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Sample records for vulvar cancer treatment

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get treatment. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. ... procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix ...

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get treatment. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. ... procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix ...

  3. Stages of Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get treatment. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. ... procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix ...

  4. General Information about Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Research Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vulvar Cancer Go to Health Professional ... area between the vulva and the anus ). Enlarge Anatomy of the vulva. The vulva includes the mons ...

  5. Management of vulvar cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, J. A.; van der Avoort, I. A. M.; Oonk, M. H. M.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim The radical surgical approach in the treatment of vulvar cancer patients has led to a favorable prognosis for the majority of the patients with early stage squamous cell cancer. However, the morbidity is impressive, leading to more individualized treatment. The aim of this review is to give an o

  6. Management of vulvar cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullu, J.A. de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Oonk, M.H.; Zee, A.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The radical surgical approach in the treatment of vulvar cancer patients has led to a favorable prognosis for the majority of the patients with early stage squamous cell cancer. However, the morbidity is impressive, leading to more individualized treatment. The aim of this review is to give an

  7. Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications.

  8. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is passed from one person to another during sex. There is a vaccine that protects against the types of HPV that most often cause cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ...

  9. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs of vulvar cancer. This is known as self-examination. Some women choose to examine themselves monthly using ... Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope ...

  11. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  12. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  13. Sexual Functioning After Treatment of In Situ Vulvar Cancer: Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Turnquist, Dawn; LaPolla, James; Turner, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two patients treated for in situ vulvar cancer at two institutions participated in structured assessment interviews and completed questionnaires to examine postoperative sexual, marital, and psychological adjustment. Patient responses were compared with a matched sample of gynecologically healthy women. The results indicated a specific pattern of sexual disruption for the women treated for preinvasive disease. Sexual behavior patterns appeared to be maintained, as was the desire phase o...

  14. Treatment outcome in patients with vulvar cancer: comparison of concurrent radiotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ki Won; Park, Dong Choon; Yoon, Joo Hee; Yoon, Sei Chul [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mina [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate outcome and morbidity in patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy. The records of 24 patients treated with radiotherapy for vulvar cancer between July 1993 and September 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received once daily 1.8-4 Gy fractions external beam radiotherapy to median 51.2 Gy (range, 19.8 to 81.6 Gy) on pelvis and inguinal nodes. Seven patients were treated with primary concurrent chemoradiotherapy, one patient was treated with primary radiotherapy alone, four patients received palliative radiotherapy, and twelve patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty patients were eligible for response evaluation. Response rate was 55% (11/20). The 5-year disease free survival was 42.2% and 5-year overall survival was 46.2%, respectively. Fifty percent (12/24) experienced with acute skin complications of grade III or more during radiotherapy. Late complications were found in 8 patients. 50% (6/12) of patients treated with lymph node dissection experienced severe late complications. One patient died of sepsis from lymphedema. However, only 16.6% (2/12) of patients treated with primary radiotherapy developed late complications. Outcome of patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy showed relatively good local control and low recurrence. Severe late toxicities remained higher in patients treated with both node dissection and radiotherapy.

  15. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Effects of previous surgery on the detection of sentinel nodes in women with vulvar cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ennik, T.A.; Allen, D.G; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Hyde, S.E.; Grant, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest to apply the sentinel node (SN) procedure in the treatment of vulvar cancer. Previous vulvar surgery might disrupt lymphatic patterns and thereby decrease SN detection rates, lengthen scintigraphic appearance time (SAT), and increase SN false-negative rate. Th

  17. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  18. Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer, Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 and Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3: Experience of a Referral Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siegler, Efraim; Segev, Yakir; Mackuli, Lena; Auslender, Ron; Shiner, Mayan; Lavie, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    ...: human papillomavirus (HPV) induced or non-HPV induced. To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with vulvar or vaginal cancer and vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN3, VAIN3...

  19. Surgical management of squamous cell vulvar cancer without clitoris, urethra or anus involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Kaban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancers, which constitute 5% of all gynecologic cancers, are the fourth most common female genital cancers, preceded by uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers. The treatment methods employed for vulvar cancers have changed over the years, with previously applied radical surgical approaches, such as en bloc resection, being gradually suspended in favor of treatment approaches that require dissection of less tissue. While the removal of less tissue, which today's approaches have focused on, prevents morbidity, this method seems to result in higher risks of recurrence. It is therefore important that the balance between preventing the recurrence of the disease and forefending against postoperative complications and vulvar deformity be properly understood. As a working assumption, if patients with vulvar cancer are diagnosed at an early stage, properly evaluated and administered appropriate treatment, the most positive results can be obtained. This paper aims to highlight this assumption and demonstrate, through the provision of actual data, how to plan the treatment approach for patients who are diagnosed early. Statements extracted from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2016 Sub-Committees on vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and articles by the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO regarding Vulvar Cancer Recommendations were used to obtain updated information.

  20. Surgical management of squamous cell vulvar cancer without clitoris, urethra or anus involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Alpaslan; Kaban, Işık; Afşar, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Vulvar cancers, which constitute 5% of all gynecologic cancers, are the fourth most common female genital cancers, preceded by uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers. The treatment methods employed for vulvar cancers have changed over the years, with previously applied radical surgical approaches, such as en bloc resection, being gradually suspended in favor of treatment approaches that require dissection of less tissue. While the removal of less tissue, which today's approaches have focused on, prevents morbidity, this method seems to result in higher risks of recurrence. It is therefore important that the balance between preventing the recurrence of the disease and forefending against postoperative complications and vulvar deformity be properly understood. As a working assumption, if patients with vulvar cancer are diagnosed at an early stage, properly evaluated and administered appropriate treatment, the most positive results can be obtained. This paper aims to highlight this assumption and demonstrate, through the provision of actual data, how to plan the treatment approach for patients who are diagnosed early. Statements extracted from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines Version 1.2016 Sub-Committees on vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and articles by the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) regarding Vulvar Cancer Recommendations were used to obtain updated information.

  1. Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe radiotherapeutic practice in the treatment of vulvar cancer in member study groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to representatives of the member study groups of the GCIG, targeting the use...... of radiotherapy (RT) in vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-two surveys were returned from 12 different cooperative groups. The most common indications for neoadjuvant RT include unresectable disease or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage >/=III. For the neoadjuvant treatment of vulvar cancer...... of a broadly accepted standard. This underscores the importance of international cooperation as in GCIG to gather more reliable data for uncommon tumors in gynecologic oncology....

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive vulvar cancer average about 20 years younger. Human papilloma virus Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a group of more than ... and Cervarix ® . For more about HPV, see HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) . Smoking Smoking exposes people to many cancer- ...

  3. How Is Vulvar Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about biopsies, see Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer . Further testing If you have ... 1 to 2 pints of a liquid called oral contrast . This helps outline the intestine so that ...

  4. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  5. Surgical management of stage I and II vulvar cancer:The role of the separated incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijono Andrijono

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancer is a gynecological cancer whose incidence rate is relatively low. Patients generally were admitted at advanced stage, and radiation therapy at advanced stage does not provide favorable prognosis. Two main modalities in the treatment of vulvar cancer are surgery and radiation therapy. However, radiation can be performed in early stage vulvar cancer but surgery is thought to have more benefits, such as in side effect on the ovary/ reproductive function disorder, patient's hygiene factor, and the ease in performing therapy if recurrence occurs. There are various techniques of vulvar cancer surgery, such as radical vulvectomy with butterfly incision (RVBI and radical vulvectomy with separated incision (RVSI. The objective of this study was to identify the benefits of radical vulvectomy with separated incision in comparison with radical vulvectomy with butterfly incision in terms of the length of surgery, wound recovery, infection incidence, length of hospital stay. This study was a clinical trial performed during the period of 1990-2000. Fifteen cases of vulvar cancer were found and underwent surgery. Fourteen cases were at stage II and 14 cases were histologically defined as squamous-cell carcinoma and 1 case was adenocarcinoma. The average length of surgery in RVSI was 168 minutes, this was shorter than that in VRBI which reached an average of 275 minutes. The incidence of infection in RVSI group was 3 of 11 cases (27.27%, while in RVBI group all cases had infection in surgical wound. Failure of surgical wound approximation was 1 of 12 cases (9.99%, while in RVBI all cases experienced the failure such that cosmetic surgery was required. Length of postoperative care in RVSI group was 12.3 days, while in RVBI 21.5 days. Thus, complications in VRBI were lower, and length of surgery and length of postoperative care were shorter. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 103-8 Keywords: vulvar cancer, separated incision

  6. Relevance of computerized tomography in the preoperative evaluation of patients with vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Zobbe, Vibeke; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine whether inclusion of computerized tomography (CT) in the prospective evaluation of vulvar cancer changed the surgical treatment strategy in terms of detection of lymph node metastases, tumor spread and comorbidity, and additionally to examine...

  7. ROCK1 as a novel prognostic marker in vulvar cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akagi, Erica M; Lavorato-Rocha, André M; Maia, Beatriz de Melo

    2014-01-01

    infection, but most cases develop in women aged over 50 years through poorly understood genetic mechanisms. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) has been implicated in many cellular processes, but its function in vulvar cancer has never been examined. In this study, we aimed...... to determine the prognostic value of ROCK1 gene and protein analysis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). METHODS: ROCK1 expression levels were measured in 16 vulvar tumour samples and adjacent normal tissue by qRT-PCR. Further, 96 VSCC samples were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm...... the involvement of ROCK1 in the disease. The molecular and pathological results were correlated with the clinical data of the patients. Sixteen fresh VSCC samples were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS: In each pair of samples, ROCK1 levels were higher by qRT-PCR in normal...

  8. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maździarz, Agnieszka; Osuch, Beata; Kowalska, Magdalena; Nalewczyńska, Agnieszka; Śpiewankiewicz, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus is a chronic and incurable disease that causes various unpleasant symptoms and serious consequences. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus. Participants in the study included 102 female patients aged 19-85 suffer from vulvar lichen sclerosus. The patients underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the course of PDT the 5% 5- aminolevulinic acid was used in gel form. The affected areas were irradiated with a halogenic lamp PhotoDyn 501 (590-760nm) during a 10-min radiation treatment. The treatment was repeated weekly for 10 weeks. PDT has brought about a good therapeutic effect (complete or partial clinical remission), with 87.25% improvement rate in patients suffering from lichen sclerosus. The greatest vulvoscopic response was observed in the reduction of subepithelial ecchymoses and teleangiectasia (78.95%), and the reduction of erosions and fissures (70.97%). A partial remission of lichenification with hyperkeratosis was observed in 51.61% of cases. The least response was observed in the atrophic lesions reduction (improvement in 37.36% of cases). Our patients suffering from vulvar lichen sclerosus demonstrated positive responses to photodynamic therapy and the treatment was well tolerated. Photodynamic therapy used to treat lichen sclerosus yields excellent cosmetic results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vulvar procedures: biopsy, bartholin abscess treatment, and condyloma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Edward J; Cooper, Danielle

    2013-12-01

    Several benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions may arise on the vulva, and multiple types of procedures may be used to diagnose and treat these conditions. Punch and shave biopsies may be used to diagnose most vulvar conditions, but lesions suspected of being melanomas may best be diagnosed with narrow-margin excisional biopsies. Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses may be treated with several different treatment modalities, the most common of which are fistulization and marsupialization. Genital warts may be treated with several medical and surgical modalities to relieve symptoms.

  10. HPV status and favourable outcome in vulvar squamous cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Katie; Kavanagh, Kim; Cuschieri, Kate; Millan, David; Pollock, Kevin G; Bell, Sarah; Burton, Kevin; Reed, Nicholas S; Graham, Sheila V

    2017-03-01

    It is universally accepted that high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the cause of cervical dysplasia and cancer. More recently, it has been shown that HPV is also a marker of clinical outcome in oropharyngeal cancer. However, contemporary information is lacking on both the prevalence of HPV infection in vulvar cancer (VSCC), its precursor lesion, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and the influence of HPV-status on the prognosis of this malignancy. We have conducted a detailed population-based study to examine rates of progression of VIN to VSCC, type-specific HPV prevalence in vulvar disease and the influence of HPV status on clinical outcome in VSCC. We observed that the age at which women are diagnosed with VSCC is falling and there is a significant time gap between first diagnosis of VIN and progression to invasive disease. HR-HPV infection was detected in 87% (97/112) cases of VIN and 52% cases (32/62) of VSCC. The presence of HR-HPV in squamous intraepithelial lesion was associated with lower rates of progression to invasive cancer (hazard ratio, 0.22, p = 0.001). In the adjusted analysis, HR-HPV was associated with improved progression-free survival of VSCC compared to those with HPV negative tumours (hazard ratio, 0.32, p = 0.02).

  11. Identification of inguinofemoral lymph node metastases by methylation markers in vulvar cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, M. H. M.; Eijsink, J. J. H.; Volders, H. H.; Hollema, H.; Wisman, G. B. A.; Schuuring, E.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Lymph node status in early-stage vulvar cancer can be accurately assessed by the sentinel-node (SN) procedure. Molecular techniques, such as DNA-methylation assay, might improve SN assessment. In this study, we selected methylation markers for vulvar cancer and determined if these methyla

  12. [Radiotherapy in vulvar cancer. Experience in the Hospital de Oncología, CMN, SXXI, IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Bahena, J; Padilla Arrieta, P; Ayala Hernández, J R

    1995-11-01

    Between 1986 and 1992, 42 patients with carcinoma of the vulva diagnosis, were treated at the Hospital de Oncologia, CMN, SXXI. Mean age was 63 years. There was 1 case stage I, 5 stage II, 25 stage III, 4 stage IV, 2 with recurrent disease and 5 patients could not be classified. Local control was reached in 60% of patients however, 12 patients developed local recurrence after surgery and/or radiation therapy, finally 43% of patients remained disease free after a mean of 19 months of followup. In the subset of advanced disease patients treated with radical or preoperative radiation therapy (27 patients), 41% of them remained without disease. Mean radiation doses for patients treated only with radiation therapy was 6500 cGy. Late vulvar fibrosis and acute desquamative dermatitis, were the morbidity more frequently observed. New directions in the management of vulvar cancer must be developed to improve treatment results, in patients with advanced disease.

  13. Small-Area Analysis of Incidence and Localisation of Vulvar Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus H. Baumann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vulvar cancer is a rare disease mainly in older women. HPV and non-HPV induced vulvar cancer reflect two types of oncogenesis. Controversies exist on most recent developments in vulvar cancer incidence, patients, and disease characteristics. Changes in incidence, age of disease onset, and tumor site in women treated for primary vulvar cancer in a single German university hospital unit will be described. Methods. A retrospective analysis of patient records of women treated between 1994 and 2008 was performed. The fifteen-year-spanning period was divided into three five year-spanning cohorts. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed. Results. 104 patients were identified: cohort-1 from 1994 to 1998 (11 patients; cohort-2 from 1999 to 2003 (21 patients; cohort-3 from 2004 to 2008 (72 patients. Mean age (years was 73.18 (confidence interval (CI: 64.04; 82.33, 58.9 (CI: 52.24; 65.57, and 61.19 (CI: 57.27; 65.12, respectively. Vulvar cancer confined to the region between clitoris and urethra was seen more often in cohort-3 (=20 compared to cohort-1 (=0 or cohort-2 (=1. Conclusion. This analysis supports the notion of rising incidence of vulvar cancer and a changing pattern of anatomical local extension. Disease onset is not restricted to older women.

  14. Incidence and cost of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Jorgensen, T. R.; Kofoed, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Besides being a causative agent for genital warts and cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) contributes to 40-85% of cases of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer and precancerous lesions. HPV types 16 & 18 in particular contribute to 74-93% of these cases. Overall the number...... of new cases of these four cancers may be relatively high implying notable health care cost to society. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and the health care sector costs of anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer. Methods: New anogenital cancer patients were identified from the Danish...... anogenital cancers were estimated using regression analysis. Results: The annual incidence of anal cancer in Denmark is 1.9 per 100,000 persons. The corresponding incidence rates for penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer are 1.7, 0.9 and 3.6 per 100,000 males/females, respectively. The total number of new cases...

  15. Successful treatment of recurrent vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia resistant to interferon and isotretinoin with cidofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonsaeng, S; Verschraegen, C; Freedman, R; Bossens, M; Kudelka, A; Kavanagh, J; Sittisomwong, T; DeClercq, E; Snoeck, R

    2001-06-01

    Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias are difficult to eradicate completely without extensive surgical intervention. Cidofovir, a deoxycytidine monophosphate analog, may have a therapeutic role in this disease. A 43-year-old woman with a 20-year history of genital warts presented with extensive vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia III, and refused surgical resection. Topical cidofovir 1% in Beeler base completely eradicated the lesion. Successive treatment applications, however, were necessary. Cidofovir is a promising topical antiviral compound for HPV induced vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Radioprotectant and Cytotoxic Effects of Spirulina in Relapsed Verrucous Vulvar Cancer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Huriye Senay; Gunes Bayir, Ayse; Taspinar, Ozgur; Yucesan, Gul; Tastekin, Didem; Sonmez, Fatma Cavide; Coban, Ganime; Kilic, Gokhan; Eris, Ali Hikmet; Aydin, Teoman; Akcakaya, Adem; Mayadagli, Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of relapsed verrucous vulvar cancer (VVC) is difficult. When vulvar cancer relapses, the treatment response is low for second-line treatments. Conversely, toxicity is high. Therefore, scientists need to identify different treatment methods. The case study was intended to examine the benefits of combining treatment with microalgae and metronidazole with radiotherapy to increase the response to treatment. The study took place in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Bezmialem Vakif University, in Istanbul, Turkey. The case study involved an 81-y-old female patient whose vulvar tumor was excised and who came to the research team's radiation oncology service for postoperative radiation. She had 2 comorbid disorders: Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. A relapse had occurred in the 15-d postoperative period. Because of the patient's age and comorbid disorders, the research team decided to treat the new tumor only with concurrent radiochemotherapy and a weekly dose of cisplatin that contained chemoradiotherapy, for a total of 25 mg. At the 52.2 Gy dose level, grade 3 radiation skin toxicity occurred in the radiated area, although the research team had obtained an 80% response to the radiochemotherapy. The treatment was interrupted because of toxicity but also due to a deterioration in the patient's general health. Progression of the tumor continued, and the tumor's diameter increased to 7 cm after a 4-mo period. The research team then initiated radiotherapy again, combining it with spirulina in a 750 mg/dose at 2 doses/d and metronidazole in a 500 mg/dose at 3 doses/d, to decrease radiation toxicity and increase radiosensitivity. Radiotherapy was applied at 200 cGy per fraction with a total dose of 2400 cGy, with only 1 anterior local-tumor field. The patient showed a complete response to radiotherapy, and the tumor disappeared at the 2400 cGy radiation dose. No toxicity occurred related to the skin or the woman's general health. Her Karnofsky

  17. Surgical treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Elchalal, U; Abramov, D; Goldfarb, A; Schenker, J G

    1996-03-01

    Surgical therapy of lichen sclerosus of the vulva consists of three main operations: vulvectomy (with or without a skin graft), cryosurgery, and laser ablation. It is indicated in two conditions, either when malignant transformation is present or is likely to occur, or when medical treatment has failed. The overall risk for malignant transformation of vulvar lichen sclerosus is low, ranging between 0 and 9 percent. However, specific histological criteria, such as mixed dystrophy, have recently been associated with higher malignancy rates. Vulvectomy is indicated only when these criteria are met. Both skinning and simple vulvectomies are associated with recurrence rates as high as 50 percent. However, better sexual function and cosmetic results have been reported in the former, especially with concomitant split skin grafting. Cryosurgery also has high recurrence rates, although short-term results are favorable. Although only small series have been reported, laser therapy seems to carry better long-term results than other modes of treatment. Convalescence is complete within 6 weeks posttreatment, and remission rates are as high as 85 percent at 3 years of follow-up. The high recurrence rate of all surgical modalities makes surgical treatment suitable only for patients who failed to respond to multiple medical treatments such as topical high potent steroid ointments, testosterone, and retinoids.

  18. What doctors and patients think about false-negative sentinel lymph nodes in vulvar cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, J.A.; Ansink, A.C.; Tijmstra, T.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2001-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure is a relatively new, minimally-invasive method for the assessment of nodal status in malignancies such as breast cancer, cutaneous melanoma and vulvar cancer. Although highly accurate, this new method is inevitably associated with a certain false-negative rate, poss

  19. Malignant Melanoma of the Urethra: A Rare Histologic Subdivision of Vulvar Cancer with a Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Günther

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour that is difficult to diagnose and treat, resulting in a poor prognosis. In this paper, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was referred to a gynaecologist because of a urethral mass that mimicked a caruncle. The tumour was removed by local excision, and a pathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Distal urethrectomy was performed after three months with no evidence of residual tumour. There was no evidence of disease at a six-year followup. In this paper, we compare the epidemiology, treatment, staging, and prognosis of vulvar cancer in general to malignant melanoma of the vulva in particular.

  20. Cervical and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia after Treatment with Oral Isotretinoin for Severe Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Al Hallak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral isotretinoin is the drug of choice for severe acne vulgaris, but its use is still controversial in preventing, treating or stopping the progression of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [6–8]. It induces cell differentiation, inhibits cell proliferation, stimulates host immune reaction, inhibits the oncogene expression, augments cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces apoptosis [5]. The isotretinoin has many side effects including teratogenicity. There is no previous report of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN after introducing oral isotretinoin to a patient. We are reporting a 37-year-old female with no risk factors for cervical cancer who had developed CIN-I and VIN-I during a 6-month treatment period of oral isotretinoin for her severe acne vulgaris. Interestingly, the patient had complete spontaneous pathologic-proven remission after stopping the isotretinoin. Further case reports are warranted to support this incidence.

  1. Treatment of vulvar/vaginal condyloma by HPV: developed instrumentation and clinical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Ferreira, J.; Ribeiro, E. S.; Guimarães, O. C. C.; Quintana, S. M.; Lombardi, W.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2009-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPVs) are a family of sexually viruses with over 100 different genotypes identified till date. They are associated in 99% of cervical cancers, with HPV16 found in about 50% of cases. They are a cause of the second most common female cancer worldwide. PDT may constitute an alternative treatment for condyloma by HPV. In this work we present the development of a PDT device specifically designed for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal lesions induced by HPV. This equipment has been used in a clinical protocol and it is optically based on 640 nm LED (light emitting diodes) arrays. There are three illumination probes available that were anatomically designed for specific site applications: a 30 mm x 115 mm diffuser cylinder for intravaginal illumination and uniform irradiance of 42 mW/cm2; a 36 mm circular probe with 118 mW/cm2 and a 74 mm circular probe with 57 mW/cm2, both for external illumination. The 10% aminolevulinic acid cream is topically placed over the lesions and 4-6 hours after the application the illumination is performed. The illumination time is set depending on the chosen probe and treatment area to achieve a fluence of 200 J/cm2. In this presentation, the preliminary results of this clinical trial will be presented.

  2. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  3. Influence of treatments on prognosis for vulvar lichen sclerosus: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodrick, Brooks; Belkin, Zoe R; Goldstein, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory dermatosis with a predilection for the anogential skin. Vulvar LS can be a debilitating disease, causing pruritus and pain, and it carries the potential for atrophy, scarring, and significant functional impairment. Recently, many advances have been made regarding the etiology and natural history of the disease process; however, much debate still exists regarding the most advantageous medical and surgical management of this disorder. In an effort to provide a comprehensive review on current vulvar LS literature, the following three controversies will be discussed: (1) optimal disease treatment, (2) theories behind LS's oncogenicity and treatments for minimizing malignancy, and (3) the value of surgical treatment for LS. Ultra-potent topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are the first-line treatment for vulvar LS, while topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) remain second-line agents for patients for whom TCS treatment resulted in incomplete resolution of symptoms or adverse events. Due to the relapsing nature of the disease, long-term maintenance therapy is often required. In addition, recent advances have contributed to the understanding of the association between LS and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). While the exact mechanism responsible for LS-associated SCC is not known, immune dysregulation and inflammation may play an important role; therefore, successful treatment of LS should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and reversal of the underlying histopathologic changes. Patients with LS-associated malignancy, as well as patients who need correction of functionally restrictive, scarring processes, can successfully undergo surgical intervention with tissue conservation.

  4. The Use of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in the Treatment of Physiological and Pathological Vulvar Dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuseppina Onesti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Vulvar dystrophy” is characterized by chronic alterations of vulvar trophism, occurring in both physiological (menopause and pathological (lichen sclerosus, vulvar graft-versus-host disease conditions. Associated symptoms are itching, burning, dyspareunia and vaginal dryness. Current treatments often do not imply a complete remission of symptoms. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs injection represents a valid alternative therapy to enhance trophism and tone of dystrophic tissues. We evaluated efficacy of ADSCs-based therapy in the dystrophic areas. From February to April 2013 we enrolled 8 patients with vulvar dystrophy. A biopsy specimen was performed before and after treatment. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and during the follow-up. Pain was detected with Visual Analogue Scale and sexual function was evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index. All patients received 2 treatments in 3 months. Follow-up was at 1 week , 1 and 3 months, and 1 and 2 years. We obtained a significant vulvar trophism enhancement in all patients, who reported pain reduction and sexual function improvement. Objective exam with speculum was easy to perform after treatment. We believe ADSCs-based therapy finds its application in the treatment of vulvar dystrophies, since ADSCs could induce increased vascularization due to their angiogenic properties and tissue trophism improvement thanks to their eutrophic effect.

  5. Problems and pitfalls in vulvar and cervical cancer sentinel node scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Sinzinger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction for penile cancer, the sentinel lymph node imaging is increasingly applied in various types of cancer. After the initial learning phase, 105 patients with vulvar and 24 with cervical cancer have been investigated. In vulvar cancer all the imaged sentinel nodes were discovered by the portable probe intraoperatively. No false negative sentinel node was observed. The most critical issue is the tracer application. Performed strictly intradermally, the sentinel node shows up immediately. Concomitant use of isosulfan blue dye did not improve the results and was stopped therefore. Similarly, more superficial (intra/subendothelial application brings up better results as compared to deeper injection in cervical cancer patients. No false negative results were seen. Apparently, an almost 100% detection is possible. Our findings clearly show that tracer application is the key for successful imaging. If not done properly, sentinel node may appear later or may even more likely be missed.Após a introdução para câncer do pênis, a imagem do linfonodo sentinela é cada vez mais aplicada nos diversos tipos de câncer. Após a fase inicial de aprendizagem, 105 pacientes com câncer vulvar e 24 com câncer cervical foram investigados. No câncer vulvar todas as imagens de nodos sentinela foram descobertas por sonda portátil durante o exame. Nenhum nodo sentinela falso negativo foi observado. A questão mais crítica é a aplicação do traçador. Realizada pela via intradérmica, o nodo sentinela surge imediatamente. O corante isosulfan blue não melhora os resultados e seu uso concomitante foi abandonado. Do mesmo modo, a aplicação mais superficial (intra/subendotelial apresenta melhores resultados quando comparada com a administração mais profunda em pacientes com câncer cervical. Não foram observados resultados falsos negativos. Aparentemente, uma detecção de aproximadamente 100% é possível. Nossos achados mostram claramente

  6. Validation of Clinical Tools for Vaginal and Vulvar Symptom Assessment in Cancer Patients and Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Anne A; Baser, Raymond E; Seidel, Barbara; Stabile, Cara; Canty, Jocelyn P; Goldfrank, Deborah J; Carter, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Health care professionals can play a pivotal role in promoting vulvovaginal health through assessment and appropriate intervention. To develop and validate brief clinical measurements to facilitate the identification of vulvovaginal symptoms in patients with and survivors of cancer. One hundred seventy-five women survivors of cancer attending a Female Sexual Medicine and Women's Health Program from September 26, 2012 through October 31, 2014 completed the Vaginal Assessment Scale (VAS) and the Vulvar Assessment Scale (VuAS)-a modified version of the VAS that targets vulvar symptoms. Pelvic examination results were recorded using a clinical examination checklist. Internal consistency of the two scales was assessed using Cronbach α, and the correlation between scales and other outcomes was reported. The internal consistency measurements of the VAS and VuAS at the first visit were 0.70 and 0.68, which decreased to 0.53 and 0.66 at the last visit. The VAS composite and VuAS composite scores were moderately correlated with each other (0.42 and 0.45 at first and last visits, respectively). A strong correlation was observed between VAS pain with intercourse and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) pain with intercourse (-0.63 and -0.71 at the first and last visits, respectively). Worse pain with examination, worse functioning on the FSFI pain, lubrication, and total scores, and worse vulvar irritation were correlated with more severe symptoms on the VAS and VuAS. The VAS and VuAS are simple tools that can be used by clinicians to assess health concerns in women diagnosed with and treated for cancer. Validation is needed across diverse settings and groups of women. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of thrombocytosis on clinicopathological prognostic factors and survival in patients with vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet; Gültekin, Emre; Taner, Cüneyt Eftal; Mun, Semih; Yidirim, Yusuf

    2013-06-01

    Reactive thrombocytosis in many solid tumors has widely been studied. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether thrombocytosis is a common and prognostic factor in women with vulvar cancer The preoperative platelet counts of 41 women, treated for vulvar cancer in our onco-gynecology center between March 1994 and January 2007, were retrospectively reviewed and correlated to clinical and pathological prognostic factors and 5-year survival. The chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. P value Thrombocytosis was detected in 8 (19.5%) patients. No correlation was found between thrombocytosis and grade (p = 0.65), LVSI (p = 0.82), tumor size (p = 0.73), depth of invasion (p = 0.18), lymph node metastasis (0.93), and FIGO stage (p = 0.78). The mean follow up time was 118.0 +/-43.1 months (range 60-213 months). At the end of the study period 14 patients (34.2%) had died, 8 (19.5%) had recurrence, 19 (46.3%) were disease-free. General 5-year survival was 68.3% (28/41). The 5-year survival rate for patients with thrombocytosis was 75.0% (6/8), which was not significantly different from the 5-year survival of patients with normal platelet counts (22/33; 66.7%) (p = 0.75). Our study showed that, overall, thrombocytosis was found in about 20% of patients with vulvar cancer and proved to be not linked to the best known prognostic factors and survival. Thus, disease stage and inguinofemoral lymph node status continue to be the best prognostic factors for this disease.

  8. Cancer Treatment for Women: Possible Sexual Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endometrial cancer Ovarian cancer Rectal cancer Uterine cancer Vaginal cancer Vulvar cancer Treatment for any cancer carries the ... you experience. Topical estrogen creams applied to the vaginal area also can ... or ovarian cancer should carefully discuss any type of hormone therapy ...

  9. Propensity Scoring after Multiple Imputation in a Retrospective Study on Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Lymph-Node Positive Vulvar Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulenburg, Christine; Suling, Anna; Neuser, Petra; Reuss, Alexander; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Woelber, Linn; Mahner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Propensity scoring (PS) is an established tool to account for measured confounding in non-randomized studies. These methods are sensitive to missing values, which are a common problem in observational data. The combination of multiple imputation of missing values and different propensity scoring techniques is addressed in this work. For a sample of lymph node-positive vulvar cancer patients, we re-analyze associations between the application of radiotherapy and disease-related and non-related survival. Inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighting (IPTW) and PS stratification are applied after multiple imputation by chained equation (MICE). Methodological issues are described in detail. Interpretation of the results and methodological limitations are discussed.

  10. Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy: Physiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy is a common condition associated with decreased estrogenization of the vaginal tissue. Symptoms include vaginal dryness, irritation, itching, soreness, burning, dyspareunia, discharge, urinary frequency, and urgency. It can occur at any time in a woman's life cycle, although more commonly in the postmenopausal phase, during which the prevalence is approximately 50%. Despite the high prevalence and the substantial effect on quality of life, vulvovaginal atrophy often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the physiology, clinical presentation, assessment, and current recommendations for treatment, including aspects of effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies.

  11. Treatment of a vulvar Paget's disease by photodynamic therapy with a new light emitting fabric based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Claire; Carpentier, Olivier; Lecomte, Fabienne; Thecua, Elise; Mortier, Laurent; Mordon, Serge R

    2017-02-01

    The non-invasive vulvar Paget's disease is an intra-epidermal carcinoma with glandular characteristics. It appears like an erythematous plaque. The main symptoms are pruritus and pain. The standard treatment is surgical excision in depth. This treatment is complicated with a severe morbidity and photodynamic therapy can be an alternative choice. However, the pain experienced during the photodynamic treatment of vulvar lesion is intense and leads to a premature interruption of the treatment. The light emitting fabric is a part of a device under clinical evaluation for the treatment of actinic keratosis with photodynamic therapy. We report the observation of a vulvar Paget's disease treated by this device with a satisfactory result and an excellent tolerance. The patient has been diagnosed with non-invasive vulvar Paget's disease for 25 years. The disease recurred constantly despite several imiquimod applications, LASER treatments and conventional photodynamic therapy. These procedures were complicated with intense pain. To improve the tolerance, we performed three PDT sessions a month apart using a 16% methyl-aminolevulinate cream (Metvixia® Galderma, Lausanne, Switzerland) with the light emitting fabric at low irradiance (irradiance = 6 mW/cm(2) -fluence = 37 J/cm(2) ) with a satisfactory result and an excellent tolerance. There are no controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar Paget's disease. The treatment and follow-up protocols in the literature are heterogeneous. Pain is the most common side effect with greater intensity for perineal locations where photodynamic therapy is impractical outside of anesthesia or hypnosis. We report the case of a multirecidivant non-invasive vulvar Paget's disease treated with a satisfactory result and an excellent tolerance by the new light emitting fabric device. A specific study is required but the light emitting fabric could be indicated for the treatment of Paget

  12. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion arising adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a tertiary institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Gun; Song, Yong Jung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-07-26

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva occurs in patients who have undergone radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, or radiation therapy for management of advanced uterine cancer. Since vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum typically presents as multiple, grossly verrucous vesicles of various sizes, it may be impossible to clinically distinguish vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum from other vulvoperineal cutaneous diseases. In the present study, 16 (1.6%) out of the 1,024 vulvar biopsy or excision specimens were diagnosed as lymphangioma circumscriptum. In two (12.5%) out of the 16 cases, unusual histopathological findings were observed. Both patients had previously undergone radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and postoperative radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. Microscopic examination revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, which were located immediately adjacent to the normal squamous epithelium covering the dilated subepithelial lymphatic vessels. Further, human papillomavirus genotyping confirmed that both patients were infected with high-risk human papillomavirus. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot be grossly distinguished from vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum because the multiple, verrucous vesicles that constitute the characteristic gross appearance of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum hinder its distinction. In this regard, our cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, located adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum, support the notion that active surgical excision is necessary for the treatment of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  13. Hematoma Vulvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea W. Choque Campero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de Sexo femenino de 29 anos de edad acudio a consulta externa del Hospital “German Urquidi” por dolor y molestia en region peri vulvar, diagnosticándose “hematoma vulvar” de causa obstétrica (Laceracion de trayecto, mala técnica de sutura de episiotomia.

  14. Safety and efficacy of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    During the menopausal transition, women experience a number of symptoms due to declining estrogen levels, including vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Unlike vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, the main symptoms of VVA, typically worsen without treatment and can significantly impact the quality of life. Up to 60% of postmenopausal women may be affected by VVA, but many women unfortunately do not seek treatment due to embarrassment or other factors. After 20+ years in development, ospemifene (Osphena™) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013 for treatment of moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause. As the first non-hormonal alternative to estrogen-based products for this indication, the approval of ospemifene represents a significant milestone in postmenopausal women's health. Ospemifene is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), from the same chemical class as the breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and toremifene. Unlike other selective estrogen receptor modulators, ospemifene exerts a strong, nearly full estrogen agonist effect in the vaginal epithelium, making it well suited for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. Results of Phase III clinical trials showed that ospemifene significantly improved the vaginal maturation index (decreased parabasal cells and increased superficial cells), decreased vaginal pH, and decreased severity of the self-identified most bothersome symptom (dyspareunia or vaginal dryness) compared to placebo. Long-term safety studies revealed that 60 mg ospemifene given daily for 52 weeks was well tolerated and was not associated with any endometrium or breast-related safety concerns. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause and provides an overview of

  15. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia: establishing the baseline for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim; Munk, Christian; Oddsson, Kristján; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hortlund, Maria; Liaw, Kai-Li; Dasbach, Erik J; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias was obtained from high-quality national population-based registries. A literature review was conducted to define the fraction of these lesions attributable to HPV16/18, i.e., those that could be prevented by HPV vaccination. Among the four countries, the age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer ranged from 8.4-13.8, 1.3-3.1 and 0.2-0.6, respectively. The risk for cervical cancer was highest in women aged 30-39, while vulvar and vaginal cancers were most common in women aged 70+. Age-standardised IR/10⁵ of cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia ranged between 138.8-183.2, 2.5-8.8 and 0.5-1.3, respectively. Women aged 20-29 had the highest risk for cervical pre-invasive neoplasia, while vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasia peaked in women aged 40-49 and 60-69, respectively. Over 50% of the observed 47,820 incident invasive and pre-invasive cancer cases in 2004-2006 can be attributed to HPV16/18. In the four countries, vaccination against HPV 16/18 could prevent approximately 8500 cases of gynecological cancer and pre-cancer annually. Population-based cancer

  16. Treatment of human papillomavirus-associated vulvar disease with the CO2-laser. Physical and histological aspects with use of a new scanning device, the SwiftLase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, S; Frenz, M; Altermatt, H J; Hannigan, E V; Dreher, E

    1996-01-01

    The CO2-laser has a successful record in treatment of extensive, refractory vulvar condylomas and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. A prerequisite for optimal use of the laser is careful preoperative diagnosis and optimized surgical technique based upon the exact knowledge of the interaction process between laser radiation and tissue. Using a new CO2-laser scanning device, the Sharplan Swift-Lase, this in-vivo study analyses the effects of CO2-laser parameters [average power density (PD), beam size and exposure time] on vulvar skin to determine optimum laser settings. Our histomorphometric analyses reveal a minimal skin destruction (ablation depth 40 microns, extent of irreversible thermal damage 80 microns to 120 microns) after application of the CO2-laser energy with the SwiftLase using a PD of 1000 W/cm2 with a beam size of 1 mm diameter. Previous CO2-laser application techniques required low PD (200 W/cm2 to 750 W/cm2) and a larger beam size (1.5 mm to 2 mm) moving over the epithelial surface as fast as possible to obtain a precise skin destruction. The SwiftLase allows the laser beam to be moved slowly with a beam size of 1 mm and significantly higher PD (up to 5000 W/cm2). These advantageous application conditions guarantee precise, homogeneous vulvar skin treatments with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding normal skin. The SwiftLase enables a less experienced colposcopists to perform vulvar CO2-laser surgery.

  17. Safety and efficacy of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz GT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory T Wurz, Chiao-Jung Kao, Michael W DeGregorio Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: During the menopausal transition, women experience a number of symptoms due to declining estrogen levels, including vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA. Unlike vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, the main symptoms of VVA, typically worsen without treatment and can significantly impact the quality of life. Up to 60% of postmenopausal women may be affected by VVA, but many women unfortunately do not seek treatment due to embarrassment or other factors. After 20+ years in development, ospemifene (Osphena™ was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013 for treatment of moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause. As the first non-hormonal alternative to estrogen-based products for this indication, the approval of ospemifene represents a significant milestone in postmenopausal women’s health. Ospemifene is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM, from the same chemical class as the breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and toremifene. Unlike other selective estrogen receptor modulators, ospemifene exerts a strong, nearly full estrogen agonist effect in the vaginal epithelium, making it well suited for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. Results of Phase III clinical trials showed that ospemifene significantly improved the vaginal maturation index (decreased parabasal cells and increased superficial cells, decreased vaginal pH, and decreased severity of the self-identified most bothersome symptom (dyspareunia or vaginal dryness compared to placebo. Long-term safety studies revealed that 60 mg ospemifene given daily for 52 weeks was well tolerated and was not associated with any endometrium or breast

  18. Outcome After Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection in Vulvar Cancer: A Subgroup Analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapdor, Rüdiger; Hillemanns, Peter; Wölber, Linn; Jückstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Iborra, Severine; Sehouli, Jalid; Habermann, Anika; Fürst, Sophie Teresa; Strauß, Hans Georg; Baumann, Klaus; Thiel, Falk; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; Harter, Philipp; Wimberger, Pauline; Hanker, Lars; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Kosse, Jens; Heiss, Christoph; Hantschmann, Peer; Mallmann, Peter; Tanner, Berno; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Richter, Barbara; Jäger, Martin; Mahner, Sven

    2017-05-01

    Analyzing the large patient cohort of the multicenter AGO-CaRE-1 study, we compared isolated sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) with radical lymph node dissection (LND) of the groin in relation to recurrence rates and survival. The AGO-CaRE-1 study retrospectively collected data on treatment patterns and follow-up of vulvar cancer patients [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage ≥1B] treated at 29 gynecologic cancer centers between 1998 and 2008. This subgroup analysis evaluated the influence of SLND alone on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In 487 (63.1%) of 772 included patients with tumors smaller than 4 cm, an LND was performed and no metastatic lymph nodes were detected (LN0). Another 69/772 (8.9%) women underwent SLND alone, showing a negative SLN (SLN0). Tumors in the LN0 group were larger and showed a deeper invasion (LN0 vs. SLN0 tumor diameter: 20.0 vs. 13.0 mm, p < 0.001; depth of invasion: 4.0 vs. 3.0 mm, p = 0.002). After a median follow-up of 33 months (0-156), no significant differences in relation to isolated groin recurrence rates (SLN0 3.0% vs. LN0 3.4%, p = 0.845) were detected. Similarly, univariate 3-year PFS analysis showed no significant differences between both groups (SLN0 82.7% vs. LN0 77.6%, p = 0.230). A multivariate Cox regression analysis, including tumor diameter, depth of invasion, age, grading, and lymphovascular space invasion was performed: PFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.970, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.517-1.821] and OS (HR 0.695, 95% CI 0.261-1.849) did not differ significantly between both cohorts. This subgroup analysis of the large AGO-CaRE-1 study showed similar results for groin LND and SLND alone with regard to recurrence rates and survival in node-negative patients with tumors <4 cm.

  19. Human Papillomavirus-Induced Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Vulvar Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, Sigrid; Eberz, Barbara; Reich, Olaf

    2016-10-01

    Approximately 50% of vulvar cancers arise after transforming infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) via the precursor squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Lichen planus (LP)-associated vulvar cancers are typically HPV negative and arise via the precursor differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (d-VIN). An index case of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL) in an LP patient prompted this 12-year retrospective analysis about frequency of HPV-induced SIL in 785 biopsies of 584 patients with vulvar LP. All SIL were analyzed for p53 and p16 overexpression and for presence of DNA of 32 HPV subtypes. Nine (1.6%) of 584 women with papular (3) and mucosal "erosive" LP (6) presented with H-SIL (7) and low-grade SIL (2). All SILs harbored HPV16-DNA and showed p16-overexpression. Concomitant immune suppression included T-suppressor lymphocyte deficit (1), systemic (1), and topical (2) cortisone therapy. H-SILs regressed spontaneously (1) or after imiquimod therapy (3). Three women with erosive LP discontinued imiquimod because of side effects and had laser destruction (1), skinning vulvectomy (1), and surgery (1) for definitive treatment. Two women have recurrent vulvar SILs, and 1 woman progressed to invasive SCC. In the same patient population, 16 of 584 women had a d-VIN, and 9 of 16 with progression to SCC. H-SILs in vulvar LP are rare and may occur in the setting of risk factors. If clinical suspicion arises, biopsy and histological examination assist in correct etiologic classification of a precancerous lesion and subsequent therapy decisions. The minimal risk for H-SIL development in vulvar LP patients should not preclude therapy of LP.

  20. Clinical update on the use of ospemifene in the treatment of severe symptomatic vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Palacios,1 María Jesús Cancelo2 1Palacios Institute of Women’s Health, Madrid, Spain; 2Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Guadalajara University Hospital, University of Alcalá, Spain Abstract: The physiological decrease in vaginal estrogens is accountable for the emergence of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA and its related symptoms such as vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vaginal and/or vulvar irritation or itching, and dysuria. The repercussion of these symptoms on quality of life often makes it necessary to initiate treatment. Up until now, the treatments available included vaginal moisturizers and lubricants, local estrogens, and hormonal therapy. However, therapeutic options have now been increased with the approval of 60 mg ospemifene, the first nonhormonal oral treatment with an agonist effect on the vaginal epithelium and an endometrial and breast safety profile which makes it unique. This is the first selective estrogen receptor modulator indicated in women with moderate-to-severe vaginal atrophy not eligible for local estrogen treatment. Considering that “local estrogen noneligible women” are those in whom such treatment cannot be administered either because it is contraindicated or due to skill issues, who are averse to the mode and convenience of vaginal products’ administration or to their use on account of potential systemic absorption, or those who demonstrate dissatisfaction in terms of efficacy and safety, it is clear that there is a significant unmet medical need in VVA management. In fact, a great number of women show lack of adherence, dropping out of at least one VVA treatment, including nonhormonal moisturizers and lubricants, which they consider to be ineffective and uncomfortable. If they could choose, many of them may opt for oral treatment. In Phase III studies, ospemifene demonstrated efficacy in vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, regenerating vaginal cells, improving lubrication, and reducing pain

  1. Vulvar fibromatosis: a clinical enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Erin M; Frimer, Marina; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Gorlick, Richard; Goldberg, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    To present a case of recurrent vulvar fibromatosis in an adolescent, discuss the specific difficulties of treating adolescents, and review the literature on available treatment. We present a case of recurrent vulvar fibromatosis in a 14-year-old girl, requiring several treatment modalities, including multiple surgeries, radiation therapy, and multiagent chemotherapy. We then discuss management strategies for these tumor types, and specifically examine how tumor location may impact their treatment. Vulvar desmoids are extremely uncommon and they can be disfiguring and cause significant discomfort for women. Initial management of these tumors is surgical excision, yet failed surgery is often followed by other treatment modalities, including radiation, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy. This case clearly highlights the difficulties in managing these rare tumors, particularly in the adolescent population. Desmoid tumors are nonmalignant, locally aggressive neoplasms most common in the 15 to 60 years age group. They are associated with high estrogen states, prior surgical trauma, and Gardner syndrome. Most commonly, desmoid tumors present in the abdominal wall, shoulder, neck, and chest, but can occur anywhere in the body. Given their rarity and lack of definitive therapy, vulvar desmoid tumors can be exceedingly difficult to treat, and are best managed with an interdisciplinary approach.

  2. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Shirango, H.T.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Hullu, J.A. de; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Two separate pathways leading to vulvar carcinoma have been suggested. First, a human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent pathway, in which premalignant stages of vulvar cancer are the classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) lesions. Second, an HPV-independent pathway, associated with

  3. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Shirango, H.T.; Hoevenaars, B.M.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Hullu, J.A. de; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Two separate pathways leading to vulvar carcinoma have been suggested. First, a human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent pathway, in which premalignant stages of vulvar cancer are the classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) lesions. Second, an HPV-independent pathway, associated with differentiat

  4. Therapies and nursing care of women with vulvar dermatologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Deborah; Kwon, Yanghee

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar dermatologic disorders are common among women, and prevalence increases with age. Treatment can provide women with symptomatic relief and can halt further progression of disease. Numerous therapies are available, and nurses who work with women across the life span should have an understanding of vulvar dermatologic disorders and therapeutic modalities. We provide an overview of general vulvar care, four vulvar dermatologic disorders, and common treatment modalities including topical and systemic pharmacologic management. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 – 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 – 0.18)/100 person-years (P warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  6. The use of SPECT/CT for anatomical mapping of lymphatic drainage in vulvar cancer: possible implications for the extent of inguinal lymph node dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarino, Angela [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Donswijk, Maarten L.; Stokkel, Marcel P. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Driel, Willemien J. van [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Molecular Imaging Laboratory and Nuclear Medicine Section, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    To determine the lymphatic drainage pattern using SPECT/CT in clinically node-negative (cN0) patients with vulvar cancer, and to evaluate the possible implications for the extent of inguinal lymph node dissection. A total of 83 patients with vulvar cancer scheduled for sentinel node (SN) biopsy were injected peritumorally with radioactive nanocolloid particles followed by lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT for anatomical localization. The SN and higher-echelon nodes on SPECT/CT were located in different zones in the groin and pelvic region. The groin was divided into five zones according to Daseler et al.: four zones obtained by drawing two perpendicular lines over the saphenofemoral junction and one zone directly overlying this junction. The nodes in the pelvic region were classified into three zones: external iliac/obturator, the common iliac and the paraaortic zones. A total of 217 SNs and 202 higher-echelon nodes were localized on SPECT/CT. All SNs were located in the five zones according to Daseler et al.: 149 (69 %) in the medial superior region, 31 (14 %) in the medial inferior region, 22 (10 %) in the central region, 14 (6.5 %) in the lateral superior region and only 1 (0.5 %) in the lateral inferior region. The higher-echelon nodes were located both in the groin (15 %) and in the pelvic region (85 %). In patients with cN0 vulvar cancer, lymphatic drainage occurs predominantly to the medial regions of the groin. Drainage to the lateral inferior region of the groin is only incidental and in SN-positive patients this zone might be spared in subsequent extended lymph node dissection. This may lead to a decrease in the morbidity associated with this procedure. SPECT/CT is able to personalize lymphatic mapping, providing detailed information about the number and anatomical location of SNs for adequate surgical planning in the groin. (orig.)

  7. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body’s ability to fight ...

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar cancer: a health technology assessment for the canadian health care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, Clare J; Jimenez, Waldo; O'Reilly, Daria; Covens, Al

    2012-11-01

    Inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy for vulvar cancer is associated with a high incidence of groin wound complications and lymphedema. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a morbidity-reducing alternative to lymphadenectomy. The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and organizational feasibility of SLNB in the Canadian health care system. A review of the English-language literature published from January 1992 to October 2011 was performed across five databases and six grey-literature sources. Predetermined eligibility criteria were used to select studies, and results in the clinical, economic, and organizational domains were summarized. Included studies were evaluated for methodologic quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of 825 reports identified, 88 observational studies met the eligibility criteria. Overall study quality was poor, with a median Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score of 2 out of 9 stars. Across all studies, the detection rate of the sentinel lymph node was 82.2% per groin and the false-negative rate was 6.3%. The groin recurrence rate after negative SLNB was 3.6% compared with 4.3% after negative lymphadenectomy, and complications were reduced after SLNB. No economic evaluations were identified comparing SLNB to lymphadenectomy. Safe implementation of SLNB requires appropriate patient selection, detection technique, and attention to the learning curve. Although study quality is poor, the available data suggest implementation of SLNB may be safe and feasible in Canadian centres with adequate procedural volumes, assuming that implementation includes careful patient selection, careful technique, and ongoing quality assessment. Cost-effectiveness has yet to be determined.

  9. Vulvar Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spe- cific problem and recommended treatment. Bathing and Hygiene • Use your hands only to wash. Do not use washcloths, loofahs, puffs, and such. Pat dry after bathing. • Use an unscented bar soap (examples: Dove, ... feminine hygiene products. These can cause pain or itching. • Do ...

  10. Can clitoris-conserving surgery for early vulvar cancer improve the outcome in terms of quality of life and sexual sensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Dirk Michael; Dakhil, Reija; Lampe, Bjorn

    2013-11-01

    Vulvar carcinomas (VC) and vulvar in situ cancers (VCIS) are rare genital malignancies. Total vulvectomy as the standard of care has been replaced by local excision during the early stages of the disease. We studied whether conservation of the clitoris in vulvar surgery has a positive effect on either the quality of life (QoL) or the sexual sensation of the patient. In a retrospective study, patients with and without clitoris-sparing surgery were interviewed using the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire (FSFI) and the Short Form 12(®) questionnaire (SF-12). The frequencies of high and low levels and the medians were compared using the Cox-Mantel, Chi(2) and Fisher's exact tests. We identified 24 patients who had surgery in our department for VCIS or VC stage I/II, between 2006 and 2008. Ten of these patients required total inguinal lymphadenectomies and another five required sentinel node biopsies. In twelve patients, the clitoris had been spared, whereas in the remaining twelve, the clitoris had needed to be removed. These groups did not differ in terms of tumor size, stage, type of surgery or age of the patients. The evaluation of the SF-12 indicated high satisfaction in the physical scores for 33% of patients with clitoris-sparing surgery vs. 67% after clitoris resection (n.s.). For the mental domain, the rates were 58% and 67% (n.s.), respectively. In the FSFI, both groups showed comparable values 18 (n = 5) in sexual sensation. Reducing the surgical resection is oncologically acceptable, but improvement in the patients' quality of life or sexual sensation is not achieved solely by conserving the clitoris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of tumour-free margin distance for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer-a subset analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynakologische Onkologie CaRE-1 multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelber, Linn; Griebel, Lis-Femke; Eulenburg, Christine; Sehouli, Jalid; Jueckstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Hasenburg, Annette; Ignatov, Atanas; Hillemanns, Peter; Fuerst, Sophie; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Baumann, Klaus H.; Thiel, Falk C.; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; Harter, Philipp; Wimberger, Pauline; Hanker, Lars Christian; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Kosse, Jens; Heiss, Christoph; Hantschmann, Peer; Mallmann, Peter; Tanner, Berno; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Richter, Barbara; Neuser, Petra; Mahner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: A tumour-free pathological resection margin of >= 8 mm is considered state-of-the-art. Available evidence is based on heterogeneous cohorts. This study was designed to clarify the relevance of the resection margin for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer. Methods: AGO-CaRE-1 is a

  12. [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouchani, M; Benchakroun, N; Tahri, A; Tawfiq, N; Jouhadi, H; Acharki, A; Sahraoui, S; Belaabidia, B; Benider, A

    2008-03-01

    The breast metastases resulting of vulvar carcinoma are very rare, and represent exceptionally the first manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 42 year-old patient who underwent a treatment because of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma, right away metastatic at the level of the inguinal ganglia. The treatment consisted in a total vulvectomy with bilateral ganglial curretage, followed by external radiotherapy about the perineum and the inguinal ganglia. Three months after the end of her treatment, the patient presented with a nodula on the left outer breast with features of malignancy noticed by clinic and mammographic examination. The histologic study of the mammary biopsy showed epidermoid carcinoma of likely metastatic origin. A left Patey has been realized and confirmed the metastatic localization of epidermoid carcinoma with axillary ganglial metastasis (2N+/-7). Besides, this patient presented a right cervical ganglial parcel that the biopsy showed a metastatic localization of a vulvar carcinoma. A palliative chemotherapy type cyclophosphamid, adriblastin, cisplatine (CAP) has been admistrated during three cycles spaced out three weeks. The patient died 11 months after the supervene of the cerebral metastasis. We present this case because its rarety and to show the possibility of metastasis at the level of breast due to vulvar cancer. The clinicians must remember this possible tropism of the vulvar cancer for the breast, not only during the supervision and the complete examination as regards the disease spreading but also when the affection revealed unknown primary tumor. The diagnostic orientation is based on the mammography and the mammary biopsy. In this stage, the treatment is unfortunately palliative, the survival until a year is not more than 20%.

  13. European Society of Gynaecological Oncology Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Vulvar Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; Planchamp, Francois; Baldwin, Peter; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Brannstrom, Mats; Landoni, Fabio; Mahner, Sven; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Mirza, Mansoor; Petersen, Cordula; Querleu, Denis; Regauer, Sigrid; Rob, Lukas; Rouzier, Roman; Ulrikh, Elena; van der Velden, Jacobus; Vergote, Ignace; Woelber, Linn; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop clinically relevant and evidence-based guidelines as part of European Society of Gynaecological Oncology's mission to improve the quality of care for women with gynecologic cancers across Europe. Methods The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology

  14. Identification of potential prognostic markers for vulvar cancer using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fons, G.; Burger, M.P.; Kate, F.J. ten; Velden, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine immunohistochemical markers with prognostic significance for disease-specific survival in patients with squamous cell cancer of the vulva. The study material consisted of slides and paraffin blocks of 50 vulvectomy specimens. A tissue microarray was constructed

  15. Photodynamic therapy with green light for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecka, B J; Jurczyszyn, K; Nockowski, P; Murawski, M; Ziółkowski, P

    2017-03-01

    The standard treatment for lichen sclerosus (LS) is symptomatic and is primarily based on the chronic use of corticosteroids, sometimes resulting in unsatisfactory effects. Therefore, other non-pharmacological methods are being sought, which are less aggravating for the patient. LS can be treated topically by using photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Unfortunately, therapy with the red light is often connected with severe local pain during the illumination. Green light can also be characterised by its ability to turn on photodynamic reactions in cells. The aim of this study was an evaluation into the efficacy and tolerance of 5-ALA-PDT with a green light (540nm±15nm) in 11 patients with chronic LS that were characterised by severe itching. The disease lasted from 1.5 to 4 years. All the patients were treated with three sessions of PDT. Following treatment with PDT, a significant improvement of local status, as well as a reduction of the main symptom (pruritus), were observed. No patient complained of severe pain during the sessions that would have required an interruption of irradiation or local application of analgesics. Our preliminary results of using green light in PDT for superficial skin non-oncological lesions are very promising but require further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [2 infrequent vulvar tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, G; Benavides, A; Villanueva, M E

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of malignant vulvar tumors are presented: a malignant Melanoma and a case of Carcinoma of the Bartholin Gland. Both were diagnosticated during 1993 in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Dr. Félix Bulnes Cerda Hospital. Clinical and anatomophatological aspects are studied.

  17. Vulvar varices: an uncommon entity in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana; Kane, Philip B; Liang, Sharon; Conway, Christine; Tornos, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Varicose veins in the vulvar and perivulvar area are seen in 4% of women. Most of them are secondary to pregnancy and usually regress spontaneously. Vulvar varicose veins are rare in nonpregnant women. When present, they can be seen alone, associated with leg varices or associated with venous malformations of the labia, clitoral area, or vagina with or without arteriovenous malformations on the limbs or trunk (Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome and Parkes-Weber syndrome). In some cases, vulvar varices are seen as part of the so-called "pelvic congestion syndrome." Clinically, vulvar varices may present as small isolated protrusions, mainly in the labia majora, or as large masses, involving the vulva and even the perivulvar area. The treatment of choice of vulvar varices seen during pregnancy is conservative and symptomatic. Surgical pathologists need to be aware of the existence of vulvar varicose veins and its possible presence in biopsy specimens. Vulvar varicose veins can be misdiagnosed clinically as cysts or masses mainly in the Bartholin gland area. Correct diagnosis of the lesion is important to determine appropriate therapy and to recognize the possibility of associated anatomical or pathological problems.

  18. Imiquimod in cervical, vaginal and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, C J; van de Sande, A J M; van Beekhuizen, H J; Koeneman, M M; Kruse, A J; Gerestein, C G

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is in the vast majority of patients accountable for the development of vulvar, cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, CIN, VAIN); precursors of vulvar, cervical and vaginal cancers. The currently preferred treatment modality for high grade VIN, CIN and VAIN is surgical excision. Nevertheless surgical treatment is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and recurrence is not uncommon. The aim of this review is to present evidence on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of imiquimod (an immune response modifier) in HPV-related VIN, CIN and VAIN. A search for papers on the use of imiquimod in VIN, CIN and VAIN was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Data was extracted and reviewed. Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed; 16 on VIN, 3 on CIN and 2 on VAIN. Complete response rates in VIN ranged from 5 to 88%. Although minor adverse effects were frequently reported, treatment with imiquimod was well tolerated in most patients. Studies on imiquimod treatment of CIN and VAIN are limited and lack uniformly defined endpoints. The available evidence however, shows encouraging effect. Complete response rates for CIN 2-3 and VAIN 1-3 ranged from 67 to 75% and 57 to 86% respectively. More randomized controlled trials on the use of imiquimod in CIN, VAIN and VIN with extended follow-up are necessary to determine the attributive therapeutic value in these patients.

  19. Risk factors of incision infections after vulvar cancer surgery%外阴癌患者术后切口感染的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文辉; 王秀云; 姜晶

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析外阴癌患者术后切口感染的相关因素及干预措施,以降低切口感染率。方法回顾性分析医院2010年7月-2013年2月收治的102例外阴癌患者临床资料,将其中42例感染患者作为感染组,其余60例患者为非感染组,对影响切口感染的相关因素进行分析,应用SPSS17.0统计软件,计数资料比较采用χ2检验,均数比较采用 t检验,多因素 logistic回归分析评估外阴癌患者术后切口感染的独立危险因素。结果102例外阴癌患者有42例患者发生切口感染,感染率为41.18%;42例感染患者共检出病原菌48株,以革兰阴性菌为主32株占66.66%,革兰阳性菌14株占29.17%,真菌2株占4.17%;单因素分析显示,缝合方式、术后排尿排便、合并其他疾病、阴道检查次数多、阴道炎、术前宣教与外阴癌患者术后切口感染相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);经 logistic多因素分析显示,基础疾病、缝合技术、阴道炎、术后排尿便是术后切口感染的独立危险因素。结论加强护理预防,做好围手术期护理,从各个环节评估并识别危险因素,积极采取措施,能有效降低外阴癌患者术后切口感染率,对提高手术质量及患者预后具有重要意义。%OBJECTIVE To explore the relevant factors and intervening measure for the incision infections after vulvar cancer surgery and to reduce the incision infection rate .METHODS A total of 102 cases of patients with vulvar cancer in the people′s hospital of Liaocheng were retrospectively analyzed from Jul .2010 to Feb .2013 ,and were divided into infection group (42 cases) and uninfection group (60 cases) ,the related factors affected the infections of incision were analyzed .The SPSS17 .0 statistical software was used ,the count data were compared with χ2 test ,and the means were compared using t test ,and independent risk factors for wound

  20. Vulvar Angiomyofibroblastoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulubay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMFB is a rare seen mesenchymal tumor that is categorized as a genital stromal tumor. It is commonly seen in the middle-aged women usually affecting the labia majora and rarely the vagina. A variant called AMFB-like tumors are also rarely seen in male patients. AMFB with its clinical presentation and location can be wrongly diagnosed as an aggressive angiomyxomas, bartholin cyst or lower genital tract lipomas. In the patients who are applying because of the vulvar mass, AMFB should not be forgotten for the pre-diagnosis. The treatment is generally simple surgical excision.In this case, AMFB was reported with a wrongly pre-diagnosis as a bartholin cyst to which a medical treatment had been given. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 822-825

  1. Cancer Treatment - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on cancer treatment research. Includes posts on new treatments for cancer and their effects, clinical trial results, and overcoming treatment resistance.

  2. Neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar: um problema atual Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a current problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Fonseca-Moutinho

    2008-08-01

    increasing, especially in young women. The high-risk human papilomavirus (HR-HPV infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, smoking, cervical, vaginal and rectal intraepithelial neoplasia are considered to be high risk factors for development of VIN. There are no specific symptoms or vulvar macroscopic aspects of VIN. However, a clinical lesion is always present. Liberal vulvar biopsies under colposcopy guidance should be done. Patients with diagnosis of VIN harbor an increased risk for vulvar invasive cancer. Surgical excision and laser CO2 vaporization are the most popular therapeutic modalities for VIN treatment, both with high rates of recurrence. A close follow-up of the patients is advised. Topical imiquimod seems to be a promising treatment option. Probably, prophylactic vaccination against HR-HPV will be an important tool for VIN prevention.

  3. Subtypes of cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells infiltrating cancer nests correlate with prognosis in patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznurkowski, Jacek Jan; Zawrocki, Anton; Biernat, Wojciech

    2014-03-01

    Adaptive immune effectors do not influence prognosis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). Therefore, we tried to clarify the prognostic role of innate immunity and granzyme B-dependent cytotoxicity as defined by intratumoral infiltrates of natural killer cells (CD56+) and lymphocytes expressing granzyme B (GrB+). We analyzed 76 primary vSCCs and 35 lymph node metastases that were obtained from 76 patients with a full clinical history. The distribution and density of GrB+ and CD56+ cells within cancer tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological features, commonly recognized prognostic factors and overall survival (OS). CD56+ cells were mostly detected within the cancer nests, while GrB+ cells were predominant in the tumor stroma. Intraepithelial (IE) CD56+ infiltrates at the primary site were correlated with depth of invasion (r = 0.339, p = 0.003) and recurrence (r = 0.295, p = 0.011), while IE GrB+ infiltrates were correlated with tumor grade (r = 0.304, p = 0.009) and age (r = 0.333, p = 0.004). The primary cancer nests of metastatic patients were infiltrated more by intraepithelial (IE) CD56+ cells than were those of the non-metastatic patients (p = 0.05). The median OS was 41.16 months (range 1.7-98.43). High IE GrB+ infiltrates predicted longer OS among patients without metastases (p = 0.028). High IE CD56+ infiltrates were correlated with longer OS in metastatic cases (p = 0.009). The combined cytotoxicity of innate and adaptive immune effectors infiltrating cancer nests (IE GrB+) predicts an improved clinical outcome among non-metastatic vSCC patients. The functional status of prognostic IE CD56+ infiltrates in immune escaped (metastatic) tumors requires further investigation.

  4. The use of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate for sentinel node mapping in melanoma, breast cancer and vulvar cancer: a study of 100 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, M.G.M.; Sapienza, M.T.; Endo, I.S.; Soares, J. Jr.; Lewin, S.; Marone, M.M.S. [UDDO - Nuclear Medicine Dept., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galeb, N.A. Jr.; Belfort, F.A.; Costa, R.R.; Osorio, C.A.B.T.; Goes, J.C.S. [Brazilian Inst. of Cancer Control (IBCC), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2001-11-01

    Sentinel node mapping reduces surgical morbidity and allows the use of more accurate tumour staging techniques. Radionuclide studies are preferentially performed using small colloids, which have limited availability in our country. The possibility of using phytate for sentinel node mapping was raised because of the similarity between its biodistribution and that of nanocolloids in the reticulo-endothelial system. In this paper we evaluated the use of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate for sentinel node mapping, correlating the histopathological results with the status of the rest of the lymph node chain in different malignant tumours. A total of 100 patients were studied. group 1 consisted of 62 patients with breast cancer, group 2 of 20 patients with melanoma and group 3 of 18 patients with vulvar carcinoma. Lymph node scintigraphy was carried out after injecting {sup 99m}Tc-phytate subdermally, and the sentinel node projection was marked on the skin. After 18-24 h, intraoperative sentinel node localisation was performed using a gamma probe (combined with visual localisation using patent blue dye) in 75 patients, and lymph node dissection was then carried out. Radionuclide scintigraphy identified the sentinel node in 98% of all studies. Intraoperative detection using the gamma probe was equally efficient: group 1=93% (38/41), group 2=95% (18/19) and group 3=100% (15/15). The sentinel node was involved in 41%, 31% and 20% of cases in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among the patients with positive nodes, the sentinel node was the only one affected in 53% of group 1, 50% of group 2 and 67% of group 3 cases. The method's negative predictive value was 91% in group 1 and 100% in the other groups. One false-negative study occurred in a patient who had a multifocal tumour and an intraparenchymatous lymph node; another occurred in a patient with a macroscopically affected node found during surgery. There were no side-effects related to the {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. It is concluded that

  5. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraelen H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hans Verstraelen,1 Eline De Zutter,1 Martine De Muynck2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. Keywords: vulvar pain, genitofemoral nerve, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, vulvar disease

  6. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  7. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  8. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  9. Vulvar melanoma - Is there a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Hollema, H; Hoekstra, HJ; Piers, DA; Mourits, MJE; Aalders, JG; van der Zee, AGJ

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to evaluate the author's recent, preliminary experience with the sentinel lymph node procedure in patient with vulvar melanoma and to compare this experience with treatment and follow-up of patients with vulvar melanomas who were treated previously at thei

  10. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Treatment technique and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: IMRT for vulvar cancer is associated with high rates of LRC in the postoperative setting and limited radiation-related toxicity. Durable LRC of disease after definitive IMRT remains challenging, and several refinements to our treatment technique are suggested.

  11. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  12. Endometriosis Vulvar. Reporte de Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duly Torres Cepeda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es una patología ginecológica común caracterizada por el crecimiento de glándulas y estroma endometrial fuera del endometrio. Los implantes se encuentran comúnmente en la pelvis, pero pueden aparecer en diferentes sitios. La afección vulvar de la endometriosis es rara. Se presenta el caso de paciente de 19 años de edad quien consultó por presentar dolor e inflamación en la zona vulvar por más de dos años, síntomas que se hacían más persistentes durante la menstruación. Vulvar Endometriosis. Case Report Abstract Endometriosis is a common gynecologic pathology characterized by growth of endometrial glands and stroma outside the endometrium. Implants are most commonly found in the pelvis but can occur in many other sites. Vulvar involvement of endometriosis is extremely rare. A case of vulvar endometriosis is presented. A case of a 19-years old patient who was assisted for presenting pain and inflammation in vulvar zone for more than two years, symptoms that was more severe during menses

  13. Development in treatment of vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions%外阴上皮内非瘤样变治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫星妹; 任红莲; 何淑莹

    2009-01-01

    外阴上皮内非瘤样病变是一组慢性疾病,根据1987年国际外阴疾病研究协会与国际妇科病理学家协会共同制定的新外阴皮肤疾病分类法,外阴上皮内非瘤样病变分为外阴鳞状上皮增生、外阴硬化性苔癣及其他皮肤病.因其病因不明确,临床上许多治疗方法虽能暂时控制其症状,但复发率较高.故临床医师正努力探索各种方法以提高患者的治愈率,降低复发率.该文就外阴上皮内非瘤样变治疗进展作以综述.%Vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesion is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucosa in vulva. According to new classification of vular dermopathy formulated by International Vulvar Disease Research Association and International Gynecologist-pathologist Association in 1987, vulvar intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions are classified into vulvar squamous cell hyperplasia and vulvar lichen sclerosus and other vulvar dermoses. Because etiology of the disease is unclear till now, there is no optimal therapy for it. Although many therapies can control symptoms of the disease temporarily, the recurrence rate is hight in clinic.In this paper, we summarized development in therapies of vular intraepithelial non-neoplastic lesions.

  14. The 2015 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) Terminology of Vulvar Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jacob; Bogliatto, Fabrizio; Haefner, Hope K; Stockdale, Colleen K; Preti, Mario; Bohl, Tanja G; Reutter, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The impact of terminology for vulvar intraepithelial lesions has been significant over the years, because it has affected diagnosis, treatment, and research. The introduction of the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) in 2012 raised 2 concerns in relation to vulvar lesions: firstly, the absence of reference to "differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia" (differentiated VIN) could lead to its being overlooked by health care providers, despite its malignant potential. Secondly, including the term "low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (LSIL) in LAST recreated the potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment for benign, self-limiting lesions. The International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) assigned the terminology committee the task of developing a terminology to take these issues into consideration. The committee reviewed the development of terminology for vulvar SILs with the previous 2 concerns in mind and reviewed several new terminology options. The final version accepted by the ISSVD contains the following:•Low-grade SIL of the vulva or vulvar LSIL, encompassing flat condyloma or human papillomavirus effect.•High-grade SIL or vulvar HSIL (which was termed "vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia usual type" in the 2004 ISSVD terminology).•Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, differentiated type. The advantage of the new terminology is that it includes all types of vulvar SILs, it provides a solution to the concerns in relation to the application of LAST to vulvar lesion, and it is in accordance with the World Health Organization classification as well as the LAST, creating unity among clinicians and pathologists.

  15. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  16. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  17. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind.

  18. p16 Expression and Biological Behavior of Flat Vulvar Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natasha; Blanco, Luis Z; Maniar, Kruti P

    2017-09-01

    Flat low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of the vulva [vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 1, flat condyloma] is an uncommon entity with poorly understood biological behavior. We aimed to determine the risk of subsequent vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or carcinoma following a diagnosis of vulvar LSIL/VIN 1, as well as the frequency and predictive value of p16 immunohistochemical expression in this setting. Of the 51 included cases, p16 positivity (diffuse block staining) was identified in 2 (4%). Follow-up data were available in 34 cases, of which 2 (5.9%) developed subsequent vulvar HSIL, including 1/2 p16-positive cases and 1/32 p16-negative cases. The difference in HSIL frequency between p16-positive and p16-negative cases was not statistically significant (P=0.116 for VIN 2+, P=0.061 for VIN 3). For the 18 patients with treatment information available, 10 (56%) received medical or surgical treatment after biopsy. Our results indicate that flat vulvar LSIL is infrequently p16 positive, and that few patients with vulvar LSIL develop subsequent vulvar HSIL. Despite the use of destructive treatment in some cases, the data provide support for the nonpreneoplastic nature of the entity. Immunohistochemical expression of p16 may not be a predictor of HSIL risk in vulvar LSIL, although this result may also be related to the very low rates of both p16 positivity and subsequent vulvar HSIL in our sample. It is clear that vulvar LSIL is distinct from LSIL in other lower anogenital sites in terms of its behavior and p16 expression frequency.

  19. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  20. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  1. A Giant Vulvar Mass: A Case Study of Cellular Angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Aydın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular angiofibroma is a mesenchymal tumor that affects both genders. Nucci et al. first described it in 1997. Cellular angiofibroma is generally a small and asymptomatic mass that primarily arises in the vulvar-vaginal region, although rare cases have been reported in the pelvic and extrapelvic regions. It affects women most often during the fifth decade of life. The treatment requires simple local excision due to low local recurrence and no chance of metastasization. The current study presents a case of angiofibroma in the vulvar region that measured approximately 20 cm.

  2. Vulvar malignant melanoma: a rare tumor with worse prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, which has a highly malignant potential, is a tumor of the skin and mucosal membranes. Malignant melanomas of the female genital tract, including the vulva and vagina, are rare. Their overall prognosis is worse. A 75 year old woman presented with complaint of growth in vulvar region since 4 months. There was history of itching in vulvar region over growth. Surgery is still the best available treatment for the control and potential cure of malignant melanomas [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 494-496

  3. Validation and application of the sentinel lymph node concept in malignant vulvar tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); CRC-MAR, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Tintore, Lluis M.; Lejarcegui, Jose A. [University of Barcelona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Paredes, Pilar; Ortin, Jaime; Duch, Joan [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Maria L. [CRC-MAR, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Munoz, Antonio [Cetir Unitat Sagrat Cor. Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Ordi, Jaume [University of Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Fuste, Pere [Hospital del Mar. Barcelona, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Francisco [Hospital Virgen de la Luz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cuenca (Spain); Pons, Francesca [University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy, unilateral or bilateral, is widely used in cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma but has a high morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be used in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the reliability of SLN biopsy in predicting regional lymph node status and secondly to apply this technique in the routine clinical setting. We prospectively studied 70 women with vulvar malignancies. The first 50 cases were of squamous vulvar cancer and were used to validate the SLN technique in this clinical setting (validation group). Once a satisfactory success rate had been achieved in the validation group, the SLN technique was applied to a further 20 patients with vulvar malignancies, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma (n=12) and melanomas (n=8) (application group). Dynamic and static images were acquired after the injection of 74-148 MBq of a colloidal albumin, and continued until SLN identification. Fifteen minutes before surgery, blue dye injection was administered in a similar manner to the radiocolloid. After incision, a hand-held gamma probe was used to find the SLN. In the validation group, dissection of the SLN was always followed by lymphadenectomy. In the application group, this procedure was only performed if the SLN was positive for metastases. For pathological staging, samples were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry. In the validation group, lymphoscintigraphy allowed SLN detection in 49/50 patients (98%). Blue dye detected the SLN in 40/50 patients (80%). In 16 patients (33%), the SLN showed metastases in the pathology study. All 33 patients with negative SLN had regional lymph nodes negative for metastases (negative predictive value 100%). In the application group, lymphoscintigraphy showed drainage to an SLN in 19 out of 20 patients (95%) and blue dye demonstrated a stained SLN in 17/20 patients (85%). Seven of the 19 SLN-identified nodes (37

  4. Vulvar carcinoma : The price of less radical surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Hollema, H; Lolkema, S; Boezen, M; Burger, MPM; Aalders, JG; Mourits, MJE; van der Zee, AGJ; Boonstra, J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether modifications in the treatment of patients with vulvar carcinoma influence the rates of recurrence and survival. METHODS: Between 1982 and 1997, 253 patients with T1 and T2 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated by

  5. Role of tumour-free margin distance for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer-a subset analysis of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie CaRE-1 multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelber, Linn; Griebel, Lis-Femke; Eulenburg, Christine; Sehouli, Jalid; Jueckstock, Julia; Hilpert, Felix; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Hasenburg, Annette; Ignatov, Atanas; Hillemanns, Peter; Fuerst, Sophie; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Baumann, Klaus H; Thiel, Falk C; Mustea, Alexander; Meier, Werner; Harter, Philipp; Wimberger, Pauline; Hanker, Lars Christian; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Kosse, Jens; Heiss, Christoph; Hantschmann, Peer; Mallmann, Peter; Tanner, Berno; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Richter, Barbara; Neuser, Petra; Mahner, Sven

    2016-12-01

    A tumour-free pathological resection margin of ≥8 mm is considered state-of-the-art. Available evidence is based on heterogeneous cohorts. This study was designed to clarify the relevance of the resection margin for loco-regional control in vulvar cancer. AGO-CaRE-1 is a large retrospective study. Patients (n = 1618) with vulvar cancer ≥ FIGO stage IB treated at 29 German gynecologic-cancer-centres 1998-2008 were included. This subgroup analysis focuses on solely surgically treated node-negative patients with complete tumour resection (n = 289). Of the 289 analysed patients, 141 (48.8%) had pT1b, 140 (48.4%) pT2 and 8 (2.8%) pT3 tumours. One hundred twenty-five (43.3%) underwent complete vulvectomy, 127 (43.9%) partial vulvectomy and 37 (12.8%) radical local excision. The median minimal resection margin was 5 mm (1 mm-33 mm); all patients received groin staging, in 86.5% with full dissection. Median follow-up was 35.1 months. 46 (15.9%) patients developed recurrence, thereof 34 (11.8%) at the vulva, after a median of 18.3 months. Vulvar recurrence rates were 12.6% in patients with a margin <8 mm and 10.2% in patients with a margin ≥8 mm. When analysed as a continuous variable, the margin distance had no statistically significant impact on local recurrence (HR per mm increase: 0.930, 95% CI: 0.849-1.020; p = 0.125). Multivariate analyses did also not reveal a significant association between the margin and local recurrence neither when analysed as continuous variable nor categorically based on the 8 mm cutoff. Results were consistent when looking at disease-free-survival and time-to-recurrence at any site (HR per mm increase: 0.949, 95% CI: 0.864-1.041; p = 0.267). The need for a minimal margin of 8 mm could not be confirmed in the large and homogeneous node-negative cohort of the AGO-CaRE database. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vulvar endometriosis and Nuck canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Carmelo; Gammeri, Emanuele; Foti, Agata; Rossitto, Maurizio; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2014-12-29

    L’endometriosi è una patologia non ancora del tutto conosciuta che colpisce il 6-10% della popolazione femminile generare e il 35-50% della popolazione femminile affetta da dolore pelvico e infertilità. La sede più frequente di malattia è rappresentata dall’ovaio e ciò sostiene l’ipotesi patogenetica della mestruazione retrograda. Viene descritto un caso di non comune localizzazione vulvare di endometriosi riscontrata in una paziente precedentemente operata per una cisti di Nuck. La donna aveva notato da qualche mese l’insorgenza di una tumefazione nella regione vulvare che le causava dolore e dispareunia che si accentuavano nel periodo mestruale. Il sospetto clinico di endometriosi non aveva avuto conferma negli esami strumentali preoperatori che non avevano evidenziato alterazioni patognomoniche, nè differenze dei reperti in fase pre mestruale e mestruale. Solo l’esame istologico della neoformazione asportata ha confermato la diagnosi. Inoltre gli Autori con la presente nota desiderano sottolineare come nella patogenesi dell’endometriosi vulvare debba essere tenuta in considerazione la presenza della pervietà del dotto peritoneovaginale o dotto di Nuck. Nel caso clinico descritto, infatti, la paziente era stata sottoposta due anni prima ad asportazione di una cisti di Nuck con obliterazione del dotto peritoneovaginale. Tuttavia già in quella fase clinica poteva essersi determinato un impianto endometriosico, che si era poi evidenziato con la formazione del nodulo in sede vulvare asportato chirurgicamente.

  7. Behavioral approach with or without surgical intervention to the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome : A prospective randomized and non randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WCMW; Gianotten, WL; vanderMeijden, WI; vandeWiel, HBM; Blindeman, L; Chadha, S; Drogendijk, AC

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the outcome of a behavioral approach with or without preceding surgical intervention in 48 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. In the first part of the study, 14 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome were randomly assigned to one of two treatment programs: eithe

  8. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  9. Cancer treatment -- early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000912.htm Cancer treatment - early menopause To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause women to have early menopause. This ...

  10. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search Vea esta página en español Cancer Treatment Scams Share This Page Facebook Twitter Linked-In Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health ...

  11. MRI of vulvar Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Deepa; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, F3503, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Adler, Jeremy [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Crohn disease is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the distal small bowel and colon. While certain extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn disease are relatively common and well-known, others, such as metastatic cutaneous involvement, are quite rare and may be difficult to recognize, particularly in the pediatric population. This case report illustrates the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of vulvar region cutaneous Crohn disease in an 11-year-old girl. (orig.)

  12. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  13. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Urethral Cancer Treatment Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Urethral Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  15. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

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    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  16. Scripted Sexual Health Informational Intervention in Improving Sexual Function in Patients With Gynecologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    Anxiety Disorder; Cervical Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Sexual Dysfunction; Uterine Sarcoma; Vaginal Cancer; Vulvar Cancer

  17. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, "Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact", will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  18. Vulvar symptoms in paediatric and adolescent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piippo, S; Lenko, H; Vuento, R

    2000-04-01

    Vulvovaginal symptoms in children and young adolescents are not yet very well understood, nor is the actual incidence known. This study evaluates the character and possible infectious aetiology of vulvar symptoms of females aged up to 16 y. The signs, symptoms and bacteriological findings of 68 consecutive cases were studied. The study was conducted in the University Hospital of Tampere at a special gynaecological consultation clinic for children and adolescents. Sixty-eight patients were included in the study: 48 girls (71%) were prepubertal, at Tanner stage M1P1, 26 patients were 2-4-y-old and 15 were 5-7-y-old. The duration of symptoms was known for 46 patients: 41% had had symptoms for >1 mo and 20% for >6 mo. Forty-eight patients had abnormal clinical findings on examination and 16 (33%) of them had an infectious aetiology. Streptococcus pyogenes infection was identified in 11 (16%) patients, all of whom had symptoms. Candida was identified in 6 (9%) patients. No infectious aetiology was found among 26 patients who had symptoms and abnormal clinical findings. Vulvovaginal symptoms during childhood are more common among younger children (<7 y). In 67% of patients no infectious aetiology could be found. Samples for microbiological culture should be taken from symptomatic patients and symptomatic areas. Cultures of Candida and bacteria are necessary but usually sufficient. If a microbiological aetiology is established, treatment can be assigned accordingly. Patients with vulvar symptoms and findings but with an unclear aetiology need support and advice on proper hygiene and can intermittently use mild corticosteroids locally.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  20. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  1. Gynecologic cancers in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amant, Frédéric; Halaska, Michael J; Fumagalli, Monica

    2014-01-01

    , optimizing maternal treatment while considering fetal safety. To maximize the maternal outcome, cancer treatment should follow a standard treatment protocol as for nonpregnant patients. Iatrogenic prematurity should be avoided. Individualization of treatment and effective psychologic support is imperative...... performed by experts. Most standard regimens of chemotherapy can be administered from 14 weeks gestational age onward. Apart from cervical and vulvar cancer, as well as important vulvar scarring, the mode of delivery is determined by the obstetrician. Term delivery is aimed for. Breast-feeding should...... be considered based on individual drug safety and neonatologist-breast-feeding expert's consult. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited evidence-based information, cancer treatment during pregnancy can succeed. State-of-the-art treatment should be provided for this vulnerable population to preserve maternal and fetal...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  3. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer? For some people with stomach cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Stomach Cancer Stops Working More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  4. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  5. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  6. Preoperative Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Vulvar Carcinoma: Analysis of Pattern of Relapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Shukla, Gaurav; Shinde, Ashwin; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Richards, Scott; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes and relapse patterns in locally advanced vulvar carcinoma treated using preoperative chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with stage I-IV{sub A} (stage I, n=3; stage II, n=13; stage III, n=23; stage IV{sub A}, n=3) vulvar cancer were treated with chemotherapy and IMRT via a modified Gynecological Oncology Group schema using 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with twice-daily IMRT during the first and last weeks of treatment or weekly cisplatin with daily radiation therapy. Median dose of radiation was 46.4 Gy. Results: Thirty-three patients (78.6%) had surgery for resection of vulva; 13 of these patients also had inguinal lymph node dissection. Complete pathologic response was seen in 48.5% (n=16) of these patients. Of these, 15 had no recurrence at a median time of 26.5 months. Of the 17 patients with partial pathological response, 8 (47.1%) developed recurrence in the vulvar surgical site within a median of 8 (range, 5-34) months. No patient had grade ≥3 chronic gastrointestinal/genitourinary toxicity. Of those having surgery, 8 (24.2%) developed wound infections requiring debridement. Conclusions: Preoperative chemotherapy/IMRT was well tolerated, with good pathologic response and clinical outcome. The most common pattern of recurrence was local in patients with partial response, and strategies to increase pathologic response rate with increasing dose or adding different chemotherapy need to be explored to help further improve outcomes.

  7. Integrative medicine for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000932.htm Integrative medicine for cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... help relieve common side effects of cancer or cancer treatment, such as fatigue, anxiety, pain, and nausea. Some ...

  8. Groin sentinel node biopsy and (18)F-FDG PET/CT-supported preoperative lymph node assessment in cN0 patients with vulvar cancer currently unfit for minimally invasive inguinal surgery: The GroSNaPET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, G; Collarino, A; Fragomeni, S M; Rufini, V; Perotti, G; Gentileschi, S; Evangelista, M T; Ieria, F P; Zagaria, L; Bove, S; Giordano, A; Scambia, G

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were: 1) to verify the role of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in a subset of patients with clinical N0 (cN0) invasive vulvar cancer (VC) who were still candidates for radical inguinal surgery according to the current guidelines; 2) to investigate whether a preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) evaluation could improve the selection of node negative patients. From July 2013 to July 2016, all patients with VC admitted to our Division were evaluated by standard imaging and clinical exam. Among the patients assessed as cN0 we enrolled those unsuitable for SNB, due to: T > 4 cm, multifocal tumors, complete tumor diagnostic excision, contralateral nodal involvement and local recurrence. A preoperative PET/CT was performed. For each patient surgery included SNB, performed using a combined technique (radiotracer plus blue dye), followed by standard inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy. The reference standard was histopathology. Forty-seven patients entered the study for a total of 73 groins. Histopathology revealed 12 metastatic SNs in 9 groins. No false negative SNs were found (NPV 100%). PET/CT showed a negative predictive value of 93%. Our data suggest that SNB is accurate and safe even in cN0 patients currently excluded from this procedure, providing that a careful preoperative selection is performed. PET/CT allows a reliable assessment of LN status and may be an effective support for the selection of patients who are safe candidates for SNB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  10. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  11. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000827.htm Cancer treatment - dealing with pain To use the sharing features ... test, can cause pain. Treatment. Many types of cancer treatments can cause pain, including chemotherapy , radiation , and surgery. ...

  12. The effect of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine) on healing and regeneration of the uterine cervix and vagina and vulvar dystrophy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, J; Madry, R; Markowska, A

    2011-01-01

    Procedures aimed at the treatment of precancerous lesions and ectopia on the uterine cervix are frequently linked to lesions of anatomical structures. The application of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine vaginal ovules) promotes accelerated healing of the uterine cervix and acquisition of a normal shape in the uterine cervix canal. Local application of hyaluronic acid in the vagina following radiotherapy due to cancer in the uterine cervix or endometrium favourably affects the healing of post-irradiation lesions in the vagina and improves quality of life. Over 90% of patients responded positively to the application of hyaluronic acid in the form of a cream on dystrophic lesions in the vulva. Hyaluronic acid aids the healing process of post-procedural wounds in the uterine cervix, following radiotherapy applied due to cancer of the uterine cervix, endometrium and in vulvar dystrophy.

  13. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca's pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca's known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca's possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  14. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  15. Genetic and epigenetic changes in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Nooij, Linda S; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy with an annual incidence in developed countries of approximately 2 per 100,000 women. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has two etiological pathways: a high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent route, which has usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) as a precursor lesion, and an HPV-independent route, which is associated with differentiated VIN (dVIN), lichen sclerosus, and genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations. Research on the molecular etiology of vulvar cancer has increased in the past years, not only regarding genetic alterations, but also epigenetic changes. In genetic alterations, a mutation irreversibly changes the nucleotide sequence of the DNA, or the number of copies of chromosomes per cell is altered. In epigenetics, the nucleotide sequence remains the same but genes can be 'switched' on or off by, for example, DNA methylation or histone modification. We searched the current literature on genetic and epigenetic alterations in VSCC and its precursor lesions. Many studies have reported a higher incidence of somatic mutations in HPV-negative tumors compared to HPV-positive tumors, with TP53 mutations being the most frequent. Allelic imbalances or loss of heterozygosity are more frequently found in higher stages of dysplasia and in invasive carcinomas, but it is not exclusive to HPV-negative tumors. A limited number of studies are available on epigenetic changes in vulvar lesions, with hypermethylation of CDKN2A being the most frequently investigated change. For most genes, hypermethylation occurs more frequently in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas than in precursor lesions. As most studies have focused on HPV infection and TP53 mutations, we suggest that more research should be performed using whole genome or next generation sequencing to determine the true landscape of genetic and epigenetic alterations in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Etiopatogenia do câncer vulvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Álvaro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos trabalhos na literatura a respeito dos mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na patogênese do carcinoma vulvar. Estudos que servem como base para a compreensão destes mecanismos são discutidos de forma compreensiva neste artigo de revisão. As alterações genéticas, a associação com o papilomavírus humano (HPV e outros possíveis fatores envolvidos na carcinogênese dos tumores vulvares são abordados.

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver cancer . The following stages are used for gastric cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells are ... check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in ... Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ...

  18. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  19. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  20. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  1. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Cardoso, Fernanda de Araujo; Fernandes, Gustavo Leme; Veasey, John Verrinder

    2017-01-01

    Vulvar cancer accounts for less than 1% of malignancies in women. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva is a rare histological variation, comprising less than 1% of vulvar cancer cases. Although it is characterized as being locally invasive, the condition is not associated with metastatic spreading. Lesions present in the form of a verrucous, ulcerated, and bleeding tumor that can reach large dimensions. This type of tumor can be mistaken for condylomata, both macroscopically and microscopically. We report the case of an 81-year-old patient with a large vulvar tumor presented for eight years, initially considered as a Buschke-Löwenstein tumor. The patient underwent radical vulvectomy with a V-Y advancement flap technique. This type of tumor should be considered by clinicians dealing with condylomatous ulcerative lesions that do not respond to the usual treatment.

  2. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E Schenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  3. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26770688

  4. Laetrile treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Stefania; Horneber, Markus

    2015-04-28

    Laetrile is the name for a semi-synthetic compound which is chemically related to amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside from the kernels of apricots and various other species of the genus Prunus. Laetrile and amygdalin are promoted under various names for the treatment of cancer although there is no evidence for its efficacy. Due to possible cyanide poisoning, laetrile can be dangerous. To assess the alleged anti-cancer effect and possible adverse effects of laetrile and amygdalin. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (2014, Issue 9); MEDLINE (1951-2014); EMBASE (1980-2014); AMED; Scirus; CINAHL (all from 1982-2015); CAMbase (from 1998-2015); the MetaRegister; the National Research Register; and our own files. We examined reference lists of included studies and review articles and we contacted experts in the field for knowledge of additional studies. We did not impose any restrictions of timer or language. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. We searched eight databases and two registers for studies testing laetrile or amygdalin for the treatment of cancer. Two review authors screened and assessed articles for inclusion criteria. We located over 200 references, 63 were evaluated in the original review, 6 in the 2011 and none in this update. However, we did not identify any studies that met our inclusion criteria. The claims that laetrile or amygdalin have beneficial effects for cancer patients are not currently supported by sound clinical data. There is a considerable risk of serious adverse effects from cyanide poisoning after laetrile or amygdalin, especially after oral ingestion. The risk-benefit balance of laetrile or amygdalin as a treatment for cancer is therefore unambiguously negative.

  5. LIQUEN SIMPLE CRÓNICO VULVAR UNILATERAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lema C,Rodrigo; Ricci A,Paolo; Solà D,Vicente; Contreras M,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de liquen simple crónico vulvar izquierdo, en una paciente con diagnóstico psiquiátrico de trastorno bipolar, tratado repetidamente como micosis. Se realizó biopsia que confirmó el diagnóstico y se trató exitosamente con antihistamínicos orales y corticoides tópicos

  6. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of canc...

  7. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  9. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  12. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  13. Vulvar pityriasis versicolor in an immunocompetent woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tania; Scurry, James

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of isolated vulvar pityriasis versicolor in a 24-year-old healthy woman. A 24-year-old woman presented with variable color change on the vulva of 8 months in duration. Areas of tan and white skin were observed on the mons pubis. The pubic hair had been shaved. Initially, the paler areas were deemed abnormal suggesting vitiligo, but the biopsy showed normal skin including normal numbers of melanocytes. Subsequently, biopsy of the tan area showed pityriasis versicolor. She was successfully treated with topical 2% ketoconazole, with gradual fading of lesions. With increased body awareness and the current popularity of pubic hair removal, young women may consult clinicians about color changes on the vulva. Clinicians should be aware that vulvar pityriasis versicolor may occur in healthy women with no other skin involvement.

  14. The role of sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancer : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In early-stage vulvar, cervical and endometrial cancer, lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the primary tumor and adequately staging the regional lymph nodes. As morbidity of regional lymphadenectomy is high, sentinel n

  15. The role of sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancer : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In early-stage vulvar, cervical and endometrial cancer, lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the primary tumor and adequately staging the regional lymph nodes. As morbidity of regional lymphadenectomy is high, sentinel n

  16. Normal Vulvar Histology: Variation by Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tania; Holland, Seán M; Scurry, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the histology of normal vulvar skin with attention to anatomic location and epithelium type. We performed a retrospective histologic review of 118 vulvar biopsies and excisions obtained between 2010 and 2014 with adjacent normal skin or mucosa. Exclusions included age younger than 18 years, vestibulectomy, labiaplasty, inflammatory dermatoses, and insufficient normal tissue for assessment. Stratum corneum morphology was assessed as basket weave, compact, or intermediate. Stratum granulosum cell layer number and epithelial thickness were recorded. Dermal lymphocytic infiltrate was described as nil, sparse, moderate, or dense. Fischer exact test, Pearson χ, and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. There were 7 cases from mons pubis, 11 from perineum, 83 from labia, and 17 from vestibule. In the skin, the stratum corneum morphology was basket weave in 31%, compact in 35%, and intermediate in 34%. Stratum corneum at the mons pubis was uniformly basket weave, whereas at perineum, it was either compact or intermediate (7/7 vs 0/11; p histological findings. Pathologists need to be aware of site-related differences of the vulvar epithelium to avoid overdiagnosis of pathological conditions.

  17. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  18. Localized blanching erythema in a patient with vulvar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Jennifer; Diaz, Lucia; Paravar, Taraneh; Chon, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Mammary-like carcinoma arising in the vulva is a rare type of vulvar malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of vulvar carcinoma is uncommon and the majority of cases have been reported in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. We describe a 69-year-old woman with mammary-like carcinoma of the vulva with cutaneous metastasis presenting as asymptomatic localized blanching erythema.

  19. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  20. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  1. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  2. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outside of the body. This is called a colostomy . Lymph nodes that contain cancer may also be ... this operation. Enlarge Resection of the colon with colostomy. Part of the colon containing the cancer and ...

  3. Perceived stereotyping and seeking care for chronic vulvar pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby H N; Turner, Rachael M; Rydell, Sarah A; Maclehose, Richard F; Harlow, Bernard L

    2013-10-01

    We examined stereotyping of chronic pain sufferers among women aged 18-40 years and determined whether perceived stereotyping affects seeking care for women with chronic vulvar pain. Cross-sectional study using a community-based survey of vulvodynia asking if "Doctors think that people with chronic pain exaggerate their pain," and if "People believe that vulvar pain is used as an excuse to avoid having sex". Twelve thousand eight hundred thirty-four women aged 18-40 years in metropolitan Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Women were considered to have a history of chronic vulvar pain if they reported vulvar burning lasting more than 3 months or vulvar pain on contact. Four thousand nine hundred eighty-seven (38.9%) women reported a chronic pain condition; 1,651 had chronic vulvar pain. Women experiencing chronic pain were more likely than those without to perceive stereotyping from both doctors and others; a dose-response with the number of pain conditions existed. Women with chronic vulvar pain were more likely to believe that people think vulvar pain is an excuse to avoid intercourse. Half of the women with chronic vulvar pain did not seek medical care for it; of these, 40.4% perceived stereotyping from doctors. However, it was women who actually sought care (45.1%) who were more likely to feel stigmatized by doctors (adjusted relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.23). Perceived negative stereotyping among chronic pain sufferers is common, particularly negative perceptions about physicians. In fact, chronic vulvar pain sufferers who felt stigmatized were more likely to have sought care than those who did not feel stigmatized. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neoplasia intra-epitelial grau III da vulva e da região perianal tratada com vulvectomia superficial: relato de caso High-grade vulvar and perianal intraepithelial neoplasia treated with skinning vulvectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walquíria Quida Salles Pereira Primo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia intra-epitelial vulvar grau III (NIV III se manifesta de modo visível, portanto, acessível à biópsia e, por conseguinte, ao diagnóstico histológico. Há duas formas precursoras do câncer vulvar: a NIV associada ao papiloma vírus humano (HPV e a NIV associada ao líquen simples crônico, hiperplasia de células escamosas e líquen escleroso, não tratados. Porém, pode existir sobreposição das duas formas. O termo papulose bowenóide, apesar de ser desencorajado, define uma das formas clínicas da NIV, que se apresenta como lesões pigmentadas, verruciformes, papulares e múltiplas. A NIV III está associada com HPV em mais de 80% dos casos e em 40% das vezes, nota-se envolvimento perianal. O seu tratamento é muito difícil e pode ocorrer recorrência em qualquer tempo e por muitos anos. Embora não exista tratamento padrão definido, os trabalhos apontam para a cirurgia, respeitando margem de segurança, como o mais adequado.High-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN III is a visible lesion; therefore, it is accessible to biopsy and thus, to a histological diagnosis. There are two forms of vulvar cancer precursors: VIN caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and VIN associated with untreated lichen simplex chronicus, squamous cell hyperplasia, and lichen sclerosus. There may be overlap of the two forms. The term bowenoid papulosis, although discouraged, identifics a clinical form of VIN III. Such lesion appears as pigmented, wart-like growths or papules. VIN III is associated with HPV in more than 80% of the cases, and there is perianal involvement in 40% of the times. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is difficult to cure and relapses can occur at any time for many years. Although there is no defined standard treatment, studies point to surgery, respecting a free margin, as the most adequate one.

  5. Miíase vulvar: relato de caso Vulvar myiasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A miíase de localização vulvar é doença rara. O objetivo do presente relato é descrever um caso de miíase vulvar por larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax em mulher de 77 anos, com precários hábitos higiênicos, apresentando dor, prurido e secreção de odor fétido na região genital há 10 dias. O exame ginecológico demonstrou lesão ulcerada no grande lábio vulvar, com seis centímetros, que se estendia ao monte do pube, preenchida por larvas. A doente evoluiu favoravelmente após remoção das larvas, desbridamento cirúrgico e curativos diários, sendo realizada, quatorze dias após o desbridamento, rotação de retalho cutâneo. Apresentou evolução satisfatória, estando assintomática dois meses após a intervenção. A miíase vulvar deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das doenças infecciosas vulvares de doentes com hábitos de higiene precários.Myiasis located in the vulva is a rarely described disease. The objective of the present report is to describe a case of vulvar myiasis due to larvae of Cochliomyia hominivorax. A 77-year-old woman with precarious hygienic habits presented pain, pruritus and secretions with a fetid smell in the genital region for 10 days. Gynecological examination demonstrated an ulcerated lesion in the labium majus of the vulva measuring six centimeters that extended to the mons pubis and was found to be filled with larvae. The patient progressed favorably after removal of the larvae, surgical debridement and daily dressings. Fourteen days after the debridement, she was submitted to skin flap rotation, with good local scar formation. Two months after the intervention, she remained asymptomatic. Vulvar myiasis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases of the vulva in patients with precarious hygienic habits.

  6. Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent it. Risk of nausea and vomiting from cancer treatment Some drugs used for cancer treatment are more ... Options for preventing vomiting from drugs used for cancer treatment ASCO recommends the following options, based on the ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Vaginal Cancer Treatment Research Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vaginal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  9. What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Liver Cancer After Treatment Living as a Liver Cancer Survivor Completing treatment can be both stressful and ... and treatment. Can I lower my risk of liver cancer progressing or coming back? If you have (or ...

  10. Struggling with cancer and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease......- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer...

  11. [Prolapsed ureterocele: a diagnosis to be considered for a vulvar mass in an infant: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardón Fernández, Marita; Uberos Fernández, José; Moreno Madrid, Francisco

    2017-02-01

    Ureterocele is a relatively common malformation of the urinary system in children; however, the ureterocele prolapse through the urethra is an extremely rare presentation. Urological nuclear magnetic resonance is the test of choice for definitive diagnosis. Initial treatment of a prolapsed ureterocele involves decompression of the mass. We report the case of a 7-month-old infant with duplication of the collecting system and right ectopic ureterocele appearing as a vulvar mass.

  12. Vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delir, S; Handjani, F; Emad, M; Ardehali, S

    1999-07-01

    Myiasis is a condition resulting from the invasion of tissues or organs of man or animals by the larvae of dipterous flies. The distribution of myiasis is worldwide, with more cases being reported from tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from an entomological or a clinical point of view. This report describes a rare case of vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica in an otherwise healthy 20-year-old Iranian female. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous myiasis of the vulva due to W. magnifica from Iran and the Middle East region.

  13. Vulvar Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoummane, Nadia; Guimeya, Cyriane; Lipombi, Dominique; Gielen, François

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytoses (LCH) are a rare group of disorders that comprise a large spectrum of diseases initially known as histiocytosis X. In this case report, we relate a case of LCH affecting the vulva of a 47-year-old female. The patient presented since 3 years with a vulvar lesion characterized by non-healing ulcers and a perineal granuloma on which she underwent surgery. Professionals should keep in mind not to treat straightforwardly lesions of the genital tract as simple sexually transmitted diseases. Chronic, atypical genital lesions seen in women need to be worked up and dealt with accordingly. PMID:25404979

  14. Mitochondrial genotype in vulvar carcinoma - cuckoo in the nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemba, Aleksandra; Kowalewska, Magdalena; Kukwa, Wojciech; Tonska, Katarzyna; Szybinska, Aleksandra; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Scinska, Anna; Golik, Paweł; Koper, Kamil; Radziszewski, Jakub; Kukwa, Andrzej; Czarnecka, Anna M; Bartnik, Ewa

    2010-09-08

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology. In order to investigate mtDNA status in VSCC patients, haplogroup distribution analysis and D-loop sequencing were performed. The results were compared with available data for the general Polish population, cancer free-centenarians as well as patients with endometrial and head and neck cancer. The obtained data were also compared with the current status of mitochondrial databases. Significant differences in haplogroup distribution between VSCC cohort, general Polish population and cancer-free centenarians cohort were found. Moreover, a correlation between the VSCC patients haplogroup and HPV status was observed. Finally, a specific pattern of mtDNA polymorphisms was found in VSCC. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background may influence the risk of VSCC occurrence as well as susceptibility to HPV infection.

  15. Mitochondrial genotype in vulvar carcinoma - cuckoo in the nest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemba Aleksandra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC is a rare female genital neoplasm. Although numerous molecular changes have been reported in VSCC, biomarkers of clinical relevance are still lacking. On the other hand, there is emerging evidence on the use of mtDNA as a diagnostic tool in oncology. In order to investigate mtDNA status in VSCC patients, haplogroup distribution analysis and D-loop sequencing were performed. The results were compared with available data for the general Polish population, cancer free-centenarians as well as patients with endometrial and head and neck cancer. The obtained data were also compared with the current status of mitochondrial databases. Significant differences in haplogroup distribution between VSCC cohort, general Polish population and cancer-free centenarians cohort were found. Moreover, a correlation between the VSCC patients haplogroup and HPV status was observed. Finally, a specific pattern of mtDNA polymorphisms was found in VSCC. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background may influence the risk of VSCC occurrence as well as susceptibility to HPV infection.

  16. Vulvar and vaginal melanoma: A unique subclass of mucosal melanoma based on a comprehensive molecular analysis of 51 cases compared with 2253 cases of nongynecologic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, June Y; Baptiste, Caitlin; Hombalegowda, Radhika Bangalore; Tergas, Ana I; Feldman, Rebecca; Jones, Nathaniel L; Chatterjee-Paer, Sudeshna; Bus-Kwolfski, Ama; Wright, Jason D; Burke, William M

    2017-04-15

    Optimal treatments for vulvar and vaginal melanomas (VVMs) have not been identified. Herein, the authors compare molecular profiles between VVM and nongynecologic melanoma (NGM) subtypes with the objective of identifying novel, targetable biomarkers. In total, 2304 samples of malignant melanoma that were submitted to Caris Life Sciences between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to assess copy numbers and protein expression of selected genes. Sequenced variants were analyzed using a proprietary cancer panel. In total, 51 VVMs (14 vaginal and 37 vulvar melanomas) were compared with 2253 malignant NGMs, including 2127 cutaneous, 105 mucosal, and 21 acral melanomas. In VVMs, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) was the most frequently mutated gene (26%) compared with 8.3% of mucosal NGMs (P = .008). In BRAF-mutated tumors, fewer VVMs (50%), compared with NGMs (82.1%), had a variant within the valine codon 600 (V600) domain. The KIT mutation rate was highest in VVMs (22%) compared with 3% in cutaneous (P melanoma subtypes. NRAS mutations were rare in VVMs compared with cutaneous (25.9%; P = .009) and acral (40.6%; P = .002) melanoma subtypes. PD-L1 (56%) and PD-1 (75%) were frequently expressed in VVM, whereas PI3KCA pathway mutations and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor expression were rare. Compared with VVMs that had KIT mutations, wild-type KIT VVMs were more likely to express molecular markers suggestive of platinum resistance (ERCC1), alkylating sensitivity (MGMT), and anthracycline sensitivity (TOP2A). The unique molecular features of VVM render this disease a distinct subtype of melanoma. Gene-based molecular therapy and immunotherapies may be promising and should be evaluated in clinical trials. Cancer 2017;123:1333-1344. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Optimisation of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Colette Bernadine Maria-Theresia van den

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Although there have been several improvements in screening, staging, and treatment in the past decades, survival differences remain. For example among certain subgroups of patients, such as elderly patients and patients with comorbiditie

  18. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  20. Vulvar ulcer as a presentation of systemic langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Madnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 38-year-old housewife with systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH presenting as a chronic vulvar and peri-anal ulcer. She had systemic involvement in the form of diabetes insipidus and bone "hot-spots". She responded favorably to etoposide, 6-mercaptopurine, and systemic steroids, and has been in remission since 10 years. Chronic vulvar ulcers not responding to routine therapy should not be neglected and need to be biopsied repeatedly to come to a specific diagnosis. The vulvar ulcer in our case provided a vital clue to a systemic LCH, with a successful outcome.

  1. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  2. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods...

  3. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea. It is ... the neck and takes pictures. Blood flow and metabolism are higher than normal in areas where cancer ...

  4. When your cancer treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000851.htm When your cancer treatment stops working To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cancer treatments can keep cancer from spreading and even cure ...

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  6. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  7. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  8. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  9. Sclerosus and atrophic genital Lichen or vulvar craurosis. About a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Caridad Cabrera Acea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosus and atrophic genital Lichen or vulvar craurosis is an affection characterized by a progressive chronic atrophy of the vulvar skin and mucosa, associated to involutive changes in external genitalia. The presentation of this case was motivated by the unusual appearance of it in our context. A 49 year old white patient with history of hypertension, came to the Dermatology consultation referred by her Family Doctor. She reported that she had had an intense pruritus since approximately eight months in the vulvar region and changes in texture which she stated as ¨hardening sensation¨ which had had intensified, so as irregularities in her menstrual period, all of which was not relieved with the usual treatment as it was interpreted as vaginal parasites. She explained that she suffered from an intense pain during intercourse, more frequently in the last months so as sleeping problems and nervousness. A biopsy was performed and it showed lichen sclerosus. It was treated with local high potency steroids, conjugated estrogens and psychological support. The patient had an evident symptom improvement. She has a periodic evaluation to avoid relapse and /or complications.

  10. A Rare Case of Vulvar Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH of the vulva is rare. A 32 year-old woman presented with a two year history of non-healing vulvar ulceration and a nine month history of ulcerative nodular lesion in the left inguinal region. Biopsy results of the vulva and inguinal lesions were consistent with LCH. Screening of the body systems revealed hepatosplenomegaly, iliac, inguinal, paraaortic lymph nodes and lung involvement. She was treated with systemic steroid, resulting in complete improvement of vulvar lesion. She also underwent a local excision of left inguinal lesion. Three months later, we found a lesion on her left inguinal region that was consistent with a recurrence and enlargement in the lymph nodes. Therefore, high dose systemic steroid therapy and then a 12-session radyotherapy were given. After the treatment, a complete improvement was obtained. A 1-year of systemic methotrexate therapy was recommended to prevent recurrence of the disease. In women with vulvar ulcer, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  11. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Mark H. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. (orig.)

  12. Massive vulvar edema in pregnancy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, P; Friedman, M; Goldstein, I; Zaidise, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    1995-06-01

    Massive vulvar edema in pregnancy is a rarely reported condition. We treated a case of severe labial edema complicating pregnancy. Massive edema of the vulva appears to usually be a sequela of an underlying, systemic disease in pregnant women.

  13. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the hypopharynx . These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue . Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ . Enlarge Tumor sizes. The size of a tumor may be compared to the size of a pea (1 cm), peanut (2 cm), grape (3 cm), walnut (4 cm), lime (5 cm), ...

  14. Antimatter cancer treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "The idea that antimatter beams could treat cancer might seem ridiculous. But researchers working at Cerns particle accelerator laboratory in Geneva don't think so. They have just reported a successful first experiment into the biological effects of antiprotons radiation on living cells."

  15. Prognostic value and clinicopathologic characteristics of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in a large series of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Oonk, Maaike H M; Hawinkels, Lukas J A C; Bor, Rosalie; van Eendenburg, Jaap D H; Ivanova, Zina; Peters, Alexander A W; Nijman, Hans W; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; Bosse, Tjalling

    2016-05-03

    Vulvar cancer treatment is mostly curative, but also has high morbidity rates. In a search for markers that can identify patients at risk of metastases, we investigated the prognostic value of L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in large series of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (VSCCs). L1CAM promotes cell motility and is an emerging prognostic factor for metastasis in many cancer subtypes. L1CAM expression was observed at the invasive front or in spray-patterned parts of 17% of the tumours. L1CAM-positive tumours expressed vimentin more often, but L1CAM expression was not associated with TP53 or CTNNB1 mutations. Five-year survival was worse for patients with L1CAM expression (overall survival 46.1% vs 63.6%, P=.014, disease specific survival 63.8% vs 80.0%, P=.018). Multivariate analysis indicates L1CAM expression as an independent prognostic marker (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.10-7.68). An in vitro spheroid invasion assay showed decreased invasion of L1CAM-expressing VSCC spindle cells after treatment with L1CAM-neutralising antibodies. Paraffin-embedded tumour tissue from two cohorts (N=103 and 245) of primary VSCCs were stained for L1CAM, vimentin and E-cadherin. Patients of the first cohort were tested for human papilloma virus infection and sequenced for TP53 and CTNNB1 (β-catenin) mutations. The expression of L1CAM was correlated to clinical characteristics and patient survival. This is the first study to show high L1CAM-expression at the infiltrating margin of VSCC's. L1CAM-expressing VSCCs had a significantly worse prognosis compared to L1CAM-negative tumours. The highest expression was observed in spindle-shaped cells, where it might be correlated to their invasive capacity.

  16. Tackling ageism in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Evidence shows that older patients are discriminated against when it comes to cancer treatment. A pilot project was commissioned by the Department of Health in partnership with Macmillan Cancer Support and Age UK. The project involved staff, including nurses, from five cancer networks in England examining ways to improve care for this patient group. Drawing on approaches used in geriatric medicine, patients' needs in accessing treatment were explored by conducting assessments and, for example, providing taxis for hospital appointments and practical support from voluntary organisations. Challenges for nurses included lack of training in patient screening and the extra workload caused by the assessments. The report on the pilot project concluded that involving elderly care specialists and using comprehensive geriatric assessments were useful approaches in the care of older cancer patients.

  17. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  18. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into thyroid cancer ... in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  19. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  1. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  2. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  3. What Will Happen After Treatment for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Treatment What Will Happen After Treatment for Ovarian Cancer? For some people with ovarian cancer, treatment may ... If Ovarian Cancer Treatment Stops Working More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  5. Discovery – Methotrexate: Chemotherapy Treatment for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 1950s, treatment for the majority of cancers was limited to either surgery or the use of radiation. The discovery of the use of methotrexate in curing a rare cancer marked the first time a cancer had been cured. This led to the development of many of today’s common cancer treatments.

  6. What`s New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? New ways to prevent and ... in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. What's New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer What’s New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? Research is always being ... in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  8. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? Risk factors and causes Scientists ... in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? Because there are only a ... in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. What Happens after Treatment for Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer After Treatment Living as a Melanoma Skin Cancer Survivor For many people with melanoma, treatment can ... Cancers After Melanoma Skin Cancer More In Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  11. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Liver Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  12. Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulmann, Sebastian; Sinn, Hans P; Penzel, Roland; Gilks, C Blake; Schott, Sarah; Hassel, Jessica C; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schirmacher, Peter; Kommoss, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina is relatively uncommon and accounts for melanomas in women. The aim of our study was to establish the biological properties and evaluate potential therapeutic targets in these tumors. We collected a series of 65 cases from three centers and re-evaluated the tumor tissue for predominant growth pattern (superficial spreading, nodular, and mucosal lentiginous) and tumor thickness. KIT (CD117) expression was detected immunohistochemically. In addition, tumors were screened for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as for KIT amplifications by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the cases contained BRAF mutations. NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications were detected in similar frequency (∼12%) in tumors of the vulva and vagina. In contrast, KIT mutations were present in 18% of primary melanomas of the vulva, but in none of the tumors arising in the vagina. Moderate or strong KIT protein expression was detected in 30 cases, including all tumors with KIT mutations and 6 of the 7 with KIT amplifications. In conclusion, BRAF mutations are virtually absent in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, whereas NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in both locations. KIT mutations appear to be specific for melanomas of the vulva, suggesting that in spite of the anatomic proximity, the development of vulvar and vaginal melanomas involves different molecular alterations which may be targeted by novel treatment approaches.

  13. Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yan; Quentin Qiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies,have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic,and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment.Nevertheless,there remain several challenges to targeted therapies,including molecular identification,drug resistance,and exploring reliable biomarkers.Here,we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases,PI3K/mTOR signaling,FOXO-FOXM1 axis,and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction.Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.

  14. Bacterial toxins for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, David

    2008-01-01

    Even though anti‐cancer chemotherapy has been continuously improved during the last decades. problems with adverse effects and drug resistance still constitutes a considerable obstacle and sets a demand for new effective treatment options. Tissue homeostasis in multi‐cellular organisms is maintained through intrinsic cell death, apoptosis, which removes unwanted or damaged cells. Disrupted apoptosis is an important factor in tumorgenesis and drug resistance, therefore induction or restoration...

  15. Vulvar Skin Disorders throughout Lifetime: About Some Representative Dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Doyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget’s disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically.

  16. Economic burden of vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: retrospective cost study at a German dysplasia centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus is responsible for a variety of diseases including grade 2 and 3 vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. The aim of this study was to assess parts of the burden of the last diseases including treatment costs. The direct medical resource use and cost of surgery associated with neoplasia and related diagnostic procedures (statutory health insurance perspective were estimated, as were the indirect costs (productivity losses associated with surgical treatment and related gynaecology visits for diagnostic purposes. Methods Data from 1991-2008 were retrospectively collected from patient records of the outpatient unit of the Gynaecological Dysplasia Clinic, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany. Two subgroups of patients were analysed descriptively: women undergoing one surgical procedure related to a diagnosis of vulvar and/or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and women undergoing two or more surgical procedures. Target measures were per-capita medical resource consumption, direct medical cost and indirect cost. Results Of the 94 women analysed, 52 underwent one surgical intervention and 42 two or more interventions (mean of 3.0 interventions during the total period of analysis. Patients undergoing one surgical intervention accrued €881 in direct costs and €682 in indirect costs; patients undergoing more than one intervention accrued €2,605 in direct costs and €2,432 in indirect costs. Conclusions The economic burden on German statutory health insurance funds and society induced by surgical interventions and related diagnostic procedures for grade 2/3 vulvar and vaginal neoplasia should not be underrated. The cost burden is one part of the overall burden attributable to human papillomavirus infections.

  17. Electrodiagnosis in cancer treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Christian M

    2011-05-01

    As cancer patients are living longer and the number of cancer survivors increases, more secondary complications related to cancer and its treatments are being recognized. A large number of neuromuscular processes, stemming from cancer itself, from secondary metabolic effects, from paraneoplastic syndromes, from preexisting conditions, or from adverse effects related to cancer treatments, can affect the peripheral nervous system at any level. Electrodiagnostic tools such as nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography are uniquely suited to assess the function of the peripheral nervous system and are valuable tools in confirming and defining neuromuscular dysfunction and in helping guide oncologic and physiatric treatment and prognosis for the cancer rehabilitation patient.

  18. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment References American Cancer Society. Fertility and women with cancer. Updated November 6, 2013. www.cancer. ...

  19. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... On" In Your Community December 13, 2016 Avoiding a Yo-yo Financing Scam December 13, 2016 Media ...

  20. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  1. [New frontiers in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Giampaolo; Daniele, Gennaro

    2006-12-01

    The knowledge acquired in the past few years on the regulatory mechanisms of cancer growth and spreading have started to be translated in the development of a new therapeutic modality directed against previously defined molecular targets, now defined as "target therapy", thus introducing a truly revolutionary concept in the anticancer therapeutic strategies. The novel molecular targeted drugs are usually integrated in therapeutic regimens that combine such novel agents with the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and several studies have now demonstrated their efficacy in the clinical practice. The future goal of cancer therapy will be the tailoring of treatments based on the specific molecular features of the tumor of each patient, with the aim to obtain the maximum therapeutic efficacy with the lowest toxicity.

  2. What's New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer What’s New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? There is always research going on in ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  3. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Increased Risk of Rare Cancer as DES Daughters Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  5. Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, RA; Nieuwenhuijzen, GAP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJT; Hospers, GAP; Wiggers, T

    2004-01-01

    Historically, locally advanced rectal cancer is known for its dismal prognosis. The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is subject to continuous change due to development of new and better diagnostic tools, radiotherapeutic techniques, chemotherapeutic agents and understanding of the

  6. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to create the best and most far-reaching cancer immunotherapy treatments. THE BASICS : The human immune system is ... none, abound these days – and point to why cancer immunotherapies matter. Immunotherapy is “providing options for people out ...

  7. New treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, E.; Schneider, T.C.; Morreau, H.; Gelderblom, H.; Nortier, J.W.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is classified into differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Results of conventional treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer have been disappointing a

  8. Evolution of surgical treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Letyagin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main surgical interventions used to treat breast cancer. It defines the role and place of conservative surgery and describes current procedures for the organ-saving treatment of cancer at this site.

  9. [New antibodies in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C; Knuth, A

    2004-09-22

    Since the development of hybridoma technology in 1975 monoclonal antibodies with pre-defined specificity can be produced. Only twenty years later did it become possible to make therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in oncology. To this end it was necessary to attach the antigen-binding site of a mouse antibody onto the scaffold of a human antibody molecule. Such chimeric or "humanized" antibodies may be used in passive immunotherapy without eliciting an immune response. Rituximab and trastuzumab are such humanized antibodies. They are used today routinely in the treatment of malignant lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. These antibodies are usually used in combination with conventional cytostatic anticancer drugs.

  10. Postparacentesis vulvar edema in ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Bhairavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS is a serious, potentially life threatening complication of ovulation induction. The clinical picture of severe OHSS includes ovarian enlargement, ascites, pleural effusion, increased coagulability, and electrolyte disorders. Very few cases of massive vulvar edema in OHSS have been reported in the literature. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 4064-4066

  11. Spectrum of vulvar lesions: a clinicopathologic study of 170 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Early recognition of vulvar lesions and a prompt biopsy diagnosis for all lesions with suspicious changes is of great significance. The term leukoplakia is imprecise and should be replaced by a precise histological description. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 175-180

  12. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Suresh Ghadyalpatil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC, colorectal cancer (CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, esophageal cancer (EC, and pancreatic cancer (PC. Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist , these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes.The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs need focussed

  13. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  14. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  15. Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sundaram Viswanath; Abhishek Pathak; Amul Kapoor; Anvesh Rathore; Bhupendra Nath Kapur

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic proifle of lung cancer has changed greatly over the years; however, methods for diagnosing, screening, and managing lung cancer patients have improved. This is due to our growing understanding of the biology of lung cancer. It is now possible to further deifne lung cancer types beyond small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Moreover, new histology-based therapeutic modalities have been developed, and more new lung cancer biomarkers have been uncovered. Therefore, more detailed histological characterization of lung cancer samples is warranted in order to determine the best course of treatment for speciifc patients. This review article describes how these new molecular technologies are shaping the way lung cancer can be treated in future.

  16. [Granular cell tumor: report of a complicated vulvar localization of pulmonary metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfiq, N; Sabri, S; Saiss, K; Bouchbika, Z; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2013-11-01

    Granular cell tumour, or Abrikossoff's tumour, is a rare, ubiquitous tumour, with mostly benign evolution. The malignant forms represent 1-3% of the cases. The vulvar localization is exceptional. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient who presented a vulvar Abrikossoff's tumour. Initially considered benign, the tumour was treated by exclusive local surgery. Five months later, the tumour showed a malignant transformation. The tumour size was 14cm in its major axis with the presence of not systematized scattered mitoses, PS 100 was positive at 100% and Ki 67 to 20%. Because of malignant and economic excision of the neoplasm, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. After 20 months, the patient had a local recurrence and lung metastasis, supporting the diagnosis of malignancy. She received two chemotherapy regimens of 5-fluoro-uracil/cisplatin and pacliatxel/carboplatin without any response. Following the failure of chemotherapy, the patient received symptomatic medical treatment. This observation leads to advocate an aggressive surgical treatment and strict supervision of all granular cell tumours.

  17. Contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone provokes vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Martinov

    Full Text Available The interplay among pain, allergy and dysregulated inflammation promises to yield significant conceptual advances in immunology and chronic pain. Hapten-mediated contact hypersensitivity reactions are used to model skin allergies in rodents but have not been utilized to study associated changes in pain perception in the affected skin. Here we characterized changes in mechanical hyperalgesia in oxazolone-sensitized female mice challenged with single and repeated labiar skin exposure to oxazolone. Female mice were sensitized with topical oxazolone on their flanks and challenged 1-3 times on the labia. We then measured mechanical sensitivity of the vulvar region with an electronic pressure meter and evaluated expression of inflammatory genes, leukocyte influx and levels of innervation in the labiar tissue. Oxazolone-sensitized mice developed vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia after a single labiar oxazolone challenge. Hyperalgesia lasted up to 24 hours along with local influx of neutrophils, upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and increased density of cutaneous labiar nerve fibers. Three daily oxazolone challenges produced vulvar mechanical hyperalgesic responses and increases in nerve density that were detectable up to 5 days post-challenge even after overt inflammation resolved. This persistent vulvar hyperalgesia is resonant with vulvodynia, an understudied chronic pain condition that is remarkably prevalent in 18-60 year-old women. An elevated risk for vulvodynia has been associated with a history of environmental allergies. Our pre-clinical model can be readily adapted to regimens of chronic exposures and long-term assessment of vulvar pain with and without concurrent inflammation to improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying subsets of vulvodynia and to develop new therapeutics for this condition.

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of endometrial cancer. Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include unusual vaginal bleeding or pain in the pelvis. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by endometrial cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor ...

  19. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is often found in lesions, previously diagnosed as lichen sclerosus, which have progressed to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; Bulten, Johan; Hollema, Harrie; Dommerholt, Rianne G.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van Kempen, Leon C. L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is considered to be the precursor lesion of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which only 2-5% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) has been proposed to be the direct precursor lesion, but this is a recently recognized, and a dif

  20. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...

  1. Sexual functions and depressive symptoms after photodynamic therapy for vulvar lichen sclerosus in postmenopausal women from the Upper Silesian Region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Olejek, Anita; Drosdzol, Agnieszka; Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Wloch, Stanislaw

    2009-12-01

    Although lichen sclerosus (LS) may affect women's physical functioning, mood, and quality of life, restricting their physical activities, sexual, and non-sexual contacts, there are limited data on the sexual functioning of women diagnosed with LS. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of photodynamic therapy for vulvar LS on sexual functions and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women from the Upper Silesian Region of Poland. A total of 65 women aged 50-70 visiting an outpatient clinic for assessment of vulvar dermatoses were screened for the clinical trial. Finally, 37 women who met all the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the study. All the subjects were treated by topical laser therapy (photodynamic therapy). Sexual functions and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the therapy using Female Sexual Function Index and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Sexual behaviors, sexual functions, and depressive symptoms in females after photodynamic therapy for vulvar LS. The total FSFI score was significantly lower after the treatment of vulvar LS as compared with the baseline (median 24.6 vs. 15.9). However, the prevalence of clinically significant FSD was stable throughout the medical intervention except lubrication disorders (higher prevalence after the treatment: 40% vs. 68.57%). Although the scores of BDI at the baseline dropped significantly after the photodynamic therapy (median 12.0 and 9.0, respectively), there were no significant differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms (48.65% vs. 45.94%). Topical laser therapy for vulvar LS has a good clinical outcome, especially in the context of no major negative effects on sexual functioning and the positive impact on the severity of depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. However, patients should be informed about the possible lubrication disorders following the treatment.

  2. Safe eating during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 165°F (73.9°C). Warm hot dogs and lunch meats to steaming before you eat ... National Cancer Institute: PDQ Nutrition in cancer care. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated January 8, 2016. www.cancer. ...

  3. Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyoshi Aoyagi; Krista P Terracina; Ali Raza; Hisahiro Matsubara; Kazuaki Takabe

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that half of all patients with cancereventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexiaand a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletalmuscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemicinflammation, negative protein and energy balance, andan involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidioussyndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patientquality of life, but also is associated with poor responsesto chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia isstill largely an underestimated and untreated condition,despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported tobe involved in its development, with a number of cytokinespostulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistentcatabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, includingorexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation ofsymptoms and reduction of the distress of patients andfamilies rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapiesfor the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinaryapproach. Combination therapy with diet modificationand/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceuticalagents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone,ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agentsare reported to have improved survival rates as well asquality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emergingunderstanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia,the current treatment options including multidisciplinarycombination therapies, as well an update on new andongoing clinical trials.

  4. Emerging treatments for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Franco; Lu, M Janice

    2003-05-01

    The survival at 5 years, of patients with ovarian cancer, has steadily improved since 1960, when surgery and alkylating agents were the only initial modalities employed to cope with the usual late presentation of the disease. In the 1980s, cisplatin and then carboplatin became established as the most active drugs, alone or in combination with other drugs. In the last decade, the antimicrotubulin drug paclitaxel, and the topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan were noted to be active after failure of platinum drugs. These drugs, as well as others with known activity in the second-line setting, such as the pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, gemcitabine and oral etoposide, all play a role in the treatment of these patients and likely prolong survival without eradicating the disease. The plight of these patients has stimulated new areas of drug development. Here, the evolution of the current therapeutic strategy, the scientific rationale for cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic agents and their status at present are reviewed. 'Targeted' drug trials, in contrast to trials studying cytotoxic drug analogues, currently represent only a minor portion of clinical trials in ovarian cancer.

  5. Depression Treatment Patterns among Elderly with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Findley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about cancer treatment patterns among the elderly as depression and cancer in this older population have not been well explored. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature by using data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from years 2000–2005 to examine depression treatment patterns among elderly diagnosed with both cancer and depression. Depression treatments examined include antidepressants with and without psychotherapy. We found that of those with both cancer and depression, 57.7% reported antidepressant use only, 19.7% received psychotherapy with or without antidepressants, and 22.6% had no depression treatment. We found those with greater comorbidity, of a minority race, with lower levels of education, and living in rural areas were less likely to receive treatment for depression. These findings highlight the need to address disparities in the treatment of depression in the elderly population with cancer.

  6. Personality traits associated with perception of noxious stimuli in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Michal

    2005-03-01

    Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) is associated with enhanced pain sensitivity. The present study explores the role of personality on the perception of noxious stimuli among women with VVS. More specifically, the aim of the study was to explore whether the personality traits assessed by Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) (harm avoidance [HA], novelty seeking [NS], and reward dependence [RD]) are associated with the augmented pain perception in women with VVS. Quantitative sensory tests were applied to the forearm of 98 women with VVS and 135 control subjects, all of whom completed the TPQ. The women with VVS scored higher than the control subjects on HA and RD with no significant differences in NS. Linear regression analyses revealed that in the VVS group, lower pain thresholds and higher magnitude estimations of suprathreshold pain stimuli were associated with higher HA and RD scores. The enhanced pain perception among women with VVS might reflect their tendency to respond intensely to signals of reward and to elevate the perceived risk. This might lead them to avoid hazards by overestimating the level of potential harm, as represented by greater pain sensitivity. The association between personality traits assessed by Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, ie, harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence, and the enhanced perception of noxious stimuli in vulvar vestibulitis syndrome might suggest neurochemical mechanisms of pain experience affected by personality, with possible application for future treatment approaches toward pain disorders.

  7. Unique use of botulinum toxin to decrease adductor tone and allow surgical excision of vulvar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Shin, K

    2004-01-01

    Here, we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with vulvar carcinoma requiring surgical resection and with Parkinson's disease with severe spasticity and contractures of the lower extremities. Because of the patient's severe contractures and spasticity (her knees could only be separated by 2 cm with sustained abducting force), surgical positioning and access to the vulva were impossible. The patient was admitted, intending to undergo surgery after injection with botulinum toxin (BTX) to hip adductors and intensive physical therapy. After confirmed healed hip arthroplasty, the patient underwent BTX injection (400 U) to her bilateral adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles on day 2 of her hospital stay. On day 3, a physical therapist began a twice-a-day stretching program. An adjustable abduction brace was custom-made to provide sustained stretching. On day 9, the patient underwent wide local excision of vulvar carcinoma with the abductor brace in place. The patient tolerated the surgery well and was discharged home on day 11 with continuous physical therapy. Upon discharge, the distance between the patient's knees was 14 cm. This unique case demonstrated a new indication for BTX treatment in the preoperative setting to allow surgical positioning and access.

  8. [Rectal cancer: diagnosis, screening and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decanini-Terán, César Oscar; González-Acosta, Jorge; Obregón-Méndez, Jorge; Vega-de Jesús, Martín

    2011-01-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the primary malignant neoplasms occurring in Mexican patients of reproductive age. Unfortunately, randomized studies in rectal cancer do not exist as they do with well-recognized colon cancer. We must individualize the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approach, staging and treatment because management is different in rectal cancers affecting the mid- and lower third of the rectum than in the upper third and in colon cancers. Histological staging is the primary prognostic factor. TNM staging (tumor, node, and metastasis) is used internationally by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Staging is done with the assistance of endorectal ultrasound, which is best used in early-stage cancer; however, there are certain disadvantages in detecting node involvement. Magnetic resonance, on the other hand, allows for the evaluation of stenotic tumors and node involvement. Once the correct diagnosis and staging have been made, the next step is correct treatment. Neoadjuvant treatment has demonstrated to be better than adjuvant treatment. Abdominoperineal resection is rarely practiced currently, with sphincter preservation being the preferred procedure. Laparoscopic approach has conferred the advantages of the approach itself when performed by experts in the procedure but there is insufficient evidence to make it the "gold standard." Rectal cancer is a complex pathology that must be considered totally different from colon cancer for diagnosis and treatment. The patient must be staged completely and appropriately for individualizing correct treatment. More long-term studies are needed for optimizing treatment modalities.

  9. Cervical cancer screening and treatment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Nakisige

    2017-05-01

    Training of health professionals, ongoing construction of new radiotherapy bunkers, and opening of regional centers are all geared towards improving cervical cancer care in Uganda. The Uganda Cancer Institute Bill establishes the Institute as a semi-autonomous agency mandated to undertake and coordinate the prevention and treatment of cancer. Its implementation will be a milestone in cervical cancer prevention and control. However, execution will require political will and an increase in domestic and international investment.

  10. Pulmonary Complications of Childhood Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, AB; Bresters, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications of childhood cancer treatment are frequently seen. These can lead to adverse sequelae many years after treatment, with important impact on morbidity, quality of life and mortality in childhood cancer survivors. This review addresses the effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy,

  11. Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160652.html Hopes Dashed for Rare Bone Cancer Treatment Extra chemo drugs failed to change course of ... t benefit patients with a rare type of bone cancer, according to a new ... teenagers. With current treatments, only 65 to 70 percent of patients live ...

  12. Vaginal and sexual health treatment strategies within a female sexual medicine program for cancer patients and survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jeanne; Stabile, Cara; Seidel, Barbara; Baser, Raymond E; Goldfarb, Shari; Goldfrank, Deborah J

    2017-04-01

    We sought to evaluate patient adherence and response to simple vaginal and sexual health treatment strategies in female cancer patients receiving treatment at a female sexual medicine and health program and identify improvements of physical symptoms, per patient and clinical evaluation. Evaluability criteria included gynecologic exam at initial visit, at least one follow-up with gynecologic exam within 8 months of initial visit, and all consecutive follow-ups cancers. An assessment form included a clinician evaluation, Vaginal Assessment Scale (VAS), Vulvar Assessment Scale (VuAS), and patient-reported outcomes. Compliance with treatment recommendations were summarized, and changes over time were compared for clinical outcomes. Mean number of visits was 3.43. Mean age was 55.4 years; 92 % (n = 155/169) were in menopause. Treatment strategies included rationale and instruction for use of vaginal moisturizers, lubricants, pelvic floor exercises, and dilator therapy, in addition to psychosexual education regarding sexual changes (response, anatomy, and function) associated with cancer treatment and support. At last assessment, 89 % had complied with the clinical recommendation (moisturize 2-5+ times/week). Vaginal pH scores >6.5 declined over time (p = 0.03). VAS scores improved by last assessment (p vaginal health concerns decreased (p = 0.00003). Significant changes were observed in women using treatment strategies, with improvement in vulvovaginal symptoms, a decrease in elevated vaginal pH and pain with exams, enhanced sexual function, and increased intimacy confidence. These findings have high clinical relevance for symptom management with improvement of sexual function using simple strategies and clinical tools in the oncology setting.

  13. 67 INVITED Personalized surgical treatment for early breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rutgers, E

    2007-01-01

    ... belongtothemodernsurgicalapproachinthebattleagainstlocalisedand locallyadvancedprostatecancer. 67 INVITED Personalized surgical treatment for early breast cancer E.Rutgers. The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department...

  14. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  15. CANCER PAIN ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their management of a hypothetical patient who had severe cancer pain and also asked questions on other issues ... hypothetical patient with terminal pelvic cancer presenting in the .... one of the impediments to adequate analgesic therapy f 'or cancer ... physician attitude and the prevailing culture of the institute where.

  16. Vulvovaginitis and other common vulvar disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen S

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis, labial adhesions, and other vulvar disorders occur commonly in children and can provoke high anxiety in both the parent and child. Performed correctly, the pediatric gynecologic examination can diagnose and treat, educate and reassure both parent and child. This examination requires patience, sensitivity, direct communication with the child as well as with the parent, and an open manner that inspires trust in both parties to manage a potentially anxiety-provoking situation. This chapter will review common vulvar disorders, including vulvovaginitis, lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, bubble bath vaginitis, labial adhesions, urethral prolapse, and other common problems. A discussion of childhood sexual abuse is beyond the scope of this chapter, with appropriate references available elsewhere. Practical pearls will be offered to make this exam easy for the primary care clinician and/or subspecialist.

  17. Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist Before Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Three Good Reasons to See a Dentist BEFORE Cancer Treatment Main Content Protect Your Mouth During Cancer Treatment ... should include a dentist. Protect Your Mouth During Cancer Treatment Brush gently, brush often Brush your teeth—and ...

  18. Vulvar fibroadenoma: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvar fibroadenomas are sporadic lesions informed in the literature and a controversy about origin has been discussed widely. We report a case of a 19 years old woman with a large slow growing mass in the right labia majora with the final diagnosis of fibroadenoma with mammary tissue surrounding it and positive hormone receptors. In this case, we support the origin in ectopic mammary tissue.

  19. Vulvar fibroadenoma: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú de Leon, David; Perez Montiel, Delia; Vázquez, Hugo; Hernández, César; Cetina, Lucely; Lucio, Martha Hernandez

    2009-09-28

    Vulvar fibroadenomas are sporadic lesions informed in the literature and a controversy about origin has been discussed widely. We report a case of a 19 years old woman with a large slow growing mass in the right labia majora with the final diagnosis of fibroadenoma with mammary tissue surrounding it and positive hormone receptors. In this case, we support the origin in ectopic mammary tissue.

  20. Vulvar fibroadenoma: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site

    OpenAIRE

    Cetina Lucely; Hernández César; Vázquez Hugo; Perez Montiel Delia; Cantú de Leon David; Lucio Martha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vulvar fibroadenomas are sporadic lesions informed in the literature and a controversy about origin has been discussed widely. We report a case of a 19 years old woman with a large slow growing mass in the right labia majora with the final diagnosis of fibroadenoma with mammary tissue surrounding it and positive hormone receptors. In this case, we support the origin in ectopic mammary tissue.

  1. Overview: New Modality for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now becoming a promising modality of cancer treatment upon the clinical successes of adoptive T-cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockade. At the 30th Nagoya International Cancer Treatment Symposium, Marcel R.M. van den Brink (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) showed novel strategies to control malignant relapse and graft-versus-host disease, both major obstacles for clinical benefits in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Alexander M. Lesokhin (MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) presented an overview of immune checkpoint blockade, particularly focusing on hematologic malignancies stressing the importance of immunomonitoring to identify biomarkers.

  2. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  3. DESVIOS DE SAÚDE EM PORTADORAS DE CONDILOMA VULVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Condiloma vulvar se caracteriza por verrugas genitales causadas por papilomavirus humano (VHP, enfermedad sexualmente transmisible. Se planteó identificar comportamientos de auto-cuidado a partir de los requisitos por desvío de salud en mujeres portadoras de Condiloma vulvar. Estudio transversal en una muestra de atención médica de uno de los investigadores de una institución pública, referencia en Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles, en Fortaleza - CE, con 30 mujeres, entre agosto y septiembre del 2007. Se empleó una entrevista con preguntas abiertas y cerradas. Los datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Se observó que las entrevistadas poseen bajo nivel socio-económico y educacional. Los comportamientos de auto-cuidado identificados, en esta investigación, a partir de los requisitos por desvío de salud fueron: desconocimiento de la enfermedad, inestabilidad emocional, falta de colaboración de los compañeros, dificultad financiera para comparecer a citas marcadas. De esa manera, conocer los comportamientos de auto-cuidado por desvío de salud en mujeres portadoras de Condiloma vulvar permitió percibir que presentan déficit de auto-cuidado que independen de la voluntad de estas mujeres.

  4. Male breast cancer: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotko, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Despite male breast cancer is rare in occurrence, it is a serious problem. In 2012, 130 men in Ukraine got breast cancer that constituted 0.74% from all patients with mentioned pathology detected in the course of year. Every year in Ukraine approximately 100 men die from breast cancer. Still many aspects of male breast cancer remain unstudied. It occurs since information about mentioned disease is mainly based on retrospective analysis of small groups. Treatment of men, who got breast cancer, is based on knowledge, which has been obtained in treatment of women with this pathology. This article is based on the results of analysis of 168 cases of breast cancer in men, who have been examined and treated in the period from 1956 to 2012. In paper the peculiarities of clinical manifestations of male breast cancer have been determined, the optimal volume of diagnostic procedures in men with suspicion of breast cancer has been established, the mammographic signs have been detected and the possible histological variants of disease have been determined, clinical course peculiarities of male breast cancer have been defined, the most essential factors of prognosis of the disease have been fixed. Furthermore, in article optimal volume of surgical treatment of male breast cancer has been substantiated, the role and place of radiotherapy in treatment of this pathology has been determined. It has been proved that adjuvant polychemotherapy should be applied to the patients with male breast cancer independently from stage of process. Also optimal schemes of this kind of treatment have been determined. The efficacy of hormonal therapy with antiestrogen in patients with positive receptors of steroid hormones and at presence of unfavorable prognostic factors of disease has been demonstrated. The inefficiency of orchiectomy as one of the widespread kinds of hormonal therapy of male breast cancer has been defined.

  5. Neoadjuvant Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulM.Schneider; HuanXi; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; RalfMetzger

    2004-01-01

    Because the conflicting data currently available from the performed randomized trials it is very difficult to provide strict guidelines for the treatment of patients with locoregional advanced esophageal cancers. Surgery however, remains the standard of care for potentially resectable disease. Preoperative chemotherapy is still controversial with two large randomized trials resulting in two different conclusions regarding the survival benefit. Preoperative chemoradiation is also controversial since only one randomized trial showed a clear survival benefit however, the patients treated with surgery alone in this trial had an unusually poor outcome. And the study by Urba et al was not powered enough to show a clear survival benefit for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The results of three metaanalysis of these randomized studies show lower rate of resection, higher rate of R0-resection, more often postoperative mortality and better prognosis for patients with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. As a consequence one may consider offering neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to patients with locallyadvanced disease under the premise that patients have a good performance status and understand the controversies about this therapeutic option. Larger trials with sufficient power to clearly detect survival benefits for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy are necessary before this therapeutic option will be the standard of care.

  6. Lung cancer: current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Wirtz, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Much progress has been made in the treatment of lung cancer in the last ten years (adjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapy, individualized therapy). Nonetheless, lung cancer is still the leading cause of death due to cancer and thus remains a major medical, scientific, and social problem. This review is based on national and international recommendations and selected articles from the literature. Cigarette smoking is the major pathogenic factor for lung cancer. Lung cancer can be divided into two major types that differ in their biological behavior, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Whenever possible, the diagnosis should be confirmed by biopsy, the extent of disease should be documented in detail (international TNM classification/staging), and the patient's functional level should be assessed with a view toward treatment planning. Surgery for non-small cell lung cancer with curative intent is possible up to stage IIIA, while stage IIIB is the domain of radiotherapy. Surgery for small cell lung cancer with curative intent is possible for rare cases in early stages (T1N0 and T2N0, i.e., stage IA and IB). As long as small cell lung cancer is restricted to one side of the chest, simultaneous radiation therapy and chemotherapy are indicated. If a malignant pleural effusion or distant metastases are present, both lung cancers are treated palliatively with platinum-based chemotherapy.

  7. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  8. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Fantini; Lorenzo Gianni; Carlotta Santelmo; Fabrizio Drudi; Cinzia Castellani; Alessandra Affatato; Mario Nicolini; Alberto Ravaioli

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these cha...

  9. [Selenium and cancer: from prevention to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanová, J

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for all animals, including human beings, that is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of its anticancer action is not yet fully understood, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection through selenoenzymes, stimulation of DNA repair, and apoptosis in tumor prestages have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last "SELECT" trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se has been demonstrated in a majority of epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment, where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation it may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as a prooxidant rather than an antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, inorganic Se compounds, having high redox potency, represent a promising option in cancer therapy.

  10. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  11. Safety of anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Ineke Theodora; Bleker, Suzanne Mariella; Van Es, Nick; Buller, Harry Roger; Di Nisio, Marcello; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of (recurrent) venous thronnboembolism. They are also at increased risk of bleeding. This makes treatment of venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in cancer patients challenging. Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on the safety of anticoagul

  12. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  13. Treatment of Cancer-Associated Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. van Sluis; H.R. Buller

    2009-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important complication in cancer patients, which is associated with bad outcome. Increased recurrence rates and bleeding complications as compared to non-cancer patients during the treatment of VTE, require special attention. This review aims to summarize the avail

  14. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, IJ de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by tra

  15. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, LB; Andersson, M; Gospodarowicz, M; van Leeuwen, FE; Bergfeldt, K; Lynch, CF; Curtis, RE; Kohler, BA; Wiklund, T; Storm, H; Holowaty, E; Hall, P; Pukkala, E; Sleijfer, DT; Clarke, EA; Boice, JD; Stovall, M; Gilbert, E

    2000-01-01

    Background: Men with testicular cancer are at an increased risk of leukemia, but the relationship to prior treatments is not well characterized. The purpose of our study was to describe the risk of leukemia following radiotherapy and chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Methods: Within a

  16. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  17. Lung cancer: Biology and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Hassan, Omer Ui; Yang, Yi-Wei; Buchanan, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still unsatisfactory. The responses to current standard therapies are poor except for the most localized cancers. However, a better understanding of the biology pertinent to these challenging malignancies, might lead to the development of more efficacious and perhaps more specific drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation.

  18. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  19. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wahbi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  20. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a well that has high levels of arsenic . Drinking water that has been treated with chlorine . ... of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative ...

  2. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men with metastatic breast cancer that is HER2/neu positive , treatment may include: Targeted therapy such as ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department ...

  4. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  5. Radiotherapy forgynecologic cancer innonagenarian patients:a framework fornew paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BenoteMry; AlexisVallard; SophieEspenel; GuillaumeMoriceau; OlivierCollard; ClaireBosacki; JeanPhilippeJacquin; GuydeLaroche; PierreFournel; CyrusChargari; Nicolas Magn; SylvieMengueNdong; JeanBaptisteGuy; AviAssouline; AlexanderTFalk; AnasValeille; JaneChloTrone; RomainRivoirard; PierreAuberdiac

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the role of radiotherapy in the management of gynecologic cancer in nonagenar‑ian patients. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 19 consecutive nonagenarian patients with gynecologic cancer (6 endometrial cancers, 6 cervical cancers, 4 vulvar cancers, and 3 vaginal cancers) who were treated with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was performed mainly in a palliative setting (n=12; 63.2%), with a median dose of 45Gy (range, 6–76Gy). Infrequent major acute or late toxicities were reported. Among 19 patients, 9 (47.4%) experienced tumor progression, 5 (26.3%) experienced complete response, 2 (10.5%) experienced stable disease and/or partial response. At last follow‑up, 12 patients (63.2%) had died; most deaths (n=9) occurred because of the cancer. These results suggest that radiotherapy is feasible in the treatment of nonagenarian patients with gynecologic cancer.

  6. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  7. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapi

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by ...

  11. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  12. Childhood cancer and vitamins: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-02-01

    Discussions of pediatric nutrition and cancer usually focus on important issues of ensuring an adequate nutrient intake (enteral and parenteral) during and after the early treatment phase of care. However, information is available that suggests that vitamin status may have additional roles in the care of children with cancer. Over the last decade, investigators have reported findings that suggest that maternal preconception and perinatal vitamin intake and status influence the cancer risk of the infant and child. Others have shown a relationship between vitamin and antioxidant status and the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects for children undergoing chemotherapy. Vitamin D has potential anti-cancer activity and vitamin D status is suboptimal in many children in North America. Each of these issues is briefly presented from a perspective of prevention and treatment of childhood cancer.

  13. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  14. Fenretinide: a novel treatment for endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdha Mittal

    Full Text Available Resistance to progestin treatment is a major hurdle in the treatment of advanced and reoccurring endometrial cancer. Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid that has been evaluated in clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic and chemo-preventive agent. Fenretinide has been established to be cytotoxic to many kinds of cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenretinide decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in Ishikawa cells, which are an endometrial cancer cell line, in dose dependent manner in-vitro. This effect was found to be independent of retinoic acid nuclear receptor signaling pathway. Further, we have shown that this induction of apoptosis by fenretinide may be caused by increased retinol uptake via STRA6. Silencing of STRA6 was shown to decrease apoptosis which was inhibited by knockdown of STRA6 expression in Ishikawa cells. Results of an in-vivo study demonstrated that intraperitoneal injections of fenretinide in endometrial cancer tumors (created using Ishikawa cells in mice inhibited tumor growth effectively. Immunohistochemistry of mice tumors showed a decrease in Ki67 expression and an increase in cleaved caspase-3 staining after fenretinide treatment when compared to vehicle treated mice. Collectively, our results are the first to establish the efficacy of fenretinide as an antitumor agent for endometrial cancer both in-vitro and in-vivo, providing a valuable rationale for initiating more preclinical studies and clinical trials using fenretinide for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  15. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  16. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Screening Research Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Non-Small ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  18. Mouth Sores Caused by Cancer Treatment: How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Cancer Understand how to manage cancer treatment side effects, including mouth sores, so you can feel more in control as you go through cancer treatment. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're about ...

  19. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  20. How useful are unconventional cancer treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; Cassileth, B R

    1999-10-01

    Unconventional cancer treatments are used frequently. Therefore, oncologists need to know about them. This article gives an overview of current knowledge on the most prevalent complementary or alternative cancer therapies. A distinction is made between alleged cures, preventive and adjunctive measures. Shark cartilage, mistletoe, thymus therapy, essiac, hydrazine sulphate, 714-X, dietary regimens, green tea and Panax ginseng are all covered specifically. None of these treatments offer reasonable hope for a cure. Some strategies are promising in terms of cancer prevention. The true potential of unconventional therapies might lie in adjunctive and palliative care. It is concluded that good evidence in this area is scarce. Vis-à-vis the high prevalence of unconventional cancer treatments, rigorous investigations are mandatory, not least for increasing the safety of future patients.

  1. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  2. Perianal and Vulvar Extramammary Paget Disease: A Report of Six Cases and Mapping Biopsy of the Anal Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Sinsuke; Yamada, Daisuke; Miyagawa, Takuya; Murono, Koji; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Masui, Yuri; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Kadono, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of perianal and vulvar extramammary Paget disease (EMPD), rare intraepithelial malignancies, is often challenging because of its potential to spread into the anal canal. However, there is still no consensus regarding the optimal resection margin within the anal canal. Between 2004 and 2014, six patients (three with perianal EMPD and three with vulvar EMPD) in which the spread of Paget cells into the anal canal was highly suspected were referred to our department. To evaluate the disease extent within the anal canal, preoperative mapping biopsy of the anal canal was performed in five out of six patients. Two patients were positive for Paget cells within the anal canal (one at the dentate line and the other at 0.5 cm above the dentate line), whereas in three patients, Paget cell were present only in the skin of the anal verge. Using 1 cm margin within the anal canal from the positive biopsy sites, we performed anal-preserving wide local excision (WLE), and negative resection margins within the anal canal were confirmed in all five patients. The remaining one patient with perianal EMPD did not undergo mapping biopsy of the anal canal because preoperative colonoscopy revealed that the Paget cells had spread into the lower rectum. Therefore, WLE with abdominoperineal resection was performed. During the median follow-up period of 37.3 months, no local recurrence was observed in all patients. Our small case series suggest the usefulness of mapping biopsy of the anal canal for the treatment of perianal and vulvar EMPD. PMID:27746643

  3. Assessment of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity among women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Carter, Jeanne; Lin, Li; Lindau, Stacy T; Jeffery, Diana D; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2017-04-01

    Multidimensional self-report measures of sexual function for women do not include the assessment of vulvar discomfort, limiting our understanding of its prevalence. In an effort to improve the measurement of patient-reported health, the National Institutes of Health funded the creation of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). This included the development of the PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure, and version 2.0 of the Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure included 2 scales to measure vulvar discomfort with sexual activity. The objectives of the study were to describe the development of 2 self-reported measures of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity, describe the relationships between these scales and scales for lubrication and vaginal discomfort, and report the prevalence of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity in a large, nationally representative sample of US women. We followed PROMIS measure development standards, including qualitative development work with patients and clinicians and psychometric evaluation of candidate items based on item response theory, in a probability sample of 1686 English-speaking US adult women. We tested 16 candidate items on vulvar discomfort. We present descriptive statistics for these items, correlation coefficients among the vulvar and vaginal scales, and mean PROMIS scores with 95% confidence intervals separately by menopausal status for the 1046 women who reported sexual activity in the past 30 days. Based on the psychometric evaluation of the candidate items, we created 2 separate 4 item scales, one to measure labial discomfort and pain and one to measure clitoral discomfort and pain. Additional items not included in the scales assess pain quality, numbness, and bleeding. The correlations between the lubrication, vaginal discomfort, and the 2 vulvar discomfort measures ranged from 0.46 to 0.77, suggesting that these measures represent related yet distinct concepts. In

  4. Current surgical treatment for bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuji Seyama; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2007-01-01

    Since extrahepatic bile duct cancer is difficult to diagnose and to cure, a safe and radical surgical strategy is needed. In this review, the modes of infiltration and spread of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and surgical strategy are discussed. Extended hemihepatectomy, with or without pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), plus extrahepatic bile duct resection and regional lymphadenectomy has recently been recognized as the standard curative treatment for hilar bile duct cancer. On the other hand, PD is the choice of treatment for middle and distal bile duct cancer. Major hepatectomy concomitant with PD (hepatopancreatoduodenectomy) has been applied to selected patients with widespread tumors. Preoperative biliary drainage (BD) followed by portal vein embolization (PVE) enables major hepatectomy in patients with hilar bile duct cancer without mortality. BD should be performed considering the surgical procedure, especially, in patients with separated intrahepatic bile ducts caused by hilar bile duct cancer. Right or left trisectoriectomy are indicated according to the tumor spread and biliary anatomy. As a result, extended radical resection offers a chance for cure of hilar bile duct cancer with improved resectability, curability, and a 5-year survival rate of 40%. A 5-year survival rate has ranged from 24% to 39% after PD for middle and distal bile duct cancer.

  5. Nanomedicine for Treatment of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the primary cause of cancer-related death in both men and women in the United States and rest of the world. Due to diagnosis at an advanced stage, it is associated with a high mortality in a majority of patients. In recent years, enormous advances have occurred in the development and application of nanotechnology in the detection, diagnosis, and therapy of cancer. This progress has led to the development of the emerging field of "cancer nanomedicine." Nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems have gained immense popularity due to their bioavailability, in vivo stability, intestinal absorption, solubility, sustained and targeted delivery, and therapeutic effectiveness of several anticancer agents. Currently, a plethora of nanocarrier formulations are utilized including lipid-based, polymeric and branched polymeric, metal-based, magnetic, and mesoporous silica. In lung cancer, nanoparticle-based therapeutics is paving the way in the diagnosis, imaging, screening, and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. The application and expansion of novel nanocarriers for drug delivery is an exciting and challenging research filed, in particular for the delivery of emerging cancer therapies. Some of the current progress and challenges in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems for lung cancer treatment are discussed.

  6. VULVODINIA: UN DIAGNÓSTICO OLVIDADO FRENTE AL DOLOR VULVAR

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La vulvodinia es una patología compleja y de difícil tratamiento. Se define como un dolor crónico de la vulva, que puede ser generalizado o localizado. La primera vez que se escribe sobre esta fue en 1889, por Skene. Sin embargo, es sólo hasta 1976, que los miembros de la International Society for Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases, reconocieron el dolor vulvar como una entidad patológica. Se estima una prevalencia de un 15%, con unas 14 millones de mujeres que lo padecen en EEUU. Generalmente co...

  7. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment It is normal to have different feelings, emotions and fears after treatment ends. Not everyone feels ... to normal over many months. You may dye, color or treat your hair whenever you like. Regular ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Oropharyngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the oropharynx . These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue . Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ . Enlarge Tumor sizes. The size of a tumor may be compared to the size of a pea (1 cm), peanut (2 cm), grape (3 cm), walnut (4 cm), lime (5 cm), ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Laryngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the vocal cords cannot move normally. Subglottis: Cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords, which may not move normally. Enlarge Tumor sizes. The size of a tumor may be compared to the size of a pea (1 cm), peanut (2 cm), grape (3 cm), walnut (4 cm), lime (5 cm), ...

  10. Failure in the detection of the sentinel lymph node with a combined technique of radioactive tracer and blue dye in a patient with cancer of the vulva and a single positive lymph node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fons, G; ter Rahe, B; Sloof, G; de Hullu, J; van der Velden, J

    Background. In early stage vulvar cancer, the sentinel lymph node procedure with a radioactive tracer appears to be a promising new diagnostic tool to predict lymph node status. No detection failures have been published so far in vulvar cancer. We recently experienced failure in the detection of the

  11. Vaginal Health During Breast Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sandy J; Bober, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    There are increasing numbers of breast cancer survivors. Chemotherapy or endocrine therapy result in effects on vaginal health that may affect quality of life. These effects may impact sexual function, daily comfort, or the ability to perform a pelvic examination. Vulvovaginal atrophy, or genitourinary syndrome of menopause, may be treated with nonhormonal or hormonal measures. Breast cancer survivors who are menopausal and/or on endocrine therapy should be screened for issues with vaginal health and counseled about treatment options.

  12. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the p...

  13. [Clonidine in the treatment of cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bøje; Sjøgren, Per

    2008-01-01

    Clonidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist with analgetic properties. Due to its side-effects, the drug is administered via the epidural or spinal route. A literature search yielded nine controlled studies on clonidine as a supplemental drug in the epidural or spinal treatment of cancer pain....... These studies were systematically reviewed to evaluate the evidence of efficacy in patients with cancer pain. CONCLUSION: Despite weak evidence, clonidine may be a useful adjunct in epidural or spinal morphine therapy of cancer pain Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/3...

  14. Notch Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Miele, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway involved in cell fate during development, stem cell renewal and differentiation in postnatal tissues. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, in the biology of cancer stem cells and tumor angiogenesis have been reported. These features identify Notch as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. Based on the molecular structure of Notch receptor, Notch ligands and Notch activators, a set of Notch pathway inhibitors have been de...

  15. Current practice of gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Young Choi; Ji Yeong An; Hyung-Il Kim; Jae-Ho Cheong; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to overview the current practice of gastric cancer treatment including surgery and other adjuvant modalities.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and main guidelines in the East and West.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Although varied adjuvant modalities have been proved to be benefit for treating gastric cancer,surgery is still the most important treatment strategy against gastric cancer.Actively adapting to new technology is important but it should be balanced with an effort to establish sound scientific rationale that adheres to oncologic principles.Conclusions Future treatment of gastric cancer will be focused on tailored,personalized therapy.For achieving it,collaboration across disciplines is essential.Also the philosophy of caring for the patients with gastric cancer should be rooted in the realization of true patient benefit regardless of who is providing the care.With these philosophies,we can shift the scientific and technological advances toward triumph over gastric cancer.

  16. Radioiodine in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Douglas; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of radioactive iodine (131-I) in the treatment of patients who have well differentiated thyroid cancer. We review definitions; staging; the two-principal methods for selection of a dosage of 131-I for ablation and treatment; the objectives of ablation and treatment; the indications for ablation and treatment; the recommendations for the use of 131-I for ablation and treatment contained in the Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association, the European Consensus, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine; the dosage recommendations and selection of dosage for 131-I by the these organizations; and the Washington Hospital Center approach.

  17. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  18. Rectal cancer treatment: Improving the picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach for rectal cancer treatment is currently well defined. Nevertheless, new and promising advances are enriching the portrait. Since the US NIH Consensus in the early 90's some new characters have been added. A bird's-eye view along the last decade shows the main milestones in the development of rectal cancer treatment protocols. New drugs, in combination with radiotherapy are being tested to increase response and tumor control outcomes. However, therapeutic intensity is often associated with toxicity. Thus, innovative strategies are needed to create a better-balanced therapeutic ratio. Molecular targeted therapies and improved technology for delivering radiotherapy respond to the need for accuracy and precision in rectal cancer treatment.

  19. Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    general U.S. population, with a higher7,8 incidence of melanoma, testicular, thyroid, cervical , and vulvar cancers in the Air Force population,7...particularly cervical and vulvar cancer . Another review demonstrated a higher rate of prostate cancer in the military beneficiary population compared to the...Project (RP) and Military Relevance (MR) CA093204 Genetic Cancer Yusuf $109,399 University of Alabama at Birmingham Role of p16 /INK4a in

  20. Vulvar lactating adenoma associated to a fibroadenoma: common neoplasms in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaoui, Amen; Nfoussi, Haifa; Kchir, Nidhameddine; Haouet, Slim

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign (fibroadenoma) or malignant pathologic processes. Less than forty cases of fibroadenomas have been reported in the literature. Although lactation changes can occur, lactating adenoma in the vulva are extremely rare. Only four cases have been reported. We report a case of a young woman who presented with vulvar mass during her lactation. The mass was excised, and histology confirmed vulvar lactating adenoma associated with fibroadenoma. This is the first case of vulvar heterotopic breast lesion associating lactating adenoma and fibroadenoma.

  1. Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alemany

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic use of viruses against cancer has been revived during the last two decades. Oncolytic viruses replicate and spread inside tumors, amplifying their cytotoxicity and simultaneously reversing the tumor immune suppression. Among different viruses, recombinant adenoviruses designed to replicate selectively in tumor cells have been clinically tested by intratumoral or systemic administration. Limited efficacy has been associated to poor tumor targeting, intratumoral spread, and virocentric immune responses. A deeper understanding of these three barriers will be required to design more effective oncolytic adenoviruses that, alone or combined with chemotherapy or immunotherapy, may become tools for oncologists.

  2. Radiation treatment of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, S.; Arai, T.; Kurisu, A. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical results obtained in 129 primary malignant ovarian cancer patients who had been treated by 4 modes of postoperative irradiation between 1961 and 1980 at NIRS. The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 52% (45/86) and 43% (32/75) in total and 71% (20/28) and 59% (10/17) in whole abdominal irradiation cases, respectively. Leucopenia (>2,000) occurred in 48%, ileus in 5.2% of the latter cases. The necessity of combining radiation therapy with surgery and chemotherapy was emphasized.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the following rare disorders that are inherited (passed down from parent to child): Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome . Treatment with radiation therapy may increase the risk ...

  4. Treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monica; Millan; Sandra; Merino; Aleidis; Caro; Francesc; Feliu; Jordi; Escuder; Tani; Francesch

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high incidence, and approxi-mately 60% of colorectal cancer patients are older than 70, with this incidence likely increasing in the near future. Elderly patients(> 70-75 years of age) are a very heterogeneous group, ranging from the very fit to the very frail. Traditionally, these patients have often been under-treated and recruited less frequently to clinical trials than younger patients, and thus are underrepresented in publications about cancer treatment. Recent studies suggest that fit elderly patients can be treated in the same way as their younger counterparts, but the treatment of frail patients with comorbidities is still a matter of controversy. Many factors should be taken into account, including fitness for treatment, the wishes of the patient and family, and quality of life. This review will focus on the existing evidence for surgical, oncologic, and palliative treatment in patients over 70 years old with colorectal cancer. Careful patient assessment is necessary in order to individualize treatment approach, and this should rely on a multidisciplinary process. More well-designed controlled trials are needed in this patient population.

  5. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ellegaard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  6. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We...... then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients...... with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any...

  7. Lipoplatin treatment in lung and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Manuela; Gianni, Lorenzo; Santelmo, Carlotta; Drudi, Fabrizio; Castellani, Cinzia; Affatato, Alessandra; Nicolini, Mario; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteristics. Lipoplatin was shown to be effective in NSCLC both in phase 2 and phase 3 trials, with the same response rate of Cisplatin, a comparable overall survival but less toxicity. A new protocol aiming to elucidate the double capacity of Lipoplatin to act as a chemotherapeutic and angiogenetic agent in triple-negative breast cancer patients is upcoming.

  8. Radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer in nonagenarian patients: a framework for new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méry, Benoîte; Ndong, Sylvie Mengue; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Assouline, Avi; Falk, Alexander T; Valeille, Anaïs; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Rivoirard, Romain; Auberdiac, Pierre; Vallard, Alexis; Espenel, Sophie; Moriceau, Guillaume; Collard, Olivier; Bosacki, Claire; Jacquin, Jean-Philippe; de Laroche, Guy; Fournel, Pierre; Chargari, Cyrus; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-05-09

    No consensus exists regarding the role of radiotherapy in the management of gynecologic cancer in nonagenarian patients. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 19 consecutive nonagenarian patients with gynecologic cancer (6 endometrial cancers, 6 cervical cancers, 4 vulvar cancers, and 3 vaginal cancers) who were treated with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was performed mainly in a palliative setting (n = 12; 63.2%), with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 6-76 Gy). Infrequent major acute or late toxicities were reported. Among 19 patients, 9 (47.4%) experienced tumor progression, 5 (26.3%) experienced complete response, 2 (10.5%) experienced stable disease and/or partial response. At last follow-up, 12 patients (63.2%) had died; most deaths (n = 9) occurred because of the cancer. These results suggest that radiotherapy is feasible in the treatment of nonagenarian patients with gynecologic cancer.

  9. HPV Vaccine May Also Prevent Cancers Affecting Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165705.html HPV Vaccine May Also Prevent Cancers Affecting Men Study finds ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved HPV vaccines for prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal ...

  10. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  11. Cyclopamine: from cyclops lambs to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Garrossian, Massoud; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2014-07-30

    In the late 1960s, the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine was isolated from the plant Veratrum californicum and identified as the teratogen responsible for craniofacial birth defects including cyclops in the offspring of sheep grazing on mountain ranges in the western United States. Cyclopamine was found to inhibit the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in embryonic development. More recently, aberrant Hh signaling has been implicated in several types of cancer. Thus, inhibitors of the Hh signaling pathway, including cyclopamine derivatives, have been targeted as potential treatments for certain cancers and other diseases associated with the Hh signaling pathway. A brief history of cyclopamine and cyclopamine derivatives investigated for the treatment of cancer is presented.

  12. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  13. THROAT CANCER MONITORING DURING SPECIAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Surovtsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper attempts to objectify the course of a tumor process in patients diagnosed as having throat cancer during radiation or chemoradiation therapy. The authors propose a diagnostic algorithm which enables one not only to see the actual extent of a tumor, but also to estimate the degree of its resorption; hence, to more accurately plan special treatment and to timely change the treatment policy.

  14. Post-steroid management of chronic vulvar itching with a topical formula containing natural anti-itching and anti-inflammatory actives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Eleonora Di Maio,2 Gaetana Di Paola,3 Raffaele Felice,4 Filippo Murina41Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy; 3ASL TO-3/TO-4, Turin, Italy; 4Outpatient Department of Vulvar Disease, V Buzzi Hospital-ICP, Milan, ItalyAim: To determine whether use of a topical, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itching formula was able to preserve the absence of symptoms, mainly itching and burning, induced by an earlier and relatively short treatment with topical steroids in women diagnosed with vulvar dermatitis or lichen simplex.Methods: Ninety-six subjects (36 with contact dermatitis, 29 with allergic dermatitis, 31 with lichen simplex were enrolled in the study. All participants were first treated with topical mometasone furoate (MF 0.1%. When the symptoms disappeared, they were treated either with Zantogin®, a multicomponent topical formula containing anti-inflammatory and anti-itching natural actives, or a control cream for 60 days.Results: The study demonstrated that, in about 85% of the participants treated with Zantogin®, symptoms disappeared completely, and only 15% had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use of about three applications per subject (in total. In the placebo group, approximately 90% of participants had to resort to MF as needed, with an average use per person of more than 16 applications in 60 days.Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that, following use of a topical steroid, symptoms such as burning and itching can be validly controlled with subsequent and longer therapy with a herbal topical formula, Zantogin®, which is able to properly counteract itching and inflammation, prevent symptom relapse, and avoid the typical side effects associated with prolonged use of topical steroids.Keywords: vulvar dermatitis, lichen simplex chronicus, vulvar itching, Zantogin®, zanthalene

  15. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.;

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  16. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  17. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  18. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers For Military Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Legal ... in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam ...

  19. Improvements in locoregional treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer represents the most common female malignancy in the developed world, affecting approximately one out of eight women during her lifetime. Nowadays local control is excellent as a result of several improvements in diagnosis and treatment over the past few decades. This means that many pa

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laser surgery : A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor. Cryosurgery : A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy ...

  1. Treatment of locally advanced prostatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A locally advanced prostate cancer is defined as a malignant process spreading beyond the prostate capsule or in seminal vesicles but without distant metastasis or regional lymph nodes invasion. Clinical classification, prediction and treatment of prostate cancer. An exact staging of clinical T3 stadium is usually difficult because of the frequent over and under staging. The risk prognostic stratification is performed through nomograms and ANN (artificial neural networks. The options for treatment are: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, hormonal therapy by androgen blockade. Radical prostatectomy is considered in patients with T3 stage but extensive dissection of lymph nodes, dissection of neurovascular bundle (on tumor side, total removal of seminal vesicle and sometimes resection of bladder neck are obligatory. Postoperative radiotherapy is performed in patients with invasion of seminal vesicles and capsular penetration or with prostate specific antigen value over 0.1 ng/ml, one month after the surgical treatment. Definitive radiotherapy could be used as the best treatment option considering clinical stage, Gleason score, age, starting prostate specific antigen (PSA value, concomitant diseases, life expectancy, quality of life, through multidisciplinary approach (combined with androgen deprivation. Hormonal therapy in intended for patients who are not eligible for surgical treatment or radiotherapy. Conclusion. Management of locally advanced prostate cancer is still controversial and studies for better diagnosis and new treatment modalities are ongoing.

  2. [Multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer in 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Hirokazu; Sagawa, M; Usuda, K; Ueno, M; Tanaka, M; Machida, Y; Sakuma, T

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Recently, big progress in the treatment of lung cancer has been achieved, such as new anti-cancer drugs, molecular targeted therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, etc. Multidisciplinary approach has been required to the therapy for lung cancer patients. In this paper, we introduce The 21st Century Multidisciplinary Center in Kanazawa Medical University, and the Hokuriku Training Program for Making Specialists in Cancer Treatment.

  3. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies,ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States.Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure,but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation.Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes "standard"adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer.This controversy derives from several studies,each fraught with its own limitations.Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy,for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe.Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy,the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers,identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients.In this review,authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients.

  4. Pancreatic cancer, treatment options, and GI-4000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Marion L; Bade, Najeebah A; Prins, Petra A; Ampie, Leonel; Marshall, John L

    2015-01-01

    Although pancreatic cancer is but the eleventh most prevalent cancer in the US, it is predicted that of all the patients newly diagnosed with this disease in 2014, only 27% will still be alive at the end of the first year and only 6% will make it past 5 years. The choice of chemotherapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer is dependent on disease stage and patient performance status but, in general, the most widely used approved regimens include 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combinations and gemcitabine combinations. Recent therapeutic strategies have resulted in an improvement in survival of patients with pancreatic cancer but the magnitude of change is disappointing and vast improvements are still needed. The goal of immunotherapy is to enhance and guide the body's immune system to recognize tumor-specific antigens and mount an attack against the disease. Among newer immune therapies, GI-4000 consists of 4 different targeted molecular immunogens, each containing a different Ras protein (antigen) encoded by the most commonly found mutant RAS genes in solid tumors—RAS mutations exist in over 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. We will review pancreatic cancer epidemiology and its current treatment options, and consider the prospects of immunotherapy, focusing on GI-4000. We discuss the potential mechanism of action of GI-4000, and the performance of this vaccination series thus far in early phase clinical trials. PMID:25585100

  5. Retinoids in lung cancer chemoprevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, S; Raffo, P; Isnardi, L; Palumbo, R

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we aim to synthesize the emerging picture of retinoids in lung cancer through a summary of ongoing investigations in biology, chemoprevention and therapy settings, in an attempt to clarify the possible role of these agents in such a disease. Early work in head and neck cancer has evidenced the capability of retinoids to interrupt field carcinogenesis by reversing premalignant lesions and decreasing the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). At this time, the completed randomized trials in lung cancer have failed to demonstrate an evident chemopreventive effect of the tested agents on different study end points, although both a marginally significant benefit of retinol palmitate in time-to-development rates for smoke-related SPTs and a potential preventive effect of retinol supplementation against mesothelioma in selected populations of asbestos-exposed workers have been recently reported. Concerning the role of retinoids in lung cancer treatment, a moderate activity of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) or all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) as single agents has been reported in small series of advanced, mostly pretreated lung cancer patients. More encouraging findings derive from combination studies, in which retinoids, especially ATRA, are added to either alpha-interferon or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Major recent advances have been made towards the understanding of retinoids mechanisms of action; at this regard, the role of RAR-beta basal or treatment-induced levels seems to be of particular interest as intermediate end point and/or independent prognostic factor, besides their known importance in lung carcinogenesis. Future research for chemopreventive and therapeutic programs with retinoids in lung cancer should be focused on the investigation of new generation compounds with a specificity for individual retinoid nuclear receptors. Such selective molecules may have a greater activity against lung cancer, with a more favourable toxicity profile, as

  6. Nanoparticle therapeutics for prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Sechi, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine is offering many exciting possibilities in healthcare. Engineered nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and the therapy of several diseases, particularly by targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Prostate cancer, the second most common cancer in men, represents one of the major epidemiological problems, especially for patients in the advanced age. There is a substantial interest in developing therapeutic options for treatment of prostate cancer based on use of nanodevices, to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents as well as for the early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. Herein, we highlight on the recent development of nanotechnology strategies adopted for the management of prostate cancer. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has recently resulted in the clinical development of BIND-014, a promising targeted Docetaxel-loaded nanoprototype, which can be validated for use in the prostate cancer therapy. However, several limitations facing nanoparticle delivery to solid tumours, such as heterogeneity of intratumoural barriers and vasculature, cytotoxicity and/or hypersensitivity reactions to currently available cancer nanomedicines, and the difficult in developing targeted nanoparticles with optimal biophysicochemical properties, should be still addressed for a successful tumour eradication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms and treatment of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, J M; López-Soriano, F J; Busquets, S

    2013-12-01

    According to a recent consensus, cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterised by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss. Cachexia occurs in the majority of terminal cancer patients and it is responsible for the deaths of 22% of cancer patients. Although body weight is, indeed, an important factor to be taken into consideration in any cachexia treatment, body composition, physical performance and quality of life should be monitored. From the results presented here, one can speculate that a single therapy may not be completely successful in the treatment of cachexia. From this point of view, treatments involving different combinations are more likely to be successful. The objectives of any therapeutical combination are two: an anticatabolic aim directed towards both fat and muscle catabolism and an anabolic objective leading to the synthesis of macromolecules such as contractile proteins.

  8. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  9. Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. When you seek cancer treatment, you want to find the best care possible. ...

  10. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell counts can be a serious complication during cancer treatment. Know why your doctor closely tracks your blood ... monitor your blood cell counts carefully during your cancer treatment. There's a good reason you're having your ...

  11. Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment Eating Hints is for people who are having or are about to have cancer treatment. Family and friends may also want to read ...

  12. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain types of cancer treatments can cause hot flashes and night sweats. Hot ...

  13. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the reproductive organs to remove the cancer. continue Sperm and Egg Preservation Options If your child's treatment carries a ... the cancer treatment works? What proactive measures, like sperm banking or egg preservation, are possible for my child? Are any ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ...

  15. Treatment of Brain Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave., Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Brain metastases are not only the most common intracranial neoplasm in adults but also very prevalent in patients with lung cancer. Patients have been grouped into different classes based on the presence of prognostic factors such as control of the primary tumor, functional performance status, age, and number of brain metastases. Patients with good prognosis may benefit from more aggressive treatment because of the potential for prolonged survival for some of them. In this review, we will comprehensively discuss the therapeutic options for treating brain metastases, which arise mostly from a lung cancer primary. In particular, we will focus on the patient selection for combined modality treatment of brain metastases, such as surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with whole brain irradiation; the use of radiosensitizers; and the neurocognitive deficits after whole brain irradiation with or without SRS. The benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and its potentially associated neuro-toxicity for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are also discussed, along with the combined treatment of intrathoracic primary disease and solitary brain metastasis. The roles of SRS to the surgical bed, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, WBRT with an integrated boost to the gross brain metastases, as well as combining WBRT with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, are explored as well.

  16. Breast cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Samuel; Maurer, Christian; Lambertini, Matteo; Pondé, Noam; De Azambuja, Evandro

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer affecting women worldwide. In every setting, the majority of women are treated with an evergrowing arsenal of therapeutic agents that have greatly improved their outcomes. However, these therapies can also be associated with significant adverse events. Areas covered: This review aims to thoroughly describe the current state of the evidence regarding the potential cardiotoxicity of agents commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. These include chemotherapeutic agents, anti-HER2 therapies and CDK4/6 and mTOR inhibitors. Furthermore, issues related to the risk stratification and monitoring tools are explored. Expert opinion: Anthracycline- and trastuzumab-related cardiac toxicities have been extensively studied. Substantial evidence is now available concerning additional anti-HER2 agents such as pertuzumab, T-DM1 and tyrosine kinase inhibitors; overall, the cardiotoxicity profile is reassuring. Cardiac events due to endocrine therapy are mostly ischemic and, in the context of prolonged therapy, need specific attention. Novel agents implicated in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive disease are potentially arrhythmogenic and the exact risk will need to be further refined. As for today, assessment of baseline risk factors prior to treatment initiation and cardiac imaging before and during treatment remains the optimal way to prevent cardiac dysfunction. Cardioprotective therapy in primary prevention is still a matter of debate.

  17. Personalized nanomedicine: future medicine for cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiekh FA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Farooq A ShiekhAvalon University School of Medicine, Willemstad, CuracaoCancer as a grave disease is becoming a larger health problem,1 and the medicines used as treatments have clear limitations.2–4 Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, all of which are drastic treatments, wreak havoc on healthy cells and tissues as well as cancerous ones.5–7 Pathophysiologically, there are more than 200 types of cancers,8,9 each with many variants.10 Some are aggressive, some are not; some are easily treated, and others are always fatal.11Unlike previous "revolutions" in the "war" on cancer that raised hope, nanomedicine is not just one more tool, it is an entire field, and the science in this area is burgeoning, and benefiting from use of modern cutting edge molecular tools.12–14 These breakthrough advancements have radically changed the perception of future medicine. Importantly, they are enabling landmark research to combine all advances, creating nanosized particles that contain drugs targeting cell surface receptors and other potent molecules designed to kill cancerous cells.15–19 If there is a case to be made for personalized medicine, cancer is it. For example, the current literature reveals the need for a great scientific effort to be made in this field.20–22 However, new paradigms are needed to interpret toxicogenomic and nanotoxicological data in order to predict drug toxicities and gain a more indepth understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity, so that more specific therapeutic targets which are essentially devoid of side effects could be selected.23,24

  18. Active home-based cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaro S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Bordonaro Fabio Raiti, Annamaria Di Mari, Calogera Lopiano, Fabrizio Romano, Vitalinda Pumo, Sebastiano Rametta Giuliano, Margherita Iacono, Eleonora Lanteri, Elena Puzzo, Sebastiano Spada, Paolo TralongoUOC Medical Oncology, RAO, ASP 8 Siracusa, ItalyBackground: Active home-based treatment represents a new model of health care. Chronic treatment requires continuous access to facilities that provide cancer care, with considerable effort, particularly economic, on the part of patients and caregivers. Oral chemotherapy could be limited as a consequence of poor compliance and adherence, especially by elderly patients.Methods: We selected 30 cancer patients referred to our department and treated with oral therapy (capecitabine, vinorelbine, imatinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, temozolomide, ibandronate. This pilot study of oral therapy in the patient’s home was undertaken by a doctor and two nurses with experience in clinical oncology. The instruments used were clinical diaries recording home visits, hospital visits, need for caregiver support, and a questionnaire specially developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC, known as the QLQ-C30 version 2.0, concerning the acceptability of oral treatment from the patient’s perspective.Results: This program decreased the need to access cancer facilities by 98.1%, promoted better quality of life for patients, as reflected in increased EORTC QLQ-C30 scores over time, allowing for greater adherence to oral treatment as a result of control of drug administration outside the hospital. This model has allowed treatment of patients with difficult access to care (elderly, disabled or otherwise needed caregivers that in the project represent the majority (78% of these.Conclusions: This model of active home care improves quality of life and adherence with oral therapy, reduces the need to visit the hospital, and consequently decreases the number of lost hours of work on

  19. Theophylline in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanseli Efeoğlu Gönlügür

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is a drug used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. It inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase, thereby preventing the intracellular break-down of cyclic AMP. Potentially beneficial therapeutic effects of theophylline include bronchial smooth-muscle relaxation, enhanced mucociliary transport, decrease in pulmonary hypertension, improved diaphragmatic contractility, and central stimulation of ventilation. On the other hand, theophylline evokes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in human breast cancer cells. Theophylline-treated melanoma cells exhibit low adhesion to laminin/collagen type IV. Consequently, theophylline possesses the capacity to inhibit not only cell proliferation, but also the metastatic behaviour of melanoma cells. This drug prevents neovascularization of the tumor by blocking endothelial cell proliferation. The combination of theophylline with cytotoxic drugs may permit a reduction in the effective dose needed in chemotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients. It has also a prophylactic effect on the nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin. However, this drug may inhibit small cell lung cancer cells but stimulate pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. It is necessary to perform large, prospective studies for the exact role of theophylline on each type of lung cancer.

  20. Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer with Pharmacological Ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, John A; Cullen, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer remains dismal, with less than 3% survival at 5 years. Recent studies have demonstrated that high-dose, intravenous pharmacological ascorbate (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) induces cytotoxicity and oxidative stress selectively in pancreatic cancer cells vs. normal cells, suggesting a promising new role of ascorbate as a therapeutic agent. At physiologic concentrations, ascorbate functions as a reducing agent and antioxidant. However, when pharmacological ascorbate is given intravenously, it is possible to achieve millimolar plasma concentration. At these pharmacological levels, and in the presence of catalytic metal ions, ascorbate can induce oxidative stress through the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated ascorbate oxidation occurs extracellularly, generating H2O2 flux into cells resulting in oxidative stress. Pharmacologic ascorbate also inhibits the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts and displays synergistic cytotoxic effects when combined with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer. Phase I trials of pharmacological ascorbate in pancreatic cancer patients have demonstrated safety and potential efficacy. In this chapter, we will review the mechanism of ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity, examine the use of pharmacological ascorbate in treatment and assess the current data supporting its potential as an adjuvant in pancreatic cancer.

  1. Treatment of stomach cancer, a national experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, B; Viste, A; Haugstvedt, T; Eide, G E; Søreide, O

    1988-07-01

    A total of 1165 patients with stomach cancer were entered into a prospective, observational national study. They represented 54 per cent of all stomach cancer patients reported to the Cancer Registry in Norway during the study period, and data are analysed for three hospital levels (local, county and university hospitals). The median age was 71 years (range 18-96 years). The median pretreatment delay was 113 days, and 46 per cent of patients had a performance status (Karnofsky index) of less than or equal to 80. The diagnosis was confirmed by pre-operative histology in 88 per cent of cases. In all, 88 per cent of patients underwent surgery, the resectability rate was 67 per cent and 50 per cent had a potential curative operation. Total gastrectomy was most commonly performed. Lymph node dissection was performed in 14 per cent of those undergoing a curative resection. The postoperative complication rate was 27 per cent but varied with the type of operation, being highest in proximal resection (55 per cent) and lowest after distal resection (19 per cent). A total of 7 per cent of the patients died postoperatively. Most patients had advanced disease at the time of treatment and only 6 per cent had stage I tumours. There were significant differences in patient and treatment characteristics between the three hospital levels. In conclusion, patient selection bias which will influence results does occur. A fairly aggressive attitude towards local disease was found, but the low proportion of patients undergoing lymph node dissection not only leads to questions regarding the efficacy of this treatment policy, but also casts doubt on the validity of staging of stomach cancer. Morbidity and mortality rates are still high. The consequences of the differences revealed between hospital groups are difficult to interpret. Proponents of both regionalization of treatment and small hospital care may find arguments for their case in the data.

  2. Exercise training as treatment in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fábio Santos; Neto, José Cesar Rosa; Seelaender, Marília

    2014-06-01

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome that may accompany a plethora of diseases, including cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aids, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is associated with central and systemic increases of pro-inflammatory factors, and with decreased quality of life, response to pharmacological treatment, and survival. At the moment, there is no single therapy able to reverse cachexia many symptoms, which include disruption of intermediary metabolism, endocrine dysfunction, compromised hypothalamic appetite control, and impaired immune function, among other. Growing evidence, nevertheless, shows that chronic exercise, employed as a tool to counteract systemic inflammation, may represent a low-cost, safe alternative for the prevention/attenuation of cancer cachexia. Despite the well-documented capacity of chronic exercise to counteract sustained disease-related inflammation, few studies address the effect of exercise training in cancer cachexia. The aim of the present review was hence to discuss the results of cachexia treatment with endurance training. As opposed to resistance exercise, endurance exercise may be performed devoid of equipment, is well tolerated by patients, and an anti-inflammatory effect may be observed even at low-intensity. The decrease in inflammatory status induced by endurance protocols is paralleled by recovery of various metabolic pathways. The mechanisms underlying the response to the treatment are considered.

  3. Brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Jamie A; Stone, Nelson N; Skouteris, Vassilios M; Park, Janelle L; Stock, Richard G

    2007-01-01

    Low-dose rate brachytherapy has become a mainstream treatment option for men diagnosed with prostate cancer because of excellent long-term treatment outcomes in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. Largely due to patient lead advocacy for minimally invasive treatment options, high-quality prostate implants have become widely available in the US, Europe, and Japan. The reason that brachytherapy results are reproducible in several different practice settings is because numerous implant quality factors have been defined over the last 20 years, which can be applied objectively to judge the success of the intervention both during and after the procedure. In addition, recent long-term follow-up studies have clarified that the secondary cancer incidence of brachytherapy is not clinically meaningful. In terms of future directions, the study of radiation repair genetics may allow for the counseling physician to better estimate any given patients risk for side effects, thereby substantially reducing the therapeutic uncertainties faced by patients choosing a prostate cancer intervention.

  4. Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Rebecca SY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.

  5. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival......, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical...

  6. Trastuzumab in the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximiano, Sofia; Magalhães, Paulo; Guerreiro, Mara Pereira; Morgado, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and has an undeniable negative impact on public health. The advent of molecular biology and immunotherapy has made targeted therapeutic interventions possible, providing treatments tailored to the individual characteristics of the patient and the disease. The over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 is implicated in the pathophysiology of BC and represents a clinically relevant biomarker for its treatment. Trastuzumab, a recombinant antibody targeting HER2, was the first biological drug approved for the treatment of HER2-positive BC. Although there are currently other anti-HER2 agents available (e.g. pertuzumab and lapatinib), trastuzumab remains the gold standard for treatment of this disease subtype. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding potential cardiotoxicity and treatment resistance. Moreover, several other therapeutic issues remain unclear and have been addressed in an inconsistent way. The current literature lacks a comprehensive review of trastuzumab providing useful information for clinical practice, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects, its clinical use, existing controversies and future advances. This detailed review of trastuzumab in the pharmacotherapy of BC attempts to fill this gap.

  7. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  8. Personal values and cancer treatment refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijer, M; van Leeuwen, E

    2000-10-01

    This pilot study explores the reasons patients have for refusing chemotherapy, and the ways oncologists respond to them. Our hypothesis, generated from interviews with patients and oncologists, is that an ethical approach that views a refusal as an autonomous choice, in which patients are informed about the pros and cons of treatment and have to decide by weighing them, is not sufficient. A different ethical approach is needed to deal with the various evaluations that play a role in treatment refusal. If patients forgo further treatment, while curative or palliative methods are available, there is no perspective from which to integrate the weighing of pros and cons of treatment and the preferences and values of individual cancer patients. A discrepancy thus results as regards what "good reasons" are, evoking misunderstandings or even breaking off communication. Suggestions are given for follow up research.

  9. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Friedrich

    Full Text Available Treatment abandonment (TxA is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC. However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data.Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted.602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%, practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83% in general or children's hospitals (79%. Results suggested, 23,854 (15% of 155,088 children 6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ≥ 6% (p<0.001. Global survival data available for more developed and less developed regions suggests TxA may account for at least a third of the survival gap between HIC and LMC.Results show TxA is prevalent (compromising cancer survival for 1 in 7 children globally, confirm the suspected high burden of TxA in LMC, and illustrate the negative impact of poverty on its occurrence. The present estimates may appear small compared to the global burden of child death from malnutrition and infection (measured in millions. However, absolute numbers suggest the burden of TxA in LMC is nearly equivalent to annually losing all kids diagnosed with cancer in HIC just to TxA, without even considering deaths from disease progression, relapse or toxicity-the main causes of childhood cancer mortality in HIC. Results document the importance of monitoring and addressing TxA as part of childhood

  10. Self-Reported Neuropathic Pain Characteristics of Women With Provoked Vulvar Pain: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Emma; Gilron, Ian; Pukall, Caroline F

    2017-04-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common chronic genital pain condition affecting approximately 12% of premenopausal women. Although parallels have been drawn between PVD and neuropathic pain (NP), no studies have examined self-reported NP characteristics in PVD. To explore pain symptoms that resemble NP reported by those with PVD and compare responses with those with an established NP condition. Women with provoked vulvar pain (PVP; n = 65) completed online questionnaires designed to assess characteristics of NP. Responses were compared with those of women with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN; n = 30). In addition to a range of descriptive questions, participants completed the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms (S-LANSS), the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI), and the Pain Quality Assessment Scale (PQAS). PVP exhibits some neuropathic characteristics, typically evoked pain (as opposed to the more constant pain of PHN) indicative of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Specifically, women with PVP scored, on average, higher than the NP cutoff on the S-LANSS, and there were no significant differences between women with PVP and those with PHN on some NPSI subscales. However, women with PHN reported more NP symptoms on the PQAS, S-LANSS, and other NPSI subscales. Validated NP questionnaires could be of particular use for health care professionals who need a more efficient way to assess symptoms of patients with PVP and should be included in future studies investigating the mechanisms and treatment of this pain. This study takes a unique approach to the examination of PVP by using multiple validated NP measures to compare pain characteristics with those of a group of participants with PHN, an established NP condition. However, it is limited by self-reported data not confirmed with clinical examination, small size of the PHN group, and the severity of the pain experienced in the PVP group. Women with PVP report

  11. Liposomal nanomedicines in the treatment of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan; Metselaar, Josbert M; Storm, G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073356328; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer type and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males. In most cases, no curative treatment options are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer as these tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted drug delivery,

  12. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  13. Modeling precision treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, Anneleen; Griffith, Obi L; Heiser, Laura M; Wang, Nicholas J; Enache, Oana M; Sanborn, Zachary; Pepin, Francois; Durinck, Steffen; Korkola, James E; Griffith, Malachi; Hur, Joe S; Huh, Nam; Chung, Jongsuk; Cope, Leslie; Fackler, Mary Jo; Umbricht, Christopher; Sukumar, Saraswati; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Jakkula, Lakshmi R; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Cho, Raymond J; Collisson, Eric A; van't Veer, Laura J; Spellman, Paul T; Gray, Joe W

    2013-01-01

    First-generation molecular profiles for human breast cancers have enabled the identification of features that can predict therapeutic response; however, little is known about how the various data types can best be combined to yield optimal predictors. Collections of breast cancer cell lines mirror many aspects of breast cancer molecular pathobiology, and measurements of their omic and biological therapeutic responses are well-suited for development of strategies to identify the most predictive molecular feature sets. We used least squares-support vector machines and random forest algorithms to identify molecular features associated with responses of a collection of 70 breast cancer cell lines to 90 experimental or approved therapeutic agents. The datasets analyzed included measurements of copy number aberrations, mutations, gene and isoform expression, promoter methylation and protein expression. Transcriptional subtype contributed strongly to response predictors for 25% of compounds, and adding other molecular data types improved prediction for 65%. No single molecular dataset consistently out-performed the others, suggesting that therapeutic response is mediated at multiple levels in the genome. Response predictors were developed and applied to TCGA data, and were found to be present in subsets of those patient samples. These results suggest that matching patients to treatments based on transcriptional subtype will improve response rates, and inclusion of additional features from other profiling data types may provide additional benefit. Further, we suggest a systems biology strategy for guiding clinical trials so that patient cohorts most likely to respond to new therapies may be more efficiently identified.

  14. Irinotecan in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Charles; Mitchell, Edith P; Hoff, Paulo M

    2006-11-01

    Irinotecan, a water-soluble, semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin, is a key component of first- and second-line treatment regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the first-line treatment of metastatic CRC, the results of two prospective, multicenter phase III trials have shown that the combination of irinotecan with bolus or infusional 5-fluorouracil (5FU)/leucovorin (LV) can significantly prolong survival compared with 5FU/LV alone, with a manageable side effects profile. In addition, irinotecan-based regimens, with or without oxaliplatin, may improve resectability of metastases and further increase patient survival. Studies of irinotecan in the first-line setting in combination with newer agents, such as bevacizumab, have shown impressive overall survival. In the second-line setting, irinotecan has demonstrated efficacy superior to that of best supportive care. Initial studies of irinotecan plus bolus 5FU/LV, and the preliminary results from trials of irinotecan plus infusional 5FU/LV in the adjuvant setting, have been disappointing; however, for the largest trial, the Pan-European Trial in Adjuvant Colon Cancer, results with sufficient follow-up are pending. Irinotecan has an acceptable tolerability profile and is not associated with cumulative toxicities in patients with metastatic CRC; regimens containing irinotecan extend treatment duration and improve survival. New regimens and adjunctive therapies are being explored to reduce the incidence of common complications of irinotecan treatment, such as diarrhea and neutropenia.

  15. Theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Lee

    The main focus of this research was to evaluate the ability of a novel multifunctional nanoparticle to mediate drug delivery and enable a non-invasive approach to measure drug release kinetics in situ for the treatment of cancer. These goals were approached by developing a nanoparticle consisting of an inorganic core (i.e. gadolinium sulfoxide doped with europium ions or carbon nanotubes). This was coated with an external amphiphilic polymer shell comprised of a biodegradable polyester (i.e. poly(lactide) or poly(glycolide)), and poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer. In this system, the inorganic core mediates the imaging aspect, the relatively hydrophobic polyester encapsulates hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, and poly(ethylene glycol) stabilizes the nanoparticle in an aqueous environment. The synthesis of this nanoparticle drug delivery system utilized a simple one-pot room temperature ring-opening polymerization that neglected the use of potentially toxic catalysts and reduced the number of washing steps. This functionalization approach could be applied across a number of inorganic nanoparticle platforms. Coating inorganic nanoparticles with biodegradable polymer was shown to decrease in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Nanoparticles could be further coated with multiple polymer layers to better control drug release characteristics. Finally, loading polymer coated radioluminescent nanoparticles with photoactive drugs enabled a mechanism for measuring drug concentration in situ. The work presented here represents a step forward to developing theranostic nanoparticles that can improve the treatment of cancer.

  16. Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Catarina Marques,1 José MF Ferreira,1 Ecaterina Andronescu,2 Denisa Ficai,2 Maria Sonmez,3 Anton Ficai21Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; 2Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; 3National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, RomaniaAbstract: The purpose of this review is to present the most recent findings in bone tissue engineering. Special attention is given to multifunctional materials based on collagen and collagen–hydroxyapatite composites used for skin and bone cancer treatments. The multifunctionality of these materials was obtained by adding to the base regenerative grafts proper components, such as ferrites (magnetite being the most important representative, cytostatics (cisplatin, carboplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, silver nanoparticles, antibiotics (anthracyclines, geldanamycin, and/or analgesics (ibuprofen, fentanyl. The suitability of complex systems for the intended applications was systematically analyzed. The developmental possibilities of multifunctional materials with regenerative and curative roles (antitumoral as well as pain management in the field of skin and bone cancer treatment are discussed. It is worth mentioning that better materials are likely to be developed by combining conventional and unconventional experimental strategies.Keywords: bone graft, cancer, collagen, magnetite, cytostatics, silver

  17. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  19. Treatment of breast cancer brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Silvia; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2013-10-05

    Breast cancer represents the second most frequent cause of brain metastases. Treatment planning should consider several tumor and patient factors to estimate prognosis based on the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), age, extent of extra-cerebral disease as well as genetic subtype. When systemic disease is under control patients with up to three metastases qualify for local therapy, such as surgical excision or stereotactic radiotherapy. After the local treatment the addition of whole brain radiation therapy may be postponed until disease progression in the brain is observed and overall survival will not be compromised. Asymptomatic brain metastases may be first approached with a systemic treatment to which the primary tumor is considered to be sensitive.

  20. Polymer nanoassemblies for cancer treatment and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Ponta, Andrei; Bae, Younsoo

    2010-12-01

    Amphiphilic polymers represented by block copolymers self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures capable of incorporating therapeutics. Polymer nanoassemblies currently developed for cancer treatment and imaging are reviewed in this article. Particular attention is paid to three representative polymer nanoassemblies: polymer micelles, polymer micellar aggregates and polymer vesicles. Rationales, design and performance of these polymer nanoassemblies are addressed, focusing on increasing the solubility and chemical stability of drugs. Also discussed are polymer nanoassembly formation, the distribution of polymer materials in the human body and applications of polymer nanoassemblies for combined therapy and imaging of cancer. Updates on tumor-targeting approaches, based on preclinical and clinical results are provided, as well as solutions for current issues that drug-delivery systems have, such as in vivo stability, tissue penetration and therapeutic efficacy. These are discussed to provide insights on the future development of more effective polymer nanoassemblies for the delivery of therapeutics in the body.

  1. Treatment Considerations for Cancer Pain: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Gharibo, Christopher; Ho, Kok-Yuen

    2015-11-01

    Cancer pain is prevalent, undertreated, and feared by patients with cancer. In April 2013, a panel of pain experts convened in Singapore to address the treatment of cancer pain. They discussed the various types of cancer pain, including breakthrough pain, which is sometimes clinically confused with analgesic gaps. Reasons for undertreating cancer pain include attitudes of patients, clinicians, and factors associated with healthcare systems. The consequences of not treating cancer pain may include reduced quality of life for patients with cancer (who now live longer than ever), functional decline, and increased psychological stress. Early analgesic intervention for cancer pain may reduce the risk of central sensitization and chronification of pain. To manage pain in oncology patients, clinicians should assess pain during regular follow-up visits using validated pain measurement tools and follow prescribing guidelines, if necessary referring patients with cancer to pain specialists. Many patients with cancer require opioids for pain relief. Pain associated with cancer may also relate to cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Many patients with cancer are what might be considered "special populations," in that they may be elderly, frail, comorbid, or have end-stage organ failure. Specific pain therapy guidelines for those populations are reviewed. Patients with cancer with a history of or active substance abuse disorder deserve pain control but may require close medical supervision. While much "treatment inertia" exists in cancer pain control, cancer pain can be safely and effectively managed and should be carried out to alleviate suffering and improve outcomes.

  2. Fibroma de Vulva (Molluscum Pendulum: Relato de Caso Vulvar Fibroma: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Roberto Netto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de fibroma de vulva, modalidade molluscum pendulum, em uma jovem de 20 anos. O tumor desenvolveu-se após a menarca com evolução lenta e progressiva. Ao exame físico, observou-se volumosa massa pediculada, indolor, com inserção no terço superior do grande lábio esquerdo, de consistência elástica, com diâmetro maior em sua parte distal de 12 cm por 23 cm de comprimento. Como tratamento, optou-se pela exérese pela base do pedículo, sob anestesia local. O tumor apresentou o peso de 950 g. Complementa-se com revisão de literatura.A vulvar fibroma, of the molluscum pendulum type, was present in a 20-year-old patient. The tumor began to develop slowly after her menarche, when she was 14 years of age. The physical examination revealed a mass with considerable volume, painless, located at the upper third of the greator left lip, elastic consistency, greater diameter at its distal portion measuring 12 cm by 23 cm in length. The treatment was exeresis from the base of the pedicle, under local anesthesia. The tumor weighed 950 g. A literature review is included.

  3. Childhood cancer treatment optimization: In rhabdomyosarcoma and supportive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers two subjects investigating optimization of cancer cure: prevention and treatment of central venous catheter related complications and improvement of local treatment in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma survivors. Central venous catheters are indispensable in the modern day treatment

  4. Childhood cancer treatment optimization: In rhabdomyosarcoma and supportive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers two subjects investigating optimization of cancer cure: prevention and treatment of central venous catheter related complications and improvement of local treatment in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma survivors. Central venous catheters are indispensable in the modern day treatment

  5. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parathyroid cancer is very rare and is usually treated with surgery. Learn about the diagnosis, risk and genetic factors, staging, treatment, and management of parathyroid cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage and can be treated with surgery. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment for early- and advanced-stage endometrial cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urethral cancer occurs in men and women and can spread quickly to lymph nodes near the urethra. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for urethral cancer.

  8. Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many factors such as: Child's overall health before cancer Child's age at the time of treatment Dose of ... up in children and adolescents who have had cancer. Ask your child's provider about the guidelines. Follow these general steps: ...

  9. Knowledge and perception of breast cancer and its treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment among Malaysian women: Role of religion. Noraida Mohamed ... breast cancer, poverty, lack of education, fear, and denial [3]. ... in Malaysia on knowledge of breast cancer and the practice of ... inclusion/exclusion criteria. The target ...

  10. Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163295.html Anxiety May Lead to Unneeded Prostate Cancer Treatments Researchers ... 27, 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Anxiety may prompt prostate cancer patients to opt for ...

  11. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common types of skin cancer. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, staging, and treatment for skin cancer.

  12. Breast Cancer in Men: Treatments and Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Breast Cancer in Men: Treatments and Genetic Counseling Share Tweet ... knowledge for others with this disease,” Prowell says. Breast Cancer Symptoms for Men Each year, about 2,000 ...

  13. Treatment helps young women preserve fertility during breast cancer chemo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have found that young women with breast cancer were able to better preserve their fertility during cancer treatments by using hormone-blocking drug injections that put them into temporary menopause. The results announced today at the annual me

  14. Hybrid Theranostic Platforms for Cancer Nanomedical Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Julfakyan, Khachatur

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is a leading case of mortality worldwide. Governments spent multibillion expenses on treatment and palliative care of diseased people. Despite these generous funding and intensive research with aim to find a cure or efficient treatment for cancer, until now there is a lack in selective cancer management strategies. Conventional treatment strategies for cancer, such as surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy don’t have selectivity toward cancer – the property of discrimination of healthy organs and tissues from the diseased site. Chemotherapy is very challenging as the difference between effective and lethal doses is very minuscule in most cases. Moreover, devastating side effects dramatically changes the quality of life for cancer patients. To address these issues two main strategies are intensively utilized in chemistry: (I) the design and synthesis of novel anticancer organic compounds with higher selectivity and low toxicity profiles and the second, design and preparation of biocompatible nanocarriers for imaging and anticancer compound selective delivery nanomedicine. The following dissertation combines the above two strategies as bellows: First project is related to the design and synthetic route development toward novel nature-inspired group of heterocyclic compounds – iso-Phidianidines. The second project focused on design, preparation and evaluation of hybrid theranostics (therapeutic and diagnostic in a single entity). Chapter 1 is a general background review of the major topics that will be discussed in this dissertation. The first efficient and high-yielding synthetic route toward iso-phidianidines, containing regioisomeric form of 1,2,4-oxadiazole linked to the indole via methylene bridge is reported in Chapter 2. In vitro test of the synthesized library of iso-phidianidines revealed micromolar range of cytotoxicity toward human cervical cancer cell line. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of

  15. Perspectives from older adults receiving cancer treatment about the cancer-related information they receive

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cancer patients have reported that information plays a significant role in their capacity to cope with cancer and manage the consequences of treatment. This study was undertaken to identify the importance older adults receiving cancer treatment assign to selected types of cancer-related information, their satisfaction with the cancer-related information they received, and the barriers to effective information provision for this age group. Methods: This study was conducted in two ph...

  16. Management of Vaginal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S B L; Agrawal, Gaurav; Mittal, Megha; Mishra, Priyanshi

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare gynecologic cancer with very little documentation. Literature search to have useful information for the management of vaginal cancer and share. We have searched the PUBMED database, Google search engine and other database. A total of 26 references were taken into account. Once spread from primary other cancers or vulva is ruled out, vaginal cancer is designated to be primary in origin. It was revealed that majority of vaginal cancers reported are squamous cell carcinomas. The most common risk factors implicated are Human Papiloma Virus, age. Most common presenting symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding,. Diagnosis requires pathological confirmation. Management depends on staging work-up. Vaginal cancer is staged by FIGO system of staging and TNM staging. There are many prognostic factors influencing the choice of treatment. Lymph node metastasis is one of the important prognostic factors, others to mention are histology, size, age. In a recent SEER analysis of over 2000 patients, the 5 year disease specific survival was 84% for stage 1, 75% for stage II and 57% for advanced tumors. Early carcinomas are generally treated with either surgery or radiation therapy. Advanced cancers are treated with radiation therapy with simultaneous administration of combined chemotherapy. Preventive strategies include safe sex and HPV vaccination. Primary vaginal cancer is a rare entity, if there is no history of cancer cervix or vulva in past or absence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma or vulvar carcinoma within 5 years is usually considered as primary vaginal cancer. Though early stage vaginal cancers have better outcome treated with surgery or radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone is preferred mode of treatment in vaginal cancers.

  17. Intraepithelial macrophage infiltration is related to a high number of regulatory T cells and promotes a progressive course of HPV-induced vulvar neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Edith M G; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2015-02-15

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is infiltrated by myeloid cells but the type and role of these cells is unclear. We used triple immunofluorescent confocal microscopy to locate, identify and quantify myeloid cells based on their staining pattern for CD14, CD33 and CD163 in a cohort of 43 primary and 20 recurrent uVIN lesions, 21 carcinomas and 26 normal vulvar tissues. The progressive course of uVIN is characterized by an increase in both intraepithelial and stromal mature M1 and M2 macrophages. While the M2 macrophages outnumber M1 macrophages in healthy controls and uVIN, they are matched in number by M1 macrophages in cancer. Importantly, uVIN patients with a dense intraepithelial infiltration with mature CD14+ macrophages (irrespective of M1 or M2 type) displayed approximately a six times higher risk to develop a recurrence and a high number of these cells constituted an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. In addition, a dense intraepithelial CD14+ cell infiltration was associated with high numbers of intraepithelial CD4+ Tregs and low numbers of stromal CD8+TIM3+ T cells. Patients with low numbers of intraepithelial CD14+ cells and high numbers of stromal CD8+TIM3+ cells showed the best recurrence-free survival. These data clearly show the importance of the local immune response in HPV-induced vulvar neoplasia and may be of help in predicting the prognosis of patients or their response to immunotherapy.

  18. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.

  19. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  20. Demethylating Agents in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Howell, Jr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene silencing resulting from aberrant DNA methylation can lead to tumorigenesis. Therefore, drugs that inhibit or interfere with DNA methylation have been used to reactivate and induce silenced gene re-expression in malignancies. Two demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine, are approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and are now considered the standard of care in MDS. In this review, we discuss clinical data, including clinical benefits and toxicities, which led to the approval of azacitidine and decitabine. We also summarize findings from clinical trials that used these two demethylating agents in the treatment of solid tumors. Lastly, we discuss some limitations in the use of azacitidine and decitabine in cancer therapy.

  1. Post-steroid management of chronic vulvar itching with a topical formula containing natural anti-itching and anti-inflammatory actives

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pierro F; Di Maio E; Di Paola G; Felice R; Murina F

    2013-01-01

    Francesco Di Pierro,1 Eleonora Di Maio,2 Gaetana Di Paola,3 Raffaele Felice,4 Filippo Murina41Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy; 3ASL TO-3/TO-4, Turin, Italy; 4Outpatient Department of Vulvar Disease, V Buzzi Hospital-ICP, Milan, ItalyAim: To determine whether use of a topical, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itching formula was able to preserve the absence of symptoms, mainly itching and burning, induced by an earlier and relatively short treatment w...

  2. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  3. The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Northouse, L; Foley, S; Gilbert, S; Wood, D P; Balon, R; Montie, J E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects one in six American men. Erectile and sexual dysfunctions are long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment. PubMed database was searched for papers on prostate cancer-related sexual recovery for men and couples. The search yielded articles on (1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction, (2) men's psychological and culturally diverse adaptation to the sexual side effects; (3) the impact of prostate cancer on couples' relationships; and (4) interventions to promote sexual function. Erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment has been widely studied. Research on the sexual recovery of men and couples or understanding it in a cultural context is scarce. Greater focus on the impact of sexual sequelae of prostate cancer treatment on men as well as couples in diverse groups is needed. Clinical implications for treating sexual dysfunction and promoting sexual recovery for prostate cancer survivors and their partners are discussed. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  4. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Adrenal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take hormone replacement tablets to protect you against cortisol deficiency. CT scans may be done periodically to ... Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of endometrial cancer. Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include unusual vaginal bleeding or pain in the pelvis. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by endometrial cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor ...

  9. Early invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma arising in a woman with vulvar pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mandato, Vincenzo D; Piccoli, Roberto; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Mignogna, Chiara; Mignogna, Michele D; Costagliola, Luigi; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-06-23

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Genital involvement occurs when most other common sites are concurrently affected or are in remission. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that may affect many parts of the body and the skin with occasional bullous lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris and SLE may be associated, albeit rarely. Here, we report the first case of a woman affected with SLE presenting with early invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from Pemphigus Vulgaris of the vulva. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Gynaecology Unit for bleeding vegetant lesions of the vulva. Her history was characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus and PV. Biopsy showed concomitant PV and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 3. One month later a new biopsy revealed progression from VIN 3 to early SCC. Despite chemotherapy, no remission of disease was observed. She died six months after diagnosis Our case underlines PV as another chronic inflammatory disease of the lower genital tract predisposing to VIN-SCC. It suggests the need for careful follow-up of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, especially when concomitant autoimmune disorders are present. Moreover, a biopsy should be always performed if there are PV lesions because of the possibility of neoplastic disease.

  10. Fibroadenoma in an ectopic vulvar breast gland: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Braham, E; Ismail, O; Zegal, D; El Mezni, F

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. It can be found anywhere along the milk line extending from the axilla to the groin, and can occur in the vulva. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign or malignant pathologic processes. Less than 40 cases of fibroadenoma in the vulva have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman presenting a solitary vulvar mass. The mass was excised completely, and histology demonstrated an ectopic breast fibroadenoma. This is one of the few reports on the benign pathologies of vulvar mammary glands.

  11. Postoperative Urinary Retention With Gross Vulvar Edema After Use of 4% Icodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly; Robinson, Randal

    2015-07-01

    4% icodextrin is a fluid that can be instilled laparoscopically to prevent adhesion formation. There are few complications reported in the literature associated with its use. A 38-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, abortus 2 underwent laparoscopic salpingectomy. 4% icodextrin was instilled in an effort to prevent adhesion formation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced urinary retention and gross vulvar edema that required foley catheter use until the 4% icodextrin solution had absorbed. Postoperative complications that may be associated with the use of 4% icodextrin include urinary retention and vulvar edema. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy: from cancer treatment to survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joel B; Thariat, Juliette; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Barasch, Andrei; Murphy, Barbara A; Kolnick, Leanne; Popplewell, Leslie; Maghami, Ellie

    2012-01-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Oral complications resulting from cancer and cancer therapies cause acute and late toxicities that may be underreported, underrecognized, and undertreated. Recent advances in cancer treatment have led to changes in the incidence, nature, and severity of oral complications. As the number of survivors increases, it is becoming increasingly recognized that the aggressive management of oral toxicities is needed to ensure optimal long-term oral health and general well-being. Advances in care have had an impact on previously recognized oral complications and are leading to newly recognized adverse effects. Here, the authors briefly review advances in cancer therapy, including recent advances in surgery, oral care, radiation therapy, hematopoietic cell transplantation, and medical oncology; describe how these advances affect oral health; and discuss the frequent and/or severe oral health complications associated with cancer and cancer treatment and their effect upon long-term health. Although some of the acute oral toxicities of cancer therapies may be reduced, they remain essentially unavoidable. The significant impact of long-term complications requires increased awareness and recognition to promote prevention and appropriate intervention. It is therefore important for the primary oncologist to be aware of these complications so that appropriate measures can be implemented in a timely manner. Prevention and management is best provided via multidisciplinary health care teams, which must be integrated and communicate effectively in order to provide the best patient care in a coordinated manner at the appropriate time.

  13. Original article Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited information about practices related to prostate cancer treatment in this population. Objective: We ... Key Words: Prostate cancer, Screening and Detection, Practice guidelines, Sub-Saharan Africa ..... HR. Changing cancer incidence in Kampala, Uganda,. 1991-2006. ... Prostate specific antigen best practice statement: ...

  14. Bleeding complications during anticoagulant treatment in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of bleeding complications, of which some are fatal. This risk is influenced by chemotherapy, cancer type and stage, thrombocytopenia, renal function, and previous bleeding. Since many cancer patients receive anticoagulant treatment for prophylaxis or

  15. Vinflunine in the treatment of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bachner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark Bachner, Maria De Santis3rd Medical Department – Center for Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Applied Cancer Research Vienna (LBI-ACR VIEnna, Cluster Translational Oncology, Kaiser Franz Josef-Spital der Stadt Wien, and Applied Cancer Research – Institution for Translational Research Vienna (ACR-ITR VIEnna/CEADDP, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Vinflunine (VFL is a third-generation bifluorinated semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid obtained by superacidic chemistry from its parent compound, vinorelbine. As with the other vinca alkaloids, the main antineoplastic effects of VFL arise from its interaction with tubulin, the major component of microtubules in mitotic spindles. In contrast to other vinca alkaloids, VFL shows some distinctive properties in terms of tubulin binding, possibly explaining its superior antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with vinorelbine as well as its excellent safety profile. In transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, two single-agent phase II trials were performed testing VFL in platinum-pretreated patients, showing moderate response rates and promising disease control rates. Therefore, the first phase III trial in modern times for second-line TCC of the urothelium was designed in order to further investigate the activity of VFL. First results were presented at the 2008 ASCO conference. VFL appears to be a possible treatment option for patients with TCC progressing after first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy.Keywords: vinflunine, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder, bladder cancer, chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy

  16. Conforming to cancer staging, prognostic indicators and national treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra-Long, Gwendylen R

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer staging and prognostic indicators guide treatment planning, and as such the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer Commission on Cancer (ACoS CoC) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have recognized this as quality patient care. Overton Brooks Veterans Administration (OBVAMC) developed an organizational policy and procedure, flow algorithms, treatment plan templates, and education strategies in order to conform to this quality care approach. The purpose of this article is to share this systematic approach that is able to support clinical and working cancer stage and prognostic indicators which have been recognized by national standard setting organizations as quality patient care.

  17. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment:friend or foe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruce Montgomery; Heather H Cheng; James Drechsler; Elahe A Mostaghel

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo-and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of deifning their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer.

  18. Controlling plasma stimulated media in cancer treatment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dayun; Sherman, Jonathan H.; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) constitutes a "cocktail" of various reactive species. Accumulating evidence shows the effectiveness of CAP in killing cancer cells and decreasing the tumor size, which provides a solid basis for its potential use in cancer treatment. Currently, CAP is mainly used to directly treat cancer cells and trigger the death of cancer cells via apoptosis or necrosis. By altering the concentration of fetal bovine serum in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and the temperature to store CAP stimulated media, we demonstrated controllable strategies to harness the stimulated media to kill glioblastoma cells in vitro. This study demonstrated the significant role of media in killing cancer cells via the CAP treatment.

  19. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  20. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  1. Second line treatment options for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Frank C; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2017-08-18

    ABTRACT Introduction: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) refractory to first-line therapy have a dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options, with only one option consisting of nanoliposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid which was approved by FDA based upon results of the phase III NAPOLI-1 study. Areas covered: We performed a literature search for relevant published clinical trials, abstracts of trials in progress and ongoing or planned trials for the second line treatment of APC using Pubmed.com, ClinicalTrials.gov and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstract search as sources. We present an in-depth analysis of the phase I-III clinical trials determining the role and efficacy of second-line treatment in patients with APC. We also describe ongoing studies and rationale for future investigation. Expert opinion: Despite advances in first-line therapy such as gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX in APC, median overall survival remains less than 12 months, highlighting the need to develop second-line therapies. In order to establish much needed effective second-line treatment options, we need cooperative efforts among institutions and community practices in enrolling these refractory patients in clinical trials. It should be emphasized that in addition to chemotherapy options, all patients should have the opportunity to consult with nutritionist, social worker and palliative care health providers to assist with goals of care, symptom management and end of life discussions.

  2. Symptom monitoring in treatment of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wanxia; Lin Miao; Lü Ye; Yang Biao; Yao Cong; Liu Juan; Wang Wenru

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine self-reported symptoms by the patients receiving cancer therapy, and find out the symptoms that should be coped with and managed during the treatment. Methods A pilot study was conducted on self-reported symptoms on 185 patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for different cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC) was used. Results Severe symptoms on the TRSC subscales: loss of appetite,feeling sluggish, weight loss, nausea and hair loss, were reported by the patients. The frequently reported symptoms by those on chemotherapy were nausea, feeling sluggish, weight loss, vomiting, and taste change. The frequently reported symptoms by those on radiotherapy were feeling sluggish, weight loss, loss of appetite, difficult sleeping, and changing taste. The symptoms of loss of appetite, feeling sluggish, weight loss, hair loss, and nausea were both frequently reported by those on radiotherapy and those on chemotherapy. Conclusion Symptom monitoring may be facilitated by TRSC, based on the severity and frequency of reported symptoms, more patients and caregivers could know which symptoms should be preferential interventions.

  3. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...... of counts of trained personnel and equipment in cancer diagnostics and treatment in the two countries. RESULTS: With regard to lung and breast cancer, the data seem to indicate that Danish patients are diagnosed later, and that Denmark lags behind in treatment capacity. With regard to rectal cancer......, the data seem to indicate that concentrating operations in fewer hospitals, and improvements in operation technique have been introduced earlier in Sweden than in Denmark. With regard to prostate cancer, however, the data seem to indicate that many more indolent cases that do not need treatment...

  4. Novel Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer in London UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Black

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An intensive and in-depth two-day conference providing an advanced level updateKEY TOPICS TO BE COVERED:New paradigms for targeted therapiesNew anti-cancer agents ~ industry viewpointNovel approaches to the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancerDrug development and precision radiotherapyEuropean drug development initiativesMarket access to novel cancer drugsRegulatory issues in marketing authorisation of anti-cancer productsGene and cell therapies and trial endpointsDeveloping cancer vaccinesCLICK HERE for more information 

  5. DNA Mapping May Lead to Personalized Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161932.html DNA Mapping May Lead to Personalized Cancer Treatment Technique ... 9, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- DNA sequencing may help personalize treatment for people with ...

  6. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  7. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  8. Fortifying the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin E. Champ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, significant data have shown that obese men experience a survival detriment after treatment for prostate cancer. While methods to combat obesity are of utmost importance for the prostate cancer patient, newer data reveal the overall metabolic improvements that accompany increased activity levels and intense exercise beyond weight loss. Along these lines, a plethora of data have shown improvement in prostate cancer-specific outcomes after treatment accompanied with these activity levels. This review discusses the metabolic mechanisms in which increased activity levels and exercise can help improve both outcomes for men treated for prostate cancer while lowering the side effects of treatment.

  9. Vulvar and vaginal graft versus host disease: A healthcare clinic initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Van Dam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In patients receiving bone marrow transplantation (BMT, their mucosa becomes altered and sclerotic changes in the female external genital organs occur. Although a few studies have specifically addressed vulvar and vaginal graft versus host disease (VVGvHD and its repercussions on the sexual health and quality of life of patients, VVGvHD can be overlooked by health practitioners. The objective of the study is to describe the initiation of a health care clinic specializing in VVGvHD in a general tertiary hospital. Methods: A VVGvHD clinic was founded as a part of BMT daycare in a joint initiative of the nursing staff and the medical director of the department and a gynecologist specializing in vulva and vaginal disease. Patients were assessed for vulvovaginal symptoms, such as dryness, burning, itching, pain to touch, pain during intercourse, and dysuria. These patients might be subsequently referred to the VVGvHD clinic according to their needs assessed by daycare nurses. Treatment guidelines were developed by the specialist gynecologist. Results: A total of 81 women aged 2–66 years (median age = 38 years visited the clinic from 2009 to 2015. Of these women, 70 received an allogeneic transplant and 11 underwent autologous transplantation before consultation in our clinic. VVGvHD was detected in 54% of the patients. Conclusions: The VVGvHD clinic was developed to fulfill the specific needs of female patients who underwent BMT. The pioneer clinic was founded as a joint effort of the multidisciplinary team. Evidence supporting the optimum treatment for this condition is insufficient. This was the main reason for performing this study to explore the clinic that was newly based in Israel. VVGvHD may be a fluctuating condition with frequent deterioration and improvement. Therefore, regular clinical examinations are necessary.

  10. Healing environments in cancer treatment and care. Relations of space and practice in hematological cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp

    2013-01-01

    of the individual patient ’ s needs, values and experiences is key to developing the environment to support the patient quality of life. The present study holds implications for practice to inform design of future hospital environments for cancer treatment. The study points to the importance for being attentive...... these concepts, the study demonstrates how the hospital environment is a fl ow of relations between space and practice that changes and challenges a structural idea of design and healing. Patients ’ sense of healing changes with the experience of progression in treatment and the capacity of the hospital space...... to incite an experience of homeliness and care. Furthermore, cancer patients continuously challenge the use and limits of space by individual objects and practices of privacy and home. Discussion. Healing environments are complex relations between practices, space and care, where recognition...

  11. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  12. Review of docetaxel in the treatment of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Tetzlaff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric D Tetzlaff1, Jonathan D Cheng1, Jaffer A Ajani21Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Gastric cancer is a global health problem accounting for 800,000 cancer related deaths annually. Often diagnosed at an advanced stage, the treatment of gastric cancer with chemotherapy is directed towards palliating cancer related symptoms with only modest improvements in survival. In addition, no regimen has emerged as a globally accepted standard. New therapeutic options are desperately needed for the treatment of gastric cancer. Docetaxel given in combination has recently emerged as a new option for patients with advanced gastric cancer. This review focuses on the treatment of advanced gastric cancer utilizing docetaxelbased therapy and the novel additions of biotherapy to the existing cytotoxic platforms. In addition, the current investigations of docetaxel for the treatment of potentially curable gastric cancer will be discussed.Keywords: docetaxel, gastric cancer, chemotherapy, biotherapy

  13. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  14. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but ef

  15. Persistent pain and sensory disturbances after treatment for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Mathias Kvist; Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Gärtner, Rune;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain.......To examine the development of persistent pain after treatment for breast cancer and to examine risk factors associated with continuing pain....

  16. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but ef

  17. Personalizing Anti-Cancer Treatment from Genetic and Pharmacokinetic Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bins (Sander)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOnly recently, systemic anti-cancer treatment consisted of little more than chemotherapy, targeting mitosis in rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells. Increasing biological insight has led to the development of more biology driven treatments, e.g. tyrosine kinase inhibitors and

  18. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone. T

  19. Impedometric properties of the vulvar and vaginal tissues of ewes during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, L; Aizinbud, E; Tadmor, A; Schindler, H

    1981-01-01

    Tissue electrical conductance (G) and capacitance (C) were measured in vulvar and vaginal tissues of ewes by a spectroimpedographic method at frequencies from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. The calculated specific conductance (mumho/cm) at 100 kHz was 3082 +/- 20 (s.e.m.) in oestrus and 2153 +/- 16 in dioestrus (n = 8) (P standing heat.

  20. The journey of personalizing gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the fourth most prevalent malignancy yet it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Every year, gastric cancer adds nearly 1 million new cancer cases, and 723,000 or 10%of cancer deaths to the global cancer burden. Approximately, 405,000 or 43%of the new cases and 325,000 or 45%of the deaths are in China, mak-ing gastric cancer a particularly challenging malignancy. This thematic series discusses the molecular classiifcations of gastric cancer by the Cancer Genome Atlas ( TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) as well as the implications in personalized therapeutic choices;discusses the evolution of gastric surgery and presents perspectives on surgical techniques in treating gastric cancer;and reviews current and emerging targeted agents as well as immu-notherapies in treating gastric cancer. With these advancements in molecular characterization, surgical intervention, and targeted and immunotherapies, gastric cancer will enter a personalized medicine era in the next 5 years.

  1. Elevated copper and oxidative stress in cancer cells as a target for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Anshul; Mumper, Russell J

    2009-02-01

    As we gain a better understanding of the factors affecting cancer etiology, we can design improved treatment strategies. Over the past three to four decades, there have been numerous successful efforts in recognizing important cellular proteins essential in cancer growth and therefore these proteins have been targeted for cancer treatment. However, studies have shown that targeting one or two proteins in the complex cancer cascade may not be sufficient in controlling and/or inhibiting cancer growth. Therefore, there is a need to examine features which are potentially involved in multiple facets of cancer development. In this review we discuss the targeting of the elevated copper (both in serum and tumor) and oxidative stress levels in cancer with the aid of a copper chelator d-penicillamine (d-pen) for potential cancer treatment. Numerous studies in the literature have reported that both the serum and tumor copper levels are elevated in a variety of malignancies, including both solid tumor and blood cancer. Further, the elevated copper levels have been shown to be directly correlated to cancer progression. Enhanced levels of intrinsic oxidative stress has been shown in variety of tumors, possibly due to the combination of factors such as elevated active metabolism, mitochondrial mutation, cytokines, and inflammation. The cancer cells under sustained ROS stress tend to heavily utilize adaptation mechanisms and may exhaust cellular ROS-buffering capacity. Therefore, the elevated copper levels and increased oxidative stress in cancer cells provide for a prospect of selective cancer treatment.

  2. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute Act. This landmark legislation led to the creation of what has become the world's preeminent cancer research organization, the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Our nation has made great progress in reducing the burden ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your doctor ...

  5. Knowledge of reproductive system cancers, their treatments and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Ogah, Imhokhai; Wassersug, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We explored, via an online questionnaire, knowledge of breast and reproductive system cancers in patients and non-patients who access the internet for information on these diseases. We compared that knowledge to the attention the diseases have received in medical research and on the Internet. Data were collected from 690 respondents (37 % male, 63 % female) about their knowledge of prevalence, lethality, treatments and side effects of testicular, prostate, breast, uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers. Most males, but only half of the female participants, were patients themselves. Although participants showed better knowledge of cancers specific to their own sex, both sexes felt familiar with breast cancer and less aware of other cancers. Women were as aware as men of side effects of treatments for male reproductive cancers. Sex differences in awareness appear to reflect different attitudes towards illness, bias toward females as caregivers, and the disproportionate media attention given to breast cancer.

  6. Current concepts in cancer: effects of cancer and cancer treatment on the nutrition of the host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, G.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1979-06-28

    The growth of cancer in man leads to destruction of tissues and alterations of functions. The consequences of this process, culminating in overt cachexia and death, are so varied that cancer has replaced syphilis as the great imitator. Many of the manifestations of cachexia (weakness, anorexia, depletion and translocation of host component, and loss of immunocompetence) resemble malnutrition and are accountable for, in many patients, by poor nutritional intake, neoplastic invasion of the gastrointestinal tract or creation by the tumor of abnormal routes through which nutrients can be lost. The development of cachexia, nevertheless, bears no simple relation to caloric intake, tumor burden, tumor cell type or anatomic site of involvement. Indeed, it has long been apparent that, in many patients succumbing to cancer, if the same lesions were composed of scar tissue rather than neoplastic cells, the affected individuals might not only be alive but in reasonably good health. Distant metabolic effects of cancers have therefore come into focus, are well documented and are known collectively as paraneoplastic syndromes. They imply release by the tumor of chemically identifiable toxic mediators. Recently, a third mechanism has been recognized as an important determinant of cachexia and malnutrition: cancer treatment. As our tools have become more powerful and our philosophies more agressive,the effects of therapy on normal cell populations have become visible. The present paper discusses the most important manifestations of cachexia that resemble malnutrition. Technics of nutritional assessment and intervention that have proved successful in patients with cancer are also briefly discussed.

  7. Apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aman M Abraha; Ezra B Ketema

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among adults. The disease begins as a benign adenomatous polyp, which develops into an advanced adenoma with high-grade dysplasia and then progresses to an invasive cancer. Appropriate apoptotic signaling is fundamentally important to preserve a healthy balance between cell death and cell survival and in maintaining genome integrity. Evasion of apoptotic pathway has been established as a prominent hallmark of several cancers. During colorectal cancer development, the balance between the rates of cell growth and apoptosis that maintains intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis gets progressively disturbed. Evidences are increasingly available to support the hypothesis that failure of apoptosis may be an important factor in the evolution of colorectal cancer and its poor response to chemotherapy and radiation. The other reason for targeting apoptotic pathway in the treatment of cancer is based on the observation that this process is deregulated in cancer cells but not in normal cells. As a result, colorectal cancer therapies designed to stimulate apoptosis in target cells would play a critical role in controlling its development and progression. A better understanding of the apoptotic signaling pathways, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade apoptotic death might lead to effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit cancer cell proliferation with minimal toxicity and high responses to chemotherapy. In this review, we analyzed the current understanding and future promises of apoptotic pathways as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer treatment.

  8. Carboplatin treatment of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde S; Yde, Christina Westmose; Christensen, Ib J

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen resistance is a major clinical problem in current breast cancer treatment. Therefore, biomarkers and new treatment options for antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer are needed. In this study, we investigated whether antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer cell lines have increased...... to the antiestrogen tamoxifen, were more sensitive to carboplatin treatment compared to the parental MCF-7 cell line. This indicates that carboplatin may be an advantageous treatment in antiestrogen‑resistant breast cancer; however, a marker for increased sensitivity would be needed. Low Bcl-2 expression...... sensitivity to carboplatin, as it was previously shown with cisplatin, and whether low Bcl-2 expression levels have a potential value as marker for increased carboplatin sensitivity. Breast cancer cells resistant to the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant, and two out of four cell lines resistant...

  9. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment with Particle Beam Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Zargarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this century, cancer incidence has become one of the most significant problems concerning human. Conventional radiotherapy damage healthy tissue and in some cases may cause new primary cancers. This problem can be partially solved by hadron therapy which would be more effective and less harmful compared to other forms of radiotherapies used to treat some cancers. Although carbon ion and proton therapy both are effective treatments, they have serious differences which are mentioned in this paper and compared between the two methods. Furthermore, various treatments have been performed on head and neck cancer with hadrons so far will be discussed.

  10. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  11. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  12. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches.

  13. Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment : Pooled results from three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Michael E.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hoogendoorn, Wilhelmina E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Hollema, Harry; van Boven, Hester; Press, Michael F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subs

  14. Endometrial cancer survival after breast cancer in relation to tamoxifen treatment : Pooled results from three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Michael E.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hoogendoorn, Wilhelmina E.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Hollema, Harry; van Boven, Hester; Press, Michael F.; Bernstein, Leslie; Swerdlow, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tamoxifen is an effective treatment for breast cancer but an undesirable side-effect is an increased risk of endometrial cancer, particularly rare tumor types associated with poor prognosis. We investigated whether tamoxifen therapy increases mortality among breast cancer patients subs

  15. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, S.C.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Janssen, M.L.H.; Festen, J.; Joosten, F.B.M.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  16. Recovery and self-management support following primary cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, C; Fenlon, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Around 2 million people are living with or beyond cancer in the UK. However, experiences and needs following primary treatment are relatively neglected. Following treatment, survivors may feel particularly vulnerable and face threats to their identity. We present a conceptual framework to inform areas of self-management support to facilitate recovery of health and well-being following primary cancer treatment. Methods: To explain the framework, we draw on data from two studies: UK...

  17. Fatal Cesium Chloride Toxicity After Alternative Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sessions, Daniel; Heard, Kennon; Kosnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cesium chloride (CsCl) is sold as a treatment for several types of cancers. The purported mechanism of action is alkalinization of relatively acidic neoplastic cells. The efficacy of CsCl has not been demonstrated in controlled experiments. Oral and intravenous CsCl use has been associated with seizures, cardiotoxicity, syncope, and death. Although intratumoral treatment with various antineoplastic agents is described, no cases of intratumoral cancer treatment with CsCl have been ...

  18. Presença da Proteína p53 como Prognóstico de Recidiva/Progressão de Neoplasia Intra-epitelial Vulvar III p53 Protein Overexpression as a Prognostic Marker for Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia III Recurrence/Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Chulvis do Val Guimarães

    2002-01-01

    distributed as follows: in three patients recurrence occurred only once; in two, twice, and only one progressed to squamous cancer. In both groups the site of vulvar lesion and p53 overexpression and immunostaining pattern were analyzed. A similar study was performed in recurrence/progression cases, besides the analysis of the time interval to occur the arise of recurrence/progression. Results: recurrence was observed in 25% of the cases and, in 5%, progression to carcinoma. The mean time interval for recurrence was 24.5 months. Multifocal location of the initial lesion was the predominant form (50% in both groups. In the majority of the cases (87.5% recurrence/progression occurred at the same site of the initial vulvar lesion. p53 overexpression was observed in 50% of the VIN III primary lesions and in 75% of the recurrence/progression cases. Conclusions: p53 overexpression seems to play an important role in VIN III pathogenesis and may predict the clinical course of the lesions. VIN III recurrence/progression has a tendency to occur in the same area of the initial lesion, suggesting the presence of molecular disturbance.

  19. Lithium treatment and cancer incidence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Lina; Westman, Jeanette; Hällgren, Jonas; Ösby, Urban; Backlund, Lena

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether there is an increased risk of cancer associated with lithium treatment in patients with bipolar disorder compared to the general population. A nationwide Swedish register study of incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of total cancer and site-specific cancer in the 50-84-year age range was carried out in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 5,442) with and without lithium treatment from July 2005 to December 2009 compared to the general population using linked information from The Swedish Cancer Register, The National Patient Register, and The Drug Prescription Register. The overall cancer risk was not increased in patients with bipolar disorder. There was no difference in risk of unspecified cancer, neither in patients with lithium treatment compared to the general population [IRR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.23] nor in patients with bipolar disorder without lithium treatment compared to the general population (IRR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89-1.19). The cancer risk was significantly increased in patients with bipolar disorder without lithium treatment in the digestive organs (IRR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12-1.93), in the respiratory system and intrathoracic organs (IRR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.66), and in the endocrine glands and related structures (IRR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.24-5.47), but in patients with bipolar disorder with lithium treatment, there was no significantly increased cancer risk compared to the general population. Bipolar disorder was not associated with increased cancer incidence and neither was lithium treatment in these patients. Specifically, there was an increased risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and endocrine cancer in patients with bipolar disorder without lithium treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vulvar reconstruction should be performed using gluteal-fold perforator flap because of less morbidities and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Fujioka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The autors present a case of bilateral vulvar defects after abrasion of malignant skin neoplasm, reconstructed with a gluteal-fold perforator flap, resulting in a successful outcome.

  1. Will patients benefit from regionalization of gynecologic cancer care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Brookfield

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patient chances for cure and palliation for a variety of malignancies may be greatly affected by the care provided by a treating hospital. We sought to determine the effect of volume and teaching status on patient outcomes for five gynecologic malignancies: endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. METHODS: The Florida Cancer Data System dataset was queried for all patients undergoing treatment for gynecologic cancers from 1990-2000. RESULTS: Overall, 48,981 patients with gynecologic malignancies were identified. Endometrial tumors were the most common, representing 43.2% of the entire cohort, followed by ovarian cancer (30.9%, cervical cancer (20.8%, vulvar cancer (4.6%, and uterine sarcoma (0.5%. By univariate analysis, although patients treated at high volume centers (HVC were significantly younger, they benefited from an improved short-term (30-day and/or 90-day survival for cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Multivariate analysis (MVA, however, failed to demonstrate significant survival benefit for gynecologic cancer patients treated at teaching facilities (TF or HVC. Significant prognostic factors at presentation by MVA were age over 65 (HR = 2.6, p<0.01, African-American race (HR = 1.36, p<0.01, and advanced stage (regional HR = 2.08, p<0.01; advanced HR = 3.82, p<0.01, respectively. Surgery and use of chemotherapy were each significantly associated with improved survival. CONCLUSION: No difference in patient survival was observed for any gynecologic malignancy based upon treating hospital teaching or volume status. Although instances of improved outcomes may occur, overall further regionalization would not appear to significantly improve patient survival.

  2. Living proof and the pseudoscience of alternative cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Cassileth, Barrie R

    2008-01-01

    Michael Gearin-Tosh was an English professor at Oxford University who was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in 1994. He rejected conventional chemotherapeutic approaches and turned to a variety of alternative cancer treatments, particularly those involving nutritional supplements and dietary change. In 2002, Dr. Gearin-Tosh published a book, Living Proof: A Medical Mutiny, recounting his experiences. The book gained significant public and media attention. One chapter was written by Carmen Wheatley, an advocate of alternative cancer treatments. In distinction to Dr. Gearin-Tosh's personal story, Dr. Wheatley makes general claims about cancer treatment that are supposedly based on the research literature. This appears to provide scientific validation for a highly unconventional program of cancer care. However, the scientific case made for alternative cancer treatments in Living Proof does not bear serious examination. There are numerous inaccuracies, omissions, and misrepresentations. Many important claims are either entirely unsubstantiated or not supported by the literature cited. In conclusion, a highly publicized book gives the impression that alternative cancer treatments are supported by scientific research. It also suggests that little progress has been made in the conventional treatment of myeloma. This is highly misleading and may lead to cancer patients rejecting effective treatments.

  3. Barriers to information provision regarding breast cancer and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Enns, Heather J; Woodgate, Roberta L; Chochinov, Harvey M

    2017-04-24

    Women with breast cancer require information about their cancer and its treatment during the process of treatment decision-making, yet it is unclear if there are barriers to information support. This study explores the experience of making treatment decisions in breast cancer, paying particular attention to the barriers experienced to the provision of information. Using a grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 women with invasive breast cancer exploring the experience of treatment decision-making. Data was organized using ATLAS.ti software and analyzed using constant comparisons. Analysis of the data showed that barriers to cancer and treatment information include intrapersonal and interpersonal communication challenges (emotional distress, patient-provider communication, "making it personal," access to information) which reside at different levels of the breast cancer experience (individual, dyad, group, organization). A model is provided to depict this experience. Women want information about their cancer and its treatment and experience barriers to information provision at various levels. Satisfactory information provision cannot occur without addressing barriers at every level. Utilizing interprofessional models of care may minimize existing barriers to information provision and empower patients to make satisfying treatment decisions that are consistent with their individual wishes.

  4. The pathogenesis and treatment of cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate T

    2016-02-15

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with significant functional impairment. In addition to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience cardiac atrophy, remodeling, and dysfunction, which in the field of cancer cachexia is described as cardiac cachexia. The cardiac alterations may be due to underlying heart disease, the cancer itself, or problems initiated by the cancer treatment and, unfortunately, remains largely underappreciated by clinicians and basic scientists. Despite recent major advances in the treatment of cancer, little progress has been made in the treatment of cardiac cachexia in cancer, and much of this is due to lack of information regarding the mechanisms. This review focuses on the cardiac atrophy associated with cancer cachexia, describing some of the known mechanisms and discussing the current and future therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. Above all else, improved awareness of the condition and an increased focus on identification of mechanisms and therapeutic targets will facilitate the eventual development of an effective treatment for cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Cancer treatment in determination of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Priscila Feliciano de; Oliveira, Camila Silva; Andrade, Joice Santos; Santos, Tamara Figueiredo do Carmo; Oliveira-Barreto, Aline Cabral de

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncology have repercussions in hearing health, and can damage structures of the inner ear. These repercussions usually, result in a bilateral and irreversible hearing loss. To identify sensorineural hearing loss cases with complaints of tinnitus and difficulty in speech understanding and investigate their relationship with the types of chemotherapy and radiotherapy the patients received. Cross-sectional, clinical, observational, analytical, historical cohort study of 58 subjects treated in a public hospital in the state of Sergipe, diagnosed with neoplasia. The subjects were submitted to anamnesis, conventional pure tone audiometry, and speech recognition threshold. Of the 116 ears, 25.9% presented sensorioneural hearing loss characterized by changes in high frequencies. There was a positive correlation between hearing loss and the association of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (p=0.035; R=0.196). The auditory complaint analysis shows that most of the subjects had tinnitus and speech understanding difficulty, even with a normal auditory threshold. Cancer treatment causes hearing loss, associated with the administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cyclophosphamide increased the risk of causing hearing loss. Complaints of tinnitus and speech understanding difficulty were observed. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [Touching cancer: shiatsu as complementary treatment to support cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients.

  7. Risk of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora); J. Benraadt (J.); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); C.H.F. Gimbrère (Charles); R. Otter (Renée); L.J. Scheuten (Leo); R.A. Damhuis (Ronald); M. Bontenbal (Marijke); A.I. Diepenhorst; A.W. van den Belt-Dusebout (Alexandra); H. van Tinteren (Harm)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSince large trials have been set up to assess whether tamoxifen decreases the risk of breast cancer in healthy women, it has become important to investigate the drug's potential adverse effects, including occurrence of endometrial cancer. We undertook a case-control study in the

  8. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability...... and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification...

  9. Diagnosis and treatment for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxing Niu; Guohua Ren; Shuping Song

    2008-01-01

    The morbility of prostate cancer has risen in China in recent years, it is important to diagnose and treat prostate cancer standardly and systemically.This review analyzed the status and advances of PSA examination, digital rectal examination, prostate biopsy in prostate cancer, and it gave a detailed description of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, etc.The advances of targeted therapy and tumor vaccine is also discussed.

  10. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; I. Alho; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be relate...

  11. Oncology Nursing and Shared Decision Making for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariman, Joseph D; Mehmeti, Enisa; Spawn, Nadia; McCarter, Sarah P; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the contemporary role of the oncology nurse throughout the entire cancer shared decision-making (SDM) process. Study participants consisted of 30 nurses and nurse practitioners who are actively involved in direct care of patients with cancer in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis are: oncology nurses have various roles at different time points and settings of cancer SDM processes; patient education, advocacy, and treatment side effects management are among the top nursing roles; oncology nurses value their participation in the cancer SDM process; oncology nurses believe they have a voice, but with various degrees of influence in actual treatment decisions; nurses' level of disease knowledge influences the degree of participation in cancer SDM; and the nursing role during cancer SDM can be complicated and requires flexibility.
.

  12. Risk of skin cancer following tamoxifen treatment in more than 16,000 breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Andersson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women with breast cancer are at increased risk of developing skin cancer. Little is known about how tamoxifen affects this risk. We aimed to investigate whether tamoxifen treatment following breast cancer is associated with skin cancer. Methods: A cohort consisting of 44,589 women...... diagnosed with breast cancer during 1977–2007 from the nationwide clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, was followed for a primary skin cancer [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or melanoma] in the Danish Cancer Registry supplemented by data on BCC and SCC...... from the Danish Pathology Register. We investigated incidence of skin cancer among 16,214 women treated with tamoxifen compared to 28,375 women not treated with tamoxifen by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in Cox regression models. Results: Tamoxifen users were followed for a median of 2...

  13. Surgical treatment of double primary liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aijun; Ma, Senlin; Pawlik, Timothy; Wu, Bin; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Longjiu; Wu, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Double primary liver cancer (DPLC) is a special type of clinical situation. As such, a detailed analysis of the surgical management and prognosis of patients with DPLC is lacking. The objective of the current study was to define the management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for DPLC at a major hepatobiliary center. A total of 87 patients treated by surgical resection at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2013 who had DPLC demonstrated by final pathological diagnosis were identified. Among these, 50 patients had complete clinical and prognostic data. Demographic and tumor characteristics as well as the prognosis were analyzed. The proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) (+), HBsAg (+), and HBeAg (−) hepatocirrhosis in all patients was 21.84%, 67.82%, and 63.22%, respectively. Incidental findings accounted for 58.62% of patients; among those who had symptoms, the main symptom was abdominal pain (31.03%). Nonanatomic wedge resection was the main operative approach (62.07%). Postoperatively, the main complications included seroperitoneum (11.49%), hypoproteinemia (10.34%), and pleural effusion (8.05%). Factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) tumor size (P = 0.002) and use of postoperative prophylactic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment (P = 0.015). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) size (P = 0.045), ICC size (P < 0.001), and liver function (including aspartate aminotransferase [P = 0.001] and r-glutamyl transferase [P < 0.001]) were associated with overall survival (OS). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis or cirrhosis is also an important factor in the pathogenesis of DPLC and surgical treatment is safe for it with low complication rates. In addition, it is effective to prolong DFS that DPLC patients undergo postoperative

  14. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  15. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  16. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  17. The Future of Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    On January 12, 2017 prostate cancer experts William Dahut, M.D. of the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Heather Cheng, M.D. of the University of Washington had a vibrant discussion about current and future research areas and treatment options for prostate cancer. The panel was moderated by Ana Fadich, MPH, CHES Vice President at Men’s Health of the Men's Health Network.

  18. Sipuleucel-T for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Mark W

    2012-06-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy designed to stimulate an immune response to prostate cancer that prolongs the overall survival of men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The clinical development program and key efficacy, safety, and immune response findings from the phase III studies are presented. The integration of sipuleucel-T into the treatment paradigm of advanced prostate cancer and future directions for research are discussed.

  19. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  20. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  1. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  2. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  3. The Treatment of Cancer through Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    This report traces the immunological components of the cancer process and illustrates how vital a role is played by stress. The work of the Simontons is used to discuss the relationship between stress, the immune system and cancer. Hypnotic visualization techniques and their effects on the immune system are also reviewed. (Author)

  4. Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer; Prevention: Therapy: Pharmacokinetics; Therapeutic Index; Safety 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...anti-breast cancer activity of AFP was identified, isolated in the third domain of the molecule, and developed into an orally active cyclic nine...activity. (31) For example, difference spectroscopy studies indicated that AFP undergoes a conformation change in a molar excess of estrogen.(31

  5. Multimodality Treatment in Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Morak (Marjolein)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Pancreatic cancer is the eight most common form of cancer in Europe with 96.000 new cases yearly. This incidence closely matches the mortality rate, thus revealing the aggressive behaviour of this tumour. Five-year survival after diagnosis is only 5% with a median overa

  6. Systemic Treatment Approaches in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bontenbal (Marijke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most conmlon malignant tumor among women, with an estimated 135,000 new cases and 58,000 recorded deaths per year in the Europeau Community in 1990. With respect to the Netherlands, the most recent data of The Netherlands Cancer Registry show an incidence of nearly 1

  7. Redox Proteomics Sheds Light on Photodynamic Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsaytler, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death among humans in the world, exceeded only by heart disease. One of the promising modalities for the treatment of cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is based on the concept that (1) certain light-sensitive compounds (photosensitizers) can be locali

  8. Megestrol acetate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThere are many non-elucidated questions concerning cancer, especially of the breast, in which hormones are involved. The scope of this particular study is to bring more clarity on the role of the progestin megestrol acetate in the hormonal treatment of breast cancer. It should be kept in

  9. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  10. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  11. Main types of skin cancer and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rachel Louise

    This first in a two-part series on skin cancer gives an overview of the most common types and outlines the main treatment options. Part 2, to be published next week, discusses the causes of and risk factors for skin cancer, highlighting those people who are most at risk and the importance of early diagnosis.

  12. Challenges in the multimodality treatment of rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swellengrebel, Hendrik Albert Maurits

    2013-01-01

    Remaining questions and current goals in the treatment of rectal cancer include optimizing staging accuracy, establishing the optimal neoadjuvant strategy to be implemented in the different stages of rectal cancer and possibly leading to the evidence-based introduction of organ sparing and non-opera

  13. Biomedical Engineering 2008. New methods for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanninen, J.; Koskelainen, A.; Ilmoniemi, R.J. (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The report consists of 11 student papers presented in 2008 at the Seminar on Biomedical Engineering at Helsinki University of Technology (Finland). The topics of the seminar included: cancer risk factors and diagnosis, radiation therapy, boron neutron capture treatment (BNCT), chemotherapy, cooling and heating therapy, immunotherapy, angiogenesis inhibition approaches, gene therapy and ablation therapy of liver cancer

  14. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  15. Redox Proteomics Sheds Light on Photodynamic Treatment of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsaytler, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837679

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death among humans in the world, exceeded only by heart disease. One of the promising modalities for the treatment of cancer is photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is based on the concept that (1) certain light-sensitive compounds (photosensitizers) can be

  16. Cyclotherapy: opening a therapeutic window in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Ingeborg M M

    2012-06-01

    Cyclotherapy is a promising endeavor to improve cancer treatment by tackling the dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy, especially for cancers harboring mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor. In this particular context, pretreatment with a p53 activator halts proliferation in healthy tissue, while leaving the p53-deficient tumor susceptible to conventional chemotherapy.

  17. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... try to get it to attack the cancer. Cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines, and other immunotherapies are among the most promising approaches for treating melanoma and lymphoma. Although most clinical trials of these treatments include people with melanomas of the skin and ...

  18. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  19. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, I; Macedo, D; Alho, I; Dionísio, M R; Costa, L

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be related to cancer pain. Nevertheless, in some cases, targeted drugs are available and in use for other diseases. In this paper, we aim to review the importance of cytokines in cancer pain and targeted strategies that can have an impact on controlling this symptom.

  20. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....