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Sample records for vulva

  1. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  2. Plexiform neurofibromatosis of vulva

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    Bharat B. Dogra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform Neurofibromatosis of vulva is a rare, benign tumor of genital tract arising from nerve sheath of peripheral nerve. It may present as solitary lesion or as part of Von Recklinghausen's disease. Genitourinary neurofibroma is rare, however clitoris and labia majus happen to be the most frequent location of neurofibromatosis involving female genital tract. We present a case of plexiform neurofibroma arising from left labia majora in a young patient having features of Von Recklinghausens disease. She complained of discomfort while walking due to rubbing of pedunculated mass arising from her labia majora. We carried out the surgical excision of the mass followed by primary repair of labia majora. She has been followed up on out-patient basis for about three months without any recurrence so far. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1771-1773

  3. Giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva

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    S. M. Ramiz Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, A 23 year old married woman who was diagnosed as a case of giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva measuring about 15 x 8 x 3 cm, irregular surface with multiple projections, oval in shape, firm to hard in consistency, mildly tender, exophytic, cauliflower like growth involving the whole vulva (lower part of mons pubis, labia, vestibule, clitoris, around vaginal opening. Another multiple small lesions were present at perineal region but there was no inguinal lymphadenopathy. She underwent a combined electro cauterization and cryotherapy for small to moderate size multiple primary and recurrent warty lesions and wide surgical excision with fasciocutaneous advancement flaps procedure for a giant lesions in the vulva. Excisional biopsies were performed to detect potential malignancy but malignancy was not found histologically. The patient was advised to first follow-up 1 month after operation when multiple small warty lesions were developed and treated and the subsequent follow-ups for 3 months.

  4. Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the vulva

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    Babita Kajal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous vulvar carcinomas are predominantly of squamous cell carcinoma type. Primary vulvar adenocarcinomas are rare with a poorly understood histogenesis. They are classified into extramammary Paget’s disease, sweat gland carcinomas, and breast-like adenocarcinomas of the vulva. Adenocarcinomas, originating from Bartholin glands, can also present as vulvar adenocarcinoma. Rare adenocarcinomas with apocrine features have been described in the literature. The origin of these neoplasms from the native apocrine sweat glands or from anogenital mammary-like glands is still debatable. We report herein a case of a 67 year old female with a rare primary apocrine carcinoma of the vulva.

  5. Pure cutaneous histiocytosis X of the vulva.

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    Rose, P G; Johnston, G C; O'Toole, R V

    1984-10-01

    Histiocytosis X of the vulva is extremely rare. In most reported cases, vulvar disease is associated with multiple organ involvement and systemic disease manifestations aiding in the diagnosis. Reported is a case of histiocytosis X presenting solely with vulvar lesions for eight years' duration. The diagnosis, pathology, and subsequent management are discussed. The literature of histiocytosis X of the vulva is reviewed, and its presentations and treatments summarized. Vulvar lesions unresponsive to therapy warrant biopsy and other causes of histiocytic reactions must be excluded to establish the diagnosis.

  6. Semen Allergy Manifesting As Chronic Pruritus Vulva

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    Pavithran K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A young woman of 24 with personal and family history of atopy development pruritus vulva each time after sexual intercourse with her husband. History of urticaria of sites of contact with semen on her thighs gave suspicion of contact urticaria. Positive wheal and flare response to pin prick test with semen, excellent therapeutic response to topical steroid and oral Cetirizine and non- recurrence of the problem after using condom by her husband confirmed the diagnosis of semen allergy.

  7. Clinic Pathological Features of Angiomyofibroblastoma in Vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-xiang; TONG Shu-lan; FEI Shao-hua; CAO Zhi-xing; CAO Xiao-zhe

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of angiomyofibroblastoma(AMFB) of the vulva. Methods:Two cases of AMFB were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemical study and to discuss the clinicopatholoical features and differential diagnosis of AMFB with the reference to the literature. Results:Tumors were all circumscribed,and<5 cm in diameter.Microscopically,the tumors were composed of spindle or polygonal cells that were cellularly or hypocellularly arranged with perivascular accentuation in a mucoid or fibrocollagenous background.The tumors contained numerous small-to medium-sized blood vessels,which were characteristically thin walled.Immunohistochemically,two cases of tumor cells were positive for vimentin,SMA,CD34(+)and FⅧ(+). Desmin and MSA were positive in one case:Cytokeratin,S-100,CD31 were negative in both. Conclusion:AMFB is a rare,benign soft tissue tumor that occurs in the genital tract of adult women.The origin remains unclear,but it is suggested that an origin from a perivascular pluripotent stem cell that is capable of myofibroblastoma differentiation.Angiomyofibroblastoma should be differentiated from other neoplasms of the vulva such as aggressive angiomyxoma, superficial angiomyxoma and cellular angiofibroma.

  8. Mixoma de vulva em cão Vulvar myxoma in a dog

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    E.F. Nascimento

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the pathological findings of a myxoma in the vulva of a seven-year-old German Shepherd bitch, with history of mass increase in the vulva. After surgery, tipical and microscopic aspects were detected.

  9. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN AN UNUSUAL SITE - VULVA

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    Sumangala G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignancy of the skin, but BCC of the vulva is a rare entity. BCC of vulva accounts for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma has a low propensity for metastatic spread but has a high chance of local recurrence after simple excision. We report a 50- year-old woman presenting with pruritus vulva. Physical examination revealed a 2.5 x 1.5 cm hyperpigmented plaque on the left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with superficially invasive basal cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radical local excision including the clitoris and remained disease free at postsurgical follow-up after eight months.

  10. Rare sweat gland tumors of vulva: Report of two cases

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    Rashmi Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Syringomas and Fox-Fordyce disease are appendageal skin disorders. While syringomas represent an adenoma of the intraepidermal eccrine duct, Fox Fordyce disease occurs due to blockage of the apocrine sweat duct. In both conditions, extragenital sites are more frequently involved than the genitalia. We herein report two young females, one with syringomas on the face and vulva and the other with Fox Fordyce disease involving axilla, areola and vulva, thereby citing the importance of examination of genitalia in these disorders.

  11. Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbudak, Irem Hicran; Akkaya, Hampar; Akkaya, Bahar; Erdoğan, Gülgün; Peşterelı, Hadice Elif; Karavelı, Fatma Şeyda

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue can occur anywhere along the primitive embryonic milk line and can be the site of the same pathologic processes found in the normal breast. Phyllodes tumor is an extremely rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that occurs in ectopic breast tissue of the vulva. To date, only 8 cases of phyllodes tumor in the vulva have been reported in the literature. This paper presents two additional case of benign phyllodes tumor in the vulva. The first patient was a 43-year-old woman, presenting with a lesion on the left anterior mons pubis that had increased in size in the last three months. The second patient was a 50-year-old woman, presenting with a two-month history of a mass in the right labium majus. The patients underwent excisional biopsy. The histological examination of both specimens revealed a characteristic pattern of benign phyllodes tumor. In conclusion, the pathologists need to be aware that the lesion can occur in this location. Herein, the concepts about the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor in the vulva are discussed and a brief review of the previously reported cases is given.

  12. Phyllodes Tumor of the Vulva: Report of Two Cases

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    Bahar AKAYA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue can occur anywhere along the primitive embryonic milk line and can be the site of the same pathologic processes found in the normal breast. Phyllodes tumor is an extremely rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that occurs in ectopic breast tissue of the vulva. To date, only 8 cases of phyllodes tumor in the vulva have been reported in the literature. This paper presents two additional case of benign phyllodes tumor in the vulva. The first patient was a 43-year-old woman, presenting with a lesion on the left anterior mons pubis that had increased in size in the last three months. The second patient was a 50-year-old woman, presenting with a two-month history of a mass in the right labium majus. The patients underwent excisional biopsy. The histological examination of both specimens revealed a characteristic pattern of benign phyllodes tumor. In conclusion, the pathologists need to be aware that the lesion can occur in this location. Herein, the concepts about the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor in the vulva are discussed and a brief review of the previously reported cases is given.

  13. Vulva carcinoma at the university of Benin teaching hospital (UBTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulva carcinoma at the university of Benin teaching hospital (UBTH); a ten ... cancer after cervical (62.5%), ovarian (17.0%) and endometrial th th cancers ... 57.1% of the patients had chemotherapy while 3 patients (10.7%) had radiotherapy.

  14. Molecular and immunological mechanisms of epithelial disorders of the vulva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.M. Santegoets (Lindy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe vulva is the outer part of the female genital tract, bordered by the symphisis pubis, the labiocrural folds and the anus. It consists of the following structures: the mons pubis, the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, the vestibule of the vagina and the urethral orifice (Figure

  15. Over de behandeling van het carcinoma planocellulare infiltrativum vulvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geling, Jozephus Hermannus

    1966-01-01

    SAMENVATTING Het doel van dit proefschrift is de behandeling weer te geven van het infiltratief groeiend plaveiselcarcinoom van de vulva, zoals deze in een aantal grotere gynaecologische centra in Nederland gedurende de jaren 1946 tot en met 1960 is uitgevoerd. Aan de hand van een literatuurstudie

  16. Verrucous Carcinoma of the Vulva: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Boutas; Chrisostomos Sofoudis; Emmanouil Kalampokas; Christos Anastasopoulos; Theodoros Kalampokas; Nikolaos Salakos

    2013-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma of the female genital tract is a rare lesion, primarily affecting postmenopausal women. We present a 78-year-old patient with verrucous carcinoma of the vulva, who was admitted to the ?Aretaieion? Athens University Hospital. She had complained of vulvar itching during the last two years without visiting a specialist doctor.

  17. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

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    Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Ruas, E.; Fiorica, J.V.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.

  18. Anatomy and Aesthetics of the Labia Minora: The Ideal Vulva?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerico, C; Larry, A; Mojallal, A; Boucher, F

    2017-03-10

    Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva. The spread of nudity in the general media plays a major role in creating an artificial image and standards with regard to the ideal form. Physicians should be aware that the patient's self-perception of the normal or ideal vulva is highly influenced by the arguably distorted image related to our socio-psychological environment, as presented to us by the general media and internet. As physicians, we have to educate our patients on the variation of vulvar anatomy and the potential risks of these surgeries. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Vulva Fibroadenoma Associated with Lactating Adenoma in a 26-Year-Old Nigerian Female

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    C. C. Anunobi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vulva lactating adenoma is rare and may be misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma in frozen section and aspiration cytology if breast tissue is not anticipated. Objective. To raise the awareness of lactating vulva ectopic breast lesion among clinicians and pathologists. Case Report. We present a case of vulva fibroadenoma associated with lactating adenoma in a 26-year-old Nigerian female. Conclusion. The rarity of vulva ectopic breast tissue can present a diagnostic challenge for both the clinician and the anatomical pathologist. Once excisional biopsy is done and the lesion confirmed histologically, the anxious patient can be reassured.

  20. Paget's disease of the vulva: A review of 89 cases

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    Cherry O. Onaiwu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a series of women with Paget's disease of the vulva. A retrospective review was performed of 89 women with Paget's disease of the vulva evaluated at a single institution between 1966 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, clinical data, pathologic findings, treatment modalities and outcomes. We found that the primary treatment was surgery for 74 (83.1% patients, with positive margins noted in 70.1% of cases. Five patients (5.6% underwent topical treatment with imiquimod and/or 5-fluorouracil, one patient (1.1% underwent laser ablation and treatment was unknown in 9 patients (10.1%. The majority of patients had multiple recurrences, with 18% having four or more recurrences. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients who underwent surgery and those who did not. Furthermore, there was no association between positive margins following primary surgery and recurrence. Forty-one patients (46.1% were diagnosed with 53 synchronous or metachronous cancers. Seven patients (7.9% were found to have invasive vulvar cancer with 1 mm or more depth of invasion, but none of the patients died of Paget's disease or associated vulvar/vaginal cancer. Our findings suggest that the majority of patients with Paget's disease of the vulva develop multiple recurrences regardless of treatment modality or margin status. Alternatives to surgery are needed to better care for women with this disease.

  1. A Correlative Analysis of Cervical Lesions in Patients with Vulva Condyloma Acuminatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Weihong Li; Huanzi Li; Zhihua Liu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relation ship among vulva condyloma acuminatum, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical epithelium lesions.METHODS From May 2002 to April 2004 patients with vulva condyloma acuminatum were examined employing vulva biospy, colposcopy, highrisk HPV-DNA test and cervical bioscopy.RESUTS In 418 cases of vulva condyloma acuminatum, verified by pathologic analysis, high-risk HPV (+) infections were detected in 68.7% (287/418) of the cases. Among those patients, 20.6% (59/287) had concurrent subclinical cervical intraepithelial neoplastic (CIN) lesions. Among the high-risk HPV(-) 31.3 % (131), patients 7.6% (10/131) had concurrent subclinical CIN lesions. Pathological examination results: cervicitis,167 (40.0%); cervical HPV infection, 182 (43.5%); CIN-Ⅰ, 51(12.2%); CIN-Ⅱ, 16 (3.83%); CIN-Ⅲ, 2 (0.5%); cervical cancer, none. Another patient had vulva condyloma acuminatum with valva intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) Ⅱ~Ⅲ.CONCLUSION It was concluded that simultaneous cervical HPV infection of many types was rather common in patients with vulva condyloma acuminatum. Vulva condyloma acuminatum is the chief clinical symptom which hints at a high possibility of infection with high-risk HPV. The patients are at high-risk for CIN and cervical cancer. We must pay more attention to the cervix in cases with vulva condyloma acuminatum.

  2. A rare case of aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva

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    Vilas Namdevrao Kurude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, slow-growing soft tissue tumor developing from myxoid cells that usually arises in the pelvis and perineal regions of women in reproductive age, with a marked tendency to local recurrence but a low tendency to metastasize. It is often initially misdiagnosed because of its rarity. It has a marked tendency for local recurrence. Surgical resection is the treatment modality of choice for aggressive angiomyxoma. We describe a case of an aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva in a 75 year old postmenopausal woman with an asymptomatic mass on the genitalia since 3 years. Excision of the mass was done under local anaesthesia and the diagnosis was only made after histological examination. . The patient has been kept under follow-up. The etiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of this rare tumor are outlined. Angiomyxoma of vulva and vagina refers to a rare disease. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to rarity and absence of diagnostic features, but it should be considered in every mass in genital, perianal and pelvic region in a woman in the reproductive age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2844-2846

  3. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast Metastasizing to the Vulva

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    Olusegun Kayode Ajenifuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare breast tumors that resemble fibroadenoma. They are composed of two types of tissues: stromal and glandular tissues. Unlike fibroadenoma, they are commonly found in the third decade of life and they tend to grow more rapidly. Depending on the relative components of the cells and mitotic activity, they are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant. They are usually present as a lump in the breast. Phyllodes tumors are usually managed by wide excision. The excision should be wide enough to ensure a tumor-free margin. Recurrence rate is very high and most recurrences are usually local. Metastasis to the vulva has not been reported.

  4. Kerion of the vulva caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

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    Bougrine, Amina; Villeneuve-Tang, Catherine; Bouffard, Danielle; Rouleau, Danielle; Chartier, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Deep dermatophytosis of genital skin is a rare clinical manifestation of infection by a common group of pathogens. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion and the use of accurate diagnostic methods in the evaluation of deep dermatophytosis. We report a single case of tinea pubis, kerion type, caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in an immunocompetent host. A 54-year-old female presented with a suppurative infection of the vulva and pubis that was unresponsive to empirical antibiotic therapy. T. mentagrophytes was isolated. Oral itraconazole was initiated on the basis of clinical suspicion and continued for a total of 6 weeks. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of deep dermatophytosis of genital skin rests upon proper identification of the pathogen. Prompt initiation of treatment with an oral antifungal agent, such as itraconazole, should be undertaken in order to avoid irreversible scarring alopecia.

  5. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva: diagnosis and treatment.

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    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Cardoso, Fernanda de Araujo; Fernandes, Gustavo Leme; Veasey, John Verrinder

    2017-01-01

    Vulvar cancer accounts for less than 1% of malignancies in women. Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva is a rare histological variation, comprising less than 1% of vulvar cancer cases. Although it is characterized as being locally invasive, the condition is not associated with metastatic spreading. Lesions present in the form of a verrucous, ulcerated, and bleeding tumor that can reach large dimensions. This type of tumor can be mistaken for condylomata, both macroscopically and microscopically. We report the case of an 81-year-old patient with a large vulvar tumor presented for eight years, initially considered as a Buschke-Löwenstein tumor. The patient underwent radical vulvectomy with a V-Y advancement flap technique. This type of tumor should be considered by clinicians dealing with condylomatous ulcerative lesions that do not respond to the usual treatment.

  6. A tumoriform lesion of the vulva with features of mammary-type fibrocystic disease.

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    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2013-10-01

    : Fibrocystic disease is a common benign lesion of the breast. Variably sized cysts, apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, calcification, chronic inflammation, and epithelial hyperplasia are the basic morphological changes seen in mammary fibrocystic disease. We report a rare tumoriform lesion of the vulva with features of fibrocystic disease, which seems to be the first description of this condition in the vulva. The pertinent literature is discussed. The reported lesion further demonstrates the analogy between tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands and mammary neoplasms.

  7. Aggressive Angiomyxoma of the Vulva: A Bizarre Perineal Lesion

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    Adamantia Zizi-Sermpetzoglou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, slowly growing, and benign tumour of mesenchymal origin, which affects women of reproductive age and is associated with a high risk of local recurrence. Case Presentation. A case of a 47-year-old white female is presented herein, with a large polypoid, gelatinous mass on the right labia majora, measuring 26 × 21 × 6 cm. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of spindle and stellate-shaped cells embedded in a myxoid matrix. Another specific feature was the presence of variable-sized thin-walled capillaries and thick-walled vascular channels. The patient underwent wide local excision of the tumour with clear margins and developed local recurrence 18 months later. Discussion. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva needs to be distinguished from benign myxoid tumors with a low risk of local recurrence as well as from malignant myxoid neoplasms. Usually wide local excision with tumour-free margins and occasionally hormonal manipulation is the treatment of choice.

  8. Angiogenesis in Paget's Disease of the Vulva and the Breast: Correlation with Microvessel Density

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    Patricia E. Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of Paget's disease of the vulva and the breast remains limited. Current evidence supports the fact that angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Therefore, we sought to define its role, as correlated with microvessel density, in Paget's disease of the vulva and the breast. Microvessels were analysed using anti-von Willebrand factor antibody in 105 cases of Paget's disease of the vulva and the breast comprising 71 cases of Paget's disease of the vulva, including 8 cases with invasive disease, and 34 cases of Paget's disease of the breast. The latter included 12 cases with DCIS, 5 cases with both DCIS and invasive carcinoma, and 6 with carcinoma alone. Eleven cases had no underlying tumour identified. Increased microvessel density was demonstrated in Paget's disease of the breast with DCIS and with carcinoma alone compared to Paget's disease of the breast alone, <0.08 and <0.013, respectively. There were no significant differences in microvessel density in the vulval cases. Neovascularisation is an important process in the development of Paget's disease of the breast. Other biological and molecular processes are more involved in the pathogenesis of Paget's disease of the vulva.

  9. Crohn Disease of the Vulva without Gastrointestinal Manifestations in a 16-Year-Old Girl.

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    Zhang, Ai-jun; Zhan, Shu-hui; Chang, Hong; Gao, Yu-qiang; Li, Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease of the vulva is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose. There are limited reports describing treatment of this condition. To describe the diagnosis and treatment of a 16-year-old girl with Crohn disease of the vulva, without onset of intestinal symptoms. Crohn disease was diagnosed by histopathology. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and followed for 1 year. After the final diagnosis, cutaneous lesions responded rapidly to corticosteroid treatment, which was gradually stopped after 6 months. The disease was well controlled at the 1-year follow-up. Crohn disease of the vulva can develop alone without the onset of intestinal symptoms. Diagnosis relies on special pathologic findings. Corticosteroid treatment is effective for this condition. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  10. Canalization of C. elegans Vulva Induction against Anatomical Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsz-Prince, Guizela; van Zon, Jeroen Sebastiaan

    2017-02-22

    It is a fundamental open question as to how embryos develop into complex adult organisms with astounding reproducibility, particularly because cells are inherently variable on the molecular level. During C. elegans vulva induction, the anchor cell induces cell fate in the vulva precursor cells in a distance-dependent manner. Surprisingly, we found that initial anchor cell position was highly variable and caused variability in cell fate induction. However, we observed that vulva induction was "canalized," i.e., the variability in anchor cell position and cell fate was progressively reduced, resulting in an invariant spatial pattern of cell fates at the end of induction. To understand the mechanism of canalization, we quantified induction dynamics as a function of anchor cell position during the canalization process. Our experiments, combined with mathematical modeling, showed that canalization required a specific combination of long-range induction, lateral inhibition, and cell migration that is also found in other developmental systems.

  11. Syringoma of vulva: an unusual presentation. Clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical aspects.

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    Núñez-Troconis, José; Viloria de Alvarado, María Elena

    2015-03-01

    The case of a 34-year-old woman, who consulted because she observed the appearance of numerous yellow-white asymptomatic papules on the vulva, is presented. Clinical diagnosis of syringoma of vulva was established. The pathological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis. Vulvar syringoma usually occurs as a multiple flesh-colored or brownish papules on both sides of labia majora of women in their third decade. Its diagnosis should be considered when the patient complaints of vulvar pruritus and/or sweating.

  12. Buck effect on rabbit oestrous: vulva colour, vaginal lumen cells and ovarian follicle populations

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    Idowu Ola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the response to combinations of male stimuli in the oestrous doe in terms of changes in vulva colour, exfoliated cells in the vaginal lumen and the ovarian histology. Twelve oestrous heterogeneous rabbits does (6 multiparous and 6 nulliparous were allotted equally to 3 experimental treatments: VIC – Male exposure with visual contact; NVC – Male exposure without visual contact and; NOC – Females completely isolated and not allowed any contact with the male. The does were placed under these treatments for 30 consecutive days during which vulvar colour was checked and vaginal smears were taken daily for each animal. All animals were sacrificed on the thirtieth day and their ovaries processed for histological examination following H & E staining. Does with NVC and VIC exposure displayed either red or pink vulva in 95 and 90%  of cases, respectively, the remaining cases being rose coloured but never a whitish vulva (P<0.05, whereas does with NOC exposure displayed rose vulva on 80% of the days checked and another 11.7% cases with white vulvae but never a reddish vulva (P<0.05. The proportions of superficial, intermediate and parabasal epithelial cells in the vagina smears showed that superficial cells usually contribute less than 16% of the total and are also less abundant (P<0.05 irrespective of the doe’s exposure type or vulva colour, except in male-isolated does with purple vulva. All categories of follicles were seen on ovarian sections from NVC and VIC does, but corpora lutea were also present on the sections from VIC does, whereas only follicles below 0.5 mm diameter were seen on the sections from NOC does. In conclusion, these results suggest that the rabbit does require some form of stimulus from the male to remain sexually attractive. Moreover, ovulation appeared to have been induced in the does with visual contact with the male, probably in conjunction with auditory and olfactory, but without

  13. Combination technique of radiofrequency ablation with sclerotherapy in acquired lymphangiectasis of the vulva

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    Khunger Niti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquired lymphangiectasis of the vulva is an uncommon condition and only few cases have been reported following tuberculous lymphadenitis. A case is reported that was successfully treated with a unique combination therapy of radiofrequency ablation and sclerotherapy with polidocanol. There was no recurrence at two years of follow-up.

  14. [Cancer of the vulva. Supplementary analysis of its incidence at our hospital (1973-1978)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butini, D

    1980-01-01

    The author studies the cases of carcinoma of the vulva seen in the Service of Gynecology of the "Ciudad Sanitaria 'José Antonio; de la Seguridad Social" in Zaragoza, analyzing their incidence, epidemiology, pathologic anatomy, symptomatology, topography, classification and therapy. The author shows his results.

  15. Fibroadenoma of the vulva--simultaneous with breast fibroadenomas and uterine myoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audisio, Teresita; Crespo-Roca, Francisco; Giraudo, Pedro; Ramallo, Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    To present a rare case of multiple fibroadenomas in breast and vulva and myomas in the uterus. In addition, to show the usefulness of receptor detection as a basis for the indication of antiestrogens. A 30-year-old patient presenting with a history of mammary fibroadenomas since the age of 16 years and uterine myomas since the age of 25 years. From age 26 to 29 years, she was operated on 3 times for fibroadenomas of the vulva. On the third time, she presented with 8 vulvar fibroadenomas. On this last occasion, a low expression of estrogen receptors was identified, together with a high expression of progesterone receptors (ER/PR pharmDx; Dako). Tamoxifen was indicated at 10 mg/d during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle for 12 months. After 18 months from initiation of the treatment, the patient was found free of tumors in the vulva, with mammary tumor regression and a nonhomogeneous diffuse uterine myometrium. The presence of solid benign-type tumors in the vulva associated with mammary fibroadenomas and uterine myomas leads one to suspect the fibroadenomas. The histopathological diagnosis and the identification of the hormonal receptors are important for control purposes and therapeutic indications.

  16. Ulcus vulvae acutum — A case of genital ulcers in adolescent girl

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    Daniela Visentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcus vulvae acutum is a rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of multiple acute painful genital ulcers of non-venereal origin associated with systemic symptoms in young women. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein–Barr virus. Diagnosis is difficult and generally made by exclusion after venereal diseases, and autoimmune, inflammatory, traumatic, and neoplastic causes. We describe a case of adolescent female with an episode of ulcus vulvae acutum associated with infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, cervical and inguinal lymphadenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly. The patient presented a history of aphthous stomatitis. Negative Pathergy test and the absence of any other related symptoms allowed us to exclude the Behçhet syndrome. Lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences.

  17. Poverty eradication and decreased human papilloma virus related cancer of the penis and vulva in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, H M; Hanchard, B

    2008-04-01

    Human papilloma virus causes genital cancers. Decreases in cervical cancer have been reported to be due to comprehensive screening programmes difficult to replicate in poorer countries. HPV cancer may be related to poverty. In Jamaica, we have seen decreases in cancer of the penis and vulva and there has also been a decrease in poverty. The decrease cannot be attributed to screening. We believe elimination of poverty has decreased HPV persistence and decreased cancer rates.

  18. Malignant Adenomyoepithelioma of the Vulva:One Case Report and Literat res Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Chen; Wenjing Zhang; Xiaoling Pan; Xia Liu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Adenomyoepithelioma(AME)is uncommon characterized by bi-phasic proliferation of both epithelial and myoepithelial cells.Morethan half of the adenomyoepitheliomas(AME)are benign,but in rareinstances,it may become malignant.Malignant adenomyoepithelio-mils almost always occur in the breast and salivary gland.They areunusual in vulva.We report this case and provide some informationabout symptoms,microstructure,treatment,and a discussion about.this kind of disease.

  19. Pleomorphic adenoma of the vulva, clinical reminder of a rare occurrence

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    Neda A. Moatamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as mixed tumor, is a benign tumor which typically presents as a painless and persistent mass. The majority of pleomorphic adenomas involve the salivary glands, most commonly the parotid gland. Other sites include breast and skin. It is a rare tumor in the vulva. In this article we are reporting a case of pleomorphic adenoma of labia with characteristic pathologic and clinical findings, as reminder of a common benign neoplasm occurring with rare locality.

  20. DIFFERENTIATION OF PSEUDOCONDYLOMA OF VULVA AND CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA BY DOT BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃华; 王家璧; 司静懿

    1996-01-01

    This study differentiated pseudocondyloma of vulva from condyloma acunainata using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 27 cases o{ pseudocondyloma of vulva and 65 cases of condyloma acuminata were selected for the sttldy. The genital lesions were examined clinically and were biopsled. Each biopsy v-as subjected to histological examination and HPV DNA analysis by dot blot hybridization and PCR. Dot blot analysis detected HPV DNA in 19(82.6%) out of 23 cases of condyloma acuminata and 2(25%) out of 8 cases pseudocondyloma of vulvae(P<0. 05). PCR detected HPV DNA in 51(92.7%) our of 55 cases of eondyloma acuminata, compared with none in 23 cases of pseudocondylorna(P<0. 001). HPV DNA was present in the majority of condyloma acuminata specimens, HPV 6 and 11 were the predominant types. Peudocondyloma is probably not associated with HPV. PCR was the most sensitive and useful techntque for HPV DNA detection.

  1. Metastatic Crohn's disease accompanying granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis in the vulva.

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    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease (CD) is an extremely rare extragastrointestinal manifestation of CD, and is characterized histopathologically by the presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis have rarely been documented in metastatic CD. Herein, we report the first documented case of metastatic CD accompanied by both granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis in the vulva. A 35-year-old Japanese female with CD presented with multiple small nodules in her vulva. Biopsy was performed under a clinical diagnosis of genital warts. A histopathological study revealed marked lymphangiectasia in the papillary dermis. Within the dilated lymphatics, lymphocytes and aggregates of macrophages were present, which are typical features of granulomatous lymphangitis. Tiny non-caseating granulomas and granulomatous vasculitis were also observed. Accordingly, a diagnosis of metastatic CD accompanied by both granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis was made. The occurrence of cutaneous lesions in patients with CD is well known. Albeit extremely rare, lymphangiectasia has been reported in the vulva of CD patients that clinically mimicked viral warts, as in the present case. The diagnosis of metastatic CD in the present case was not difficult because characteristic histopathological features were present, and a clinical history of CD was available. However, a few cases of genital swelling associated with granulomatous inflammation prior to a diagnosis of gastrointestinal CD have been documented. Therefore, granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis in the external genitals should be considered as potential indication of metastatic CD even in cases without a history of gastrointestinal CD.

  2. Cystic acantholytic dyskeratosis of the vulva: An unusual presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm

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    Kara Melissa Tiangco Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acantholytic dyskeratosis (AD is a histologic pattern seen in Darier's disease or dyskeratosis follicularis, warty dyskeratoma, and transient AD. This pattern is characterized by suprabasilar clefting, acantholysis, and formation of corps ronds and grains. We present a case of AD that is unique based on its genital location and cystic architecture. A 53-year-old woman presented with an otherwise asymptomatic cyst on her left vulva of uncertain duration. On microscopic examination, there were fragments of cystic epithelium with areas of hypergranulosis, acantholysis, corps ronds, and corps grains formation. These features are felt by the authors to be a unique presentation of a follicular adnexal neoplasm.

  3. Myxoid Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans of the vulva with myoid nodules: Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical study of a case

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    Geetha Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a slow growing dermal spindle cell tumor seldom seen in the vulva and its myxoid variant, a rare type of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is characterised by extensive myxoid degeneration. We present the case of a 62 year old woman with an enlarging vulval swelling. Mass was excised surgically. Histopathologically the tumor consisted of uniform spindle-shaped cells showing strong positivity with CD34. In addition to the typical storiform pattern and lace like infiltration, prominent myxoid stromal changes were seen. Herein we report an interesting case of myxoid dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, uncommonly reported in the dermatopathology literature.

  4. Presentation of epidermolytic acanthomas as multiple tan papules on the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J Wesley; Ramamurthi, Arathi; Parekh, Palak

    2016-04-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis is a histological reaction pattern seen in a variety of disease processes, including epidermolytic ichthyosis, Vorner's epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermal nevus, and solitary epidermolytic acanthoma. Here we present the case of a 59-year-old woman with multiple asymptomatic papules on her vulva. Clinical differential diagnoses included condyloma acuminata, seborrheic keratoses, bowenoid papulosis, adnexal tumors, and papular acantholytic dyskeratosis. Shave biopsy revealed findings consistent with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. This case represents an interesting presentation of focally disseminated vulvar epidermolytic acanthomas and highlights the importance of a biopsy in establishing this diagnosis.

  5. Primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the vulva: Report of a case and brief review of the literature

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    Pan Zenggang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH of the vulva is rare. Fifteen cases of primary cutaneous vulvar LCH have been reported in English literature. We report an additional case of LCH confined to the vulva. In this article, we describe the clinical presentation, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings of vulvar LCH that are helpful to both gynecologists and pathologists in the diagnosis of this entity. We briefly discuss the pathogenesis of LCH. The debate whether LCH is a reactive or neoplastic entity is still ongoing.

  6. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health.

  7. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva: a post-embryonic gene regulatory network controlling organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririe, Ted O; Fernandes, Jolene S; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-12-23

    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva is an elegant model for dissecting a gene regulatory network (GRN) that directs postembryonic organogenesis. The mature vulva comprises seven cell types (vulA, vulB1, vulB2, vulC, vulD, vulE, and vulF), each with its own unique pattern of spatial and temporal gene expression. The mechanisms that specify these cell types in a precise spatial pattern are not well understood. Using reverse genetic screens, we identified novel components of the vulval GRN, including nhr-113 in vulA. Several transcription factors (lin-11, lin-29, cog-1, egl-38, and nhr-67) interact with each other and act in concert to regulate target gene expression in the diverse vulval cell types. For example, egl-38 (Pax2/5/8) stabilizes the vulF fate by positively regulating vulF characteristics and by inhibiting characteristics associated with the neighboring vulE cells. nhr-67 and egl-38 regulate cog-1, helping restrict its expression to vulE. Computational approaches have been successfully used to identify functional cis-regulatory motifs in the zmp-1 (zinc metalloproteinase) promoter. These results provide an overview of the regulatory network architecture for each vulval cell type.

  8. Small cell carcinoma of vulva. Curative multimodal treatment in face of resistance to initial standard chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Franziska; Bamberg, Michael; Mueller, Arndt-Christian [Dept. of Radiooncology, Eberhard Karls Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Fehm, Tanja [Gynecologic Clinic, Eberhard Karls Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Background and Purpose: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease, which has a slightly better prognosis than small cell lung cancer, but still dismal. Gynecologic small cell malignancies tend to show a better survival than similar histologies of other regions. However, of five reported cases of vulvar manifestation only one patient was disease-free at the time of publication with limited follow-up. Case Report: The authors describe a case of locally advanced small cell vulva carcinoma infiltrating the anal sphincter and urethra with spread to inguinal lymph nodes treated by radiochemotherapy and regional hyperthermia. After three cycles of carboplatin/etoposide, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated only little regressive transformations but overall stable disease. Surgical options were excluded. Therefore, curative radiotherapy to a total dose of > 65 Gy to macroscopic tumor, chemotherapy with cisplatin weekly, and regional hyperthermia were performed. Acute severe toxicity was limited to skin reactions. Despite the disadvantageous situation with inguinal lymph node metastases and chemoresistance, the multimodal therapy yielded a 5-year disease-free survival. Conclusion: Thus, the trimodal regimen of radiochemotherapy plus regional hyperthermia offered a curative chance in spite of resistance to the standard chemotherapy for irresectable, locally advanced small cell carcinoma of the vulva. Therefore, this approach merits further evaluation for limited disease of EPSCC. (orig.)

  9. Two Distinct Pathways to Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva

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    Yutaka Ueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC accounts for approximately 95% of the malignant tumors of the vaginal vulva and is mostly found in elderly women. The future numbers of patients with vulvar SCC is expected to rise, mainly because of the proportional increase in the average age of the general population. Two different pathways for vulvar SCC have been put forth. The first pathway is triggered by infection with a high-risk-type Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Integration of the HPV DNA into the host genome leads to the development of a typical vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, accompanied with overexpression of p14ARF and p16INK4A. This lesion subsequently forms a warty- or basaloid-type SCC. The HPV vaccine is a promising new tool for prevention of this HPV related SCC of the vulva. The second pathway is HPV-independent. Keratinizing SCC develops within a background of lichen sclerosus (LS through a differentiated VIN. It has a different set of genetic alterations than those in the first pathway, including p53 mutations, allelic imbalances (AI, and microsatellite instability (MSI. Further clinical and basic research is still required to understand and prevent vulvar SCC. Capsule. Two pathway for pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the value are reviewed.

  10. Waktu dan Kemerahan Vulva Saat Inseminasi Buatan Merupakan Faktor Penentu Angka Kebuntingan Sapi di Sumatera Barat (TIME AND REDDISH SIGN OF VULVA DURINGARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AS A DETERMINANT FACTORS ON CONCEPTION RATE OF COW IN WEST SUMATERA

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    Zaituni Udin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate determinant factors on conception rate of local and crossbreedcow at West Sumatera. There were 162 cows of four AI center at parity-0 to 4TH parity (P-4, inseminatedusing frozen semen of four different bulls (simental,brahman, limousine and Bali cattle. All fed similarityat four AI centers and location to observation of sign of estrus in high land and low land in West Sumatera.All data were analyzed using analyzed of variance in Randomized Block Design (RBD in factorial as afactor A was time of inseminated; parity;sign of vulva,breed and two location as a replication. Resultsofthis study showed that there were no interaction between time of insemination, breed, parity and thereddish sign of vulva (P>0.05 on conception rate. On the contrary,there were significantly different(P>0.05 on conception rate by time of insemination. The highest conception rate wasfound at the end ofestrus 13–18 h (68.91%,local cow (71.82%, P-3 (67.19% and reddish sign of vulva (74.25%. It wasconcluded that the effects,both inseminationtime and reddish sign of vulva might be the important factorto get the highest conception rate of the cows.

  11. Differential expression of oestrogen receptor isoforms and androgen receptor in the normal vulva and vagina compared with vulval lichen sclerosus and chronic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A H; Guzail, M; Al-Azzawi, F

    2008-02-01

    Although the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha isoform and androgen receptor (AR) has been examined in vulval lichen sclerosus (VLS), the distribution pattern of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR has not been described in chronic atrophic vaginitis nor correlated with markers of proliferation (Ki-67) in either of these diseased tissues. To measure the levels and distribution of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR immunoreactivity in relation to Ki-67 in normal and diseased vulva and vagina. The expression of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR in relation to the proliferation marker Ki-67 in VLS, squamous hyperplasia of the vulva and chronic atrophic vaginitis was determined by immunohistomorphometric analysis and compared with that in normal vulva and vagina. VLS showed similar ERalpha and ERbeta expression in the 'epidermal' and 'dermal' tissue layers to that of normal vulvae, whereas AR expression appeared to be absent in most cases. ERbeta and Ki-67 expression was correlated with ERalpha expression but only in the 'fibrovascular' layer of the vulva. ERalpha expression was absent from the 'fibromuscular' layer of diseased vulvae, while ERbeta expression was absent in normal tissues but was highly expressed in diseased vulvae. ERalpha expression was significantly correlated with AR expression in the fibrovascular layer of the vagina and inversely correlated with Ki-67 staining in the parabasal cells of the epidermis in patients with chronic atrophic vaginitis. These data suggest that ER expression and levels may be implicated in the aetiopathology of VLS and chronic atrophic vaginitis.

  12. Benign phyllodes tumor of the vulva: a case report and literature review

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    LeAnn N. Denlinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon breast lesion with characteristic histologic appearance when examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining: leaf-like fronds projecting into cystic spaces on low-power microscopy, and biphasic (epithelial and stromal components on high-power microscopy. We report a rare primary case of this tumor arising within the vulva. A 34-year old African American female presented with a 3 cm slow-growing vulvar mass initially thought to be an inclusion cyst. The lesion was excised and histologic examination demonstrated this lesion to be a rare case of benign phyllodes tumor with morphologic features similar to those arising from breast tissue. Patient received no further treatment and did not exhibit any recurrence or metastasis. Nearly two years after excision, the patient died due to an unrelated medical cause. This rare tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis for women presenting with a slow-growing vulvar mass.

  13. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (ulcus vulvae acutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Wollenberg, Andreas; Niedermeier, Andrea; Flaig, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may rarely be associated with genital ulcers (ulcus vulvae acutum), a very painful manifestation. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. We describe here a case of an adolescent virgin with multiple, deep genital ulcers associated with acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, atypical lymphocytosis, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, and the detection of EBV in a swab sample and a biopsy specimen by PCR. The virus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. After a short course of methylprednisolone as a supportive treatment, the ulcers healed within one month. No relapse occurred during the 2-year follow-up. Available data relating to the aetiopathogenesis of this condition are reviewed, and we speculate that it may have been caused by percutaneous autoinoculation through cervicovaginal fluid.

  14. Fibroma de Vulva (Molluscum Pendulum: Relato de Caso Vulvar Fibroma: Case Report

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    Alfredo Roberto Netto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de fibroma de vulva, modalidade molluscum pendulum, em uma jovem de 20 anos. O tumor desenvolveu-se após a menarca com evolução lenta e progressiva. Ao exame físico, observou-se volumosa massa pediculada, indolor, com inserção no terço superior do grande lábio esquerdo, de consistência elástica, com diâmetro maior em sua parte distal de 12 cm por 23 cm de comprimento. Como tratamento, optou-se pela exérese pela base do pedículo, sob anestesia local. O tumor apresentou o peso de 950 g. Complementa-se com revisão de literatura.A vulvar fibroma, of the molluscum pendulum type, was present in a 20-year-old patient. The tumor began to develop slowly after her menarche, when she was 14 years of age. The physical examination revealed a mass with considerable volume, painless, located at the upper third of the greator left lip, elastic consistency, greater diameter at its distal portion measuring 12 cm by 23 cm in length. The treatment was exeresis from the base of the pedicle, under local anesthesia. The tumor weighed 950 g. A literature review is included.

  15. Analysis of vaginal microenvironment in 435 cases with nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva

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    Lan XIE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship of vaginal micro-ecological condition with the nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva (NNEDV in order to provide clues on diagnosis and treatment of NNEDV. Methods  The outpatient data of 435 cases of NNEDV as diagnosed by biopsy, collected from Jan. 2012 to Jun. 2015 at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate their vaginal microflora. Results  Fifty-four of the 435 patients (12.4% were proved to harbor normal vaginal microflora, and in 381 patients imbalanced vaginal microflora was found (87.6%, and among them the pathogens were clearly diagnosed in 161 cases, accounting for 37.0% (161/435; the incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC was 13.1% and 10.4%, respectively, and it was significantly higher than the incidence of other vaginitis (P<0.05. Conclusion  Most of NNEDV patients are suffering from unbalanced vaginal micro-ecological imbalance, and vaginitis such as BV and VVC may be associated with the NNEDV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.02.10

  16. Could cryosurgery be an alternative treatment for basal cell carcinoma of the vulva?

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    Verónica Garza-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinomas (BCC on the genital area account for less than 1% of all BCCs. Surgical management is indicated. Recurrence rate of vulvar BCC has been reported to be 10-20%. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS is a superior surgical option. Other treatments include radiation and topical immuntherapy. Cryosurgery for vulvar BCC has not been reported. We present the case of a 88-year-old Hispanic woman with a vulvar ulcer that was confirmed as BCC by histopathology and treated with liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. Control biopsy was performed on day 90 was negative for BCC. No clinical evidence of recurrence was detected after one year. Although, the vulva is considered to be a high-risk site with respect to BCC and MMS is the gold standard for treatment, the delicate nature of the area may preclude complete removal by a surgical technique without compromising vital anatomical function. Liquid nitrogen cryosurgery uses the effects of extreme cold to effect deep destruction of the tumor and surrounding tissues. This is the first report of a vulvar BCC successfully treated with liquid nitrogen cryosurgery. We suggest this technique could be of benefit as an alternative treatment in cases where excisional procedures cannot be performed.

  17. Kadar Estradiol dan Progesteron Serum, Tampilan Vulva dan Sitologi Apus Vagina Kambing Bligon Selama Siklus Birahi

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    Irkham Widiyono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the serum estradiol and progesterone concentration, vulvaappearance, and vaginal cytology during estrous cycle in bligon goat. Four female non pregnant bligongoats (Indonesian indigenous were used in this research. They were clinically healthy and showed normalestrous cycle. Estrous state was examined by using biological method. When the animals showed acceptanceto be mounted by a buck, they were confirmed as the first day of estrous cycle (estrous phase. Collectionof blood sample, preparation of vaginal smears, and measurement of some physical genital parameterswere conducted by standard veterinary clinical methods at day 11, day between 3-5, day between 6-16, andday between 17-19 of estrous cycle. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determineserum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Mean difference of each parameter was analyzed byanalyses of variance (Anova, followed by Tuckey HSD. The serum estradiol concentration ranged between211.25-247.77 pg/ml. Peak of the estradiol was occurred at the first day of estrous phase, namely 247.77pg/ml and to decrease at day 3-16. The serum progesterone concentration was at the level of 0.21-0.70 ng/ml and showed a significant increase at day 6-16 (p<0.05. The specific physical genital changes (swellingvulva, reddish mucous membrane of vulva, and excretion of viscous transparent vaginal discharge wereidentified as the animals were at the estrous phase. Composition of exfoliative vaginal cytology did notshow any specific and consistent changes throughout the estrous cycle. Superficial and intermediate cellswere very dominant (>60% during estrous cycle. In conclusion, serum estradiol, progesterone, the vulvaappearance combined with sexual receptivity could be a good estrous predictor for female cycling bligongoat.

  18. Verrucous Carcinoma of the Vulva: A 20 Year Retrospective Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoyan; Li, Qianwen; Shang, Xiaobin; Qi, Zheng; Han, Cha; Wang, Yingmei; Xue, Fengxia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with verrucous carcinoma (VC) of the vulva. We reviewed data on the age, disease course, clinical manifestation, pathologic diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with vulvar VC who were treated at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and cases that were reported in the Chinese and English literature during the past 20 years. Six cases were identified in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, the mean age of patients was 55 years, and their mean disease course was 26 months. Primary symptoms were exophytic neoplasm with pruritus and/or pain. Surgical treatment included wide local excision, simple vulvectomy, and radical vulvectomy with or without lymph node dissection in the groin. Vulvar VC occurred simultaneously with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in 2 cases and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in 2 cases. The mean follow-up was 16.8 months with no recurrence in those 6 cases. During the 20-year period, 20 and 41 cases were reported in Chinese and English literature, respectively. Three cases were misdiagnosed with giant condyloma acuminatum in China. One case (1/20) was reported with coexistent squamous carcinoma in Chinese literature and 8 cases (8/41) in the English literature. The recurrence rate was 12.5% (2/19) and 17.5% (7/40) in Chinese and English literature, respectively. Vulvar VC is a distinct type of slow-growing, nonmetastatic tumor with unclear etiology. These tumors should be distinguished from giant condyloma acuminatum and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Surgery is the most effective treatment.

  19. Tumor de la vulva, vulvectomía radical Vulvar tumor, total vulvectomy

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    Asbel Alfredo Vicente de la Cruz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores de la vulva no son una rareza entre los cánceres que afectan a las féminas, pero tampoco son de los más frecuentes. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años, que en el año 2000 se le diagnostica carcinoma epidermoide del clítoris, en 2004 se vuelve a intervenir por recidiva tumoral, y en 2009 acude a nuestra consulta nuevamente y es cuando se decide realizarle vulvectomía y resección de vagina y todo el sistema ginecológico. Concluyó la intervención con una talla vesical extraperitoneal. El tumor se extiende hasta la porción inicial de la vagina y uretra. Se trata de un tumor maligno, bien diferenciado, que se ha comportado en una forma no habitual, con recidivas locales, cuando en apariencia el tumor había sido resecado en toda su extensión, y en esta última oportunidad, a pesar de ser un estadio avanzado, no hemos encontrado metástasis ni multicentricidad del tumor. La evolución posoperatoria fue sin complicaciones y se dio de alta al quinto día.The vulvar tumors are not uncommon among the different types of cancer involving females, but neither are the more frequent ones. This is the case of a female aged 59 that in 2000 is diagnosed with epidermoid carcinoma of clitoris, in 2004 is re-operated on by tumor relapse, and in 2009 she came again to our consultation and a vulvectomy, vagina resection and all gynecological system are carried out. Intervention concluded with an extraperitoneal vesical cutting. The tumor extends up to the initial portion of vagina and urethra. It is a malignant and well-differentiated tumor behaved in non habitual way with local relapses, when apparently the tumor was resected in all its extent, and in this last change, despite and advanced stage, there were neither tumor metastases nor multi-centralization. The postoperative course was free of complications receiving the discharge at fifth day.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated at Calving from the Uterus, Vagina, Vulva, and Rectoanal Junction of a Dairy Cow That Later Developed Metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Cunha, Federico; Ginn, Amber; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey; Galvão, Klibs N

    2017-03-16

    Escherichia coli is involved in the pathogenicity of metritis in cows. We report here the genome sequences of E. coli strains isolated at calving from the uterus, vagina, vulva, and rectoanal junction of a dairy cow that later developed metritis. The genomic similarities will give an insight into phylogenetic relationships among strains. Copyright © 2017 Jeon et al.

  1. Lipschütz ulcer (ulcus vulvae acutum: a rare cause of genital lesion Úlcera de Lipschütz (ulcus vulvae acutum: uma causa rara de lesão genital

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    Ana Brinca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipschütz Ulcer, or ulcus vulvae acutum, is a rare and probably underdiagnosed entity that usually presents as an acute painful vulvar ulcer in young women. The etiology is unknown, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis is made by exclusion after ruling out sexually transmitted diseases, autoimmune causes, trauma, and other etiologies of genital ulcerations. We report a case of a young woman who developed flu-like symptoms and painful vulvar ulcers. Complementary examinations ruled out sexually transmitted diseases and the other usual causes of genital ulcers; lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences. This case represents a rare important differential diagnosis of genital ulceration.A Úlcera de Lipschütz, ou ulcus vulvae acutum, é uma entidade rara mas provavelmente subdiagnosticada, que se apresenta como úlcera vulvar aguda dolorosa numa mulher jovem. A etiologia é desconhecida embora relatos recentes a tenham associado à primo-infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr. O diagnóstico é estabelecido após exclusão de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, causas autoimunes, traumáticas e outras etiologias de úlceras genitais. Relatamos o caso de uma jovem que desenvolveu quadro gripal e dolorosas úlceras genitais. Os exames complementares excluiram doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e as outras causas habituais de ulceração genital. As lesões cicatrizaram sem sequelas e sem recorrências. Este caso representa um diagnóstico diferencial importante e raro de ulceração genital.

  2. Detection and Type-Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Vulva and Vaginal Abnormal Cytology Lesions and Cancer Tissues from Thai Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkham, Jarunya; Boonmark, Krittika; Phansri, Thainsang

    2016-01-01

    Vulva and Vaginal cancers are rare among all gynecological cancers worldwide, including Thailand, and typically affect women in later life. Persistent high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is one of several important causes of cancer development. In this study, we focused on HPV investigation and specific type distribution from Thai women with abnormality lesions and cancers of the vulva and Vaginal. A total of ninety paraffin-embedded samples of vulva and Vaginal abnormalities and cancer cells with histologically confirmed were collected from Thai women, who were diagnosed in 2003-2012 at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay with GP5+/ bio 6+ consensus specific primers and digoxigenin-labeled specific oligoprobes, respectively. The human β-globin gene was used as an internal control. Overall results represented that HPV frequency was 16/34 (47.1%) and 8/20 (40.0%) samples of vulva with cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, while, 3/5 (60%) and 16/33 (51.61%) samples of Vaginal cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, were HPV DNA positive. Single HPV type and multiple HPV type infection could be observed in both type of cancers and abnormal lesion samples in the different histological categorizes. HPV16 was the most frequent type in all cancers and abnormal cytology lesions, whereas HPV 18 was less frequent and could be detected as co-infection with other high risk HPV types. In addition, low risk types such as HPV 6, 11 and 70 could be detected in Vulva cancer and abnormal cytology lesion samples, whereas, all Vaginal cancer samples exhibited only high risk HPV types; HPV 16 and 31. In conclusion, from our results in this study we suggest that women with persistent high risk HPV type infection are at risk of developing vulva and Vaginal cancers and HPV 16 was observed at the highest frequent both of these, similar to the cervical

  3. Nursing care of vulvae leukoplakia using CZF Seapostar%外阴白斑经海极星手术后的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣芳; 郎晓玲; 李小琴; 刘晓林

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对经海极星超声治疗外阴白斑后的术后护理,评价了不同护理方法的疗效.方法:治疗对象均为经病理证实为外阴白斑的患者,共80例.随机分为术后药敷护理组和普通护理组各40例,观察其临床症状变化.结果:药敷护理组外阴瘙痒症状迅速消失,患处皮肤恢复较快.结论:经药敷护理的外阴白斑术后恢复较快,效果明显且安全易用.%Objective:To investigate the nursing care effect to the patient with vulvae leukoplakia after seapostar ultrasound treatment. Methods; Eighty patients with vulvae leukoplakia were divided randomly and equally into medicatedcomprcss group and control group. Clinical symptoms state of all patients would be observed. Reasultd:Infected part skin of the patients which were treated by medicatedcompress get well quicker. Conclusions: The study shows (hat medicatedcompress to the patient with vulvae leukoplakia would be a effective method. The nuesing care is a safe and easy treatment,

  4. Doença de Paget invasiva da vulva e região perianal: relato de caso Invasive Paget's disease of the vulva and perianal region: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino de Souza Trindade

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Paget extramamária (DPE é uma condição neoplásica incomum observada principalmente em áreas com numerosas glândulas apócrinas e écrinas. Na mulher é mais comum na vulva, embora possa ocorrer em outros locais. A doença de Paget vulvar (DPV pode ser classificada em primária, de origem cutânea, e secundária, de origem extracutânea, com significado clínico e implicações prognosticas importantes. Clinicamente a DPV começa insidiosamente com prurido e sensação de queimação. A lesão surge como uma placa isolada com superfície eczematosa, eritematosa e descamativa. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 72 anos com lesão eritematosa em placa, levemente espessada, com áreas de erosão envolvendo os grandes e os pequenos lábios à direita e à esquerda, o clitóris, o púbis e as regiões perineal e perianal. A cirurgia realizada foi vulvectomia radical com linfadenectomia inguinal. O histopatológico revelou doença de Paget invasiva. Métodos imuno-histoquímicos mostraram células de Paget positivas para CEA, EMA e citoceratina pan. A patogênese e o diagnóstico da DPE são discutidos, assim como os diagnósticos diferenciais e as referências com métodos imuno-histoquímicos. A recidiva ocorre em 30% dos casos, mesmo com o controle adequado da margem cirúrgica. A experiência com DPV é limitada e o seguimento é requerido para excluir recidivas e o desenvolvimento de um câncer associado.Extramammary Paget's disease (EPD is an uncommon neoplasic condition observed mostly in areas with numerous apocrine and or eccrine glands. In the woman it is most commonly seen on the vulva, although it can occur in other locations. Vulvar Paget's disease (VPD can be classified into primary, of cutaneous origin, and secondary, of extracutaneous origin, with significant clinical e prognostic implications. Clinically VPD begins insidiously with pruritus and burning sensation. The lesion appears as a solitary patch with an

  5. 蓉肤搽剂治疗外阴白斑临床疗效观察%Rongfu Liniment Treat Leukoplakia Vulvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周星; 马彦玲; 仲文玉; 张少华; 孟红

    2014-01-01

    Objective] To discuss the clinical cure effect of self-made TCM liniment on leukoplakia vulvae. [Method] Randomly divide 120 cases of leukoplakia vulvae into 2 groups, group 1 takes self-made liniment, group II, 2% monoprop TS Ointment, for smearing; after 3m, compare their clinical effects and fol ow up to observe the recurrence. [Result] The effective rate was 88.3%for group Ⅰ, 30.0%for group Ⅱ; after being fol owed up for 3m, the recurrence rate was 15.1% for group Ⅰ, and 77.8% for group Ⅱ. [Conclesion]The self-made TCM liniment has good clinical effect in treating leukoplakia vulvae, with definite promotion and application value in clinic.%[目的]探讨自制中药搽剂对外阴白斑的临床治疗效果。[方法]对120例外阴白斑患者随机分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ两组,Ⅰ组用自制搽剂,Ⅱ组用2%丙酸睾丸酮软膏涂抹,治疗3个月后比较临床疗效,并随访观察其复发率。[结果]I组总有效率88.3%,Ⅱ组总有效率30.0%;随访3个月后,I组复发率为15.1%,Ⅱ组复发率为77.8%。[结论]自制中药搽剂对治疗外阴白斑有较好的临床效果,具有一定的临床推广应用价值。

  6. Non-leukemic myeloid sarcoma involving the vulva, vagina, and cervix: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Yu,1 Xuemei Qin,1 Shuxin Yan,1 Wenxia Wang,2 Yanlin Sun,3 Maohong Zhang1 1Department of Hematology, 2Department of Gynecology, 3Department of Pathology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Myeloid sarcoma (MS is defined as a tumor mass consisting of myeloid blast with or without maturation occurring at an anatomical site other than bone marrow with normal architectural effacement. It can also precede the onset of leukemia which is called non-leukemic MS. Non-leukemic MS is a kind of rare disease and easy to be misdiagnosed as other common malignancies due to the rarity and nonspecific manifestation. We herein report an unusual case of non-leukemic MS involving the vulva, vagina, and cervix in a female patient. The bone marrow aspiration and biopsy of the patient revealed no hematological abnormality. Immunohistochemical staining of the biopsies was strongly positive for myeloperoxidase, CD68, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD117, CD34, CD38, CD79a, and negative for cytokeratin (CK, epithelial memberane antigen (EMA, CD2, CD3, CD20, CD5, CD138. Then a diagnosis of non-leukemic MS was made. Unfortunately, our patient received only one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin, then refused any further treatment and died 4 months after diagnosis. Although systemic chemotherapy is widely accepted to be a promising strategy, its benefit still needs to be further assessed. Certain questions still need to be answered for this disease: 1 Why can approximately 20% of the patients with non-leukemic MS remain disease-free after local therapy alone? 2 How many cycles of chemotherapy are needed for these patients after achievement of complete remission? 3 What are the prognostic or risk factors in these patients who have no abnormality of karyotype, fusion genes, or gene mutation to predict responsiveness to chemotherapy and outcome? 4 What is the risk factor for relapse? The

  7. The role of ultrasound-guided cytology of groin lymph nodes in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: 5-year experience in 44 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, T.B.; Barton, D.P.J.; Trott, P.A.; Nasiri, N.; Shepherd, J.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Moskovic, E.C. E-mail: eleanor.moskovic@rmh.nthames.nhs.uk

    2003-05-01

    AIM: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The groin nodes of 44 consecutive patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva undergoing groin node dissection were assessed with ultrasound and FNAC. The results were compared with histology from subsequent inguinofemoral lymph node dissection. Twenty-nine patients underwent bilateral groin node dissections and 15 unilateral providing comparable data for 73 groins. RESULTS: Histology demonstrated metastatic disease in 28 groins and no evidence of metastatic disease in 45. Ultrasound agreed with the histology in 67 of the 73 groins (92%), with two false-positives, four false-negatives and two indeterminate appearances. Cytology agreed with the histology in 65 of 72 FNAC samples obtained (90%), with six false-negatives, and one indeterminate result. No false-positive cytology results were seen. Ultrasound and FNAC together failed to detect metastatic disease in four groins, one with an indeterminate ultrasound appearance, another with indeterminate cytology, the two others each having a single positive inguinal node despite a negative ultrasound and FNAC. CONCLUSION: The combination of ultrasound and FNAC provides a sensitive and specific tool for pre-operative assessment and may prevent unnecessary groin dissection and the attendant morbidity in selected patients with vulval cancer.

  8. Melanoma of the vulva and vagina: principles of staging and their relevance to management based on a clinicopathologic analysis of 85 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Susan; Haydu, Lauren E; Quinn, Michael J; Scolyer, Richard A; Stretch, Jonathan R; Thompson, John F

    2015-01-01

    Primary melanomas of the vulva and vagina are rare. As a result, it has been difficult to develop evidence-based guidelines for their management. By analyzing a large series of patients with vulval and vaginal melanomas, this study sought to document the most common presenting features, identify clinical and pathologic predictors of outcome, and provide management guidelines. A clinicopathologic analysis of 85 patients with primary melanomas of the vulva or vagina diagnosed and treated at Melanoma Institute Australia and associated units in Sydney, Australia, between 1960 and 2011 was performed. Predictors of disease-free and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) were determined. Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0-II had a significantly better MSS (5Y MSS = 63.6 %, n = 59) compared with those with stage III disease (5Y MSS = 0 %, n = 12, p < 0.001). Tumor thickness, ulceration status, and pathologic clearance margin were significant predictors of MSS. Disease-free survival was predicted by these factors and additionally by tumor mitotic rate. The results of this study provide evidence to support the appropriateness of utilizing the AJCC (7th edition) cutaneous melanoma staging system for vulval and vaginal melanomas. Detection and removal of these melanomas at an early stage with pathologically confirmed clear margins confers the best chance of cure.

  9. Disorders of the Vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... draining the cyst using a needle or other instrument in a health care provider’s office. What is ... cancer. VIN often is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. What are the signs and symptoms of ...

  10. The place radiotherapy alone with respect to surgery and radiotherapy in locally advanced vulva cancers; Place de la radiotherapie seule par rapport a la chirurgie et la radiotherapie dans les cancers vulvaires localement evolues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, S.; Naim, A.; Moukhlissi, M.; Tawfik, N.; Bouchbika, Z.; Benchekroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Centre de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre hospitalier universitaire, Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-10-15

    The author report a study which aimed at evaluating the place or radiotherapy associated with surgery and of radiotherapy without surgery when taking into care locally advanced vulva cancers. The study is based on 46 cases. After 24 months, different aspects, such as recurrence and survival, have been assessed. It appears that there is no survival difference without recurrences between both sets. Short communication

  11. Modulation of EGF receptor-mediated vulva development by the heterotrimeric G-protein Galphaq and excitable cells in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghal, Nadeem; Garcia, L Rene; Khan, Liakot A; Iwasaki, Kouichi; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-10-01

    The extent to which excitable cells and behavior modulate animal development has not been examined in detail. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a novel pathway for promoting vulval fates in C. elegans that involves activation of the heterotrimeric Galphaq protein, EGL-30. EGL-30 acts with muscle-expressed EGL-19 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels to promote vulva development, and acts downstream or parallel to LET-60 (RAS). This pathway is not essential for vulval induction on standard Petri plates, but can be stimulated by expression of activated EGL-30 in neurons, or by an EGL-30-dependent change in behavior that occurs in a liquid environment. Our results indicate that excitable cells and animal behavior can provide modulatory inputs into the effects of growth factor signaling on cell fates, and suggest that communication between these cell populations is important for normal development to occur under certain environmental conditions.

  12. 青春期前型外阴纤维瘤临床病理分析%Clinicopathologic analysis of prepubertal-type vulva fibroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    法文; 王帅; 杨振中

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨青春期前型外阴纤维瘤(prepubertal-type vulva fibroma,PVF)的临床病理特征.方法 分析2例PVF的临床特点,光镜观察组织病理学形态及免疫组织化学特征并复习相关文献.结果:2例分别为8岁和39岁女性,均以大阴唇肿块就诊.肿块均分布在一侧,4~5 cm大.组织学观察病变位于真皮层边界不清,由稀疏的梭形纤维母细胞样的细胞和大量胶原纤维组成,病变向皮下组织延伸,在邻近的脂肪组织及血管簇、神经周围穿插性生长;梭形细胞形态温和无异型、核分裂象未查见.免疫组织化学标记显示:瘤细胞表达波形蛋白、CD34,不表达SMA、desmin、CD99、S-100蛋白、bcl-2,成人局灶表达ER和PR.结论 PVF是一种好发于青春前期幼女或女童外阴的良性间叶性病变,偶可发生于成年人.其发生可能与激素有关并起源于外阴阴道间质细胞,表现为纤维母细胞分化特征.临床有少量病例如切除不净可局部复发,并见可自发性消退病例.%Objective: To explore the clinicopathological features of prepubertal-type vulva fibroma ( PVF ) . Methods: The clinical manifestation, immnophenotype and pathological features of 2 cases of PVF were analyzed and the relevant literatures were reviewed. Results:Two patients were female with an age of 8 and 39,respectively,and both had a tumor at the labia. The tumors were unilateral and ranged in a size of 4 cm and 5 cm in the maximum dimension. Histologically, the circumscribed lesion was located predominantly in the deep dermis with an extension to the subcutaneous tissue: it had a low cell density consisting of scattered spindle shaped fibroblast-like cells and a large amount of collagen fiber matrix: the tumor cells extended downward under the epithelium and infiltrated between the normal vascular, adipose and neural tissues. Cytologic atypia and mitotic figures were absent. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were uniformly positive for

  13. Challenging the concept of microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva: report of a case with regional lymph node recurrence and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltze Elke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely accepted that vulvar carcinoma with a depth of invasion of less than one millimeter is sufficiently treated by vulvectomy or wide local excision without inguinal lymphadenectomy. Case presentation However, a patient with inguinal lymph node recurrence 21 months after radical vulvectomy for stage IA squamous cell carcinoma was observed. Conclusion According to a review of the literature, there are five additional cases of metastasizing vulvar cancer with a depth of invasion of less than one millimeter. Therefore, the definition of microinvasive carcinoma of the vulva based on depth of invasion alone may not be as reliable as previously thought and does not rule out inguinal lymph node involvement or recurrence. Consequently, the necessity of inguinal node dissection for microinvasive carcinoma needs to be discussed on an individual basis taking into account the age of the patient as well as the potential morbidity of extended surgery.

  14. Distinct roles of transcription factors EGL-46 and DAF-19 in specifying the functionality of a polycystin-expressing sensory neuron necessary for C. elegans male vulva location behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Pretot, Rene F; Burglin, Thomas R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2 are expressed in the male-specific HOB neuron, and are necessary for sensation of the hermaphrodite vulva during mating. We demonstrate that male vulva location behavior and expression of lov-1 and pkd-2 in the ciliated sensory neuron HOB require the activities of transcription factor EGL-46 and to some extent also EGL-44. This EGL-46- regulated program is specific to HOB and is distinct from a general ciliogenic pathway functioning in all ciliated neurons. The ciliogenic pathway regulator DAF-19 affects downstream components of the HOB-specific program indirectly and is independent of EGL-46 activity. The sensory function of HOB requires the combined action of these two distinct regulatory pathways.

  15. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast metastasizing to the vulva: {sup 18}F FDG PET CT Demonstrating rare metastasis from a rare tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangembam, Bang Kim Chand Ra; Sharma, Punit; Singla, Su Has; Singhal, Abinav; Dhull, Varun Singh; Bal, Chand Rasek Har; Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2012-09-15

    Phyllodes tumors are extremely rare fibroepithelial neoplasms accounting for 0.3 to 0.5% of all female breast tumors with an incidence of 2.1 per 1 million women. They are classified histologically into benign, borderline and malignant varieties. The majority of them are benign, with only 25% being malignant. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. One characteristic is that although the malignant variety tends to metastasize and recur, the benign form has also been found to behave in a similar manner. Benign phyllodes tumor has a 21% risk of local recurrence, while that of the malignant variety ranges from 20 to 32%. In patients with malignant phyllodes tumor, the rate of distant metastases ranges from 25 to 40%. The most frequent sites of distant metastasis is uncommon as this tumor spreads by hematogeneous route. Other sites for distant metastasis have been reported sporadically, including the duodenum, pancreas, brain, nasal cavity, forearm, parotid, skin, oral cavity, skeletal muscle, mandible and maxilla. We present a rare case of recurrent malignant phyllodes tumor with metastasis to the vulva, which has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. A 49 year old female who had undergone lumpectomy and locoregional radiotherapy 1 year previously for malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast presented with difficulty in breathing and cervical lymphadenopathy. Chest X ray showed multiple pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastasis. She was referred for restaging with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET CT)FDG PET CT. Maximum intensity projection (MIP)PET images revealed multiple FDG avid enlarged cervical lymph nodes, bilateral pulmonary nodules along with left pleural effusion and extensive bone marrow metastases. The interesting finding was an intensely FDG avid (SUV{sup max}-21.4)subcutaneous soft tissue density lesion (measuring 2.0x2.2x2.0cm)in the vulva, which was later proved to be

  16. ESTROGEN IN THE TREATMENT OF WHITE LESIONS OF VULVA APPLICATION ANALYSIS%雌激素在外阴白色病变治疗中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠林; 张建青; 金翠红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]回顾分析外阴白色病变患者应用雌激素后的临床效果.[方法]收治外阴白色病变患者40例,随机分为超声聚焦治疗A组和B组,A组患者超声治疗后期给予含雌激素的药物涂抹,B组患者超声治疗后期给予不含雌激素的药物涂抹.1,3,6个月后评估其临床症状、体征和性生活改善情况.[结果]A组患者的外阴恢复情况、性生活改善情况明显好于B组,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05).[结论]应用雌激素能明显改善外阴白色病变患者的恢复情况.%[Objective] To retrospectively discuss the estrogen treatment effect on patients with leukoplakia vulvae. [Methods] 40 cases of white iesions of vulva were randomly divided into group A and group B. Patients in group A received e-strogen ointment coating medication following ultrsound treatment, while general ointment coating medication was used for patients in group B after ultrasound treatment Patients in both group A and B were observed for the improvement of their signs, symptoms and intercourse activities after the treatment for 1, 3, and 6 months were evaluated. [Results] Compared with group B, patients in group A had better vulva recovery condition and intercourse activity improvement, indicating the clinical significance (P< 0.05). [Conclusion] The application of estrogen will accelerate the recovery of leukoplakia vulvae.

  17. Surgical management of agenesis of the vulva with atresia ani-et-distal recti in a heifer calf: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses N Wamaitha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful surgical intervention of atresia ani-et-distal recti with agenesis of vulva in a heifer calf is reported in this paper. The calf aging 1-day was presented with a history of swelling at the perineal region. In clinical examination, both vulval and anal openings were found absent. Initial surgical operation under sedation and local anesthesia was done to correct these abnormalities. As a result, the calf could urinate, but attempted defecation was not successful. Surgical operation was done again at the anal region to resolve this condition. Post-operatively, tetracycline spray was applied on both surgical wounds immediately after surgery, and repeated twice daily for 10 days. Amoxicillin trihydrate (at 750 mg/kg bwt and Phenylbutazone (at 400 mg/kg bwt were administered intramuscularly once, and the treatment was repeated on every alternate day up to 10 days of post-surgery. Finally, the calf was able to urinate and defecate normally, and the surgical wounds healed uneventfully within 14 days. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 369-372

  18. 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病发病机制的研究进展%An analysis of the factors contributing to recurrent vulva and vagina candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩倩; 宁玉梅

    2013-01-01

    复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Recurrent candidiasis of vulva and vagina,RVVC)病因复杂,主要原因有机体免疫防御机制的变化,宿主局部因素,假丝酵母菌的菌群多样性变化等.认识、了解及掌握上述因素,对临床工作者有效防治RVVC起着非常重要作用.

  19. Sentinel-lymph node procedure in breast, uterine cervix, prostate, vulva and penile cancers: Practical methodology; La pratique de la technique du ganglion sentinelle dans diverses indications: sein, col uterin, prostate, vulve et verge. Methodologie pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot-Rossi, I. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2008-08-15

    The nodal status is the strongest prognostic factor in early stage cancers. The sentinel-lymph node (S.L.N.) is defined as the first draining lymph node of an organ; the lymph node status is determined by the histological results of S.L.N.. The lymphadenectomy, with high morbidity, is realised only in case of metastatic S.L.N.. The S.L.N. identification, in most of cases, is performed using the combination of blue dye and radiocolloid {sup 99m}Tc injections. The purpose of this article is to give some practical details about the S.L.N. isotopic procedure in breast cancer, vulva and penile cancer, uterine cervix and prostate cancer. (author)

  20. 高能窄谱光子联合药物治疗外阴湿疹的临床研究%Clinical Research of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy on the treatment of Vulva Eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珉名; 董玲; 邬英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy on the treatment of Vulva Eczema. Methods 86 patients with Vulva Eczema who came to the dermatological department of our hospital during January 2013 to June 2014 were involved and divided into two groups randomly. In the control group, patients were treated with conventional drugs,while in the experimental group, conventional drugs combined with Carnation Photons therapy. Clinical efficacy and adverse effect between two groups were evaluated after 3 weeks of treatment. Results The total effective rate in the experimental group and control group was 100%and 93.0%, respectively. The treatment effect in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). The average cure time in the experimental group and the control group were (10.2 ±3.6) days, (13.1 ±5.4) days. The cure time of the experimental group was significantly less than the control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). No obvious adverse effect was observed in both groups. Conclusion The effect of High Energy Narrow Spectrum Photons Combined with Drug Therapy in the treatment of Vulva Eczema is satisfactory. And this treatment method is easy operated with less adverse effect, and worthy to be recommended in the clinical application.%目的:探讨高能窄谱光子联合药物治疗外阴湿疹的临床效果。方法选取2013年1月~2014年6月我院皮肤科门诊治疗的外阴湿疹患者86例,对照组患者采取常规药物治疗,实验组在对照组基础上加用Carnation光子治疗仪进行治疗。治疗三周后对两组患者的疗效和不良反应进行评价。结果实验组患者治疗总有效率为100.0%,对照组患者治疗总有效率为93.0%。实验组患者的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。实

  1. 外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣组织中HPV感染的对比研究%A comparative study of HPV infection in condyloma acuminate tissues of vulva,vagina and cervix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单慧敏; 施启丰; 耿建祥; 仲玉英; 梅静; 龙秀荣; 夏林; 王宏景; 赵雪

    2016-01-01

    目的:研讨外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣(CA)组织中人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染型别的分布状况以及临床意义。方法应用基因芯片结合PCR技术对63例外阴尖锐湿疣、61例阴道尖锐湿疣和65例宫颈尖锐湿疣组织行23种HPV基因型检测,并分析患者的临床病理资料。结果63例外阴尖锐湿疣组织中检出HPV阳性者56例,HPV感染率为88.89%(56/63);61例阴道尖锐湿疣组织中检出HPV阳性者55例,HPV感染率为90.16%(55/61);65例宫颈尖锐湿疣组织中检出HPV阳性者62例,HPV感染率为95.39%(62/65)。结论HPV感染与外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣的发病密切相关,HPV6和11是主流型别,以外阴尖锐湿疣最为常见。基因芯片结合PCR技术是适合应用于临床行HPV分型诊断的一种方法,具有敏感性好、特异性高的特点。对女性外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣的临床诊断、治疗及其疫苗的研究具有重要的意义。%Objective To study the distribution status and clinical significance of human papillomavirus(HPV) infection geno‐types in condyloma acuminate(CA) tissues of vulva ,vagina and cervix .Methods The gene‐chips combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology were utilized for detecting 23 kinds of HPV genotypes in tissue specimens from 63 cases of vulval CA , 61 cases of vaginal CA and 65 cases of cervical CA .Their clinical pathological data were analyzed .Results In 63 cases of vulval CA ,56 cases were HPV positive with the HPV infection rate of 88 .89% (56/63) ,in 61 cases of vaginal CA ,55 cases were HPV positive with the HPV infection rate of 90 .16% (55/61) ,and in 65 cases of cervical CA ,62 cases were HPV positive with the HPV infection rate of 95 .39% (62/65) .Conclusion HPV infection is closely related to the CA pathgenesis in vulva ,vagina and cervix . HPV6 and HPV 11 are main stream genotypes ,in which vulval CA is most common .The gene

  2. 外阴白色病变生物黏贴膜的制备及质量评价%Preparation and quality evaluation of bioadhesive film for the treatment of Leukoplakia vulvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare bioadhesive film for the treatment of Leukoplakia vulvae and evaluate its quality. Methods Orthogonal design was used to screen the optimal formulation and to confirm the method of preparation. The appearance, adherence, content of main ingredient, trans-dermal properties and stability were investigated. Results Drug release in the bioadhesive film was demonstrated in a zero order kinetic way. The adherence, stability and skin irritation could meet the requirements. Conclusion The formulation is reasonable, the preparation process is simple, and the quality is controllable.%目的 制备外阴白色病变生物黏贴膜,并进行质量评价.方法 采用正交试验法筛选生物黏贴膜的最佳基质组成,确定制备方法,并对外观性状、黏附性、主要成分含量、透皮性及稳定性等进行考察.结果 制备的生物黏贴膜药物能以零级动力学透过皮肤,其黏附性、稳定性和对皮肤的刺激性均符合要求.结论 制剂处方合理,制备工艺简单,质量可控.

  3. Nursing of Pregnant Metaphase Vulva Serious Edema Caused by Constipation in 1 Cases%1例孕中期便秘致外阴严重水肿的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬含芬

    2015-01-01

    因便秘而极度用力解便导致外阴严重水肿的孕妇,引起此种外阴水肿程度临床上实属罕见,便秘在妊娠期间也比较常见,一般在产检医生的指导下,经过相应的预防(如饮食管理、每日进行适当运动、养成排便习惯等)都可以缓解。此例孕妇因文化程度低,缺乏孕产期保健知识,便秘近1w未引起足够重视,故出现上述情况,若不及时就诊,可引起晚期流产、胎儿死亡等严重后果。经湿热敷3d护理后外阴水肿逐渐消退。%Because of constipation and extremely hard solution wil lead to severe edema of vulva vulvar edema caused by pregnant women, the degree of clinical rare, constipation during pregnancy is also common, usual y in the seizure of property under the guidance of a doctor, after cor esponding prevention (such as diet, exercise, appropriate management of daily bowel evacuation habit etc.) are can ease. In this case because of the low cultural level of pregnant women, the lack of maternal health care knowledge, nearly a week of constipation caused enough at ention, therefore, appear afore-mentioned circumstances, if not timely treatment, can cause late abortion, fetal death and other serious consequences. The wet hot compress 3 days after nursing vulval edema gradual y subsided.

  4. 穴位注射治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样病变的临床观察%Clinical observation of acupoint injection in the treatment of nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of acupoint injection of compound Danshen injection in the treatment of nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva.Methods 96 patients with vaginal epithelial non tumor like lesions were enrolled in this study,including 38 cases of squamous epithelial hyperplasia,lichen sclerosus in 42 cases,lichen sclerosus associated with squamous cell hyperplasia in 16 cases.Take Zhōngjí,Guīlái,Huìyīn, Sānyīnjīao,Zhàohaǐ,and Tàichōng six points,each acupoint injected compound Danshen injection 2mL,injected twice a week,10 times for a course of treatment,after 2 weeks began next course of treatment,a total of three courses.The clinical curative effect and incidence of adverse reaction of three types of nonneoplastic epithelial disorders of vulva were compared.Results The effective rates (effective rate =clinical control +effective +valid)of three types of epi-thelial disorders of vulva tumor like lesions were squamous epithelial hyperplasia 92.11%,lichen sclerosus 90.48%, hardening of lichen planus associated with squamous cell hyperplasia 87.50%,there was no significant difference among the three types of lesions(χ2 =4.102,P >0.05).The total effective rate of three types of nonneqlastie epithe-lial disorders of tumor was 90.62% by acupoint injection,and there were no serious adverse reactions in all patients during therapy.A patient of lichen sclerosus appeared the symptoms of nausea,sweating during treatment due to nerv-ous,and after psychological guidance the symptoms disappeared,re -treatment did not appear.Conclusion The acu-point injection of compound Danshen injection in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial non -tumor like lesions has better clinical effect,and has no serious adverse reactions.%目的:观察穴位注射复方丹参注射液治疗外阴上皮内非瘤样病变的疗效。方法96例外阴上皮内非瘤样病变的患者,其中鳞状上皮增生38例,硬化性苔癣42例,硬化性

  5. Surgery for Cancer of the Vulva (Vulvectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... become a long-term problem. This condition, called lymphedema, can cause pain, a feeling of heaviness, and ... them. (If you want to read more about lymphedema in the groin or legs, see Lymphedema . ) Orgasm ...

  6. Lipossarcoma gigante da vulva: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priolli Denise Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O lipossarcoma é neoplasia rara, originária das células mesenquimais primitivas e, entre os sarcomas, é o tipo histológico mais freqüente. Acomete principalmente os membros, podendo atingir outras regiões, sendo rara a localização genital. Os autores relatam caso de lipossarcoma vulvar em paciente de 27 anos, que apresentava massa de crescimento progressivo que limitava a deambulação. O exame físico mostrava tumor vulvar volumoso e ulcerado. A doente foi submetida à ressecção local, tendo o exame histopatológico diagnosticado lipossarcoma bem diferenciado com margens livres de comprometimento. Atualmente a enferma encontra-se bem, sem recidiva da doença, 24 meses após a cirurgia.

  7. 外阴及直肠阴道隔胃肠道外间质瘤3例临床病理分析%Extragastrointestinal stromal tumor arising in the vulva and rectovaginal septum:a clinico-pathologic analysis of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杜娟; 赵跃武; 付芳芳; 谢瑞刚; 孔令非

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study the clinic-pathological features, differential diagnosis and prognosis of extragastrointestinal stromal tumor ( EGIST) arising in the vulva and the rectovaginal septum. Methods Clinical manifestations, pathological features, immunohisto-chemistry, gene mutations, treatment and prognosis were analyzed in 1 case of EGIST arising in the vulva and 2 cases of EGIST arising in the rectovaginal septum with review of related literature. Results Case 1 was a 59-years-old woman who was found to have a 4. 4 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm recurrent mass in the right vulva after 6 months of the first resection. Case 2 was a 58-years-old woman who presen-ted with a 7. 3 cm × 6. 1 cm × 4. 6 cm mass in the rectovaginal septum. Case 3 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with an 8. 6 cm × 7. 4 cm × 6. 7 cm mass in the rectovaginal septum. Histologically, the uniform spindle cells showed the interlacing fascicular, whirl-pool and palisade patterns with high cellular density. Mitotic figures were readily identified. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that the tumor cells exhibited strong and diffuse staining for CD117, CD34, NES, H-Caldesmon and DOG-1. Molecular analysis showed the gene mutation of c-Kit exon 11 in all 3 cases. Conclusion EGIST should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the mesenchymal tumors arising in the vulva and the rectovaginal septum. The immunohistochemical evaluation and molecular genetic tes-ting are crucial tools for the differential diagnosis and assessment of the prognosis and targeted therapy of EGIST.%目的:探讨外阴及直肠阴道隔胃肠道外间质瘤( extragastrointestinal stromal tumor, EGIST)的临床病理学特征、诊断、鉴别诊断及预后。方法对1例外阴及2例直肠阴道隔EGIST的临床资料、病理学特点、免疫表型、基因突变、治疗及预后进行分析,并复习相关文献。结果例1,59岁,右侧外阴见一肿物,4.4 cm ×3 cm ×3 cm大小,术后6个月复发。例2,58

  8. 内服当归饮子加味联合白斑洗剂治疗外阴白色病变52例%Peroral Chinese angelica decoction combined with external Baiban liquid in the treatment of 56 pa-tients with leukoplakia of the vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕媛; 胡红; 任强强

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the efficacy of Chinese angelica decoction combined with external Baiban liquid in the treatment of patients with leukoplakia of the vulva. Methods:One hundred and four patients were divided into the treatment group ( 52 patients) and the control group ( 52 patients) . The patients in the treat-ment group were treated with Chinese angelica decoction combined with external Baiban liquid and those in the control group were treated with vitamin B1, vitamin A and external halide betamethasone. Results:The effec-tive rate in the treatment group was 84.62%, which was higher than that in the control group (67.30%), with a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chinese angelica decoction combined with external Baiban liquid is effective in the treatment of leukoplakia of the vulva.%目的::评价内服当归饮子加味联合白斑洗剂治疗外阴白色病变的临床疗效。方法:将104例患者随机分为两组,治疗组(52例)给予中药当归饮子加味内服及白斑洗剂外洗;对照组(52例)予口服维生素 B1、维生素 A及外用卤米松软膏。结果:治疗组总有效率为84.62%高于对照组(67.30%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:中药当归饮子加味联合白斑洗剂外洗治疗外阴白色病变疗效显著。

  9. 中药洗剂对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌体外抑制作用的实验研究%Experimental study on the inhibition of traditional Chinese medicine lotion on vulva vaginal Candida in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢玲; 陈宜斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is to study the inhibition sensitivity of traditional Chinese medicine lotion for Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, smooth and yeast Candida albicans. Methods Experimental study on the inhibition of traditional Chinese medicine lotion on vulva vaginal Candida in vitro was performed on to observe their effect on the growth of Candida albicans and transformation from yeast phase to mycelial phase. Results The inhibition sensitivity of traditional Chinese medicine on the order of the four yeasts: Candida albicans > smooth and yeast Candida albicans > Candida tropicalis > Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion Chinese herbal lotion has a good significance for the treatment of common genital vaginal Candida albicans in clinic, it also can treat for the other three kinds of yeast.%目的 研究中药洗剂对白假丝酵母菌、热带假丝酵母菌、近平滑假丝酵母菌、光滑假丝酵母菌酵母相及菌丝相的抑制敏感性.方法 应用中药洗剂对外阴阴道的假丝酵母菌进行体外抑制试验,观察中药洗剂对白假丝酵母菌的生长和从酵母相向菌丝相转变的影响.结果 中药对四种酵母菌的敏感性顺序为:白色假丝酵母>光滑假丝酵母>热带假丝酵母>近平滑假丝酵母.结论 中药洗剂在外阴阴道最常见的假丝酵母菌的临床治疗中有明显意义,对其余3种酵母菌亦有临床意义.

  10. Necrotizing Fasciitis of vulva: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal A

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar necrotizing fascitis is an uncommon infectious disorder. Since the first reported cases almost 100 years, ago, necrotizing fasciitis continues to present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. What usually begins as a subtle infection can become life-threatening. We report two cases of vulvar necrotizing fasciitis, one after posterior colporrhaphy in a woman with four risk factors and the other in a young woman without any risk factor.

  11. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation.

  12. Chronic Ulcerative Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Griffith-Bauer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus infections in HIV-infected individuals can be clinically unusual and difficult to treat due to underlying problems with cell-mediated immunity and the occurrence of antiviral resistance. Additionally, partial or incomplete restoration of immune function may result in chronic ulcerations that require rotational treatments. In this report, we describe the case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman who developed the ulcerative form of chronic herpes simplex infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy and valacyclovir prophylaxis. Repeated intravenous courses of foscarnet and topical cidofovir finally controlled her erosions as her cell-mediated immunity was slowly restored. This case highlights the challenges that still exist in diagnosing and managing this rare presentation of herpes simplex virus

  13. Angiokeratoma Of the Vulva In A Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Arun

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34 year old female had vascular, keratotic papules on her external genitalia for 4 years. The histopathology was diagnostic of angiokeratoma. The case is being reported because of its uncommon occurrence.

  14. Papillomavirus, p53 alteration, and primary carcinoma of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; D'Amato, L; Della Torre, G; Donghi, R; Longoni, A; Giarola, M; Sampietro, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty-nine samples from 28 cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which 13 fulfilled the criteria of the bowenoid subtype (mean age 45 years, range 31-68) and 16 of the usual subtype of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) (mean age 67.5 years, range 34-83) were investigated for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, TP53 alterations, and mdm2 and bcl-2 gene product deregulation. Microscopically all the bowenoid subtype cases (group I) showed a high-grade intraepithelial (VIN 3, carcinoma in situ) lesion associated with early invasive carcinoma in six cases and overt invasive carcinoma in one. By contrast, no evidence of early carcinoma was present in the ISCCs (group II). By in situ hybridization and/or Southern blot hybridization or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HPV DNA was detected in all cases of group I and in four of 16 cases (25%) of group II, two only by Southern blot after PCR. By single-strand conformation polymorphism and immunocytochemistry only wild-type TP53 and absence of detectable p53 product, respectively, were found in all cases of group I, i.e., in high-risk HPV-positive carcinomas, whereas mutations and/or p53 overexpression accounted for 75% in group II, i.e., in mainly HPV-negative carcinomas. The TP53 gene mutations observed in invasive carcinomas were significantly related to node-positive cases (p = 0.04). Taken together and in agreement with in vitro data, these results support the view that an alteration of TP53, gained either by interaction with viral oncoproteins or by somatic mutations, is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinomas, but that TP53 mutations are mainly associated with disease progression. Finally, a preliminary immunocytochemical analysis seems to speak against the possible involvement of both MDM2 and BCL-2 gene products in the development of vulvar carcinoma.

  15. Benign tumors of vulva: review and case report of achrocordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtémoc Galeana Castillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The vulvovaginal region is a very complex area because of its anatomy and the fact that it can be source of a large number of benign tumors and less frequent malignant tumors. In recent decades, there have been significant gains in the diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginal tumors, thanks to the contributions of cellular and molecular biology. The purpose of this review article is to serve as a practical reference for clinical and pathological diagnosis as well as in the outpatient treatment and monitoring of these benign tumors.

  16. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Treatment technique and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan James Rao, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: IMRT for vulvar cancer is associated with high rates of LRC in the postoperative setting and limited radiation-related toxicity. Durable LRC of disease after definitive IMRT remains challenging, and several refinements to our treatment technique are suggested.

  17. Treatment outcome of patients with carcinoma of vulva: Experience from a tertiary cancer center of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Daya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze and report the clinical outcome of patients with vulvar carcinoma (VC treated at our center. Materials and Methods: We retrieved the information regarding patients′ clinical details, treatment given, survival and complications from the case records of all VC patients who were treated at our center during the year 1998-2005. Overall survival (OS was determined with respect to age, histopathological grade, stage of disease, treatment group, pathological lymph node status, etc. Results: A total of 60 case records were retrieved for this retrospective analysis. Age ranged from 24 to 92 years (median 63 years. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage distribution was as follows: stage I: 2 patients; stage II: 17 patients; stage III: 31 patients; stage IV: 9 patients; and unknown stage: 1 patient. Thirty-three patients underwent surgery (wide local excision 3, radical vulvectomy 30. Eleven patients received postoperative radiation therapy (PORT, 12 received palliative radiation therapy (RT and 15 underwent definitive RT (5 of them received concurrent chemotherapy. Median follow-up period was 23 months (range 2-144 months. The 5-year OS for all stages was 41%. FIGO stage and pathological node positivity were found to be statistically significant prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion: Despite the majority of patients presenting in advanced stage, the 5-year OS of 41% in our series reflects a decent therapeutic outcome. The results have shown FIGO stage and pathological node positivity to be significant prognostic factors for survival. The use of preoperative chemotherapy/RT needs to be studied in our setup.

  18. A patient with lichen sclerosus, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Bulten, J.; Hullu, J.A. de

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with vulvar lichen sclerosus, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), and later vulvar cancer. In LCH, high amounts of non functional Langerhans cells are present in the affected tissue, making it possible that LCH may have contributed to vulvar cancer development in this patient.

  19. AN UNUSUAL LOCATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: THE CLITORIS AND THE VULVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuman, Cömert; Özlem, Akin; Burçak, Tümerdem; Önder, Peker

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all BCCs. Vulvar BCCs are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They may be invasive and destructive if neglected or improperly treated. Nevertheless, they have a very low propensity for metastatic spread, but frequently recur after simple excision. We report a 78 year-old woman presenting with the complaint of painful vulvar ulceration and vaginal bleeding. The physical examination revealed a 3 × 2 cm indurated nodulo-ulcerative lesion involving the clitoris, both labia minora and left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with the “solid type BCC” that invaded the subcutaneous tissue without lymph node metastasis. The patient underwent wide local excision with clitoral amputation and remained disease free at post-surgical follow-up after 18 months. PMID:19882033

  20. An unusual location of basal cell carcinoma: The clitoris and the vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Comert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all BCCs. Vulvar BCCs are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They may be invasive and destructive if neglected or improperly treated. Nevertheless, they have a very low propensity for metastatic spread, but frequently recur after simple excision. We report a 78 year-old woman presenting with the complaint of painful vulvar ulceration and vaginal bleeding. The physical examination revealed a 3 x 2 cm indurated nodulo-ulcerative lesion involving the clitoris, both labia minora and left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with the "solid type BCC" that invaded the subcutaneous tissue without lymph node metastasis. The patient underwent wide local excision with clitoral amputation and remained disease free at post-surgical follow-up after 18 months.

  1. Clitoral involvement of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Localization with the worst prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinten, F.; Einden, L.C.G. van den; Cissen, M.; Hout, J. in't; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hullu, J.A. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The overall 5-year survival of patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is 70%. The clinical impression is that localization of SCC on the clitoris may lead to worse prognosis. The aim of this study is to assess the disease specific survival (DSS) in patients with clitoral SCC

  2. An aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva - A rare entity - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally invasive mesenchymal tumor predominantly presenting in women of reproductive age and also having a moderate-to-high risk for local relapse. Hence, it needs to be differentiated from other mesenchymal tumors occurring in this region. We present here a case of a 40-year-old female presenting with a large, fleshy, pedunculated mass on the right labia majora.

  3. An aggressive angiomyxoma of vulva - A rare entity - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bishnu Prasad; Baruah, Dipankar; Medhi, Kaberee Bhuyan; Talukder, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally invasive mesenchymal tumor predominantly presenting in women of reproductive age and also having a moderate-to-high risk for local relapse. Hence, it needs to be differentiated from other mesenchymal tumors occurring in this region. We present here a case of a 40-year-old female presenting with a large, fleshy, pedunculated mass on the right labia majora.

  4. [Recklinghausen disease with tumor involving the vulva. Presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goméz-Bravo Topete, E; Martínez Martínez, M; Hendrichs Troeglen, B

    1993-06-01

    A case of one patient is reported. A 19 year old woman who came to the Hospital with a genital mass located on the right greater lip that was 11 inches and weighted 6.8 pounds approximately. Brown spots were not found, but it was suspected to be a neurofibromatosis; a Von Recklinghausen case. A surgical resection was performed which confirmed the diagnosis. The woman got out after five days of stay, asymptomatic at the moment.

  5. The tailless ortholog nhr-67 regulates patterning of gene expression and morphogenesis in the C. elegans vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jolene S; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-04-27

    Regulation of spatio-temporal gene expression in diverse cell and tissue types is a critical aspect of development. Progression through Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development leads to the generation of seven distinct vulval cell types (vulA, vulB1, vulB2, vulC, vulD, vulE, and vulF), each with its own unique gene expression profile. The mechanisms that establish the precise spatial patterning of these mature cell types are largely unknown. Dissection of the gene regulatory networks involved in vulval patterning and differentiation would help us understand how cells generate a spatially defined pattern of cell fates during organogenesis. We disrupted the activity of 508 transcription factors via RNAi and assayed the expression of ceh-2, a marker for vulB fate during the L4 stage. From this screen, we identified the tailless ortholog nhr-67 as a novel regulator of gene expression in multiple vulval cell types. We find that one way in which nhr-67 maintains cell identity is by restricting inappropriate cell fusion events in specific vulval cells, namely vulE and vulF. nhr-67 exhibits a dynamic expression pattern in the vulval cells and interacts with three other transcriptional regulators cog-1 (Nkx6.1/6.2), lin-11 (LIM), and egl-38 (Pax2/5/8) to generate the composite expression patterns of their downstream targets. We provide evidence that egl-38 regulates gene expression in vulB1, vulC, vulD, vulE, as well as vulF cells. We demonstrate that the pairwise interactions between these regulatory genes are complex and vary among the seven cell types. We also discovered a striking regulatory circuit that affects a subset of the vulval lineages: cog-1 and nhr-67 inhibit both one another and themselves. We postulate that the differential levels and combinatorial patterns of lin-11, cog-1, and nhr-67 expression are a part of a regulatory code for the mature vulval cell types.

  6. The tailless ortholog nhr-67 regulates patterning of gene expression and morphogenesis in the C. elegans vulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene S Fernandes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of spatio-temporal gene expression in diverse cell and tissue types is a critical aspect of development. Progression through Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development leads to the generation of seven distinct vulval cell types (vulA, vulB1, vulB2, vulC, vulD, vulE, and vulF, each with its own unique gene expression profile. The mechanisms that establish the precise spatial patterning of these mature cell types are largely unknown. Dissection of the gene regulatory networks involved in vulval patterning and differentiation would help us understand how cells generate a spatially defined pattern of cell fates during organogenesis. We disrupted the activity of 508 transcription factors via RNAi and assayed the expression of ceh-2, a marker for vulB fate during the L4 stage. From this screen, we identified the tailless ortholog nhr-67 as a novel regulator of gene expression in multiple vulval cell types. We find that one way in which nhr-67 maintains cell identity is by restricting inappropriate cell fusion events in specific vulval cells, namely vulE and vulF. nhr-67 exhibits a dynamic expression pattern in the vulval cells and interacts with three other transcriptional regulators cog-1 (Nkx6.1/6.2, lin-11 (LIM, and egl-38 (Pax2/5/8 to generate the composite expression patterns of their downstream targets. We provide evidence that egl-38 regulates gene expression in vulB1, vulC, vulD, vulE, as well as vulF cells. We demonstrate that the pairwise interactions between these regulatory genes are complex and vary among the seven cell types. We also discovered a striking regulatory circuit that affects a subset of the vulval lineages: cog-1 and nhr-67 inhibit both one another and themselves. We postulate that the differential levels and combinatorial patterns of lin-11, cog-1, and nhr-67 expression are a part of a regulatory code for the mature vulval cell types.

  7. [Update on current care guidelines. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cytological changes in the cervix, vagina and vulva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekka, Nieminen; Anttila, Ahti; Bützow, Ralf; Heikkilä, Elina; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Mäenpää, Johanna; Puistola, Ulla; Rantanen, Virpi; Rintala, Marjut; Räisänen, Ilkka; Santalahti, Anne; Talvensaari-Mattila, Anne; Vartiainen, Juhani; Vuento, Maarit; Yliskoski, Merja

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 150 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed in Finland annually. Both incidence and mortality have decreased by 80% since organised screening began. Recently, screening based on primary HPV-testing with Pap-smear triage has been shown to be more sensitive and more specific among women over 35 years old in randomised studies and thus may be implemented in routine. Abnormal findings in Pap smears indicate management. Confirmed CIN1 lesions are followed up and CIN2 and worse lesions treated. Follow-up after treatment should be reliably arranged, because elevated risk of cancer remains over 20 years after treatment. Quality control is of utmost importance.

  8. High levels of p53 expression correlate with DNA aneuploidy in (pre)malignancies of the vulva.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Otte-Holler, I.; Nirmala, E.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Hullu, J.A. de; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of human papilloma virus-unrelated vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is not well known. Whether malignant progression of lichen sclerosus and differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma could be accompanied by altered DNA content has not

  9. General Information about Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Research Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vulvar Cancer Go to Health Professional ... area between the vulva and the anus ). Enlarge Anatomy of the vulva. The vulva includes the mons ...

  10. C. elegans as a model organism for in vivo screening in cancer: effects of human c-Met in lung cancer affect C. elegans vulva phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Shahid S; Loganathan, Sivakumar; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Faoro, Leonardo; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Salgia, Ravi

    2008-06-01

    Cancers typically harbour several mutant forms of key cellular genes that contribute to its complex phenotype. Our lab has previously identified gain-of-function mutations in some of the receptor tyrosine kinases such as c-Met in lung cancer. In order to investigate the mutant gene in the context of a whole organism, the current choice of in vivo model is limited to the mouse. To rapidly screen the functional aspects of mutant forms of c-Met detected in lung cancer, we used the nematode C. elegans as the model organism. Transgenic worms were generated that harbour wild type or the frequently seen mutant forms of c-Met in lung cancer (c-MetR988C and c-MetT1010I). Expression of the mutant human c-Met forms in C. elegans consistently resulted in significantly low fecundity and abnormal vulval development characterized by hyperplasia. Interestingly, exposure of c-Met mutant transgenic worms to nicotine resulted in enhanced abnormal vulval development, fecundity and locomotion. Our studies provide first evidence that human c-Met mutations can be studied in C. elegans, and that carcinogens can enhance mutant c-Met function expressed in C. elegans transgenic animals. We therefore propose the use of C. elegans as a model to rapidly assess the role of cancer specific gene mutations in the context of a whole organism.

  11. Phosphatidylglycerol determination in the amniotic fluid from a PAD placed over the vulva: a method for diagnosis of fetal lung maturity in cases of premature ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, P C; Poseiro, J J; Schwarcz, R

    1992-01-01

    Four hundred and forty seven pregnant women with ruptured membranes, were prospectively studied in order to assess the diagnostic capacity of Phosphatidylglycerol (PhG) determination in amniotic fluid recovered from vulval pads in the diagnosis of Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD). The identification of PhG was performed using one dimensional silica gel thin layer chromatography. The sensitivity of PhG determination in the diagnosis of HMD in newborns of the total population was found to be 88.2%, with a specificity of 76.9%. In the study population, the incidence of HMD was 7.6%, the negative predictive value was 98.8% and, the positive predictive value was 24.0%. When the 265 newborns of the gestational age group of less than or equal to 34 weeks is considered, we observed an incidence of HMD of 12.1%. The diagnostic capacity of PhG in this group was shown by a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 76.4%, a positive predictive value of 33.7% and a negative predictive value of 97.8%. This method of assessment of fetal lung maturity has a diagnostic capability similar to that described by other authors, who used amniotic fluid obtained vaginally or transabdominally. The procedure described here of amniotic fluid collection is non-invasive, harmless to the mother and fetus and simple to perform. The characteristics of this method, allow serial studies of the amniotic fluid to be carried out.

  12. A composite neoplastic lesion of the vulva with mixed features of fibroadenoma and hidradenoma papilliferum combined with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia containing multinucleated giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2014-10-01

    Anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) are nowadays considered a normal component of the anogenital area. Lesions affecting AGMLG are similar to those seen in breast. We present a case of a complex neoplastic lesion of the AGMLG with mixed features of fibroadenoma and hidradenoma papilliferum combined with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. Multinucleated cells were detected in the pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia areas as seen in some patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. The neoplasm is similar to rare mammary composite neoplasms that feature simultaneously patterns of a fibroepithelial neoplasms and intraductal papilloma.

  13. Assembling a Functional Clitoris and Vulva from a Pseudo-Penis: A Surgical Technique for an Adult Woman with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2017-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is associated with a genital deformation that might cause a negative body image. The genital ambiguity is generally "corrected" surgically during early infancy. The advantage is a psychological benefit. The disadvantages are multiple surgical procedures and the loss of orgasm. A 22-year-old woman with CAH consulted for genital reconstructive surgery. She had a pseudopenis of 4 cm and could achieve an orgasm by masturbating. During surgery, the penis was dismantled and with the preserved glans penis and the corpora cavernosa, a clitoris and vestibules were constructed, respectively. On the basis of the anamneses during the follow-up, she had a functional vagina and could still achieve orgasms. Genital correction surgery for CAH at an older age was easier, could be done in 1 step, and enabled the preservation of orgasm. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use Chinese Herbal Medicine to Treat 38 Cases of Leukoplakia Vulvae%中药治疗外阴白色病变38例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤莉

    2000-01-01

    @@ 外阴白色病变俗称外阴白斑,是指外阴皮肤粘膜营养障碍所致的组织变性及色素减退.目前临床上对该病治疗的方法不多,且疗效欠佳.近几年来,我们采用中药局部熏洗及外涂的方法对38例外阴白斑患者进行治疗,疗效满意,现介绍如下.

  15. 外阴接触性皮炎的发生及正确评估%Occurrence and evaluation of contact dermatitis of vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪连; 刘芳

    2012-01-01

    Pruritus is the most common symptom of vulvar disorders reported in the literature. Dermatitis is one of the most frequently seen causes of vulval pruritus. This review mainly discusses the sensitivity of vulvar skin to irritant and allergen, the inci-dents of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD ) and allergic contact dermatitis ( ACD ), unusual patterns in contact dermatitis medicamentosa and the evaluation of vulvar contact dermatitis.%女性外阴瘙痒是皮肤科及妇产科门诊的常见症状,外阴接触性皮炎是最常引起外阴瘙痒症状的原因之一.文中就外阴皮肤对于接触性刺激及过敏的敏感性,刺激性接触性皮炎(irritant contact dermatitis,ICD)及过敏性接触性皮炎(allergic contact dermatitis,ACD)的发病情况,外阴药物接触性皮炎及如何正确认识和评估外阴接触性皮炎等方面进行综述.

  16. The Value of Optical Coherence Tomography in Determining Surgical Margins in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva: A Single-Center Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, R.; Beurden, van M.F.B.; Bruin, de D.M.; Faber, D.J.; Vincent, A.D.; Sanders, J.; Leeuwen, van A.G.J.M.; Ruers, T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is treated with wide local excision. The challenge is to remove as much skin as necessary to prevent recurrence, but meanwhile preserve genital skin to diminish morbidity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging tool that produces

  17. The relationship between mast cell and white lesions of the vulva%肥大细胞与外阴白色病变的病理关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政民; 张雯; 赵春; 郭宏; 马毓梅; 马培东

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨肥大细胞与外阴白色病变的病理关系.方法采用甲苯胺蓝染色、图像分析及IgE免疫组织化学等技术对57例外阴白色病变中肥大细胞的数量、致敏及脱粒现象进行了观察.结果萎缩硬化性苔癣48例中肥大细胞数量增多、脱粒34例(70.83%)并伴嗜酸性粒细胞浸润及脱粒,萎缩硬化性苔癣并增殖5例,非特异性慢性炎3例,均有肥大细胞脱粒.57例中有8例IgE呈阳性反应.结论外阴白色病变与肥大细胞很可能存在病理上的直接关系,属变态反应性疾病.

  18. Immune regulation in premalignant vulvar and vaginal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Terlou (Annelinde)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring embryogenesis, the external genitalia develop under the influence of hormones. The vulva originates from the genital tubercle (clitoris), urogenital groove (vestibulum), urethral folds (labia minora) and genital swellings (labia majora). Structures belonging to the vulva are

  19. Localized blanching erythema in a patient with vulvar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Jennifer; Diaz, Lucia; Paravar, Taraneh; Chon, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Mammary-like carcinoma arising in the vulva is a rare type of vulvar malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of vulvar carcinoma is uncommon and the majority of cases have been reported in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. We describe a 69-year-old woman with mammary-like carcinoma of the vulva with cutaneous metastasis presenting as asymptomatic localized blanching erythema.

  20. 改良腹股沟小切口淋巴结清扫术在外阴癌中的应用%Application of modified small incision technique in inguinal lymphadenectomy for women with vulva carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康永军; 胡卫平; 凌斌; 吴大保

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of vulvar carcinoma undergoing modified inguinal incision (5cm) lymphadenectomy. Methods Widely radical vulvectomy( RV) and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy( OPL) were performed in 55 patients. Among the 55 patients, 25 patients underwent RV and the modified OPL ( modified small incision group) and 30 patients underwent the tradi-tional inguinal lymphadenectomy RV and OPL(conventional large incision group). The clinicopathological factors, operational factors and postoperative complications were compared. Results Compared with the conventional incision group, the incidence of inguinal incision heal-ing was higher than that in the modified small incision group. The blood loss of inguinal lymphadenectomy, the postoperative hospitalization days and incidences of wound breakdown, wound infection, edema of lower extremity, cellulitis, lymphatic cyst, chronic lymphedema, the limited abduction of lower limb and total complications were relatively low in the modified small incision group(P<0. 05). Conclusion Our modified inguinal incision lymphadenectomy can be safely and effectively performed for vulvar carcinoma with favorable early outcomes.%目的:探讨外阴癌行改良腹股沟小切口(5 cm)淋巴结清扫术的安全性和可行性。方法外阴癌行广泛外阴切除术( RV)+双侧腹股沟淋巴结清扫术( OPL)的55例患者中,30例行RV+传统OPL(传统大切口组),25例行RV+改良OPL(改良小切口组)。比较分析两组患者的临床病理资料、围手术期相关资料及术后并发症。结果改良小切口组腹股沟切口Ⅰ期愈合率高于传统大切口组,腹股沟淋巴结清扫出血量、术后住院天数、切口裂开、切口感染、下肢水肿、蜂窝组织炎、淋巴囊肿、慢性淋巴水肿、下肢外展功能受限发生率和总并发症发生率低于传统大切口组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论外阴癌行改良OPL是安全可行的,近期治疗效果满意。

  1. Neoplasia intra-epitelial grau III da vulva e da região perianal tratada com vulvectomia superficial: relato de caso High-grade vulvar and perianal intraepithelial neoplasia treated with skinning vulvectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walquíria Quida Salles Pereira Primo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A neoplasia intra-epitelial vulvar grau III (NIV III se manifesta de modo visível, portanto, acessível à biópsia e, por conseguinte, ao diagnóstico histológico. Há duas formas precursoras do câncer vulvar: a NIV associada ao papiloma vírus humano (HPV e a NIV associada ao líquen simples crônico, hiperplasia de células escamosas e líquen escleroso, não tratados. Porém, pode existir sobreposição das duas formas. O termo papulose bowenóide, apesar de ser desencorajado, define uma das formas clínicas da NIV, que se apresenta como lesões pigmentadas, verruciformes, papulares e múltiplas. A NIV III está associada com HPV em mais de 80% dos casos e em 40% das vezes, nota-se envolvimento perianal. O seu tratamento é muito difícil e pode ocorrer recorrência em qualquer tempo e por muitos anos. Embora não exista tratamento padrão definido, os trabalhos apontam para a cirurgia, respeitando margem de segurança, como o mais adequado.High-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN III is a visible lesion; therefore, it is accessible to biopsy and thus, to a histological diagnosis. There are two forms of vulvar cancer precursors: VIN caused by human papillomavirus (HPV and VIN associated with untreated lichen simplex chronicus, squamous cell hyperplasia, and lichen sclerosus. There may be overlap of the two forms. The term bowenoid papulosis, although discouraged, identifics a clinical form of VIN III. Such lesion appears as pigmented, wart-like growths or papules. VIN III is associated with HPV in more than 80% of the cases, and there is perianal involvement in 40% of the times. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is difficult to cure and relapses can occur at any time for many years. Although there is no defined standard treatment, studies point to surgery, respecting a free margin, as the most adequate one.

  2. The joint to condyloma acuminatum of male and female's vulva by pushing verruca and cryotherapy%推疣加冷冻联合治疗男女外阴尖锐湿疣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉芳

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨男女尖锐湿疣的治疗方法.方法常规消毒后,用力猛推疣体使其脱落,然后利用液氮反复冷冻,同时加干扰素肌注.结果30例患者用此法治疗后,10~30 d检查,原治疗处无新赘生物生长,其中随访29例,3个月无复发,临床痊愈率为97%.结论推疣加冷冻联合干拢素治疗尖锐湿疣,操作简便,疗效好,复发率低,值得临床推广.

  3. In squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, overexpression of p53 is a late event and neither p53 nor mdm2 expression is a useful marker to predict lymph node metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emanuels, AG; Koudstaal, J; Burger, MPM; Hollema, H

    1999-01-01

    To offer more tailored treatment to individual patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulval more accurate prediction of lymph node metastases is required. As p53 and mdm2 are genes known to be involved in the development of other tumours, we studied expression of p53 and mdm2 in carcinogenesi

  4. 苯扎氯铵溶液外阴冲洗40例临床效果观察%Study on clinical effects of 20 cases with Benzalkonium Chloride Solution rinsing the vulva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智; 李淑雯; 刘桂兰

    2010-01-01

    目的:评价苯扎氯铵溶液外阴喷洒杀菌的临床疗效及不良反应.方法:选择2010年3月在海淀区妇幼保健院分娩后的产妇40例,分为治疗组20例和对照组20例,治疗组应用0.1%苯扎氯铵溶液喷洒,对照组应用1:5 000高锰酸钾冲洗,清洁外阴后,分别于喷洒和冲洗前后取外阴拭子行细菌培养,观察细菌清除率、有效率,同时观察局部和全身反应.结果:细菌清除率治疗组为50%,对照组为20%,有效率治疗组为75%,对照组为25%,两组比较均有非常显著性差异(P<0.01);两组均未发生局部和全身不良反应.结论:苯扎氯铵溶液喷洒是安全、有效、方便、快捷的外阴杀菌剂,优于高锰酸钾冲洗.

  5. Failure in the detection of the sentinel lymph node with a combined technique of radioactive tracer and blue dye in a patient with cancer of the vulva and a single positive lymph node

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fons, G; ter Rahe, B; Sloof, G; de Hullu, J; van der Velden, J

    Background. In early stage vulvar cancer, the sentinel lymph node procedure with a radioactive tracer appears to be a promising new diagnostic tool to predict lymph node status. No detection failures have been published so far in vulvar cancer. We recently experienced failure in the detection of the

  6. Use Composite Decoction of Flavescent Sophora Root to Treat 30 Patients with Leukoplakia Vulvae%松叶榕须煎液熏洗治疗急性关节扭伤11例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱节云

    2001-01-01

    @@ 一般资料 本组关节扭伤患者11例,其中腰椎关节扭伤2例,腿关节扭伤3例,足关节扭伤6例;扭伤时间均在24h以内;皮肤红肿者8例,无红肿但关节屈伸疼痛,活动受限者3例.若患者兼有关节脱位者,应先复位再治疗.

  7. Analysis focused ultrasound combined with drug treatment of leukoplakia of the vulva case%超声聚焦联合药物治疗外阴白斑个案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study focused ultrasound combined testosterone propionate and cod liver oil treatment efficacy leukoplakia. Methods in our hospital in February 2012 confirmed a female genital lichen sclerosis patients,the use of focused ultrasound therapy,postoperative use of topical testosterone propionate and cod liver oil,dynamic observation of the clinical symptoms and the efficacy,safety. Results This patient was fairly obvious efficacy,clinical symptoms disappeared itching,skin elasticity has been restored. Conclusion focused ultrasound combined testosterone propionate treatment of female genital lichen sclerosis treatment safe, effective,worthy of promotion.%目的:研究超声聚焦联合丙酸睾丸酮及鱼肝油治疗外阴白斑的疗效。方法我院2012年2月确诊的1例女性外阴硬化型苔藓患者,采用超声聚焦治疗,术后采用丙酸睾丸酮及鱼肝油外用,动态观察其临床症状及疗效,安全性。结果此患者疗效相当明显,临床瘙痒症状消失,皮肤弹性有所恢复。结论聚焦超声联合丙酸睾丸酮治疗女性外阴硬化型苔藓疗效安全,有效,值得临床推广。

  8. 复方腐植酸钠药膜治疗外阴白色病变141例观察%Treatment of white lesion of the vulva with compounded medical membrane of humid sodium: 141 cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁永清; 王力

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨中西医结合制备的药膜治疗外阴白色病变的临床效果.方法对141例外阴白色病变的患者使用药膜贴于外阴病变的局部,每日2次.结果总有效率98.5%.结论中西医相结合制备的药膜治疗外阴白色病变疗效显著,是一种比较理想的治疗外阴白色病变的方法.

  9. In squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, overexpression of p53 is a late event and neither p53 nor mdm2 expression is a useful marker to predict lymph node metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emanuels, AG; Koudstaal, J; Burger, MPM; Hollema, H

    1999-01-01

    To offer more tailored treatment to individual patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulval more accurate prediction of lymph node metastases is required. As p53 and mdm2 are genes known to be involved in the development of other tumours, we studied expression of p53 and mdm2 in carcinogenesi

  10. Immune regulation in premalignant vulvar and vaginal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Terlou (Annelinde)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDuring embryogenesis, the external genitalia develop under the influence of hormones. The vulva originates from the genital tubercle (clitoris), urogenital groove (vestibulum), urethral folds (labia minora) and genital swellings (labia majora). Structures belonging to the vulva are the m

  11. 德国赫尔曼O3水疗法配伍灭菌灵治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病400例疗效观察%German Herrmann the O3 hydrotherapy blends the antiseptic spirit treatment vulva vagina rayon saccharomycetes to get sick 400 example curative effect observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2010-01-01

    外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病是由假丝酵母菌引起的外阴阴道炎,我院自2007年开展应用德国赫尔曼O3水疗法配伍灭菌灵治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病收到了满意的疗效,尤其能缓解急性、重症的外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的瘙痒症状.

  12. Observation on the effect of focused ultrasound combined with Compound Purple Silver Anti-inflammatory Cream in the treatment of vulva white lesions%聚焦超声联合复方紫银消炎膏治疗外阴白色病变的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云霞; 周萍; 刘春梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察聚焦超声联合复方紫银消炎膏治疗外阴白色病变的疗效.方法 将我院118例外阴白色病变患者随机分为聚焦超声联合复方紫银消炎膏治疗组(A 组) 58例和聚焦超声治疗组(B组) 60例,观察两组疗效.结果 A 组总有效率98.28%,B组总有效率为86.67%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).A组不良反应发生率为1.72%,B组为6.67%,两组不良反应发生率比较差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).结论 聚焦超声联合复方紫银消炎膏治疗外阴白色病变效果优于单用聚焦超声治疗组.

  13. DNA CONTENT, PCNA AND P53 EXPRESSION IN VULVA LICHEN SCLEROSUSAND THEIR RELATION WITH CELL PROLIFERATION%外阴硬化性苔癣组织P53、PCNA表达、DNA含量及与细胞增殖的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮德敏; 尹伶; 胡斐; 黎宁

    2001-01-01

    探讨外阴硬化性苔癣组织中的P53、PCNA表达,DNA含量与细胞增殖的关系.免疫组化方法测定20例外阴硬化性苔癣组织和10例正常外阴皮肤中P53、PCNA蛋白表达;图像分析技术检测两组基底层细胞核形态及DNA含量.结果显示,外阴硬化苔癣组P53阳性表达率为40%,与正常皮肤比较P<0.05,PCNA阳性表达率为70%,与正常皮肤比较P>0.05,阳性表达主要分布于棘层、颗粒层;基底细胞核显著变小和DNA含量降低(P<0.05).结果表明外阴硬化性苔癣组织中存在细胞增殖异常.

  14. The Detection of the Nucleus Sige and DNA Contnent in Hyperplastic Dystrophy and Lichen Sclerosis of Vulva White Lesion%外阴白色病变增生型营养不良与硬化苔癣型营养不良细胞形态及DNA含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹伶; 濮德敏

    2000-01-01

    比较了增生型营养不良与硬化苔癣型营养不良基底细胞核形态及DNA含量.结果显示,增生型营养不良其基底细胞核面积、周长、直径均较硬化苔癣型营养不良明显增加,差异有极显著性(P<0.01);其积分析分光密度、DNA含量亦明显增加,差异有显著性(P<0.05).

  15. Peripheral Female Genital Arousal as Assessed by Thermography Following Topical Genital Application of Alprostadil vs Placebo Arousal Gel: A Proof-of-Principle Study Without Visual Sexual Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue W. Goldstein, BA, CCRC, IF

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Topical alprostadil administered to healthy premenopausal women induced statistically significant, sustained increases in genital temperatures of the vestibule, clitoris, and vulva within 20 minutes compared with OTC lubricant.

  16. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-08

    Aug 8, 2006 ... incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositivity in Uganda had ... irradiation was administered using a cobalt-60 beam by two equally ..... body of uterus, ovary, vagina, vulva, gestational trophoblastic tumours ...

  17. Massive vulvar edema in pregnancy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, P; Friedman, M; Goldstein, I; Zaidise, I; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    1995-06-01

    Massive vulvar edema in pregnancy is a rarely reported condition. We treated a case of severe labial edema complicating pregnancy. Massive edema of the vulva appears to usually be a sequela of an underlying, systemic disease in pregnant women.

  18. Genital sores - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Adenomyosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, ... ovary. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Transvaginal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 33. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, ...

  1. Asherman syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approach . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 177. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, ultrasound imaging of pelvic structures. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. ...

  2. Living with uterine fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisor 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:1271-1272. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: Vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. ...

  3. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  4. Frequent or urgent urination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body) Swelling and infection of the urethra Vaginitis (swelling or discharge of the vulva and vagina) Less common causes include: Alcohol use Anxiety Bladder cancer (not common) Drinking caffeine Diabetes that is not ...

  5. Cervical Dysplasia: Is It Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor may recommend more tests, including: Human papillomavirus (HPV) test Colposcopy Colposcopy is an examination of your cervix, vagina and vulva using a magnifying instrument. During a colposcopy, your doctor may determine where ...

  6. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Ayu Sri Astuti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  7. Three cases of Lipschutz vulval ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alés-Fernández, M; Rodríguez-Pichardo, A; García-Bravo, B; Ferrándiz-Pulido, L; Camacho-Martínez, F M

    2010-05-01

    A Lipschütz ulcer or 'ulcus vulvae acutum' is an acute simple ulceration of the vulva or vagina of non-venereal origin which can be associated with lymphadenopathy. Three cases are described with accompanying clinical photographs. Two cases refer to adolescents, one an infant, all without any history of sexual contact. The cases serve to illustrate a little known but potentially important differential diagnosis of vulval ulceration.

  8. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  9. Impedance pattern of vaginal and vestibular mucosa in cyclic goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Křivánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of vaginal and vestibular impedance during the oestrous cycle in goats were examined. The onset of oestrus was teased with a buck once a day during the experiment. Impedance was mea­sured by a four-terminal method. The vaginal impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vaginal dorsal wall at the cervix. The vestibular impedance was recorded under slight pressure of electrodes to the vestibular dorsal wall 5 cm from the vulva and at the vulva. The im­pe­dan­ce was measured once a day from 4 days before the expected oestrus to 6 days after onset of oestrus. The vaginal impedance at the cervix decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased du­ring oestrus (P < 0.01. The vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva decreased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.01 and increased after oestrus (P < 0.01. The decrease of vaginal impedance during peri-oestrus was nearly twofold in comparison with the vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva. No sig­ni­fi­cant decrease of the vestibular impedance at the vulva was found during the oestrous cycle. The results indicate that the vaginal impedance at the cervix and vestibular impedance 5 cm from the vulva measured by means of a four-terminal method during the oestrous cycle display cyclic changes that are closely related to the oestrous behaviour of goats.

  10. Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulmann, Sebastian; Sinn, Hans P; Penzel, Roland; Gilks, C Blake; Schott, Sarah; Hassel, Jessica C; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schirmacher, Peter; Kommoss, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina is relatively uncommon and accounts for melanomas in women. The aim of our study was to establish the biological properties and evaluate potential therapeutic targets in these tumors. We collected a series of 65 cases from three centers and re-evaluated the tumor tissue for predominant growth pattern (superficial spreading, nodular, and mucosal lentiginous) and tumor thickness. KIT (CD117) expression was detected immunohistochemically. In addition, tumors were screened for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as for KIT amplifications by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the cases contained BRAF mutations. NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications were detected in similar frequency (∼12%) in tumors of the vulva and vagina. In contrast, KIT mutations were present in 18% of primary melanomas of the vulva, but in none of the tumors arising in the vagina. Moderate or strong KIT protein expression was detected in 30 cases, including all tumors with KIT mutations and 6 of the 7 with KIT amplifications. In conclusion, BRAF mutations are virtually absent in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, whereas NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in both locations. KIT mutations appear to be specific for melanomas of the vulva, suggesting that in spite of the anatomic proximity, the development of vulvar and vaginal melanomas involves different molecular alterations which may be targeted by novel treatment approaches.

  11. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind.

  12. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  13. Fibroadenoma in an ectopic vulvar breast gland: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Braham, E; Ismail, O; Zegal, D; El Mezni, F

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. It can be found anywhere along the milk line extending from the axilla to the groin, and can occur in the vulva. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign or malignant pathologic processes. Less than 40 cases of fibroadenoma in the vulva have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman presenting a solitary vulvar mass. The mass was excised completely, and histology demonstrated an ectopic breast fibroadenoma. This is one of the few reports on the benign pathologies of vulvar mammary glands.

  14. Angiokeratoma of the clitoris with evident vulvar varicosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Volkan; Cakir, Emel; Gedikbasi, Ali; Akyol, Alpaslan; Numanoglu, Ceyhun; Gulkilik, Ahmet

    2010-12-01

    Angiokeratomas of the vulva are uncommon, benign vascular lesions that are generally located on the labia. However, the clitoris is an extremely rare location, with only three published cases. We report a case of clitoral angiokeratoma in a 22-year-old nulligravida with a history of surgery to remove a clitoral mass at 6 years of age. The case described herein is distinguished from the other case reports by an accompanying varicose structure involving the vulva. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2010 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Endometrial carcinoma metastatic to the clitoris: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakor, Fereshteh; Hajizadeh Falah, Hadi; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer generally carries a good prognosis. Endometrial carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to the pelvic and para-aortic nodes. Visceral metastases usually occur in the vagina and ovaries. Distant metastases involve lungs and occur as a terminal event. This case report describes vulvalar metastasis of endometrial cancer to the clitoris. Metastatic tumors of the vulva are rare. Moreover, in the presence of metastatic endometrial carcinoma to the vulva, it is necessary to verify if other visceral metastases are present. Endometrial cancer can extend through direct dermatogens and lymphatic spread. We report a clitoral metastasis of an endometrial carcinoma and discuss whether the possible mechanism is vascular spreading or direct seeding.

  16. Lipoma vulvar: um relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Lopes da Silva Filho; Caroline Coelho Pimentel; Jefferson Torres Nunes; Joevia Gomes Pereira; Laerte Gonçalves Granjeiro; Liério Gonçalves Granjeiro

    2012-01-01

    Os lipomas são os tumores benignos mais comuns dos tecidos moles. No entanto, lipomas localizados em vulva são extremamente raros e a literatura é incerta quanto à sua incidência mundial. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso clínico de lipoma localizado em vulva em uma mulher de 35 anos. A paciente queixava-se de massa de crescimento insidioso localizada no grande lábio inferior. O ultrassom de partes moles evidenciou um nódulo subcutâneo da linhagem lipomatosa. Foi realizada a exérese...

  17. Cerviconema cygneum and Papuadorus amplus, two new genera and species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida from high altitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrássy, I.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of dorylaimid nematodes each representing a new genus are described and illustrated. Cerviconema gen. n., with C. cygneum sp. n. from Bolivia as type, belongs to the family Paraxonchiidae and is characterized by the strongly tapered neck, small head, simple and medium-long odontostyle, short cylindrus, paired gonads, transverse vulva and conoid tail. Papuadorus gen. n., with P. amplus sp. n. from Papua New Guinea as type, belongs to the family Nordiidae and can be characterized by the long and slender odontostyle, rod-like odontophore, amphidelphic genital organ, longitudinal vulva, great number of contiguous supplements and conoid tail.

  18. Vulval lichen planus leading to urethral stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old female child presented with difficulty in micturition preceded by some vulval lesions. She had itching around vulva associated with burning sensation and gradually developed a whitish patch. Histology was compatible with lichen planus.

  19. Labia Majora Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanjing; Yap, Yan Lin; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui

    2017-01-01

    Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients. PMID:28194353

  20. Disease: H00944 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ran A, Baran W, Hryncewicz-Gwozdz A, Burgdorf W Dowling-Degos disease: case report and review of the literature...Parkinson KE, Kaye V, Lynch PJ Dowling-Degos disease involving the vulva and back: case report and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J 17:1 (2011) ...

  1. Impaired removal of H3K4 methylation affects cell fate determination and gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lussi, Yvonne C; Mariani, Luca; Rundsten, Carsten Friis;

    2016-01-01

    implicated in development, but how the regulation of H3K4me3 level controls developmental processes is not fully established. Here, we show that the H3K4 demethylase RBR-2, the unique member of the KDM5 family in C. elegans, acts cell-autonomously and in a catalytic-dependent manner to control vulva...

  2. Disease: H00029 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ounting for about one-third of cases, occurs in relative...cancer and is observed in 80% to 90% of cases. There are at least two quite different types of SCC of the vulva. The less common, acc

  3. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Sequence Classification: 774577 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g defective EGL-18, Protruding VuLva PVL-3, Erythroid-Like Transcription factor family member, epidermal cel...Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB TMB Non-TMB >gi|17539620|ref|NP_500143.1| EGg Layin

  5. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants and Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer and PreCancer in Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix. METHODS: We included 13...

  6. Comparative study of four species of Trichuris roederer, 1761 (Nematoda, Trichurinae by scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinalda Marisa Lanfredti

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative morphological study of Trichuris travassosi, T. vulpis, T. discolor and T. suis was perfomed using scanning electron microscopy. Cuticular inflation associated with the bacillar band, vulva and male external genital appendages were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of these structures were made for each species; they are of taxonomic value.

  7. Syndrome in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream.

  8. PERINEAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN WOMEN WITH STRESS-INCONTINENCE AND CONTROLS - THE ROLE OF THE PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJMA, J; TINGA, DJ; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    With a curved array real-time ultrasound scanning machine and the probe placed sagittally onto the vulva, symphysis, bladder, urethra and the pelvic floor can be visualized in one frame. With this technique we studied 10 women with stress incontinence and 10 control women. In both groups active cont

  9. Evaluation of the Role of Vibrational Spectroscopy in the Assessment of Vulval Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Normal Vulval Skin; Lichen Sclerosus; High Grade Dysplasia - Usual Type ('VIN 2-3'); High Grade Dysplasia - Differentiated Type ('VIN 2-3'); Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Epithelial Hyperplasia Without Atypia; Atypia Not Otherwise Specified/ Low Grade Dysplasia ('VIN 1'); Pagets Disease of the Vulva

  10. Endometriosis of episiotomy scar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihmanli, V; Ózkan, T; Genc, S; Cetinkaya, N; Uctas, H

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of histologically normal endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis predominantly locates on peritoneal surfaces, but it also affects the vagina, vulva, and perineum, usually secondary to surgical or obstetric trauma. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar is a fairly rare phenomenon. The authors present a case of endometriosis in an episiotomy scar.

  11. Redescrição de Litomosoides brasiliensis Almeida, 1936 (Nematoda: Filariidae Parasito de Anoura caudifera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Elizabeth D

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.

  12. Initiation and progression of Müllerian duct derived malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H. van der Horst (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe female reproductive system consists of the internal and external genitalia. The external genitalia are formed by the vulva, which includes the clitoris, labia majora and minora, urethral orifice and vestibule of the vagina (lower part of the vagina). The internal genital system is

  13. DRGs and Military Medicine: A Look at DRGs and Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Disorders 288 O.R. Proc for Obesity 294 Diabetes Age )=36 295 Diabetes Age 0-35 297 Nutritional & Misc Metabolic Disorders age 18-69 /o CC 298 Nutritional...for Malig 359 Uterus & Adenexa Proc for Non-malig exc Tubal Interr 360 Vagina, Cervix I Vulva Proc 361 Laparoscopy I Endoscopy IFemale) exc Tubal

  14. 38 CFR 4.116 - Schedule of ratings-gynecological conditions and disorders of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly compensation. 7610Vulva, disease or injury of (including vulvovaginitis). 7611Vagina, disease or injury of. 7612Cervix, disease or injury of. 7613Uterus, disease, injury, or adhesions of. 7614Fallopian tube, disease, injury, or adhesions of (including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)). 7615Ovary...

  15. An Analysis of the Surgery Scheduling Process at Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-29

    38500 Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy 38780 Dentoalveolar Structures 41899 Tonsillectomy /Adenoidectomy, 42820 Under 12 Tonsillectomy /Adenoidectomy...42821 12 or over Tonsillectomy , Under 12 42825 Tonsillectomy , 12 & Over 42826 Adenoidectomy, Under 12 42830 Excision Submandibular Gland 42440...CASE CODE Laser Destruction Vulva 56507 Anterior Colporrhaphy 57240 Cerclage of Utrine Cervix 57700 Biopsy of Cervix 57520 Dilation and Curettage

  16. Lipschutz ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Ramesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipschütz first identified an acute disease with ulceration of the external genital organs of young women. The syndrome has been termed acute vulvar ulcer or ulcus vulvae acutum. The following typical case history of a 19-year-old girl is a good illustration of this interesting clinical entity.

  17. Vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: A case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, M.H. Van; Reijnen, C.; Boll, D.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Piek, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited cases in literature of patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vulva with neuroendocrine differentiation have. With this new case, we aim to provide an overview of the existing literature and present a tool with relevant markers for the pathologist in the different

  18. Vulvar carcinoma : The price of less radical surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Hollema, H; Lolkema, S; Boezen, M; Burger, MPM; Aalders, JG; Mourits, MJE; van der Zee, AGJ; Boonstra, J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether modifications in the treatment of patients with vulvar carcinoma influence the rates of recurrence and survival. METHODS: Between 1982 and 1997, 253 patients with T1 and T2 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were treated by

  19. The Possibility of Using of Selected Biotechnological Method by Dwarf Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using insemination in small scale breed condition of lop dwarf white of red eyes. Monitored were three groups of does. In group 1 was used to induce receptivity an agent-based PMSG. In Group 2 to induce receptivity was used 30 minute common housing (8 - 10 of does before insemination. In group 3 was used natural mating. State of receptivity was recorded through a numerical scale 1 (pale vulva, 2 (pink vulva, 3 (red vulva and 4 (violet vulva. Does in group 1 and 2 were inseminated polysperm insemination dose (0.3 ml / doe. By comparing the receptivity in group 1 (state of receptivity 2.81 and 2 (state of receptivity 2.56 were not found statistically significant differences. The best reproduction results were recorded in group 1 where on the one done insemination accounted for 3.12 pc of newborn pups. The number of pups born per one done insemination was 2.04 pc. The lowest scores were recorded in group 3 where the number of pups born per one successfully copulated doe was 1.3 pc.

  20. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants and Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer and Pre-Cancer in Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix. METHODS: We included 13...

  1. Clear Cells of Toker in the Developing Anogenital Region of Male and Female Fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putte, Sebastian C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The clear cells of Toker are a mysterious population of intra-epidermal glandular cells. They were originally described in nipples, but were recently observed in the vulva as well. It was hypothesized that intra-epidermal embryonic remnants or underlying glands were a potential source. The embryolog

  2. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000886.htm Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  3. In the absence of (early) invasive carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia associated with lichen sclerosus is mainly of undifferentiated type: New insights in histology and aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Seters, van (Manon); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); M. van Beurden (Marc); R.H.M. Verheijen (René); C.J.L.M. Meijer; M.P.M. Burger; T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is presumed to be the precursor of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva. It is commonly assumed that differentiated VIN is related to lichen sclerosus (LS). However, evidence for this is limited to a small n

  4. Identification of potential prognostic markers for vulvar cancer using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fons, G.; Burger, M.P.; Kate, F.J. ten; Velden, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine immunohistochemical markers with prognostic significance for disease-specific survival in patients with squamous cell cancer of the vulva. The study material consisted of slides and paraffin blocks of 50 vulvectomy specimens. A tissue microarray was constructed

  5. Effects of Feeding Barley Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Chemistry of Gilts and Growth Recoveries by Feeding a Non-contaminated Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of feeding barley naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth performance, vulva swelling, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein of gilts and the recovery of gilts fed normal diets immediately after the exposure to contaminated diets by measuring growth performance and vulva swelling. In Exp. 1, four diets were prepared to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% contaminated barley containing 25.7 mg/kg deoxynivalenol and 26.0 μg/kg zearalenone. Sixteen gilts with an initial body weight (BW of 33.3 kg (standard deviation = 3.0 were individually housed in a metabolism crate and assigned to 4 diets with 4 replicates in a randomized complete block design based on BW. During the 14-d feeding trial, individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal lengths of vulva were measured every 3 d. From d 10, feces were collected by the maker-to-marker method for 4 d. Blood samples were collected on d 14. During the overall period, the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain:feed of pigs linearly decreased (p<0.01 as the dietary concentration of contaminated barley increased. However, the digestibility of crude protein was linearly increased (p = 0.011 with the increasing amounts of contaminated barley. Increasing dietary Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations did not influence vulva size, blood characteristic as well as immunoglobulin level of pigs. In the Exp. 2, a corn-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a recovery diet. Pigs were fed the recovery diet immediately after completion of the Exp. 1. During the 14-d of recovery period, the individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal length of vulva were measured every 3 d from d 0. On d 7, the feed intake of pigs previously fed contaminated diets already reached that of pigs fed a diet with 0% contaminated barley and no

  6. Herpetiform genital lesions in a heifer with mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, J J; Szkudlarek, L; Risatti, G R; Sura, R; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

    2008-03-01

    A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.

  7. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  8. Prepubertal vulval fibroma with a coincidental ectopic breast fibroadenoma: report of an unusual case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Kana; Xi, Mingrong; Yang, Kaixuan; Liu, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva are two rare tumors, and they are very difficult to distinguish from other vulval masses, both clinically and pathologically. The complication of the two diseases is extremely rare. We report the case of an extremely large and progressively enlarging mass in the vulva of an 18-year-old Chinese girl. The mass was excised completely and pathologically diagnosed as a prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma. The patient was followed up for 10 months and no evidence of recurrence was observed. Prepubertal vulval fibroma and vulval ectopic breast fibroadenoma should be considered in their preoperative differential diagnosis of a vulval mass, especially in prepubertal girls. Pathologically, immunohistochemical staining for vimentin and CD34 is valuable for diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is effective and long-term follow up is necessary.

  9. [Obstetric damage to the perineum and the anal sphincters. Reconstruction surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kościński, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    Damage to the perineum, vulva, anal sphincters, rectal wall and the fascial structures of the pelvic floor may be caused by obstetric trauma. Emergency surgical treatment aims at control of the bleeding, anatomical reconstruction of the disrupted tissues and minimization of the risk of infection. Suturing of the rectal wall and mucosa of the anal canal is followed by reconstruction of the perineal body internal and external anal sphincters, vulva and the perineum. Delayed surgery is undertaken after the complete healing of the obstetric tear. All cicatricial fibers must be saved to reinforce sphincters and perineal body muscles suturing. Anal levators and perineal transvers muscles suturing is used for the rectovaginal septum and pelvic floor reconstruction. Anal sphincters are reconstructed by the 'overlapping' technique. X en Z suturing is used for a perineal skin plasty.

  10. Morphological Variation in Xiphinema spp. from New York Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, L L

    1988-01-01

    Xiphinema specimens were collected from orchards in southeastern, northeastern, and western New York. Total length, distance of vulva from anterior end, spear length (odontostyle plus odontophore), body diameter at vulva, tail length, anal body diameter, and length and diameter of hyaline tail tip were measured on fixed, glycerol-infiltrated adult females. Most specimens were identified as X. americanum or X. rivesi, but one western New York population was identified as X. californicum (a new record for New York). Multivariate analyses indicated that, with one exception, western New York populations of both X. americanum and X. rivesi were smaller and slimmer than their eastern counterparts. Regional differences were generally larger than differences attributed to host species.

  11. Endometrial carcinoma metastatic to the clitoris: a case report and review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Fakor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer generally carries a good prognosis. Endometrial carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to the pelvic and para-aortic nodes. Visceral metastases usually occur in the vagina and ovaries. Distant metastases involve lungs and occur as a terminal event. This case report describes vulvalar metastasis of endometrial cancer to the clitoris. Metastatic tumors of the vulva are rare. Moreover, in the presence of metastatic endometrial carcinoma to the vulva, it is necessary to verify if other visceral metastases are present. Endometrial cancer can extend through direct dermatogens and lymphatic spread. We report a clitoral metastasis of an endometrial carcinoma and discuss whether the possible mechanism is vascular spreading or direct seeding.

  12. Vulvar pityriasis versicolor in an immunocompetent woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tania; Scurry, James

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of isolated vulvar pityriasis versicolor in a 24-year-old healthy woman. A 24-year-old woman presented with variable color change on the vulva of 8 months in duration. Areas of tan and white skin were observed on the mons pubis. The pubic hair had been shaved. Initially, the paler areas were deemed abnormal suggesting vitiligo, but the biopsy showed normal skin including normal numbers of melanocytes. Subsequently, biopsy of the tan area showed pityriasis versicolor. She was successfully treated with topical 2% ketoconazole, with gradual fading of lesions. With increased body awareness and the current popularity of pubic hair removal, young women may consult clinicians about color changes on the vulva. Clinicians should be aware that vulvar pityriasis versicolor may occur in healthy women with no other skin involvement.

  13. Lipoma vulvar: um relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Lopes da Silva Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Os lipomas são os tumores benignos mais comuns dos tecidos moles. No entanto, lipomas localizados em vulva são extremamente raros e a literatura é incerta quanto à sua incidência mundial. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso clínico de lipoma localizado em vulva em uma mulher de 35 anos. A paciente queixava-se de massa de crescimento insidioso localizada no grande lábio inferior. O ultrassom de partes moles evidenciou um nódulo subcutâneo da linhagem lipomatosa. Foi realizada a exérese do lipoma, e a análise histopatológica confirmou que se tratava de um lipoma.

  14. A new species of Protrellus Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) parasite of the field cockroach Blatella vaga Hebard, 1919 (Blattodea, Blattidae) from Catamarca, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino, Nora B; de Villalobos, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    A new species of the genus Protrellus, P. blatta sp. nov. parasitizing a field cockroach Blatella vaga Hebard, 1919, from El Tala river, Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by having the mouth opening circular, the buccal capsule with eight very small teeth, the nerve ring around oesophageal corpus, the excretory pore anterior to vulva, the vulva anterior to base of oesophagus, didelphic, the posterior ovary reflexed anterior to rectum, about one third of a body length from posterior end, the egg ellipsoidal, colourless, bearing a lateral cuticular crest, tail conical, with long filiform projection, the male with testis single, outstretched, one spicule, very small, short and straight, gubernaculums absent, the genital papillae arranged in three pairs of ventrolateral papillae, of which the first pair are close together and preanal position, two pairs postanal, tail conical and short, less than one twentieth of total body. A taxonomic key of Protrellus species is given.

  15. Polarization dependant in vivo second harmonic generation imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans vulval, pharynx, and body wall muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psilodimitrakopoulos, Sotiris; Santos, Susana; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Mathew, Manoj; Thayil K. N., Anisha; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2008-02-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging has emerged in recent years as an important laboratory imaging technique since it can provide unique structural information with submicron resolution. It enjoys the benefits of non-invasive interaction establishing this imaging modality as ideal for in vivo investigation of tissue architectures. In this study we present, polarization dependant high resolution SHG images of Caenorhabditis elegans muscles in vivo. We imaged a variety of muscular structures such as body walls, pharynx and vulva. By fitting the experimental data into a cylindrical symmetry spatial model we mapped the corresponding signal distribution of the χ (2) tensor and identified its main axis orientation for different sarcomeres of the earth worm. The cylindrical symmetry was considered to arise from the thick filaments architecture of the inside active volume. Moreover, our theoretical analysis allowed calculating the mean orientation of harmonophores (myosin helical pitch). Ultimately, we recorded and analysed vulvae muscle dynamics, where SHG signal decreased during in vivo contraction.

  16. Unilateral Pigmented Extramammary Paget's Disease of the Axilla Associated with a Benign Mole: A Case Study and a Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ladak, Aleem; Bramley, Maria; Titi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented extramammary Paget's disease (PEMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinoma and a rare variant of Paget's disease affecting skin that is rich in apocrine sweat glands such as the axilla, perianal region and vulva. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women and presents as a superficial pigmented scaly macule, mimicking a melanocytic lesion. The histological presentation is adenocarcinoma in situ with an increased number of melanocytes scattered between the Paget's cells....

  17. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement.

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA ON MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN P APILLOMAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kostin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study of statistical data for the first time in Russia the analysis of the morbidity and mortality of patients with malignant neoplasms that may be associated with human papilloma virus (HPV is performed: cervical cancer (cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva and vagina, cancer of penis, cancer of the rectum, anal canal and rectosigmoid junction cancer, cancer of the pharynx and larynx.

  19. Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae, first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian Passalidae (Insecta, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jans Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae is described from an unidentified passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae from Panama. It resembles Hystrignathus cobbi Travassos & Kloss, 1957 from Brazil, bya similar form of the cephalic end, extension of cervical spines and absence of lateral alae. It differs from the latter species bythe body shorter, the oesophagus and tail comparatively larger, the vulva situated more posterior and the eggs ridged. This species constitutes the first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian passalid.

  20. Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian Passalidae (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Jans Rodríguez; Nayla Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae) is described from an unidentified passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Panama. It resembles Hystrignathus cobbi Travassos & Kloss, 1957 from Brazil, by having a similar form of the cephalic end, extension of cervical spines and absence of lateral alae. It differs from the latter species by having the body shorter, the oesophagus and tail comparatively larger, the vulva situated more posterior and the eggs ridged. This...

  1. Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian Passalidae (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2010-09-21

    Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae) is described from an unidentified passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Panama. It resembles Hystrignathus cobbi Travassos & Kloss, 1957 from Brazil, by having a similar form of the cephalic end, extension of cervical spines and absence of lateral alae. It differs from the latter species by having the body shorter, the oesophagus and tail comparatively larger, the vulva situated more posterior and the eggs ridged. This species constitutes the first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian passalid.

  2. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, {sup 18}F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses.

  3. Lichen planus of uterine cervix - the first report of a novel site of occurrence: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ruchika; Bansal, Bhavna; Singh, Sompal; Yadav, Indra; Gupta, Kusum; Kudesia, Madhur

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lichen planus is an immune mediated inflammatory lesion involving skin and mucosal sites including oral mucosa, vulva and rarely vagina. Lichen planus occurring at mucosal sites has been shown to be associated with squamous cell carcinoma in a proportion of cases. To the best of our knowledge, no case of lichen planus of uterine cervix has been reported in the available literature. Case Presentation A 45-year-old female underwent vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse. The res...

  4. Hermaphroditism in pig: a case related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josete Garcia Bersano

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of intersexuality in pig is presented. The animal shows a rudimentary penis and a skin plica, since the prepuce until the ani. The animal has two ovarium and only one testiclc in the abdominal cavity. The epididimus was short and flexioned. The uterus, vagina and vulva was absente and one of the Falopius tube exibit a hipoplasie size with esteril liquid colection inside it. No signs of cspermatogese was observed.

  5. Virus papiloma humano y cáncer cérvico-uterino

    OpenAIRE

    O'Ryan G,Miguel; VALENZUELA,MARÍA TERESA

    2008-01-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiolagical studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cáncer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for...

  6. Angiomyofibroblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Varuna; Sahai, Kavita; Rathi, K R; Prasad, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Angiomyofibroblastoma is a very rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the superficial soft-tissues. Most of the cases have been reported in the vulva. It presents usually in the reproductive age group. Histologically it is characterized by alternating hypo and hypercellular areas admixed with thin walled blood vessels with a perivascular concentration of stromal cells. We report a case of this lesion arising in the vagina in a 46-year-old woman.

  7. Angiomyofibroblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuna Mallya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyofibroblastoma is a very rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the superficial soft-tissues. Most of the cases have been reported in the vulva. It presents usually in the reproductive age group. Histologically it is characterized by alternating hypo and hypercellular areas admixed with thin walled blood vessels with a perivascular concentration of stromal cells. We report a case of this lesion arising in the vagina in a 46-year-old woman.

  8. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dhawan; Saurabh Singh; Somesh Gupta

    2011-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the...

  9. [Saforelle - a new approach to treat vaginitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamisheva, V; Nachev, A

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the vulva and vagina are one of the most common gynecological diseases. They can be determined by a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors. The main risk factors contributing to vaginitis are aerobic and anaerobic bacterias, fungal and viral infections, and irritants. Subjective complaints are pruritus, vulvar and/or perivulvar erytema and different in volume and characterization discharge. Excepting etiological treatment in most cases it is necessary to use additional agents, for example Saforelle.

  10. Cutaneous amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, M E; Berg, R A

    1983-04-01

    An infant with cutaneous amebiasis of the vulva and amebic liver abscess is described. Epidemiologic investigations and serologic studies were crucial in establishing the diagnosis. The vulvar amebic ulcers responded dramatically to metronidazole therapy. Cutaneous amebiasis is a rare complication of Entamoeba histolytica infection which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of perineovulvar or penile ulcers. Cutaneous amebiasis may also occur on the abdominal wall surrounding a draining hepatic abscess, colostomy site, or laparotomy incision.

  11. Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Alaa H. Al-Charrakh; Bara Hamid AL-Greitty

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effec...

  12. Granulomatous cheilitis with granulomatous vulvitis: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath M Kambil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous cheilitis and granulomatous vulvitis are rare disorders characterized by painless swelling of lips and vulva, respectively. Histopathology of both conditions show non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in the dermis. Both disorders have been associated with Crohn′s disease rarely. Occurrence of the two conditions in the same patient is extremely infrequent. We hereby report, the association of granulomatous cheilitis with granulomatous vulvitis in a 30-year-old female.

  13. Cryotherapy for massive vulvar lymphatic leakage complicated with lymphangiomas following gynecological cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Douzono, Haruhiko; Kubo, Hidemichi; Nagata, Tomomi; Douchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Vulvar lymphatic leakage is a severe complication associated with gynecological cancer treatments. However, standard treatment strategies have not yet been determined. We encountered a rare case of a 76-year-old multiparous woman suffering from massive lymphatic fluid leakage from the entire vulva, and papules developed and were identified as lymphangiomas. A large amount of straw-colored discharge continued from all vulvar papules, which extended over the mons pubis. Nine years ago, the patient had undergone a radical hysterectomy with concurrent chemoradiation for uterine cervical cancer treatment. Her serum albumin level was 1.9 mg/dl, which was attributed to the loss of a large amount of lymph fluid due to leakage from the vulva. Her quality of life gradually decreased because of general fatigue and the need for frequent diaper exchanges every 2 h. The patient received a less-invasive treatment with cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. She also received a multimodality treatment consisting of the intravenous administration of albumin, massage of the lower limbs and intensive rehabilitation. Cryotherapy was administered once a week for 3 months. Her discharge almost stopped and vulvar lymphangiomas decreased without any major complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of massive lymphatic leakage complicated with vulvar lymphangiomas. Additionally, this case may represent the first successful treatment of vulva lymph leakage by cryotherapy without recurrence. Cryotherapy may have the potential to improve the quality of life as a less-invasive treatment for gynecological cancer survivors without serious complications.

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-103 ERG-like potassium channel regulates contractile behaviors of sex muscles in males before and during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L Rene; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-04-01

    During mating behavior the Caenorhabditis elegans male must regulate periodic and prolonged protractor muscle contractions to insert his copulatory spicules into his mate. The protractors undergo periodic contractions to allow the spicules to reattempt insertion if a previous thrust failed to breach the vulva. When the spicule tips penetrate the vulva, the protractors undergo prolonged contraction to keep the spicules inside the hermaphrodite until sperm transfer is complete. To understand how these contractions are regulated, we isolated EMS-induced mutations that cause males to execute prolonged contraction inappropriately. Loss-of-function mutations in the unc-103 ERG-like K(+) channel gene cause the protractor muscles to contract in the absence of mating stimulation. unc-103-induced spicule protraction can be suppressed by killing the SPC motor neurons and the anal depressor muscle: cells that directly contact the protractors. Also, reduction in acetylcholine suppresses unc-103-induced protraction, suggesting that UNC-103 keeps cholinergic neurons from stimulating the protractors before mating behavior. UNC-103 also regulates the timing of spicule protraction during mating behavior. unc-103 males that do not display mating-independent spicule protraction show abnormal spicule insertion behavior during sex. In contrast to wild-type males, unc-103 mutants execute prolonged contractions spontaneously within sequences of periodic protractor contractions. The premature prolonged contractions cause the spicules to extend from the male tail before the spicule tips penetrate the vulva. These observations demonstrate that unc-103 controls various aspects of spicule function.

  15. Protein kinase VRK-1 regulates cell invasion and EGL-17/FGF signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerkx, Elke P F; Alarcón, Pilar; Waters, Katherine; Reinke, Valerie; Sternberg, Paul W; Askjaer, Peter

    2009-11-01

    The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the first investigation of the developmental role of VRKs by means of a novel C. elegans vrk-1 mutant allele. We found that VRK-1 is essential in hermaphrodites for formation of the vulva, uterus, and utse and for development and maintenance of the somatic gonad and thus the germ line. VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. VRK-1 is also required for proper specification and proliferation of uterine cells and sex myoblasts. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least partially through activation of FGF signaling. Expression of a translational VRK-1Colon, two colonsGFP fusion protein in the ventral nerve cord and vulva precursor cells restores vulva and uterus formation, suggesting both cell autonomous and non-autonomous roles of VRK-1.

  16. [Vulvar melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoeva, A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the vulva is a rare disease with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. It consist melanoma in females, as the ratio of its manifestation, compared with the cutaneous melanoma is 1:71. Higher risk of developing melanoma of the vulva is established in white women, as the peak of the incidence is between 60 and 70 years of age. Clinically, MM of the vulva manifests as asymptomatic pigmented, rarely a pigmented lesion, as the usual clinical form is superficial spreading MM and much less common nodular MM, which is associated with a poorer prognosis in. general. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination. Conduction of PCR and DNA analysis for detection of BRAF mutations, NRAS mutations and KIT amplification is also appropriate. Advanced age, black race, tumor size, tumor thickness, ulceration, presence of satellite lesions, involvement of adjacent organs (vagina, urethra), and the presence of regional or distant metastases are identified as the most important prognostic markers. Radical wide excision followed by bilateral lymphadenectomy id considered as the optimal therapeutic approach.

  17. Double cloprostenol administration during mid luteal phase of oestrous cycle does not modify the interoestrous interval in gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mazzoni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to test the effect of two vulva injections of D-cloprostenol on day 7, 9 and 10 of oestrous cycle on the duration of the interestrous interval in gilts. Following a pre-treatment oestrous cycle, 87 gilts were assigned to receive vulva injections of 75 μg D-cloprostenol at 08:00 and 14:00 h on day 7 (D7; n=30, day 9 (D9; n=29 or day 10 (D10; n=28 of their second observed oestrous cycle. Across the treatments, the duration of the oestrous cycle with D-cloprostenol treatment (19.1±0.1 d was not different from that of the previous oestrous cycle (20.1±0.4 days. Plasma progesterone concentrations were evaluated 6 h before and 24 and 72 h after D-cloprostenol treatment in the D9 group. Compared to pretreatment levels (9.6±0.4 ng/mL, plasma progesterone concentrations were reduced (P<0.05 at 24 h (6.3±1.0 ng/mL and 72 h after treatment but complete luteolysis did not occur. These data indicate that in gilts double vulva administration of D-cloprostenol is not able to induce a complete luteolisys and hence the duration of the oestrous cycle is not modified.

  18. Skrjabinura gnedina, 1933 (Nematoda: Seuratoidea: Seuratidae), in birds from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    Two species of Skrjabinura Gnedina, 1933, were collected in the intestines of birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica. Skrjabinura mesoamericana n. sp. inhabits Dendrocincla homochroa, Calocitta formosa, Dendrocolaptes certhia, Basileuterus rufifrons, and Chordeiles acutipennis. The new species differs from all species of the genus by having dissimilar spicules, the right having a distinctive thin and bent handle on the proximal end. The new species can be further distinguished from Skrjabinura pomatostomi and Skrjabinura brevicaudatum by having subequal versus equal spicules. Skrjabinura mesoamericana resembles S. brevicaudatum in the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae but differs in the vulva position and in having smaller eggs. The new species differs from S. potamostomi in having 6 versus 8 pairs of postcloacal papillae. Among those species having subequal spicules, the new species further differs from Skrjabinura spiralis in having 1 pair of paracloacal papillae and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae, versus no paracloacal papillae and 4 pairs of postcloacal papillae, and in the vulva position. The new species is perhaps most similar to Skrjabinura vali, from which it further differs by having 3 pairs of precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal versus 2 pairs of precloacal, 2 pairs of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae in the vulva position and in the shape of the eggs. Skrjabinura vali (Guerrero, 1971) Chabaud, 1978, originally described in Piaya cayana from Venezuela, occurs in the small intestine of P. cayana, as well as the new hosts, Crotophaga sulcirostris and Myiarchus tyrannulus, in the ACG, a new locality. Our specimens differ from the original description in the body length of the female, the numbers of postanal papillae of male tail, and the size of eggs.

  19. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  20. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Data on survival with mucosal melanoma and on prognostic factors of are scarce. It is still unclear if the disease course allows for mucosal melanoma to be treated as primary cutaneous melanoma or if differences in overall survival patterns require adapted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, this investigation is the first to present 10-year survival rates for mucosal melanomas of different anatomical localizations.116 cases from Sep 10 1984 until Feb 15 2011 retrieved from the Comprehensive Cancer Center and of the Central Register of the German Dermatologic Society databases in Tübingen were included in our analysis. We recorded anatomical location and tumor thickness, and estimated overall survival at 2, 5 and 10 years and the mean overall survival time. Survival times were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival times by localizations and by T-stages.We found a median overall survival time of 80.9 months, with an overall 2-year survival of 71.7%, 5-year survival of 55.8% and 10-year survival of 38.3%. The 10-year survival rates for patients with T1, T2, T3 or T4 stage tumors were 100.0%, 77.9%, 66.3% and 10.6% respectively. 10-year survival of patients with melanomas of the vulva was 64.5% in comparison to 22.3% of patients with non-vulva mucosal melanomas.Survival times differed significantly between patients with melanomas of the vulva compared to the rest (p = 0.0006. It also depends on T-stage at the time of diagnosis (p < 0.0001.

  1. Receptivity of female Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae): different strategies to maximize their reproductive success in contrasting habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, María Paz; Luppi, Tomás; Gavio, María Andrea; Vallina, Micaela; McLay, Colin

    2012-12-01

    The extent of the receptive period may determine the mating strategies employed by female crabs to obtain mates. Here, we studied the receptivity of female Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) in the laboratory, including the form of the vulvae and the anatomy of the seminal receptacle (SR). We examined the factors that influence the duration of receptivity by comparing two populations inhabiting contrasting habitats: Mar Chiquita Coastal lagoon (MCL), which is an oligo-polyhaline estuary, and San Antonio Oeste (SAO), which is an eu-hyperhaline marine bay. Non-receptive females have immobile vulva opercula, while receptive females have mobile opercula. Histological sections of the SR showed that the degree of epithelium secretions was associated with the receptive stage of females, and they may be involved in the maintenance of viable sperm and in the dehiscence of spermatophores. The existence of a special tissue at the junction of the oviduct and the SR was described and proposed as an internal mechanism influencing the timing of ovulation. The duration of receptivity was dependent on the SR load and the capacity to lay eggs. Thus, females with empty SR exhibited longer receptivity and did not lay eggs, while those with full SR exhibited shorter receptivity and always laid eggs. Interpopulation differences showed that females from SAO had shorter receptivity and heavier SR and laid eggs more frequently than females from MCL. Based on our results, we suggest that N. granulata females can adjust the duration of their receptivity and control the moment of fertilization according to different internal mechanisms related to the morphology of the vulvae, the fullness of the SR and anatomical attributes of the SR. An important consequence of this control is greater sperm competition. The extent of the receptive period and the number of times that a female could become receptive in a single reproductive season may also depend on the habitat characteristics.

  2. Treatment of 67 Cases of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 张利; 王鹰雷; 黄国琪

    2010-01-01

    @@ Seasonal allergic rhinitis refers to a seasonal and regional allergic disease induced mainly by botanical pollen,also termed "Hay Fever" and "Pollinosis",clinically manifested by the main symptoms of itching sensation in the nose,nasal obstruction,sneezing,watery nasal discharge,conjunctival congestion,itching in the eyes,lacrimation,and asthma developed from an incessant cough in some people,or manifested by the gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea,vomiting,abdominal pain,and diarrhea,and skin eczema,urticaria,pruritus vulvae,vaginitis.The author treated 67 cases of seasonal allergic rhinitis by acupuncture from 2002 to 2004.Now,the result is summarized as follows.

  3. Resection and Reconstruction of Maxillary Class IIIc Defect in a Case of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Cost-Sensitive Technique without Microvascular Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarkadas Adwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ACC is a rare malignant tumor that affects most commonly the major and minor salivary glands and rarely the paranasal sinuses, lacrimal gland, larynx, ear, vulva, and so forth. The maxillary sinus when affected is considered having a poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis and delayed treatment credited to its slow spread, late symptoms, and complex anatomy which hampers surgical resection. The expressions of tumor markers too have a significant role in determining the prognosis. The treatment of choice consists of wide radical resection of the tumor followed by radiotherapy. Rehabilitation options in cases with huge maxillary defects still need further exploration.

  4. Factor analysis and cluster analysis research on the relationship between the trace elements of flowers of Gentianaceae plants and the traditional Chinese medicine efficacy from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-06-01

    Flowers of Gentianaceae plants have historically been used in treating gastritis, dysuria, pruritus vulvae and detoxification. Gentianaceae plants have medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic arthritis, pneumonia along with cough, chronic gastritis, et al Therefore, the research on the relationship between human health and trace elements of flowers of Gentianaceae plants is of great significance. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational relation development of Gentianaceae plants resources as well as the relationship between the race elements of them and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy.

  5. Cell fate patterning during C. elegans vulval development

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Russell J.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    1993-01-01

    Precursor cells of the vulva of the C. elegans hermaphrodite choose between two vulval cell fates (1° and 2°) and a non-vulval epidermal fate (3°) in response to three intercellular signals. An inductive signal produced by the anchor cell induces the vulval precursors to assume the 1° and 2° vulval fates. This inductive signal is an EGF-like growth factor encoded by the gene lin-3. An inhibitory signal mediated by lin-15, and which may originate from the surrounding epidermis, prevents the vu...

  6. Detección citológica inusual de huevos de Enterobius vermicularis en orina y en frotis cervicouterino

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Nery; Hospital Nacional Docente San Bartolomé, Lima, Perú; Vargas, Marlene; Hospital Nacional Docente San Bartolomé, Lima, Perú

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La parasitosis por Enterobius vermicularis es frecuente en el tracto intestinal en niños; en adultos es infrecuente, pero más infrecuente aún son las afecciones extraintestinales. Se ha comunicado infecciones raras formando nódulos granulomatosos en hígado, pulmón, ovario, vulva, epiplón, piel, periné, formando abscesos tubo- ováricos, pélvicos y subcutáneos; así mismo, produciendo lesiones en riñón, ojo, glándula submandibular, próstata y mucosa nasal. Algunos casos se presenta...

  7. [Factors related to perineal trauma in normal births in nulliparous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabotto, Leila Barreto; Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez

    2006-09-01

    Many studies have been undertaken with the purpose of contributing towards the prevention of perineal trauma in normal birth. The objective of this study was to relate height of the perineum, duration of the second stage of labor, variation of the position of the head detaching, kind of effort, presence of the umbilical cord around the babies' neck, birth weight and vulva's ardor to urinate with the occurrence of perineal laceration. The study was undertaken in 2003 at the Normal Birth Center of the Amparo Maternal, with a sample consisting of 67 women in labor without previous vaginal births. The results demonstrated that there were no significant statistical differences between the variables verified.

  8. Manejo de la vulvodinia con terapia neural / Management of vulvodynia with neural therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La vulvodinia es una patología compleja, de causa desconocida y de difícil tratamiento. Se define como un disconfort crónico de la vulva, entendido como dolor, ardor, prurito, quemazón, sensación de inflamación, dispareunia e irritación de la piel vulvar, que puede ser generalizado o localizado. Se estima una prevalencia de un 15%, con unas 14 millones de mujeres que lo padecen en EEUU. Generalmente consultan múltiples veces y a diferentes médicos, antes de llegar a un diagnóstico. No existen...

  9. VULVODINIA: UN DIAGNÓSTICO OLVIDADO FRENTE AL DOLOR VULVAR

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La vulvodinia es una patología compleja y de difícil tratamiento. Se define como un dolor crónico de la vulva, que puede ser generalizado o localizado. La primera vez que se escribe sobre esta fue en 1889, por Skene. Sin embargo, es sólo hasta 1976, que los miembros de la International Society for Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases, reconocieron el dolor vulvar como una entidad patológica. Se estima una prevalencia de un 15%, con unas 14 millones de mujeres que lo padecen en EEUU. Generalmente co...

  10. [Congenital recto-vaginal fistula associated with a normal anus (type H fistula) and rectal atresia in a patient. Report of a case and a brief revision of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Jesús Ángel; Parodi Hueck, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Congenital recto-urogenital type fistulas with a normal anus and rectal atresia, represent both anorectal malformations that are infrequently seen in clinical practice. We describe the case of a girl with an association of these two anomalies, together with a double vagina who, on her seventh day of life, expelled feces through her genitals. The malformations were corrected by means of a posterior sagittal approach, descending from the rectum to the anus without perineal dissection. The vaginal septum was resected thru the vulva. There is no evidence of recurrence of the recto-vaginal fistula.

  11. Actualización del diagnóstico y tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial vulvar.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael E. Pérez Castro

    2011-01-01

    La Neoplasia Intraepitelial Vulvar (NIV) constituye lesiones potencialmente premalignas del epitelio escamoso de la vulva con diversos grados de diferenciación celular y maduración. En el aspecto histológico son hiperplasia de las células basales y parabasales, además tienen características genéticas morfológicas y metabólicas similares a las células cancerosas. Son etapas previas a la enfermedad. Generalmente las NIV se diagnostican como lesiones de alto grado (NIV I, II y III) o carcinoma i...

  12. Rhizonema sequoiae n.gen. n.sp. from Coast Redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado Vera, I C; Lownsbery, B F; Maggenti, A R

    1983-07-01

    Rhizonema sequoiae n.gen, u. sp. is described from the roots of Coast Redwood, Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl., growing near Lake Lagunitas, Marin County, California. Rhizonema females are annulated over their entire bodies, are wholly embedded in host tissue, and secrete an abundant amount of gel material. Mature females do not form a cyst. The vulva is located on a large posterior terminal cone, and the anus is on the dorsal vulval lip. Esophageal glands of the second-stage larvae fill more than half of the body cavity. Tails of the vermiform males are blunt, and a cloacal tubus is present.

  13. A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%, scabies (22.4% and eczema (17.6% were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%, popular urticaria with insect bite (4%, vitiligo (3.4%, miliaria (2.8%, nevus (1.6%. Other dermatoses (8% were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, angular stomatitis, pruritus vulvae, psoriasis, candidiasis, condylomatalata, fixed drug relation, tinea capitis and corporis, phrynoderma, alopecia areata, phimosis, geographic tongue, trichotillomania, canitis, pediculosis, hypertrophic scar and pityriasis versicolor.

  14. Vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delir, S; Handjani, F; Emad, M; Ardehali, S

    1999-07-01

    Myiasis is a condition resulting from the invasion of tissues or organs of man or animals by the larvae of dipterous flies. The distribution of myiasis is worldwide, with more cases being reported from tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate areas. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from an entomological or a clinical point of view. This report describes a rare case of vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica in an otherwise healthy 20-year-old Iranian female. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous myiasis of the vulva due to W. magnifica from Iran and the Middle East region.

  15. Vulvar lactating adenoma associated to a fibroadenoma: common neoplasms in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaoui, Amen; Nfoussi, Haifa; Kchir, Nidhameddine; Haouet, Slim

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign (fibroadenoma) or malignant pathologic processes. Less than forty cases of fibroadenomas have been reported in the literature. Although lactation changes can occur, lactating adenoma in the vulva are extremely rare. Only four cases have been reported. We report a case of a young woman who presented with vulvar mass during her lactation. The mass was excised, and histology confirmed vulvar lactating adenoma associated with fibroadenoma. This is the first case of vulvar heterotopic breast lesion associating lactating adenoma and fibroadenoma.

  16. La aplicación de un protocolo de cribado de cáncer anal en población de riesgo permite diagnosticar y tratar precozmente las lesiones precursoras

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Ortega, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    La infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) es la enfermedad de transmisión sexual (ETS) más extendida en el mundo. La fuerte evidencia del VPH como agente causal en los cánceres de cuello uterino, pene, vulva, vagina, ano y oro-faringe la destaca la Agencia Internacional para la Investigación del Cáncer. Se ha producido un auge de la patología relacionada con el VPH a nivel anal. Ha aumentado en nuestro medio de la incidencia del cáncer anal en poblaciones de riesgo (inmunodeprimidos...

  17. El estado del arte en las infecciones producidas por el virus del papiloma humano

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Reina; Nubia Muñoz; Gloria Inés Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    La infección anogenital por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) es la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en todo el mundo. En los humanos se han identificado alrededor de 100 genotipos de los cuales unos 40 infectan la región ano-genital. Los 15 genotipos de alto riesgo, son causa necesaria del cáncer cervical y han sido implicados como agentes carcinogénicos de la vulva, vagina, pene, ano y región orofaríngea. Los VPH de bajo riesgo producen las verrugas genitales (condilomas) y la...

  18. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  19. Relación del nivel de alimentación, cambio de jaula y ayuno con el comportamiento reproductivo de conejas nulíparas nueva zelanda blanco y californiana

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamín Gómez Ramos; Raymundo Rodríguez de Lara; Carlos M. Becerril Pérez; Glafiro Torres Hernández; Arturo Pro Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Se utilizaron 139 registros de 43 conejas nulíparas Nueva Zelanda Blanco (NZB) y 46 hembras Californianas (CAL) para determinar la relación del nivel de alimentación (alto vs bajo), cambio de jaula (sí vs no), ayuno (sí vs no) y raza (NZB vs CAL) en el comportamiento reproductivo. Se estudiaron el color de la vulva, receptividad, tasa de gestación y tamaño de camada al nacimiento (TCN). Los datos se analizaron con un arreglo factorial 24 mediante la metodología de modelos mixtos. En el nivel ...

  20. Hysteroscopy and episiotomy in a rescued, cold-stressed Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for diagnosis and treatment of a retained fetal skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie H; Walsh, Mike; DeLuca, Catherine; Bukoski, Alex

    2012-09-01

    A rescued female manatee was observed expelling a fetal bone from the vulva. The manatee was anesthetized and diagnosed with uterine retention of a fetal skeleton by ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Episiotomy was performed to gain manual access to the vagina and uterus for removal of the skeleton. Second intention healing of the episiotomy site produced excellent results. Rescued female manatees should receive a thorough reproductive tract evaluation since presence of retained fetal tissues might not be evident in blood or hormone analyses. Retention of a whole or partial dead fetus can be life-threatening to manatees, and retained tissues should be removed as early as possible.

  1. A clinical and investigational study of donovanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeranna S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A clinical and investigational study of 25 cases of Donovanosis was undertaken. The incidence was found to be 1.53% of all STD cases and 2.9% of GUD. M:F ratio was 2.12:1. Incidence was more in unmarried people. Fleshy exuberant type was seen in 88% of cases. Two patients (8% had extragenital ulcers. Donovan bodies were found in 88%. Pseudo elephantiasis was seen in 8 patients. Biopsy was done in 8 cases and showed ocanthosis, plasma cell infiltration and pseudo epitheliomatous hyperplasia. One patient developed squamous cell carcinoma of vulva.

  2. A RARE CASE OF SCAR ENDOMETRIOSIS FOLLOWING EPISIOTOMY

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    Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as ectopic presence of endometrial glands and stroma. It mainly affects pelvic peritoneal surfaces, ovaries and uterine ligaments. Even it can rarely affect vulva, vagina or perineum secondary to obstetric and surgical trauma. We are presenting a case of scar endometriosis following episiotomy in a woman with a positive history and classical physical findings who underwent wide surgical excision. The recovery was good with excellent functional results. The optimal management is wide surgical excision with additional tissue pathology to reduce recurrence and rule out malignancy.

  3. Pre-expanded Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Sharon E; Webster, Nicholas D; Wong, Stacy; Saint-Cyr, Michel H

    2017-01-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap can be used to cover large defects of the proximal lower extremity, abdominal wall, perineum, vulva, and buttock. Pre-expanding DIEP flaps cause a possible delay phenomenon improving vascularity, decrease donor site morbidity, and increase the area that can be covered. Pre-expansion requires staged procedures, has risk of extrusion and infection, causes temporary contour deformity during the expansion process, and requires a longer course. Pre-expanded DIEP flaps can be a useful flap with proper patient selection and planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolated Vaginal Neurofibroma Presenting as Vaginal Wall Cyst: A Rare Case Report With Review of Literature

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    Sarita Nibhoria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromas commonly involve peripheral nervous system. Isolated neurofibroma of vagina is very rare tumor and usually associated with Von Recklinghausen’s disease. Vulva is the most frequent location of neurofibroma of genital tract followed by clitoris and labia. We present a rare case of neurofibroma of vaginal wall presented as vaginal cyst in a 52 year old female with no history of any other symptoms related to Recklinghausen’s disease. Excision biopsy was done and on the histopathological examination non-encapsulated, well circumscribed mass composed of spindle shaped cells with wavy nuclei and bland nuclear chromatin was noted. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positivity with S-100.

  5. Angiokeratoma of clitoris: a rare lesion in an adolescent girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğiter, Murat; Arda, Irfan Serdar; Tosun, Emine; Celik, Mustafa; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2008-04-01

    Angiokeratoma is a benign vascular lesion. It is the result of dilation of ectatic subdermal vessels and congested capillaries. Weakness of the vessel walls, either from acquired or congenital reasons, can cause formation of the lesion. Angiokeratoma is more common in males, in whom it forms on the scrotal wall. An equivalent form can occur in females, generally on the vulva. The clitoris is an extremely rare location. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with a clitoral angiokeratoma. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of clitoral angiokeratoma in a child in English published reports.

  6. Sclerosing ductal carcinoma of the clitoris with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Nefertiti C; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ries, Savita; Berman, Michael L

    2009-03-01

    Primary clitoral malignancies are rare and most are invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is an indolent, rare dermatologic carcinoma that typically affects the head and neck region. A 23-year-old nulligravid Hispanic female presented with a 9-month history of an enlarging periclitoral mass. After surgical resection, the mass was diagnosed as a MAC. MAC is a cutaneous carcinoma rarely found on the vulva. It is a slow growing but locally aggressive carcinoma that is best treated with surgical resection. Sclerosing ductal carcinomas may have MAC-like features, and the diagnosis and management of one case is provided here.

  7. Diagnóstico de cistos ovarianos pela palpação de ultra-sonografia transretal em fêmeas suínas: relato de dois casos clínicos

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    Carlos Henrique Cabral Viana

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiopathology and semiology concepts were reviewed and two clinical reports, one of them not showing symptoms, were described for the USP swine herd at Pirassununga, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ovarian cysts in both ovaries were detected by rectal palpation in the sow showing infertility, irregular heat, vulva and clitoris edema. Ovarian cysts in the left ovary were noticeable through rectal palpation in the sow that showed no symptoms. Ovarian cysts visualization and characterization size and degree of lutheinization was possible using ultra-sonography. Post-mortem macro evaluation of the lesion confirmed these observations.

  8. Wulwodynia – problem interdyscyplinarny dotyczący także kobiet pomenopauzalnych

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    Ewa Baszak-Radomańska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wulwodynia is defined as a discomfort or pain in the entrance to the vagina, urethra, perineum or anuswithout perceptible pathological changes. Postmenopausal women often experience vaginal dryness (45%,and burning (10%, whereas pain during sexual intercourse feels 1/3 of women after menopause (provokedwulwodynia. Differences in the management of patient with post-menopausal wulwodynia is getting a biopsyof the vulva in justified cases, which is obviously not necessary in the vulvar pain patients of childbearing age.Another difference is that the most effective treatment consisting of local estrogenotherapy. The article presentsthe spectrum of therapeutic intervention.

  9. Uterine endometrial polyp with severe hemorrhage and cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Springer, Nora; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2010-05-01

    The current report describes an unusual presentation of uterine endometrial polyp with severe hemorrhage and cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in a 9.5-year-old female Doberman Pinscher. The dog presented with a 2-day history of bloody discharge from the vulva and an enlarged abdomen. The postmortem examination revealed a markedly distended right uterine horn with a large pedunculated mass (17 cm x 9 cm x 4 cm) and blood. Based on the histological findings, the diagnosis of uterine endometrial polyp was made.

  10. A hermaphrodite dog with bilateral ovotestes and pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    Hermaphroditism was identified in a 3-year-old American Cocker spaniel with an enlarged os clitoridis that was shown as reddish finger-like structure protruding from the vulva. The urethral orifice was located cranially to the base of the os clitoridis. The gonads were situated caudal to the kidneys at the cranial tips of the uterine horns, and were composed mainly of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells and had ovarian follicles in the cortices. The uterus was enlarged and revealed pyometra. Gross and histopathological findings of the dog suggested hermaphroditism with bilateral ovotestes and pyometra. PMID:16434857

  11. Nematode parasites of Brazilian piciformes birds: a general survey with description of Procyrnea anterovulvata n. sp. (Habronematoidea, Habronematidae

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty species of nematodes recovered from Piciformes hosts are reported. Procyrnea anterovulvata n. sp. from Chelidoptera tenebrosa brasiliensis is described and compared to P. colaptes and P. pileata. The considered morphometric parameters are mainly related to the ratio between length of the body/distance of the vulva to the anterior end. It is approximately 1:0.5 in P. colaptes and P. pileata compared to 1:0.1 in the new species. The male of Synhimantus (Dispharynx crassissima is described for the first time. Thelazia (Thelaziella spizaeti is revalidated and new records are reported for some species.

  12. Vulvar Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoummane, Nadia; Guimeya, Cyriane; Lipombi, Dominique; Gielen, François

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytoses (LCH) are a rare group of disorders that comprise a large spectrum of diseases initially known as histiocytosis X. In this case report, we relate a case of LCH affecting the vulva of a 47-year-old female. The patient presented since 3 years with a vulvar lesion characterized by non-healing ulcers and a perineal granuloma on which she underwent surgery. Professionals should keep in mind not to treat straightforwardly lesions of the genital tract as simple sexually transmitted diseases. Chronic, atypical genital lesions seen in women need to be worked up and dealt with accordingly. PMID:25404979

  13. A new genus and species of Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasitic in Delomys dorsalis (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M

    2014-10-01

    Alippistrongylus bicaudatus gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) is described from the striped Atlantic forest rat, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel) (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), from the province of Misiones in Argentina. The new genus and species is characterised by a synlophe of 21 unequal ridges in both sexes without a gradient in size, with two ridges weakly sclerotised and oriented perpendicularly in the dorsal left quadrant; males with a highly dissymmetrical bursa with a hypertrophied right lobe, and females with a dorsal conical appendage just posterior to the vulva, conferring a two-tailed appearance to the female worms.

  14. Megaphyllum silvaticum (Verhoeff, 1898 (Diplopoda: Julida, a new species to the Hungarian millipede fauna, with notes on the status of M. s. discolor (Verhoeff, 1907 and on their relationship to M. projectum Verhoeff, 1894

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    Lazányi, E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species Megaphyllum silvaticum (Verhoeff, 1898 was found in the Aggtelek National Park, northeasternHungary, as new to the millipede fauna of the country. A short review on the male and female genital morphology anddistribution of M. silvaticum, M. s. discolor (Verhoeff, 1907 and M. projectum Verhoeff, 1894 is given. According to ourobservation the subspecies discolor should be regarded only a variation with no taxonomical value. Although the male gonopodsof M. silvaticum and M. projectum are really close to each other, the different female vulvae, observed and illustrated here for thefirst time, justify their separate specific status.

  15. True hermaphroditism in a St. Lawrence beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guise, S; Lagacé, A; Béland, P

    1994-04-01

    A hermaphrodite beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) was found in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. This animal had two testicles, two separate ovaries, and the complete ducts of each sex; cervix, vagina and vulva were absent. Mature spermatozoa were found in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in the testicles, and numerous involuted corpora lutea were recognized in the ovaries. This represents the first case of true hermaphroditism in a cetacean, and is the fourth hermaphrodite mammal with two testicles and two separate ovaries.

  16. Vulvar malignant melanoma: a rare tumor with worse prognosis

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    Swati Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, which has a highly malignant potential, is a tumor of the skin and mucosal membranes. Malignant melanomas of the female genital tract, including the vulva and vagina, are rare. Their overall prognosis is worse. A 75 year old woman presented with complaint of growth in vulvar region since 4 months. There was history of itching in vulvar region over growth. Surgery is still the best available treatment for the control and potential cure of malignant melanomas [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 494-496

  17. Koilocytes in urinary cytology in a patient with kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo

    2008-05-01

    We are reporting the case of a 17-year-old girl with kidney transplant under immunosuppressive treatment. Evidences of transplant malfunction led to urinary cytology to rule out BKV infection. The smears showed the presence of koilocytes. Gynecologic examination revealed numerous condylomatous lesions in the vulva, vagina, and cervix. PAP smears showed cells with moderate to severe koilocytic dysplasia. PCR performed on material retrieved from both the smears showed HPV18 DNA sequences. Koilocytes have rarely been documented in urinary cytologic examination. Since post-transplant immunosuppressed patients are prone to develop florid and extensive HPV infections, urinary cytology may prove useful for routine search of cells with this virus cytopathic effect.

  18. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence

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    Shikha Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter.

  19. Verruciform xanthoma of the penis:report of a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏同礼; 李贵忠; 那彦群; 郭应禄

    2004-01-01

    @@ Verruciform xanthoma, a rare and benign lesion that was first described by Shafer1 in 1971, occurs mainly in the oral mucosa, but extra-oral involvement includes the vulva,2,3 scrotum,4,5 penis,6-15 anal region16 and extremities.17,18 With sessile or pedunculated growth this lesion is small, asymptomatic, yellow-brown or red-orange in color, and flat. Clinically, verruciform xanthoma is likely to be misdiagnosed as papillomas and occasionally as verrucous or squamous cell carcinoma. It has a benign course and good prognosis. We report a case of verruciform xanthoma that occurred in the penis, a very rare location.

  20. Vulvar procedures: biopsy, bartholin abscess treatment, and condyloma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Edward J; Cooper, Danielle

    2013-12-01

    Several benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions may arise on the vulva, and multiple types of procedures may be used to diagnose and treat these conditions. Punch and shave biopsies may be used to diagnose most vulvar conditions, but lesions suspected of being melanomas may best be diagnosed with narrow-margin excisional biopsies. Bartholin gland cysts and abscesses may be treated with several different treatment modalities, the most common of which are fistulization and marsupialization. Genital warts may be treated with several medical and surgical modalities to relieve symptoms.

  1. Description of a new Pratylenchus species from China (Tylenchida, Pratylenchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Xiao-Song; Chen, Li-Jie; Duan, Yu-Xi

    2013-10-01

    Pratylenchus ekrami from maize (Zea mays) roots in Shenyang and luffa (Luffa cylindrica) roots in Dalian, China, are described in this paper. Nematodes from the two areas were identified consistently, and were characterized by a heavy cephalic sclerotization, extending posteriorly up to two body annuli, stylet 11-13 μm long, elongating conoid tail, and becoming thinner from vulva. Males were not found. Pratylenchus ekrami is close to Pratylenchus vulnus, but the most critical characteristics between the two species were the number of lip annuli, stylet size, and shape of stylet knobs. This species is the first reported in China.

  2. Pudendal nerve block for vaginal birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Pudendal nerve block is a safe and effective pain relief method for vaginal birth. Providing analgesia to the vulva and anus, it is used for operative vaginal birth and subsequent repair, late second stage pain relief with spontaneous vaginal birth, repair of complex lacerations, or repair of lacerations in women who are unable to achieve adequate or satisfactory pain relief during perineal repair with local anesthesia. Key to its efficacy is the knowledge of pudendal nerve anatomy, the optimal point of infiltration of local anesthetic, and an understanding of the amount of time necessary to effect adequate analgesia.

  3. Generalized lichen sclerosis et atrophicus:a case report%泛发性硬化性萎缩性苔藓1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁颖; 谭雪晶

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with generalized patchy rashes on her trunk for 4 years and a porcelain white plaque in vulva for 3 years. Biopsy specimens from the vulva and chest showed hyperkeratosis in epidermis, vacuolar degeneration in basal layer, edema and homogenization of the collagen in the upper dermis, indicating the diagnosis of lichen sclerosis et atrophicus. The patients reported a past history of hypo-thyroidism and multisystemic chronic inflammatory diseases.%患者,女,61岁。躯干泛发斑片状皮疹4年,外阴瓷白色斑块3年。外阴部及前胸部病理检查示:表皮角化过度,基底层液化变性,真皮浅层胶原纤维水肿、均质化,考虑为硬化性萎缩性苔藓。患者既往有甲状腺功能减低及多系统慢性炎症疾病。

  4. Electrosurgical operation of vulvar carcinoma with postoperative irradiation of inguinal lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, H.; Weghaupt, K.

    1988-02-01

    The results of treatment in the department of 607 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva between 1952 and 1980 is described and analyzed. The absolute 5-year cure rate in these patients was 60.3%. Particular attention was given to lymph node status (TNM system) in the analysis of the last 141 patients treated. The absolute 5-year survival rate was 67% for the N0-N1 patients and 43% for the N2-N3 patients. Patients were treated uniformly by means of electrosurgical operation and postactinic irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Operative lymphadenectomy was performed only in 5% of cases when the diameter of inguinal lymph nodes was greater than 2 cm. This simple surgical technique, in combination with irradiation of inguinal lymph nodes, gives excellent results and avoids the complications associated with inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy. Owing to its combination of electrosurgical operation of the vulva and irradiation of the inguinal regions as a standard procedure, the treatment involves extremely low strain on the patient and is almost free of complications. This seems to be particularly important as the results of our treatment are not less satisfactory than those of more aggressive procedures.

  5. Carcinoma vulvar

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    Yamit Peñas Zayas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes  de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico  de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel,  motivo la presentación del caso.

  6. Gene expression markers for Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Sherwood, David R; Aspöck, Gudrun; Butler, James A; Gupta, Bhagwati P; Kirouac, Martha; Wang, Minqin; Lee, Pei-Yun; Kramer, James M; Hope, Ian; Bürglin, Thomas R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2002-12-01

    The analysis of cell fate patterning during the vulval development of Caenorhabditis elegans has relied mostly on the direct observation of cell divisions and cell movements (cell lineage analysis). However, reconstruction of the developing vulva from EM serial sections has suggested seven different cell types (vulA, vulB1, vulB2, vulC, vulD, vulE, and vulF), many of which cannot be distinguished based on such observations. Here we report the vulval expression of seven genes, egl-17, cdh-3, ceh-2, zmp-1, B0034.1, T04B2.6 and F47B8.6 based on gfp, cfp and yfp (green fluorescent protein and color variants) reporter fusions. Each gene expresses in a specific subset of vulval cells, and is therefore useful as a marker for vulval cell fates. Together, expressions of markers distinguish six cell types, and reveal a strict temporal control of gene expression in the developing vulva.

  7. Coordinated morphogenesis of epithelia during development of the Caenorhabditis elegans uterine-vulval connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A P; Sternberg, P W

    1996-01-01

    Development of the nematode egg-laying system requires the formation of a connection between the uterine lumen and the developing vulval lumen, thus allowing a passage for eggs and sperm. This relatively simple process serves as a model for certain aspects of organogenesis. Such a connection demands that cells in both tissues become specialized to participate in the connection, and that the specialized cells are brought in register. A single cell, the anchor cell, acts to induce and to organize specialization of the epidermal and uterine epithelia, and registrates these tissues. The inductions act via evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathways. The anchor cell induces the vulva from ventral epithelial cells via the LIN-3 growth factor and LET-23 transmembrane tyrosine kinase. It then induces surrounding uterine intermediate precursors via the receptor LIN-12, a founding member of the Notch family of receptors. Both signaling pathways are used multiple times during development of Caenorhabditis elegans. The outcome of the signaling is context-dependent. Both inductions are reciprocated. After the anchor cell has induced the vulva, it stretches toward the induced vulval cells. After the anchor cell has induced specialized uterine intermediate precursor cells, it fuses with a subset of their progeny. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8790329

  8. Polarized hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo detection of vulvar lichen sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yingjie; Ren, Wenqi; Liu, Songde; Liu, Peng; Xie, Lan; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Shiwu; Chang, Shufang; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosis (VLS) is a chronic, inflammatory and mucocutaneous disease of extragenital skin, which often goes undetected for years. The underlying causes are associated with the decrease of VEGF that reduces the blood oxygenation of vulva and the structural changes in the collagen fibrils, which can lead to scarring of the affected area. However, few methods are available for quantitative detection of VLS. Clinician's examinations are subjective and may lead to misdiagnosis. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive detection of VLS. In this paper, we developed a polarized, hyperspectral imaging system for quantitative assessment. The system utilized a hyperspectral camera to collect the reflectance images of the entire vulva under Xenon lamp illumination with and without a polarizer in front of the fiber. One image (Ipar) acquired with the AOTF parallel to the polarization of illumination and the other image (Iper) acquired with the AOTF perpendicular to the illumination. This paper compares polarized images of VLS in a pilot clinical study. The collected reflectance data under Xenon lamp illumination without a polarizer are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. An IRB approved clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the clinical utility for VLS detection. Our pilot study has demonstrated the technical potential of using this polarized hyperspectral imaging system for in vivo detection of vulvar lichen sclerosis.

  9. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  10. Changes In Men’s Salivary Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And In Sexual Desire After Smelling Female Axillary And Vulvar Scents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eMondragón-Ceballos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60 and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  11. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

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    D. Wijayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively. Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina. Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2 orally.

  12. A Rare Case of Vulvar Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Review of the Literature

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    Didem Didar Balcı

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH of the vulva is rare. A 32 year-old woman presented with a two year history of non-healing vulvar ulceration and a nine month history of ulcerative nodular lesion in the left inguinal region. Biopsy results of the vulva and inguinal lesions were consistent with LCH. Screening of the body systems revealed hepatosplenomegaly, iliac, inguinal, paraaortic lymph nodes and lung involvement. She was treated with systemic steroid, resulting in complete improvement of vulvar lesion. She also underwent a local excision of left inguinal lesion. Three months later, we found a lesion on her left inguinal region that was consistent with a recurrence and enlargement in the lymph nodes. Therefore, high dose systemic steroid therapy and then a 12-session radyotherapy were given. After the treatment, a complete improvement was obtained. A 1-year of systemic methotrexate therapy was recommended to prevent recurrence of the disease. In women with vulvar ulcer, LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Xiphinema llanosum and Trophurus vultus, Two New Plant Nematode Species from Pasture Soils in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, M R; Lenne, J M

    1990-07-01

    Xiphinema llanosum n. sp. and Trophurus vultus n. sp. are described and illustrated from grass soils in Llanos Orientales, Colombia. Xiphinema llanosum is a bisexual species. The female body length is 2.3-2.7 mm, odontostyle 86-96 mum, and odontophore 58-65 mum long; vulva at 42-47%; anterior ovary is absent; the anterior uterus and oviduct are similar to the posterior branch but slightly reduced; and the tail is dorsally convex-conoid with a blunt hemispherical terminus. Male body length is 2.06-2.96 mm; spicules are 40-44 mum long; and four (rarely three or five) anterior ventromedian supplementary papillae are present. Trophurus vultus females are 0.52-0.67 mm long; vulva at 56-60%; stylet is 10.5-13.5 mum long; isthmus is as long as the basal esophageal bulb; the tail is subclavate, 1.6-2.2 times anal body width long; and the terminal cuticle thickness is about one-sixth of the tail length.

  14. Vulvar Pyogenic Granuloma in a Postmenopausal Woman: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Cemgil Arikan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although pyogenic granulomas (PG are common and benign vascular proliferations of the skin and mucous membranes, they are relatively rare on the vulva. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old G7P7 postmenopausal woman presented with a 3-year history of a foul smell and bleeding lesions in the genital region. A gynecologic examination revealed multiple large papillomatous, pedunculated, and lobulated lesions that were cherry-red and infective in appearance. There was a 2-cm lesion at the upper intersection of the labia majora, a 2-cm lesion on the right labium majus, and a 4-cm lesion on the clitoris. The patient complained of itching, and the lesions were asymptomatic, except for occasional bleeding. All lesions were excised and sent for histopathological examination, which revealed an ulcerated polypoidal structure with extensive proliferation of vascular channels lined by a single layer of endothelium. The histopathological features were consistent with PG. Conclusion. The present case is the first case of multiple pyogenic granulomas on the vulva in a postmenopausal woman.

  15. Metastatic low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of clitoris: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, A; Papathomas, T G; Alexandrou, P; Lazaris, A C

    2007-01-01

    Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon neoplasm, which has a highly recurrent nature. A review of the literature revealed that only one case of low-grade ESS, arising within the vulva from a focus of endometriosis, has been previously published. We describe an additional case of low-grade ESS arising within the vulva and to the best of our knowledge the first report of low-grade ESS metastasized to clitoris. A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to a heavy uterine bleeding. A physical examination revealed a lesion in clitoris, which exhibited a densely cellular mesenchymal neoplasm on microscopy. On the basis of the pathologic features alone, a differential diagnosis of a low-grade ESS and cellular leiomyoma was considered. Seven months later, the patient presented again with excessive uterine bleeding and a total hysterectomy was performed. A tumor of white-tan, whorled appearance was found. Its features were suggestive of low-grade ESS. Taking into account the possible extrauterine location of an ESS and reviewing the first case, a diagnosis of rare low-grade ESS metastasized to clitoris was made.

  16. 外涂花椒油治疗脑梗死后尿失禁病人外阴部皮肤损伤的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹生燕; 王颖

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价花椒油治疗外阴部皮肤损伤患者的疗效。方法:将24例外阴部皮肤损伤患者给予常规皮肤护理外涂花椒油治疗,1个疗程(3天)后对患者皮肤情况进行评定。结果:患者治疗后皮肤情况均有明显改善。结论:外涂花椒油治疗外阴部皮肤损伤效果肯定,能有效的改善患者皮肤状况,减轻患者的痛苦。%Objective: to evaluate the treatment effect by using pepper oil coated to the patients who have injuries on the skin of vulva. Method: to give 24 patients who have injuries on the skin of vulva normal skin nursing with pepper oil coated to their skin and to valuate the effects of their skin recovering after 1 treatment period (3 days).Result: showing the obvious improvement on their skin after the treatment. Conclusion: giving the positive results from the treatment by improving the condition of the skin of the patients and by relieving the pain of the patients.

  17. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  18. Methods of estrus detection and correlates of the reproductive cycle in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Cheryl; Kyes, Randall; Hunt, Kathleen; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Wasser, Samuel K

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to explore multiple methods for detecting and characterizing the reproductive cycle of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Thirteen H. m. euryspilus females, loaned from the Malaysian government to US zoos, were used. Fecal metabolite concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were compared to vaginal cytology, changes in genital appearance, and behavior (videotapes and zookeeper observations). Cytology and video behavior were characterized during five hormonally defined states: high, low, and baseline progesterone, estrus, and high estrogen. Among states, there were significant differences in cytology and behavior. Sexual, affiliative, and stereotypic behaviors were highest during estrus, whereas affiliative and social behaviors were lowest during high progesterone. In this captive breeding population, 30.8% of females cycled two or three times a year, 30.8% cycled once a year, and 38.5% did not cycle during this study. Inter-estrus intervals were (mean ± SEM) 115.7 ± 6.3 d (range, 101-131). Spearman rank correlations were significant between both ordinal sexual and affiliative behaviors and vulva swelling and color. Sexual behavior was significantly positively correlated with superficial and keratinized cells, but negatively correlated with parabasal and basophilic cells in cycling females (opposite pattern for appetitive behavior). In conclusion, data for cytology, vulva changes and behavior were consistent with, and complementary to, hormonal data; collectively, they delineated estrus and identified specific reproductive types.

  19. Early invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma arising in a woman with vulvar pemphigus vulgaris and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mandato, Vincenzo D; Piccoli, Roberto; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Mignogna, Chiara; Mignogna, Michele D; Costagliola, Luigi; Nappi, Carmine

    2010-06-23

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. Genital involvement occurs when most other common sites are concurrently affected or are in remission. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that may affect many parts of the body and the skin with occasional bullous lesions. Pemphigus vulgaris and SLE may be associated, albeit rarely. Here, we report the first case of a woman affected with SLE presenting with early invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from Pemphigus Vulgaris of the vulva. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Gynaecology Unit for bleeding vegetant lesions of the vulva. Her history was characterized by systemic lupus erythematosus and PV. Biopsy showed concomitant PV and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 3. One month later a new biopsy revealed progression from VIN 3 to early SCC. Despite chemotherapy, no remission of disease was observed. She died six months after diagnosis Our case underlines PV as another chronic inflammatory disease of the lower genital tract predisposing to VIN-SCC. It suggests the need for careful follow-up of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, especially when concomitant autoimmune disorders are present. Moreover, a biopsy should be always performed if there are PV lesions because of the possibility of neoplastic disease.

  20. Photosensitization in sheep fed Ammi majus (Bishop's weed) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, D A; Dollahite, J W; Jones, L P

    1978-02-01

    Ammi majus (bishop's weed) grows on the coastal region of southern United States and in other parts of the world. This plant causes severe photosensitization in livestock and probably contributes to the severe photosensitization outbreaks seen in Texas. Sheep were fed finely ground seed of A majus via stomach tube at dose rates of 1, 2, 4, and 8 g/kg of body weight and exposed to sunlight. The single dose of 8 g/kg produced severe clinical signs (in 24 to 48 hours): cloudy cornea, conjunctivokeratitis, photophobia, and edema of the muzzle, ears, and vulva. Daily dosing at 2 and 4 g/kg produced (in 72 to 96 hours) similar signs, whereas the smallest dose (1 g/kg) produced mild irritation of the muzzle. Pathologic changes included (1) corneal edema and marked neutrophilic infiltration of the cornea and corneal/ciliary process, (2) subacute ulcerative and exudative dermatitis of the skin of ears, muzzle, and vulva, and (3) mild focal tubular degeneration (vacuolar type) of the kidney.

  1. Intraspecific evolution of the intercellular signaling network underlying a robust developmental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milloz, Josselin; Duveau, Fabien; Nuez, Isabelle; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2008-11-01

    Many biological systems produce an invariant output when faced with stochastic or environmental variation. This robustness of system output to variation affecting the underlying process may allow for "cryptic" genetic evolution within the system without change in output. We studied variation of cell fate patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursors, a developmental system that relies on a simple intercellular signaling network and yields an invariant output of cell fates and lineages among C. elegans wild isolates. We first investigated the system's genetic variation in C. elegans by means of genetic tools and cell ablation to break down its buffering mechanisms. We uncovered distinct architectures of quantitative variation along the Ras signaling cascade, including compensatory variation, and differences in cell sensitivity to induction along the anteroposterior axis. In the unperturbed system, we further found variation between isolates in spatio-temporal dynamics of Ras pathway activity, which can explain the phenotypic differences revealed upon perturbation. Finally, the variation mostly affects the signaling pathways in a tissue-specific manner. We thus demonstrate and characterize microevolution of a developmental signaling network. In addition, our results suggest that the vulva genetic screens would have yielded a different mutation spectrum, especially for Wnt pathway mutations, had they been performed in another C. elegans genetic background.

  2. Role of female intimate hygiene in vulvovaginal health: Global hygiene practices and product usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Bruning, Elizabeth; Rubino, Joseph; Eder, Scott E

    2017-09-01

    Women use various feminine hygiene products, often as part of their daily cleansing routine; however, there is a paucity of published medical literature related to the external vulva and how personal hygiene practices can affect it. This review article provides background information on the physiological changes that occur during women's lives and reviews the relevance of transient and resident microbiota as they relate to common vaginal and vulvar disorders. It also discusses the need for female intimate hygiene, common practices of feminine hygiene from a global perspective, and the potential benefits of using suitable external, topical feminine vulvar washes to minimize the risk of vulvovaginal disorders and to improve overall intimate health in women around the world. Supported by international guidelines, daily gentle cleansing of the vulva is an important aspect of feminine hygiene and overall intimate health. Women should be encouraged to choose a carefully formulated and clinically tested external wash that provides targeted antimicrobial and other health benefits without negatively impacting on the natural vulvovaginal microbiota.

  3. C. elegans dopaminergic D2-like receptors delimit recurrent cholinergic-mediated motor programs during a goal-oriented behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Correa

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and Gα(o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context.

  4. Changes to cuticle surface ultrastructure and some biological functions in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to excessive copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaojuan; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo

    2014-04-01

    Copper is an essential metal, but its toxic effects are pronounced when organisms are exposed to it in excessive amounts. However, information about the effects of chronic copper exposure on the cuticle ultrastructure of organisms is insufficient. Studies of the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, could further our understanding of the effect of chronic excessive copper exposure on human health. In this study, the cuticle surface ultrastructure of C. elegans was observed using scanning electron microscopy after excessive copper exposure. In addition to this, some biological functions, such as chemotaxis, reproduction, and development, were also analyzed. After chronic excessive copper exposure, the worms' body surface from vulva to tail was extensively wrinkled and folded along with the annulus. The worm's vulva size was significantly decreased, and the middle ridge of the alae was disrupted. Furthermore, some of the biological functions of nematodes were also affected: the chemotaxis index was partially changed, bags-of-worms were induced, development was delayed, and egg-laying number was decreased by copper treatment. The results of the present study shed new light on the effects of copper on C. elegans cuticle as well as some biological functions.

  5. Miíase vulvar: relato de caso Vulvar myiasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A miíase de localização vulvar é doença rara. O objetivo do presente relato é descrever um caso de miíase vulvar por larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax em mulher de 77 anos, com precários hábitos higiênicos, apresentando dor, prurido e secreção de odor fétido na região genital há 10 dias. O exame ginecológico demonstrou lesão ulcerada no grande lábio vulvar, com seis centímetros, que se estendia ao monte do pube, preenchida por larvas. A doente evoluiu favoravelmente após remoção das larvas, desbridamento cirúrgico e curativos diários, sendo realizada, quatorze dias após o desbridamento, rotação de retalho cutâneo. Apresentou evolução satisfatória, estando assintomática dois meses após a intervenção. A miíase vulvar deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial das doenças infecciosas vulvares de doentes com hábitos de higiene precários.Myiasis located in the vulva is a rarely described disease. The objective of the present report is to describe a case of vulvar myiasis due to larvae of Cochliomyia hominivorax. A 77-year-old woman with precarious hygienic habits presented pain, pruritus and secretions with a fetid smell in the genital region for 10 days. Gynecological examination demonstrated an ulcerated lesion in the labium majus of the vulva measuring six centimeters that extended to the mons pubis and was found to be filled with larvae. The patient progressed favorably after removal of the larvae, surgical debridement and daily dressings. Fourteen days after the debridement, she was submitted to skin flap rotation, with good local scar formation. Two months after the intervention, she remained asymptomatic. Vulvar myiasis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases of the vulva in patients with precarious hygienic habits.

  6. Identification of cyst nematode in alpine meadow steppe,Gansu%甘肃省高寒草原牧草孢囊线虫的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠霞; 彭焕; 彭德良; 朱锐东; 徐鹏刚; 李建荣

    2015-01-01

    2013年8月下旬,对甘肃天祝高寒草甸草原孢囊线虫发生情况进行调查,从嵩草和矮嵩草根部和根际土样中分离得到孢囊线虫。通过对孢囊和孢囊阴门锥的形态观察,初步鉴定为禾谷孢囊线虫(Heterodera avenae )。其特征为孢囊浅褐色,阔柠檬形,阴门锥双膜孔,未见阴门下桥,泡状突明显。利用通用引物 AB28和 TW81对其群体rDNA-ITS 区进行 PCR 扩增和序列测定,得到 ITS 区序列长度为1045 bp。将所测得序列在 Genbank 和 Blast 上比对,结果显示,此禾谷孢囊线虫群体与 H .avenae 群体相似度达99%~100%。进一步证实寄生于甘肃天祝高寒草甸草原嵩草和矮嵩草的孢囊线虫均为 H .avenae ,这是首次报道莎草科嵩草和矮嵩草也是禾谷孢囊线虫的寄主。%A survey of grass cyst nematodes in Tianzhu alpine meadow steppe,Gansu Province was conducted in August,2013.Cyst nematodes were isolated from the roots and root rhizosphere of Kobresia sp.and Kobresia humilis .The nematodes were initially identified as Heterodera avenae based on cyst characteristics,particular-ly the cyst vulva cones.The cysts were light brown,large lenmon-shaped and contained vulva cones with bifenestrate and obvious bullae and without a vulva under-bridge.The 1045 bp sequence fragment of ITS region was amplified using PCR with general primers AB28 and TW81.The similarities between these groups and H . avena were 99%-100%.Molecular analysis confirmed that the cyst nematodes isolated from Kobresia sp.and Kobresia humilis growing in Tianzhu alpine meadow steppe were H .avenae .This is the first report identifying Kobresia sp.and Kobresia humilis as hosts of H .avenae .

  7. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. Methods We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. Results For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females, gallbladder (stronger in females than males, and thyroid (only seen in females. No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. Conclusion This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer

  8. 纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌疗效观察%Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Nano Silver Antibacterial Gel Combined with Fluconazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病疗效。方法选择门诊确诊的外阴阴道假丝酵母菌患者58例随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组氟康唑单次口服150mg,纳米银抗菌凝胶连用6d。对照组纳米银抗菌凝胶连用6d,对比疗效。结果两组停药后7d总有效率为93.3%和82.1%,两组在下次月经干净后总有效率为93.3%和78.6%。结论纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌具有较好的疗效。%Objective To explore the nano silver antibacterial gel with fluconazole therapy vulva vagina candida disease curative ef ect. Methods Clinic diagnosis of patients with vulva vagina candida 58 cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, treatment group fluconazole single oral 150 mg, a laparoscope, usual y connected to a nano silver antibacterial gel 6 days. A laparoscope, usual y connected to a control group of nano silver antibacterial gel 6 days, compare the curative ef ect. Results Two groups of seven days after the drug was stopped the total ef ective rate was 93.3%and 82.1%, the two groups in next time menstruation clean after the total ef ective rate was 93.3%and 93.3%. Conclusion Nano silver antibacterial gel with fluconazole therapy vulva vagina candida has good curative ef ect.

  9. Three new and a known species of the genus Proleptonchus Lordello, 1955 (Nematoda: Leptonchidae) with a diagnostic compendium of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Sumaya; Ahmad, Wasim

    2016-11-09

    This paper deals with the description of three new and one known species of the genus Proleptonchus Lordello, 1955. Proleptonchus kazirangus n. sp. from Kaziranga National Park, India is characterized by having 1.08-1.45 mm long body; cap-like, offset, lip region; 7-8 µm long odontostyle and 10-12 µm long odontophore; short, pear-shaped pharyngeal bulb offset by a constriction, occupying about 18-21% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; pars dilatata uteri with distinctly sclerotized central lumen containing refringent apophyses; posterior uterine sac 78-112 µm long, with sac-like structure representing a rudimentary oviduct; transverse vulva, short, rounded-conoid tail and males with 31-33 µm long spicules, lateral guiding pieces and seven, regularly spaced ventromedian supplements. P. prerectus n. sp. from Japan is characterized by having 1.18-1.43 mm long body; lip region cap-like, offset by a slight constriction; odontostyle 8 µm, odontophore 9-10 µm; short cylindroid basal bulb offset by a constriction, occupying about 16-20% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; pars dilatata uteri with sclerotized refringent apophyses; posterior uterine sac small, 27-36 µm; transverse vulva; a prerectal chamber and short, rounded-hemispheroid tail. P. japonicus n. sp. also from Japan is characterized by having 0.91-1.04 mm long body; lip region cap-like, set off by a slight constriction; odontostyle 5 µm and odontophore 10-11 µm long; pharynx consists of a very slender, non-muscular anterior part, separated from pyriform basal bulb by a constriction, with thickened lumen in posterior region, occupying about 18-20% of total neck length; female genital system mono-prodelphic; posterior uterine sac small, 20-24 µm long; transverse vulva and short, rounded-conoid tail. P. shamimi Bajaj & Bhatti, 1980 is redescribed and its relationship with closely related species is discussed. A diagnostic compendium of all the valid

  10. Estimation of the overall burden of cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Susanne; St Guily, Jean Lacau; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    In addition to cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a significant proportion of cancers and precancerous lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, head and neck, as well as genital warts. We estimated the annual number of new cases of these diseases attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe. The annual number of new cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and selected head and neck sites in the population of the European Medicines Agency territory was estimated based on age-specific incidence rates extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents, Volume X and Eurostat population data for 2015. The annual number of new cancers attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types was estimated by applying the HPV attributable fraction from reference publications based on a large European multicenter study. For non-cervical cancers, HPV attributable fractions were based on oncogenically-active HPV infections only (i.e., detection of HPV DNA and either mRNA and/or p16 positivity). For precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus, and for genital warts, previously published estimations were updated for the 2015 population. The annual number of new cancers attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types was estimated at 47,992 (95% bound: 39,785-58,511). Cervical cancer showed the highest burden (31,130 cases), followed by head and neck cancer (6,786 cases), anal cancer (6,137 cases), vulvar cancer (1,466 cases), vaginal cancer (1,360 cases), and penile cancer (1,113 cases). About 81% were estimated to occur in women and 19% in men. The annual number of new precancerous lesions (CIN2+, VIN2/3, VaIN2/3, and AIN2/3) and genital warts attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types was estimated at 232,103 to 442,347 and 680,344 to 844,391, respectively. The burden of cancers associated with 9-valent HPV vaccine types in Europe is substantial in both sexes. Head and neck cancers constitute a heavy burden

  11. Unilateral Pigmented Extramammary Paget's Disease of the Axilla Associated with a Benign Mole: A Case Study and a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladak, Aleem; Bramley, Maria; Titi, Sami

    2014-08-01

    Pigmented extramammary Paget's disease (PEMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial adenocarcinoma and a rare variant of Paget's disease affecting skin that is rich in apocrine sweat glands such as the axilla, perianal region and vulva. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women and presents as a superficial pigmented scaly macule, mimicking a melanocytic lesion. The histological presentation is adenocarcinoma in situ with an increased number of melanocytes scattered between the Paget's cells. Therefore, PEMPD may be misdiagnosed as a melanocytic tumour both clinically and histologically. The tumour cells are usually positive for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen, Cam 5.2, HER2, and mucicarmine stain while S100 and human melanoma black-45 highlight the processes of reactive dendritic cells. The association between Paget's cells and intratumoural reactive melanocytes is still unclear. We report our first case of PEMPD associated with an intradermal naevus involving the axilla in a 63-year-old woman.

  12. The effect of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine) on healing and regeneration of the uterine cervix and vagina and vulvar dystrophy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, J; Madry, R; Markowska, A

    2011-01-01

    Procedures aimed at the treatment of precancerous lesions and ectopia on the uterine cervix are frequently linked to lesions of anatomical structures. The application of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine vaginal ovules) promotes accelerated healing of the uterine cervix and acquisition of a normal shape in the uterine cervix canal. Local application of hyaluronic acid in the vagina following radiotherapy due to cancer in the uterine cervix or endometrium favourably affects the healing of post-irradiation lesions in the vagina and improves quality of life. Over 90% of patients responded positively to the application of hyaluronic acid in the form of a cream on dystrophic lesions in the vulva. Hyaluronic acid aids the healing process of post-procedural wounds in the uterine cervix, following radiotherapy applied due to cancer of the uterine cervix, endometrium and in vulvar dystrophy.

  13. [Radiotherapy in vulvar cancer. Experience in the Hospital de Oncología, CMN, SXXI, IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Bahena, J; Padilla Arrieta, P; Ayala Hernández, J R

    1995-11-01

    Between 1986 and 1992, 42 patients with carcinoma of the vulva diagnosis, were treated at the Hospital de Oncologia, CMN, SXXI. Mean age was 63 years. There was 1 case stage I, 5 stage II, 25 stage III, 4 stage IV, 2 with recurrent disease and 5 patients could not be classified. Local control was reached in 60% of patients however, 12 patients developed local recurrence after surgery and/or radiation therapy, finally 43% of patients remained disease free after a mean of 19 months of followup. In the subset of advanced disease patients treated with radical or preoperative radiation therapy (27 patients), 41% of them remained without disease. Mean radiation doses for patients treated only with radiation therapy was 6500 cGy. Late vulvar fibrosis and acute desquamative dermatitis, were the morbidity more frequently observed. New directions in the management of vulvar cancer must be developed to improve treatment results, in patients with advanced disease.

  14. Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) from the intestine of feral nutrias (Myocastor coypus) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Oh, Mihyeon; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2014-10-01

    Surveys on helminthic fauna of the nutria, Myocastor coypus, have seldom been performed in the Republic of Korea. In the present study, we describe Strongyloides myopotami (Secernentea: Strongyloididae) recovered from the small intestine of feral nutrias. Total 10 adult nutrias were captured in a wetland area in Gimhae-si (City), Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) in April 2013. They were transported to our laboratory, euthanized with ether, and necropsied. About 1,300 nematode specimens were recovered from 10 nutrias, and some of them were morphologically observed by light and scanning electron microscopies. They were 3.7-4.7 (4.0±0.36) mm in length, 0.03-0.04 (0.033) mm in width. The worm dimension and other morphological characters, including prominent lips of the vulva, blunted conical tail, straight type of the ovary, and 8-chambered stoma, were all consistent with S. myopotami. This nematode fauna is reported for the first time in Korea.

  15. The role of human papilloma virus in urological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Borena, Wegene; Pichler, Renate

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. However, the role of HPV infection in urological tumors is not yet clarified. HPV appears not to play a major causative role in renal and testicular carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection should be kept in mind regarding cases of prostate cancer, as well as in a sub-group of patients with bladder cancer with squamous differentiation. Concerning the role of HPV in penile cancer incidence, it is a recognized risk factor proven in a large number of studies. This short review provides an update regarding recent literature on HPV in urological malignancies, thereby, also discussing possible limitations on HPV detection in urological cancer.

  16. Vulvovaginal hygiene and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupte Pushpa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of the skin is very important, which is achieved by a thin acid film - the acid mantle. Human skin has an acid mantle of pH 4-6. It prevents invasion by pathogenic organisms, acting as a first-line defence and helping in a disease-free existence. The vaginal mucosa has a similar acid mantle. Here, the natural acidic pH is maintained by lactic acid, an integral part of the vaginal ecosystem. This can be easily lost due to the lack of awareness of local care or various aggressive hygiene practices in addition to various diseases. Gentle cleansing along with good moisturization can go a long way in keeping the vulva healthy.

  17. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae en el sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently exploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the use of allometric growth of chelae and abdomen in relation to carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 12.1 cm (males and 10.7 cm (females. The CW50% was estimated to be 10.9 cm and 12.2 cm for females, respectively considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, and 13.6 cm for males. By size class, the maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females by size class was 0.4 and of males with copula marks was 0.6, suggesting a bi-annual reproductive cycle for individuals of the species. The size composition analysis showed that irnmature individuals may comprise up to 70% of the catches. These results indicate the need to consider enhanced trap selectivity and lower mortality of ovigerous females as new and immediate goals to improve resource management.El cangrejo real Chaceon ramosae corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo real comenzó en el año 2001 por barcos extranjeros que eran intensamente supervisados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado. A partir de muestras obtenidas a bordo de los barcos de pesca, se estim

  18. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo rojo de profundidad Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae al sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sant'Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The red crab Chaceon notialis is one of the three deep-sea crab species currently exploited in Brazil. The red crab fishery started in 1998 with foreign vessels that, as of 2000, have been extensively moni-tored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on bio-mass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the allometric growth of the chelae and abdomen in relation to the carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 8.9 cm CW (males and 8.8 cm CW (females. The CW5% was estimated to be 6.9 and 9.7 cm CW for females, considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, respectively, and 8.4 cm CW for males. The maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females and males with copula marks by size class were 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, suggesting an annual reproductive cycle for the species, both at the populational and individuals levels. The size composition analysis showed that up to 97% of the females caught in the fishery were immature. Given these results, enhancing trap selectivity and minimizing the mortality of ovigerous females should be considered as new and immediate goals for the management of the resource.El cangrejo-rojo Chaceon notialis corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo-rojo comenzó en el año 1998 por barcos extranjeros que, desde 2000 fueron intensamente vigilados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado

  19. Vulvovaginitis e infecciones de transmisión sexual en la adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gigliola Gannoni, Dra.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vulvovaginitis corresponden a las inflamaciones de la vulva y la vagina. La etiología en su mayoría es secundaria a una infección. Los principales agentes etiológicos son: Candida albicans, Gardenerella vaginalis y Trichomonas. Las infecciones de transmisión sexual son un motivo de preocupación y consulta creciente en el grupo de adolescentes, siendo las más frecuentes las causadas por Chlamydia Trachomatis, Virus Papiloma Humano y Virus Herpes simple. En este capítulo se revisan las diferentes etiologías, entregando además al ginecólogo general, algunas herramientas que facilitan el abordaje, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento en este grupo etario.

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans cog-1 locus encodes GTX/Nkx6.1 homeodomain proteins and regulates multiple aspects of reproductive system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert E; Inoue, Takao; Sherwood, David R; Jiang, Lily I; Sternberg, Paul W

    2002-12-15

    The development of the reproductive system in Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model system for patterning and organogenesis. We report the characterization of the cog-1 gene, mutations in which cause novel phenotypes in late patterning in vulval lineages, establishment of the vulva-uterine connection, development and function of the spermathecal-uterine junction, and the development of vas deferens-proctodeal connection in the male. We positionally cloned cog-1 and found that it encodes a homeobox protein most similar to the mammalian GTX and Nkx6.1 proteins. Analysis of cog-1 transcripts revealed that cog-1 is likely a complex locus with two promoters. Two mutant alleles of cog-1 differentially affect alternative transcripts and cause different phenotypes, suggesting that the two forms of cog-1 have distinct functions in C. elegans.

  1. Myctolaimellus robiniae n. sp. (Diplogasterida: Cylindrocorporidae) from Larval Cavities of the Locust Borer, Megacyllene robiniae Forster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, A; Winter, J; Harman, D

    2000-12-01

    A new nematode species of the family Cylindrocorporidae and the genus Myctolaimellus from subcortical cavities made by the locust borer (Megacyllene robiniae Forster) in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is described. Males of the new species have a length of 700 to 1,050 microm; a bursate tail, peloderan with nine pairs of rays; and knobbed, curved spicules with tips bending gently into a hook. The distinctive gubernaculum is half the length of the spicules, deeply grooved longitudinally along both its dorsal and ventral surfaces, and has a spoon-shaped end. Females have a length of 830 to 1,340 microm, an amphidelphic reproductive tract with long ovaries crossing each other to extend beyond the equatorial vulva, and a gradually tapering tail.

  2. THE CONTRACEPTIVE EFFECT OF MORRHUIC ACID SUPPOSITORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金毓翠; 董呤秋; 刘延; 谢文英

    1990-01-01

    The morrhuic acid suppository had been used in 1746 women with a total of 16073 women-months cycles. 1354 cases continued to use the suppository for 12 months, 367 cases completed 24 months and 15 cases 25-34 months. The cumulative twelve month life table pregnancy rate was 10.1 per 100 women and the method pergnancy rate was 4.8 per 100 women corresponding to an effective ness rate of 95.2% per 100 women. The gross twelve months cumulative termination rate per 100 women was 27.3 giving a continuation rate of 72.7%. Cervical smears were taken in 499 women showing no carcinomatous changes. It did not interfere with the menstrual cycle and flow. The only adverse side effect was the burning or itching sensation of the vulva which accounts for a 1.2% discontinuation rate. This suppository is sultable for contraception of all women in reproductive age.

  3. Screening for microbial metabolites affecting phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Daisuke; Uchida, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yoko; Masuma, Rokuro; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Microbial samples, including our library of known microbial compounds (ca. 300) and microbial culture broths (ca. 9000), were screened for small molecules affecting the phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans. As a result, seven known compounds were found to induce phenotypic abnormality of C. elegans. Staurosporine exhibited morphological defects in the vulva and tail of C. elegans, avermectin B1a exhibited hatching inhibition of starting eggs on day 1 at 25-100 µM and growth inhibition at 0.01-12.5 µM, siccanin and antimycin A inhibited the growth of C. elegans, and fluorouracil inhibited hatching of eggs newly spawned by adult C. elegans. Toromycin induced morphological defects in the intestine. 5-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-oxazole, isolated as a fungal metabolite for the first time, inhibited the hatching of eggs newly spawned by adult C. elegans.

  4. Two new nematode species of the subfamily Brittonematinae (Dorylaimida: Actinolaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrássy, I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Two new species of actinolaimoid nematodes of the subfamily Brittonematinae are described and illustrated.Actinca marisae sp. n. from Brazil is characterized by the long (on average 2.92 mm and slender body, 30–32 distinct longitudinalridges on cuticle, narrow head, slender odontostyle, onchial tips facing each other, cylindrus occupying somewhat lessthan one-half of pharynx, broad vulval lips, and by medum long tail. Afractinca eburnea sp. n. from Côte d’Ivoire can bedistinguished by a relatively long body (on average 1.88 mm, thin cuticle provided with 14 longitudinal ridges, cap-like offsetlabial ring, very slender odontostyle, long prerectum, vulva sunk in body contour, and by the elongate-conoid female tail. Mainmorphological structures of Actinca and Afractinca species are summarized. Some comments on further brittonematine speciesare added.

  5. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  6. Angiokeratoma of fordyce in a children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiokeratomas are benign tumors characterized by epidermal hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and multiple dilated blood vessels in the papillary dermis. Angiokeratoma of Fordyce is one of five types in the group of the angiokeratomas, which occurs on the scrotum, penis or vulva. It is usually observed in young adults or elderly men. A 6-year-old boy presented to the dermatology department because of papular and erythematous lesions on his scrotum and penis. These lesions were found at birth and were asymptomatic. There was a history of occasional bleeding on trauma from the lesions. Histological evaluation of a skin biopsy specimen showed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis and multiple dilated thin-walled vessels in the papillary dermis. Based on the clinical, histopathological and dermoscopic findings, the patient was diagnosed with Fordyce angiokeratoma. Herein, we report a case of angiokeratomas of Fordyce, which is very rare in childhood and the dermoscopic findings

  7. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  8. Urogenital Applications of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor

    The urogenital tract extends from the perineal skin close to the anus, to the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, urethra, bladder and kidneys. The uterus, bladder and kidneys are regarded as being sterile, although it will not be surprising if molecular techniques discover that this is not necessarily the case. The importance of the urogenital tract in the health of women cannot be understated. Given its proximity to potential pathogens emerging from the rectum, exposure to sexually transmitted organisms, hormonal fluctuations that affect cells, use of tampons, contraceptives and douches, and the birthing process, it is remarkable that this area is not constantly infected. Nevertheless, it has been estimated that almost every female will have a vaginal or bladder infection at some point in her life.

  9. [Differential diagnosis of papillomas in the area of the genitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, I; Heinrich, J

    1993-01-01

    Infection of the genital organs by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease. Papillomaviruses lead to a contact infection of the epithelium and present with different clinical and histological signs. With the exception of the best known clinical manifestation Condylomata acuminata, subclinical infections can be only diagnosed from a stepwise examination. Physiological results from both men and women may be falsely explained as being caused by viruses, and can lead to an incorrect therapy. Genital papilla (Papillae coronae vulvae et glandis) present as atavistic cutaneous papilla a normal situation but with functional significance. Differences in clinical symptoms as well as the possibilities of further differentiation can be obtained by means of pictures taken during colposcopy.

  10. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie;

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. MAIN VARIABLES: DGCD data are organized within separate...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...

  11. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, S.; Marun, B.; Alves, P.V.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  12. Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands: a series of 13 neoplasms in 12 cases, including mammary-type juvenile fibroadenoma, fibroadenoma with lactation changes, and neurofibromatosis-associated pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated giant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J; Thompson, Jane; Agaimy, Abbas; Magro, Gaetano; Bisceglia, Michele; Vazmitel, Marina; Kacerovska, Denisa; Kutzner, Heinz; Mukensnabl, Petr; Michal, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a series of 13 fibroepithelial neoplasms involving anogenital mammary-like glands, all occurring in 12 female patients, whose age at diagnosis ranged from 30 to 51 years (mean, 38 y; median, 42 y). All women presented with a solitary asymptomatic nodule in the vulva (n=8), perineum (n=2), or near the anus (n=2) ranging in size from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Microscopically, 8 lesions were classified as fibroadenoma, and 5, including 1 recurrent tumor, as phyllodes tumor, of which 1 was benign and 4 low-grade malignant. In addition to conventional findings, we describe several hitherto unreported features including juvenile fibroadenoma-like proliferation, fibroadenoma with lactation change, and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated stromal giant cells in a patient with neurofibromatosis, type 1 all constituting potential diagnostic pitfalls, which are best averted by using the same approach to diagnosis as for their analogous mammary counterparts.

  13. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Jyoti; Singh, Saurabh; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-05-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  14. Insects are crawling in my genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Dhawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

  15. KANDIDIASIS VAGINA YANG MENDAPAT TERAPI SISTEMIK DAN TOPIKAL: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

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    Dewa Made Rendy Sanjaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kandidiasis vulvovaginitis ialah penyakit jamur candida yang mengenai mukosa vagina danvulva.Penyebabnya yang tersering biasanya adalah candida albicans.Gejala klinis KandidiasisVulvovaginitis ialah gatal didaerah vulva, dan pada yang berat terdapat rasa panas,dispaneuria.lesi eritema, hiperemis dilabia mayora, dan vagina 1/3 bawah. Dilaporkan satu  kasusseorang wanita. berumur 26 tahun dengan keluhan keputihan pada daerah vagina sertamengalami kegatalan dan rasa nyeri terjadi sejak 2 minggu yang lalu. Pada gambaran klinis tampak dinding vagina eritema, erosi dengan secret putih kental. Pada pengecatan gram darisecret mukosa vagina didapatkan leukosit blastopsora dan pseudohifa. Pemerikaan KOH 10%dari sekret vagina didapatkan blastopore dan pesudohifa.Penanganan yang diberikan adalah obatsistemik dengan flukonazol 1x150 mg dosis tunggal dan topical diberikan ketokenazol cream.Prognosis kasus tersebut adalah baik..

  16. Acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis may be associated with Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Magali; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-04-19

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompetent hosts is generally asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosic syndrome. Its association with acute cervicitis and vulvovaginitis has rarely been reported. A 24-year-old woman presented with pelvic pain, vulvodynia, abnormal vaginal discharge, burning with urination, fatigue, fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. The vulva and cervix were red with vesicular lesions on the cervix. Genital herpes simplex infection (HSV) was suspected and valacyclovir was given orally. However, serial viral cultures performed 7 weeks apart did not isolate HSV as suspected, but CMV was confirmed by immunofluorescence and early antigen research. Blood tests confirmed an acute CMV infection. Typical inclusions were found at histology. Symptoms resolved slowly with persistence of cervical lesions at 7 weeks from diagnosis. The frequency of CMV genital infection is probably underestimated. The infection is not always asymptomatic and might be confused with genital HSV infection. The clinical course is longer.

  17. A case of antibacterial-responsive mucocutaneous disease in a seven-year-old dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) resembling mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, L; Stoeckli, M R; Smith, S H; Dickson, S; Thoday, K L; Meredith, A

    2013-04-01

    A seven-year-old, ovariohysterectomised female dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was referred with severe swelling and erythema of the mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, nares and vulva. Bilateral, severe periocular dermatitis was also present. Heavy pure growths of a member of the Staphylococcus intermedius group were cultured from nasal and aural swabs and skin biopsies. Other possible differential diagnoses were eliminated by standard tests. The clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the biopsies were most consistent with mucocutaneous pyoderma, a dermatosis previously reported in dogs but not in rabbits. Treatment of the bacterial infection with oral marbofloxacin and topical ofloxacin eye drops together with supportive therapy resulted in resolution of the lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous bacterial pyoderma, similar to mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs, in a rabbit. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Pruritus in Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lambert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruritus is a frequent symptom in many dermatological diseases. In this review we want to focus on not only itch problems specific to women, namely, pruritic vulvodermatoses, but also the specific pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy. The specific characteristics of the vulva and the hormonal changes during the different age periods make these dermatoses very particular. It seems that vulvar diseases are still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Pruritic vulvar diseases have a huge impact on quality of life. The most common pruritic diseases will be discussed, such as atopic and contact dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosis, lichen planus, and infectious vulvaginitis. We focus on the diagnostic issue of these diseases and will consider the general principles of therapy.

  19. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatullah, Kakar; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Kakar, Juma Khan

    2006-01-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona kharani sp. nov., has been isolated from the intestine, stomach and swim bladder of the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 (Fam. Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from spring water at Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan. The new species is characterized largely by the presence of eight anterior teeth in the prostom, inconspicuous deirids, by the shape and length of unequal spicules (0.08 - 0.09 and 2.9 - 3.1 mm), and by 17-18 pairs of caudal papillae including 6-7 postanal, one adanal, and 10 -11 preanal. Other characteristics include a pointed tail tip, non filamented eggs, a bulbous, voluminous, vaginal complex that is directed backward, and a vulva that is post-equatorial with a triangular large anterior lip and a smaller posterior lip.

  20. Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Widiastuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bagi Anda yang termasuk pelahap sayuran mentah (lalapan, harus cukup berhati-hati dengan agen penyakit berikut ini. Nama latinnya adalah Angiostrongylus cantonensis, salah satu jenis cacing Nematoda yang juga sering dikenal dengan nama rat lungworm, penyebab utama dari penyakit eosinophilic meningitis. Sebagaimana Nematoda lainnya, cacing ini juga memiliki bentuk filiform (seperti benang. Cacing jantanya berukuran ±7,7 mm dengan diameter 0,30 mm, sedangkan cacing betina ± 12,8 mm dan diameter 0,36 mm. Organ genitalia pada cacing  jantan berupa bursa kopularis sedangkan cacing betina berupa vulva yang terletak di ujung posterior. Pada bagian kepala terdapat 3 buah labia, 2 diantaranya terletak di bagian dorsal, sedang yang 1 buah terletak di bagian lateraf.

  1. Superimposed MRSA infection of vulvar eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Erin; Zedek, Daniel; Lewis, Jasmine; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulvar eczematous dermatitis predisposes patients to superimposed infections, which may result in late diagnosis and architectural destruction. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is on the rise in genitalia and lower extremities. Case 44 year-old female presented with recurrent vulvar lesions and pain. A diagnosis of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus in the setting of eczema was achieved with concomitant use of photography and dermatopathologic review. Antibiotics were tailored to the resistant infection and preventative moisturization therapy was utilized. Conclusion Awareness of dermatologic conditions affecting the vulva is principal in routine gynecologic care. Barrier protection of eczematous vulvar skin may prevent superficial infections. The regular use of photographic documentation and dermatopathology may decrease time to diagnosis with infrequent conditions. PMID:23763013

  2. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rousing, Tine; Kudahl, Anne Braad;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non-nurse...... sows a cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 sow herds in Denmark. Clinical observations were made on nurse and non-nurse sows and their litters. The clinical observations were dichotomized and the effect of being a nurse sow was analysed based on eight parameters: thin (body condition score....5), swollen bursae on legs, dew claw wounds, vulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order...

  3. Hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Beth M; Edgar, Mark A; Horenstein, Marcelo G

    2006-01-01

    Hypomelanosis of Ito has been associated with precocious puberty in two cases. This study reports a third case involving a female with hypomelanosis of Ito including severe mental retardation and seizure disorder with autonomic symptoms (gastroesophageal reflux and asthma). At age 5 she developed vaginal discharge, thelarche, and adrenarche. Soon after, she died of pneumonia stemming from her neurologic deficits. A postmortem examination revealed normal gonads and endocrine organs. The breasts and vulva were prematurely developed. Central nervous system findings included megalencephaly, neuronal eosinophilic inclusions, leptomeningeal neuroglial heterotopias, and cortical dysplasia. Both previously reported cases of hypomelanosis of Ito associated with precocious puberty had abnormal gonads and responded to cyproterone acetate therapy, indicating a peripheral mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-independent). The current case, which was autopsied, lacks significant gonadal pathology, and has extensive neurologic involvement that suggests that a central mechanism of precocious puberty (gonadotrophin-dependent) can also be associated with hypomelanosis of Ito.

  4. Becker′s nevus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B Dasegowda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Becker′s nevus is a cutaneous hamartoma characterized by circumscribed hyperpigmentation with hypertrichosis. Becker′s nevus syndrome is an association of Becker′s nevus with unilateral breast hypoplasia and muscle, skin, and/or skeletal abnormalities. We here report a case of a 15 year-old female who presented with bilateral Becker′s nevus over her groins, thighs, vulva, and in front of the neck from the age of 5 years. She had associated mental retardation, delayed development of mile stones, delayed puberty, dwarfism, depressed nasal bridge, long slender digits, crowding of lateral toes, valgus deformity of first metatarsophalangeal joint, mitral valve prolapse, muddy conjunctiva with hypertrophic and hyperpigmented caruncle of both eyes, ichthyosis, brownish hair, and absence of axillary and pubic hair. On histopathological examination collagen hamartoma underneath the Becker′s nevus was found.

  5. Bovine demodicosis: a case report Demodicose bovina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Lemos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissues samples collected at necropsy from a 9 year-old Holstein cow were fixed in buffered 10% formalin for histological examination. Macroscopic finding did not reveal typical nodular cutaneous lesions. Vulvar microscopic sections of cutaneous tegument showed mites (Demodex bovis, alone and grouped in hair follicles and sebaceous glands.Amostras de tecidos colhidas à necropsia de uma vaca da raça Holandesa, nove anos de idade, foram fixadas em formol neutro a 10% e enviadas para exames histológicos. A macroscopia não revelou lesões nodulares cutâneas típicas de demodicose. Secções microscópicas de tegumento cutâneo da vulva evidenciaram ácaros (Demodex bovis isolados ou em grupos no interior de folículos pilosos e glândulas sebáceas.

  6. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  7. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.

  8. Granular cell tumor of the clitoris in the pediatric age. A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Lucchetti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumors (GCTs or Abrikossoff's tumors are rare, soft tissue tumors of neural origin with a generally benign behavior. They can occur anywhere in the body (with up to 7%–16% situated in the vulva and can occur in patients of any age, being considered rare in children. A 6 year-old girl presented with a clitoral mass, surgically removed. Pathology revealed GCT of clitoris. To our knowledge this is the first case of GCT of the clitoris in the pediatric (prepubertal age group reported in English literature. Although rare in pediatric age, GCT has to be suspected as a cause of vulvar mass. Surgical treatment and clinical follow-up must consider the possibility of recurrence, multiple location and malignancy with time.

  9. El aparato urogenital del pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu Chordata: Artiodactyla: un estudio anatómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vargas García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available la finalidad de incrementar la información sobre la fisiología reproductiva del pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu se realizó una descripción anatómica del aparato urogenital (au de esta especie. Se utilizaron ocho hembras y cinco machos que fueron anestesiados y perfundidos con solución de McKormik. Se realizaron disecciones para extraer el au y se describieron sus componentes. El au del pecarí de collar es característico del mamífero pero presenta similitudes con el au del cerdo. Este trabajo es el primer reporte donde se describe un seno urogenital, las glándulas vestibulares y la musculatura estriada asociada a la vulva. Es también, el primer reporte del au masculino del pecarí de collar, encontrándose algunas características exclusivas de esta especie.

  10. Adenomiose uterina em gata associada à piometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.B. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adenomyosis, a non-neoplastic myometrial proliferation, is a rare pathologic condition in domestic animals, of unknown etiology. There is a lack of information about the clinical and pathological features of this disease in cats, therefore just a few reports in that species. The study describes a case of adenomyosis in a feline female. A cat, six years old, undefined breed, not spayed, had abdominal swelling history and vaginal discharge. Clinically, upon abdominal palpation, a diffuse increase suggesting a uterine change was found. The vulva had sanguine-purulent exudates. The choice was for the neutering surgical. Uterine macroscopy revealed cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra in uterine horns, and the presence of a diffuse mass on uterine corpus. Fragments of the mass were sent for histopathological analysis, which revealed adenomyosis of the uterine corpus. The patient exhibited adequate post-operative recovery. The adenomyosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of uterine neoformation in domestic cats.

  11. Single-field sterile-scrub, preparation, and dwell for laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; McCutcheon, Stacey Paris; McCutcheon, John G; Charvonia, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    Type VII laparoscopic hysterectomy is classified as a "clean-contaminated" procedure because the surgery involves contact with both the abdominal and vaginal fields. Because the vulva has traditionally been perceived as a separate but contaminated field, operating room guidelines have evolved to require that surgeons gloved and gowned at the abdominal field either avoid contact with the urethral catheter, the uterine manipulator, and the introitus or change their gloves and even re-gown after any contact with those fields. In the belief that the perception of the vaginal field as contaminated stems from inadequate preoperative preparation instructions, we have developed a rigorous abdomino-perineo-vaginal field preparation technique to improve surgical efficiency and prevent surgical site infections. This thorough scrub, preparation, and dwell technique enables the entire abdomino-perineo-vaginal field to be safely treated as a single sterile field while maintaining a low rate of surgical site infection, and should be further investigated in randomized studies.

  12. Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus type 1 in asymptomatic elephants using TaqMan real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, K; Dastjerdi, A; Gurrala, R; Routh, A; Banks, M; Steinbach, F; Bouts, T

    2012-02-25

    This study assessed the feasibility of identifying asymptomatic viral shedders using a novel TaqMan real-time PCR on trunk washes and swabs from the conjunctiva, palate and vulva of elephants. Six elephants from a UK collection were sampled weekly over a period of 11 weeks for this study. The herd prevalence of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 (EEHV-1) was 100 per cent by PCR. The virus DNA was detected in all the sampling sites; however, the prevalence of virus DNA in the conjunctiva swabs was higher. In addition, Asian elephants from two continental European collections were sampled once and one animal tested positive on a trunk wash. The virus from this animal was phylogenetically typed as EEHV-1A based on 231 nucleotides of the terminase gene.

  13. Effect of probe location on changes in vaginal electrical impedance during the porcine estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezác, Petr; Pöschl, Michael; Krivánek, Ivo

    2003-03-01

    The impedance technique is one of many methods that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of reproductive events occurring in cyclic animals. The influence of the depth of probe insertion on changes in vaginal impedance in sows during the estrous cycle was examined. Sows were checked twice a day for estrus via exposure to a sexually mature boar. The criterion for confirmation of ovulation was an increase in plasma progesterone levels above 4.0 ng/ml 8 and 12 days after the beginning of estrus. The impedance measurements were carried out using a four-terminal method at a distance of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 cm from the vulva. In all six locations of the vagina the mean impedance values decreased gradually after weaning (Pfour-terminal method. The study suggests that the causes of impedance fluctuation are not only technical but also include a number of poorly understood biological causes.

  14. The urogenital system and the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Agius, J; Brincat, M P

    2015-01-01

    The major cause of urogenital atrophy in menopausal women is estrogen loss. The symptoms are usually progressive in nature and deteriorate with time from the menopausal transition. The most prevalent urogenital symptoms are vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation and itching. The genitourinary syndrome of menopause includes vulvovaginal atrophy and the postmenopausal modifications of the lower urinary tract. Dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding from fragile atrophic skin are common problems. Other urogenital complaints include frequency, nocturia, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections. Atrophic changes of the vulva, vagina and lower urinary tract can have a large impact on the quality of life of the menopausal woman. However, hormonal and non-hormonal treatments can provide patients with the solution to regain the previous level of function. Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately.

  15. Menopausal hormone therapy and, vaginal diseases and vulvar issues%绝经后激素治疗与阴道疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀霞; 王义贤

    2011-01-01

    The endocrine function of ovaries decreased in women after menopause, also had low estrogen level, shriveled in lower genital tract, and caused related symptoms progressively, such as vaginal dryness, irritation and itching of vulva and vagina, dyspareunia. Therefore, hormone therapy is necessary to improve the symptoms and the life quality in women after menopause.%绝经后妇女卵巢内分泌功能减退,体内雌激素水平降低,下生殖道出现萎缩,并引起相关症状,即阴道干涩,外阴阴道刺激和瘙痒以及性交困难等,通常是进行性的.因此,需采用激素治疗以改善妇女绝经后症状,提高生活质量.

  16. Anal cancer; Cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesneau, M.; Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service de radiotherapie, Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Champeaux-Orange, E. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Centre hospitalier regional d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France); Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers. For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension. The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, para-rectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders. Salvage surgery is necessary in case of poor response. The organs at risk to be considered are bladder, femur heads, small intestine and vulva. The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour. The conformal radiotherapy technique is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  17. Redescription of Trichuris pampeana (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from the South American subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum Thomas, 1898 (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, M Alejandra; Malizia, Ana I

    2005-02-01

    Trichuris pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host Ctenomys azarae Thomas, 1903 (Rodentia: Octodontidae) and from parasites collected from 2 populations of the subterranean rodent C. talarum Thomas, 1898 from Mar de Cobo and Necochea, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. After a revision of these nematodes, it was confirmed that the following characters were not considered in the original description: bacillary band, cells from the esophagointestinal junction, ejaculatory duct, vas deferens, adanal papillae, vagina, oviduct, and rectum. Additional information about the spicular sheath, vulva, uteri, and ovary is provided. The morphological features given in this redescription allow to confirm the identity of T. pampeana as a valid species and also to distinguish it more clearly from other species of the genus.

  18. 孢囊线虫中国新纪录种—朝鲜孢囊线虫(Heterodera koreana)%Heterodera koreana, a new record species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏洪; 卓侃; 张洪玲; 廖金铃

    2012-01-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera koreana, collected near roots of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) from Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, were described. The cysts were characterized by a globose to subspherical body in adults with a prominent neck and terminal cone, thick cuticle, terminal vulva, and deep vagina. Fenestra, bullae, and underbridge were absent. The anus was on the immediate posterior side of the cone. The second-stages juveniles (J2) were characterized by two annuli in labial region, relatively short stylet (17. 5-20. 5 μm), three incisures in the lateral field, conoid tail with pore-like phasmids and a hyaline region extends about 63% of tail length. rDNA-ITS sequence, 28S rRNA D2D3 sequence and ITS-PCR-RFLP profiles for the species were also given. H. koreana is a new record species from China.

  19. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolapse as a whole. Physical examination focused on pelvic examination, beginning with inspection on the vulva and vagina to identify the presence of erosion, ulceration, or other lesions. As for the existing therapy options include observation, non-operative management, and operative management.

  20. ¿Cuál es tu diagnóstico?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Historia clínica: Se presentó en el Hospital Clínico Veterinario de la Universidad de Murcia una gata común europea de 12 años que presentaba anorexia, poliuria, polidipsia, distensión abdominal y secreción mucopurulenta por vulva desde hacía dos días. El último celo se presentó 3 meses antes y hacía un año que se le había realizado una mastectomía regional por tumores mamarios. Durante la exploración clínica presentó dolor a la palpación del abdomen medio y caudal. La analítica sanguínea mos...

  1. [Vaginal metastasis of renal carcinoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, P; Marx, F J

    1977-11-01

    Four cases of vaginal metastases of renal carcinoma are reported. This is an incidence of 1.3% in 313 operated patients (from 1/1/70 to 12/31/76). A surgical treatment of primary renal carcinoma and vaginal metastasis seems to be reasonable in there cases. Since in accordance with the literature metastatic involvement of vagina and vulva seems not to be a very rare finding, the diagnostic in renal carcinoma should imply a gynecologic examination. Although in carcinoma of the left kidney metastatic spreading into the external female genitalia most probably occurs by a retrograde venous pathway (left ovarian vein), the way of dissemination in carcinoma of the right side is unclear.

  2. The application of SPECT/CT in the sentinel lymph node diagnostic; Der Einsatz von SPECT/CT bei der Waechterlymphknotendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstner, C. von [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-03-15

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) visualisation by means of scintigraphy is gaining increasing importance in different operative disciplines. This method is an established part of clinical routine procedures and clinical guidelines in the treatment of breast cancer and of malign melanoma. SLN imaging is being increasingly used also in carcinoma of prostate, vulva carcinoma and in neoplasm of the head and neck region. When the localisation of the SLN with the help of planar scintigraphy is not certain or in case of uncommon lymphatic drainage the use of SPECT/CT might be useful for the exact anatomical localisation of SLN and of secondary lymph nodes. This diagnostic measure enables a differentiated stage adapted operation to the benefit of the patients involved. The underlying study is a summary of the actual situation of SLN diagnostics using SPECT/CT in different tumours. (orig.)

  3. Nursing considerations in patients with vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Debra

    Vaginitis is defined as an inflammation of the vagina. It can result in symptoms of any or all of the following: discharge, itching and pain, and often irritation or infection of the vulva. There is no specific cause for vaginitis, and many other conditions can cause the symptoms. Vaginitis is a distressing condition that affects many women of reproductive age and beyond, and encompasses candidiasis (also known as thrush), bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. It can occur in a single episode, or recur throughout a woman's lifetime. Some women will seek medical help, but many more self-treat with over-the-counter medications, suspecting the recurrence of Candida in particular. This article aims to explore the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of vaginitis to provide nurses with the necessary background information to feel more confident in dealing with women's health issues.

  4. [PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION: PRINCIPLE CHARACTERISTICS, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS, VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopukhov, P D; Briko, N I; Khaldin, A A; Tsapkova, N N; Lupashko, O V

    2016-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a large and diverse group of viruses. It includes approximately 200 fully described types that have been detected in humans. Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are etiologic agents during various, benign and malignant lesions of mucous membrane and skin epithelium. Very importantly, persistent HPV infection of certain types is a leading cause of carcinoma of uterine cervix, penis, vulva; vagina, anal canal and fauces (including tongue base and tonsils). HPV infection prophylaxis is the best means to control HPV-conditioned diseases, and vaccination, as had been demonstrated, --the most effective method of its prophylaxis. In this paper principle characteristics and clinical manifestations of papillomavirus infection, as well as effectiveness of vaccination against HPV are examined.

  5. Infection by the human papillomavirus in teenagers sexually active: clinic and subclinic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Derchain

    Full Text Available This research studies the association of the cervical condyloma with the intraepithelial neoplasia, during sex activity, pregnancy, diagnose methods, cytology and colposcopy in teenagers. The objective of this research is to study the propaedeutics for the uterine coli condyloma diagnose in a group of teenagers. For this purpose, we have studied 131 teenagers sexually active with ages between 14 and 19 years and presenting histologically confirmed uterine coli condyloma. Association with intraepithelial neoplasia, sexual ativity duration, method of diagnose, pregnancy analysis, cytology and colposcopy results and association with vulva and vagina injuries were evaluated. The high association rate with condyloma and intraepithelial neoplasia after a short time of sexual activity and the none presence of macroscopic warts in the genital organs in 80% of cases presenting cervical condyloma, demonstrate that: a more careful investigation with colposcopy.and biopsy of the inferior genitals of the women-teenagers sexually active is needed, when presenting modified cervical cytology.

  6. A new genus of huntsman spiders (Araneae, Sparassidae, Sparianthinae) from the Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Cristina A

    2013-11-06

    Uaiuara gen. nov. is described to include Sparianthis amazonica Simon from Brazil, Sparianthis barroana Chamberlin from Panama, and five new species, namely: Uaiuara quyguaba sp. nov. from the states of Amazonas, Pará and Amapá; Uaiuara ope sp. nov. from Acre and Uaiuara jirau sp. nov. from Rondônia, all in northern Brazil, Uaiuara palenque sp. nov. from Ecuador and Uaiuara dianae sp. nov. from Peru. The genus is easily distinguished from the remaining Neotropical Sparianthinae by the very recurved anterior eye row, the large number of ventral spines on tibiae of legs I-II, the retrolateral grove on the male palpal cymbium and the convoluted duct system of the female vulva. In addition, the female of S. barroana and the male of S. amazonica are described for the first time. The latter species is newly recorded from Colombia, Suriname, Ecuador and Bolivia.

  7. Localized neurofibromatosis of the female genital system: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laencina, Ana M; Martínez Díaz, Francisco; Izquierdo Sanjuanes, Blanca; Vicente Sánchez, Elena M; Fernandez Salmerón, Rosario; Meseguer Peña, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis within the female genital tract is uncommon. The vulva is the most frequent genital location, but it has rarely been reported in the context of the vagina, uterine cervix or ovaries. In spite of its rarity, neurofibroma is a neoplasm that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses, especially in patients with neurofibromatosis. In this paper we describe the case of a 71-year-old patient with pelvic pain and a uterine mass who underwent a hysterectomy after having been diagnosed with an 11-cm neurofibroma occupying the myometrium of the entire uterine corpus. There were no neurofibromas in the endometrium, serosa, fallopian tubes or ovaries. The patient had an unknown von Recklinghausen's disease. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Complete uterine prolapse without uterine mucosal eversion in a queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliardi, E; Di Ianni, F; Parmigiani, E; Cantoni, A M; Bresciani, C

    2014-04-01

    A five-year-old female cat weighing 3 kg was presented by the owner after noticing a large pink, bilobed mass protruding through the vulva during labour. The cat was in good condition, with appropriate lactation, and the newborn kittens were nursing normally. The uterus was not reverted or invaginated at examination, and there was rupture of the mesovarium, mesometrium and uterine-vaginal connection around the cervix. Manual reduction of the prolapsed uterus was not possible because of torn ligaments. A coeliotomy was performed to remove the ovaries, and the apex of the uterine horns was passed by the vaginal route. The remaining part of the mesometrium was disconnected, and the prolapsed uterus was removed. The queen and kittens were discharged from the hospital on the second day after surgery. An unusual feature of this case is that the prolapse was complete, without eversion of any part of the uterus through a vaginal tear.

  9. The Effectiveness of Vaginal Contraceptive Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金毓翠; 丁家佩; 董吟秋; 董炳麟; 许雪芬

    1994-01-01

    The vaginal contraceptive sponge is made of polyurethane containing 1 g of nonoxynot-9, The gross cumulative twelve month life table pregnancy rate of 352 cases using vaginal contraceptive sponge was 5.7/ 100 women and the method pregnancy rate was 2. 3/ 100 women. The gross cumulative continuation rate per 100 women was 74. Only 2 patients (1,0/ 100 women) suffering from vaginitis and itching of vulva no longer wished to continue in the stud). Over the course of the study no significant changes were observed in any of the laboratory parameters such as vagina & cervix smear etc. that had been monitored. This modality associated with few side effects and its effectiveness rate and also indicated a protection from the risk of acquring of sex-transmitted diseases.

  10. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K W D′Hauwers

    2009-01-01

    We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  11. Malignant Melanoma of the Urethra: A Rare Histologic Subdivision of Vulvar Cancer with a Poor Prognosis

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    Veronika Günther

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour that is difficult to diagnose and treat, resulting in a poor prognosis. In this paper, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was referred to a gynaecologist because of a urethral mass that mimicked a caruncle. The tumour was removed by local excision, and a pathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Distal urethrectomy was performed after three months with no evidence of residual tumour. There was no evidence of disease at a six-year followup. In this paper, we compare the epidemiology, treatment, staging, and prognosis of vulvar cancer in general to malignant melanoma of the vulva in particular.

  12. Abordaje de lesiones por pénfigo ampolloso en prolapso genital

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    Olga Barredo González

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades bullosas o ampollares comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de cuadros cuya lesión elemental común es la ampolla. Los pénfigos y los penfigoides pertenecen al grupo de las enfermedades bullosas de origen autoinmunitario. El prolapso genital es el descenso o desplazamiento de los órganos pélvicos, a través de la vagina y en dirección a la vulva, que se produce como consecuencia del fallo de sus elementos de suspensión y sustentación así como la inervación y musculatura del sistema urinario e intestinal. En este caso presentamos nuestra experiencia en el manejo y tratamiento tópico de lesiones por pénfigo ampolloso en prolapso visceropélvico total que dificultaban la cirugía.

  13. 扁平苔藓样传染性软疣1例%Lichen planus-like molluscum contagiosum:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 潘艺; 江佳; 李小静

    2015-01-01

    患者,男,36岁。外阴部丘疹、苔藓样斑块20余年,偶有瘙痒及疼痛。皮肤科检查见阴囊左侧及腹股沟处紫蓝色条索状斑块,稍隆起,其上可见蜡样灰白色鳞屑。组织病理检查符合传染性软疣。%A 36-year-old male presented with papules and lichenoid plaques on vulva for more than 20 years, with itching and pain. Physical examination showed blue-violet strip plaque with waxy grey scales on the surface. The pathological feature of the lesion was in accordance with the diagnosis of molluscum contagi-osum.

  14. Detección de papiloma virus humano y genes supresores tumorales P16 y P53 en carcinomas de región genital extena

    OpenAIRE

    Godínez Martínez, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    La implicación del papiloma virus humano (HPV) en carcinomas de cérvix está totalmente demostrada, pero esta infección se puede producir en otras regiones anatómicas con similares consecuencias patológicas. El estudio presenta la detección de HPV en carcinomas de pene y vulva mediante PCR, analizando la sensibilidad de diferentes sistemas, primers GP5+/6* y MY09/11. También se lleva a cabo la detección inmunohistoquímica de proteínas celulares como posibles marcadores diagnóstico de infección...

  15. RBP2 belongs to a family of demethylases, specific for tri-and dimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl; Cloos, Paul A C;

    2007-01-01

    that the JARID1 proteins RBP2, PLU1, and SMCX are histone demethylases specific for di- and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4). Consistent with a role for the JARID1 Drosophila homolog Lid in regulating expression of homeotic genes during development, we show that RBP2 is displaced from Hox genes during...... embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation correlating with an increase of their H3K4me3 levels and expression. Furthermore, we show that mutation or RNAi depletion of the C. elegans JARID1 homolog rbr-2 leads to increased levels of H3K4me3 during larval development and defects in vulva formation. Taken...... together, these results suggest that H3K4me3/me2 demethylation regulated by the JARID1 family plays an important role during development....

  16. Pedicle Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction after Pelvic Tumor Resection: A Case Report

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    Robert M. Whitfield

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old female with a locally advanced urologic malignancy previously managed with resection, diversion, and postoperative radiation therapy presented for management of her recurrent cancer that had eroded through the soft tissues of the left inner thigh and vulva. On all staging studies the tumor involved the left common femoral artery, and vein, both above and below the inguinal ligament. The difficulty with such tumors is the availability of tissue to reconstruct the defect. The patient had a history of deep venous thrombosis in the femoral venous system. A local flap was the most logical type of reconstruction. The patient had a right lower quadrant ureterostomy with a large parastomal hernia which further limited the local flap options. An anterolateral thigh flap from the opposite thigh was used to reconstruct the soft tissue deficit in this patient. This resurfaced the defect and provided coverage for the vascular reconstruction.

  17. Venous angioarchitecture of the bovine female genital organ Angioarquitetura venosa do órgão genital da fêmea bovina

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    M.M. Gioso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The venous angioarchitecture of the non-pregnant female genital organs from five cattle obtained from a slaughterhouse was studied for possible anastomoses of the vulva and vagina vasa and the uterus-ovary vein, with the aid of the X-ray technique. In the laboratory, a branch of the caudal vaginal vein was injected with radiographic contrast. Vaginal vein formed and anastomotic network in the ventral surface of the uterus between the right and left sides. The genitals present anastomoses of the vulvar and vaginal veins with vasa of cervix, body and uterine horns and suggest that a portion of luteolytic agents injected through intravulvosubmucosal route can be transported directly to the ovary through a local route before reaching the systemic circulation.Investigou-se a angioarquitetura venosa da genitália de fêmeas bovinas não prenhes, para avaliar a presença de possíveis anastomoses dos vasos provenientes da região da vulva e da vagina com a veia útero-ovariana, usando-se cinco peças obtidas em abatedouros. No laboratório, um ramo da veia vaginal caudal, infundido com contraste radiográfico intravascular, foi submetido à radiografia. Observou-se que a veia vaginal forma intensa rede de anastomoses na superfície ventral do útero, entre os antímeros direito e esquerdo. As genitálias apresentaram anastomoses dos vasos vulvares e vaginais com vasos da cérvice, corpo e cornos uterinos, sugerindo que parte de um agente luteolítico administrado via intravulvosubmucosa pode ser transportado diretamente aos ovários por uma rota local, sem atingir a circulação sistêmica.

  18. A new specie of Artigasia Christie, 1934 (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae from a Cuban passalid beetle

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    Jans Morffe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artigasia milerai sp. nov. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae is described from the gut caeca of Passalus interstitialis Escholtz, 1829 (Coleoptera: Passalidae from Escaleras de Jaruco, La Habana province, Cuba (type locality and El Pan de Matanzas, Matanzas province, Cuba. It differs from A. ensicrinata (Hunt, 1981, A. monodelpha (Travassos & Kloss, 1958 and A. pauliani Théodoridès, 1955 by having ridged eggs and a comparatively shorter tail. It also differs from A. monodelpha and A. pauliani by having a comparatively shorter esophagus, the vulva being slightly more posterior, and the extension of the cervical spines. It is close to A. ankaratrae Van Waerebeke, 1973 but can be differentiated by a stouter body, a comparatively shorter oesophagus and and the extension of the lateral alae.Se describe a Artigasia milerai sp. nov. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae parásita de los ciegos intestinales de Passalus interstitialis Escholtz, 1829 (Coleoptera: Passalidae de Escaleras de Jaruco, provincia La Habana, Cuba (localidad tipo y El Pan de Matanzas, provincia Matanzas, Cuba. La misma difiere de A. ensicrinata (Hunt, 1981; A. monodelpha (Travassos & Kloss, 1958 and A. pauliani Théodoridès, 1955 por tener los huevos ornamentados con crestas longitudinales y la cola, en proporción, más corta. Además, se diferencia de A. monodelpha y A. pauliani por el esófago, en proporción, más corto, la vulva ligeramente más posterior y la extensión de las espinas cervicales. A. milerai sp. nov. es cercana a A. ankaratrae Van Waerebeke, 1973, pero se diferencia por el cuerpo más robusto, el esófago proporcionalmente más corto y la extensión de las alas laterales.

  19. Anatomy and arterial vascularization of female genital system of margay (Leopardus weidii

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    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The margay (Leopardus wiedii belongs to Carnivora order and present’s nocturnal habits. There are few studies using this specie, whereas it is between feline species vulnerable to extinction. Thus, we propose a descriptive study about female genital system and behavior of the arteries responsible for the blood supply to these organs in margay. It used one exemplary victim of poaching that to death. The animal was stored in freezer. Subsequent to defrost at room temperature, it proceeded with the solution injection Leoprene Latex ‘650’ colored in red for better identification of vessels before the adjacent strutures. The specimen was fixed using an aqueous 10% formaldehyde with subsequent immersion in the same fixative solution. The genital system were dissected and the organs and arterial branches were identified and photodocumented. The female genital system of margay consists of a pair of ovaries, uterus with a pair of uterine horns, vagina and vulva. The arterial distribution of female system have a common vessel to iliac artery which branches and leads to internal pudendal artery sends a branch along the pudendal nerve pathway, urogenital artery. This, we performed divided into two branches, cranial and caudal. The cranial branch irrigates laterally cervix and uterine horns and caudal branch, vagina and vulva. The ovarian arteries, peers, originate from abdominal aorta only vascularization the ovaries. The female genital system and vascularization of the genitals organs of margay resembles of domestic carnivores including cats and some wild felines like the ocelot and find differences with the same description held in other domestic and wild species.

  20. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

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    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  1. Wnt and EGF pathways act together to induce C. elegans male hook development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Seah, Adeline; Herman, Michael A; Ferguson, Edwin L; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W

    2009-03-15

    Comparative studies of vulva development between Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematode species have provided some insight into the evolution of patterning networks. However, molecular genetic details are available only in C. elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. To extend our knowledge on the evolution of patterning networks, we studied the C. elegans male hook competence group (HCG), an equivalence group that has similar developmental origins to the vulval precursor cells (VPCs), which generate the vulva in the hermaphrodite. Similar to VPC fate specification, each HCG cell adopts one of three fates (1 degree, 2 degrees, 3 degrees), and 2 degrees HCG fate specification is mediated by LIN-12/Notch. We show that 2 degrees HCG specification depends on the presence of a cell with the 1 degree fate. We also provide evidence that Wnt signaling via the Frizzled-like Wnt receptor LIN-17 acts to specify the 1 degree and 2 degrees HCG fate. A requirement for EGF signaling during 1 degree fate specification is seen only when LIN-17 activity is compromised. In addition, activation of the EGF pathway decreases dependence on LIN-17 and causes ectopic hook development. Our results suggest that WNT plays a more significant role than EGF signaling in specifying HCG fates, whereas in VPC specification EGF signaling is the major inductive signal. Nonetheless, the overall logic is similar in the VPCs and the HCG: EGF and/or WNT induce a 1 degree lineage, and LIN-12/NOTCH induces a 2 degrees lineage. Wnt signaling is also required for execution of the 1 degree and 2 degrees HCG lineages. lin-17 and bar-1/beta-catenin are preferentially expressed in the presumptive 1 degree cell P11.p. The dynamic subcellular localization of BAR-1-GFP in P11.p is concordant with the timing of HCG fate determination.

  2. C. elegans EVI1 proto-oncogene, EGL-43, is necessary for Notch-mediated cell fate specification and regulates cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byung Joon; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    During C. elegans development, LIN-12 (Notch) signaling specifies the anchor cell (AC) and ventral uterine precursor cell (VU) fates from two equivalent pre-AC/pre-VU cells in the hermaphrodite gonad. Once specified, the AC induces patterned proliferation of vulva via expression of LIN-3 (EGF) and then invades into the vulval epithelium. Although these cellular processes are essential for the proper organogenesis of vulva and appear to be temporally regulated, the mechanisms that coordinate the processes are not well understood. We computationally identified egl-43 as a gene likely to be expressed in the pre-AC/pre-VU cells and the AC, based on the presence of an enhancer element similar to the one that transcribes lin-3 in the same cells. Genetic epistasis analyses reveal that egl-43 acts downstream of or parallel to lin-12 in AC/VU cell fate specification at an early developmental stage, and functions downstream of fos-1 as well as upstream of zmp-1 and him-4 to regulate AC invasion at a later developmental stage. Characterization of the egl-43 regulatory region suggests that EGL-43 is a direct target of LIN-12 and HLH-2 (E12/47), which is required for the specification of the VU fate during AC/VU specification. EGL-43 also regulates basement membrane breakdown during AC invasion through a FOS-1-responsive regulatory element that drives EGL-43 expression in the AC and VU cells at the later stage. Thus, egl-43 integrates temporally distinct upstream regulatory events and helps program cell fate specification and cell invasion.

  3. The Let-60 Locus Controls the Switch between Vulval and Nonvulval Cell Fates in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M.; Aroian, R. V.; Sternberg, P. W.

    1990-01-01

    During induction of the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite vulva by the anchor cell of the gonad, six multipotent vulval precursor cells (VPCs) have two distinct fates: three VPCs generate the vulva and the other three VPCs generate nonspecialized hypodermis. Genes that control the fates of the VPCs in response to the anchor cell signal are defined by mutations that cause all six VPCs to generate vulval tissue (Multivulva or Muv) or that cause all six VPCs to generate hypodermis (Vulvaless or Vul). Seven dominant Vul mutations were isolated as dominant suppressors of a lin-15 Muv mutation. These mutations are dominant alleles of the gene let-60, previously identified only by recessive lethal mutations. Our genetic studies of these dominant Vul recessive lethal mutations, recessive lethal mutations, intragenic revertants of the dominant Vul mutations, and the closely mapping semidominant multivulva lin-34 mutations suggest that: (1) loss-of-function mutations of let-60 are recessive lethal at a larval stage, but they also cause a Vul phenotype if the lethality is rescued maternally by a lin-34 gain-of-function mutation. (2) The dominant Vul alleles of let-60 are dominant negative mutations whose gene products compete with wild-type activity. (3) lin-34 semidominant Muv alleles are either gain-of-function mutations of let-60 or gain-of-function mutations of an intimately related gene that elevates let-60 activity. We propose that let-60 activity controls VPC fates. In a wild-type animal, reception by a VPC of inductive signal activates let-60, and it generates into a vulval cell type; in absence of inductive signal, let-60 activity is low and the VPC generates hypodermal cells. Our genetic interaction studies suggest that let-60 acts downstream of let-23 and lin-15 and upstream of lin-1 and lin-12 in the genetic pathway specifying the switch between vulval and nonvulval cell types. PMID:2076820

  4. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancers: a critical review of the literature

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    Dursun Polat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although it does not have a long history of sentinel node evaluation (SLN in female genital system cancers, there is a growing number of promising study results, despite the presence of some aspects that need to be considered and developed. It has been most commonly used in vulvar and uterine cervivcal cancer in gynecological oncology. According to these studies, almost all of which are prospective, particularly in cases where Technetium-labeled nanocolloid is used, sentinel node detection rate sensitivity and specificity has been reported to be 100%, except for a few cases. In the studies on cervical cancer, sentinel node detection rates have been reported around 80–86%, a little lower than those in vulva cancer, and negative predictive value has been reported about 99%. It is relatively new in endometrial cancer, where its detection rate varies between 50 and 80%. Studies about vulvar melanoma and vaginal cancers are generally case reports. Although it has not been supported with multicenter randomized and controlled studies including larger case series, study results reported by various centers around the world are harmonious and mutually supportive particularly in vulva cancer, and cervix cancer. Even though it does not seem possible to replace the traditional approaches in these two cancers, it is still a serious alternative for the future. We believe that it is important to increase and support the studies that will strengthen the weaknesses of the method, among which there are detection of micrometastases and increasing detection rates, and render it usable in routine clinical practice.

  5. Thirty years since foundation of the department of gynaecology at the Institute of Clinical Oncology in Bratislava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manka, I. (Komenskeho Univerzita, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Gynaecological Dept.)

    1980-09-01

    In 1949, the department of gynaecology was set up. After a brief historical draft describing the development of the oncological center, we draw attention to the advantages of its multidisciplinary structure demonstrated in our cooperation with that of radiotherapy. The kinds of treatment and their results are reported with regard to the carcinomas of the cervix, corpus and vulva. Radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the cervix using a modified Stockholm method covers two sessions, with an interval of two to three weeks during which 60 mg radium (= 1600 mgh) intrauterine and twice 30 mg radium (= 1600 mgh) intravaginal are applied for 26.5 hours combined with a percutaneous irradiation of the parametries with 3500 to 4000 rad (gammatron, /sup 60/Co; betatron, 42 MeV). We prefer surgical therapy for the carcinoma of the cervix in the Ia, Ib and IIa stages up to the age of 65. We operated on 604 patients between 1957 and 1978, all of them receiving additional radiotherapy, a third preoperative irradiation. Carcinoma of the corpus has rarely been treated surgically in account of the negative selection of our patients. The radiotherapeutic procedure mostly applied is the tamponade of the uterine cavum whereby twelfe 10-mg radium tubes are applied in two sessions for 25 hours, 6000 mgh in all, plus a vaginal implant of 1500 mgh in stage-I cases, and in stage-II cases 3000 mgh intravaginally and a percutaneous telecobalt-dose of 3000 to 4000 rad. Carcinoma of the vulva is, if possible, primarily to be treated surgically by radical vulvectomy and lymphadenectomy of the inguinal and subinguinal lymphodes. Postoperative radiotherapy is carried out, when the lymphodes are positive.

  6. Schizocordulia gen. nov. related to Aeschnosom Selys with description of the female and additional data on the male of Schizocordulia rustica (Selys comb. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae Schizocordulia gen. nov. relacionado a Aeschnosoma Selys com descrição da fêmea e dados adicionais sobre o macho de Schizocordulia rustica (Selys comb. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo B.M. Machado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The monotypical genus Schizocordulia is created for Schizocordulia rustica (Selys, 1871 comb. nov. known from a single male from Bahia, Brazil lacking the anal appendages. The female is described and the redescription of the male made by GEIJKES (1970 is completed by the description and illustration of the penis, the anal appendages and the pilose plate. The main characters separating the new genus from the closely related Aeschnosoma Selys, 1870 are the bifid male inferior appendage, the very long internal branch of the hamulus, the presence of a pilose plate on the male 7th abdominal segment, and the large and complex valvula vulvae of the female. The study was based on 33 males and 2 females, which allowed an evaluation of the intraspecific variations in Schizocordulia rustica.Cria-se o gênero monotípico Schizocordulia para Schizocordulia rustica (Selys, 1871 comb. nov. espécie conhecida de um único exemplar macho sem os apêndices anais. Descreve-se a fêmea e a redescrição do macho feita por GEIJKES (1970 é completada pela descrição e ilustração do pênis, da placa pilosa e dos apêndices anais. Os principais caracteres utilizados para separar Schizocordulia do gênero afim Aeschnosoma Selys, 1870 são o apêndice inferior do macho bífido, o ramo interno do hâmulo muito longo, a presença de uma placa pilosa no 7º segmento abdominal e a válvula da vulva da fêmea grande e complexa. Este estudo foi baseado em 33 machos e 2 fêmeas, o que permitiu uma avaliação das variações intraespecíficas em Schizocordulia rustica.

  7. Abnormal position of lymph nodes in a freemartin sheep

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    Salazar PA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela M Gonella-Diaza, Luz Zoraya Duarte, Sergio Dominguez, Pedro A SalazarClínica de Grandes Animales, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga, Santander, ColombiaAbstract: In this freemartin case report the authors present the clinical and morphological findings of a freemartin ewe with an abnormal position of two lymph nodes. Freemartins, infertile females from mixed-sex twin pregnancies, are chimeras, having two cell populations: one of their own (XX DNA and one from their male twin (XY DNA. Freemartins can have varying degrees of phenotypic masculinization, including, in some cases, having active male gonads and exhibiting male behaviors such as heat detection and aggressiveness. During the clinical examination of the freemartin ewe, a morphological abnormality of the vulva, the presence of scrotal sacs, and a lack of mammary tissue development were noted. On inspection of the vaginal channel, an extremely enlarged clitoris, resembling a penis, was found. The clinical evidence suggested freemartinism. After the karyotyping diagnosis confirmation, a necropsy was performed and samples were taken for histology and immunohistochemistry. There were two structures found in the scrotal sacs; however, these were found to be lymph nodes, not testicles, and this was confirmed by CD3 lymph protein coloration. On histological study, the phallic structure showed corpus cavernosum and tunica albuginea. The testicles were found retained inside the abdominal cavity, with the presence of atrophic seminiferous tubules. Although the position of the testicles in freemartins has been reported as highly variable, this is the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, that a case has been reported where lymph nodes have been found inside the scrotal sacs. It is possible that these were the inguinal lymph nodes, trapped inside the scrotum during fetal growth and development.Keywords: freemartinism

  8. Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; Galvez, Hugo; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of estrus in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The objective of the first experiment was to assess the efficacy of estrus diagnosis by serum estradiol-17beta measurements, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance. The second experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these features for predicting the period of mating acceptance. In Experiment 1, we monitored 56 presumptive estruses in 14 captive females. Estrus was characterized by the reddish and tumescent appearance of the vulva, the presence of vaginal mucus and vaginal opening, which persisted for 4, 4, 2, and 2 days, respectively. In vaginal smears, superficial plus intermediate cells became predominant (accounting for 60% of all cells) for a 4-day period, from 2 days before the estradiol-17beta peak. Superficial cells did not attain their maximum density (45% of all cells) until approximately 1 day before the serum estradiol-17beta peak. Following estrus, superficial and intermediate cells were notably reduced and the appearance of the vulval appearance was characterized by a pale, non-tumescent vulva and vaginal closure. A complete concordance in estrus diagnosis by the 3 methodologies was observed in 35 (62.5%) of the total 56 estrus predictions. In Experiment 2, mating was confirmed in 10 out of the 14 cyclic females. Sexual receptivity was observed in the last third of the period during which secondary estrus signs were shown. In conclusion, examining the vulval appearance and taking a vaginal smear constitutes a useful method of detecting estrus and predicting the period of male acceptance of the collared peccary female. Estrus was indicated by a predominance of superficial cells, and a proportion of superficial plus intermediate cells higher than 60% in the vaginal smear.

  9. Management of Vaginal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, S B L; Agrawal, Gaurav; Mittal, Megha; Mishra, Priyanshi

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare gynecologic cancer with very little documentation. Literature search to have useful information for the management of vaginal cancer and share. We have searched the PUBMED database, Google search engine and other database. A total of 26 references were taken into account. Once spread from primary other cancers or vulva is ruled out, vaginal cancer is designated to be primary in origin. It was revealed that majority of vaginal cancers reported are squamous cell carcinomas. The most common risk factors implicated are Human Papiloma Virus, age. Most common presenting symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding,. Diagnosis requires pathological confirmation. Management depends on staging work-up. Vaginal cancer is staged by FIGO system of staging and TNM staging. There are many prognostic factors influencing the choice of treatment. Lymph node metastasis is one of the important prognostic factors, others to mention are histology, size, age. In a recent SEER analysis of over 2000 patients, the 5 year disease specific survival was 84% for stage 1, 75% for stage II and 57% for advanced tumors. Early carcinomas are generally treated with either surgery or radiation therapy. Advanced cancers are treated with radiation therapy with simultaneous administration of combined chemotherapy. Preventive strategies include safe sex and HPV vaccination. Primary vaginal cancer is a rare entity, if there is no history of cancer cervix or vulva in past or absence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma or vulvar carcinoma within 5 years is usually considered as primary vaginal cancer. Though early stage vaginal cancers have better outcome treated with surgery or radiotherapy or surgery followed by radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone is preferred mode of treatment in vaginal cancers.

  10. Evolutionarily dynamic roles of a PUF RNA-binding protein in the somatic development of Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinwen; Haag, Eric S

    2014-05-01

    Gene duplication and divergence has emerged as an important aspect of developmental evolution. The genomes of Caenorhabditis nematodes encode an ancient family of PUF RNA-binding proteins. Most have been implicated in germline development, and are often redundant with paralogs of the same sub-family. An exception is Cbr-puf-2 (one of three Caenorhabditis briggsae PUF-2 sub-family paralogs), which is required for development past the second larval stage. Here, we provide a detailed functional characterization of Cbr-puf-2. The larval arrest of Cbr-puf-2 mutant animals is caused by inefficient breakdown of bacterial food, which leads to starvation. Cbr-puf-2 is required for the normal grinding cycle of the muscular terminal bulb during early larval stages, and is transiently expressed in this tissue. In addition, rescue of larval arrest reveals that Cbr-puf-2 also promotes normal vulval development. It is expressed in the anchor cell (which induces vulval fate) and vulval muscles, but not in the vulva precursor cells (VPCs) themselves. This contrasts with the VPC-autonomous repression of vulval development described for the Caenorhabditis elegans homologs fbf-1/2. These different roles for PUF proteins occur even as the vulva and pharynx maintain highly conserved anatomies across Caenorhabditis, indicating pervasive developmental system drift (DSD). Because Cbr-PUF-2 shares RNA-binding specificity with its paralogs and with C. elegans FBF, we suggest that functional novelty of RNA-binding proteins evolves through changes in the site of their expression, perhaps in concert with cis-regulatory evolution in target mRNAs.

  11. Histiocitose de células de Langerhans com acometimento vulvar e com resposta terapêutica à talidomida: relato de caso Langerhans cells histiocytosis with vulvar involvement and responding to thalidomide therapy: case report

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    Lana Bezerra Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A histiocitose de células de Langerhans é representante de um raro grupo de síndromes histiocitárias, sendo caracterizada pela proliferação das células de Langerhans. Suas manifestações variam de lesão solitária a envolvimento multissistêmico, sendo o acometimento vulvar incomum. Segue-se o relato de caso refratário da doença limitada à pele, em mulher de 57 anos. A paciente apresentava história de pápulas eritematosas ulceradas em couro cabeludo, face, vulva, tronco e axila há seis anos. O diagnóstico da doença é difícil, sendo confirmado neste caso através de estudo imuno-histoquímico e se obteve resposta terapêutica e eficaz, com a administração de talidomidaLangerhans cell histiocytosis is a member of a group of rare histiocytic syndromes and is characterized for the proliferation of histiocytes called Langerhans'cells. Its manifestations vary from a solitary injury to systemic involvement, and vulvar lesions are uncommon. We describe a refractory case of cutaneous limited disease in a 57-year-old woman. She presented with a 6-year history of an erythematous papular eruption of the scalp, face, vulva, trunk and axillae. The diagnosis is difficult and in this case it was confirmed through immunohistochemical study and clinical improvement was achieved with thalidomide

  12. bFGF、FGFR-1在外阴鳞状上皮增生组织中表达及意义%Expression of bFGF and FGFR-1 in Vulvar Squamous Cell Hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖慧敏; 邓新粮; 薛敏; 孙信

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of bFGF and FGFR - 1 before and after the therapy of HIFU in vulvar squamous cell hyperplasia, and to found out the possible mechanism. Methods bFGF and FGFR - 1 were positively expressed in the vulvae of 30 patients before and after HIFU treatment by the immunohistochemistry method, which were used to evaluate the possible mechanism. Results The expression of FGFR - 1 in lesions of SH (4/30, 1 3.3 % ) was significantly lower than that in normal skin (13/30, 43.3%), (P<0.05). The expression of bFGF in lesions of SH (5/30, 16.7%) was significantly lower than that in normal skin (14/30, 46.7%), (P<0.05). One month after the treatment, the expression of bFGF (26/30, 86.7%) and FGFR- 1 (24/30, 80%) was increased significantly, (P<0.01). Three month after the treatment, no statistically significant difference was found in the expression of bFGF and FGFR - 1 between normal vulvae of the pationts and vulvae of normal women (P>0.05). Conclusions HIFU can effectively improve the expression of bFGF and FGFR - 1, which may be one of the most important mechanisms of its therapy. The decreasing of the expresion of bFGF and FGFR- 1 may be related to the onset of vulvar squamous cell hyperplasia.%目的 分析聚焦超声(HIFU)治疗对外阴鳞状上皮细胞增生组织中bFGF和FGFR-1表达的影响,探讨其可能的治疗机制.方法 采用免疫组化SABC法,检测30例患者治疗前后外阴鳞状上皮细胞增生组织中碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF)及其受体成纤维细胞生长因子受体-1(FGFR-1)的表达.结果 外阴鳞状上皮细胞增牛病损区皮肤bFGF及FGFR-1表达均较正常皮肤组织明显降低(分别为16.7%、46.7%),差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 1.HIFU能有效提高组织中bFGF、FGFR-1的表达,可能是治疗外阴鳞状上皮细胞增生的分子机制之一.2.bFGF、FGFR-1表达的降低可能与外阴鳞状上皮细胞增生的发病有关.

  13. Nuevos hallazgos en la cueva de Ekain (Gipuzkoa, País Vasco

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    Jesús ALTUNA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se da cuenta de nuevos hallazgos en la cueva de Ekain, a raíz de la realización de la réplica llevada a cabo de dicha cueva. En dos de los casos, probables vulva y bóvido, se aprovechan accidentes de la roca, tales como bordes rocosos, volúmenes, grietas y hoyuelos, cosa repetida en numerosas figuras de esta cueva. La vulva es un hoyo fusiforme relleno de pintura roja, igual a la del caballo contiguo. El posible bóvido es un reborde rocoso, que puede sugerir el vientre de un animal al que se han señalado con trazos negros el arranque de la pata anterior y zonas de la cabeza y dorso. Por ello comienza el trabajo indicando estos aprovechamientos en figuras ya conocidas anteriormente. En los demás casos se trata de líneas, puntos y manchas negras y rojas. Así un conjunto de ellas están en la galería Auntzei cerca del salmón y de las pequeñas cabras que se encuentran en esta galería, tanto a un lado como al otro de la misma. Son en total 8 manchas rojas, 1 negra, 5 puntos rojos, 1 negro y 5 trazos negros. En la zona de Erdialde, zona central de la cueva, hay más manchas rojas así como líneas y puntos negros, que suman un total de 4 manchas rojas, 2 puntos rojos, 4 puntos negros y 7 trazos o líneas negras.ABSTRACT: We describe the new findings in Ekain cave due to the replica that has been done of this cave. In two cases, “vulva and bovid”, the relief of the wall has been used such as edges of the rock, volumes, cracks or small holes, and this has been repited in many other paintings of this cave. The “vulva” is a fusiform hole with red painting in it, the same red painting as the horse nearby. The posible “bovid” is a ridge in the rock that may suggest the abdomen of an animal where the “legs and arms” have been removed as well as the head and the “torax”. This is the reason why the paper starts describing the use of the cave relief in other known cases in this cave. The rest of the new findings are

  14. Caracterização histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica de neoplasmas mesenquimais da genitália em 43 cadelas

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    Suyene O. de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os arquivos de biópsia do período de 2000 a 2010 do SPV-UFRGS foram revisados e levantados os casos de neoplasias mesenquimais de genitália (útero, cérvix, vagina e vulva de cadelas. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo de 43 casos, incluindo caracterização histológica, coloração tricrômico de Masson (TM e imuno-histoquímica (IHQ. As principais raças acometidas foram Cocker, Poodle e Pastor Alemão, porém o maior número de casos foi observado em cães sem raça definida (SRD. A idade média dessas cadelas foi de 10,6 anos (variação de 3 a 10 anos. Quanto à localização dos tumores, 44,2% estavam na vagina, 27,9% no útero, 23,3% na vulva e 4,6% na cérvix. Histologicamente, 46,5% eram leiomioma, 41,9% fibroleiomioma, 7,0% fibroma e 4,6% leiomiossarcoma. Na coloração de TM, os fibromas apresentaram todas as células neoplásicas coradas em azul (colágeno, os leiomiomas e os leiomiossarcomas apresentaram menos de 50% de colágeno em meio às células neoplásicas musculares e os fibroleiomiomas mais de 50%. Na IHQ, os fibromas apresentaram marcação positiva para vimentina e negativa para desmina. Todos os leiomiomas eram positivos para vimentina (em mais de 50% células e para desmina (75% dos casos em mais de 50% das células e 25% em menos de 50%. Em um dos casos de leiomiossarcoma houve imunomarcação para vimentina e ausente para desmina e, no outro, ocorreu o oposto. Os fibroleiomiomas apresentaram marcação para vimentina em 94,4% (em mais de 50% células e para desmina em 77,8% (64,3% em menos de 50% das células e 35,7% em mais de 50%.

  15. Study on Relationship between Reproductive Tract Infections and Personal Hygiene Behaviors among Vulnerable Married Women in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-yu WEN; Jun-qing WU; Xi-hua ZHONG; Wen-ying LI; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Er-sheng GAO

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To understand the influence of personal hygiene behaviors on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and to provide evidence for the intervention among married women at childbearing ageMethods:A total of 1 631 married women in 60 residence neighborhoods from 4 streets and 2 stagnant enterprises were selected by multistage cluster random sampling and interviewed face-to-face through questionnaires, laboratory tests assay and gynecological examination. All data were analyzed by SAS 8.2. Results:The positive detection rates of five target pathogens, trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans, G.vaginalis, chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, in the study were 3.04%, 5.04%, 1.52%, 6.68%, and 0.12%, respectively. Personal hygiene practices and sexual behaviors among married women in the study were good in general. The vast majority of women (98.77%) rinsed their vulvae every day and more than half of the women (53.03%) took bath every day. In terms of the prevalence of endogenous infection, there were statistical differences between women who had different frequencies of rinsing their vulvae and taking bath; and for the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection, there were significant differences between women whose husband had different frequency of washing their external genital organs before sexual intercourses each time. The mostly adopted contraceptive methods among women ranked by frequency were intra-uterine devices (IUD) (68.69%), male condom (16.69%) and safe period (6.20%), among which male condom could prevent sexually transmitted infections. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the frequency of taking bath, the husband washing his external genital organ before sexual intercourse and the age of marriage were the influencing factors of RTIs, too.Conclusion:It is very urgent that health educational intervention of RTIs among married women be conducted and especially the knowledge on condom's double effects on contraception and

  16. Postembryonic morphology in epsilonematidae, with a discussion on the variability of caudal gland outlets.

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    Raes, Maarten; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Vanreusel, Ann

    2006-03-01

    A new species of Akanthepsilonema and the first-stage juvenile of Glochinema trispinatum are described. Furthermore, additional morphological information is provided for Triepsilonema tripapillata. Animals originate from a cold-water coral degradation zone in the Porcupine Seabight area (North-East Atlantic Ocean). Akanthepsilonema sinecornibus sp. n. differs from A. heUeouetae in number of body annules, sexual dimorphism in amphid size, absence of copulatory thorns in males, absence of large spines and horns, shape of the copulatory apparatus, and position of ambulatory setae relative to vulva in females. The genus diagnosis for Akanthepsilonema is adjusted to incorporate the new species. Akanthepsilonema mainly differs from every other genus in the family by the combination of six rows of ambulatory setae situated around the vulva in females and eight subcephalic setae not displaced toward the anterior part of the head capsule. Small differences between the Papua New Guinea and the Porcupine Seabight populations of T. tripapillata indicate minimal intraspecific variability. Second-stage juveniles from Papua New Guinea have two rows of three ambulatory setae, whereas Porcupine Seabight specimens have two rows of four ambulatory setae. First- and fourth-stage juveniles of T. tripapillata are described for the first time. Literature data and personal observations showed that the molting of first-stage juveniles into second-stage juveniles and of third-stage juveniles into fourth-stage juveniles involves a decrease in the number of body rings, resulting in a loss of flexibility which is possibly compensated for by the development (I-II) or the doubling of the number of rows (III-IV) of ambulatory setae. This decrease is also linked with the formation of the head capsule and the smooth tail tip, although intergeneric variability is evident. The molting of second-stage juveniles into third-stage juveniles and of fourth-stage juveniles into adults is also subject to

  17. Oestrus induction in primiparous lactating rabbits by a 48 hours mother-litter separation: endocrine and behavioural responses

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    I. Ilès

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primiparous does express low mating acceptance during lactation and different oestrus induction methods are employed to improve sexual receptivity. The aim of this work was to study the effect of a biostimulation, a 48 h doe-litter separation (DLS, in primiparous lactating rabbits on mating acceptance, external characteristics of the vulva and plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, progesterone and cortisol. Seventy primiparous does from local population were divided on day 1 after kindling into 2 equal groups: control (C, n=35, where does always had free access to the nest-box, and DLS (n=35, where free suckling was adopted, except from day 9 to day 11 post-partum (PP. Litter size was equalised to 6-7 kits. Before mating, blood samples were obtained from 10 does per group on 9th and 11th d post-partum (dpp. The results showed that the DLS treatment improved the mating acceptance on 11th dpp (88.5 vs. 54.2%; P<0.01 and the frequency of red or pink and turgid vulva (54.3 vs. 20%; P<0.01. The sexual receptivity of DLS does depended on the time for which the female was presented to the male: 60% refused mating before opening the nest-box, while 80.9% of them accepted the male after the nursing episode. Plasma levels of estradiol, testosterone and progesterone in DLS group rose from 9th to 11th dpp (+44.4; +59.2 and +82%, respectively; P<0.01 compared to C group (+6.7; –3.9 and +33.4%, respectively; P>0.05. In contrast, cortisol plasma levels were not affected by the DLS treatment (–12.4 and –14.4% for control and DLS group; P>0.05. At day 11 PP, higher plasma E2 and P4 levels were described in DLS in comparison to C, although no significant difference was found, while plasma testosterone concentrations tended to be higher in DLS (165.5±27.1 vs. 114.9±31.9 pg/mL, for DLS and C, respectively; P=0.075. In summary, the 48 h doe-litter-separation acted as an efficient oestrus inductor in primiparous lactating rabbits. Insemination of

  18. Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina): A Mycetophagous and Entomoparasitic Nematode in Infested Coconut Fruits from Balochistan, Pakistan.

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    Nasira, K; Shahina, F; Firoza, K

    2013-06-01

    Deladenus cocophilus n. sp. was isolated from infested coconut fruits in Winder, Balochistan, Pakistan. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous (insect-parasitic females) and mycetophagous (fungus-feeding) free-living females, males, and juveniles. The new species D. cocophilus resembles those species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid, namely, D. apopkaetusChitambar, 1991; D. leptosomaGagarin, 2001; D. ipiniMassey, 1974; D. laricis (Blinova and Korentchenko, 1986) Ebsarry, 1991; D. (siricidicola) caniiBedding, 1974; D. (s) imperialisBedding, 1974; D. nevexiiBedding, 1974; D. (wilsoni) proximusBedding, 1974; D. (s) rudyiBedding, 1974; D. (s) siricidicolaBedding, 1968; D. (wilsoni) wilsoniBedding, 1968 and D. minimus Chizhov and Sturhan, 1998. The new species differs from D. ipini in the absence of a post uterine sac vs. present; a = 17 to 30 vs. 35 to 40; stylet = 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm and vulva-anus = 21 to 28 vs. 35 to 48 μm. From D. apopkaetus it differs in tail length in female 22 to 28 vs. 31 to 43 μm and in the male it is 24 to 32 vs. 30 to 46 μm. It differs from D. leptosoma in the c ratio in females, c = 21 to 37 vs. 16 to 22, presence of 6 lines in lateral field vs. 10 lines and slightly longer spicules 16 to 18 vs. 15 to 16 μm. From D. laricis it differs in a shorter stylet length 8 to 10 vs. 11 to 12 μm; in the c ratio in males 16 to 22 vs. 22 to 35 and hemizonid from anterior end 76 to 90 vs. 90 to 119 μm. It also differs from the following species: D. (siricidicola) canii; D. (s) imperialis; D. nevexii; D. (wilsoni) proximus; D. (s) rudyi; D. (s) siricidicola; D. (wilsoni) wilsoni and D. minimus in having shorter tail length, lower values of a,b,c ratios and a slightly anteriorly located vulva in females.

  19. Genetic analysis of the spindle checkpoint genes san-1, mdf-2, bub-3 and the CENP-F homologues hcp-1 and hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Hajeri, Vinita A; Stewart, Anil M; Moore, Landon L; Padilla, Pamela A

    2008-02-04

    The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi) to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580) deletion mutant. The san-1(ok1580) animal has low penetrating phenotypes including an increased incidence of males, larvae arrest, slow growth, protruding vulva, and defects in vulva morphogenesis. We found that the viability of san-1(ok1580) embryos is significantly reduced when HCP-1 (CENP-F homologue), MDF-1 (MAD-1 homologue), MDF-2 (MAD-2 homologue) or BUB-3 (predicted BUB-3 homologue) are reduced by RNAi. Interestingly, the viability of san-1(ok1580) embryos is not significantly reduced when the paralog of HCP-1, HCP-2, is reduced. The phenotype of san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) embryos includes embryonic and larval lethality, abnormal organ development, and an increase in abnormal chromosome segregation (aberrant mitotic nuclei, anaphase bridging). Several of the san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) animals displayed abnormal kinetochore (detected by MPM-2) and microtubule structure. The survival of mdf-2(RNAi);hcp-1(RNAi) embryos but not bub-3(RNAi);hcp-1(RNAi) embryos was also compromised. Finally, we found that san-1(ok1580) and bub-3(RNAi), but not hcp-1(RNAi) embryos, were sensitive to anoxia, suggesting that like SAN-1, BUB-3 has a functional role as a spindle checkpoint protein. Together, these data suggest that in the C. elegans embryo, HCP-1 interacts with a subset of the spindle checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the fact that san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) animals had a severe viability defect whereas in the san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(RNAi) and san-1(ok1580);hcp-2(ok1757) animals the viability defect was not as severe suggesting that hcp-1 and hcp-2 are not completely redundant.

  20. Genetic analysis of the spindle checkpoint genes san-1, mdf-2, bub-3 and the CENP-F homologues hcp-1 and hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Moore Landon L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580 deletion mutant. Results The san-1(ok1580 animal has low penetrating phenotypes including an increased incidence of males, larvae arrest, slow growth, protruding vulva, and defects in vulva morphogenesis. We found that the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is significantly reduced when HCP-1 (CENP-F homologue, MDF-1 (MAD-1 homologue, MDF-2 (MAD-2 homologue or BUB-3 (predicted BUB-3 homologue are reduced by RNAi. Interestingly, the viability of san-1(ok1580 embryos is not significantly reduced when the paralog of HCP-1, HCP-2, is reduced. The phenotype of san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi embryos includes embryonic and larval lethality, abnormal organ development, and an increase in abnormal chromosome segregation (aberrant mitotic nuclei, anaphase bridging. Several of the san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals displayed abnormal kinetochore (detected by MPM-2 and microtubule structure. The survival of mdf-2(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos but not bub-3(RNAi;hcp-1(RNAi embryos was also compromised. Finally, we found that san-1(ok1580 and bub-3(RNAi, but not hcp-1(RNAi embryos, were sensitive to anoxia, suggesting that like SAN-1, BUB-3 has a functional role as a spindle checkpoint protein. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that in the C. elegans embryo, HCP-1 interacts with a subset of the spindle checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the fact that san-1(ok1580;hcp-1(RNAi animals had a severe viability defect whereas in the san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(RNAi and san-1(ok1580;hcp-2(ok1757 animals the viability defect was not as severe suggesting that hcp-1 and hcp-2 are not completely redundant.

  1. Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea, a new lungworm occurring in man in Costa Rica

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    Pedro Morera

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp. is described from Costa Rica where it produces lesions in the abdominal cavity of man. It can be distinguished from other species of the genus on the basis of its size, the length of the spicules, the position of the vulva and the morphology and position of the bursal rays. The parasite localizes in the small mesenteric arteries, especially in the ileocecal region, where it produces arteritis and thrombosis. Eggs in various stages of embryonation were found scattered in the tissues of the intestinal wall and regional lymph nodes, eliciting a granulomatous inflammatory reaction with in. tense eosinophilic infiltrationLos autores hacen la descripción de Angiostrongylus costaricensis n. sp., un nuevo metastrongilideo encontrado en Costa Rica, que produce lesiones en el hombre. Esta nueva especie se puede distinguir de las otras Catorce descritas hasta ahora, en base a su tamaño, la longitud de las espículas, la posición de la vulva y la morfología y disposición de los rayos bursales. A. costaricensis es la segunda especie del género de importancia en parasitología humana. La otra especie patógena para el hombre, A. cantonensis, es responsable de una forma de meningoencefalitis eosinofílica. Los parásitos adultos, machos y hembras, se localizan en las arterias del mesenterio y de la pared intestinal, especialmente de la región ileocecal en donde provocan fenómenos inflamatorios y trombóticos que llevan a grados diversos de necrosis. La presencia de huevos en varios estados de embrionación, en el tejido de la pared intestinal y de los ganglios linfáticos regionales, produce una reacción inflamatoria granulomatosa con intensa infiltración eosinofilica. La pared intestinal se presenta engrosada, llegándose a producir cuadros de suboclusión u oclusión que obligan a intervenciones quirúrgicas de emergencia. La presencia 4e huevos en los tejidos humanos sugiere una mejor adaptación de A

  2. Infeccion natural de Speothos venaticus (Carnivora: Canidae por estadios adultos de Lagochilascaris sp. Natural infection of Speothos venaticus (Carnívora: Canidae by adult Lagochilascaris sp.

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    Gregorio S. Volcán G.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Un ejemplar adulto macho de Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842 fue muerto accidentalmente en una vía de penetración rural, situada en la región Noroeste del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, en el Municipio donde desde hace 16 años vive una paciente con lagochilascariasis. El animal conservado durante un mes por congelación y desprovisto de su piel y cabeza fue autopsiado, hallándose en la tráquea dos especímenes adultos hembras y grávidos de Lagochilascaris sp., los cuales presentaban algunas características morfológicas de sus partes blandas diferentes a Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; entretanto, distintivos estables como son la forma de los interlabios, la localización de la vulva y particularmente el tamaño y número de las depresiones de la cáscara de los huevos, inclinan a pensar que se trata de aquel parásito, a pesar de no haberse hallado vermes machos que permitiesen el estudio de las espículas y su ducto eyaculador. Fueron localizadas en cortes histológicos de laringe y tráquea profundamente situadas, secciones de formas degeneradas con características atribuíbles a Lagochilascaris sp.An adult male Speothos venaticus Lund (bush dog was found killed on a rural road in the Northeast of Bolívar State, in a locality where a patient with lagochilascariasis has lived for the past 16 years. The animal was frozen for 1 month, and after removal of the head and skin, was autopsied. Two adult gravid females of Lagochilascaris sp. were found in the trachea. Certain morphological characteristics of the soft parts differed from the description given for Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909; however, stable characters, such as the form of the interlabials, the location of the vulva, and particulary the size and number of depressions of the egg shell appear to indicate that the worms are of the above mentioned species. Unfortunately, no males were found for study of the spicules and ejaculatory duct. In histological sections of the larynx

  3. TRA-1/GLI controls the expression of the Hox gene lin-39 during C. elegans vulval development.

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    Szabó, Emese; Hargitai, Balázs; Regos, Agnes; Tihanyi, Borbála; Barna, János; Borsos, Eva; Takács-Vellai, Krisztina; Vellai, Tibor

    2009-06-15

    The vulva of the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite develops from a subset of six vulval precursor cells (VPCs) by the combined effect of the Ras, Wingless and Notch signaling cascades, and of three redundant synMuv (synthetic Multivulva) pathways grouped into classes A, B and C. Here we show that signaling via the GLI- (Glioma-associated protein) like transcription factor TRA-1, which is the terminal regulator of the C. elegans sex determination cascade, is a newly discovered pathway specifying vulval cell fates. We found that TRA-1 accumulates in, and regulates the fusion process of, cells (including the VPCs and hypodermal cells) involved in vulval patterning. TRA-1 also influenced the expression of the Hox gene lin-39, a central regulator of vulval development. Furthermore, inactivation of tra-1, which transforms animals with hermaphrodite-specific karyotype into males, promoted vulval induction in synMuv A, but not in synMuv B, mutant background. This implies that TRA-1 interacts with the class B synMuv genes, many of which are involved in chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression of cell proliferation. These results may help to understand how compromised GLI activity in humans leads to cancer. Together, we suggest that the GLI protein family involved in several key developmental processes in both invertebrates and vertebrates regulates somatic cell fates through influencing, at least in part, the expression of specific Hox genes.

  4. Giant Condyloma Acuminata in Indonesian Females with SLE under Immunosuppressant and Steroid Therapy

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    Andhika Rachman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Immunosuppressant and steroid therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE increases the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV infections, one of which is giant condyloma acuminata (GCA. To our knowledge, there is no report evaluating the correlation between immunosuppressive and steroid therapy in patients with SLE and the prevalence of GCA. Case Report. A 42-year-old female was diagnosed with SLE a year ago and has been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. In the last few months she presented GCA involving the genital area recurring almost every two months. Type 6 and 11 HPVs were identified in vulva, vagina, and cervix. Methods. PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library literature were searched from inception to July 2015. Authors screened all titles and abstracts and read full text article, and two case-control studies were found relevant. Results. SLE patients in both studies were under immunosuppressive and steroid therapy. Condyloma acuminata was diagnosed at 108 months (latest and 1 month (earliest after SLE. Type 6, 11, 16, 42, and oncogenic group of HPV were identified. Conclusions. GCA is a type of HPV infection seldom observed in SLE patients. Therefore, their correlation is still unclear. Period of time since SLE was diagnosed and GCA varies from months to years. A more thorough physical and laboratory examination leading to HPV and other infectious disease is recommended.

  5. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF TWO PARASITES INFECTING DOMESTICATED TURKEY MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO LINNAEUS, 1758 (GALLIFORMES: MELEAGRIDINAE) QENA, EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abdel-Wahed

    2015-08-01

    The work gave a detailed systematic morphology by optic and scan electron microscopy of two parasites; Raillietina echinobothriida Megnin, 1880 and Spirora meleagaris n. sp. infecting domesticated turkey, with some important description characters. SEM revealed that tegument of R. echinobothriida exhibits, filamentous, microtriches and sensory papillae densely covered the tegument of entire body, rostellum armed with two rows of hummer-shaped hooks and provide by 16-20 rows of small, rose thorn-shaped accessory spines. In addition, a number of taxonomic features in S. meleagaris n. sp. that differ from other species of the genus, mouth circular, bounded by a cuticular three circles plates, five pairs of cephalic papillae, an inner circle of two pairs situated on the wall of the buccal cavity, one pairs of larges sub-median amphids, and an outer circle of two pairs papillae. Buccal cavity supported by four chitinious cusped molar teeth anteriorly directed .Vulva near the end of the first third of the body, vulvular lips prominent. The male has unique rose like shaped pedunculated and unarranged numerous distributed sessile cervical papillae at the second third of the body that are distinguishable from other spirorid.

  6. A new species of the genus Demodex Owen, 1843 (Acari: Demodecidae) from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2015-06-01

    A new species Demodex conicus n. sp. is described based on adult and juvenile stages from the ear canals of the house mouse Mus musculus L. in Poland. The new species is most similar to D. auricularis Izdebska, Rolbiecki & Fryderyk, 2014 from the ear canals of the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus (L.), but differs in the following features: the gnathosoma is triangular, the supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) are conical, the spines on the terminal segment of palp are four, the striation on opisthosoma is fine but dense, the vulva is located at a distance of c.17 µm from posterior level of legs IV, and the male genital opening is located at the level of legs I. The differences also relate to body size and proportions, female D. conicus n. sp. being, on average slightly larger, and male significantly larger than D. auricularis. Males of the new species also have longer and more massive opisthosoma than males of D. auricularis. Demodex conicus n. sp. was found in 17.5% of the mice studied from different locations in Poland.

  7. Fournier’s Gangrene after Open Hemorrhoidectomy without a Predisposing Factor: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldeniz Karadeniz Cakmak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene (FG is a fatal synergistic infectious disease with necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and abdominal wall along with the scrotum and penis in men and vulva in women. An unpredictable case of FG two weeks after open hemorrhoidectomy in a previously healthy 55-year-old male is described. Full-thickness patchy skin necrosis of the perianal, perineal and scrotal region associated with rectal perforation was detected on admission. Prompt radical debridement together with aggressive fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotic administration was initiated. Because of rectal involvement, diverting sigmoid colostomy was fashioned. The patient survived after two additional local debridements. Nevertheless, loss of sphincter function due to massive muscle destruction led to permanent colostomy. Our case together with others reported in the literature illustrates that, although rare, FG after open hemorrhoidectomy represents a life-threatening complication to otherwise healthy patients. The development of fever and urinary retention should draw the attention of the surgeon, even if the presentation is delayed. The current literature only briefly mentions the potential risk of FG after such a common surgical procedure. However, devastating complications occur more often than anticipated. This disastrous complication without predisposing factor is discussed along with a literature review.

  8. Description and SEM Observations of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Heterodera goldeni (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) Attacking Panicum coloratum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Zafar A; Ibrahim, I K A

    2002-12-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera goldeni n. sp., is photographed and described from Qasabagrass roots (Panicum coloratum L.) in Alexandria, Egypt. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles with body length of 546 microm (450-612), stylet length of 22.6 microm (22-23.5) with anchor-shaped knobs, lateral field with 3 lines, tail 60-75 microm, hyaline tail terminus 38.4 microm (33-43); cysts are lemon-shaped, dark to light brown with an extensive sub-crystalline layer covering the entire cyst, cuticular midbody pattern zig-zag, cysts ambifenestrate, well-developed underbridge with finger-like projections, bullae present, vulva slit measuring 44-48 microm long. Males are absent, and females have heavy punctations on the cuticle. Its relationship to H. graminophila described from Florida and Louisiana and H. leuceilyma described from Florida are discussed. The present known distribution is restricted to Alexandria, Egypt. Its economic importance in rangeland grasses and cultivated crops such as rice is not known.

  9. Caracterização histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica de neoplasmas mesenquimais da genitália em 43 cadelas Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of mesenchymal neoplasms of the genitalia in 43 bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyene O. de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os arquivos de biópsia do período de 2000 a 2010 do SPV-UFRGS foram revisados e levantados os casos de neoplasias mesenquimais de genitália (útero, cérvix, vagina e vulva de cadelas. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo de 43 casos, incluindo caracterização histológica, coloração tricrômico de Masson (TM e imuno-histoquímica (IHQ. As principais raças acometidas foram Cocker, Poodle e Pastor Alemão, porém o maior número de casos foi observado em cães sem raça definida (SRD. A idade média dessas cadelas foi de 10,6 anos (variação de 3 a 10 anos. Quanto à localização dos tumores, 44,2% estavam na vagina, 27,9% no útero, 23,3% na vulva e 4,6% na cérvix. Histologicamente, 46,5% eram leiomioma, 41,9% fibroleiomioma, 7,0% fibroma e 4,6% leiomiossarcoma. Na coloração de TM, os fibromas apresentaram todas as células neoplásicas coradas em azul (colágeno, os leiomiomas e os leiomiossarcomas apresentaram menos de 50% de colágeno em meio às células neoplásicas musculares e os fibroleiomiomas mais de 50%. Na IHQ, os fibromas apresentaram marcação positiva para vimentina e negativa para desmina. Todos os leiomiomas eram positivos para vimentina (em mais de 50% células e para desmina (75% dos casos em mais de 50% das células e 25% em menos de 50%. Em um dos casos de leiomiossarcoma houve imunomarcação para vimentina e ausente para desmina e, no outro, ocorreu o oposto. Os fibroleiomiomas apresentaram marcação para vimentina em 94,4% (em mais de 50% células e para desmina em 77,8% (64,3% em menos de 50% das células e 35,7% em mais de 50%.The biopsies archives from SPV-UFRGS (2000-2010 were retrieved, and cases of mesenchymal neoplasms of genitalia (uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva of 43 bitches were revised. Also Masson's trichrome staining (MT and immunohistochemical characterization were evaluated. The main breeds affected were Cocker, Poodle and German Shepherd, but the greatest number of cases were observed in mixed

  10. Mindbomb 1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, forms a complex with RYK to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Jason D; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Yang, Peitzu; Anastas, Jamie N; Tang, Lan; Moon, Randall T

    2011-09-05

    Receptor-like tyrosine kinase (RYK) functions as a transmembrane receptor for the Wnt family of secreted protein ligands. Although RYK undergoes endocytosis in response to Wnt, the mechanisms that regulate its internalization and concomitant activation of Wnt signaling are unknown. We discovered that RYK both physically and functionally interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mindbomb 1 (MIB1). Overexpression of MIB1 promotes the ubiquitination of RYK and reduces its steady-state levels at the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that MIB1 is sufficient to activate Wnt/β-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling and that this activity depends on endogenous RYK. Conversely, in loss-of-function studies, both RYK and MIB1 are required for Wnt-3A-mediated activation of CTNNB1. Finally, we identify the Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of MIB1 and demonstrate a genetic interaction between ceMIB and lin-18/RYK in vulva development. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms of Wnt/RYK signaling and point to novel targets for the modulation of Wnt signaling.

  11. Low Dose Sex Hormone Supplementary Therapy in Women's Anti-aging Treatment%小剂量性激素补充治疗在女性抗衰老中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泉梅; 周坚红; 周金玲

    2014-01-01

    众所周知,性激素补充治疗能够有效改善妇女的绝经相关症状,而小剂量性激素补充治疗较常规剂量性激素补充治疗的不良反应更少。故本文就小剂量性激素补充治疗在女性心血管衰老、外阴阴道萎缩、性功能减退、骨质疏松、认知功能减退等方面的改善作用及其不良反应进行综述。%As we all know sex hormone supplementary therapy can effectively improve women's menopause-related symptoms. Besides,low dose sex hormone supplementary therapy has less side effects compared with the conventional dose sex hormone supplementary therapy. This article reviews the effect and side effect of low dose sex hormone supplementary therapy in terms of cardiovascular aging,atrophy of vulva and vagina,sexual dysfunction,osteoporosis and cognitive decline.

  12. Aspectos clínicos, cirúrgicos, histológicos e pós-operatórios de oito cadelas com leiomioma vaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Menegassi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reporta as características clínicas e cirúrgicas de oito casos de cadelas portadoras de leiomioma vaginal, com histórico de aumento de volume na região perineal, aparecimento de massa pela vulva, disquezia, tenesmo e disúria. As pacientes foram submetidas à cirurgia de episiotomia para ressecção da massa neoplásica, e em quatro casos foi necessária a ovariossalpingo-histerectomia. Porém, uma delas apresentou recidiva, e, no segundo procedimento cirúrgico de exérese de neoformação, o histopatológico diagnosticou leiomiossarcoma. A paciente ainda apresentou mais duas recidivas, até o proprietário optar pela eutanásia. Decorridos quatro meses, as sete cadelas diagnosticadas com leiomioma não apresentaram recidiva, e os proprietários relataram ausência de sinais relacionados com a doença descrita. Conclui-se que a episiotomia para ressecção da massa vaginal e a ovariossalpingo-histerectomia nas cadelas inteiras nos casos de tumores vaginais benignos são tratamentos satisfatórios, com bom prognóstico, ao contrário do leiomiossarcoma.

  13. cdc-25.4, a Caenorhabditis elegans Ortholog of cdc25, Is Required for Male Mating Behavior

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    Sangmi Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division cycle 25 (cdc25 is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression. Among the four cdc25 orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that cdc-25.4 mutant males failed to produce outcrossed progeny. This was not caused by defects in sperm development, but by defects in male mating behavior. The cdc-25.4 mutant males showed various defects during male mating, including contact response, backing, turning, and vulva location. Aberrant turning behavior was the most prominent defect in the cdc-25.4 mutant males. We also found that cdc-25.4 is expressed in many neuronal cells throughout development. The turning defect in cdc-25.4 mutant males was recovered by cdc-25.4 transgenic expression in neuronal cells, suggesting that cdc-25.4 functions in neurons for male mating. However, the neuronal morphology of cdc-25.4 mutant males appeared to be normal, as examined with several neuronal markers. Also, RNAi depletion of wee-1.3, a C. elegans ortholog of Wee1/Myt1 kinase, failed to suppress the mating defects of cdc-25.4 mutant males. These findings suggest that, for successful male mating, cdc-25.4 does not target cell cycles that are required for neuronal differentiation and development. Rather, cdc-25.4 likely regulates noncanonical substrates in neuronal cells.

  14. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30...... centres, 16,409 patients were observed for 121,283 (average 7.4) person-years. In total, 644 cancers occurred. Some cancers, notably hematologic malignancies, were substantially increased (SIR 3.02, 95% confidence interval, CI, 2.48, 3.63), particularly non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL (SIR 4.39, 95% CI 3.......46, 5.49) and leukemia. In addition, increased risks of cancer of the vulva (SIR 3.78, 95% CI 1.52, 7.78), lung (SIR 1.30, 95% CI 1.04, 1.60), thyroid (SIR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13, 2.61) and possibly liver (SIR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97, 3.27) were suggested. However, a decreased risk was estimated for breast (SIR 0...

  15. Preoperative radiotherapy followed by radical vulvectomy with inguinal lymphadenectomy for advanced vulvar carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotmensch, J.; Rubin, S.J.; Sutton, H.G.; Javaheri, G.; Halpern, H.J.; Schwartz, J.L.; Stewart, M.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Herbst, A.L. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A therapeutic alternative to exenteration for large locally advanced vulvar carcinoma involving the rectum, anus, or vagina is the use of preoperative radiation followed by radical surgery. Between 1980 and 1988, 13 patients with Stage III and 3 with Stage IV vulvar carcinoma involving the rectum/anus, urethra, or vagina were treated with 4000 rad to the vulva and 4500 rad to the inguinal and pelvic nodes followed by a radical vulvectomy and inguinal lymphadenectomy 4 weeks later. The overall 5 year cumulative survival was 45%. Twelve tumors regressed after radiation with 62.5% of the patients having visceral preservation while in 4 patients there was no major response to radiation and urinary or fecal diversion was required. Of the 6 recurrences 4 were central and 2 distant. Three patients with central recurrences had tumor within 1 cm of the vulvectomy margin. Complications included wet desquamation, inguinal wound separation, lymphedema, and urethral strictures. There were no operative deaths. It is concluded that the use of preoperative radiation followed by radical vulvectomy may be an alternative to pelvic exenteration in selected patients with advanced vulvar lesions.

  16. The C. elegans hox gene lin-39 controls cell cycle progression during vulval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, Daniel; Escobar-Restrepo, Juan Miguel; Leu, Philipp; Hajnal, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Cell fate specification during organogenesis is usually followed by a phase of cell proliferation to produce the required number of differentiated cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva is an excellent model to study how cell fate specification and cell proliferation are coordinated. The six vulval precursor cells (VPCs) are born at the first larval stage, but they arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle until the beginning of the third larval stage, when their fates are specified and the three proximal VPCs proliferate to generate 22 vulval cells. An epidermal growth factor (EGF) signal from the gonadal anchor cell combined with lateral DELTA/NOTCH signaling between the VPCs determine the primary (1°) and secondary (2°) fates, respectively. The hox gene lin-39 plays a key role in integrating these spatial patterning signals and in maintaining the VPCs as polarized epithelial cells. Using a fusion-defective eff-1(lf) mutation to keep the VPCs polarized, we find that VPCs lacking lin-39 can neither activate lateral NOTCH signaling nor proliferate. LIN-39 promotes cell cycle progression through two distinct mechanisms. First, LIN-39 maintains the VPCs competent to proliferate by inducing cdk-4 cdk and cye-1 cyclinE expression via a non-canonical HOX binding motif. Second, LIN-39 activates in the adjacent VPCs the NOTCH signaling pathway, which promotes VPC proliferation independently of LIN-39. The hox gene lin-39 is therefore a central node in a regulatory network coordinating VPC differentiation and proliferation.

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cell fate patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Marie-Anne

    2012-08-01

    The spatial patterning of three cell fates in a row of competent cells is exemplified by vulva development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The intercellular signaling network that underlies fate specification is well understood, yet quantitative aspects remain to be elucidated. Quantitative models of the network allow us to test the effect of parameter variation on the cell fate pattern output. Among the parameter sets that allow us to reach the wild-type pattern, two general developmental patterning mechanisms of the three fates can be found: sequential inductions and morphogen-based induction, the former being more robust to parameter variation. Experimentally, the vulval cell fate pattern is robust to stochastic and environmental challenges, and minor variants can be detected. The exception is the fate of the anterior cell, P3.p, which is sensitive to stochastic variation and spontaneous mutation, and is also evolving the fastest. Other vulval precursor cell fates can be affected by mutation, yet little natural variation can be found, suggesting stabilizing selection. Despite this fate pattern conservation, different Caenorhabditis species respond differently to perturbations of the system. In the quantitative models, different parameter sets can reconstitute their response to perturbation, suggesting that network variation among Caenorhabditis species may be quantitative. Network rewiring likely occurred at longer evolutionary scales.

  18. Vaginal biological and sexual health--the unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, A

    2015-01-01

    The vagina is a most neglected organ. It is usually clinically considered with a minimalistic view, as a 'connecting tube' for a number of physiologic functions: passage of menstrual blood, intercourse, natural conception and delivery. Unmet needs include, but are not limited to, respect of vaginal physiologic biofilms; diagnosis and care of the optimal tone of the levator ani, which surrounds and partly support it; care of its anatomic integrity at and after delivery and at pelvic/vaginal surgery; care of long-term consequences of pelvic radiotherapy; long-term care of the atrophic changes it will undergo after the menopause, unless appropriate, at least local, estrogen therapy is used; appreciation and respect of its erotic meaning, as a loving, receptive, 'bonding' organ for the couple. The vaginal erotic value is key as a non-visible powerful center of femininity and sexuality, deeply and secretly attractive in terms of taste, scent (together with the vulva), touch and proprioception. The most welcoming when lubrication, softness and vaginal orgasm award the woman and the partner with the best of pleasures. Prevention of sexual/vaginal abuse is a very neglected unmet need, as well. Who cares?

  19. Tissue-specific regulation of the LIM homeobox gene lin-11 during development of the Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhagwati P; Sternberg, Paul W

    2002-07-01

    The egg-laying system of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites requires development of the vulva and its precise connection with the uterus. This process is regulated by LET-23-mediated epidermal growth factor signaling and LIN-12-mediated lateral signaling pathways. Among the nuclear factors that act downstream of these pathways, the LIM homeobox gene lin-11 plays a major role. lin-11 mutant animals are egg-laying defective because of the abnormalities in vulval lineage and uterine seam-cell formation. However, the mechanisms providing specificity to lin-11 function are not understood. Here, we examine the regulation of lin-11 during development of the egg-laying system. Our results demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of lin-11 is controlled by two distinct regulatory elements that function as independent modules and together specify a wild-type egg-laying system. A uterine pi lineage module depends on the LIN-12/Notch signaling, while a vulval module depends on the LIN-17-mediated Wnt signaling. These results provide a unique example of the tissue-specific regulation of a LIM homeobox gene by two evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. Finally, we provide evidence that the regulation of lin-11 by LIN-12/Notch signaling is directly mediated by the Su(H)/CBF1 family member LAG-1.

  20. C. elegans LIN-18 is a Ryk ortholog and functions in parallel to LIN-17/Frizzled in Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Oz, Helieh S; Wiland, Debra; Gharib, Shahla; Deshpande, Rashmi; Hill, Russell J; Katz, Wendy S; Sternberg, Paul W

    2004-09-17

    Wnt proteins are intercellular signals that regulate various aspects of animal development. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in lin-17, a Frizzled-class Wnt receptor, and in lin-18 affect cell fate patterning in the P7.p vulval lineage. We found that lin-18 encodes a member of the Ryk/Derailed family of tyrosine kinase-related receptors, recently found to function as Wnt receptors. Members of this family have nonactive kinase domains. The LIN-18 kinase domain is dispensable for LIN-18 function, while the Wnt binding WIF domain is required. We also found that Wnt proteins LIN-44, MOM-2, and CWN-2 redundantly regulate P7.p patterning. Genetic interactions indicate that LIN-17 and LIN-18 function independently of each other in parallel pathways, and different ligands display different receptor specificities. Thus, two independent Wnt signaling pathways, one employing a Ryk receptor and the other a Frizzled receptor, function in parallel to regulate cell fate patterning in the C. elegans vulva.

  1. cis-Regulatory control of three cell fate-specific genes in vulval organogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Martha; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-05-01

    The great-grandprogeny of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulval precursor cells (VPCs) adopt one of the final vulA, B1, B2, C, D, E, and F cell fates in a precise spatial pattern. This pattern of vulval cell types is likely to depend on the cis-regulatory regions of the transcriptional targets of intercellular signals in vulval development. egl-17, zmp-1, and cdh-3 are expressed differentially in the developing vulva cells, providing a potential readout for different signaling pathways. To understand how such pathways interact to specify unique vulval cell types in a precise pattern, we have identified cis-regulatory regions sufficient to confer vulval cell type-specific regulation when fused in cis to the basal pes-10 promoter. We have identified the C. briggsae homologs of these three genes, with their corresponding control regions, and tested these regions in both C. elegans and C. briggsae. These regions of similarity in C. elegans and C. briggsae upstream of egl-17, zmp-1, and cdh-3 promote expression in vulval cells and the anchor cell (AC). By using the cis-regulatory analysis and phylogenetic footprinting, we have identified overrepresented sequences involved in conferring vulval and AC expression.

  2. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is required for gonadal and uterine-vulval morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, Limor; Kolotuev, Irina; Didier, Christine; Bhoumik, Anindita; Gupta, Bhagwati P; Sternberg, Paul W; Podbilewicz, Benjamin; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2004-10-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification alters the subcellular distribution and function of its substrates. Here we show the major role of SUMO during the development of the Caenorhabditis elegans reproductive system. smo-1 deletion mutants develop into sterile adults with abnormal somatic gonad, germ line, and vulva. SMO-1::GFP reporter is highly expressed in the somatic reproductive system. smo-1 animals lack a vulval-uterine connection as a result of impaired ventral uterine pi-cell differentiation and anchor cell fusion. Mutations in the LIN-11 LIM domain transcription factor lead to a uterine phenotype that resembles the smo-1 phenotype. LIN-11 is sumoylated, and its sumoylation is required for its activity during uterine morphogenesis. Expression of a SUMO-modified LIN-11 in the smo-1 background partially rescued pi-cell differentiation and retained LIN-11 in nuclear bodies. Thus, our results identify the reproductive system as the major SUMO target during postembryonic development and highlight LIN-11 as a physiological substrate whose sumoylation is associated with the formation of a functional vulval-uterine connection.

  3. An HMG1-like protein facilitates Wnt signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lily I.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    1999-01-01

    We show that during Caenorhabditis elegans male spicule development, the specification of a glial versus neuronal cell fate in a canonical neurogenic sublineage is dependent on Wnt signaling. Inactivation of a Wnt signaling pathway mediated by the Wnt receptor LIN-17 transforms the SPD sheath cell into its sister, the SPD neuron. We discovered a new mutant, son-1, that displays this same cell fate transformation. The son-1 mutation enhances the phenotypes of reduction-of-function lin-17 mutants in several developmental processes, including vulva development, somatic gonad development, and male tail patterning. son-1 encodes an HMG1/2-like DNA-binding protein and is localized in all cell nuclei through development as revealed by a GFP reporter construct. Disruption of son-1 function by RNA-mediated interference results in the same spicule defect as caused by overexpression of POP-1, a TCF/LEF class HMG protein known to act downstream of the Wnt signaling pathway. Our results provide in vivo evidence for the functional involvement of an HMG1/2-like protein, SON-1, in Wnt signaling. The sequence nonspecific HMG protein SON-1 and the sequence specific HMG protein POP-1 might both act in the Wnt responding cells to regulate gene transcription in opposite directions. PMID:10197987

  4. sli-3 negatively regulates the LET-23/epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated vulval induction pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhagwati P; Liu, Jing; Hwang, Byung J; Moghal, Nadeem; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-11-01

    The LIN-3-LET-23-mediated inductive signaling pathway plays a major role during vulval development in C. elegans. Studies on the components of this pathway have revealed positive as well as negative regulators that function to modulate the strength and specificity of the signal transduction cascade. We have carried out genetic screens to identify new regulators of this pathway by screening for suppressors of lin-3 vulvaless phenotype. The screens recovered three loci including alleles of gap-1 and a new gene represented by sli-3. Our genetic epistasis experiments suggest that sli-3 functions either downstream or in parallel to nuclear factors lin-1 and sur-2. sli-3 synergistically interacts with the previously identified negative regulators of the let-23 signaling pathway and causes excessive cell proliferation. However, in the absence of any other mutation sli-3 mutant animals display wild-type vulval induction and morphology. We propose that sli-3 functions as a negative regulator of vulval induction and defines a branch of the inductive signaling pathway. We provide evidence that sli-3 interacts with the EGF signaling pathway components during vulval induction but not during viability and ovulation processes. Thus, sli-3 helps define specificity of the EGF signaling to induce the vulva.

  5. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2010-02-15

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited number of cell types including vulval cells whose divisions are affected in bed-3 mutants. A bed-3 mutation also affects the expression pattern of the cdh-3 cadherin gene in the vulva. The phenotype of bed-3 mutants is similar to the phenotype caused by mutations in cog-1 (Nkx6), a component of a gene regulatory network controlling cell type specific gene expression in the vulval lineage. These results suggest that bed-3 is a key component linking the gene regulatory network controlling cell-type specification to control of cell division during vulval organogenesis.

  6. Evidence of a mate-finding cue in the hermaphrodite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jasper M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2002-02-05

    When males of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans come into association with their hermaphroditic counterparts they cease foraging behavior and begin to mate. Here we detail several assays used to demonstrate that a diffusible cue is correlated with this process. This cue is sexually dimorphic, given off only by the hermaphrodite and eliciting a response only in the male. Males are attracted to, reverse direction of movement frequently, and remain in regions of agar conditioned with hermaphrodites. From our studies we suggest a form of kinesis that works by attracting males to their mating partners from a distance and functions, once males arrive, in holding attracted males in close proximity. The hermaphrodite vulva is not required for the cue. Males from general sensory mutants osm-5 and osm-6 fail to respond to the cue, whereas male-specific mutants lov-1 and pkd-2 respond. Finally, that males from multiple isolates of C. elegans also respond similarly to this cue indicates that this cue is robust and has been maintained during recent evolution.

  7. Suspected drug eruption in seven dogs during administration of flucytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R; Medeiros, C; Wigney, D I; Love, D N

    1996-10-01

    7 of 8 dogs receiving combination drug therapy consisting of flucytosine together with amphotericin B and/or a triazole for cryptococcosis or aspergillosis developed cutaneous or mucocutaneous eruptions during the course of treatment. Lesions resolved in all cases following discontinuation of flucytosine despite continued administration of other antifungals, suggesting the eruption was referable primarily to the flucytosine component of therapy. Lesions developed 13 to 41 days (median 20 days) after commencing flucytosine (105 to 188 mg/kg/day divided and given every 8 h; median dose rate 150 mg/kg/day). The cumulative dose of flucytosine given prior to the first signs of the drug eruption ranged from 1.7 to 6.8 g/kg (median 2.3 g/kg). The eruptions consisted of depigmentation, followed by ulceration, exudation and crust formation. The scrotum was affected in all 4 male dogs, the nasal plane in 6 of 7 cases, while the lips, vulva, external ear canal and integument were involved in a smaller number of cases. There was considerable variation in the severity of lesions, with changes being most marked when flucytosine was continued for several days after lesions first appeared. Some dogs experienced malaise and inappetence in association with the suspected drug eruption. Healing took a variable period, typically in excess of 2 weeks after discontinuing flucytosine, with up to 2 months being required for total resolution of the lesions. All lesions resolved eventually without scarring or permanent loss of pigment.

  8. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3% presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

  9. Reproductive System of Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus, Schinz 1825, Pilosa, Xenarthra): Anatomy and Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, S M; daSilva, E G; Menezes, J; Guerra, R R; Campos, D B

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, habitat degradation led to the decline of some populations of brown-throated sloth. The aim of this study was to describe morphological features of the female reproductive system of the species. The oval ovaries were partially surrounded by ovarian bursa. An external cortex and an inner medulla were present. Corpora lutea and corpora albicans together with follicles at various stages of development each with a single oocyte were found in the cortex. Uterine tubes were tortuous, tubular, travelled around the perimeter of the ovary and possessed a folded mucosa with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Uterus was simplex, with no horns and divided into three parts: a pear-shaped cranial segment and a long caudal uterine segment (both forming the body of the uterus) and two cervices. Uterus presented three layers: mucosa, lined by pseudostratified epithelium, muscular and serosa. The cervices connected the uterus to the urogenital sinus, a distensible cavity with longitudinal mucosal folds lined by transitional epithelium that extended from the external urethral orifice and the external uterine ostia to the vulva, which was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Brown-throated sloth presented a bipartite clitoris with paired crura, bodies and glandes. The presence of a double cervix and a bipartite clitoris was unique features of the species.

  10. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

    2007-09-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.

  11. Effect of Degradation of Zearalenone-Contaminated Feed by Bacillus licheniformis CK1 on Postweaning Female Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is mainly produced by Fusarium fungi. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis CK1 isolated from soil with the capability of degrading ZEA was evaluated for its efficacy in reducing the adverse effects of ZEA in piglets. The gilts were fed one of the following three diets for 14 days: a basic diet for the control group; the basic diet supplemented with ZEA-contaminated basic diet for the treatment 1 (T1 group; and the basic diet supplemented with fermented ZEA-contaminated basic diet by CK1 for the treatment 2 (T2 group. The actual ZEA contents (analyzed were 0, 1.20 ± 0.11, 0.47 ± 0.22 mg/kg for the control, T1, and T2 diets, respectively. The results showed that the T1 group had significantly increased the size of vulva and the relative weight of reproductive organs compared to the control group at the end of the trial. The T1 group significantly decreased the concentration of the luteinizing hormone (LH compared with the control and T2 groups. Expression of ERβ was significantly up-regulated in the T2 group compared with the control. In addition, expression of ERβ was not different between the control and the T1 group. In summary, our results suggest that Bacillus licheniformis CK1 could detoxify ZEA in feed and reduce the adverse effects of ZEA in the gilts.

  12. Teratorhabditis palmarum n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditidae): An Associate of Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. cruentatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, K; Giblin-Davis, R M

    1990-07-01

    Teratorhabditis palmarum n. sp., an associate of the palm weevils Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. cruentatus is described. Teratorhabditis palmarum was isolated from newly emerged adults and cocoons of R. palmarum from red-ring diseased coconut palms, Cocos nucifera, in Trinidad and Ecuador, and from red-ring diseased oil palms, Elaeis guineensis, in Colombia. Teratorhabditis palmarum was also associated internally with newly emerged adults of R. cruentatus from mature transplanted cabbage palmettos, Sabal palmetto, in Florida. Dauer juveniles of T. palmarum infested the genital capsule and body cavity of newly emerged adult female and male palm weevils. Adult nematodes isolated from cocoons and dauer juveniles from newly emerged palm weevils were cuhurable on bacterial lawns on several solid media. Females of T. palmarum have a single anteriorly directed ovary; vulva at 93-96% of the body length; short, hemispherical spicate tail; three or four teeth in the metastom; cuticle with distinct transverse punctations that change abruptly at the level of the procorpus to indentations of alternating size and arrangement; and eggs with cuticular sculpturing. Males have a crenate, peloderan bursa with a 2 + 5 + 3 pattern of bursal rays (7 extend to the margin of bursa); spicules linear, completely fused at the distal tip and dorsally for 50% of the total spicule length.

  13. A Comparative Study Of The Predisposing Factors And Natural History Of Lichen sclerosus ET Atrophicus (LSA In Children And Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis that results in white plaques with epidermal atrophy usually affecting the genital area in both adults and children. The causes of LSA are not clear but possible predisponsing factors include trauma, infection (borrelia, human papilloma virus, autoimmune diseases and local irritation. This study is a retrospective case review of children and adults with LSA attending the department of Dermatology at the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, clinical notes for 22 patients were reviewed for age, sex, personal and familial history, symptoms associated diseases and clinical course and treatment. The mean ages at diagnosis of LSA in 9 children (8F: 1M and 13 adults (13 F were 7 and 57.5 years respectively. The mean duration of illness was 1.5 year in children and 5.5 year in adults. Itching was the most common symptom in both children and adults. Children also suffered with difficulties in defaecation and in micturation , dribbling, incontinence, constipation and bleeding. Atopy and hypothyroidism were common associated conditions in both the groups. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva was confirmed in two adult patients. This study showed the variable symptoms in children, which seemed more severe than in the adult population.

  14. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  15. Ricerca di HPV-DNA e tipizzazione virale nella diagnostica di prevenzione del carcinoma della cervice uterina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carcheri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses are relatively ubiquitous and have been described as causative agents for epithelial lesions in a wide variety of animals as well as in humans. Approximately 30 HPV types have been isolated from anogenital epithelium (cervix, vagina, vulva, rectum and penis. HPVs induce a variety of proliferative lesions, but only the “high-risk” types are associated with anogenital cancers. “Low-risk” viral types include HPV-6 and HPV-11; “high-risk” types include HPV-16, 18, 31 and 56. HPVs “high-risk” types are more strongly associated with high-grade lesions (HSIL than they are with low-grade lesions (LSIL. The traditional process for cervical cancer screening programs (PAP test is vulnerable to air drying artifacts and has limits to sensitivity, since as many as 90 percent of collectet cells can be discarted with collection device. The present study was undertaken to assess the screening performance of HPV-DNA typing in a sample of 142 women drawn from a routine screening for the prevention of cervical cancer. The results indicate that HPV-DNA screening and typing, used together with PAP test, can improve the detection of patients with cervical disease and can serve as a quality assurance indicator in cervical cancer screening programs.

  16. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2. Effect of mating and stimulation of the genital tract in bulls, cows and heifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schams, D.; Baumann, G. (Institut fuer Physiologie der Sueddeutschen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Milchwirtschaft der TU Muenchen); Leidl, W. (Gynaekologische und Ambulatorische Tierklinik der Universitaet Muenchen, Germany)

    1982-01-01

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus.

  17. The other side of phenotypic plasticity: a developmental system that generates an invariant phenotype despite environmental variation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Christian Braendle; Marie-Anne Félix

    2009-10-01

    Understanding how the environment impacts development is of central interest in developmental and evolutionary biology. On the one hand, we would like to understand how the environment induces phenotypic changes (the study of phenotypic plasticity). On the other hand, we may ask how a development system maintains a stable and precise phenotypic output despite the presence of environmental variation. We study such developmental robustness to environmental variation using vulval cell fate patterning in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a study system. Here we review both mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of these studies, focusing on recently obtained experimental results. First, we present evidence indicating that vulval formation is under stabilizing selection. Second, we discusss quantitative data on the precision and variability in the output of the vulval developmental system in different environments and different genetic backgrounds. Third, we illustrate how environmental and genetic variation modulate the cellular and molecular processes underlying the formation of the vulva. Fourth, we discuss the evolutionary significance of environmental sensitivity of this developmental system.

  18. Model systems to study the life cycle of human papillomaviruses and HPV-associated cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louise; T.Chow

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent human papillomaviruses(HPVs) infect either cutaneous or mucosal epithelium. Active Infections lead to epithelial hyperprolifeation and are usually cleared in healthy individuals within a year. Persistent infections in the anogenital tracts by certain high-risk genotypes such as HPV-16, HPV-18 and closely related types, can progress to high grade dysplasias and carcinomas in women and men, including cervical, vulva, penile and anal cancers. A significant fraction of the head and neck cancers are also caused by HPV-16. The viral oncogenes responsible for neoplastic conversion are E6 and E7 that disrupt the pathways controlled by the two major tumor suppressor genes, p53 and members of p RB family. Because HPV cannot be propagated in conventional submerged monolayer cell cultures, organotypic epithelial raft cultures that generate a stratified and differentiated epithelium have been used to study the viral life cycle. This article describes several systems to examine aspects of the viral productive phase, along with the advantages and limitations. Animal model systems of HPV carcinogenesis are also briefly described.

  19. Sublethal injury and virulence changes in Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua treated with antimicrobials carvacrol and citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Genovés, S; Martorell, P; Zanini, S F; Rodrigo, D; Martinez, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two antimicrobial substances, carvacrol and citral, on Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua cells, as well as possible virulence changes in injured cells, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model test. The results indicated that the percentage of sublethal damage was higher in L. monocytogenes than in L. innocua. The results of the study carried out by using C. elegans indicated that C. elegans fed in a lawn of L. monocytogenes previously treated with carvacrol showed a loss in life span (p ≤ 0.05) as compared with L. monocytogenes treated with citral, Escherichia coli OP50 as a negative control, and treated and untreated L. innocua. Egg laying was also affected: worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. monocytogenes laid fewer eggs than those fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua or fed with OP50 as a negative control. Worms fed in a lawn of treated and untreated L. innocua also laid fewer eggs than those fed with OP50 as a negative control. A phenotype named bag of worms and an undescribed new one, "vulva inflammation", were also observed.

  20. Diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is Associated with Monochamus alternatus in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Gavin C.; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Maehara, Noritoshi

    2015-01-01

    Diplogasteroides asiaticus n. sp. is described and illustrated, and its molecular profile and phylogenetic status within the family Diplogastridae are inferred. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by its stomatal structure, a tube-like stoma with three small, rod-like dorsal teeth and two subventral ridges; a spicule clearly ventrally bent at 1/3 from the anterior end; a gubernaculum with a rounded anterior end and sharply pointed distal end in lateral view; nine pairs of genital papillae with an arrangement of ; a short tail spike in males; and a well-developed receptaculum seminis, i.e., the antiparallel blind sacs of the uteri beyond the vulva region and elongated conical tail in females. This new species is morphologically similar to D. haslacheri, but it can be distinguished by the morphology of the somewhat shorter tail in females. D. asiaticus n. sp. shares high sequence conservation with D. andrassyi as there is only one base pair difference in the nearly full-length 18S rDNA and seven base pair differences in the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rDNA. Despite this sequence conservation, the species status of D. asiaticus n. sp. was confirmed using the biological species concept, as D. asiaticus n. sp. and D. andrassyi failed to generate viable F2 progeny in hybridization tests. PMID:26170472

  1. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  2. Management of horn gore injury and urticaria in a dairy cow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Nasir Tijjani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports how a 4-year old Friesien-Sahiwal cross cow weighing 380 kg with horn gore injury on the left labia of the vulva was managed at the Large Animal Clinic, University Putra Malaysia. The lacerated wound measuring about 4-cm long was originated as a result of horn goring from another cow two weeks prior presentation of the cow to the clinic. Physical examination of the cow incidentally revealed urticaria on the left ventro-lateral aspect of the neck suspected to be sequel of hypersensitivity. The wound was treated by topical application of a mixture of Iodine, Benacillin LA, Biomectin 1% and Ilium Dermapred made into cream. While the uticaria was treated by intramuscular injection of Chlorpheniramine maleate at 0.5 mg/kg bwt. Animal management, housing design and presence of sharp horns are some of the factors that can lead to physical traumatic injuries in dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 366-368

  3. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  4. Clinical application of human papillomavirus vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix%预防性人乳头瘤病毒疫苗Gardasil和Cervarix的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙琦琦; 夏和霞; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer and anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. A bivalent vaccine Cervarix and a quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil have been applying in vaccination programs around the world. Some highly immunogenic, safe, and effective vaccines are now available to control HPV-related diseases with proven efifcacy against diseases at many anatomical sites, including the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, and penis ones. The data from pre-licensure and post-licensure studies have showed that both Cervarix and Gardasil are vaccines with high safety. However, there are some barriers in the promotion and application of HPV vaccination.%人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus, HPV)感染可能导致宫颈癌、肛门生殖器癌和口咽癌。目前,已得到世界范围内应用的HPV疫苗主要有二价疫苗Cervarix和四价疫苗Gardasil。高免疫原性、安全、有效的HPV疫苗可预防和控制多个部位,包括宫颈、外阴、阴道、肛门和阴茎等的HPV感染相关疾病。上市前、后的研究都显示, Cervarix和Gardasil具有很高的安全性。但其推广应用也面临一些问题。

  5. Varied presentations of ectopic breast - polymastia, fibroadenoma, and carcinoma arising from ectopic breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Khatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast is a congenital anomaly of the breast which can have varied presentations because of its different sites and pathologies arising from it. Lesions of ectopic breast tissue (EBT are commonly seen due to persistence of embryonic remnants along the milk line. They have also been reported from other sites like face, vulva, and perineum. They are prone to the same physiological and pathological alterations seen in the normal breast. Only 0.3% of breast carcinomas arise in the ectopic breast, whereas only a few cases of fibroadenoma have been reported at this site. We present a case of polymastia in a 21-year-old female in the inframammary region. We report two cases of fibroadenoma and carcinoma arising from EBT in the axilla of a 26 and 45-year females. Fibroadenoma was treated by simple excision while for carcinoma modified radical mastectomy was done followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Patient developed metastasis in the sternum. Carcinoma arising from EBT has a poorer prognosis and needs early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraelen H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hans Verstraelen,1 Eline De Zutter,1 Martine De Muynck2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. Keywords: vulvar pain, genitofemoral nerve, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, vulvar disease

  7. Explaining“Bazi Meat”%释“巴子肉”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 王靖

    2015-01-01

    “巴子肉”在《金瓶梅词话》中出现过两次。目前学界对“巴子肉”的释义有四种:一是蚆子肉;二是女阴的隐语;三是风干或晒干的肉;四是腊肉。这些释义都不切合文意。从文意理解、词义构成、构词理据、历史文献以及方言词“把子肉”旁证等方面来看,词话中的“巴子肉”应该理解为“肉片”。%BaZi Meat appeared two times in Jin Ping Mei. At present, there are four kinds of different interpretations of BaZi Meat:the first is蚆子meat;the second is the argot of vulva;the third is the dried meat;the fourth is the bacon. These definitions are not accorded with it. According to the literal comprehension, the construction of meaning, word motivation, historical documents and circumstantial evidence of dialect words把子Meat, Ba Zi Meat should be understood as"sliced meat".

  8. Candida vulvovaginitis: A store with a buttery and a show window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Sobel, Jack D

    2017-02-01

    Although being an utterly frequent, non-mortal, yet distressing disease, and despite good knowledge of the pathogenesis and the availability of specific and safe treatment, vulvovaginal Candida (VVC) infection remains one of the most enigmatic problems for both physicians and patients. Good treatment requires a proper diagnosis. Too many caregivers (and patients treating themselves) react too simple-minded on the symptoms of VVC and treat VVC where they see it on the vulva. In this opinion paper, we plea for a thorough examination of women with VVC, especially in those women who suffer from recurrent disease since a long time, sometimes decades, which necessitates intensive examination of the vaginal flora, as this is invariably the reservoir for relapses and recurrent vulvitis. Examination of such complicated cases requires experienced clinical judgement, expertise bedside phase contrast microscopy of fresh vaginal fluid, classical cultures on Sabouroud medium and, if still unresolved, repetitive cultures taken by the patient herself at moments of symptoms, and/or nuclear acid amplification techniques to detect Candida genes in the vaginal fluid. Even if only vulvitis is evident, thorough expert examination of vaginal fluid is obligatory to diagnose VVC.

  9. The two steps of vulval induction in Oscheius tipulae CEW1 recruit common regulators including a MEK kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichtel-Danjoy, Marie-Laure; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2004-01-01

    The cell interactions that specify the spatial pattern of vulval precursor cell (VPC) fates differ between the nematodes Oscheius tipulae CEW1 and Caenorhabditis elegans. In the former, the centered pattern of fates is obtained by two successive inductions from the gonadal anchor cell, whereas in the latter, a single inductive step by the anchor cell (EGF-Ras-MAP kinase pathway) can act as a morphogen and is reinforced by lateral signaling between the vulval precursors (Notch pathway). We performed a genetic screen for vulva mutants in O. tipulae CEW1. Here we present the mutants that specifically affect the vulval induction mechanisms. Phenotypic and epistatic analyses of these mutants show that both vulval induction steps share common components, one of which appears to be MEK kinase(s). Moreover, the inductive pathway (including MEK kinase) influences the competence of the vulval precursor cells and more strikingly their division pattern as well, irrespective of their vulval fate. Finally, a comparison of vulval mutant phenotypes obtained in C. elegans and O. tipulae CEW1 highlights the evolution of vulval induction mechanisms between the two species.

  10. Description of a new species of Paracrobeles Heyns, 1968 (Nematoda, Rhabditida, Cephalobidae from Kelso Dunes, Mojave National Preserve, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Boström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Paracrobeles, P. kelsodunensis sp. nov. is described from the Kelso Dunes area, Mojave National Preserve, southern California. Paracrobeles kelsodunensis sp. nov. is particularly characterised by a body length of 469–626 μm in females and 463–569 μm in males; lateral field with four incisures, extending almost to tail terminus; three pairs of asymmetrical lips, separated by U-shaped primary axils with two long guarding processes, each lip usually with four tines along its margin; three long labial probolae, deeply bifurcated, with slender prongs without tines; metastegostom with a strong anteriorly directed dorsal tooth; pharyngeal corpus anteriorly spindle-shaped, posteriorly elongate bulbous with dilated lumen; spermatheca 24–87 μm long; postvulval uterine sac 60–133 μm long; vulva in a sunken area; spicules 33–38 μm long; and male tail with a 5–8 μm long mucro. The generic diagnosis is emended on the basis of recently described species and a key to the species of Paracrobeles is provided.

  11. Description and developmental biology of the predatory diplogastrid Acrostichus nudicapitatus (Steiner, 1914 Massey, 1962 (Nematoda: Rhabditida

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    Ahlawat S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrostichus nudicapitatus (Steiner, 1914 Massey, 1962 is redescribed and illustrated along with observations on its developmental biology. Most morphometrics of the present population agree well with those of A. nudicapitatus (Steiner, 1914 Massey, 1962. The largely oviparous females of A. nudicapitatus lay eggs in single-celled or two-celled stage, 1.5 – 2 h after fertilization. In cultured females, the uterine tract was observed to accommodate occasionally as many as 4 – 6 eggs. The eggs are smooth-shelled, oval in shape measuring 45 – 48 x 23 – 26 μm in dimension. The pole of entry of sperm marks the posterior end of the developing embryo. The embryonation time has been recorded to be 20 – 25 h at 25 ± 2 °C. The first moult occurs inside the egg and the juvenile hatches as second stage juvenile. The gonad development follows the trends found in most rhabditids, however, three prime cells of the 12 vulval precursor cells have been observed to be involved in vulva formation.

  12. A new species of Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitic in the brown ground snake Atractus major Boulenger (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is described based on specimens discovered in the lung of Atractus major Boulenger from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species is assigned to Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on morphological characters (comparatively thin body cuticle without prominent inflations, arrangement of circumoral papillae in two lateral groups, pre-equatorial position of vulva, eggs in uteri at early cleavage stages), as well as because of its parasitism in snakes. The new species is most similar to S. vellardi (Pereira, 1928) due to the absence of lips and buccal capsule, similar body dimensions, and the specificity to dipsadid snakes in Brazil. The two species differ in the shape of the tail (bulbous dilatation in the posterior part followed by a thread-like tail tip present in S. atracti n. sp.), the width of the oesophagus, and the size of the excretory glands. Serpentirhabdias atracti n. sp. is the sixth species of this genus found in the Neotropical Region.

  13. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine: The first vaccine for cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardasil ® is the first quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV- types 6, 11, 16, 18 recombinant vaccine approved by the FDA on June 8, 2006. It induces genotype-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies and prevents infection with HPV. Various clinical trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of vaccine-type-specific persistent infections and of associated moderate- and high-grade cervical dysplasias and carcinomas in situ after its use. Gardasil is currently approved by FDA for prevention of genital warts, cancers and precancerous conditions of cervix and vulva in 9-26 years old females. Three doses of 0.5 ml of gardasil each at 0, 2 and 6 months are given intramuscularly. It is contraindicated in individuals who are hypersensitive to the active substances or to any of the excipients of the vaccine, patients with bleeding abnormalities or patients on anticoagulant therapy and during pregnancy. However, the vaccine, at an estimated $300-500 per course, is too expensive for many women in developing countries. Moreover, question regarding the longevity of the protection by vaccine is still unsolved. Hence, longer studies are required to establish its real status in cancer prevention.

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) in vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Poulsen, H; Horn, T;

    1995-01-01

    and 6 with HPV type 33) evenly distributed in all age groups and in all types of lesions (WHO and Toki et al. 1991). By ISH HPV was detected in 24/62 cases (39%) (21 with HPV type 16/18 and 3 with HPV type 31/33), nearly always in warty areas. All these cases were positive for the same virus type by PCR...... whereas no case of pure basaloid type was found. Various combinations of warty and basaloid types were shown in 52 cases and mixed forms in 7 cases. The results indicate that pure forms of warty and basaloid types probably do not exist. HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 51/58 cases (88%) (45 with HPV type 16....... No case revealed more than one type of HPV. HPV type 6, 11, 18, and 31 were not detected by PCR. The results indicate a correlation between HPV type 16 and 33 and dysplasia/carcinoma in situ in the vulva....

  15. [HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) implication in other cancers than gynaecological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoual, C; Tartour, E; Roussel, H; Bats, A S; Pavie, J; Pernot, S; Weiss, L; Mohamed, A Si; Thariat, J; Hoffmann, C; Péré, H

    2015-08-01

    Worldwide, approximately 5 to 10% of the population is infected by a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Some of these viruses, with a high oncogenic risk (HPV HR), are responsible for about 5% of cancer. It is now accepted that almost all carcinomas of the cervix and the vulva are due to an HPV HR (HPV16 and 18) infection. However, these viruses are known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of many other cancers (head and neck [SCCHN], penis, anus). For head and neck cancer, HPV infection is considered as a good prognostic factor. The role of HPV HR in anal cancer is also extensively studied in high-risk patient's population. The role of HPV infection in the carcinogenesis of esophageal, bladder, lung, breast or skin cancers is still debated. Given the multiple possible locations of HPV HR infection, the question of optimizing the management of patients with a HPV+ cancer arises in the implementation of a comprehensive clinical and biological monitoring. It is the same in therapeutics with the existence of a preventive vaccination, for example.

  16. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-12-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  17. Nondestructive imaging of plant-parasitic nematode development and host response to nematode pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phuong T Y; Knoblauch, Michael; Elling, Axel A

    2014-05-01

    The secluded lifestyle of endoparasitic plant nematodes hampers progress toward a comprehensive understanding of plant-nematode interactions. A novel technique that enables nondestructive, long-term observations of a wide range of live nematodes in planta is presented here. As proof of principle, Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera schachtii, and Meloidogyne chitwoodi were labeled fluorescently with PKH26 and used to infect Arabidopsis thaliana grown in microscopy rhizosphere chambers. Nematode behavior, development, and morphology were observed for the full duration of each parasite's life cycle by confocal microscopy for up to 27 days after inoculation. PKH26 accumulated in intestinal lipid droplets and had no negative effect on nematode infectivity. This technique enabled visualization of Meloidogyne gall formation, nematode oogenesis, and nematode morphological features, such as the metacorpus, vulva, spicules, and cuticle. Additionally, microscopy rhizosphere chambers were used to characterize plant organelle dynamics during M. chitwoodi infection. Peroxisome abundance strongly increased in early giant cells but showed a marked decrease at later stages of feeding site development, which suggests a modulation of plant peroxisomes by root-knot nematodes during the infection process. Taken together, this technique facilitates studies aimed at deciphering plant-nematode interactions at the cellular and subcellular level and enables unprecedented insights into nematode behavior in planta.

  18. The first report of new species:Trichuris landak n. sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study nematode parasites morphology of Hystrix javanica (H. javanica), both through the feces and internal organs. Methods:Feces were observed by direct smear method, internal organs were observed after dissecting the host. Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with 70% warm alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Specimens for SEM examination were postfixed in cacodylate buffer and glutaraldehyde, dehydrated through a graded series of alcohol and freeze dried. The specimens were attached to stubs with double cello-tape, coated with gold and observed with a JSM5310 LV electron microscope. Figures were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to Olympus compound microscope, other figures were photographs of scanning electron microscope images. Measurements were given in micrometers as the mean followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results:The nematode species found in the intestine of H. javanica are Gireterakis girardi and a new species, Trihuris landak. The new species differs with previously reported species from Hystrix because of having stylet and short cervical alae. The pattern of bacillary band is closed to Trichuris trichiurus, the species that infect human, but differs because the surface of its vulva is not covered with densely spine. Conclusions:The species of nematodes found on H. javanica were Gireterakis girardi and a new species Trichuris landak n.sp. Those two species are newly recorded in Indonesia.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis from methyldibromo glutaronitrile in a sanitary pad and review of Australian clinic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason D; Frowen, Kathryn E; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-03-01

    Methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has rarely been reported as an allergen in adhesives but is recognized as a common allergen in skin care products in Europe. It has been banned for use in leave-on products by the European Union. In this study, we present a case with an unusual source of this common allergen and review all cases of allergy to MDBGN from our clinics over a 12-year period. A 49-year-old nurse presented with dermatitis affecting the vulva caused by MDBGN present in her sanitary pad. All other cases of allergy to MDBGN in patients attending the occupational dermatology or contact dermatitis clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Victoria, between January 1993 and December 2004, were reviewed. Patch testing was positive to her sanitary pad, the adhesive and MDBGN, which were used as a biocide in the pad adhesive. Only 20 cases of allergy to MDBGN have been diagnosed in 2837 patients tested during this period (0.7%). To conclude, this study highlights the importance of considering allergic contact dermatitis in the differential diagnosis of vulval rashes and the emergence of MDBGN as an important sensitizer. However, our review suggests that MDBGN remains an infrequent cause of allergy in Australia.

  20. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Moravec

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo (Atherinopsidae of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or erroneously reported features of S. osorioi, such as the location of the vulva, the actual number and distribution of postanal papillae and phasmids and the presence of a short median cuticular ridge anterior to the cloacal opening (in addition to two long subventral ridges. The recorded somewhat shorter spicules (420-465 and 105-111 μm and mostly smaller eggs (33-36 × 18-20 μm as compared to the original species description may be due to a different type of host, geographical region or generally smaller body measurements of these specimens. These biometrical differences are considered to be within the limits of the intraspecific variability of S. osorioi. A key to species of Spinitectus parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico is provided.

  1. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine islimye Taskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis that is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity is seen 5-10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis can be seen any other site of the body; but the most frequently affected areas are ovaries, pelvic peritoneum, uterosacral ligament and Douglas pouche. Several teories exist for the development of endometriosis including retrograde menstruation, venous or lymphatic metastasis and immun dysfunction. Endometriosis of the perineum and vulva are extremely rare with the most common sites being episiotomy scars. Scar endometriosis is likely to be caused by mechanical transplantation of endometrium from the uterine cavity into the wound at the time of the surgery. The primary treatment for scar endometriosis is total surgical excision of the lesion. It is important not to leave residual tissue during surgery to prevent the recurrence. Here we present a patient who had her vaginal delivery 5 years ago, have a complaint of painful vulvar lump at the right mediolateral episiotomy scar since 1 year during her every menstruation period and whose final diagnosis was endometriosis after surgical removal and histopathologic examination. Althought vulvar endometrosis is rare, it should be considered in the patients who had a vaginal delivery and complaining painful vulvar lump with swelling in her mestrual cycle. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 164-166

  2. Ultrasound plays a key role in imaging and management of genital angiomyofibroblastoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Benjamin; Horn, Lars-Christian; Handzel, Romy; Einenkel, Jens

    2015-10-28

    Angiomyofibroblastoma is a benign, rare mesenchymal tumor arising from the genital tract of both men and women and was first described by Fletcher and colleagues in 1992. The tumor needs to be distinguished from other, similar lesions, such as deep and superficial aggressive angiomyxoma and cellular angiofibroma, because aggressive angiomyxoma demands much more extensive treatment. The vast majority of angiomyofibroblastomas arise from the vulva and appear as solid cystic masses on ultrasound images. We report a case of a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with an angiomyofibroblastoma arising from the vagina. She presented with a painless mass of about 5cm in diameter that had a rather homogeneous, hypoechoic appearance on ultrasound images. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, which was subsequently diagnosed as angiomyofibroblastoma. We present sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings, intraoperative and histologic images, and a thorough review of the literature. In our opinion, ultrasonography is the most valuable tool to establish a preoperative diagnosis of this tumor entity, differentiate it from other lesions of the female genital tract, and plan surgery accordingly. Even though it is a rare tumor, gynecologists should be able to recognize it and to differentiate it from other tumor entities that demand more aggressive treatment. We describe a different sonographic appearance of this tumor than previously reported.

  3. Management of fetal dystocia caused by carpal flexion in ewe: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia or difficulty in parturition in a ewe may need veterinary assistance for the successful parturition. An adult ewe weighing 30 kg was presented to the Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of difficulty in giving birth. Physical examination of the ewe revealed that the animal was weak and in recumbent position. Head of a dead fetus was observed as protruding out from the vulva region. Through physical evaluation of the ewe by per vaginal examination, the condition was diagnosed as fetal dystocia. Treatment and management plans given to the ewe were episiotomy and manipulative delivery of the dead fetus via mutation and traction method. Post-operative treatment was given with Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt for 3 days, and Norodine (dosed at 1 mL/16-kg bwt once intramuscularly. The case was completely cured after 2 weeks. The risk of losing the lamb as well as the ewe increases with delay in treatment of dystocia.

  4. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  5. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the posterior mediastinum: An uncommon site for a rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdulfatah, M.D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma (MC is a rare tumor that arises from myoepithelial cells; most commonly in the salivary glands, but other infrequent body sites such as the breast, lung, lower limb, upper limb, head and neck, vulva, and vagina can be involved. We report the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the posterior mediastinum of a 51 year-old male who presented with a mediastinal mass and subsequently underwent tumor debulking surgery. Grossly, the specimen consisted of multiple tan–gray firm fragments of tissue with an overall measurement of 7.0 cm in greatest dimension. Histologic examination revealed an ill-defined, infiltrative lesion with a biphasic cell population. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for epithelial and myoepithelial markers, confirming the above diagnosis. Recognition of this entity at an uncommon site may present a diagnostic challenge due to its morphologic heterogeneity and the differential diagnosis includes benign and malignant tumors, which could lead to over or under-treatment, respectively.

  6. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  7. The Treatment of Giant Periurethral Condyloma in Pregnancy Using an Ultrasonic Thermal Scalpel: A Case Report and New Single Session Treatment Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yavuzcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple large polypoid lesions with exophytic appearance occurring in anal and perineal region as a result of human papilloma virus (HPV infection are referred to as giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA. The conventional treatment of these lesions involves the use of surgical excision, laser, electrocautery, and/or application of trichloroacetic acid. A 28-year-old primigravid patient at 22 weeks of pregnancy presented to the hospital complaining of vaginal bleeding and palpable mass in the vulva. The physical examination revealed a 60 × 35 mm broad-based, fragile, and patchy hemorrhagic polypoid lesion originating 1 cm below the clitoris and completely occupying urethral orifice and partially occluding vaginal vestibule. The patient underwent excision of GCA in the midtrimester using an ultrasonic thermal scalpel (Harmonic Scalpel without any additional treatment and subsequently delivered a single live healthy baby. The excision of GCA occurring during pregnancy using Harmonic Scalpel can be regarded as a new successful method. Prospective, randomized, and controlled studies are warranted in order to provide clear evidence of the efficiency and safety of HS in the treatment of GCA.

  8. Anatomy of the clitoris and the female sexual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Rachel N

    2015-04-01

    The clitoris may be the most pivotal structure for female sexual pleasure. While its significance has been reported for hundreds of years, no complete anatomical description was available until recently. Most of the components of the clitoris are buried under the skin and connective tissues of the vulva. It comprises an external glans and hood, and an internal body, root, crura, and bulbs; its overall size is 9-11 cm. Clitoral somatic innervation is via the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, a branch of the pudendal nerve, while other neuronal networks within the structure are complex. The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis. While the source of vaginal eroticism might or might not be exclusively clitoral stimulation, it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard. Ultimately, sexual enjoyment entails a balance of physical and emotional factors and should be encouraged. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Quality improvement: single-field sterile scrub, prep, and dwell for laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; McCutcheon, Stacey Paris; McCutcheon, John G; Charvonia, Beth E

    2013-05-01

    The vulva and vaginal interior are considered a contaminated surgical area, and current OR guidelines require surgeons who are gloved and gowned at the abdominal field to avoid contact with the urethral catheter, the uterine manipulator, and the introitus or to change their gloves and even regown if contact occurs. It is our belief that the perception of the vaginal field as contaminated reflects a lack of specific standards for the preoperative cleansing of the deeper vagina and a lack of preoperative prep instructions for the combined fields. We developed a comprehensive single-field prep technique designed to improve surgical efficiency and prevent contamination of the sterile field. Combining a methodical scrub, prep, and dwell, this technique allows the entire abdomino-perineovaginal field to be treated as a single sterile field for laparoscopic procedures. Our surgical site infection rate of 1.8% when using this single-field prep technique and the subsequent surgical treatment of the abdominal, vaginal, and perineal fields as a single sterile field is well within reported norms.

  10. Description of new species of Phanodermopsis (Enoplida, Phanodermatidae) with key to genera of family Phanodermatidae and pictorial key to Phanodermopsis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zograf, Julia K; Trebukhova, Yulia A; Pavlyuk, Olga N

    2015-10-16

    A new representative of the family Phanodermatidae, Phanodermopsis nana sp. n., is described. The new species is found in the Sea of Japan and characterized by its small body size, long anterior sensilla and short tail. The new species differs from P. ingrami in body length (~ 7000 µm in P. ingrami vs ~ 3000 µm in P. nana sp. n.). The De Man's ratios (a, b, c) are smaller in P. nana sp. n. and the outer labial setae are longer (1 corresponding body diameter) than in P. ingrami (1/2 corresponding body diameter). The vulva is more posterior in P. ingrami (V% = 58-61%) than in P. nana sp. n. (V% = 51-58%). A dichotomous key to the 9 valid genera of Phanodermatidae and a pictorial key to species of Phanodermopsis are provided. The length of the spicules is proposed as the main differentiating feature for distinguishing Phanodermopsis and Crenopharynx species. Phanodermopsis longisetae Chitwood, 1936 which has extremely long spicules (5.2 anal body diameters) is transferred to the genus Crenopharynx.

  11. Incidence of error in oestrus detection based on secondary oestrus signs in a 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd with low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, R M S B K; Nakao, T; Kobayashi, A

    2009-08-01

    Oestrus detection error and conception rates after AI based only on secondary oestrus signs were evaluated in a high yielding, 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd with low fertility, using milk progesterone profiles. Oestrus detection was based on the secondary oestrus signs such as restlessness, swelling, congestion of vulva and clear mucus discharge. Sixty eight AI conducted after observing the secondary oestrus signs in 44 animals were included in the study. Of the 68 AI, 53 (77.9%) were conducted in the follicular phase, and 13 (19.1%) and 2 (2.9%) were carried out in the luteal phase and during pregnancy, respectively. The overall error in oestrus detection based on milk progesterone profiles was 22.1%. The oestrus detection error did not differ significantly among different secondary oestrus signs. None of the AI conducted in the luteal phase resulted in conception, whereas 20.8% of AI conducted in the follicular phase resulted in conception. No significant difference in the conception rates among the groups of cows with different secondary oestrus signs was shown. The high incidence of oestrus detection error in this study might have been caused by the detection of cows in oestrus based only on secondary oestrus signs due to the confinement of animals. In conclusion, there was a high incidence of heat detection error in the 24-h tie-stalled dairy herd and oestrus detection based only on secondary oestrus signs resulted in low conception rate.

  12. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. X. Fergusobia from galls on narrow-leaved Melaleuca spp. in Australia, with descriptions of three new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Makinson, Jeff; Purcell, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Three new species of Fergusobia, respectively collected from shoot bud galls on narrow-leaved Melaleuca spp. in Australia, are described. Fergusobia armillarisae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with an extensile uterus and a short, conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate male with an angular spicule and bursa arising at 50-80% of body length. Fergusobia decorae n. sp. Davies has an arcuate parthenogenetic female with a non-extensile uterus and a broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with most curvature behind the vulva and a short tail with a broadly rounded tip, and an arcuate male with an arcuate spicule and bursa arising at 40-50% of body length. Fergusobia linariifoliae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of an arcuate parthenogenetic female with an extensile uterus and a short, conoid tail with a bluntly rounded tip, a barely arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an arcuate male with an angular spicule and bursa arising at 40-50% of body length. Earlier molecular analyses inferred from DNA sequencing of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) are further discussed. 

  13. Associations of filaggrin gene loss-of-function variants and human papillomavirus-related cancer and pre-cancer in Danish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Skaaby

    Full Text Available Filaggrin proteins are expressed in the skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, and cervical mucose. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG reduce filaggrin expression and cause an impaired skin barrier function. We hypothesized that FLG mutation carriers would be more susceptible to human papillomavirus (HPV infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix.We included 13,376 persons from four population-based studies conducted in the same background population in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants were genotyped for the most common FLG mutations in Europeans. Information on cancer was obtained from The Danish Cancer Registry until 11 July 2011.There were 489 cases of prevalent and 97 cases of incident HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer (median follow-up 11.5 years. There was a statistically significant association between FLG genotype and incident HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer with a hazard ratio, HR = 2.1 (95% confidence intervals, CI: 1.2, 3.7 for FLG mutation carriers vs. wild types.FLG loss-of-function mutations were associated with higher incidence of HPV-related cancers and pre-cancers that are potentially screening and vaccine preventable.

  14. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Maj, Małgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Czuwara, Joanna; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-12-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for squamous cell carcinoma is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Dermoscopy has become one of the basic diagnostic methods in clinical practice. The most common dermoscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma include clustered vascular pattern, glomerular vessels and hyperkeratosis. Under reflectance confocal microscopy, squamous cell carcinoma shows an atypical honeycomb or disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis, round nucleated bright cells in the epidermis and round vessels in the dermis. High frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may be helpful in predominantly in pre-surgical evaluation of tumor size. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, lip, oral mucosa, vulva or other tissues include high-definition optical coherence tomography, in vivo multiphoton tomography, direct oral microscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, differential path-length spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and angle-resolved low coherence interferometry.

  15. Toxicological Effects of Fullerenes on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Justin; Snook, Renee; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful genetic model organism due to its simplicity and the substantial molecular, genetic, and developmental knowledge about the species. In this study, this species was used to test the toxicological effects of C60 fullerene nanoparticles. In previous studies using rats, a solution of C60 fullerenes in olive oil proved to extend the life of the subjects. The purpose of this experiment was to subject C. elegans to varying concentrations of C60 fullerenes and observe their toxicological effects. Initial findings indicate a link between fullerene exposure and enlargement of the vulva as well as the formation of a small nodule at the base of the tail in some individuals. While the fullerenes are not lethally toxic in C. elegans, results will be presented that pertain to changes in life span and progeny of the nematodes exposed to varying concentrations of fullerenes as well as the mechanisms of toxicity. High magnification imaging via SEM and/or AFM will be used to characterize the fullerene nanoparticles. Testing the toxicity of fullerenes in a wide variety of organisms will lead to a more complete understanding of the effects of fullerenes on living organisms to ultimately understand their effects in humans. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047, DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  16. Fluorescence diagnostics in oncological gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Ludmila A.; Adamyan, Leila V.; Kozachenko, Vladimir P.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Stranadko, Eugene F.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-10-01

    The method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of tumors is a promising tool that may allow to increase sensitivity of tumor detection especially at initial stages. One of the most promising photosensitizers today is 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) that, actually, is not photosensitizer itself but precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This paper deals with cancer diagnostics in gynecology by means of ALA-induced Pp IX laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. The tissue fluorescence spectra in vivo were studied in patients with various pathologies of ovaries, uterine and vulva after 5-aminolevulinic acid administration. It was shown that different pathologies varies in accumulation of Pp IX. Coefficient of fluorescence kf for normal tissue is not high, but exceptions are endometrium and mucous membrane of uterine tubes. Benign tumors of uterus and ovary have low values of kf, but polyps of endometrium exhibit high kf. Optical express-biopsy is important for diagnosis of ovarian cancer and micrometastatic spread. Coefficients of diagnostic contrast were determined for cancer of endometrium, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer.

  17. The experience of pain severity and pain interference in vulvodynia patients: The role of cognitive-behavioural factors, psychological distress and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Claudia; Chilcot, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic pain condition characterised by severe pain affecting the vulva. Biopsychosocial models have revealed the importance of illness perceptions, cognitive-behavioural variables and psychological distress in explaining the experience of pain and disability across several conditions. These factors have never been collectively examined in vulvodynia. We predicted that distress, fatigue, illness perceptions, and cognitive-behavioural factors would be associated with pain severity and interference among women with vulvodynia. This online cross-sectional study recruited 335 vulvodynia patients from an Italian charity association (Vulvodiniapuntoinfo.com), who completed pain severity and interference measures in addition to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire, Cognitive-Behavioural Symptom Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models controlling for demographic and illness characteristics, revealed that lower treatment control beliefs, greater illness identity, catastrophizing and psychological distress, were significant predictors of pain severity, explaining 35% of the variance. A second adjusted hierarchical regression model revealed that low treatment-control, higher fatigue, distress, and avoidance/resting behaviours were significant predictors of pain interference, explaining 48% of the variance. Distress, illness perceptions, fatigue, and cognitive-behavioural factors are associated with pain severity and interference in patients with vulvodynia, highlighting the importance of adopting a biopsychosocial approach in this setting. Future research should examine these factors over time to inform the development of future tailored interventions to help support women better manage vulvodynia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coexistence of two types of clinical lesions in childhood-onset mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Lidia; Allegue, Francisco; Caeiro, José Luis; Fabeiro, José María; Pérez Rodríguez, Alberto; Zulaica, Ander

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of mastocytosis appear in childhood, urticaria pigmentosa (UP) and mastocytomas being the most common types. Terms such as "xanthelasmoid mastocytosis", "pseudoxanthomatous mastocytosis" or "nodular mastocytosis" have been introduced in the literature to describe the presence of yellowish papular or nodular lesions. We describe two children with cutaneous mastocytosis showing yellowish lesions in combination with other skin lesions. A 10-year-old girl presented with asymptomatic lesions in her vulva at birth, and developed brownish macules on her trunk years after. An eight-year-old boy presented with multiple yellowish papular lesions on his trunk, neck and limbs coexisting with a few clinically anetodermic lesions. No systemic involvement was found and the skin biopsy confirmed a cutaneous mastocytosis in both cases. The two patients are currently asymptomatic and are being periodically followed up. Mastocytoses may show a variety of clinical lesions, sometimes leading to misdiagnosis. Although there are previous reports, involvement of the mucosae and secondary anetoderma are not common findings in cutaneous mastocytoses. We consider that cutaneous manifestations of mastocytoses compose a clinical spectrum, thus explaining the coexistence of different clinical lesions and the development of uncommon presentations.

  19. 小阴唇粘连病因调查%Investigation of the cause of Labial adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章捷; 李旭良

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对小阴唇粘连患儿的病因调查,为寻找预防措施提供依据.方法 2010年3~12月重庆医科大学附属儿童医院共诊治小阴唇粘连患儿100例,为实验组,同期在儿保科就诊未患本病的同龄女婴100例为对照组,收集并分析两组临床资料,包括尿布使用、会阴护理、体重、尿常规检查,检测实验组雌激素水平.结果 实验组100例,就诊时年龄最小2个月,最大58个月,平均14.5个月,其中2~12个月60例,12~24个月24例,24~36个月14例,36~58个月2例.病因调查:①体重:实验组超重16例,对照组超重14例,P>0.05;②尿路感染:实验组有尿路感染病史3例,尿常规提示感染1例,对照组有尿路感染史1例,尿常规提示无感染病例,P>0.05;③尿pH值:实验组尿pH≤6.0者68例,对照组43例,P<0.01;④会阴区清洁护理:尿布类型:实验组长期使用传统尿布67例,对照组49例,P<0.01;尿不湿更换:实验组中及时更换者8例(24.2%),对照组24例(47.1%),P<0.05;会阴清洗:实验组每日清洗会阴2次以上者40例,对照组中63例,P<0.01;开裆裤的使用:实验组中1岁以上40例中继续使用开裆裤者35例(87.5%),对照组中52例中仅23例(44.2%),P<0.01.⑤雌二醇水平:实验组雌二醇水平低于正常值29例,其中3例复发患儿雌二醇水平低于正常值.结论 小阴唇粘连是由多种因素作用的结果,其中雌激素水平、尿液酸碱度、会阴部清洁及是否早期使用封挡裤等为发病相关因素,与尿路感染、肥胖、外阴损伤无明显相关.加强婴幼儿外阴的清洁护理,适当碱化尿液有可能减少小阴唇粘连的发生.%Objective To research the cause of labial adhesion and find the preventive measure,we assess the clinical data of labial adhesion, and compare with normal prepubertal girl. Methods Compare the clinical data of labial adhesion with normal prepubertal girl, including daily cleaning care of vulva, diaper change , urinary tract

  20. Behavioral indicators to detect ovarian phase in the dromedary she-camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Rateb, S A; Ibrahim, N B; Monaco, D; Lacalandra, G M; El-Bahrawy, K A

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that female camels behave differently in various ovarian phases in the presence of a restrained male camel. The aim was to identify behavioral patterns which could be used as indicators to detect ovulatory phase by visual observation in the presence of a restrained virile bull. Twenty-four healthy, nonpregnant, and nonlactating adult females were used. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed for each animal once a week over a 3-week period to determine the phase of the ovarian cycle. Females were considered to be in the ovulatory phase (O) when there was at least one preovulatory follicle (12ethogram (states: looking at the male; looking outside; standing close to the male; searching; and lying down; events: interaction with the male; urination; defecation; sound emission; and steps). A score for tail position (tail score: 1 = close to the vulva, 2 = horizontal, 3 = vertical) and for interest in the bull (male time score: from 1 to 5; 1 = ethogram. The present results clarify that camels behave differently in different ovarian phases and that monitoring their behavior in the presence of a restrained bull could help detect their ovulatory phase. This would have profound implications for enhancing fertility in dromedary camels by improving timing of mating or artificial insemination.

  1. Impact of the pathogenetic type of postmenopause on the occurrence of tumors of the female reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included patients observed and treated in Russian scientific centre of roentgenradiology Ministry of Health Russian Federation in the period from 1999 to 2010 (n = 405: including 111 postmenopausal women who are without anamnestic data on the presence of cancer at any site, and the group of patients with gynecological cancer in postmenopause in including 60 patients with endometrial cancer, 67 patients with malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, 87 observations of cervical cancer and 80 patients with vulva cancer. The average age of the patients was 58.6 ± 0.4 years. The study of bone mineral density, body mass index and the level of estrogen receptor localization in different cancers of the reproductive system. Formed by 4 different types of menopause that best reflects a combination of hormone and hormone receptor status. This separation makes it possible to plan more differentiated the hormone replacement therapy in postmenopause. Along with this, there is reasonable prospects for prevention and early diagnosis of hormone-dependent tumors of the female reproductive system.

  2. Vulvar varices: an uncommon entity in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana; Kane, Philip B; Liang, Sharon; Conway, Christine; Tornos, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Varicose veins in the vulvar and perivulvar area are seen in 4% of women. Most of them are secondary to pregnancy and usually regress spontaneously. Vulvar varicose veins are rare in nonpregnant women. When present, they can be seen alone, associated with leg varices or associated with venous malformations of the labia, clitoral area, or vagina with or without arteriovenous malformations on the limbs or trunk (Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome and Parkes-Weber syndrome). In some cases, vulvar varices are seen as part of the so-called "pelvic congestion syndrome." Clinically, vulvar varices may present as small isolated protrusions, mainly in the labia majora, or as large masses, involving the vulva and even the perivulvar area. The treatment of choice of vulvar varices seen during pregnancy is conservative and symptomatic. Surgical pathologists need to be aware of the existence of vulvar varicose veins and its possible presence in biopsy specimens. Vulvar varicose veins can be misdiagnosed clinically as cysts or masses mainly in the Bartholin gland area. Correct diagnosis of the lesion is important to determine appropriate therapy and to recognize the possibility of associated anatomical or pathological problems.

  3. A new species of Tarracoblaniulus Mauriès & Vicente, 1977: description, postembryonic development, life cycle, and spatial distribution (Diplopoda, Julida, Blaniulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarracoblaniulus phantasmanus n. sp. is described from Tarragona province, Spain and compared with the only known other species known in the genus, T. lagari Mauriès & Vicente, 1977, from which it differs mainly in having only 5, instead of 15 or more, straight spines on the posterior gonopod. The female vulva (unknown in T. lagari is very different from all known blaniulid vulvae. Based on a large number of specimens, the postembryonic development (euanamorphosis from stadium II onward is described. This is highly variable, with three to six apodous body rings in stadium IV, which is the most variable number so far recorded in Blaniulidae. Accordingly, specimens beyond stadium VIII could not be assigned to a specific stadium. At least some males are morphologically distinguishable in stadium IV, morphologically mature males appear in stadium VIII, possibly already in stadium VII. The life cycle of the new species is tentatively suggested to involve at least three years. The monthly mean density of the total population was 28.82 ind/m2 across the whole soil profile. Statistically significant differences in density values between months and Spearman’s rank correlation analyses between the monthly mean values of density and temperature show that T. phantasmanus presents a maximum density in the coldest months and a minimum one in the summer. Significant differences between monthly mean densities of different soil levels and the Usher index values show that during the spring and summer T. phantasmanus is concentrated in the mineral horizon A. In autumn, during winter and up to early spring, the population shows a clear tendency to move up towards horizon H and horizon L/F. Concerning horizontal distribution, Morisita index monthly values for each of the horizons indicate that the species is distributed in patches.Se describe Tarracoblaniulus phantasmanus n. sp., especie encontrada en la provincia de Tarragona (España, y se compara con la única

  4. Plastic surgery trends parallel Playboy magazine: the pudenda preoccupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placik, Otto J; Arkins, John P

    2014-09-01

    Aesthetic vulvovaginal procedures are being performed with increased frequency. Many experts have suggested that the growing demand for these procedures relates to the availability and revealing nature of nude images on the Internet and in other media. The authors examined chronologically organized nude photographs from a popular magazine and objectively measured the position of the vulva relative to the center of focus to observe trends for the past 6 decades. Playboy magazine centerfold photographs from 1954 to 2013 were analyzed and categorized. The positions of the vaginal area (V-line) and the breast area (N-line) were measured in relation to the horizontal midline of the photograph. Images also were assessed for degree of grooming and exposure of the breast and pubic areas, as well as visibility of the pudendal cleft, labia majora, and labia minora. Four hundred ninety images met inclusion criteria for the analysis. Full exposure of the V-line increased from 0 instances in the 1950s to 78.6% of images from 2010 through 2013 (P<.001). Moreover, the V-line position became 41.0% closer to the photographic midline (P=.045). The results demonstrate a trend toward increased visibility and prominence of the female genitalia as the focal point of popular nude photographs. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  5. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  7. Spinitectus osorioi (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) in the Mexican endemic fish Atherinella alvarezi (Atherinopsidae) from the Atlantic River drainage system in Chiapas, Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan M

    2010-02-01

    Specimens of Spinitectus osorioi Choudhury and Pérez-Ponce de León, an intestinal nematode species previously considered to be specific to Chirostoma spp and endemic to some lakes in the Pacific drainage in Michoacán, were collected from the freshwater fish Atherinella alvarezi (Díaz-Pardo) (Atherinopsidae) of the Michol River near Palenque, Chiapas, Southern Mexico, which belongs to the Atlantic drainage system. Studies using light and scanning electron microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or erroneously reported features of S. osorioi, such as the location of the vulva, the actual number and distribution of postanal papillae and phasmids and the presence of a short median cuticular ridge anterior to the cloacal opening (in addition to two long subventral ridges). The recorded somewhat shorter spicules (420-465 and 105-111 microm) and mostly smaller eggs (33-36 x 18-20 microm) as compared to the original species description may be due to a different type of host, geographical region or generally smaller body measurements of these specimens. These biometrical differences are considered to be within the limits of the intraspecific variability of S. osorioi. A key to species of Spinitectus parasitizing freshwater fishes in Mexico is provided.

  8. Three-Directional Reconstruction of a Massive Perineal Defect after Wide Local Excision of Extramammary Paget's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung Woo; Kwon, Sung Tack

    2016-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow-growing intraepithelial malignancy that mainly involves the genital region, including the vulva, penis, scrotum, perianal, and periurethral areas. Although several treatment options exist, wide local excision with a safe margin is considered the treatment of choice. After resection of the lesion, it is often challenging to reconstruct the defect because defects in the perineal region require adequate volume for protection and are susceptible to infections, which is a particularly significant risk for large defects. We report a case of perivulvar EMPD that was reconstructed with three-directional local flaps after wide excision of the tumor. We covered the defect sequentially using the following 3 flaps: a gracilis myocutaneous flap from the left thigh, a bipedicled V-Y advancement flap from the lower abdomen, and an internal pudendal artery perforator-based island flap from the right buttock. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a three-directional approach to extensive perivulvar reconstruction. PMID:27689055

  9. Photodynamic therapy for early malignancies in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobraico, Rocco V.

    1990-09-01

    A total of 14 patients who had failed all conventional modalities for cancer of the vulva vagina and perianal area were treated with photodynamic therapy PDT. The affinity of porphyrins to neopJ. astic tissue enables treatment to be concentrated at the tumor site. An Aurora FL Argon pumped dye laser (Cooper LaserSonics Inc. USA) was used to pump dicyanomethylene dye as an activating source for a red light at a wavelength of 630 nm. The combination of a tumor localizing photosensitizer and photoactivating red light produces a photo chemical reaction that is destructive to the cancerous lesion. The treatment time varied between 10-30 minutes. Vulvar sites ranged from 9-38 cm2. Delivered light doses were from 50-125 J/cm2 and power density from 50 to 75 mW/cm2. A complete response was obtained in 80 of the sites treated as evidenced by negative biopsies taken at 3 months post treatment. Adverse reactions to PDT included a transient cutaneous photosensitivity due to retention of the photosensitizers in the skin. This reaction usually persisted from 45-60 days. 1.

  10. Morphometric and molecular characteristics of Labeonema synodontisi n. comb. (Nematoda: Atractidae) from the West African fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubková, Bozena; Barus, Vlastimil; Hodová, Iveta; Simková, Andrea

    2008-04-01

    Numerous nematodes were found in the rectum of three fish species Synodontis ocellifer, S. nigrita, and S. schall (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) from the Gambia River and Mare Simenti, National Park Niokolo Koba, Senegal. A nematode species Raillietnema synodontisi Vassiliadès, 1973 (host S. ocellifer), is redescribed using morphometric (including scanning electron microscopy) and molecular characteristics and transferred into the genus Labeonema Puylaert, 1970. It is morphologically and metrically similar to Labeonema intermedium Puylaert, 1970, the other congeneric species (L. bainae Baker, 1982; L. bakeri Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988; and L. africanum Moravec et Van As, 2004) differ from them either by the spicule and gubernaculum lengths, distribution and number of pre-cloacal papillae, position of the vulva, as well as hosts and geographical distribution. The partial sequences of small ribosomal subunit rDNA of L. synodontisi were analyzed and compared with other nematode sequences. Molecular analyses seem to support the position of this nematode species based on the morphological observation.

  11. A case of recurrent labial adhesions in a 15-month-old child with asymptomatic non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Dominika; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Malunowicz, Ewa; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2012-01-01

    Labial adhesions (synechia vulvae) are a relatively common disorder of the external genitalia in prepubertal girls. They usually occur between 3 months and 6 years of age, with a peak between 13 and 23 months of life. In the majority of cases, labial adhesions are asymptomatic and noticed by the parents or a physician during a routine physical examination. Frequently, they cause recurrent urinary tract infections. This report presents the case of a 15-month-old girl with recurrent labial adhesions and urinary tract infections. She was followed-up by a urologist from the age of 3 months, treated topically (estriol cream 1 mg/g and emollients) and surgically. No signs of androgenization were seen apart from advanced bone age. Urinary steroid profile and molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In the described case, a coincidence of NCCAH and labial adhesion cannot be excluded particularly in view of the resolving of urinary tract infections at the same time as resolving of labial adhesions. However, it seems that in cases of recurrent labial adhesion/synechia that require repeated surgical interventions in view of ineffectiveness of conservative treatment - as it was observed in the presented case - one should consider searching for NCCAH. This may allow not only for the causal treatment of labial adhesions but, above all, NCCAH and, in consequence, the prevention of intensification of virilization, hirsutism, menstrual cycle, and fertility disturbances that are observed starting from puberty.

  12. Staging for vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Maheshwari, Amita; Srivastava, Astha

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer comprising about 3% of all gynecologic cancers. Primary vaginal cancer should be carefully assigned as spread from cervix, vulva, and other metastatic tumors to vagina can occur. Although vaginal cancer traditionally occurs in older postmenopausal women, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is increasing in younger women. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the most common histopathologic type followed by adenocarcinoma. With decreasing use of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, non-diethylstilbestrol-associated cancers are described. The Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging of vaginal cancer (2009) follows the same rules as cervical cancer; it is clinically staged and allows the use of routine investigative modalities for staging. Although FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, the imaging findings may not be used to change or reassign the stage. TNM staging is the pathologic staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and information available from examination of the resected specimen, including pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, may be used for staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Giant Condyloma Acuminata in Indonesian Females with SLE under Immunosuppressant and Steroid Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Immunosuppressant and steroid therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) increases the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, one of which is giant condyloma acuminata (GCA). To our knowledge, there is no report evaluating the correlation between immunosuppressive and steroid therapy in patients with SLE and the prevalence of GCA. Case Report. A 42-year-old female was diagnosed with SLE a year ago and has been treated with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. In the last few months she presented GCA involving the genital area recurring almost every two months. Type 6 and 11 HPVs were identified in vulva, vagina, and cervix. Methods. PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library literature were searched from inception to July 2015. Authors screened all titles and abstracts and read full text article, and two case-control studies were found relevant. Results. SLE patients in both studies were under immunosuppressive and steroid therapy. Condyloma acuminata was diagnosed at 108 months (latest) and 1 month (earliest) after SLE. Type 6, 11, 16, 42, and oncogenic group of HPV were identified. Conclusions. GCA is a type of HPV infection seldom observed in SLE patients. Therefore, their correlation is still unclear. Period of time since SLE was diagnosed and GCA varies from months to years. A more thorough physical and laboratory examination leading to HPV and other infectious disease is recommended. PMID:27843658

  14. Congenitally caused fused labia in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isachenko, E F; Nayudu, P L; Isachenko, V V; Nawroth, F; Michelmann, H W

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the occurrence of an external genital abnormality in female marmoset monkeys (fused labia) is discussed. This malformation was detected, for the first time, in a group of animals at the German Primate Center (GPC), Goettingen. The malformed vulva was completely sealed except for an opening of 1.5-2.5 mm around the urethra sufficient for urination. Because of this defect the animals were not able to copulate. As a consequence, the affected females were functionally infertile although they had a normal genital tract and a regular cycle. This vulvar abnormality was found in 12 females, offspring of 10 pairs in which either one or both came to the German Primate Center from two genetically related colonies in Munich, Germany, and one colony in Basel, Switzerland. The abnormality appeared to be recessive and inheritable from either parent. In pairs in which both animals were from one of the mentioned colonies, 45% of the female offspring were affected. In pairs where only one partner came from these colonies, 26% of female offspring had the malformation. These results indicate that avoidance of inbreeding, which is frequently performed in primate colonies, may reduce, but not eliminate the expression of abnormalities of genetic origin. Therefore selective breeding is required, and, in colonies where these recessive mutations are widespread, the development of genetic screening tests would be advantageous.

  15. New species of Hammerschmidtiella Chitwood, 1932, and Blattophila Cobb, 1920, and new geographical records for Severianoia annamensis Van Luc & Spiridonov, 1993 (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in Ohio and Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Ramon A

    2017-01-26

    Two new species of thelastomatid nematodes parasitic in the hindgut of cockroaches are described. Hammerschmidtiella keeneyi n. sp. is described from a laboratory colony of Diploptera punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822) from a facility in Ohio, U. S. A. This species is characterized by having females with a short tail and males smaller than those described from other species. The new species also differs from others in the genus by a number of differing measurements that indicate a distinct identity, including esophageal, tail, and egg lengths as well as the relative position of the excretory pore. Blattophila peregrinata n. sp. is described from Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) and Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) in a greenhouse from Ohio, U.S.A. and from wild P. surinamensis in southern Florida, U.S.A. This species differs from others in the genus by having a posteriorly directed vagina, vulva in the anterior third of the body, no lateral alae in females, and eggs with an operculum. In P. surinamensis from southern Florida, an additional species, Severianoia annamensis Van Luc & Spiridonov, 1993 was found and did not co-parasitize the host with B. peregrinata n. sp. Blattophila peregrinata n. sp. and S. annamensis also occur in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, indicating that these have a widespread global range.

  16. Idiopathic Circumscripta Calcinosis Cutis of the Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon disorder characterized by deposition of insoluble calcium salts in the skin. Based on the etiology of the deposition calcinosis cutis may be devided into four major groups namely metastatic, dystrophic, idiopathic, and iatrogenic. The pathophysiology of calcinosis cutis remains unclear. The dystrophic form is the most common whereas the idiopathic one is the rarest. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis occurs in the absence of any identifiable causes and is not associated with drug use. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis has two major types called localized (circumscript and generalized (universalis. Localized type generally involves the vulva, scrotum, penis and breast. A definitive diagnosis requires the histologic demonstration of the accumulation of calcium in the skin and exclusion of other clinic types.There is not an effective treatment for the disease. A 47-year-old woman referred to our outpatient clinic for painless, yellowish-white nodules on her hand enduring for 30 years. A diagnosis of idiopathic calcinosis cutis was made by clinical and histological findings. We present this case because localization of lesions in our case was previously unreported in the literature to our knowledge.

  17. The other side of phenotypic plasticity: a developmental system that generates an invariant phenotype despite environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braendle, Christian; Felix, Marie-Anne

    2009-10-01

    Understanding how the environment impacts development is of central interest in developmental and evolutionary biology. On the one hand, we would like to understand how the environment induces phenotypic changes (the study of phenotypic plasticity). On the other hand, we may ask how a development system maintains a stable and precise phenotypic output despite the presence of environmental variation. We study such developmental robustness to environmental variation using vulval cell fate patterning in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a study system. Here we review both mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of these studies, focusing on recently obtained experimental results. First, we present evidence indicating that vulval formation is under stabilizing selection. Second, we discuss quantitative data on the precision and variability in the output of the vulval developmental system in different environments and different genetic backgrounds. Third, we illustrate how environmental and genetic variation modulate the cellular and molecular processes underlying the formation of the vulva. Fourth, we discuss the evolutionary significance of environmental sensitivity of this developmental system.

  18. [Human papillomavirus nonavalent vaccine. Update 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F X; Moreno, D; Redondo, E; Torné, A

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of 5% of human cancers. HPV infection is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and is responsible of a variable percentage of cancers of anus, vulva, vagina, penis, and oropharynx. Since 2007, 2 vaccines against HPV have been commercially available in Spain: bivalent (HPV types 16/18), and tetravalent (HPV types 6/11/16/18). In order to extend the protection afforded by HPV vaccines, a clinical program was launched in 2006 for the new nonavalent vaccine, including 9 HPV types (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). These types are responsible for 90% of cervical cancers, 82% of high-grade ano-genital pre-cancerous lesions, and 90% of genital warts. The purpose of this publication is to provide healthcare professionals with the scientific evidence that supports the new vaccine, as well as the clinical value that it offers in our environment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for occurrence of mounting sex pheromone on body surface of femaleDermacentor variabilis (Say) AndDermacentor andersoni (Stiles) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J; Hamilton, C; Sonenshine, D E

    1988-01-01

    MaleDermacentor variabilis andD. andersoni respond to an unknown chemical or chemicals present on the body surfaces of partially engorged conspecific female ticks. Following contact, the males mount the females and apply their mouthparts and legs against the female dorsal body surface. Then, the males turn with these appendages still in close contact and crawl to the female's venter, whereupon they locate the gonopore, probe the vulva, and copulate. Similar responses are elicited by heterospecific as well as conspecific females. However, the response is lost when the female cuticle is cleaned (delipidized) with organic solvents. It can be restored by applying hexane extracts prepared from female cuticle to the previously cleaned females. Males do not use surface texture as the primary stimulus for mate recognition. Male ticks also respond to hexane extracts applied to spherical inanimate objects, ("dummy" female), suggesting that a chemical or chemicals soluble in organic solvents has been transferred to these objects. These findings suggest the existence of a previously undescribed pheromone, the mounting sex pheromone (MSP). This contact sex pheromone enables males excited and attracted by 2,6-dichlorophenol to identify the female as a potential mating partner. The MSP is the second in the series of three sex pheromones guiding the hierarchy of behavioral responses which constitute tick courtship behavior.

  20. Identification of Ixodide ticks of cattle in and around Hararamaya district, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kassa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of Ixodide ticks, their predilection sites and relation to breed, sex, and age group of animals. A total of 560 animals were examined of which 186 (33.21% found infested with one or more ticks. Among the total 1446 ticks collected three generas; Amblyomma, Boophilus, and Rhipicephalus, and five species identified. The relative prevalence of each species was Amblyomma variegatum (38.87%, Amblyomma coherence (8.30%, Boophilus decoloratus (31.54%, Rhipicephalus pulchellus (6.64%, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (14.66%. A.variegatum and A. coherence shows higher preference to axial, scrotum/ udder, and groin & belly. B. decoloratus species were found prominently on the back & neck. R. evertsi evertsi and R. pulchelus showed high preference to the under tail and peri-anal &vulva regions of the body. The male to female sex ratio of the collected ticks was found 1.96:1, showing higher proportion of male than their counter parts. The prevalence of tick infestation was found significantly higher (P0.05.

  1. Description of non-type Seinura winchesi from mushroom compost (Nematoda: Seinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisa, T R

    2002-06-01

    Non-type material identified as Seinura winchesi, and deposited in the collection of the Nematology Department, Rothamsted Experimental Station, England, is described. The material was collected from mushroom compost in Leeds, England, in 1957. Females of this population are characterized by a set-off head, knobless stylet (20-21 microm), two rows of oogonia-oocytes, and absence of a postuterine sac. The median bulb is oblong and, at times, is constricted in the middle. The body is 565 to 675 microm long and tapers posteriorly to a pointed terminus. The cuticle is finely annulated, and there are three incisures in the lateral field. The ovary is outstretched and overlaps the esophageal gland lobes. A spermatheca is present, and spermatozoa are visible. The vulva is posteriorly located (V = 77-80), and a flap is absent. Males are 550 to 680 microm long with a spicate tail that bears three pairs of subventral papillae. The spike is short (14-18 microm), about one-half the tail length. The testis is 360 to 412 microm long, not reflexed, and at times overlaps the esophageal gland lobes. Spermatogonia-spermatocytes are in two rows. Spicules are 14 to 15 microm long with a prominent apex, and small rostrum. A bursa and gubernaculum are absent.

  2. GATA transcription factors as tissue-specific master regulators for induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Dena Hs; Shapira, Michael

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors play important roles in directing developmental genetic programs and cell differentiation, and are conserved in animals, plants and fungi. C. elegans has 11 GATA-type transcription factors that orchestrate development of the gut, epidermis and vulva. However, the expression of certain GATA proteins persists into adulthood, where their function is less understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates contributions of 2 terminal differentiation GATA transcription factors, ELT-2 and ELT-3, to epithelial immune responses in the adult intestine and epidermis (hypodermis), respectively. Involvement in other stress responses has also been documented. We recently showed that ELT-2 acted as a tissue-specific master regulator, cooperating with 2 transcription factors activated by the p38 pathway, ATF-7 and SKN-1, to control immune responses in the adult C. elegans intestine. Here, we discuss the broader implications of these findings for understanding the involvement of GATA transcription factors in adult stress responses, and draw parallels between ELT-2 and ELT-3 to speculate that the latter may fulfill similar tissue-specific functions in the epidermis.

  3. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zuhair Bani

    2016-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 µg/kg), romifidine (30-50 µg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 µg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed. PMID:28096620

  4. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R

    2014-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract.

  5. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy treated with clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haram, K; Digranes, A

    1978-01-01

    An open trial of local clotrimazole therapy in 56 pregnant women with vulvovaginal candidiasis is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by mycotic culture. The patients were given one vaginal tablet daily and cream was applied to the vulva 2 or 3 times daily. Their male partners were treated with cream only. The duration of therapy was 6 days. Fifty of the patients (89.3%) were clinically cured after 6 days of therapy. Six patients (10.7%) had slight complaints and 10 (17.9%) without symptoms or signs of infection harboured Candida albicans or other yeast species in the genital tract. Six of the patients were given a second treatment with clotrimazole and their remaining symptoms subsided. Candidiasis recurred later in pregnancy in 4 of the 56 patients studied. The implications of the presence of Candida in the genital tract are discussed. It is concluded that clotrimazole is an effective antimycotic agent which can be used for vulvovaginal candidasis during pregnancy without causing side effects. Two of the patients had trichomoniasis concurrently. One of these was cured with clotrimazole.

  6. Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp. (Nematoda: Rictulariidae), a parasite of Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae), from the Biosphere Reserve "Sierra de Huautla" in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This is the second species in the genus described from bats in the New World, since most of the rictaluriids reported in these hosts belong to the closely related genus Rictularia Froelich, 1802. However, members of Rictularia possess only a single oesophageal tooth at the base of the buccal capsule, whereas in the current nematodes three conspicuous oesophageal teeth are present. They are therefore included in Pterygodermatites Wedl, 1861. The new species is characterized by the presence of 23 small denticles on the periphery of the buccal capsule and by the presence of 40 and 66 pairs of cuticular processes in males and females, respectively. Additionally, males possess 3-4 ventral precloacal fan-like processes, and the cuticular processes of females are divided into 40 pairs of comb-like and 26 pairs of spine-like processes; the vulva opens on the level of approximately pair 40. The dorsally directed stoma and the 40 prevulvar cuticular processes makes it difficult to place the species in any of the subgenera present in the New World, yet characters correspond with the diagnosis of Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) in the Mediterranean region and North Africa.

  7. Surgical treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Elchalal, U; Abramov, D; Goldfarb, A; Schenker, J G

    1996-03-01

    Surgical therapy of lichen sclerosus of the vulva consists of three main operations: vulvectomy (with or without a skin graft), cryosurgery, and laser ablation. It is indicated in two conditions, either when malignant transformation is present or is likely to occur, or when medical treatment has failed. The overall risk for malignant transformation of vulvar lichen sclerosus is low, ranging between 0 and 9 percent. However, specific histological criteria, such as mixed dystrophy, have recently been associated with higher malignancy rates. Vulvectomy is indicated only when these criteria are met. Both skinning and simple vulvectomies are associated with recurrence rates as high as 50 percent. However, better sexual function and cosmetic results have been reported in the former, especially with concomitant split skin grafting. Cryosurgery also has high recurrence rates, although short-term results are favorable. Although only small series have been reported, laser therapy seems to carry better long-term results than other modes of treatment. Convalescence is complete within 6 weeks posttreatment, and remission rates are as high as 85 percent at 3 years of follow-up. The high recurrence rate of all surgical modalities makes surgical treatment suitable only for patients who failed to respond to multiple medical treatments such as topical high potent steroid ointments, testosterone, and retinoids.

  8. Vulvar carcinomas: search for sequences homologous to human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; D'Amato, L; Di Luca, D; Shah, K V; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1990-07-01

    Ten cases of intraepithelial carcinoma, five with Bowenoid features and five with early invasion, and ten cases of invasive vulvar carcinoma were examined by in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis using DNA probes for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18 and 31. HPV DNA was detected in 90% of the intraepithelial cases and in 10% of the invasive cases. All positive cases showed the presence of DNA of HPV type 16. The cases with intraepithelial lesions revealed a strong correlation between the presence of HPV type 16 DNA, cigarette smoking habit, other potential cofactors such as herpes simplex (HSV) DNA sequences and the use of contraceptive drugs, and clinicopathologic features of Bowen's type in situ squamous cell carcinoma. Similar associations were not observed among the cases with invasive disease. While HPV-16 is associated with differentiated Bowenoid type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, which appears to be the most common form of early carcinoma of the vulva, the same association was not seen with respect to advanced vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Primary perianal extramammary Paget’s disease: Case report with review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Pandey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD is a rare cancer which involves the skin and apocrine glands. It involves the vulva, perianal region, scrotum, penis and axilla. Primary disease originates from intraepidermal cells and secondary originates from underlying neoplasm. The disease presents with thickened plaque like lesion with erythema or white scaly appearance. The cancers of urinary tract like the bladder, urethra and prostrate are associated with EPMD involving the genitalia and rectal tumours are associated with perianal disease. The disease affects females more than males with the median age being 72 years. Primary perianal EMPD is even rare in presentation. It is a slow growing tumour and the prognosis is usually favourable other than advanced stage and old age. The surgical resection with clear margins is considered to be the standard of care and provides good outcomes. However, if surgery is not feasible other treatment options like imiquimod 5% topical cream and radiation therapy may be offered. We present a young male with perianal EMPD who was managed with surgical resection with clear margins with split skin graft leading to a favourable outcome.

  10. Estrus synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep under field conditions of a semi-arid tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Sethi, Debabrata; Gulyani, Rajiv; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the success of estrus synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in sheep under field conditions of a semi-arid tropical region. A total of 471 ewes belonging to 17 farmers of four villages in Tonk district of Rajasthan (Jelmiya, Dhani Jaisinghpura, Tantiya and Bheepur) were synchronized for estrus during the years 2011 and 2012. Synchronization of estrus was done by AVIKESIL-S, cost-effective intra-vaginal sponges developed by the Institute and eCG protocol. The sponges were kept in situ in the vagina for 12 days and 200 IU eCG (Folligon, Intervet) was administered intramuscularly at the time of sponge withdrawal on the 12th day. Fixed-time cervical insemination was performed twice in ewes exhibiting estrus (restlessness, shaking of tail, slightly swollen vulva, moist and reddish cervical external os), 48 and 56 h after sponge removal, using liquid chilled semen of Patanwadi/Malpura rams containing 100 million sperm per dose. The estrus response recorded was 79.4 % (374/471) and lambing rate was 60.42 % (226/374). It may be concluded from the encouraging results of the present study that FTAI can be used effectively to take advantage of both the genetic improvement and economic benefit that can be realized by the use of estrus synchronization in conjunction with artificial insemination (AI).

  11. Application of a Thulium Laser for Treatment of Cervical Neoplasias and Condylomas: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henes, Melanie; Vogt, Bernhard; Neis, Felix; Rall, Katharina; Litzenburger, Tanja; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara Y; Rothmund, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of safety, feasibility, and possibilities of the thulium laser, Vela(®), with a wavelength of 1.9 μm for laser treatment of the portio, vagina, and/or vulva. Laser techniques have been used for many years in the gynecological setting for the treatment of cervical, vaginal, and vulval intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN, VAIN, VIN) and also for the treatment of condylomas. To date, the most commonly used laser for this treatment is the CO2 laser. After indication was made for laser treatment, the patients were treated using the thulium laser, Vela. Follow-up examination usually took place after 1-2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, when colposcopy and, where necessary, a cytological smear were performed. During the period from January 2012 to January 2014, 18 patients were treated using the thulium laser. Three patients had a CIN I, 12 had condylomas, two had CIN I and condylomas, and one had CIN II and condylomas. During the follow-up, 40% (n = 6) of patients had a relapse of condylomas. No relapse occurred in cases of CIN. Itching, burning, pain, bleeding, discharge, and skin irritation were listed as side effects of the procedure. This feasibility study shows that the use of the thulium laser for the treatment of cervical neoplasias and condylomas offers a good alternative to the standard treatment using a CO2 laser.

  12. A clitoral verrucous carcinoma in an area of lichen planus has aggressive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Siozopoulou, Vasiliki; Huizing, Manon T

    2017-01-06

    Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva is extremely rare. It is a slow growing, low malignant variant of a squamous cell carcinoma with a cauliflower appearance. Women with lichen planus have an increased risk of developing vulval cancer. A 79-year-old woman consulted for vulval itching. On clinical examination, a 3-cm large verrucous clitoral cancer in an area of lichen planus was seen. Based on her last clinical examination, the growth was estimated to be 1 cm(2) per month with an invasion depth after 6 months of 5 mm. A tumor developing in an area of lichen planus appears to have more aggressive features. This is the first time that the growth of a verrucous carcinoma has been documented in an area of lichen planus. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the aggressive behavior of cancers developing in areas of lichen planus and adjust their surgical management together with the follow-up strategy.

  13. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Extrofia vesical, una anomalía congénita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Rojas Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo y representativo de un caso, para el que se utilizó la entrevista, la ultrasonografía y la evaluación del grupo Multidisciplinario de Genética Provincial. La paciente con 23 años de edad, con historia obstetricia de G2 P1 eutócico, clasificado de riesgo genético bajo, se le detectó en el ultrasonido del segundo semestre en la semana de gestación 19.6 una anomalía congénita, diagnosticada como extrofia vesical. Después de encontrado este hallazgo, la gestante fue remitida al Centro Genético Provincial. El equipo facultativo evaluó el caso y decidió la interrupción electiva del embarazo, siendo un feto de 450 gramos del sexo femenino. El resultado final de la anatomía patológica fue: ausencia de fusión del hueso pelviano; malformación de la vulva, clítoris prominente, labios mayores cortos y abiertos; vejiga insertada en la pared abdominal.

  15. Algorithmic approach to lower abdominal, perineal, and groin reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelken, Jonathan A; AlDeek, Nidal F; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Lower abdominal, perineal, and groin (LAPG) reconstruction may be performed in a single stage. Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps are preferred here and taken as fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC), myocutaneous (ALT-MC), or vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flaps. We aim to present the results of reconstruction from a series of patients and guide flap selection with an algorithmic approach to LAPG reconstruction that optimizes outcomes and minimizes morbidity. Lower abdomen, groin, perineum, vulva, vagina, scrotum, and bladder wounds reconstructed in 22 patients using ALT flaps between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Five ALT-FC, eight ALT-MC, and nine VL-MC flaps were performed. All flaps survived. Venous congestion occurred in three VL-MC flaps from mechanical cause. Wound infection occurred in six cases. Urinary leak occurred in three cases of bladder reconstruction. One patient died from congestive heart failure. The ALT flap is time tested and dependably addresses most LAPG defects; flap variations are suited for niche defects. We propose a novel algorithm to guide reconstructive decision-making.

  16. The 2015 International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) Terminology of Vulvar Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jacob; Bogliatto, Fabrizio; Haefner, Hope K; Stockdale, Colleen K; Preti, Mario; Bohl, Tanja G; Reutter, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The impact of terminology for vulvar intraepithelial lesions has been significant over the years, because it has affected diagnosis, treatment, and research. The introduction of the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) in 2012 raised 2 concerns in relation to vulvar lesions: firstly, the absence of reference to "differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia" (differentiated VIN) could lead to its being overlooked by health care providers, despite its malignant potential. Secondly, including the term "low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (LSIL) in LAST recreated the potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment for benign, self-limiting lesions. The International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) assigned the terminology committee the task of developing a terminology to take these issues into consideration. The committee reviewed the development of terminology for vulvar SILs with the previous 2 concerns in mind and reviewed several new terminology options. The final version accepted by the ISSVD contains the following:•Low-grade SIL of the vulva or vulvar LSIL, encompassing flat condyloma or human papillomavirus effect.•High-grade SIL or vulvar HSIL (which was termed "vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia usual type" in the 2004 ISSVD terminology).•Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, differentiated type. The advantage of the new terminology is that it includes all types of vulvar SILs, it provides a solution to the concerns in relation to the application of LAST to vulvar lesion, and it is in accordance with the World Health Organization classification as well as the LAST, creating unity among clinicians and pathologists.

  17. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion arising adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a tertiary institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Go Eun; Yoon, Gun; Song, Yong Jung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-07-26

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva occurs in patients who have undergone radical hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, or radiation therapy for management of advanced uterine cancer. Since vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum typically presents as multiple, grossly verrucous vesicles of various sizes, it may be impossible to clinically distinguish vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum from other vulvoperineal cutaneous diseases. In the present study, 16 (1.6%) out of the 1,024 vulvar biopsy or excision specimens were diagnosed as lymphangioma circumscriptum. In two (12.5%) out of the 16 cases, unusual histopathological findings were observed. Both patients had previously undergone radical hysterectomy with lymph node dissection and postoperative radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation therapy for advanced cervical cancer. Microscopic examination revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, which were located immediately adjacent to the normal squamous epithelium covering the dilated subepithelial lymphatic vessels. Further, human papillomavirus genotyping confirmed that both patients were infected with high-risk human papillomavirus. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cannot be grossly distinguished from vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum because the multiple, verrucous vesicles that constitute the characteristic gross appearance of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum hinder its distinction. In this regard, our cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, located adjacent to vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum, support the notion that active surgical excision is necessary for the treatment of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum.

  18. New topical treatment of vulvodynia based on the pathogenetic role of cross talk between nociceptors, immunocompetent cells, and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available J M Keppel Hesselink,1 D J Kopsky,2 N Sajben3 1Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, 2Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Scripps Memorial Hospital La Jolla, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Topical treatments of localized neuropathic pain syndromes in general are mostly neglected, mainly due to the fact that most pain physicians expect that a topical formulation needs to result in a transdermal delivery of the active compounds. On the basis of the practical experience, this study brings forth a new, somewhat neglected element of the vulvodynia pathogenesis: the cross talk between the nerve endings of nociceptors, the adjacent immunocompetent cells, and vaginal epithelial cells. Insight into this cross talk during a pathogenic condition supports the treatment of vulvodynia with topical (compounded creams. Vulvodynia was successfully treated with an analgesic cream consisting of baclofen 5% together with the autacoid palmitoylethanolamide 1%, an endogenous anti-inflammatory compound. In this review, data is presented to substantiate the rationale behind developing and prescribing topical products for localized pain states such as vulvodynia. Most chronic inflammatory disorders are based on a network pathogenesis, and monotherapeutic inroads into the treatment of such disorders are obsolete. Keywords: vulva, cream, autacoid, mast cell, pain, analgesia, pathogenesis, baclofen, palmitoylethanolamide

  19. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision.CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision.COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  20. Unique use of botulinum toxin to decrease adductor tone and allow surgical excision of vulvar carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y; Shin, K

    2004-01-01

    Here, we present the case of an 86-year-old woman with vulvar carcinoma requiring surgical resection and with Parkinson's disease with severe spasticity and contractures of the lower extremities. Because of the patient's severe contractures and spasticity (her knees could only be separated by 2 cm with sustained abducting force), surgical positioning and access to the vulva were impossible. The patient was admitted, intending to undergo surgery after injection with botulinum toxin (BTX) to hip adductors and intensive physical therapy. After confirmed healed hip arthroplasty, the patient underwent BTX injection (400 U) to her bilateral adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles on day 2 of her hospital stay. On day 3, a physical therapist began a twice-a-day stretching program. An adjustable abduction brace was custom-made to provide sustained stretching. On day 9, the patient underwent wide local excision of vulvar carcinoma with the abductor brace in place. The patient tolerated the surgery well and was discharged home on day 11 with continuous physical therapy. Upon discharge, the distance between the patient's knees was 14 cm. This unique case demonstrated a new indication for BTX treatment in the preoperative setting to allow surgical positioning and access.