process. Thermal reduction of Hg{sup 2+} is efficient in formic acid and TMAH at 70 C and occurs in the absence of the US field. Room temperature studies with the batch sonoreactor reveal a slow reduction process, producing temporally broad signals having an efficiency of approximately 68% of that arising from use of a conventional SnCl{sub 2} reduction system. Molecular species of mercury are generated at high concentrations of formic and acetic acid. Factors affecting the generation of Hg{sup 0} were optimized and the batch sonoreactor used for the determination of total mercury in SLRS-4 river water reference material. (orig.)

  14. Reactions of atmospheric vapors with lunar soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Agron, P.A.

    1976-03-01

    Detailed experimental data have been acquired for the hydration of the surfaces of lunar fines. Inert vapor adsorption has been employed to measure the surface properties (surface energy, surface area, porosity, etc.) and changes wrought in the hydration-dehydration processes. Plausible mechanisms have been considered and the predominant process involves hydration of the metamict metallosilicate surfaces to form a hydrated laminar structure akin to terrestrial clays. Additional credence for this interpretation is obtained by comparison to existing geochemical literature concerning terrestrial weathering of primary metallosilicates. The surface properties of the hydrated lunar fines are compared favorably to those of terrestrial clay minerals. In addition, experimental results are given to show that fresh disordered surfaces of volcanic sand react with water vapor in a manner virtually identical to the majority of the lunar fines. The results show that ion track etching and/or grain boundary attack are minor contributions in the weathering of lunar fines in the realm of our microgravimetric experimental conditions. 14 references

  15. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted vapor generation of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Anderson S; Vieira, Mariana A; Willie, Scott; Sturgeon, Ralph E

    2007-06-01

    Cold vapor generation arising from reduction of both Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) occurs using ultrasonic (US) fields of sufficient density to achieve both localized heating as well as radical-based attack in solutions of formic and acetic acids and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). A batch sonoreactor utilizing an ultrasonic probe as an energy source and a flow through system based on a US bath were optimized for this purpose. Reduction of CH(3)Hg(+) to Hg(0) occurs only at relatively high US field density (>10 W cm(-3) of sample solution) and is thus not observed when a conventional US bath is used for cold vapor generation. Speciation of mercury is thus possible by altering the power density during the measurement process. Thermal reduction of Hg(2+) is efficient in formic acid and TMAH at 70 degrees C and occurs in the absence of the US field. Room temperature studies with the batch sonoreactor reveal a slow reduction process, producing temporally broad signals having an efficiency of approximately 68% of that arising from use of a conventional SnCl(2) reduction system. Molecular species of mercury are generated at high concentrations of formic and acetic acid. Factors affecting the generation of Hg(0) were optimized and the batch sonoreactor used for the determination of total mercury in SLRS-4 river water reference material.

  17. Plantas indicadoras de clomazone na fase vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Schreiber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A volatilização representa um processo importante no deslocamento de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. As características físico-químicas da molécula do clomazone indicam que este possui potencial de volatilização. Em vista do exposto, para a realização deste estudo, foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a suscetibilidade das espécies: pepino, melão, milho, sorgo e arroz a diferentes formulações do herbicida clomazone na fase vapor. Para isso, foram utilizadas caixas de vidro hermeticamente fechadas, com a presença de diferentes formulações de clomazone e as espécies vegetais. As formulações utilizadas foram Gamit 360 CS®, Gamit 500 EC® e Gamit Star®. Com os resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que, dentre as espécies avaliadas, independente da formulação utilizada, a de menor tolerância ao herbicida clomazone na fase vapor foi o sorgo, seguido do milho e do arroz.

  18. Cesium vapor cycle for an advanced LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review indicates that a cesium vapor topping cycle appears attractive for use in the intermediate fluid circuit of an advanced LMFBR designed for a reactor outlet temperature of 1250 0 F or more and would have the following advantages: (1) it would increase the thermal efficiency by about 5 to 10 points (from approximately 40 percent to approximately 45 to 50 percent) thus reducing the amount of waste heat rejected to the environment by 15 to 30 percent. (2) the higher thermal efficiency should reduce the overall capital cost of the reactor plant in dollars per kilowatt. (3) the cesium can be distilled out of the intermediate fluid circuit to leave it bone-dry, thus greatly reducing the time and cost of maintenance work (particularly for the steam generator). (4) the large volume and low pressure of the cesium vapor region in the cesium condenser-steam generator greatly reduces the magnitude of pressure fluctuations that might occur in the event of a leak in a steam generator tube, and the characteristics inherent in a condenser make it easy to design for rapid concentration of any noncondensibles that may form as a consequence of a steam leak into the cesium region so that a steam leak can be detected easily in the very early stages of its development

  19. Controlled assembly of organic whispering-gallery-mode microlasers as highly sensitive chemical vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Miaomiao; Wei, Cong; Lin, Xianqing; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Fengqin; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the fabrication of organic high Q active whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators from π-conjugated polymer by a controlled emulsion-solvent-evaporation method, which can simultaneously provide optical gain and act as an effective resonant cavity. By measuring the shift of their lasing modes on exposure to organic vapor, we successfully monitored the slight concentration variation in the chemical gas. These microlaser sensors demonstrated high detection sensitivity and good signal repeatability under continuous chemical gas treatments. The results offer an effective strategy to design miniaturized optical sensors.

  20. Stabilization Improves Theranostic Properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-Based Emulsion During Liver Trans-arterial Chemo-embolization in a VX2 Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, F., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@gustaveroussy.fr; Farouil, G. [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France); Gonzalez, W.; Robic, C. [Guerbet France, Guerbet (France); Paci, A.; Mir, L. M. [Université Paris-Saclay, UMR 8203 (France); Tselikas, L.; Baère, T. de [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate that stability is a crucial parameter for theranostic properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsions during liver trans-arterial chemo-embolization.Materials and MethodsWe compared the theranostic properties of two emulsions made of Lipiodol{sup ®} and doxorubicin in two successive animal experiments (One VX2 tumour implanted in the left liver lobe of 30 rabbits). Emulsion-1 reproduced one of the most common way of preparation (ratio of oil/water: 1/1), and emulsion-2 was designed to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion with enhanced stability (ratio of oil/water: 3/1, plus an emulsifier). The first animal experiment compared the tumour selectivity of the two emulsions: seven rabbits received left hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of emulsion-1 and eight received HAI of emulsion-2. 3D-CBCT acquisitions were acquired after HAI of every 0.1 mL to measure the densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes. The second animal experiment compared the plasmatic and tumour doxorubicin concentrations after HAI of 1.5 mg of doxorubicin administered either alone (n = 3) or in emulsion-1 (n = 6) or in emulsion-2 (n = 6).ResultsEmulsion-2 resulted in densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes that were significantly higher compared to emulsion-1 (up to 0.4 mL infused). Plasmatic doxorubicin concentrations (at 5 min) were significantly lower after HAI of emulsion-2 (19.0 μg/L) than emulsion-1 (275.3 μg/L, p < 0.01) and doxorubicin alone (412.0 μg/L, p < 0.001), and tumour doxorubicin concentration (day-1) was significantly higher after HAI of emulsion-2 (20,957 ng/g) than in emulsion-1 (8093 ng/g, p < 0.05) and doxorubicin alone (2221 ng/g, p < 0.01).ConclusionStabilization of doxorubicin in a water-in-oil Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsion results in better theranostic properties.