Sample records for vuorovaikutus paeaestoejen mallinnuksessa

  1. Interaction between combustion and turbulence in modelling of emissions; Palamisen ja turbulenssin vuorovaikutus paeaestoejen mallinnuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, A.; Maeki-Mantila, E. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Energy and Process Technology


    The aim of the project has been to model and simulate gas phase combustion taking into account the interaction between the chemical reactions and turbulence, respectively. Especially the modelling of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide were included in the computations which were applied into two laboratory-scale test cases namely into the about 300 kW natural gas burner by International Flame Research Foundation and into the smaller natural gas jet flame by delft University of Technology. Both test cases were calculated in two dimensional axially symmetric chambers with the swirl numbers equal to 0.56 and zero in the IFRF and Delft flames, respectively. In this study it was necessary to take into account as well as possible the effect of turbulence on the chemical reactions. Therefore, the Eddy Dissipation Concept Model (EDC) together with the local extinction was chosen to describe both the combustion reactions of methane and carbon monoxide and the formation and reduction of nitric oxide, too. In this study two different turbulent time scales were used namely the Kolmogorov time scale in the fine structure conditions without and with the factor taking more into account the fine structure conditions, respectively. It can be noticed the computational results are more similar with the experimental data when the factor was used. The prediction of chemical time scale was based on the principle by Gran et Melaaen and Magnussen. (orig.)

  2. Interaction between combustion and turbulence in modelling of emissions; Palamisen ja turbulenssin vuorovaikutus paeaestoejen mallinnuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksanen, A.; Maeki-Mantila, E. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Thermal Engineering


    The aim of the work was to study the combustion models taking into account the coupling between gas phase reactions and turbulence the modelling of emissions, especially of nitric oxide, when temperature and species concentrations are fluctuating by turbulence. The principal tools to model turbulent gas phase combustion were methods based on the probability density function (pdf) with {beta} and {gamma}-distributions the practice of which can take into consideration the stochastic nature of turbulence and, on the other hand, the models which also include the effect turbulence on the reaction rates in the flames e.g. the Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM), the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC), the kinetic mod and the combinations of those ones, respectively. Besides these models effect of the different turbulence models (standard, RNG and CHENKIM k-{epsilon} models) on the combustion phenomena, especially on the formation emissions was also studied. Same kind of modelling has been done by the teams in the Special Interest Group of ERCOFTAC (European Research Community On Flow Turbulence And Combustion) under the title of Aerodynamics and Steady State Combustion Chambers and Furnaces (A.S.C.F.) with which we have co-operated during some years with success. (author)

  3. Varhainen vuorovaikutus ja sen tukeminen musiikkiterapian avulla


    Alisaari, Jenni; Sundell, Marika


    Tämä opinnäytetyö koostuu kahdesta artikkelista. Ensimmäinen käsittelee varhaista vuorovaikutusta sekä sen tukemista musiikkiterapian avulla, ja siihen sisältyy suppea kuvaus musiikkiterapiajaksosta ensikodissa. Toinen artikkeli keskittyy yhden musiikkiterapiajaksolle osallistuneen perheen terapiaprosessin kuvaukseen. Lapsen ja vanhemman välinen varhainen vuorovaikutus on yksi tärkeimmistä lapsen kehitykseen liittyvistä tekijöistä. Se, miten lapsen tarpeisiin vastataan, vaikuttaa siihen,...

  4. Kehitysvammaisten asumisyksikön asukkaiden läheisten ja asumisyksikön työntekijöiden välinen vuorovaikutus


    Myllymäki, Heli


    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää kehitysvammaisten asumisyksikössä työskentelevien ja asumisyksikön asukkaiden läheisten välistä vuorovaikutusta ja sen vaikutusta kehitysvammaisen elämään. Työssä tutkittiin, millaiseksi tämän hetkinen yhteistyö koetaan ja mitä on toimiva vuorovaikutus läheisten ja työntekijöiden välillä. Tavoitteena oli löytää vastauksia siihen vaikuttavatko läheisten ja työntekijöiden suhteet asumisyksikössä asuvan kehitysvammaisen elämään. Tutkimusaineisto on kerätt...

  5. Particle-turbulence interaction; Partikkelitihentymien ja turbulenssin vuorovaikutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Savolainen, K. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Technology


    In this work the interaction between solid particles and turbulence of the carrier fluid in two-phase flow is studied. The aim of the study is to find out prediction methods for the interaction of particles and fluid turbulence. Accurate measured results are needed in order to develop numerical simulations. There are very few good experimental data sets concerning the particulate matter and its effect on the gas turbulence. Turbulence of the gas phase in a vertical, dilute gas-particle pipe flow has been measured with the laser-Doppler anemometer in Tampere University of Technology. Special attention was paid to different components of the fluctuating velocity. Numerical simulations were done with the Phoenics-code in which the models of two-phase flows suggested in the literature were implemented. It has been observed that the particulate phase increases the rate of anisotropy of the fluid turbulence. It seems to be so that small rigid particles increase the intensity of the axial and decrease the intensity of the radial component in a vertical pipe flow. The change of the total kinetic energy of turbulence obviously depends on the particle size. In the case of 150 ,{mu} spherical glass particles flowing upwards with air, it seems to be slightly positive near the centerline of the pipe. This observation, i.e. the particles decrease turbulence in the radial direction, is very important; because mass and heat transfer in flows is strongly dependent on the component of fluctuating velocity perpendicular to the main flow direction

  6. Common metrics. Comparing the warming effect of climate forcers in climate policy; Common metrics. Laempenemiseen vaikuttavien paeaestoejen yhteismitallistaminen ilmastopolitiikassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, T. J.; Ekholm, T.; Savolainen, I.


    Climate policy needs a relatively simple method to compare the warming effect of different greenhouse gases (GHGs). Otherwise it would be necessary to negotiate a different reduction target for each gas. At the moment, Global Warming Potential (GWP) concept is used to compare different GHGs. Numerical values of GWP factors have been updated alongside with scientific understanding and majority seems content to the GWP. From 2005 onwards there have been many proposals of optional metrics. The most well known is Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) concept which measures the change of temperature as does global climate policies. The decision between metrics is a multicriteria decision which should include at least the coherence with climate policy and cost efficiency. The GWP concept may be a little more difficult to understand than the GTP but it is more cost efficient. Alongside with new metrics, scientists and politicians have started to discuss of new emission which have an effect on warming. These Short Lived Climate Forcers (SLCFs) have either warming or cooling effect. Their effect can be presented with GWP and GTP but the uncertainties in the emission factors are large. In total, SLCFs reduce overall emissions of EU approximately 1% in year 2000. NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} (cooling) and black carbon (warming) emissions were the biggest factors. EU is planning to reduce the SLCF emissions to achieve health and environmental benefits, but at the same time this reduces the effect of EU's climate policies by approximately 10%. Uncertainties in the estimates are large. (orig.)

  7. Opiskelijoiden välinen vuorovaikutus : Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun 2. vuoden opiskelijat, Porin tekniikka, Porin liiketoiminta ja Porin hoitotyö


    Kukkula, Pauliina


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun 2. vuoden opiskelijoiden välistä vuorovaikutusta. Tavoitteena oli saada tietoa Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijoiden välisestä vuorovaikutuksesta ja siihen mahdollisesti liittyvästä kiusaamisesta Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulussa. Opinnäytetyön aihe valittiin Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun sosiaali- ja terveysalan opinnäytetöiden aihepankista. Tämä aihe oli opinnäytetyön tekijän mielestä mielenkiintoine...

  8. Special analyses of tailpipe gases - method development and applications. Development of measuring methods for unregulated components from otto and diesel engines. Final report; Pakokaasujen erikoisanalyysit - menetelmien jatkokehittaeminen ja soveltava koetoiminta. Paeaestoejen maeaeraet ja mittaaminen, mallilaskelmat. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, M.


    The project was a continuation to the previous MOBILE -project 204T (1993 - 1995). During the three year period (1996 - 1998) new measuring techniques were developed or the already earlier started topics were further processed, as stated below. The aim of the project is to improve monitoring techniques of the unregulated tailpipe emissions and to supply tools for more comprehensive evaluation of the health and environmental effects of automotive emissions as a whole. The following was developed: Construction of particle sampling device for low emitting vehicles; Construction of sampling technique for the semivolatile phase of the tailpipe gas; evaluation of different techniques; Application of Ames mutagenicity test for the semivolatiles of diesel and otto-engine exhausts; Application of the modified Ames mutagenicity test to minimum sample amounts or emissions of low response; Effect of sampling conditions of particulates and semivolatiles (PUP) on sample amount and quality; Applications of the particulate and PUF sampling technique to low-emittive otto-engine technologies or aftertreatment concepts (LPO, CNG, M85, TWC, lean-burn, GDI) and fuel flexible vehicle emissions (ethanol mixtures); Participation a European round-robin test for the PAH analysis of diesel engine particulates; Adoption and DNPH - FTIR comparison of monitoring technique for aldehyde speciation from modal heavy-duty diesel engine test; Evaluation of the CIMS real-time monitoring technique for low concentrations of emission components. Comparison with FTIR and conventional analytical techniques for aldehyde and HC speciation, verification of the measurement techniques in use at VTT; Spreadsheet for conversion of FTIR ppm trace into mass emissions; Evaluation of the various measuring techniques for the particulate sizing of diesel and otto-engine emissions, purchase of the device; Establishing a data bank for unregulated+regulated emission species based on 1993 - 1998 results obtained at VTT; Participation European regulatory bodies developing future emission legislation. (orig.)

  9. Olemassa olevien ja muuttuvien rakennusosien esittäminen tietomallinnettavassa korjauskohteessa


    Remes, Jenni


    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia kuinka korjausrakennuskohteen tietomallissa voidaan esittää olemassa olevat, muuttuvat ja purettavat rakennusosat ja kuinka ne ilmenevät eri näkymissä. Tutkimuskohteena käytettiin Kuopiossa, Huuhankatu 14:ssa sijaitsevaa kerrostaloa, josta mallinnettua alustavaa rakennusosamallia kehitettiin tarkkuudeltaan yleissuunnitteluvaiheen rakennusosamalliksi tutkittavien rakennusosien osalta. Mallinnuksessa käytettiin Autodesk Revit Architecture 2012 -so...

  10. Nukketeatterin ja lapsiyleisön välinen vuorovaikutussuhde : Case Pikku Aasin Nukketeatteri


    Ström, Yvonne


    Nukketeatterin ja lasten välinen vuorovaikutus on tänä päivänä osa lasten taide- ja kulttuurikasvatusta. Lapsille on annettava mahdollisimman paljon työkaluja elämän varrelle niin kielellisiä, vuorovaikutuksellisia, kuin kokemuksellisiakin. Nukketeatteri tarjoaa tätä kaikkea lapsille, varsinkin alle kouluikäisille. Tutkimukseni tarkoitus oli löytää vuorovaikutuksen merkitys ja sen ilmentyminen lapsiyleisön ja nukketeatterin välillä. Seurasin vaasalaisen Pikku Aasin nukketeatterin esityksiä. N...

  11. Apulaisosastonhoitajan toimenkuva


    Havukainen, Lea


    Johtajuudella on tärkeä tehtävä hoitotyössä edistää potilaan laadukasta ja turvallista hoitoa, mikä lisää potilastyytyväisyyttä ja nopeuttaa sairaudesta toipumista. Toisena tehtävänä on saada hoitohenkilökunta motivoitumaan ja kehittämään työtään mielekkääksi, jotta henkilökunnan vaihtuvuus vähenisi. Johtajan tehtävä on saada toteutumaan työntekijöiden välityksellä tavoitteelliset tehtävät. Tähän johtaja tarvitsee henkilökohtaista kasvua, toimia visioidensa mukaan, vuorovaikutus- ja kanss...