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  1. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-stress and memory-enhancing properties of F. vulgare extract in experimental rats. Methods: F. vulgare plant extract was obtained using Soxhlet extraction technique. The extract, at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally with an orogastric tube. Urinary levels of ...

  2. Investigating Genetic Diversity of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill using Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Jadidi; Mansour Kalantar

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are considered valuable genetic resources in Iran. One of these medicinal as well as spice plants is Foeniculum Vulgare Mill from Umbellifetae family used in different industries such as food, medicine, and cosmetics. It seems that due to different climate conditions in Iran this plant represents a high and valuable genetic diversity; therefore, management of genetic resources protection and obtaining information about genetic diversity will help awareness of evolution pro...

  3. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review

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    Kooti Wesam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.

  4. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

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    Sa'roni Sa'roni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

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    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  6. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

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    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  7. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  8. Aspectos anatômicos de plântulas Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Anatomical aspects of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seedling

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    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-doce, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, é uma erva entouceirada, aromática que apresenta propriedades condimentares e medicinais; tem origem Européia e é amplamente cultivada em todo o Brasil. Devido à deficiência de informações relativas à organização estrutural de plântulas de espécies medicinais, o presente estudo teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre a anatomia e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de F. vulgare. As sementes de erva-doce foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias, sendo realizadas regas diárias. Foram selecionadas plântulas normais e de padrão uniforme, que tiveram raiz, zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e primeiras folhas seccionados à mão livre. Este material foi corado e montado em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Em todos os órgãos da plântula de erva-doce a epiderme é unisseriada, cuticularizada e com estômatos; sendo que as duas últimas estruturas não são encontradas na raiz, porém esta apresenta pêlos unicelulares e cônicos. Os cotilédones e as folhas apresentam funções fotossintéticas e nutricionais, indicadas pela presença de grande quantidade de estômatos, cloroplastos e amido. A caracterização anatômica de plântulas de F. vulgare auxilia na identificação da espécie e no conhecimento da organização celular, fornecendo informações que auxiliam em estudos fisiológicos, taxonômicos e ecológicos.Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, is a forming clumps herb and presents aromatic, medicinal and condimental properties. It has European origin and is widely cultivated and used in Brazil. Due to lack of information concerning the structural organization of seedlings of medicinal species, this study aimed to provide information about the anatomy and development of F. vulgare seedlings. The seeds fennel was sowed in sand and maintained in greenhouse for 25 days, with daily waterings. Were selected

  9. Sazonalidade dos ductos secretores e óleo essencial de Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae

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    L.A. Sousa

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os ductos secretores e o óleo essencial das folhas de Foeniculum vulgare em diferentes épocas do ano. Para esta finalidade, foram realizados estudos de caracterização anatômica, bem como anatomia comparada dos ductos secretores e testes histoquímicos das folhas. O óleo essencial foi obtido de folhas e frutos, por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa, realizando-se análises seguidas de três réplicas para folhas coletadas durante o inverno e primavera, e frutos no verão. Os resultados encontrados para os ductos secretores de óleo corresponderam à redução do teor de óleo essencial nas folhas coletadas no final da primavera. O componente majoritário do óleo essencial de folhas e frutos foi o trans-anetol, durante todas as estações do ano. Portanto, evidenciou-se que os ductos secretores e teor de óleo essencial estão relacionados, bem como os constituintes químicos também estão sujeitos a sazonalidade, conforme o estágio fenológico da planta.

  10. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

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    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian

  11. Thermotherapy in treating fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.: effects on health and physiological quality

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    Juliana Simões Nobre Gama

    Full Text Available Thermotherapy is a physical treatment consisting of the exposure of seeds to the action of heat over time. The aim was to assess the health and physiological quality of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., both freshly harvested and stored for three years, and submitted to thermotherapy. Two experiments were conducted. In the first, thermotherapy was carried out on freshly-harvested fennel seeds obtained under different cropping systems: T1 - Monocrop fennel treated with the insecticide, thiamethoxam; T2 - Monocrop fennel without the application of insecticide; T3 - Fennel intercropped with cotton and treated with insecticide; T4 - Intercropped fennel without the application of insecticide. In the second experiment, seeds were used which had been stored for three years and obtained from plants, both treated and untreated with insecticide. The seeds were exposed to dry heat for different periods (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days at 70 °C. The tests performed included: health, germination, first count, speed germination index, seedling length and dry weight. The cropping systems had no influence on the incidence of the fungus Alternaria sp. Stored fennel seeds coming from plants treated with insecticide, display better health and physiological quality. A period of 12 days of thermotherapy is effective in controlling the fungus Alternaria sp. without causing losses in the viability of the fennel seeds.

  12. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces.

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    Mohammad Reza Lashkarizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE. At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model.Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5-20 mg/ml, Ag-NPs (0.5-4 mg/ml, F. vulgare essential oil (0.125-1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline (10-20% were used for 5-60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces.Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively.The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model.

  13. Olive mill waste water spreading in southern Tunisia: effects on a barley crop: (Hordeum Vulgare. L

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    Raja Dakhli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to assess the impact of different concentrations of Olive Mill Waste Water (OMWW on the phenological behavior of a local barley variety (Arthaoui: Hordem vulgare L. during three consecutive crop years. For developing this work, a complete randomized block design was installed with four amounts of OMWW equivalent to 0 m³/ha (T0, 15 m³/ha (T1, 30 m³/ha (T2 and 45 m³/ha (T3, a local barley variety (Arthaoui and 3 replications. The results showed a highly significant reduction as well as of the tiller and ears number compared to the control according to the increase of OMWW concentration especially for the highest amounts either T2 and T3 respectively 30 m³/ha and 45 m³/ha. This reduction was although observed but it was less accentuated for the treatment with an amount of 15 m³/ha compared to the other rates. In addition, barley yield components were negatively affected by “OMWW” in particular yields plots that received higher doses as 30 m³/ha and 45 m³/ ha. Obviously, the straw and seed yield are catastrophically affected with relatively different degrees depending on the dose applied but also on the cumulative effect of successive applications during the three years of study. Indeed, richness of these effluents on salts especially in sodium and chlorides, on polyphenols and other compounds with variable toxicity is causing physiological disturbances that are negatively reflected at different phenological stages of barley as tillering, stem elongation and heading giving the catastrophic results in terms of seed yield. Keywords: OMWW, Barley, tiller number, ear number.

  14. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  15. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  16. Efeito da salinidade na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial da erva-doce (Foeniculum Vulgare MILL..

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    Aureliano Albuquerque Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade (0,17; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5; 4,5 e 5,5 dSm-1 na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de laboratório e campo no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia - IFCE, Campus de Sobral. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, colocando-se 32 sementes por unidade experimental.  As variáveis analisadas foram: primeira contagem, percentual de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, altura das plântulas, número de folhas e condutividade elétrica do substrato. As variáveis analisadas na germinação mostraram-se sensível ao estresse salino a partir da concentração 1,5 dSm-1, com exceção a primeira contagem que não sofreu influência dos sais. Entre os parâmetros de crescimento inicial (altura das plântulas e número de folhas, ambos foram afetadas negativamente pelos sais a partir da Testemunha. A condutividade elétrica do substrato apresentou aumento crescente com os níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação

  17. Caracterização da produtividade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. no sertão de Sergipe Characterization of the of fennel's (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. yield semi-arid areas of Sergipe state

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    L.M. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e qualidade do funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. produzido nas condições edafoclimáticas de Sergipe, foi conduzido cultivo orgânico de funcho em Frei Paulo-SE. Em junho de 2008 e de 2009, início do período de chuvas, foram instalados plantios por meio de mudas. Adicionalmente, em dezembro de 2010 foi realizada colheita de frutos a partir de plantas obtidas após poda drástica e rebrota. Foi realizada colheita de frutos e determinação da produtividade de dezembro a janeiro de 2008, 2009 e em dezembro de 2010. Verificou-se produtividade de 720 Kg.ha-1, no primeiro plantio e de 349 Kg.ha-1 no plantio de 2009. As plantas obtidas por rebrota em 2010 resultaram em produtividade de 589 Kg.ha-1. Sugere-se que a maior produtividade verificada no primeiro ano seja decorrente da maior precipitação média e conseqüente maior disponibilidade de água. A produtividade verificada nas plantas que rebrotaram em 2010 foi também superior a verificada em 2009, o que pode ser explicado tanto em função da maior precipitação, quanto em função do provável maior desenvolvimento das raízes e maior número de ramos após poda, devido à quebra da dominância apical. Esses dados sugerem importância da disponibilidade hídrica na determinação da produtividade na região e explicam a variação na produtividade verificada. A massa seca dos frutos (5, 29 g para 1000 frutos e o alto teor de óleo essencial verificado (3,2%, assim como a composição do óleo, revelam a alta qualidade dos frutos produzidos na região.Aiming to evaluate the productivity and quality of fennel fruits produced in the countryside of Sergipe, with no irrigation, they were evaluated organic crops in Frei Paulo-SE. They were installed crops in 2008 and 2009 from seeds, on beginning rainy time. Seedlings obtained from seeds were transplanted in June 2008 and 2009. Besides, after the last harvest of the plants, grown in 2009, it was done a

  18. Acne vulgar Acne vulgar

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    Lorivaldo Minelli

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a study on vulgar or juvenile acne with general considerations about the disease and analyzes the main ethiopathogenie and clinical aspects of it. Finally he considers its treatment. No presente trabalho, apresenta-se um estudo da acne vulgar ou juvenil, tecendo-se considerações gerais sobre essa doença e analisando-se os principais aspectos etiopatogênicos e clínicos da mesma. Aborda-se, finalmente, de modo sucinto, aspectos terapêuticos da moléstia.

  19. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  20. The effect of herbal extract Foeniculum vulgare Mill. solution on the mechanical and wetting properties of heat polymerized denture base resin

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    Petrović Milica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Commercially used chemical dental cleansers adversely affect mechanical properties of denture. Therefore, there is a need for finding an alternative which will not change the surface properties of material. Aim. This paper studied the effect of the herbal extract (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. solution on the wetting and mechanical properties of heat-polymerized denture base resin compared to the same properties of the same resin in the native state (in air and exposed only to aqueous environment. Material and methods. Rectangular shape of heat polymerized acrylic resin (15 mm x 15 mm x 3 mm were prepared and divided into: (i sample continuously exposed to air - AIR; (ii sample continuously exposed to distilled water - DW; and (iii sample exposed to 10% solution of the fennel leaves extract - PES. Wetting properties were measured by sessile drop method, whereas mechanical properties were analyzed by nanoindentation method. Results. Results showed that samples AIR had the lowest ΘC value 64.5±2.3 °, while the other two samples DW and PES had similar ΘC values (75.4±3.3 °, 75.7±4.7 °, respectively. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in hardness coefficient, while Young's modulus showed a significant difference (p < 0.005 only between the samples AIR and DW. Conclusion. The obtained values confirmed that fennel extract can be used as successful and efficient cleanser, without degradation of denture surface.

  1. Effect of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill. Used as a Feed Additive on The Egg Quality of Laying Hens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Gharaghani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, one hundred and twenty 40-wk-old White Leghorn laying hens were submitted to two different thermal conditions (24° C vs. 34° C and were fed three levels (0, 10, or and 20 g/kg of dietof fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. as a feed additive in. This study was carried out according to a factorial design consisting of two temperatures and three fennel levels with five 5 replicates each (n = 2 × 3 × 5. Performance, egg production, egg quality, and oxidative product levels (malondialdehyde, MDA, and carbonyl in the eggs were measured before and after heat exposure. The results showed that the tested temperatures did not affect egg production (p>0.05, but the production of eggs with broken shell and feed intake were affected by heat stress (p0.05, but increased yolk triglyceride levels. Hens that consumed fennel presented lower yolk cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. In general, fennel fruit influenced egg yolk cholesterol and triglyceride contents, and because of its antioxidant properties, it may alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on laying hens.

  2. Effect of cycocel on photosynthetic activity and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important and most common environmental stresses that limit plant growth. Photosynthesis is the main determinant of plant growth and its retention ability under environmental stress condition is important for preservation of growth stability. To study the effect of spraying CCC on photosynthesis activity and essential oil content on 'Foeniculum vulgare', an experiment was done in split plot design based on complete block with four replications in research field of University of Zanjan in 2011. Levels of drought stress included, control, soft stress (when 30% of available water was out of soil, severe stress (when 90% of available water was out of soil, and three concentration of CCC 0, 1500 and 3000 mg/L. The results showed that between rates foliar application on physiologic characteristics as photosynthesis rate, transpiration severity, RWC and TΔ intercellular (Ci, stomata conductivity, mesophyll conductivity and essential oil content was significant. By spraying 3000 mg/L CCC, balanced the plant position against drought stress and could reduce negative effect. Foliar application of CCC caused significant increase in photosynthesis rate, mesophyll conductivity and significant decrease stomata conductivity, transpiration severity under drought stress and could increase essential oil content under soft stress. In this study, foliar application of CCC to content 3000 mg/L had the highest effect on this characters.

  3. Corporalidad tóxica y sufrimiento ambiental. La experiencia de los habitantes de Colonia Hinojo, República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sarlingo, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    El artículo aborda la categoría de “sufrimiento ambiental” como concepto inseparable de la analítica de construcción de la corporalidad tóxica. Referenciando empíricamente en la experiencia de los habitantes de Colonia Hinojo, un pequeño pueblo ubicado en la Llanura Pampeana, Rca. Argentina, se describen las dimensiones del sufrimiento ambiental narrado por los vecinos y su relación con la hegemonía de otros sectores industriales que desarrollan en la región acciones contaminantes y peligrosa...

  4. Evaluation of symbiosis with Mycorhizzal on yield, yield components and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajowan (Carum copticum L. under different nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shabahang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of mycorrhiza symbiosis and different nitrogen levels on yield, yield components and essential oil content and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajowan (Carum copticum L., a field experiment was arranged in a factoriel based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. The first and the second factors were inoculation with mycorrhiza (with and without inoculation and nitrogen levels as Urea (0, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1, respectively. Inculated soil with 200 g mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradaices was applied at planting time. Urea was used in two stages such as plating time and one month after that. Ceriteria such as yield components (including number of branch, umbel, umbellet, seed and seed weight, biological and seed yield, harvest index and essential oil content and yield of fennel and ajowan were measured. Results showed that yield components, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index, essential oil content and yield of fennel and ajowan were affected by mycorrhiza and nitrogen level. Mycorrhiza increased fennel and ajowan seed yield (with 35 and 85%, respectively and essential oil content (with 34 and 30%, respectively. The highest and the lowest 1000-seed weight of fennel and ajowan obsevered in inoculation (2.9 and 0.3 g and control (2.1 and 0.2 g, respectively. Nitrogen improved all growth characteristics and decreased essential oil content. There were not significant differences between mycorrhiza and nitrogen interaction. Inoculation with mycorrhiza enhanced root development and hence availability of nutrients, particularly phosphorus. Also, nitrogen is the cause of increasement of photosynthesis rate and duration which promote growth and yield, but it declined essential oil content of two species.

  5. Contribution à l'étude de l'activité antimicrobienne des lipides totaux et des composé phénoloique des graines de foeniculum vulgar mill "besbes" de la région de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    hamedi, sara née guaour

    2015-01-01

    Le rendement en poly phénol et en huile fixe ainsi que i'activite antimicrobienie ont été .étudiés sur les graines de fenouil (Foeniculum vulgar miii) « Besbes ». La teneur en eau a diéj vaIéur de 10% et l'huile fixe extraite par soxhiet a mentionné un rendement de 10.8%. Dans cette étude, les principes actifs de Foeniculum vuigar mill sont extraits par la méthode des solvants successifs: éthanol, eau et éther diétylique.. La détermination du rendement en phénols totaux a donné un...

  6. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets, a traditional culinary spice in Italy: evaluation of phenolics and volatiles in local populations, and comparison with the composition of other plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferioli, Federico; Giambanelli, Elisa; D'Antuono, L Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets are used as a typical spice in central and southern Italy. Although fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), belonging to the Apiaceae (syn. Umbelliferae) family, is a well-known vegetable and aromatic plant, whose main phytochemical compounds have been extensively analysed and investigated as flavouring agents and for their putative health promoting functions, its florets have not been specifically considered up to now. Therefore, the volatile and phenolic composition of florets from an Italian wild fennel crop was determined at different developmental stages, and compared to that of leaves and fruits. Moreover, florets of nine Italian wild fennel populations of different geographical origin from northern-central Italy were also analysed. The total phenolic amount increased from leaves to florets, reaching its highest value in early florets, at 58 012 mg kg -1 of dry matter (DM), then constantly decreased in fruits. In florets of wild populations, phenolics ranged from 6666 to 43 368 mg kg -1 DM. The total amount of volatile compounds was more than twice higher in florets (21 449 mg kg -1 DM) than in leaves (10 470 mg kg -1 DM), reaching its highest value in fruits (50 533 mg kg -1 DM). Estragole and trans-anethole were the main compounds of the volatile fraction. Total volatiles ranged from 24 367 to 60 468 mg kg -1 DM in florets of local populations. Significant changes in the total amount and profile of both phenolic and volatile compounds occurred during plant development. The consistent increase of estragole at later developmental stages supported the claim of different sensory properties of florets and fruits. Geographical origin significantly affected phenolic and volatile composition of wild fennel florets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on yield, yield components and essential oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fertilizers are the key components which provide plant nutrients' needs in recent years (Omid Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. In many cases, using chemical fertilizers has different negative environmental effects such as soil, water and air pollution, which increase environmental hazardous and production costs (Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. Biological activities are markedly enhanced by microbial interactions in the rhizosphere of plants (Kapoor et al., 2007. Many investigators have successfully used mycorrhiza to increase the availability of immobilized phosphate and thus minimize the use of mineral fertilizers. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF can better enable a plant to withstand environmental stresses such as drought and salinity. AMF interacts with pathogens and other rhizosphere inhabitants which affect plant health and nutrition. More importantly, mycorrhizal fungi are capable of dissolving weakly soluble soil minerals, especially phosphate, by releasing acids or increasing CO2 partial pressure (Gupta et al., 2002; Gosling et al., 2006; Kapoor et al., 2007. Therefore, they have the ability to enhance host plant uptake of relatively immobile nutrients particularly P, S and Zn. Limited water supply is also another major environmental constraint in the productivity of crop and medicinal plants. Moisture deficiency induces various physiological and metabolic responses such as stomatal closure, decline in growth rate and photosynthesis (Flexas and Medrano, 2002. The results of Baher et al. (2002 showed that greater soil water stress decreased plant height and total fresh and dry weight of Satureja hortensis. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on the growth, quantitative and qualitative yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized

  8. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K

    2015-10-01

    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Evaluation of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) fruits extracted by three different extraction methods by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Faiza M; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Shams, Khaled A; Ismail, Shams I; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saleh, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.

  10. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. armazenadas Physiological and sanitary quality of fennel seeds stored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.N. Gama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de fungos em sementes interfere negativamente o seu potencial fisiológico, podendo ter início no campo, durante o armazenamento ou na pós-colheita. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de erva-doce armazenadas em diferentes embalagens. O trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de análise de sementes da UFPB, em Areia-PB. As sementes foram colhidas em plantas tratadas e não tratadas com inseticida Actara, beneficiadas e acondicionadas nas embalagens papel alumínio, saco plástico e vidro. Em seguida, armazenadas em câmara fria durante 315 dias. Inicialmente e a cada 45 dias foram realizados as seguintes determinações e testes: teor de água, emergência de plântulas, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas e sanidade das sementes pelo método "blotter-test". Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, os tratamentos foram distribuídos em fatorial 2 x 3 x 8 (com e sem inseticida, 3 embalagens e 8 períodos de avaliação. Os resultados indicam que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de erva-doce foi principalmente afetada pelo fungo Alternaria sp., ocorrendo a manutenção da viabilidade das sementes por aproximadamente 95 dias na embalagem de saco plástico; a aplicação do inseticida Actara mantém a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de Foeniculum vulgare no armazenamento.The fungi incidence in seeds affect negatively their physiological potential may begin in the field, during storage or in post-harvest. The objective was to evaluate the sanitary quality of fennel seeds stored in packagings differents. The study was conducted in laboratory analysis of seeds of UFPB, in Areia-PB. Seeds were harvested in experimental field with plants treated and untreated with insecticide Actara, processed and packed in aluminum foil, plastic bag and glass and stored

  11. Reducción del pardeamiento enzimático en hinojos enteros y mínimamente procesados en mitades

    OpenAIRE

    Escalona Contreras, Víctor Hugo; Aguayo Giménez, Encarnación Pilar; Artés Calero, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Con el propósito de frenar el pardeamiento enzimático sobre las superficies de corte de tubos de hinojo enteros y cortados en mitades, se aplicaron diferentes soluciones antipardeantes preparadas a partir de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico y EDTA. Para determinar el pardeamiento se evaluó el color a lo largo de la conservación en aire humidificado a 15ºC durante 8 días para los bulbos enteros y 4 días para las mitades. Periódicamente se determinaron la actividad respiratoria y la emisión de et...

  12. Effect of Intercropping Patterns of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgarMill, Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L on Growth, Qualitative and Quantitative Characters and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh ranjbar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ecological agriculture is an integrated system that gives credit to higher quality of products. Using of ecological agriculture and low input systems or other similar systems as a replacement for conventional systems turn out to progress in sustainable agriculture and protecting environment health. One of the best approaches to achieve these goals is to use mixed farming. Many experiments have shown that mixed farming has higher yield than sole cropping. The other benefits of mixed farming are: management of insects, weeds and diseases, promotion of diversity, improvement of products quality and also increase in stability and sustainability. These goals also achieved by decreasing in use of non-renewable resources and also reducing environment risks. Hence, assessment of intercropping patterns of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar, Sesame (Sesamum indicum and Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris on qualitative and quantitative characters and yield components were the purposes of this experiment. Materials and methods: In order to study yield and yield components in different intercrops of fennel, sesame and bean, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2010-2011growing season. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block with three replications. The treatments were consisted of: pure stand of fennel, sesame and bean, row intercropping of sesame-bean with recommended density (1:1, fennel-bean (1:1, fennel-sesame (1:1 and intercrops of fennel- sesame - bean (1:1:1. The field of experiment was prepared at the end of March, a month before sowing; 30 ton/ hectare manure fertilizer was used. Because of sowing these 3 crops in a low input system, non-chemical approaches to control weeds and diseases during the growth season were employed. In order to determine crops seed yield and their biological yield in this experiment, sampling was done after omitting of margin effects (0.5 m first and

  13. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions including depression, anxiety, immunosuppression, endocrine disorders, cognitive dysfunction, peptic ulcer, hypertension and reproductive dysfunctions [1]. Stress effects brain function, impairs memory and disrupts cognitive skills leading to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases [2].

  14. Burdur İli Anason (Pimpinella anisum L., Kişniş (Coriandrum sativum L. ve Rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Agro-Ekosistemlerinde Böcek Biyolojik Çeşitliliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan AYDIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Burdur ilinde kültürü yapılan önemli tıbbi ve aromatik bitkilerden pestisit uygulaması yapılmayan ve periyodik olarak münavebe yöntemi uygulanan anason (Pimpinella anisum L., kişniş (Coriandrum sativum L. ve rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. agro-ekosistemlerinde böcek biyolojik çeşitliliklerinin araştırılması amacı ile böcek aktivitesinin yoğun olduğu 2009 yılı nisan ve eylül ayları arasında yapılmıştır. Çukur tuzak örnekleme yönteminin uygulandığı habitatlardaki böcek biyolojik çeşitlilik değerleri Shannon-Wiener ve Simpson çeşitlilik, Simpson dominantlık, Shannon Populasyon yoğunluk ilişkisi parametreleri kullanılarak hesaplanmıştır. Buna göre hesaplanan biyolojik çeşitlilik indekslerinde rezene agro-ekosisteminde hem Shannon-Wiener hem de Simpson çeşitlilik indeks değerleri sırası ile 2.5838 ve 0.8742 ile diğer agro-ekosistemlere göre en yüksek bulunmuştur. Simpson dominantlık parametre sonucuna göre ise 0.2025 değeri ile kişniş agro-ekosistemi, anason ve rezene agro-ekosistemlerine göre dominantlığın en yüksek olduğu tarım alanı olarak belirlenmiştir. Habitatlardaki populasyon yoğunluk ilişkisi incelendiğinde Shannon Evenness değeri anason agro-ekosisteminde en dengeli olarak bulunmuş ve 0.7333 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Bu sonuçlara göre pestisit uygulaması yapılmayan ve periyodik olarak münavebe yöntemi uygulanan agro-ekosistemlerdeki böcek türleri ve birey sayılarından elde edilen çeşitlilik değerlerinin doğal habitatlara benzerlik gösterdiği ortaya çıkartılmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler: Tür Zenginliği, Shannon-Wiener Çeşitlilik, Simpson Dominantlık, Populasyon Yoğunluk İlişkisi, Çukur Tuzak

  15. Efeito de sistemas de consórcio e inseticida na formação dos estômatos em plântulas de erva-doce (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Effects of intercropping systems and insecticide in formation of stomata in fennel seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill., pertencente à família Apiacea, é conhecida como erva-doce e apresenta grande importância medicinal e comercial, tanto no Brasil como em vários outros países. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa, estudar o desenvolvimento dos estômatos em plântulas de F. vulgare oriundas de sementes produzidas em sistemas de consórcio erva-doce X algodão e com aplicação do inseticida monocrotofós. A erva-doce foi cultivada em consórcio com algodão colorido cultivar BRS Safira, sendo utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: 1A2E, uma fileira de algodão e duas de erva-doce; 2A1E, duas fileiras de algodão e uma de erva-doce; ES, erva-doce solteira; onde foram distribuídos com e sem aplicação de inseticida, totalizando seis tratamentos. As sementes colhidas foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias. Partes das plântulas (zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e folhas foram seccionadas à mão livre, coradas e montadas em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: número de estômatos, diâmetro polar e equatorial dos estômatos e número de cloroplastos nas células-guarda. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 3X2; sendo realizado teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Na zona de transição e no caule observou-se aumento do número e do diâmetro polar dos estômatos quando foram utilizados sistemas de consórcio. Nos cotilédones, a erva-doce solteira proporcionou maior número de estômatos, porém com menor diâmetro e com menor quantidade de cloroplastos. Já na folha, os consórcios influenciaram positivamente o número de estômatos e de cloroplastos. De forma geral, os sistemas de consórcio e o inseticida influenciaram positivamente o desenvolvimento dos estômatos das plântulas de erva-doce.Foeniculum vulgare Mill., belonging to the family Apiaceae, is known as

  16. Some subtle gradations of feminine beauty within Cecil B. De Mille's Samson and Delilah (1949): the "good" and "bad" girls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozlovic, Anton Karl

    2016-01-01

    The author attempts to rescue Cecil B. DeMille from widespread accusations of artistic vulgarity, arguing in particular that his "Samson and Delilah" is a far more accomplished and subtle Biblical film than is generally accepted. Looks esp...

  17. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  18. Evaluation Of The Essential Oil Of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill (Fennel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem.

  19. Biological and biochemical evaluation of wild marjoram subspecies Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare subs. hirtum

    OpenAIRE

    Dambrauskienė, Edita; Viškelis, Pranas; Rubinskienė, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of botanical and biochemical characters of wild marjoram subspecies Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum vulgare subs. hirtum were carried out the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. It is observed that subspecies of wild marjoram Origanum vulgare L. native in Lithuania by aroma and especially large amount of essential oils. According to the data of investigations the productivity of wild marjoram subspecies (grass yield) was similar in various growth stages. It was established t...

  20. mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Maize was milled either 'wet' or ''dry'' using locally-manufactured milling plates. Samples of milled maize were taken and analyzed for elemental iron (Fe). Results show that iron particles from milling plates contaminates the milled maize and that the level of contamination increases with the quantity of milled ...

  1. Environmental adaptibility of tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental adaptability of the plants can be assumed from essential oil contents. Essential oils are agents, which communicate with the plant environment. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) was selected for laboratory research since it belongs to urban flora and vegetation where the imperative to adapt is high. Sample ...

  2. Antioxidant potential of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of Tanacetum vulgare L. extracts was determined. Areal plant parts (leaves and flowers were dried, grinded and extracted with five different solvents: methanol, ethanol, acetone, water and isopropanol. Total phenols and total flavonoids were determined and four in vitro antioxidant assays were applied. The best extraction medium (considering only phenols and flavonoids was methanol and 62.7 mg galic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight were found (for leaves extract. Comparing amounts of phenolic compounds found in the extracts and its antioxidant potential with other herbal teas and extracts, it may be concluded that T. vulgare is a plant species destitute with phenolic compounds. Obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds, present in the plant tissues, are carriers of antioxidant properties.

  3. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  4. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID1∗, FARHAT CHIBANI2, RAYDA BEN AYED3, MOHSEN HANANA1, JOELLE BREIDI4,. RABIH KABALAN4, SAMIH EL-HAJJ5, HASSAN MACHLAB6, AHMED ...

  5. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved fr...

  6. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena; Scandolera, Elia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roscigno, Graziana; Zaccardelli, Massimo; De Falco, Enrica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of two different cultivars of Florence fennel cropped under three different fertilization treatments (Control not fertilized; Mineral Fertilization; Compost from Municipal Solid Wastes) have been analyzed. All the oils were characterized by high anethole concentration and some showed also a good percentage of limonene. Thus, the leaves of Florence fennel, which are agricultural wastes, could be used for the recovery of anethole to be used for its flavoring and biomedical properties. The antimicrobial activity expressed by assays on the examined oils indicates an appreciable effect, generally higher on Gram-positive bacteria. The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole. © 2013.

  7. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  8. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  10. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  11. Prediction of mill performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) project aimed to demonstrate that the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) coupled with standard Petrographic Analysis can be used to greatly improve the prediction of mill power requirements, mill throughput and product size. The project examined the mill test data from ACIRL's pilot scale vertical spindle mill on 96 coals. A total of 360 mill tests, conducted under a wide range of throughputs, roll pressures and classifier settings, were included into the data set. The mill performance of maceral groups or microlithotypes was assumed to be additive, that is, each maceral group or microlithotype behaved independently and a size fraction of the product PF was the volume weighted sum of the petrographic components of that size fraction. Based on this assumption it was possible to determine the size distribution of the product PF, for a wide range of milling conditions, based solely on petrographic analysis. Microlithotypes were not determined directly but were estimated from the maceral analysis. The size distribution of individual maceral groups or microlithotypes can also be estimated based on developed correlations. Size distribution determined from petrographic analysis proved to be a better estimate than that determined from the HGI. Mill power can be estimated from petrographic analysis, but the HGI was found to be a better predictor of mill power. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Anatomical and morphological diagnostics of Tanacetum vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Kurkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, histological and microscopical investigations on tansy Tanacetum vulgareL. flowers were carried out. For the first time were studied the microscopic and histological structures of the inflorescence (the basket of T. vulgare, its flowers and diagnostic signs are revealed. There were observed the presence of the layer of sclerenchyma in the mesophyll of the inflorescence spathe. For the first time were described the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the structure of the fertile part of the tubular flower, flower stalk and leaflets, which compose corymbiform inflorescence from the baskets.

  13. Teratogenic effects of Origanum Vulgare extract in mice fetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Ragerdi Kashani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on reproduction have mentioned Origanum Vulgare extract’s ability to reduce mortality rates and improve fertility rates. However, other studies have suggested that it is possible to use Origanum Vulgare extract to induce abortion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of Origanum Vulgare on embryo survival and macroscopic abnormalities in mice.Methods: In this study, 24 mice Balb/c female weighting approximately 25-30 g were divided into 4 groups. Origanum Vulgare extract was prepared; different concentrations (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mg in 0.25 ml distilled water were administered, by oral gavage, to three experimental groups of mice between day 6 (starting gastrulation until day 15 of pregnancy (end of organogenesis. The control group consisted of six mice that received 0.25 ml of distilled water daily. On day 16 of study, pregnant mice were anesthetized by chloroform and fetuses were removed and stained with Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red s and microwave irradiation. Morphological and skeletal abnormalities were investigated by light and stereomicroscopes.Results: The results of this study showed that high doses of the Origanum Vulgare extract significantly decreased the mean number of embryos (100.5, P>0.05, mean number of live embryos (70.5, P>0.05 in each mouse and resulted in significant reduction in mean weight(11848 mg, P>0.05 and crown-rump length(11.90.23 mm, P>0.05 and the overall size of fetuses compared to control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the groups receiving low dose of Origanum Vulgare extract with control group. In addition, under the effect of the Origanum Vulgare extract the subcutaneous bleeding seemed (20.1, P>0.05 significantly more frequent compared to the control group. Conclusion: Origanum Vulgare extract did not have any positive effect on fetal development; and high dosages led to an increased incidence rate of

  14. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. ... In conclusion, OEO exerted growth promoting effects and also displayed potent antibacterial effects against cecal E. coli. Key words: Oregano essential oil, performance, ...

  15. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from. Ethiopia as Measured by Morphological Characters and. SDS-page of Seed Storage Proteins. Alemayehu Assefa1, M.T. Labuschagne2 and H. Maartens2. 1Ethiopian Institute Agricultural Research, Holetta Research Center; 2Unicersity of the. Free State ...

  16. Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare whole plant was tested by disc diffusion method. Zones of Inhibition produced by methanolic extract in a dose of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/ml against selected strains was measured and compared with those of standard discs of antibiotic ...

  17. Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.) Variety for Bale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guta is a common name for this barley (Hordeium vulgare L.) variety with a pedigree designation of Acc.3260-18. The variety has been developed and released by Sinana agricultural research center for commercial production in the highlands of Bale. It has been tested at Sinana, Agarfa, Robe and Adaba major barley ...

  18. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  20. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  1. Pénfigo vulgar : caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Lauro Gilberto Nunes da; Ventura, Raquel Moresco; Silva, Marlei Giovanaz; Baumgart, Cristina da Silva; Matesanz Pérez, P.

    2005-01-01

    El pénfigo vulgar es una enfermedad auto-inmune ampollosa, muco cutánea, de carácter crónico, donde las lesiones de la mucosa bucal pueden anteceder las lesiones cutáneas. Así, el odontólogo asume papel importante en la identificación de las lesiones, debiendo realizar el diagnóstico por la historia clínica i exámenes complementares adecuados. Este artículo relata un caso de pénfigo vulgar acometiendo un paciente del sexo masculino, 47 años, con lesiones en la mucosa bucal y piel.Pemphigus vu...

  2. Geotrichum vulgare sp. nov., a novel asexual arthroconidial yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuczkowski, Michael; Bond, Chris; Prillinger, Hansjörg

    2006-01-01

    Two strains of a novel yeast species were isolated from different habitats, from soil in an alluvial zone national park in Austria and from a drain in a Turkish soft drinks factory. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 region of their large-subunit rDNAs and PCR fingerprints show that the strains are members of the same species, described as Geotrichum vulgare sp. nov. Analysis of nucleotide sequences showed that this species is related to the ascogenous genus Galactomyces. The closest phylogenetic relative is Geotrichum silvicola, a recently described species. The type strain of Geotrichum vulgare is HA1379T (= CBS 10073T = NRRL Y-27915T).

  3. Chemical diversity in Indian oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit; Verma, Rajesh K; Yadav, Ajai K; Singh, Hemendra P

    2010-08-01

    The terpenoid composition of the essential oils of 17 different populations of Origanum vulgare L., collected from wild populations and subsequently grown under similar conditions in the sub-temperate region of the Western Himalaya, was studied. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 51 components, representing 90.15 to 99.94% of the total oil. The two classes of the phenolic compounds and the monoterpenoids were predominant in all the essential oils. On the basis of the major constituents, i.e., marker compounds, and by comparison of the results with previous reports, new chemotypes could be identified. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the chemical variability within the different populations of O. vulgare collected and grown under similar conditions. Based on the marker compounds, six chemotypes with significant variations in their terpenoid profile were noticed within the 17 populations.

  4. Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Annamalai, T.; Radhakrishnan, N.; Sahoo, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity. PMID:21772760

  5. Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2008-01-01

    The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained.

  6. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  10. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five...

  11. Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  13. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...... of hybrid and haploid tillers were investigated....

  14. Cytogenetisch en embryologisch onderzoek aan kruisingen tussen Hordeum vulgare en H. bulbosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, W.

    1969-01-01

    Crosses between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bulbous barleygrass ( H.bulbosum) could be valuable for the transfer of such properties as resistance to cold or diseases from H. bulbosum to H. vulgare. From the literature it was known that difficulties

  15. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  16. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Daljit S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  17. The complete chloroplast genome of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes

    2013-10-10

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) is a medicinal and aromatic plant maybe best known for flavouring pizza. New applications e.g. as natural antioxidants for food are emerging due to the plants' high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Origanum vulgare (GenBank/EBML/DDBJ accession number: JX880022) consists of 151,935 bp and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,527 bp separated by one small and one large single copy region (SSC and LSC) of 17,745 and 83,136 bp, respectively. The genome with an overall GC content of 38% hosts 114 genes that covering 63% of the genome of which 8% were introns. The comparison of the Origanum cp genome with the cp genomes of two other core lamiales (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Sesamum indicum L.) revealed completely conserved protein-coding regions in the IR region but also in the LSC and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the lamiids based on 56 protein-coding genes give a hint at the basic structure of the Lamiales. However, further genomes will be necessary to clarify this taxonomically complicated order. The variability of the cp within the genus Origanum, studied exemplarily on 16 different chloroplast DNA regions, demonstrated that in 14 regions analyzed, the variability was extremely low (max. 0.7%), while only two regions showed a moderate variability of up to 2.3%. The cp genome of Origanum vulgare contains 27 perfect mononucleotide repeats (number of repeats>9) consisting exclusively of the nucleotides A or T. 34 perfect repeats (repeat lengths>1 and number of repeats>3) were found, of which 32 were di-, and 2 were trinucleotide repeats. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondrial genome sequences from wild and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Mai; Yoshida, Hideya; Terachi, Toru; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-24

    Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial genomes is important for understanding the evolution and genome structures of various plant species. Barley is a self-pollinated diploid plant with seven chromosomes comprising a large haploid genome of 5.1 Gbp. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) have cross compatibility and closely related genomes, although a significant number of nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported between their genomes. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of wild and cultivated barley. Two independent circular maps of the 525,599 bp barley mitochondrial genome were constructed by de novo assembly of high-throughput sequencing reads of barley lines H602 and Haruna Nijo, with only three SNPs detected between haplotypes. These mitochondrial genomes contained 33 protein-coding genes, three ribosomal RNAs, 16 transfer RNAs, 188 new ORFs, six major repeat sequences and several types of transposable elements. Of the barley mitochondrial genome-encoded proteins, NAD6, NAD9 and RPS4 had unique structures among grass species. The mitochondrial genome of barley was similar to those of other grass species in terms of gene content, but the configuration of the genes was highly differentiated from that of other grass species. Mitochondrial genome sequencing is essential for annotating the barley nuclear genome; our mitochondrial sequencing identified a significant number of fragmented mitochondrial sequences in the reported nuclear genome sequences. Little polymorphism was detected in the barley mitochondrial genome sequences, which should be explored further to elucidate the evolution of barley.

  19. Metabolomic analysis of cooperative adaptation between co-cultured Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Ding

    Full Text Available The cooperative adaptation of subcultivated Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare significantly increased the productivity of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, the precursor of vitamin C. The mechanism of cooperative adaptation of the serial subcultivated B. cereus and K. vulgare was investigated in this study by culturing the two strains orthogonally on agar plates. It was found that the swarming distance of B. cereus along the trace of K. vulgare on the plate decreased after 150 days' subcultivation. Metabolomic analysis on these co-cultured B. cereus and K. vulgare strains showed that their cooperative adaptation was accomplished by three key events: (i the ability of nutrients (e.g., amino acids and purines searching and intaking, and proteins biosynthesis is increased in the evolved B. cereus; (ii the capability of protein degradation and amino acids transportation is enhanced in evolved K. vulgare; (iii the evolved B. cereus was found to provide more nutrients (mostly amino acids and purines to K. vulgare, thus strengthening the oxidation and energy generation of K. vulgare. Our results provided novel insights into the systems-level understanding of the cooperative adaptation between strains in synergistic consortium.

  20. Origanum vulgare essential oil affects pathogens causing vaginal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M; Bogavac, M; Radovanović, B; Sudji, J; Tešanović, K; Janjušević, L

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (EO) as an alternative antimicrobial agent against vaginal infections. Microdilution methods were applied for the detection of the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and the minimal bactericidal/fungicidal (MBC/MFC) concentration of 15 clinical strains originating from women with symptoms of vaginal infection. Optical density determination (OD) was used for detection of the Candida growth rate. Staining with DAPI was used to detect the influence of EO on nuclear condensation and fragmentation, while the brine shrimp bioassay was used to determine the toxicity of EO. Chemical composition analysis was done using GS-MS. According to the MIC and MBC/MFC values, the most susceptible strains to EO were: Escherichia coli 1, E. coli 2, Staphylococcus aureus 3 and Candida albicans 1-3. Inhibition of C. albicans filamentation was detected at 0·45 μl ml(-1) . The obtained inhibition (%) from Candida growth curves points to a shorter period of time (24 h) for determining IC50 as MIC and IC99 as MFC value. These values could be recommended as valid parameters for the faster detection of the effectiveness of EO on Candida isolates. Examination of potential of the O. vulgare EO as a main antimicrobial constituent within vaginalettes in gynaecological practice. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Protective effects of Origanum vulgare ethanol extract against cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Emran; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Keshavarz-Maleki, Razieh; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Despite its wide clinical use, cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, possesses many adverse effects, including hepatotoxicity. Because Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has antioxidative properties, it might protect against above-mentioned damage. This study evaluated the protective effects of O. vulgare extract on CP-induced liver toxicity. Mice were pretreated with aerial parts of O. vulgare ethanolic extract (intraperitoneally) at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single 200 mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of CP 1 h after the last injection of O. vulgare. After 24 h, animals were anesthetized, blood samples and hepatic tissues were collected and used for biochemical and histological examination. Serum levels of hepatic markers were increased after CP treatment but restored in the O. vulgare-pretreated groups. The serum ALT, AST, and ALP of the CP group were 196.49 ± 3.82, 143.78 ± 4.79, and 203.18 ± 3.81 IU/l, respectively. However, pretreatment with 400 mg/kg O. vulgare significantly decreased the serum ALT, AST, and ALP to 52.49 ± 2.18, 44.78 ± 2.06, and 65.62 ± 1.73 IU/l, respectively (p < 0.001). Histological examinations also confirmed the protective effects of O. vulgare against CP-induced liver toxicity. Our results reveal that O. vulgare with high amount of flavonoids and phenolic compounds induces potent hepatoprotective mechanisms against CP. Therefore, O. vulgare might help defend the body against the side effects, particularly hepatic damages induced by chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Linaria repens (L.) Mill. x L. vulgaris Mill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1958-01-01

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill. (L. monspessulana (L.) Mill.; L. striata Lamk. & DC.) is bij ons reeds meermalen als adventief gevonden en blijkt zich op enkele plaatsen te handhaven. Dit laatste is bv. het geval te Arnhem, aan de Koningsweg. De soort werd daar in 1952 aangetroffen door Dr. A.G. de Wilde

  3. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aslam; Bashir, Samra; Khan, Saeed R; Gilani, Anwar H

    2011-10-17

    Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK) and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm(2)) crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K(+) (80 mM) induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH(4)Cl) for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg) prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated through inhibition of Ca

  4. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  5. Comparative genomics and metabolomics analyses of the adaptation mechanism in Ketogulonicigenium vulgare-Bacillus thuringiensis consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nan Jia; Ming-zhu Ding; Yang Zou; Feng Gao; Ying-jin Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive evolution by serial subcultivation of co-cultured Bacillus thuringiensis and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare significantly enhanced the productivity of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid in two-step vitamin C production...

  6. An investigation of gamma-radiation sensitivity on in vitro study of Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-radiation sensitivity was studied on in vitro condition in Hordeum vulgare L. The variation of callusing response assessed with the increasing level of gamma-radiation treatment and regeneration delayed at higher dose level.

  7. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Sofi, Shahnawaz N; Bhat, Bilal A; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2016-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae) commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders...

  8. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  9. Decision-Making and Turn Alternation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-01-01

    Twelve pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Cmstacean) were examined in 200 successive T-mazes. When obstacles are present, A. vulgare tend to move by means of turn alternation, which is generally considered an innate adaptive behavior. With a decrease in air moisture, the bugs have a tendency to increase their turn alternation rate. However, in such long successive T-mazes as in this study, continued turn alternation should actually accelerate the bugs' desiccation. This fact implies t...

  10. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent......' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high...... crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri .times. H. brevisubulatum) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 27-30) and (H. jubatum .times. H. lechleri) .times. 'Gull' (2n = 20-22). The first combination...

  11. Carlos Jansen and the literary vulgarization for the youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Araujo Miranda Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the translations of Carlos Jansen for the youth, age group corresponding approximately to the contemporary concepts of preadolescence and adolescence, made at the end of the 19th century. Jansen was a pioneer in translating into Brazilian Portuguese works for the youth among which novels by Swift, Defoe, and Cervantes. His widely adapted versions had a pedagogical goal, serving as a reading material for children and adolescents attending schools. For this reason he was called a "vulgarizer" by critics of that period. The research encompassed the analysis of newspapers published between 1880 and 1899, available at the National Library's Hemeroteca Digital Brasileira, which provide data on the advertising and reception of his works. We intend to enrich historical research on children's literature in Brazil and analyse to what degree Jansen's pedagogical project has governed his translation practice.

  12. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jia; Jin Du; Ming-Zhu Ding; Feng Gao; Ying-Jin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B...

  13. The economics of sugar mill waste management in the Australian Sugar Industry: Mill mud case study

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak

    2001-01-01

    Sugar mills produce a range of by-products during the process of sugar extraction. Mill mud is one of the by-products that is produced in significant volume. Often mill mud is mixed with mill ash from the firing of bagasse, which together forms the bulk of mill waste available for disposal from raw sugar mills. The practice of spreading mill mud over nearby cane fields has been the primary means of disposing mill mud for many years. Mills generally promote the practice by offering freight sub...

  14. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  15. corn-mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufactured corn-mill grinding plates to investigate the possible causes of their early wear and failure. Three different samples selected from the same local manufacturer were tested for chemical composition and micro- structural, as well as wear ...

  16. Classical Yang-Mills potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E.

    1976-12-15

    Classical Coulomb-type configurations of Yang-Mills fields coupled to external sources (charges) are described and discussed. They are shown to be stable against small classical fluctuations in the fields if the Yang-Mills coupling is sufficiently small. In developing the stability analysis, massless charged scalar fields in the presence of a weak Coulomb potential are also shown to be stable to small field fluctuations. (AIP)

  17. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell.] against foodborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bülent; Ozer, Hakan; Cakir, Ahmet; Polat, Taşkin; Dursun, Atilla; Mete, Ebru; Oztürk, Erdoğan; Ekinci, Melek

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical compositions of the essential oil and hexane extract isolated from the inflorescence, leaf stems, and aerial parts of Florence fennel and the antimicrobial activities of the essential oil, hexane extract, and their major component, anethole, against a large variety of foodborne microorganisms. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the essential oils obtained from inflorescence, leaf stems, and whole aerial parts contained (E)-anethole (59.28-71.69%), limonene (8.30-10.73%), apiole (trace to 9.23%), beta-fenchyl acetate (3.02-4.80%), and perillene (2.16-3.29%) as the main components. Likewise, the hexane extract of the plant sample exhibited a similar chemical composition, and it contained (E)-anethole (53.00%), limonene (27.16%), gamma-terpinene (4.09%), and perillene (3.78%). However, the hexane extract also contained less volatile components such as n-hexadecanoic acid (1.62%), methyl palmitate (1.17%), and linoleic acid (1.15%). The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that the essential oil, anethole, and hexane extract were effective against most of the foodborne pathogenic, saprophytic, probiotic, and mycotoxigenic microorganisms tested. The results of the present study revealed that (E)-anethole, the main component of Florence fennel essential oil, is responsible for the antimicrobial activity and that the essential oils as well as the hexane extract can be used as a food preservative. This study is the first report showing the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel against probiotic bacteria.

  19. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, P E; Maggiore, M A; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Denegri, M G; Elissondo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  20. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Pensel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  1. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  2. Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Plouguerné

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols  (SQDGs. The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl-glycerol.

  3. Antioxidant activity of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare L. by Clevenger-type hydrodistillation and hydromodulus 1:10 m/v during 180 minutes, has been investigated in this work. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil was determined by GC-MS and GC-FID spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of the obtained oil was examined spectrophotometrically by DPPH test (after 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation and TBA-MDA assay. The yield of essential oil was 4.1 mL/100 g of plant material. Seven components were identified: α-thujene, myrcene, α-terpinene, o-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol. The major components were thymol (45% and carvacrol (37.4%. Oil incubated for 60 minutes has shown the best antioxidant activity according to DPPH test. The concentrations of essential oil, required for neutralization of 50% of initial DPPH radical concentration (EC50, were 0.761, 0.590, 0.360 and 0.326 mg/mL, after 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes of incubation, respectively. Lipid peroxidation inhibition of 92.3% was achieved by 1.35 mg/mL essential oil concentration. The results obtained indicate that oregano essential oil is a good source of natural antioxidants with potential application in food and pharmaceutical industries, as a safer alternative to the synthetic antioxidants.

  4. Noise exposure in oil mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G V Prasanna; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-04-01

    Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was

  5. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  6. Antiviral activity of plant extract from Tanacetum vulgare against Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Potato Virus Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Petrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY have been described among the top five important viruses infecting vegetable species worldwide. They cause severe damages in fruits and cultivated plants. There is currently no available effective pesticide to control these viral diseases. Higher plants contain a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, quinones, tannins, essential oils, alkaloids, saponins, sterols and others. Extracts prepared from different plants have been reported to have a variety of properties including antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties against pathogens. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has many horticultural and pharmacological qualities. T. vulgare is principally used in traditional Asian and North African medicine as an antihelminthic, antispasmodic, stimulant to abdominal viscera, tonic, antidiabetic and diuretic, and it is antihypertensive. In our research we established antiviral effect of methanol extract from T. vulgare against CMV and PVY in tomato plants.

  7. Composition and antiproliferative effect of essential oil of Origanum vulgare against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Nedel, Fernanda; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves; Beira, Fátima Tereza Alves; Del-Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death and is responsible for one in eight deaths worldwide. The use of herbs as complementary medicine for cancer, especially advanced cancer, has recently increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro, the antiproliferative effect of Origanum vulgare against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The essential oil (EO) was extracted from a bought amount of O. vulgare dried leaves and analyzed in a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass selective detector. The cytotoxicity test was performed by sulforhodamine B assay. The results show that the EO is composed mostly of 4-terpineol and induces a high cytotoxicity effect in HT-29. In the MCF-7 cell line the EO was less effective. In conclusion, this study showed that O. vulgare main component is 4-terpineol and was effective in inducing cancer cell growth inhibition.

  8. Antimicrobial Effects Of The Ethanolic Extracts And Essential Oils Of Tanacetum Vulgare L From Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan Maria Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of the extracts and essential oil of wildgrowing Tanacetum vulgare L on: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacilus subtilis, using the diffusion disc method. The essential oils but also the ethanolic extracts tested exhibited moderate action on Staphilococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and low action on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The moderate antimicrobial activity is related to the amount of some chemical components of the essential oil of T. vulgare flos. Thus, this paper presents also the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the essential oils of T. vulgare harvested from two different habitats. The essential oils obtained by steam-distillation were analysed by gas-cromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  9. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity of Marrubium vulgare L against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeide Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional medical systems and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the potential antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. against Staphylococcus aureus which is antibiotic resistant. Materials and Methods: All 17 strains of S. aureus isolated from nose and throat sample from 160 healthy subjects, hospital staffs and inpatient in the city of Zabol (Amir Al-Momenin hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran were screened during years 2010-2011. In this study, the essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine their chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil and extract. Results: Thirty-one components in the oil of Marrubium vulgare were identified. The results demonstrated that the major components of the essential oil were γ-Eudesmol (11%, Germacrene (10%, D-Citronelly formate (10%, β-Citronellol (8%, Geranyl tiglate (7.1%, Geranyl formate (6.02%. The least MIC value of extract M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL and the highest MIC value of essential oil M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL. Conclusion: This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil and extract has a potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil and extract as antibacterial agent. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  10. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  11. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  12. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  13. SIRE1 RETROTRANSPOSONS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N

    2015-07-01

    Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

  14. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  15. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  16. Atividade in vitro do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente à Sporothrix Schenckii In vitro activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Cleff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro activity of the essential oil Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii was determined by the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. For this, seven samples of S. schenckii were studied, two isolated from two cases of human sporotrichosis and five isolated from cats. Analysis of the essential oil was carried out in a gas chromatograph (GC/FID for the identification and quantification of thymol and carvacrol (antifungal agents. MIC was obtained based on the microdilution method according to the adapted document NCCLS-M 27A2 for fitopharmacy. All the isolates presented sensibility to the essential oil. S. schenckii was inhibited in a concentration of 0.25% (250m l/ml. Chromatographic analysis showed that thymol concentration was bigger than carvacrol. The antifungal activity demonstrated by the essential oil of O. vulgare against S. Schenckii stimulates the accomplishment of more studies, including in vivo studies.

  17. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  18. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...

  19. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  20. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of the Essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M. Salama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare, composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98% and thymol (32.82% in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55% in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  1. An ethanol extract of Origanum vulgare attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary injury and oxidative lung damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Salehi, Fatemeh; Habibi, Emran; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed

    2014-10-01

    Injury to normal tissues is the major limiting side effect of using cyclophosphamide (CP), an antineoplastic alkylating compound. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of an extract of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), an antioxidative medicinal plant, against CP-induced oxidative lung damage in mice. Mice were pre-treated with various doses of O. vulgare extract (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days followed by an injection with CP (200 mg/kg b.w.) One hour after the injection of O. vulgare on the last day, mice were injected with CP; 24 h later, they were euthanized, their lungs were immediately removed, and biochemical and histological studies were conducted. A single dose of CP markedly altered the levels of several biomarkers associated with oxidative stress in lung homogenates. Pretreatment with O. vulgare significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and attenuated the alterations in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity induced by CP in lung tissue. In addition, O. vulgare effectively alleviated CP-induced histopathological changes in lung tissue. Our results revealed that O. vulgare protects lung tissues from CP-induced pulmonary damage and suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of lung disease produced by CP. Because O. vulgare has been extensively used as an additive agent and is regarded as safe, it may be used concomitantly as a supplement for reducing lung damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  2. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  3. Plant-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Stabilization by Wet Stirred Media Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Matej; Balážová, Ľudmila; Daneu, Nina; Dutková, Erika; Balážová, Miriama; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Within this study, a stable nanosuspension of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was prepared using a two-step synthesis and stabilization approach. The Ag NPs were synthesized from a silver nitrate solution using the Origanum vulgare L. plant extract as the reducing agent. The formation of nanoparticles was finished upon 15 min, and subsequently, stabilization by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using wet stirred media milling was applied. UV-Vis spectra have shown a maximum at 445 nm, corresponding to the formation of spherical Ag NPs. Infrared spectroscopy was used to examine the interaction between Ag NPs and the capping agents. TEM study has shown the formation of Ag NPs with two different average sizes (38 ± 10 nm and 7 ± 3 nm) after the plant-mediated synthesis, both randomly distributed within the organic matrix. During milling in PVP, the clusters of Ag NPs were destroyed, the Ag NPs were fractionized and embedded in PVP. The nanosuspensions of PVP-capped Ag NPs were stable for more than 26 weeks, whereas for the non-stabilized nanosuspensions, only short-term stability for about 1 week was documented.

  4. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  5. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  6. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  7. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  8. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 3, De eikvaren (Polypodium vulgare L. sensu lato) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders-Groeneveld, J.; Segal, S.

    1967-01-01

    Pteridological Notes, 3 The genus Polypodium in the Netherlands Both Polypodium vulgare L. (sensu stricto) and P. interjectum Shivas occur in the Netherlands. Most of the differential characters reported in the literature overlap one another rather broadly, so that it is often necessary to use a

  9. Quantitative trait locus analysis of nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindu, G.A.; Tang, J.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was conducted on data generated from two pot experiments carried out in 2005 (using four nitrogen rates) and 2008 (with three rates) with AFLP markers and 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the

  10. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Salido, S.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier screening of Lithuanian plants, horehound (Marrubium vulgare) showed good antioxidant activity and as this species is used in herbal teas and cough pastilles it was selected for further investigation. Some fractions of the aerial parts were strong scavengers of the model free radicals

  11. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  12. Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization and water regimes in Tigray, Ethiopia. Dejene Kassahun Mengistu. * and Fetien Abay Abera. Department of Dryland crop and Horticultural Science, College of Dryland Agriculture,. P.O.Box, 231, Mekelle University, Mekelle, ...

  13. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  14. Comparative genomics and metabolomics analyses of the adaptation mechanism in Ketogulonicigenium vulgare-Bacillus thuringiensis consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Zou, Yang; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-04-25

    Adaptive evolution by serial subcultivation of co-cultured Bacillus thuringiensis and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare significantly enhanced the productivity of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid in two-step vitamin C production. The adaptation mechanism in K. vulgare-B. thuringiensis consortium was investigated in this study based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies. It was found that the growth, anti-oxidation, transcription and regulation were significantly enhanced in the adapted consortium. The mutation of the genes, which encode amidohydrolase in adapted K. vulgare (K150) and amino acid permease in adapted B. thuringiensis (B150), resulted in the increase of some amino acids levels in each species, and further enhanced the metabolic exchange and growth ability of the two species. Besides, the mutation of the gene encoding spore germination protein enhanced the metabolic levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased the sporulation in B150, which induced its growth. The mutation of the genes, which encode NADPH nitroreductase in K150 and NADPH-dependent FMN reductase in B150, may enhance the ability of anti-oxidation. Overall, the long-term adaptation of K. vulgare and B. thuringiensis influenced the global regulation and made them more inseparable in metabolite exchange. Our work will provide ideas for the molecular design and optimization in microbial consortium.

  15. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  16. Comparison of selection efficiency for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under organic and conventional farming conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokare, Aina; Legzdina, Linda; Maliepaard, Chris; Niks, Rients E.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith T.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze whether selection under conventional conditions (indirect selection) is as effective as selection under organic conditions (direct selection) to develop varieties suitable for organic farming systems. Two F3 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations

  17. Growth and yield of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L .) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and yield of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L .) as affected by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization and water regimes in Tigray, Ethiopia. ... The understanding of the interactive effects of abiotic stresses is a crucial issue for improving cereal production in arid environment. For this reason, study was conducted in northern ...

  18. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  19. Contemporary Seasonal and Altitudinal Variations of Leaf Structural Features in Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOFIDIS, G.; BOSABALIDIS, A. M.; MOUSTAKAS, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of elevation (200, 950 and 1760 m) and season (April–October) on leaf morphological, anatomical, ultrastructural, morphometrical and photosynthetic parameters were studied in Origanum vulgare plants. Observations aimed at the determination of the alterations in leaf structure and function associated with differential growth and adaptation of plants. Raising elevation results in a progressive decrease of plant height. During the growing period, summer plants are taller than spring and autumn plants at all elevations examined. In high‐altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. vulgare), the blade size becomes reduced in June leaves as compared with October leaves, while it does not change remarkably in low‐altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum). Leaf thickness remains more or less stable during the growing period. Expanded leaves in June and October at 200 m elevation contain dark phenolics only in their epidermis, whereas leaves of August are densely filled with phenolics in all of their tissues. In June at 1760 m elevation, leaves are devoid of phenolics, which, however, occur in the epidermis of the leaves in August and October. At higher altitudes, larger mesophyll chloroplasts with more starch grains are present in June leaves, whereas in August and October leaves chloroplasts are smaller with fewer starch grains. Leaf stomata and non‐glandular hairs increase in number from the lowland to the upland habitats, whereas glandular hairs decrease in number. During the growing season, the density of stomata and of glandular and non‐glandular hairs progressively increases. In the low‐ and mid‐altitude oregano populations, leaf chlorophyll a content and PSII activity significantly increase in October, whereas they simultaneously decrease in the high‐altitude population, suggesting a phenomenon of chilling‐induced photoinhibition. The highest photochemical efficiency of PSII appears in the mid‐altitude population (having

  20. analysis of gear milling at vari gear milling at various gear milling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    feedrates for cutting a tooth ing a tooth ing a tooth of a spur gear. Thus, as of a spur gear. Thus, as. The model will serve as a useful tool in prepar. Keywords: Cutting speed, feedrate, time. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. In milling, a multi-toothed cutter, rotating at a fi position on the machine, shapes ...

  1. Methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare ameliorates type 1 diabetes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Blagojevic, Dusko; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    ...-cell destruction and results in hyperglycaemia. Since current T1D therapy mainly involves insulin replacement, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano...

  2. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  3. Mill performance of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett; G. O' Brien; D. Holcombe [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Evaluating the potential performance of coal blends for use as pulverised fuel (PF) in power plants and pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces requires knowledge of the size distribution of the organic and mineral matter components of a blend, especially when there are significant differences in the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of the component coals. The size distribution of the organic matter impacts on combustibility of thermal and PCI coal blends and handleability of PCI coal blends. Petrography techniques were used to examine four size fractions from the PF of single coals and blends to measure the size distribution of maceral groups. For most coals, a good estimate of a blend's size distribution can be made assuming that the size distribution of the individual coals, milled under the same conditions, are added together in the proportions of the blend. The exception is when a very soft coal (HGI 90) is blended with a very hard coal (HGI 35). In this case preferential milling (more reporting to the smaller size fractions) of the softer coal occurred. All coals studied in this project show some sign of preferential grinding of the softer maceral group when the coal was milled individually or in a blend. It is only when there is a large difference in the relative strength of the maceral groups of the coals blended that the preferential milling of a coal in a blend is observed in the size distribution of the blend. The results indicate that the breakage characteristics (change in size reduction per unit of energy) of maceral groups in individual coals do not change when they are blended with other coals. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  5. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Coté

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background:Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  7. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to

  8. Hydrogen storage properties on mechanically milled graphite

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Takayuki; Chen, D. M.; Isobe, Shigehito; Gomibuchi, Emi; Fujii, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    We investigated hydrogen absorption/desorption and structural properties in mechanically milled graphite under hydrogen pressures up to 6 MPa to clarify catalytic and hydrogen pressure effects in the milling. The results indicate that a small amount of iron contamination during milling plays a quite important role as a catalyst for hydrogen absorption/desorption properties in graphite. Two-peak structure for hydrogen desorption in the TDS profile is due to existence of two different occupatio...

  9. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  10. Ovarian control of oostegite formation in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1991-12-01

    The correlation between oostegite formation and ovarian maturation was investigated in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare. Females whose ovaries had been removed and males whose androgenic glands had been removed were used in these experiments. Ovariectomy of puberal females did not stop oostegite formation. Whether oostegites develop in puberal females whose ovaries have been removed depends upon the degree of maturation of the ovaries at the time of removal. On the other hand, ovariectomized juvenile females and andrectomized juvenile males were unable to form oostegites when they attained puberty. An extract of vitellogenic ovaries induced oostegite formation in ovariectomized females and andrectomized males, but not in intact males. The ability of ovarian extracts to induce oostegite formation was dose-dependent. The nature of this ovarian factor that induces oostegite formation in A. vulgare remains to be elucidated.

  11. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  12. Phenolic compounds from Origanum vulgare and their antioxidant and antiviral activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Li; Guo, Yu-Shan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Chung, Hau Yin; Ye, Wen-Cai; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, six new phenolic compounds (1-6) along with five known ones were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plants of Origanum vulgare. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, NMR, and HRESIMS) and acid hydrolysis. Twenty-one phenolic compounds isolated from O. vulgare in our previous and present studies were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; twelve of them including two new compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. In addition, the antiviral effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were tested by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.

    1977-12-01

    Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of /sup 235/U depletion is considered.

  14. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Claudia R. B.; Mazzafera, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils). Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium c...

  15. Standardization of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Its Oleoresin and Marketed Ayurvedic Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Pasrija Anubhuti; Singh Rahul; Katiyar Chandra Kant

    2011-01-01

    Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, one of the most common use in India kitchen as a spice and as well as in traditional medicine for its estrogenic, lactagouge, diuretic, antioxidant, immune booster and its usefulness in dyspepsia. The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice that makes studies of their correct identification are very essential. In the present study the fruit of the plant, raw materials, their oleo resins and marketed formulations was...

  16. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Pazoki; Golbano Bolouri; Farah Farokhi; Mohammad Ali Azerbayjani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel) together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of...

  17. Modernization vs. vulgarization in online fashion luxury : how is internet impacting luxury brand equity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marrão, Ana Rita Galante de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    The Internet became an inherent part of people’s daily life and the major source of transformation in the relation between consumers and brands. However, in the luxury branding context, the introduction of prestige brands into a mass channel such as the Internet might bring the risk of vulgarization, loss of control over the brand, loss of the high-luxury appeal, jeopardizing brand equity. Hence, the present thesis paper proposes to answer the dilemma between the imperative of going online an...

  18. Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Panaitescu-Liess

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or combined... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the...

  20. Antioxidant Capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et2O, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O2·- and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe2+/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et2O and CHCl3 extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O2·- radicals and the neutralization of H2O2. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et2O and CHCl3 extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  1. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  2. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  3. Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Trivic, Svetlana

    2011-08-30

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  4. Crop Seedling Susceptibility to Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae) and Ommatoiulus moreletii (Diplopoda: Iulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Josh; Macfadyen, Sarina; Hoffmann, Ary; Umina, Paul

    2017-10-16

    The isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae), and the millipede, Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas) (Diplopoda: Iulidae), are increasingly being reported as pests of emerging broadacre crop seedlings in southern Australia. This is thought to be due to the increased adoption of stubble retention practices, leading to increased abundance of these soil-dwelling organisms. Here, we evaluate the propensity of A. vulgare and O. moreletii to damage a range of crop seedlings. Through the combined analysis of a controlled feeding trial and field reports, we show A. vulgare is able to feed on and damage a range of pulses, legumes, cereals, and oilseeds, as emerging seedlings. O. moreletii had a more restricted range of feeding, being limited to lupin, lucerne, and canola in the feeding trial. These results are discussed in the context of developing pest management guidelines for these species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Susceptibility of Two Sitophilus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to Essential Oils from Foeniculum vulgare and Satureja hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, and Summer savory, Satureja hortensis (Lamiaceae, against two stored-product insects. Essential oils from two species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and their fumigant toxicities were tested against adults of the wheat weevil, Sitophilus granarius and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Curculionidae. The mortality was determined after 24 and 48 hrs from beginning of exposure. LC50 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. Fumigation bioassays revealed that essential oils from two plants had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. LC50 values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than S. oryzae to essential oils at the exposure time 24 and 48 hrs. The mortality effect of S. hortensis oil was lower than F. vulgare oil. The LC50 values decreased with the duration of exposure to the essential oil concentrations. In all case, responses varied according to plant material, concentration, and exposure time. These results indicated that essential oils from S. hortensis and F. vulgare could be applicable to the management of stored product insects to decrease ecologically detrimental effects of utilization synthetic insecticides.

  6. Antinociceptive synergistic interaction between Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract encapsulated in liposome in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Farshad; Negahdari, Babak

    2017-07-18

    This study aims to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of combined Achillea millefolium and Origanum extract encapsulated in liposome. The effect of Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract, and their liposome-incorporated form was assessed using 3% formalin test in rat. 12 male Wistar rats, 4 in each group, were used in this study, and increasing doses of Achillea millefolium (31.6, 100, 178, and 316 mg/kg) and Origanum vulgare L. extract (5.6, 10, 17.8, and 31.6 mg/kg), and co-administered extract were i.p. administered 10 min before 3% formalin. The mechanisms of action were evaluated for the liposomal encapsulated co-administered extract using N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 mg/kg) and naloxone (1 mg/kg). The interaction index and isobolographic analysis revealed a synergistic effect of the extracts. We observed a lower experimental ED30 as compared to the theoretical ED30. Naloxone also reduced the antinociceptive effect of the liposome encapsulated co-administered extract. These data suggest that the Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract encapsulated in liposome gave a synergistic effect.

  7. Leucanthemum vulgare lam. germination, growth and mycorrhizal symbiosis under crude oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Azam Sadat; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Oil contamination of soil limits plants' access to water and nutrients. Leucanthemum vulgare colonized by mycorrhizae could provide an effective tool in remedying oil contamination. Seeds of L. vulgare were planted in pots containing soil mixed with petroleum at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% w/w and propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Plants were grown under ambient conditions for 16 weeks. Seed germination data were collected weekly for three weeks. Mycorrhizal percentage, spore counts, length and weight of roots and shoots were determined after harvesting. Results showed significant differences in seed germination rates between oil-treated, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The overall germination rate was greater at 7.5% w/w crude oil contamination (p = 0.05) in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pots with significant differences between their respective Root:Shoot ratios (both length and weight). Results of this research showed L. vulgare could be germinated and grown in crude oil contaminated soils and could be used to augment plant establishment as part of phytoremediation practices.

  8. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Bengtsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012–2014 in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  9. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Therése; Åhman, Inger; Manninen, Outi; Reitan, Lars; Christerson, Therese; Due Jensen, Jens; Krusell, Lene; Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012–2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley. PMID:29184565

  10. Genoprotective effects of Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Emran; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Keshavarz-Maleki, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, can bind DNA, causing chromosome breaks, micronucleus (Mn) formation, and cell death. Because Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has antioxidative properties, it might protect against DNA damage. The genoprotective effect of O. vulgare ethanolic extract against CP-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells was evaluated using a Mn assay. Mice were pre-treated with aerial parts of O. vulgare ethanolic extract at different doses (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) for 7 d. One hour after the last administration of O. vulgare, animals were injected with CP at 200 mg/kg. After 24 h, the bone marrow cells of both femurs were flushed and the frequency of MnPCEs was evaluated to measure the chromosomal damages. In addition, the number of PCEs per 1000 NCEs in each animal was recorded to evaluate the bone-marrow suppression; mitotic activity was calculated as [PCE/(PCE + NCE)] × 100 to assess the cell division. At 400 mg/kg, O. vulgare displayed its maximum protective effect, reduced the number of MnPCEs from 10.52 ± 1.07 for CP group to 2.17 ± 0.26 and completely normalized the mitotic activity (p Origanum vulgare also led to significant proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after the mice were treated with CP, mitigating the bone marrow suppression. Origanum vulgare ethanolic extract exerts a potent genoprotective effect against CP-induced genotoxicity in mice bone marrow, which might be possibly due to the scavenging of free radicals during oxidative stress conditions.

  11. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  12. milled degermed maize products for tropical countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... processing of maize flour, which meets consumer demand for quality and achieves extended shelf life. One traditional soft cultivar was .... duplicate after extraction with 95% ethanol (ISO, 1986) and expressed as mg KOH ..... In addition, the hammer mill appears much more efficient than the disc mill, giving ...

  13. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  14. Computer-aided design of rolling mills

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the design of rolling mills equipment, computer-aided design has been widely used. The available software, which covers both steady state and dynamic analysis of items such as mill stands, drive systems, manipulators, cooling beds, roll cooling, and automatic gauge control systems, is reviewed with special reference to ...

  15. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik

    2017-01-01

    Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

  16. The effect of crystal morphology and mill type on milling induced crystal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhalia, V; Forbes, R T; Storey, R A; Ticehurst, M

    2006-01-01

    Milling is a key process in the preparation of many solid dosage forms. One possible milling induced change is the production of small levels of disorder or amorphous material found predominantly at the surface of a powder, which could lead to significant chemical and physical instability. The influence of crystal habit on this change was investigated using beta-succinic acid, in plate like and needle like morphologies. beta-Succinic acid crystals with these habits were processed in a ball mill and a jet mill. SEM images indicated jet milled material was finer than the ball milled product. Powder X-ray diffraction of the milled powders revealed an amorphous halo at lower angles and peak broadening suggesting disorder though this could not be quantified accurately. In addition, a partial conversion during milling to the alpha form was noted. Quantitation of the alpha form in the milled powders indicated it was present at powders had lower heats of solution compared to the unmilled powers. The contribution of the alpha polymorph to the lower heats of solution was calculated to be insignificant. Therefore, the reduced heat of solution is attributed to a loss in crystallinity. The largest decreases were seen in the plate like morphology. These findings suggest that beta-succinic acid crystals with plate like morphology are more prone to crystallinity loss on milling compared to the needle like morphology. The mill type has also been shown to influence the final crystallinity.

  17. Content of amino acids in dense extracts from raw material of Echium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mashtaler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echium vulgare L. of Boraginaceae family is a biennial rigidly pubescent plant with a spindle-shaped root, which is rather widespread in Ukraine. Above-ground and underground part of the plant is used in folk medicine as a blood purifying agent and anticonvulsant, herb decoctions – as expectorant and calming agent for cough of various etiology. Owing to shikonin and its ethers presence, extracts from Echium vulgare L. have high antibacterial activity and stable fungistatic effect against yeast fungi. In addition, these substances also exibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and regenerative activity. Echium vulgare L., as most representatives of Boraginaceae, is not sufficiently studied. Continuing to study this species, we have determined amino acid composition of its aqueous extracts. This group of biologically active substances is present in easy-to-digest complexes and in biologically available concentrations; it demonstrates a number of biological actions, such as hepatoprotective, lipotropic, cardiotropic, regenerative, wound-healing, calming, etc. The objective of our work was to study qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Objects of our study were dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Roots were harvested in autumn, at the end of vegetation period (October – November 2009; herb was collected during the phase of mass flowering (June 2009 in Kharkov region. Well-known methods were used to obtain dense extracts (extraction agent: purified water. Output of root dense extract was 22,7%, and herb dense extract was 23,5%. Amino acid composition of dense extracts was studied with amino acid analyzer AAA-339 (Czech Republic after hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. There have been identified 16 amino acids, 7 of which are essential, 3 semiessential ones and the rest – nonessential amino acids. Qualitative composition and

  18. Development of a minimal chemically defined medium for Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH001 based on its genome-scale metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shicun; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zou, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Commercial production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the immediate precursor of l-ascorbic acid, is by Ketogulonicigenium vulgare in co-culture with Bacillus megaterium. We used flux balance analysis (FBA) to study a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) of K. vulgare, iWZ663, and found that K. vulgare is deficient in nutrient biosynthetic pathways. Individually omitting l-glycine, l-cysteine, l-methionine, l-tryptophan, adenine, thymine, thiamine and pantothenate from complete chemically defined medium (CDM), caused biomass formation of K. vulgare to decrease to 1%, 21%, 16%, 1%, 26%, 57%, 73% and 24%, respectively. Based on these results and FBA, a minimal chemically defined medium (MCDM) was developed that supported monoculture of K. vulgare (0.28OD600) and 2-KLG production (3.59g/L), which were similar to those in complete CDM or corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) medium. This study demonstrated the potential of using GSMM and FBA to characterize nutrient requirements, optimize CDM, and study interactions in co-culture. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of Pretreatment With Extract of Origanum vulgare Leaves on Experimental Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Origanum vulgare is used in traditional medicine for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Objectives The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of O. vulgare leaves extract on experimentally induced intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar albino rats randomly divided into four groups. Group I/R underwent ischemia-reperfusion of the intestine (45 minutes of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion. Treatment groups I and II were given O. vulgare extract (200 and 400 ppm via oral gavages for 1 week before inducing I/R. Group sham was given normal saline orally without inducing I/R. After the experiments, the jejunum was removed and the tissues were processed for histomorphometric examination of mucosa. Results The treatment with O. vulgare extract significantly decreased mucosal damages in the treatment groups compared to group I/R, while severe mucosal damages were observed in the group I/R. Also, there was significant difference between treatment groups I and II (P = 0.054. Group sham observed normal intestinal mucosa. Conclusions According to the results of current study, administration of O. vulgare extract protects the intestinal mucosa from I/R injuries.

  20. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Terpene synthases of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and their roles in the pathway and regulation of terpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocoll, Christoph; Asbach, Julia; Novak, Johannes; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    The aroma, flavor and pharmaceutical value of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a consequence of its essential oil which consists mostly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. To investigate the biosynthetic pathway to oregano terpenes and its regulation, we identified and characterized seven terpene synthases, key enzymes of terpene biosynthesis, from two cultivars of O. vulgare. Heterologous expression of these enzymes showed that each forms multiple mono- or sesquiterpene products and together they are responsible for the direct production of almost all terpenes found in O. vulgare essential oil. The correlation of essential oil composition with relative and absolute terpene synthase transcript concentrations in different lines of O. vulgare demonstrated that monoterpene synthase activity is predominantly regulated on the level of transcription and that the phenolic monoterpene alcohol thymol is derived from gamma-terpinene, a product of a single monoterpene synthase. The combination of heterologously-expressed terpene synthases for in vitro assays resulted in blends of mono- and sesquiterpene products that strongly resemble those found in vivo, indicating that terpene synthase expression levels directly control the composition of the essential oil. These results will facilitate metabolic engineering and directed breeding of O. vulgare cultivars with higher quantity of essential oil and improved oil composition.

  2. Validação do índice de comprometimento cutaneomucoso do pênfigo vulgar para a avaliação clínica de pacientes com pênfigo vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Sávio Reder de; Azulay-Abulafia,Luna; Nascimento,Leninha Valério do

    2011-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O pênfigo vulgar é uma bulose grave, produzida pela destruição autoimune dos desmossomos, o que resulta na formação de bolhas intraepidérmicas, afetando pele e mucosas, com mortalidade de 5 a 10%. Os efeitos colaterais da terapêutica contribuíram para aumentar a morbidade da doença, respondendo por parte considerável das causas imediatas de morte por pênfigo vulgar atualmente. Não há nenhuma sistematização reprodutível para a avaliação clínica dos pacientes de pênfigo vulgar, tor...

  3. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  4. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  5. In vitro activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691, C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. krusei (ATCC 34135, C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449 and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646. Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 10(6 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC. All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%, carvacrol (9.42%, thymol (8.42% and □-terpineol (7.57%. C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 µL mL-1 and 5 µL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 µL mL-1 and 3.54 µL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 µL mL-1 and 2.97 µL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis.

  6. In vitro activity of origanum vulgare essential oil against candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleff, Marlete Brum; Meinerz, Ana Raquel; Xavier, Melissa; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Araújo Meireles, Mário Carlos; Alves Rodrigues, Maria Regina; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. krusei (ATCC 34135), C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449) and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646). Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 106 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%), carvacrol (9.42%), thymol (8.42%) and □-terpineol (7.57%). C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 μL mL-1 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 μL mL-1 and 3.54 μL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 μL mL-1 and 2.97 μL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:24031471

  7. In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Origanum vulgare L. on HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbović, Filip; Stanković, Milan S.; Ćurčić, Milena; Đorđević, Nataša; Šeklić, Dragana; Topuzović, Marina; Marković, Snežana

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, we examined the cytotoxic effect of methanolic extract from Origanum vulgare on HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231 cell line in vitro. In order to determine the cytotoxic effects we used an MTT viability assay. The results showed that cell growth is significantly lower in extract treated cells compared to untreated control. The effect of inhibition of cell growth was higher in the treatment of HCT-116 cell line than in MDA-MB-231. Based on the results it is determined that O. vulgare is a significant source of biologically active substances that have cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity in vitro. PMID:27137381

  8. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  9. Antioxidant Capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Trivic; Biljana Kaurinovic; Sanja Vlaisavljevic; Mira Popovic

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et2O, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O2·- and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-ass...

  10. Sex-reversal of male Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Malacostraca, Crustacea) following andrectomy and partial gonadectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1991-09-01

    Evidence is presented for the first time for the complete sex-reversal of genetic males of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare into functional females following partial gonadectomy. Fifth-instar males were used. The anterior half of their rudimentary reproductive organs along with the attached androgenic glands were removed. Six months later these animals formed oostegites and laid eggs, and when bred with normal males, produced only male offspring. These results show that in the absence of the androgenic gland, female sex characteristics differentiate and oogenesis occurs in genetic males.

  11. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  12. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to...

  13. Presentación de un caso de Pénfigo Vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Zully Ballesteros Zárate; Julio Cesar Mantilla Hernández; Álvaro Sanabria Naranjo

    2012-01-01

    El pénfigo es una enfermedad vesículo-ampollosa autoinmune de la piel y mucosas, que puede comprometer grandes extensiones; los tipos vulgar y foliáceo son los más frecuentes, con diferencias inmunopatológicas entre ellas. El pénfigo es tratado con corticoides y Azatioprina pero en los últimos años se incluyeron nuevos medicamentos como inmunoglobulinas, Rituximab (anticuerpo monoclonal quimérico anti-CD20) entre otros, Mostramos un caso de pénfigo hiperpigmentado atípico, y revisamos el tema...

  14. Morphometric parameters and seed germination of Origanum vulgare L. grown in Crimean foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Myagkih

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation shown that the seeds of Оriganum vulgareL. grown in the foothills of the Crimea are very small (1.8-1.9 mm long and 1.2-1.3 mm wide, weight of 1000 seeds is 0.079-0.089. In the first year after harvest the germination is highest and then it quickly decreases. In particular, the highest level of oregano germination was observed one month after harvesting. Some samples (Nr. 64 and 79 retained high germination potential (according the National Standard of Ukraine during 6 and 12 months. Further storage of seeds shown significant decreasing of germination.

  15. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pensel, P. E.; M. A. Maggiore; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M.J.; Denegri, M. G.; M. C. Elissondo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vu...

  16. Silica Biominerals (Phytolith) Compound of Cultured Barley Plants (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamirsky, I. E.; Klykov, A. G.; Murugova, G. A.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    The comparative analysis results of the morphological and chemical composition of biomineral elements (phytolith) of cultured barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) have been presented for the first time. On the example of the biserial “Pacific” variety related to var. nutans and line 342 (var. nigricans). The optical microscopy method has been used to identify 4 morphotypes of fossil plants. The distinctive sitespecific signs were established, manifested in the size multiblade fossil plants and the presence of a disc-shaped fossil plants from one variety not only in the ear, but in the stalk.

  17. Biological Peculiarities and Mechanized Agriculture of Species of Plants Anise [finisum vulgare Gaern., Caraway (Carum carvi L, Cicely (Coriandrum sativum L, Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Dill (Anethum graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. П. Костенко

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article represents results of studies mechanized agriculture spicy aromatic species of plants to ecological and agricultural climatic conditions different areas of Steppe and Le-sosteppe of Ukraine. Basic breaking grounds, sowing area under crops, nurture spicy aromatic species of plants taking into account with their biological peculiarities.

  18. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) inoculated with ... The field study attempted to validate positive responses obtained in the greenhouse. ... height and girth with the regression coefficient (r2) ranging from 0.74 to 0.96.

  19. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    , palm oil mill effluent. could solve several problems including reducing the high load of waste produced by palm oil industry. It can also create a market for biofertilizer which have proven to be more effective and cheaper than ...

  20. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  1. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    /lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  2. Dynamic study of milling low depth channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Dorin Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of dynamic aspects of the milling cutters used in particular case of low depth channels. A new calculation method was developed, taking into account the high variations of cutting forces during milling small depth channels with peripheral cutting tools. A new formula was established for the minimal value of channel depth that allows cutting process to be performed in conditions of dynamic stability.

  3. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Ntougias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastes (OMWs are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities’ structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  4. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  5. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  6. Efficient genetic transformation and regeneration system from hairy root of Origanum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Peyman; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Makhzoum, Abdullah; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Borghetti, Ivo Albertto; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Origanum vulgare L is commonly known as a wild marjoram and winter sweet which has been used in the traditional medicine due to its therapeutic effects as stimulant, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and many other diseases. A reliable gene transfer system via Agrobacterium rhizogenes and plant regeneration via hairy roots was established in O. vulgare for the first time. The frequency of induced hairy roots was different by modification of the co-cultivation medium elements after infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains K599 and ATCC15834. High transformation frequency (91.3 %) was achieved by co-cultivation of explants with A. rhizogenes on modified (MS) medium. The frequency of calli induction with an 81.5 % was achieved from hairy roots on MS medium with 0.25 mg/L(-1) 2,4-D. For shoot induction, initiated calli was transferred into a medium containing various concentrations of BA (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg/L(-1)). The frequency of shoot generation (85.18 %) was achieved in medium fortified with 0.25 mg/L(-1) of BA. Shoots were placed on MS medium with 0.25 mg/l IBA for root induction. Roots appeared and induction rate was achieved after 15 days.

  7. Sexual bipotentiality of developing ovaries in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1997-07-01

    The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.

  8. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  9. The flavonoids of Tanacetum parthenium and T. vulgare and their anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C A; Harborne, J B; Geiger, H; Hoult, J R

    1999-06-01

    The lipophilic flavonoids in leaf and flower of Tanacetum parthenium and T. vulgaris have been compared. While those of T. parthenium are methyl ethers of the flavonols 6-hydroxykaempferol and quercetagetin, the surface flavonoids of T. vulgare are methyl ethers of the flavones scutellarein and 6-hydroxyluteolin. Apigenin and two flavone glucuronides are surprisingly present in glandular trichomes on the lower epidermis of the ray florets of T. parthenium. The opportunity has been taken to revise the structures of the four 6-hydroxyflavonol methyl ethers of T. parthenium based on NMR measurements. These are now shown to be uniformly 6- rather than 7-O-methylated. Tanetin, previously thought to be a new structure, is now formulated as the known 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6,4'-trimethyl ether. The vacuolar flavonoids of both plants are dominated by the presence of apigenin and luteolin 7-glucuronides; nine other glycosides were present, including the uncommon 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-glucoside in T. vulgare. When the major flavonol and flavone methyl ethers of the two plants were tested pharmacologically, they variously inhibited the major pathways of arachidonate metabolism in leukocytes. There were significant differences in potency, with the tansy 6-hydroxyflavones less active than the feverfew 6-hydroxyflavonols as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase.

  10. Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh; Valiev, Abdujabbor; Satyal, Prabodh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Yusufi, Salomudin; Setzer, William N; Wink, Michael

    2017-08-28

    The essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is rich in lipophilic secondary metabolites, which can easily cross cell membranes by free diffusion. Several constituents of the oil carry reactive carbonyl groups in their ring structures. Carbonyl groups can react with amino groups of amino acid residues in proteins or in nucleotides of DNA to form Schiff's bases. Fennel essential oil is rich in anise aldehyde, which should interfere with molecular targets in cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of fennel growing in Tajikistan. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main components of F. vulgare oil were trans-anethole (36.8%); α-ethyl-p-methoxy-benzyl alcohol (9.1%); p-anisaldehyde (7.7%); carvone (4.9%); 1-phenyl-penta-2,4-diyne (4.8%) and fenchyl butanoate (4.2%). The oil exhibited moderate antioxidant activities. The potential cytotoxic activity was studied against HeLa (human cervical cancer), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), CCRF-CEM (human T lymphoblast leukaemia) and CEM/ADR5000 (adriamycin resistant leukaemia) cancer cell lines; IC50 values were between 30-210 mg L-1 and thus exhibited low cytotoxicity as compared to cytotoxic reference compounds.

  11. Wound healing activity of Origanum vulgare engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Wistar Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Renu; Dhivya, Ravishankar; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-07-01

    The titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2·NPs) were synthesized utilizing Origanum vulgare under room temperature. The green synthesized TiO2 NPs excitation was confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 320 nm. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed TiO2·NPs are spherical in shape and connected with one another. Dynamic light scattering analysis results specified high stability in nanoparticles, with an average particle size of 341 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peaks revealed the presence of bioactive functional groups in Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract much needed for the TiO2·NPs formation. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the TiO2·NPs are amorphous in nature. Furthermore, the green synthesized TiO2·NPs wound healing activity was examined in the excision wound model by measuring wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling, revealed significant wound healing activity in Albino rats. In conclusion, our results bared TiO2·NPs have delivered a novel therapeutic route for wound treatment in clinical practice.

  12. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Giovanna; Maggini, Valentina; Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Sassoli, Chiara; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Chiellini, Carolina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Bogani, Patrizia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Campana, Silvia; Ravenni, Novella; Dolce, Daniela; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections.

  13. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc-bindin...... formation. The dithizone staining method gave similar reproducibility to the radioactive blotting. The detected zinc-binding protein was identified as B-hordein by Western blotting......In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...

  15. Antimycobacterial Activity of Constituents from Foeniculum vulgare Var. Dulce Grown in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100–200 µg/mL, undecanal (MIC 50–200 µg/mL, and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25–50 µg/mL, the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  16. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  17. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  18. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.

    2000-01-01

    The Hordeum vulgare accession 'HOR 1063' was crossed with the barley cultivar Krona, and 220 doubled haploid lines were produced based on this cross. A molecular map was constructed based on RFLP markers. Field trials were performed over 2 years and at two locations. In field trials, resistance...

  19. Acaricidal properties of Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) essential oils obtained by three methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, H; Bélanger, A; Bostanian, N; Vincent, C; Poliquin, A

    2001-02-01

    Essential oils of Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum vulgare L. were extracted by three methods, a microwave assisted process (MAP), distillation in water (DW) and direct steam distillation (DSD), and tested for their relative toxicity as contact acaricides to the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. All three extracts of A. absinthium and of T. vulgare were lethal to the spider mite but to variable degrees. The LC50 obtained from the DSD oil of A. absinthium was significantly lower (0.04 mg/cm2) than that of the MAP (0.13 mg/cm2) and DW (0.13 mg/cm2) oil of this plant species. DSD and DW extracts of T. vulgare were more toxic (75.6 and 60.4% mite mortality, respectively, at 4% concentration) to the spider mite than the MAP extract (16.7% mite mortality at 4% concentration). Chromatographic analysis indicated differences in composition between the more toxic DSD oil of A. absinthium and the other two extracts of this plant, indicating that a sesquiterpene (C15H24) compound present in the DSD oil and absent in the other two may enhance the toxicity of the DSD oil. Chemical analysis of the T. vulgare extracts indicated that beta-thujone is by far the major compound of the oil (>87.6%) and probably contributes significantly to the acaricidal activity of the oil.

  20. Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Marrubium vulgare L. Methanol Extract on Carrageenan- Induced Paw Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fathiazad, Maryam Rameshrad, Samira Asghari, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Alireza Garjani, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The upward desire in using traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of different diseases has led the scientists to be thoughtful on plants as alternative sources of conventional drugs. Methods: Herein, anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium vulgare methanolic extract was evaluated in carrageenan- induced paw edema in rats through examining paw thickness, histological studies and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO. The antioxidant activity of M. vulgare extract and its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated by folin-Ciocalteau, and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, separately. Results: The results showed that M. vulgare alleviated paw inflammation as indexed by reduction paw thickness (p<0.001 as well as MPO activity (p<0.001, which was associated with a marked decrease in tissue edema. Moreover, the extract RC50 value for DPPH and nitric oxide antioxidant activity was 177 µg/mL and 370.5 µg/ml, besides, the total phenolic and flavonoids were as 625 mg gallic acid equivalent and 1.62 g quercetin equivalent per 100 g of dried plant material. Conclusion: In the main, the observed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of M. vulgare could be attributed to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content identified in the extract.

  1. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic changes in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) during a period of climate change in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances can lead to the loss of genetic variation and thereby affect evolutionary potential and survival of plant populations in the wild. We examined these predictions in the primary wild relative of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) ...

  3. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  4. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations.

  5. Giemsa C-banding in two polyploid, South American Hordeum species, H. tetraploidum and H. lechleri, and their aneuploid hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    American taxa of the same sections suggest a rather close relationship and support that the biological basis for their classification with different sections is questionable. C-banding patterns identified the chromosomes of parental genomes in interspecific hybrids between the two species and H. vulgare....... The hybrids were stably aneuploid. Both had lost and acquired H. vulgare chromosomes. Thus, somatic elimination of chromosomes was combined with multiplication of chromosomes. The observations of stably aneuploid hybrids have implications for the exploitation of alien germplasm. The activity of non-H. vulgare...

  6. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  7. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  8. Overview of Curved Cutting Edge Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potapova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now that there is a need to increase a processing capacity, curved cutting edge mills find ever-growing use. Also known as “rough end”, “full-side”, and “heavy-duty” mills, they provide the increased depth and width values of milling owing to the width-sized chip separation. The analysis of produced mills allowed us both to reveal their basic design components (type of a shaft or basic opening, diameter and length of the cutting part, mill length, quantity of teeth, a tilt angle of a screw flute and to make their classification. The paper presents a classification of the profile types of cutting edges, which can be divided by form (flat, round, size (small, large, super-large, and symmetry (symmetrical and asymmetrical. The profile of the cutting edge is characterized by the following parameters: profile height, pitch of crests spherical radius of crest.A review of the curved cutting edge profile types allows us to build the geometrical constructions to define a form and the sizes of the chip load made by the cutting edge from a billet. It is shown that parameters of the cutting edge profile influence the form and the sizes (thickness and width of the chip load.The chip load thickness provided by the curved cutting edge mills exceeds that of observed when using the “smooth” cutting edge mills. A thickening degree of the chip load is changed with changing form and sizes of the cutting edge mill profile. Larger thickening is observed if the chip load is limited from below and from above by the marks of a single tooth (the first or second etc., and a length of the other teeth marks is minimum. The most achievable chip load thickness is equal to feed per revolution.Studying the references allowed us to formulate some rules to choose a cutting edge profile depending on a type of the processed material and a desirable roughness of the processed surface. It is important to note the following.When choosing a profile of the cutting edge

  9. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  10. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  11. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  12. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    ...) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME...

  13. Influence of Phenological Stages on Yield and Quality of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Under the Agroclimatic Condition of Doon Valley (Uttarakhand)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chauhan, N K; Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Lohani, H

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L...

  14. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite after milling by high energy milling (hem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idayanti Novrita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of barium ferrite that were mashed by High Energy Milling (HEM has been characterized. The starting iron oxide powder (Fe2O3 and barium carbonate (BaCO3 were prepared by powder metallurgy technique by the stages of mixing, calcining, milling, compacting, and sintering. Weight ratio of Fe2O3: BaCO3 was 88.74 wt% : 17.52 wt%. Some additives such as calcium oxide (CaO, silicon dioxide (SiO2, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were added after calcining process. Milling by HEM was varied at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes. The ball and container of HEM were made of stainless steel. Characterization micro structure by SEM showed that the milling time affect the grain size of the magnetic powder. The longer of milling time, the grain size was smaller and uniform. Characterization by using magnetic instrument Permagraph showed that the grain size will affect the magnetic properties of barium ferrite. Induction of remanence (Br, coercivity (HcJ, and product energy maximum (BHmax values increased with increasing milling time. The optimal magnetic properties were obtained at the time of milling 120 minutes with value of Hc = 1.97 kG, HcJ = 2.314 kOe, and BHmax = 0.64 MGOe.

  15. Nonperturbative Results for Yang-Mills Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Schechter, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Some non perturbative aspects of the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory are investigated assuming a specific form of the beta function, based on a recent modification by Ryttov and Sannino of the known one for supersymmetric gauge theories. The characteristic feature is a pole at a particular value of ....... Assuming the usual QCD value one finds it to be 1.67 GeV, which is in surprisingly good agreement with a quenched lattice calculation. A similar calculation is made for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory where the corresponding beta function is considered to be exact....

  16. Wollstonecraft, Mill, and Women's Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Eileen Hunt

    2016-01-01

    This book argues that Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill are the two primary architects of the modern theory of women’s rights as human rights. It only through addressing women’s rights, Botting argues, that the idea of human rights was given universal scope and application. Botting describes the development of the idea of women’s human rights beginning with the work of Wollstonecraft and Mill, and gives an account of their reception in both western and nonwestern contexts. Her goal is ...

  17. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  18. Corn-milling pretreatment with anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Craig, James C; Kurantz, M J; Singh, Vijay

    2003-02-01

    Exposure to anhydrous ammonia has been suggested as a pretreatment for corn milling. Batches of corn were exposed to ammonia under controlled conditions. The amounts of ammonia absorbed and reacted with the corn were measured. The amounts were not more than are needed as nutritional supplement for yeast fermentation to ethanol. Loosening of the hull was observed qualitatively, and subsequent shearing in a disk mill followed by steeping for 2, 4, 6, or 8 h showed that germ could be recovered at higher yield and after a shorter steeping time compared to untreated control batches. Quality of oil was not affected by treatment with ammonia.

  19. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  20. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients.

  1. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  2. Investigation on antibacterial synergism of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are well known as strong antimicrobial agents of plant origin. In spite of this, the antimicrobial synergism of essential oils isolated from different plant species is poorly investigated. The following study examines the synergism of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L against pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. First, the antibacterial effect of the oils was tested, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of both oils were determined using the microdilution method. To test whether the oils act synergistically, every possible combination of essential oil concentrations was used in a dynamic checkerboard method. The results indicated that the oils indeed acted synergistically with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.45 and 0.50. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  3. Inhibition of melanogenesis and oxidation by protocatechuic acid from Origanum vulgare (oregano).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tzung-Han; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Liang, Jing-Yao; Liang, Chia-Hua

    2010-11-29

    Antioxidant and antimelanogenesis activities of protocatechuic acid (1) from Origanum vulgare (oregano) were investigated. The antioxidative capacity of 1 was confirmed from its free-radical-scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of reactive oxygen species in H(2)O(2)-induced BNLCL2 cells. The inhibition by 1 of tyrosinase and DOPA oxidase activity and melanin production was possibly related to the down-regulation of melanocortin-1 receptor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins-2, and tyrosinase-related proteins-1 expression in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced B16 cells. After a gel containing 1 was applied to mice, the values of L* slightly increased, and a* and erythema-melanin levels of skin were reduced by comparing the values of untreated control groups, indicating 1 can reduce melanin production. These results suggest that 1 may act as an effective quencher of oxidative attackers with antimelanogenesis properties.

  4. Biochemical and physiological studies on the effects of senescence leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Kumar, Viney; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Triticum vulgare (Wheat) based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar). During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed's germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  5. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in Marrubium vulgare and Leonurus cardiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, W; Zapp, J

    1998-05-01

    Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes has been investigated in different parts of field-grown plants of MARRUBIUM VULGARE (Lamiaceae) and LEONURUS CARDIACA (Lamiaceae). Furanic labdane diterpenes were produced and accumulated only in the aerial parts. Greatest amounts were measured in leaves and flowers. Up to 4 mg furanic labdane diterpenes per g fresh weight were found. Accumulation of furanic labdane diterpenes in plantlets seemingly depends on a developmental programme. No furanic labdane diterpenes were detected in plantlets during the first four to five weeks following germination. At this time the leaves became more differentiated and the number of trichomes on leaves was obviously increasing. Young leaves and buds contained most furanic labdane diterpenes. It was proven that at least a part of the non-volatile furanic labdane diterpenes is stored in peltate glandular trichomes. NMR signals of marrubiin were investigated with correlated spectra. Some (1)H- and (13)C-NMR assignments reported in literature were revised.

  6. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    yielding cereal crops are generated. In cereals, the process of leaf senescence is of utmost relevance when discussing yield. It is during the senescence process that all nutrients are transported from the withering leaf to the developing grains. Furthermore, the timing of senescence determines...... the photosynthetically productive period of the crop plant. Improving the process of senescence by genetic means rather than by increasing the amount of fertiliser is one potential approach towards a higher sustainable productivity. In several species of plants, the NAC transcription factors have been shown to regulate...... parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  7. Influence of seed and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect in Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, A; Rangaswami, G

    1978-01-01

    The influence of seed and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect of Sorghum vulgare and Crotalaria juncea was examined. While the quantitative occurrence of certain morphological and physiological groups of bacteria on the seeds and rhizospheres of the two plant species differed, there were similarities in the occurrence of certain physiological and nutritional groups of bacteria on the seed as well as on the rhizosphere. The occurrence of some genera of fungi on the seeds and in the rhizosphere indicated the influence of both seeds and root exudations on the rhizosphere effect. Increase in root exudations of amino acids and sugars correlated with a concomitant increase in microbial activity in the rhizosphere on the 15th day of growth in both plant species but there was a delayed effect of the exuded chemicals on the rhizosphere microflora after 30 d of plant growth.

  8. Ultrasonic nebulisation extraction: extraction column coupled with liquid phase microextraction for analysis of the volatile organic compounds in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui; Yang, Jinjuan; Wang, Yeqiang; Wei, Hongmin; Zhang, Hanqi; Shi, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    As the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds are always low and their matrix is complex, it is necessary to pre-concentrate the volatile organic compounds before analysis. Ultrasonic nebulisation extraction with a self-made extraction column coupled with liquid phase microextraction is developed for the extraction of active constituents from spices. To develop an environmentally compatible extraction technique for the preparation and analysis of the volatile organic compounds from spices. The sample is placed into the nebulisation vessel of a nebulisation humidifier and a purging gas is blown through the vessel continuously. When the nebuliser is switched on, a ultrasonic fountain is formed by ultrasonic vibration and the target analytes are transferred from the sample solution to the vapour phase and then concentrated on the extraction solvent in the extraction column. After extraction for 3 min and allowed to stand upright for 5 min, the extract is analysed by GC and GC-MS. Different methods of comparison can then be carried out. Optimum conditions were found to be: 30 μL of n-tetradecane as the extraction solvent, a flow rate for the purging gas of 40 mL/min, a purging time of 3 min and a standing time was 5 min. The contents of constituents in the extract obtained by the proposed method were close to those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD). Moreover, the proposed method achieves higher enrichment efficiency. A method was developed for the extraction of volatile organic compounds from spices. The study has shown that it is a fast and environmentally sustainable technique. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Effects of Seed Pre-priming with Salicylic Acid under Salinity Stress on Germination and Growth Characteristics of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salicylic acid (SA or orthohydroxybenzoic acid play a major role in regulation of many physiological processes e.g. growth, development, ion absorption and germination of plats. In order to evaluate the effects of prepriming Fennel seed with salicylic acid in salinity stress condition, on germination and growth characteristics of Fennel, an experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications. The experimental treatments were salicylic acid with 7 levels (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 mM and salinity with 5 levels (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percentage. All salicylic acid and salinity treatments had significant effect on percentage and speed germination, length of radicle and hypocotyle, dry weight of radicle, hypocotyle and seedling and radicle / hypocotyle ratio (R/H. One mM salicylic acid had the highest percentage and speed of germination, length of radicle and hypocotyle and dry weight of radicle, hypocotyle and seedling. The highest radicle/hypocotyle ratio was obtained at 1.5 mM salicylic acid. Four mM salicylic acid didn't have significant effect on all maintained parameters. With no salinity stress (control, salicylic acid didn’t have any significant effect on all parameters, but when there was salinity stress; prepriming increased all studied characteristics significantly. Therefore, based on our results it seems that salinity resistance of Fennel seeds at germination stage will increase by treating seeds with on mM salicylic acid. Keywords: Fennel, Germination, Orthohydroxybenzoic acid, Salinity stress

  10. Distribution of Trans-Anethole and Estragole in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill of Callus Induced from Different Seedling Parts and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim Mohamed Radwan AFIFY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seeds from local cultivar of fennel were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS without plant growth regulators. Different types of explants from the growing seedling such as cotyledonal leaves, hypocotyls, epicotyls and roots were cultured on MS medium, contained different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D either alone or with kinetin. Differential responses in the essential oil constituents were observed in the induction and development of callus. The major components of essential oils includes estragole, trans-anethole, limonene and fenchone were studied under different conditions to find out the best methods which could be used to reduce the amount of estragole (not favorite for human consumption and increase the amount of trans-anethole.

  11. Evaluate of Some Germination and Emergence Characteristics of Fennel (foeniculum vulgare Mill Producted from Seeds under Application Organic and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B Amiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of manure and biofertilizers application that were applied on parent plants, on the germination and emergence indices of produced seeds of fennel, two laboratory and greenhouse experiments based on completely randomized design with four replications were conducted in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Treatments were consisted of 11 different seed types that were produced on parent plants fed by: Compost (C, Vermicompost (V, Azotobacter (A, Pseudomonas (P, A+C, C+P, C+V, P+A, P+V, V+A and Control. Results of greenhouse study revealed that most studied treatments were effective on the height of fennel. Moreover, V and C+P treatments were superior in terms of emergence percentage and aerial dry weight, respectively. Results of laboratory experiment showed that C+V treatment were superior to other treatments in terms of germination percentage, germination rate, germination index and mean germination time. Overall, the experimental findings revealed that seed producing by manure and biofertilizers utilization on parent plants is a suitable method for production of organic seeds that have optimal germination and early seedling growth indices.

  12. Antioxidant activities of phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C in two cultivars of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in responses to organic and bio-organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and bio-organic fertilizers on dry weight; yield, total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TFC, vitamin C and on their antioxidant activities of two sweet fennel cultivars Dolce and Zefa fino. Results strongly showed that there were significant differences between sweet fennel cultivars. Generally the highest values of all parameters were obtained when fennel plants were supplemented with 50% NPK + 50% organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer when compared with control treatment. The highest values of TPC, TFC and Vit. C were recorded by Zefa fino cultivar when received 50% NPK + 50% organic treatment. The antioxidant activities of both cultivars were evaluated and Dolce cultivar showed the highest DPPH·− scavenging activity expressed as IC50 compared with Zefa fino cultivar. In addition, Dolce cultivars exhibited the highest value for Fe2+-chelating activities for organic and bio-organic fertilizers followed by Zefa fino when compared to control treatment. Dolce cultivar generally showed superiority than Zefa fino in all measured parameters.

  13. The effect of domestication on seed yield, essential oil yield and antioxidant activities of fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) grown in Moroccan oasis

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha Abdellaoui; Eimad dine Tariq Bouhlali; Ayoub Kasrati; Lhoucein El Rhaffari

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify, for the first time in Morocco, the impact of culture on seed yield, growth parameters, yield and antioxidant activity of seed essential oils obtained from wild and cultivated fennel. The cultivation test was installed according to the principles of organic agriculture in a parcel at the oasis of Oukhite South East of Morocco under a completely randomized design with three replications. The agro-morphological characteristics were evaluated during two ...

  14. The effect of domestication on seed yield, essential oil yield and antioxidant activities of fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill grown in Moroccan oasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Abdellaoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to clarify, for the first time in Morocco, the impact of culture on seed yield, growth parameters, yield and antioxidant activity of seed essential oils obtained from wild and cultivated fennel. The cultivation test was installed according to the principles of organic agriculture in a parcel at the oasis of Oukhite South East of Morocco under a completely randomized design with three replications. The agro-morphological characteristics were evaluated during two successive years (2014 and 2015. The results showed that fennel produces more of seed and total dry matter under culture conditions and both are more important in second year. The best performance of seed yield and total dry matter are 20.53 qx/ha and 199.79 qx/ha respectively. Domestication has not improved the yield and the antioxidant activities of fennel seed essential oils. In fact, wild fennel presented an essential oil yield significantly high (3.67% compared to cultivated fennel (2.13%. For both applied tests DPPH and reducing power, essential oil obtained from wild plant presented the most important antioxidant power (IC50:10.62 ± 0.33 and 29.49 ± 0.52 mg/mL compared to that extracted from cultivated plant (IC50:13.08 ± 0.34 and 32.30 ± 0.02 mg/mL. However, fennel cultivation is promising. It will permit to achieve interesting seed yields and may be good alternative to safeguard this species as well as to be used as an antioxidant natural source.

  15. The effect of domestication on seed yield, essential oil yield and antioxidant activities of fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) grown in Moroccan oasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustapha Abdellaoui; Eimad dine Tariq Bouhlali; Ayoub Kasrati; Lhoucein El Rhaffari

    2017-01-01

    ... from wild and cultivated fennel. The cultivation test was installed according to the principles of organic agriculture in a parcel at the oasis of Oukhite South East of Morocco under a completely randomized design with three replications...

  16. Uranium Mines and Mills | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Uranium is used as nuclear fuel for electric power generation. U.S. mining industries can obtain uranium in two ways: mining or milling. Mining waste and mill tailings can contaminate water, soil and air if not disposed of properly.

  17. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis against three Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Dafina N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to general growing resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs nowadays, there have been many studies reported on the use of herbal essential oils as antifungal agents in recent years. In this study, essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae were examined for their in vitro antifungal activity against three Candida albicans strains (laboratory - CAL, human pulmonary - CAH, and reference ATCC10231-CAR in comparison to Nystatin (0.30 mg/ml and Fluconazole (2 mg/ml as standard antifungal agents. The antifungal activity was evaluated by comparing inhibition zone diameters obtained both by disc-and well-diffusion assays, as well as by comparing MIC and MBC values detected by microdilution assay. Diffusion test results revealed stronger antifungal effect of O. vulgare against all analyzed C. albicans strains identifying CAL strain as the most susceptible one. Inhibition zones ranged from 12.65 to 25.10 mm depending on the concentrations applied. The highest concentrations of Rosemary essential oil (5.00 mg/ml demonstrated activity against two strains: CAL and CAR ATCC 10231 in both diffusion assays applied, while no antifungal activity was recorded against CAH isolate. Microdilution assay showed that both oils demonstrated the same MIC values for all tested strains (0.11 mg/ml, except MIC value against ATCC strain (0.23 mg/ml obtained for Rosemary essential oil. The obtained results indicated that oregano and rosemary essential oils might be highly effective in the natural prevention treatment of candidiasis, although toxicity assays should be previously preformed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  19. Atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente a Malassezia pachydermatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Santin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a atividade antifúngica in vitro do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente a isolados clínicos de Malassezia pachydermatis. As folhas secas de O. vulgare foram adquiridas de distribuidor comercial com certificado de qualidade e origem e encaminhadas para extração do óleo essencial e cromatografia. Para realização do teste in vitro, foi utilizada a técnica de microdiluição em caldo (CLSI M27A3 com modificações para fitofármacos e M. pachydermatis. O óleo essencial de orégano foi testado nas concentrações de 28 a 0,87mg/mL diluído em caldo Sabouraud com 1% de tween 80. Todos os isolados foram testados em duplicata. Na análise cromatográfica do óleo essencial, foram identificados 12 compostos, sendo timol, a-terpineno e 4-terpineol os compostos majoritários. A CIM e a CFM dos 42 isolados de M. pachydermatis variaram de <0,87 a 7mg/mL, com valores de CIM50 e CIM90 de 1,18 e 3,28mg/mL, respectivamente. Com este estudo foi possível concluir que M. pachydermatis é sensível ao óleo essencial de orégano mesmo em concentrações baixas. Dessa maneira, o óleo essencial de orégano apresenta-se como promissor na bioprospecção de novos fármacos para o tratamento das otites e dermatites na clínica de pequenos animais.

  20. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at different phenological stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjaoui, Afef; Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08-83.37%), p-cymene (3.02-9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13-6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9-36 mm and 125-600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems.

  1. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Eler Amorim Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias G.E.A., de Carvalho B.O., Medeiros, P.T. deM., Sousa F.D.deR., Gomes A.V.daC., de Souza M.M.S. & de Lima C.A.R. [Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil in the diet of broilers as balancing the intestinal microbiota.] Óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare L. na dieta de frangos de corte como equilibrador da microbiota intestinal. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:108-114, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: giselleeler@gmail.com The effectiveness of the use of oregano essential oil as an zootechnical additive in broiler diets was evaluated. 300 male broiler chickens were distributed in delineation in blocks at random, five treatments and six repetitions of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of diets with different levels of oregano essential oil (300, 600 and 900 mg/kg ration, a negative control (with no antimicrobial and a positive control with the antibiotic colistin sulfate. Samples were collected from the ileum at 40 days of age with the objective of determining the count of total coliform and identifying enterobacteria. The digestibility assay was constituted of 8 adaptation days to the diet and 4 days for collecting. There was reduction (P<0.05 at the count of total coliform in chickens treated with antibiotic or oregano. There were no differences between treatments in dry matter apparent metabolization coefficients, apparent metabolizable energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen balance. The treatment with higher level of oregano resulted at a higher nitrogen apparent metabolization coefficient. The oregano essential oil may be utilized in diets of broilers as zootechnical additive balancing the intestinal microbiota.

  2. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  4. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Piper Betel Leaf Oil, Origanum vulgare Essential Oil and Fluconazole Suspension on Candida albicans − An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Makkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans. It usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches, topical fluconazole, chlorhexidine mouthwash and nystatin suspension. Piper betel leaf oil and Origanum vulgare essential oil have shown some topical antifungal activity. Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension against C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The zone of inhibition was measured by the cup–plate diffusion method using 100 μl volume of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension, which were pipetted into the wells of the inoculated Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using Vernier calliper. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the broth macro-dilution test by pouring 1 ml of the respective concentrations of the test material to the individual test tubes along with 10 μl of the diluted test organism inoculum. Finally, MIC was calculated using a reflective viewer. Results: The zone of inhibition for O. vulgare essential oil (>40 mm was more than fluconazole suspension (>35 mm. MIC of O. vulgare essential oil, piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension was 1.6%, 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusion: O. vulgare essential oil was found to be a more effective antifungal agent than piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension.

  6. The mycotoxin distribution in maize milling fractions under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, H-M; Shephard, G S; Louw, W; Rheeder, J P; Gelderblom, W C A

    2013-07-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of maize and maize-based food and feed products poses a health risk to humans and animals if not adequately controlled and managed. The current study investigates the effect of dry milling on the reduction of fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize. Five composite samples, constructed to represent different mycotoxin contamination levels were degermed yielding degermed maize and the germ. The degermed maize was milled under laboratory conditions and four major milling fractions (SPECIAL, SUPER, semolina (SEM) and milling hominy feed) collected. The whole maize, degermed maize and total hominy feed (germ+milling hominy feed) were reconstructed to ensure homogenous samples for mycotoxin analyses. For comparison, commercial dry milling fractions (whole maize, SPECIAL, SUPER and total hominy feed), collected from three South African industrial mills, were analysed for the same mycotoxins and hence a more accurate assessment of the distribution between the different milling fractions. The distribution of the mycotoxins during the experimental dry milling of the degermed maize differs, with FB mainly concentrated in the SPECIAL, DON in the SEM whereas ZEA was equally distributed between the two milling fractions. Distribution of mycotoxins between the fractions obtained during commercial dry milling generally provided similar results with the total hominy feed containing the highest and the SUPER milling fractions the lowest mycotoxin levels although variations existed. Although milling is an effective way to reduce mycotoxins in maize, kernel characteristics and resultant fungal colonisation may impact on the distribution of specific mycotoxins among the different milling fractions. Differences in industrial dry milling practices and problems encountered in sampling bulk maize remain a large problem in assessing mycotoxin contamination in milling fractions intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  7. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 Semantic Video Search Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, Th.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; van Liempt, M.; de Rooij, O.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only,

  8. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Gemert, J.C. van; Gevers, T.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M. van; Rooij, O. de; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only,

  9. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall either...

  10. Investigations on dc conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced polysulphide modified epoxy gradient composites. Milled carbon fibre reinforced composites having 3 vol. % of milled carbon fibre and poly sulphide modified epoxy resin have been developed. D.C. conductivity measurements are conducted ...

  11. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    End milling is the most important milling operation, widely used in most of the manufacturing industries due to its capability of producing complex geometric surfaces with reasonable accuracy and surface finish. However, with the inventions of CNC milling machine, the flexibility has been adopted along with versatility in end ...

  12. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  13. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  14. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen determination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings by color image analysis (RGB). Adán Mercado-Luna, Enrique Rico-García, Alfredo Lara-Herrera, Genaro Soto-Zarazúa, Rosalía Ocampo-Velázquez, Ramón Guevara-González, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Irineo Torres-Pacheco ...

  15. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaini...

  16. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  17. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlledenvironment ...

  19. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  20. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Azotobacter croococcum Beijerinck in enhancing growth and fruit production of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) was investigated in 3 greenhouse experiments and a field study. The first experiment assessed the appropriate method of inoculation while the 2nd study determined the relationship ...

  1. Improved Jet-Mill Silicon Grinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed refinement in jet-mill grinding of silicon reduces proportion of unusable, overly ground particles. Particles serve as seeds for growth of silicon from vapor. In new grinding apparatus, particle separator distinct from collision chamber. Particle collides only once before sorted for size. If proper size, extracted; if not, returned to chamber for another collision.

  2. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... 2Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling. Shaanxi 712100 ... Key words: Water stress, water status indicators, soil water potential, Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) ...... of cover crops and irrigation rates on tomato yields and quality in a.

  3. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  4. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Busatta; Altemir José Mossi; Maria Regina Alves Rodrigues; Rogério Luis Cansian; José Vladimir de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and ...

  5. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

  6. Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  8. Yang-Mills theory for non-semisimple groups

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyts, J; Nuyts, Jean; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2003-01-01

    For semisimple groups, possibly multiplied by U(1)'s, the number of Yang-Mills gauge fields is equal to the number of generators of the group. In this paper, it is shown that, for non-semisimple groups, the number of Yang-Mills fields can be larger. These additional Yang-Mills fields are not irrelevant because they appear in the gauge transformations of the original Yang-Mills fields. Such non-semisimple Yang-Mills theories may lead to physical consequences worth studying. The non-semisimple group with only two generators that do not commute is studied in detail.

  9. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrefozalayi, Somayyeh; Farokhi, Farah

    2014-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare) is an herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF) in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control, was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml) of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.). In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV) (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil). The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw) with the same route. The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw). After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (pPCOS and PCOS rats treated with high dose of AEF. Moreover, histopathological changes of kidney samples were comparable in PCOS rats with respect to treated groups with AEF. Aqueous extract of fennel seed showed the beneficial effect (especially at dose of 150 mg/kg b.w.) on renal function in PCOS rats.

  10. Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    F. Kalantari; M. Barzegar; Z. Hamidi-Esfahani

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. 200 ppm of cinnamon and 500 ppm of oregano completely inhibited A. flavus growth in culture media, while in tomato paste 300 ppm of cinnamon and 200 ppm of oregano had the same effect. Test panel evaluations revealed that samples with 100 and 200 ppm cinnamon were acceptable. The results...

  11. Physiological and Biochemical Analyses Shed Light on the Response of Sargassum vulgare to Ocean Acidification at Different Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Buia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding macroalgal responses to ocean acidification (OA are mostly limited to short-term experiments in controlled conditions, which hamper the possibility to scale up the observations to long-term effects in the natural environment. To gain a broader perspective, we utilized volcanic CO2 vents as a “natural laboratory” to study OA effects on Sargassum vulgare at different time scales. We measured photosynthetic rates, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and activities of oxidative metabolic enzymes in S. vulgare growing at a natural acidified site (pH 6.7 compared to samples from a site with current pH (pH 8.2, used as a control one. These variables were also tested in plants transplanted from the control to the acidified site and vice-versa. After short-term exposure, photosynthetic rates and energy metabolism were increased in S. vulgare together with oxidative damage. However, in natural populations under long-term conditions photosynthetic rates were similar, the activity of oxidative metabolic enzymes was maintained, and no sign of oxidative damages was observed. The differences in the response of the macroalga indicate that the natural population at the acidified site is adapted to live at the lowered pH. The results suggest that this macroalga can adopt biochemical and physiological strategies to grow in future acidified oceans.

  12. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  13. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  14. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

  15. Comparison of Analytical Methods in Chemometric Fingerprinting of Metallicolous and Non-metallicolous Populations of Echium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Sławomir; Kubrak, Tomasz; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Gagoś, Mariusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Świeboda, Ryszard; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Adverse environmental conditions usually change plant biochemical pathways resulting in accumulation or decreased content of both primary and secondary metabolites. The chemometric fingerprinting analysis proves to be a useful tool to reveal phytochemical differentiation between plants inhabiting heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Development and assessment of four analytical techniques - high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in chemometric fingerprinting of metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L. Twenty-one crude methanol extracts of shoot samples representing three populations of Echium vulgare L., two originating from highly metal polluted areas and one from an unpolluted area, were investigated using four analytical methods: HPCE, TLC, MS, and FTIR spectroscopy. Data pre-processing (denoising, background subtracting, horizontal alignment) followed by principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and phytochemical difference index (DI) calculations facilitated exploration of the differences and similarities between the populations. Clear phytochemical divergence between metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare was found. The suitability of the analytical techniques for revealing phytochemical markers and discrimination of individuals originating from different populations differed and in general increased in the order: TLC < MS = HPCE < FTIR. The chemometric methods applied were successful in discrimination between samples from polluted and unpolluted areas, showing a potential perspective for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Antibacterial Effects of Origanum vulgare Essence Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated From Selected Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant challenge to modern healthcare systems. The rapid emergence and global dissemination of A. baumannii as a major nosocomial pathogen is remarkable and it demonstrates its successful adaptation to the 21st century hospital environment. Recent studies have discussed about essential oil of Origanum vulgare against a range of bacteria, including various species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia coli. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects O. vulgare essence against multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of A. baumannii from selected hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods This oil was obtained using the hydrodistillation method and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrography (GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity against MDR isolates was achieved using disc diffusion method and macro-broth dilution assay. Results Analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of pulegone (68.59% piperitone (7.8%, piperitenone (7.8%, 1, 8-cineole (1.3%, and carvacrol (1.6% as the major components. The results showed a significant activity against MDR A. baumannii with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the ranges of 7-15 mm and 20-35 µL/mL respectively. Conclusions This investigation showed that the essence oil of O. vulgare had a potent antimicrobial activity against MDR A. baumannii. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  17. Phytochemical screening, anticancer and antioxidant activities of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, a plant of traditional usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldaş, Serkan; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ozen, Tevfik; Demirci, Mehmet Ali; Behçet, Lütfi

    2015-03-15

    A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Differences between the essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were shown. The main component of the essential oil was caryophyllene oxide, while the main volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol as determined by HS-GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Ten phenolic compounds were found in the extracts from O. vulgare and Origanum acutidens: rosmarinic acid (in highest abundance), chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin-7-glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This study provides first results on the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of O. vulgare ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture, UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture with poreformer, M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

  19. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  20. Efficacy of essential oils of aromatic plants as larvicide for the management of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Singh Rana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils derived from ten aromatic plants with special reference to Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare against early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Essential oils were extracted from plant materials through hydro distillation and efficacy was determined through bioassay method. Two of the effective oils were evaluated further for the determination of their LC 50 and LT50 values based on Probit analysis.Essential oils of one plant was analyzed through TLC and HPLC. Results: Most of the essential oils caused 100% mortality within 120 min at 250 ppm. Oil of Tagetes patula (T. patula and F. vulgare gave more than 90% mortality within 40 min. LC 50 values calculated after 60 min of treatment were (84.80 暲 7.65 and (24.69 暲 1.24 ppm for T. patula and F. vulgare respectively. At the same exposure period positive control temephos yielded (22.13暲2.39 ppm LC50 value. At 50 ppm T. patula, F. vulgare and temephos exhibited LT 50 values (113.71 暲 10.29, (11.02 暲 3.31 and (38.15 暲 5.90 mins respectively. Presence of high quantity of trans anethole in the essential oils of F. vulgare was confirmed by TLC and HPLC results. Conclusions: Present study indicates that essential oils of spices/aromatic medicinal plants particularly F. vulgare and T. patula carry huge potential as a mosquito larvicide. This potential could be exploited for the development of safer and effective botanical mosquito larvicidal tool for the management of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  1. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  2. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  3. Salmonella investigation in an Ontario feed mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, W C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C

    1978-01-01

    The frequency of Salmonella contamination of feedstuffs and finished broiler chicken feeds at an Ontario feed mill were investigated over a four-month period. Samples of feed ingredients and finished pelleted feeds were collected at various points during manufacture and cultured in trypticase soy broth prior to selective enrichment for isolation of Salmonella. Salmonella contamination was found in 4.3% of 93 finished pelleted broiler feeds examined. The contamination appeared to result primarily from the incorporation of contaminated animal protein ingredients into the feed. Meatmeal and the broiler, premix, which contained meatmeal as a filler, were most frequently contaminated followed by feather meal. Pelleting failed to eliminate the Salmonellae from the feeds. The methods used failed to detect Salmonella in the environment of the feed mill or its delivery trucks. Recommendations for control are made. PMID:369663

  4. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  5. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  6. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil Sensibilidade de bactérias deteriorantes e patogênicas de interesse em alimentos ao óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Leite de Souza; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  7. PENGARUH TEKNIK PENYAYATAN PAHAT MILLING PADA CNC MILLING 3 AXIS TERHADAP TINGKAT KEKASARAN PERMUKAAN BENDA BERKONTUR

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    Irawan Irawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam perindustrian penggunaan mesin CNC Milling sangat di andalkan untuk mendapatkan hasil yang optimum baik secara kualitas maupun kuantitas. Akan tetapi muncul permasalahan,bagaimana pengaruh perbedaan teknik penyayatan terhadap nilai kekasaran permukaan benda kerja berkontur dalam proses milling CNC. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh metode penyayatan pahat milling terhadap kekasaran permukaan benda kerja berkontur yang di hasilkan pada proses freis dengan menggunakan mesin milling CNC - 3Axis Makino S33. Peneliitan ini merancang dan membuat molding Cover stop kontak dikarenakan permukaan produk cover stop kontak memiliki permukaan yang berkontur. Molding ini terdiri dari Core dan Cavity. Benda kerja yang akan di ujicoba adalah bagian Core sebanyak 3 buah. Dalam pengerjaanya benda ujicoba diberikan perlakuan yang sama antara lain, kedalaman pemotongan, kecepatan spindle, dan jenis pahat yang di gunakan, kemudian dari ke 3 benda kerja tersebut masing- masing di tentukan 3 titik pengukuran. Dari hasil pengujian yang di peroleh kemudian dilakukan analisis tabel. Nilai kekasaran permukaan terendah (rata-rata kekasaran 0.899µ m dengan waktu permesinan tercepat (waktu proses 1 jam 08 menit pada penggunaan metode penyayatan 3D offset finishing. Penulis menyarankan agar dalam proses freis menggunakan mesin milling CNC 3Axis Makino S33 pada permukaan benda yang berkontur, untuk mendapatkan nilai kekasaran yang terendah disarankan menggunakan metode penyayatan 3D offset finishing.

  8. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

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    Francisco José Sales Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p17Este artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  9. Effect of prolonged water stress on essential oil content, compositions and gene expression patterns of mono- and sesquiterpene synthesis in two oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedloo, Mohammad Reza; Craker, Lyle E; Salami, Alireza; Nazeri, Vahideh; Sang, Hyunkyu; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-02-01

    Origanum vulgare L., recognized throughout the world as a popular medicinal and flavoring herb, contains a wide array of medicinally active components, including phenolic glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and high amounts of terpenoids. Especially the latter are often extracted by hydrodistillation resulting in the so-called essential oil that is rich in monoterpenes (e.g. carvacrol, thymol, linalyl acetate) and/or sesquiterpenes (e.g. (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, β-caryophyllene oxide). Water stresses in the arid and semiarid regions of the world severely affect growth and productivity of oregano. To determine the variation in essential oil and gene expression pathway of Iranian oregano under prolonged water stress, two native subspecies of O. vulgare (subsp. virens and subsp. gracile) were studied. The plants, grown in pots, were subjected to three water stress conditions, i.e. no stress, mild stress (60± 5% FMC) and moderate stress (40± 5% FMC). The studied subspecies exhibited significant differences in essential oil content, compositions, and patterns of gene expression under water stress conditions. The essential oil of O. vulgare subsp. gracile was rich in the phenolic monoterpene carvacrol (46.86-52.07%), whereas the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (Z)-α-bisabolene (39.17-42.64%) was the major constituent in the oil of O. vulgare subsp. virens. Both the mild and moderate water stresses significantly increased the essential oil content of O. vulgare subsp. gracile, but did not significantly change the essential oil content of O. vulgare subsp. virens nor the level of carvacrol and (Z)-α-bisabolene in the investigated subspecies. Interestingly, the amount of (E)-β-caryophyllene in O. vulgare subsp. virens was significantly increased under water stress conditions. Gene expression studies supported the above findings and demonstrated that there are two different pathways affecting the biosynthesis of the terpenoid

  10. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

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    Simões, Mauro Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo

  11. Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. on the Quality of Protein Bread

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    Sayed-Ahmad Bouchra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05 effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

  12. Genetic Diversity Assessment in Several Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars Using Microsatellite Markers

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    Mohammad Reza BLORI-MOGHADAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, genetic diversity in seven cultivars of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare populations was evaluated using 10 microsatellite markers. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh leaves and amplification reactions were done by PCR. The amplification products were separated on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gels containing 7M urea and visualized via silver staining method. High level of polymorphism was observed among populations. Polymorphic bands ranged from 100 to 300 bp. Altogether 65 alleles were observed among all genotypes, with an average of 9.2 alleles per locus for all loci. Polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.80 to 0.88 with an average of 0.84. Sahand populations showed the lowest mean of gene diversity whereas the highest mean of heterozygosity observed in Rayhan populations that can prepare a powerful resource of genetic diversity for breeding programs. The genotypes were clustered using unweight pair-group method on arithmetic average by POPGEN32 software. The dendrogram discriminated all the genotypes in several groups. The results showed that SSR markers have a high ability to reveal most of the information in a single locus and can be used for genetic analysis in molecular levels determination of genetic similarity and clustering barley cultivars.

  13. Análise farmacobotânica de folha e caule de Tanacetum vulgare (L.

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    K.K. GUERREIRO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Tanacetum vulgare L., conhecida popularmente como catinga-de-mulata, é utilizada na medicina tradicional como vermífugo, digestivo e emenagogo. Objetivou-se analisar a morfoanatomia de folhas e caules dessa espécie medicinal com vistas ao controle da qualidade. Foram utilizadas técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas são compostas, pinatissectas e anfiestomáticas. Tricomas tectores flageliformes simples e glandulares capitados são observados. A nervura central tem formato biconvexo, o pecíolo é côncavo-convexo, a ráque é plano-convexa e o caule é arredondado. Feixes vasculares colaterais, calotas de fibras perivasculares e colênquima lamelar estão presentes na folha e no caule. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos evidenciados contribuem na identificação do táxon e fornecem subsídios farmacobotânicos para o controle da qualidade de drogas vegetais e fitoterápicos.

  14. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

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    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  15. Chemotypical variation of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from 40 different locations in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohloff, Jens; Mordal, Ruth; Dragland, Steinar

    2004-03-24

    Between 2001 and 2002, plant collections from wild populations of Norwegian tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) were studied with a focus on essential oil (EO) yield and composition in order to characterize the chemotypical EO variability. Tansy collections of 40 different locations from North, Mid-, and South Norway were transplanted to the Apelsvoll Research Centre Div. Kise in 2000 and grown for 2 years before the aerial parts (leaves and flower buds) were harvested in June 2002. The EO from individual plants was isolated from dried plant material by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on a DB5 column at the Plant Biocenter. The EO yield ranged between 0.35 and 1.90% (v/w) (average: 0.81%); the most abundant thujone plants were especially rich in EO volatiles (0.95%). On the basis of GC-MS data, seven chemotypes could be identified as follows: A, alpha-thujone (two individuals); B, beta-thujone (22); C, camphor (six); D, chrysanthenyl acetate/chrysanthenol (three); E, chrysanthenone (two); F, artemisia ketone/artemisia alcohol (three); and G, 1,8-cineole (two). The thujone chemotype was dominated by beta-thujone (81%) associated with alpha-thujone, but tansy plants rich in alpha-thujone were also detected (61%). The chemotypical classification of Norwegian tansy genotypes was underscored by preliminary studies from 2001, indicating the genetic uniformity and biochemical stability of the domesticated plants.

  16. Evaluation of anti-enzyme properties of Origanum vulgare essential oil against oral Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradebon Brondani, L; Alves da Silva Neto, T; Antonio Freitag, R; Guerra Lund, R

    2018-02-02

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-enzymatic activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oil against 15 strains of Candida albicans. Candida albicans samples were isolated from the oral mucosa of patients with denture stomatitis treated in a Dentistry school on a public university. Preparation of the inoculum was performed with a suspension of C. albicans reactivated 24h earlier in 5mL of sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) adjusted to a 0.5-turbidity on the MacFarland scale (1,5×108UFC/mL). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type machine and analyzed by gas chromatography. Enzymatic assay was performed to test phospholipase anti-enzymatic properties. Chromatography analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (41.17%), thymol (21.95%), γ-terpinene (5.91%) and carvacrol (4.71%). For the anti-enzymatic test, the statistical analysis showed that there was found statistically significant interactions between the factors time and concentration (P≤0,001). Thus, essential oil of oregano at 1%, 5% and 10% presented significant reductions in the production of the phospholipase enzyme produced by Candida albicans strains. However, the longer the incubation time of the essential oil, there is a relatively moderate reduction in its anti-enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity

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    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Palladium (Pd nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  18. Genome-wide association mapping of acid soil resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

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    Gaofeng eZhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS based on linkage disequilibrium (LD have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM and a mixed linkage model (MLM, respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM, localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley.

  19. Spectroscopy, microscopy and fluorescence imaging of Origanum vulgare L. basis for nondestructive quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Johanna M; Iriel, Analia; Claudia Marchi, María; Gabriela Lagorio, María

    2013-01-01

    The organs of Origanum vulgare L. plant were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and autofluorescence imaging. The different organs were also studied spectroscopically. Fluorescence emission spectra were recorded for intact inflorescences, leaves and stems. Several fluorescence ratios (Blue/Red, Blue/Far-red, Green/Red and Green/Far-red), which varied depending on the considered organ of the plant, were derived. For leaves, a dependence of fluorescence spectra with water content was obtained as well. The intact samples were also analyzed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. These spectra were transformed to the Remission function depending on the wavenumber and two absorption bands (811 and 1740 cm(-1)), which displayed differences according to the plant organ sampled, were detected. These results were consistent with higher carvacrol content in inflorescences. The spectroscopic results were connected with the microscopic observation and with the presence of relevant nutraceutics contained in the plant. The optical indexes derived in this work may serve as potential indicators to be explored in the development of nondestructive methods for oregano quality assessment. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E.; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V.; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G.; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O.; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  1. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Essential oil diversity of Origanum vulgare L. populations from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Giuseppe De; Tarraf, Waed; Verdini, Leonardo; Brunetti, Gianluca; Ruta, Claudia

    2017-11-15

    Essential oils (EOs) belonging to 25 wild populations of Origanum vulgare L. samples, growing wild in different locations of Calabria Region (Southern Italy), were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The quantitative and qualitative data showed EO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 5.10% and 37 compounds detected, representing more than 80% of the total composition of the oils. By applying hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of the EO constituents, two main groups and three subgroups were found, reflecting the variation in the chemical composition of EOs from wild oregano populations. The first group consisted of acyclic (linalool/linalyl acetate) chemotypes with a predominant presence of linalyl acetate; the second was characterized by chemotypes rich in cymyl-compounds, mainly carvacrol, thymol and γ-terpinene. The data obtained contribute to broaden the inventory of wild oregano populations from Calabria to plan programs for the selection of chemotypes with new and specific uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  4. Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano.

  5. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil compounds, fenchone and limonene, on experimental wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, I; Gunal, Y; Ayla, S; Kolbasi, B; Sakul, A; Kilic, U; Gok, O; Koroglu, K; Ozbek, H

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the wound healing efficacy of the Foeniculum vulgare compounds, fenchone and limonene, using an excisional cutaneous wound model in rats. An excision wound was made on the back of the rat and fenchone and limonene were applied topically to the wounds once daily, separately or together, for 10 days. Tissue sections from the wounds were evaluated for histopathology. The healing potential was assessed by comparison to an untreated control group and an olive oil treated sham group. We scored wound healing based on epidermal regeneration, granulation tissue thickness and angiogenesis. After day 6, wound contraction with limonene was significantly better than for the control group. Ten days after treatment, a significant increase was observed in wound contraction and re-epithelialization in both fenchone and limonene oil treated groups compared to the sham group. Groups treated with fenchone and with fenchone + limonene scored significantly higher than the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant compared to the olive oil treated group. Our findings support the beneficial effects of fenchone and limonene for augmenting wound healing. The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of fenchone and limonene oil increased collagen synthesis and decreased the number of inflammatory cells during wound healing and may be useful for treating skin wounds.

  7. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Ali, Zuhur Jameel Qandeel; Khan, Mujeeb; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Assal, Mohamed E; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq

    2017-01-19

    The synthesis of Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV) as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  8. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of three safeners on sulfur assimilation and iron deficiency response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucca, Maria Luce; Celletti, Silvia; Astolfi, Stefania; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Panfili, Ivan; Del Buono, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Safeners are agrochemicals used in agriculture to protect crops from herbicide injuries. They act by stimulating herbicide metabolism. As graminaceous plants, to cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, activate sulfur (S) metabolism and release huge amounts of Fe-chelating compounds, or phytosiderophores (PSs), we investigated, in barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, L.) grown in Fe deficiency, the effects of three safeners on two enzymes of S assimilation, cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), and PS release. Finally, we monitored the root Fe content in plants treated with the most effective safener. Generally, all the safeners activated S metabolism and increased Cys and GSH contents. In addition, the safened plants excreted higher levels of PSs. Given that mefenpyr-diethyl (Mef) was the most effective in causing these effects, we assessed the Fe concentration in Mef-treated barley and found higher Fe levels than those in untreated plants. The three safeners, in different ways but specifically, activated S reductive metabolism and regulated Cys and GSH contents, PS release rate and Fe content (Mef-treated barley). The results of this research provide new indications of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved in the safening action. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression and characterization of a cytosolic glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Daniela; Cardi, Manuela; Landi, Simone; Cafasso, Donata; Esposito, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In plant cells, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH-EC 1.1.1.49) regulates the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), a metabolic route involved in the production of NADPH for various biosynthetic processes and stress response. In this study, we report the overexpression of a cytosolic G6PDH isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in bacteria, and the biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme (HvCy-G6PDH). A full-length cDNA coding for a cytosolic isoform of G6PDH was isolated, and the sequence was cloned into pET3d vector; the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic properties were calculated: the recombinant HvCy-G6PDH showed KMs and KINADPH comparable to those observed for the enzyme purified from barley roots; moreover, the analysis of NADPH inhibition suggested a competitive mechanism. Therefore, this enzyme could be utilised for the structural and regulatory characterization of this isoform in higher plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn K; Genc, Yusuf; Pedas, Pai; Hayes, Julie E; Toubia, John; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2014-01-01

    High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7 were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays characteristics of low-affinity Zn transport. The unique function of HvZIP7 provides new insights into the role of ZIP genes in Zn homeostasis in monocots, and offers opportunities to develop Zn biofortification strategies in cereals. © 2013 Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Brachytic 1 of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) encodes the α subunit of heterotrimeric G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ai; Yasuda, Ayumi; Yamaoka, Kosuke; Ueda, Minase; Nakayama, Akira; Takatsuto, Suguru; Honda, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Physiological and molecular biological analysis of the dwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant brachytic 1 (brh1) was conducted. The root responses of brh1 to brassinolide were weaker than those of wild type, but the responses of leaf segments of dark-grown plants were not. Responses of brh1 to gibberellin A3 were similar to or slightly stronger than those of wild type. Endogenous levels of these hormones in young seedlings were not clearly different between brh1 and wild type. Skotomorphogeneses of brh1 were similar to those of wild type. Some of these physiological characteristics of brh1 resemble those of the dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant daikoku (dwarf1; d1), whose dwarfism is caused by a mutation in the heterotrimeric G protein α (Gα) subunit. A database search indicated that the barley Gα gene is located near the locus where Brh1 has already been genetically mapped. Sequences of the Gα gene and cDNAs of five brh1 alleles contained substitutions and a deletion that lead to the production of abnormal Gα proteins. These results indicate that the phenotype of brh1, similarly to that of d1, is caused by mutations in an orthologous gene encoding Gα. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  15. Physiological and biochemical response of soil-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Cyren M; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Lee, Sang Chul; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-07-01

    A soil microcosm study was performed to examine the impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on the physiology, productivity, and macromolecular composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The plants were cultivated in soil treated with nCeO2 at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). Accumulation of Ce in leaves/grains and its effects on plant stress and nutrient loading were analyzed. The data revealed that nCeO2-H promoted plant development resulting in 331 % increase in shoot biomass compared with the control. nCeO2 treatment modified the stress levels in leaves without apparent signs of toxicity. However, plants exposed to nCeO2-H treatment did not form grains. Compared with control, nCeO2-M enhanced grain Ce accumulation by as much as 294 % which was accompanied by remarkable increases in P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Al. Likewise, nCeO2-M enhanced the methionine, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, arginine, and linolenic acid contents in the grains by up to 617, 31, 58, 141, 378, and 2.47 % respectively, compared with the rest of the treatments. The findings illustrate the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoceria in barley.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of procirsin, an active aspartic protease precursor from Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, Daniela; Faro, Rosário; Castanheira, Pedro; Parisi, Gustavo; Veríssimo, Paula; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra; Simões, Isaura; Faro, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Typical aspartic proteinases from plants of the Astereaceae family like cardosins and cyprosins are well-known milk-clotting enzymes. Their effectiveness in cheesemaking has encouraged several studies on other Astereaceae plant species for identification of new vegetable rennets. Here we report on the cloning, expression and characterization of a novel aspartic proteinase precursor from the flowers of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. The isolated cDNA encoded a protein product with 509 amino acids, termed cirsin, with the characteristic primary structure organization of plant typical aspartic proteinases. The pro form of cirsin was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to be active without autocatalytically cleaving its pro domain. This contrasts with the acid-triggered autoactivation by pro-segment removal described for several recombinant plant typical aspartic proteinases. Recombinant procirsin displayed all typical proteolytic features of aspartic proteinases as optimum acidic pH, inhibition by pepstatin, cleavage between hydrophobic amino acids and strict dependence on two catalytic Asp residues for activity. Procirsin also displayed a high specificity towards κ-casein and milk-clotting activity, suggesting it might be an effective vegetable rennet. The findings herein described provide additional evidences for the existence of different structural arrangements among plant typical aspartic proteinases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICALS ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. AND THYMUS VULGARIS ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study were antioxidant properties of oregano and thyme essential oil by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities and antibacterial activities against one Gram-positive strain (Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Escherichia coli CCM 3988 was also performed. The thyme EOs showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 in 0.75 and 0.375 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. Very strong antibacterial activity was found in thyme and oregano EOs against Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 in 0.75, 0.375, 0.188 and 0.094 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. In comparison to BHT (5.60 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.82 µg.ml-1 after 60 min and ascorbic acid (7.48 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 4.79 µg.ml-1 after 60 min, O. vulgare oil shows significantly higher DPPH activity (2.99 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.02 µl.ml-1 after 60 min. From the other side, T. vulgaris essential (9.69 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 5.84 µl.ml-1 after 60 min oil shows lower antiradical activity in comparison to BHT, and higher activity in comparison to ascorbic acid.

  19. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coccimiglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  20. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  1. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  2. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eMurillo-Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L. cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  3. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  4. Attempted - to -Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-18

    process was analyzed to determine the peak pressures and impact durations experienced by the CA powder during milling. Differential scanning...stainless steel ball and vessel. ................ 6 Fig. 6 Representative heat flow traces for milled CA samples. Curves have been offset to enhance...vessel on each swing. A Wig-L-Bug (Dentsply Rinn) ball mill was used to induce high dynamic pressures in as-received CA powder . The Wig-L-Bug is

  5. Archaeological Reconnaissance at Mill Creek, Rutherford County, North Carolina,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Analysis of pollen from Buckles Bog on the Appalachian Plateau of Maryland provides a similar sequence of floral succession. Tundra vegetation existed...University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee., 47 S . . . S S* S. . . . . . ..- . . Maxwell, J. A. and M. B. Davis 1972 Pollen Evidence of Pleistocene...Lipscomb’s Mill, and Johnston’s Mill, Durham County, NC: Data Recovery operations of three mill complexes. 1985, Continuing archaeological investigations

  6. Ultrasonics for Monitoring of Mining Mill Linings:Pilot Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Stenström, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Mining mill linings are continuously exposed to wear induced by the charge, and thus, mill operation has to be interrupted on a regular basis for inspections. Stoppages due to inspections and replacement of linings lead to large production and monetary losses; especially in case of unplanned corrective maintenance. Condition monitoring during mill operation can assist in the maintenance planning and decision process to increase the availability and the overall performance of the material proc...

  7. STABILITAS OKSIDATIF MINYAK BIJI KENARI (Canarium indicum DAN Canarium vulgare SELAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA SUHU 30 DAN 40°C [Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare Oil during Storage at 30 and 40°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartati Djarkasi1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.

  8. Field-ball milling induced anisotropy in magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudyal, Narayan [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altuncevahir, Baki [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chakka, Vamsi [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chen Kanghua [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Black, Truman D [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Liu, J Ping [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ding, Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Wang Zhonglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} particles of submicrometre sizes have been prepared by ball milling in a magnetic field. Structural and magnetic characterization reveal that these submicrometre particles milled in a magnetic field, consisting of nanosize grains, exhibit strong magnetic anisotropy compared with the particles milled without a magnetic field. Based on in situ observations of the field-ball milling in a transparent container, the mechanism of field-induced anisotropy in the nanostructured hard magnetic particles is discussed. (rapid communication)

  9. Milling Of Shaped Grooves - Profile Of Form Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Sajgalik, Michal; Stancekova, Dana; Janota, Miroslav; Pitela, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with design of milling tool for milling of shaped groove. Actual industry production requires the large amount of tools and notably the special tools used for example when shaped milling. The requirements on the quality of tools are increasingly demanding. The quality of tools is given by construction, production process, selected material and also heat treatment. Shaped milling requires special tools made for given shape. Main request on the construction of tool is making of shape of cutting edge, which can produce the required shape of workpiece.

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Thermofrictional Milling Process Using ANSYS WB Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K.T. Sherov; M.R. Sikhimbayev; A.K. Sherov; B.S. Donenbayev; A.K. Rakishev; A.B. Mazdubai; M.M. Musayev; A.M. Abeuova

    2017-01-01

    This article presents ANSYS WB-based mathematical modelling of the thermofrictional milling process, which allowed studying the dynamics of thermal and physical processes occurring during the processing...

  11. Preparation of iron sulphides by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, R.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Larsen, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of a powder mixture consisting of 50 a.% Fe and 50 a.% S during high energy ball milling has been studied by x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. After around 19 h of milling FeS2 and FeS havebeen formed. By further milling the FeS compound becomes dominating and only Fe......S with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm was observed after milling times longer than 67 h. Mossbauer spectra obtained with applied fields show that the particles are antiferromagnetic or have a strongly canted spin structure....

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of coumarins isolated from Foeniculum vulgare in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In Jun; Lee, Dong Ung; Shin, Heung Mook

    2015-06-01

    Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare) is traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases. Recently, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the fruits of F. vulgare were reported. To identify biologically active compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity, we isolated four coumarins, scopoletin, 8-methoxypsoralen, bergapten and imperatorin from the fruits of F. vulgare. This study assessed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of coumarins isolated from F. vulgare in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mice. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with the coumarins (30 µM) and then stimulated with LPS (100 ng/ml). Ears of ICR mice were treated with TPA (1 µg/ear) once a day. Ten microliters each of the four coumarins (200 μg/ml) were topically applied to the ears for 3 days. Antioxidant activities were examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging assays. All the tested coumarins showed excellent antioxidant activities in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Among the coumarins, imperatorin had the greatest anti-inflammatory activities as measured by inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines production including interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through blockade of the IκB kinase (IKK)/inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In vivo experiments showed that imperatorin reduced TPA-induced ear thickness/weight, cutaneous cytokines expression and improved histopathological features. Although four coumarins isolated from the fruits of F. vulgare provide effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, imperatorin is most potent.

  13. Nutritional Impacts of Different Whole Grain Milling Techniques: A Review of Milling Practices and Existing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.; Adams, J.; Harriman, C.; Miller, C.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2015-01-01

    The majority of whole grain flour is produced using modern milling techniques, usually with steel rollers, in which a batch of grain is separated into multiple millstreams, sifted, and recombined. In some cases constituent millstreams are purchased and combined by a supplier or end user to achieve a

  14. Nutritional impacts of different whole grain milling techniques : A review of milling practices and existing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.; Adams, J.; Harriman, C.; Miller, C.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2015-01-01

    The majority of whole grain flour is produced using modern milling techniques, usually with steel rollers, in which a batch of grain is separated into multiple millstreams, sifted, and recombined. In some cases constituent millstreams are purchased and combined by a supplier or end user to achieve a

  15. Recidivemeting Glen Mills : De uitstroomresultaten van de Glen Mills School in termen van strafrechtelijke recidive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Wartna, B.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Deze Fact sheet beschrijft de strafrechtelijke recidive van ex-pupillen van de Glen Mills School. Na een korte beschrijving van de groep wordt de recidive van de jongeren die de school in de periode 1999-2004 verlieten, in kaart gebracht. Om reliëf te geven aan de resultaten, worden de cijfers

  16. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Valvo, E; Licari, R; Adornetto, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simula...

  17. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andrés; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.

    2017-04-12

    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  18. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-02-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V

    1997-02-01

    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data.

  20. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaining...... material volume. Hereby, the roughing process is significantly sped up, reduc-ing overall machining time. We compare our method to the convex hull and re-move between 5% and 75% more material; on most models we obtain a 50% improvement. Our method ensures that no overcutting happens and that the result...

  1. Proteomic response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to salinity stress: Similarities and differences between a glycophyte and a halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Maršálová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley Hordeum marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defence-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA family, several chaperones from heat shock protein (HSP family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper (bZIP and nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H

  2. Effect of milling time on microstructure and properties of Nano-titanium polymer by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wei, Shicheng; Wang, Yujiang; Liang, Yi; Guo, Lei; Xue, Junfeng; Pan, Fusheng; Tang, Aitao; Chen, Xianhua; Xu, Binshi

    2018-03-01

    Nano-titanium (Nano-Ti) was prepared by high-energy ball milling from pure Ti power and grinding agents (Epoxy resin) at room temperature. The effect of milling time on structure and properties of Nano-Ti polymer were investigated systematically. The results show that high-energy ball milling is an effective way to produce Nano-Ti polymer. The dispersion stability and compatibility between Ti power and grinding agents are improved by prolonging the milling time at a certain degree, that is to say, the optimization milling time is 240 min. The particle size of Ti powder and the diffraction peaks intensity of Ti decrease obviously as the milling time increases due to the compression stress, shear friction and other mechanical forces are formed during ball milling. FT-IR result displays that the wavenumber of all the bands move to lower wavenumber after ball milling, and the epoxy ring is open. The system internal energy rises owing to the broken epoxy group and much more Nano-Ti is formed to promote the grafting reaction between Nano-Ti and epoxy resin. The results from TEM and XPS also prove that. And the grafting ration is maximum as the milling time is 240 min, the mass loss ratio is 17.53%.

  3. Organic fertilization on phytomass production and essential oil content and quality of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) under protected cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, R.M; Pinto, J.E.B.P; Reis, E.S; Costa, L.C.B; Alves, P.B; Niculan, E.S; Brant, R.S

    2010-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L., conhecida como orégano, é considerada planta condimentar largamente usada na culinária. No Brasil poucas são as pesquisas com esta espécie visando maximização das técnicas de cultivo. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses dos adubos orgânicos bovino e aves no crescimento de plantas, teor de clorofila, teor, rendimento e qualidade do óleo essencial de orégano cultivado sob estufa. Foram conduzidos dois ensaios, sendo um com esterco bovino e o outro com esterc...

  4. Biosynthesis of the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D and other isoprenoids in Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umlauf, Dirk; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans; Adam, Klaus Peter

    2004-09-01

    The incorporation of [1-13C]-labeled glucose into the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the regular monoterpenes camphor and beta-thujone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D, the diterpene trans-phytol and beta-sitosterol and isofucosterol has been studied in axenic cultures of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae). Quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis of the resulting labeling patterns showed that the isoprene units of the monoterpenes and the diterpene are formed via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas the isoprene building blocks of the sesquiterpene and the sterols originate from the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The productivity of Origanum vulgare L. and O. tyttanthum Gontsch., dependently from the methods of planting material producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Boyko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The result of investigation have shown that the plants obtained from green cuttings in the first year after planting were more developed by morphometric characteristics and were more exceed to parameters of productivity such as: the crop yield of top (in 1.5-2.7 times, the mass percentage of essential oil (in 1.2-3.0 times, collecting oil from the plant (in 1.8-5.5 times than the plants obtained by dividing the bush. Thus, it’s advisable to use seedlings obtained from green cuttings for laying the industrial plantations of Origanum vulgare and O. tyttanthum .

  6. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  7. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma membrane bound beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase. assumed to be involved in the resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), was partially purified from a microsomal fraction of green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plasma membranes were enriched...... was inhibited by UDP and uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP). Glucanase digestion of the in vitro product showed that it was a beta-1,3-linked polysaccharide. Two different procedures were used for further enrichment of polypeptides involved in callose synthase activity. Sucrose gradient centrifugation...

  8. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyararo M Hove

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare. The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

  9. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-03

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation.

  10. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  11. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Pazoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of problem questionnaire (DRSP-Q. The participants were divided into four equal groups: the first group received fennel, the second group had aerobic exercise, the third group received fennel along with exercise and the last group was control group without fennel and exercise. Participants filled DRSP-Q three times: the first menstrual cycle before the intervention, the first menstrual cycle after four weeks and finally the first menstrual cycle after eight weeks of intervention. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention the severity of PMS symptoms reduced significantly in experimental groups (fennel, exercise and fennel + exercise compared to control group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, there were not any significant differences in age, body mass index, age at menarche, age at dysmenorrhea onset and duration of menstruation among the four groups. Discussions: The result of this study indicated that fennels and exercise could reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, fennel extract and exercise together seem to be more effective on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with using them alone.

  12. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemnezhad Targhi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs, micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and  reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p< 0.0001. Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p< 0.0001 and MnNCEs (p< 0.05 and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells.

  13. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliativeand anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The presentstudy aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into fourgroups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bodyweight (BW/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and group 4 (positive controlwas administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups weresacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histologicalexaminations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbersof ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE, 27.2 ± 4.1for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE, 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control and 17.2 ± 3.9 for thesaline control group (group 4. The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increasedsignificantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05,however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups.The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMSanalysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound.Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number ofgrowing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect.

  14. Differentiation of morphological traits of common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L. originating from different stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kęsik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of pH and soil chemical composition on morphological traits of common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.. A two-year study was conducted based on observations, measurements and analyses of material collected from 24 stands in the following regions: Równina Włocławska (Włocławek Plain, Wyżyna Lubelska (Lublin Upland, Padół Zamojski (Zamość Depression, Działy Grabowieckie (Grabowiec Divide Płaskowyż Suchedniowski (Suchedniów Plateau, Wysoczyzna Siedlecka (Siedlce High Plain and Niecka Połaniecka (Połaniec Basin. Morphological traits of tansy shoots were determined: number of plants per clump, stem length, number of leaves per plant, total leaf length, petiole length, number of branches from the main stem, number of flower heads per corymb and flower head diameter. A soil analysis was performed determining the content of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus available for plants. The soil pH was also determined. The collected results indicate significant differentiation of the investigated samples, both in terms of morphological traits of the shoots and the chemical composition of the soils. A negative correlation was found between soil pH and number of leaves per shoot as well as number of branches per corymb. A positive correlation was noted between soil pH and total leaf length as well as between magnesium content and number of flower heads per corymb. The increased content of available phosphorus in the soil was associated with petiole shortening. A growth trend in the tansy shoot length was observed at larger amounts of available magnesium in the soil. On soils with low nutrient availability and a low pH, a reduced population density of the species in question was observed.

  15. Anti-equine arteritis virus activity of ethanolic extract and compounds from Origanum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Einhardt Blank

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The equine arteritis virus (EAV is responsible by an important respiratory and reproductive disease in equine populations and there is no specific antiviral treatment available. The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of an ethanolic crude extract of Origanum vulgare (EEO and of isolated compound caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin, luteolin, carnosol, carnosic acid, kaempferol and apigenin against EAV. The assays were performed using non-cytotoxic concentrations. The antiviral activity was monitored initially by cytopathic effect inhibition (CPE assay in RK13 cells in the presence or absence of EEO. Pre-incubated cells with EEO were also examined to show prophylactic effect. Direct viral inactivation by EEO and isolated compounds was evaluated by incubation at 37°C or 20°C. After the incubation period, the infectivity was immediately determined by virus titrations on cell cultures and expressed as 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/100 µL. There was significant virucidal activity of EEO and of the compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, carnosic acid and kaempferol. When EEO was added after infection, EEO inhibited the virus growth in infected cells, as evidenced by significant reduction of the viral titre. The results provide evidence that the EEO exhibit an inhibitory effect anti-EAV. Among the main compounds evaluated, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, carnosic acid, kaempferol and mainly quercetin, contributed to the activity of EEO. EEO may represent a good prototype for the development of a new antiviral agent, presenting promising for combating arteriviruses infections.

  16. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  17. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Changizi, Vahid; Haddad, Farhang; Homayoun, Mansour; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE) is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy) at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte) were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy) increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p<0.0001). Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p<0.0001) and MnNCEs (p<0.05) and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells. PMID:28078248

  18. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I.; Chatha, Shahzad A.S.; Khosa, Muhammad K.K.; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:27081365

  19. Drought stress and leaf herbivory affect root terpenoid concentrations and growth of Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Plant responses of both shoots and roots to combined abiotic and biotic stress have been rarely investigated. However, stresses such as drought and aboveground herbivory might lead to conflicting resource allocation patterns and pronounced shifts in shoot vs. root defenses. In the present study, the effects of water availability and leaf herbivory by caterpillars of a generalist on various shoot and root traits of the aromatic plant Tanacetum vulgare L. were investigated. This species contains terpenoids in leaves and roots, which can differ in composition among individuals, forming so-called chemotypes. To test for intraspecific variation, responses were investigated in two chemotypes, the thujone and the carvyl acetate chemotype. Furthermore, effects of differences in plant quality on the herbivores were studied. Shoot biomass significantly decreased due to drought and herbivory, whereas the root/shoot ratio increased following drought but was unaffected by herbivory. No shifts in C/N ratios were found. In contrast to our expectation, leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased only slightly due to drought, whereas root terpenoids were significantly induced by both drought and herbivory. Chemotypes showed distinct responses to drought at least in the root/shoot ratio, with a higher drought sensitivity of the carvyl acetate chemotype. The body mass of the caterpillars was unaffected by the irrigation treatment but depended on chemotype and terpenoid concentration of the plants. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative defenses strongly affect herbivore development. The present results offer new insights into the above- and belowground organ-specific responses of plants. They highlight the importance of roots in response to various environmental challenges.

  20. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  2. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  3. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to excessive boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombuloglu, Guzin; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-15

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for optimum plant growth. However, above certain threshold B is toxic and causes yield loss in agricultural lands. While a number of studies were conducted to understand B tolerance mechanism, a transcriptome-wide approach for B tolerant barley is performed here for the first time. A high-throughput RNA-Seq (cDNA) sequencing technology (Illumina) was used with barley (Hordeum vulgare), yielding 208 million clean reads. In total, 256,874 unigenes were generated and assigned to known peptide databases: Gene Ontology (GO) (99,043), Swiss-Prot (38,266), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) (26,250), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (36,860), as determined by BLASTx search. According to the digital gene expression (DGE) analyses, 16% and 17% of the transcripts were found to be differentially regulated in root and leaf tissues, respectively. Most of them were involved in cell wall, stress response, membrane, protein kinase and transporter mechanisms. Some of the genes detected as highly expressed in root tissue are phospholipases, predicted divalent heavy-metal cation transporters, formin-like proteins and calmodulin/Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, chitin-binding lectin precursor, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and serine/threonine-protein kinase AFC2 genes were indicated to be highly regulated in leaf tissue upon excess B treatment. Some pathways, such as the Ca(2+)-calmodulin system, are activated in response to B toxicity. The differential regulation of 10 transcripts was confirmed by qRT-PCR, revealing the tissue-specific responses against B toxicity and their putative function in B-tolerance mechanisms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fine mapping and chromosome walking towards the Ror1 locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Collins, Nicholas C; Ahmadinejad, Nahal; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas; Bednarek, Pawel; Benjdia, Mariam; Freialdenhoven, Andreas; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Reinhardt, Richard; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Panstruga, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    The Ror1 gene was fine-mapped to the pericentric region of barley chromosome 1HL. Recessively inherited loss-of-function alleles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene confer durable broad-spectrum disease resistance against the obligate biotrophic fungal powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Previous genetic analyses revealed two barley genes, Ror1 and Ror2, that are Required for mlo-specified resistance and basal defence. While Ror2 was cloned and shown to encode a t-SNARE protein (syntaxin), the molecular nature or Ror1 remained elusive. Ror1 was previously mapped to the centromeric region of the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Here, we narrowed the barley Ror1 interval to 0.18 cM and initiated a chromosome walk using barley yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, next-generation DNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two non-overlapping YAC contigs containing Ror1 flanking genes were identified. Despite a high degree of synteny observed between barley and the sequenced genomes of the grasses rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon and Sorghum bicolor across the wider chromosomal area, the genes in the YAC contigs showed extensive interspecific rearrangements in orientation and order. Consequently, the position of a Ror1 homolog in these species could not be precisely predicted, nor was a barley gene co-segregating with Ror1 identified. These factors have prevented the molecular identification of the Ror1 gene for the time being.

  5. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99 pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt and one isolate (92-MN-90 of the rye stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs. Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley.

  7. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  8. Children's Rights, "die Antipadagogen," and the Paternalism of John Stuart Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenbo, Sven Erik

    1989-01-01

    Examines how John Stuart Mill would have viewed present-day educational liberalists' claims that children should be included in Mill's principle of individual liberty. Concludes that educational liberalists cannot rightly claim Mill as spokesman for their views. (KO)

  9. Quantum Yang–Mills Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein–Yang–Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang–Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann–Lemaítre–Robertson–Walker (FLRW background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua compensation arising from leading-order graviton-mediated corrections to the QCD ground state.

  10. Effects of size and age on the survival and growth of pulp and paper mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolei Li; Joseph Buongiorno; Peter J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    The growth of pulp and paper mills in the US from 1970 to 2000 depended mostly on size and age. Mills grew according to Gibrat’s law, and post-1970 mills grew faster than pre-1971 mills. Mills stopped growing at approximately 22 years of age. But most mills survived beyond that, thus growth was not necessary for survival, but characteristic of the early phase of the...

  11. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling....

  12. The MediaMill TRECVID 2011 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Li, X.; Mazloom, M.; Jiang, Y.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2011 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: semantic indexing and multimedia event detection. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2010, which uses

  13. The MediaMill TRECVID 2012 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Habibian, A.; Kordumova, S.; Li, Z.; Mazloom, M.; Pintea, S.L.; Tao, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2012 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in four tasks: semantic indexing, multimedia event detection, multimedia event recounting and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing

  14. The MediaMill TRECVID 2010 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; de Rooij, O.; Huurnink, B.; Gavves, E.; Odijk, D.; de Rijke, M.; Gevers, T.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2010 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: semantic indexing, known-item search, and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill concept detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID

  15. Lupine protein enrichment by milling and electrostatic separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jun; Wit, De Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Lupine seeds are excellent source of plant protein. We here report on dry fractionation by combining milling and electrostatic separation providing an alternative to wet extraction of protein from lupine seeds. Relatively coarse milling was preferred as this provides sufficient detached protein

  16. Particle Size Distribution in Milled Sorghum Grains of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] coded V3, V6 and V8 was determined by sieve analysis. The moisture content of the grains ranged between 9.83 and 10.60%, wet weight basis. The milling was carried out on whole grains using a laboratory pin mill ...

  17. Hydraulic Workover Unit (HWU) Application in Down-hole Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGINEERS

    The major challenge with down hole milling operations using HWU is employing a suitable fluid circulating system, which is very ... Hydraulic Work over Unit in down hole milling operation in Niger Delta highlighting the steps taken to ensure good circulating .... Cover: Black, oil and abrasive resistant synthetic rubber. 6.

  18. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  19. Profitability and capacity utilization of rice milling enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated profitability of rice milling enterprises and determined their mills' capacity utilization in Ondo State of Nigeria Data collected from 85 rice millers in eight Local Government Areas of the State were analysed, using simple proportions, budgetary techniques, financial ratios and ordinary least squares ...

  20. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman

    2005-01-01

    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  1. Ball milling and annealing of Co-50 at% W Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, AS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available annealing of unmilled compacts yielded metastable phases. Upon 10 and 20 h ball milling of Co-W powder, no alloying was obtained. Although milling did not yield significant crystal changes in W and Co ground state struc- tures, its effect is evident during...

  2. 'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aims to show that Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty which, in turn, was based on his qualitative utilitarianism. The driving force behind his colonialism, as with his work in general, was his unwavering belief in the importance of human progress and development. Mill never believed ...

  3. Breaking seed dormancy in oil rose ( Rosa damascena Mill.) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and ...

  4. MILLING MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ROLLED IN THICK LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Lojechnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder rolling conditions are systematized with the purpose of their compacting and milling. The generalized  condition of solid and free-flowing bulk material deformation is proposed in the  paper. The analytical solution of a stressed state of powder being shaped mechanically that ensures milling of its particles has been obtained.

  5. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  6. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...

  7. Conserved currents and gauge invariance in Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnich, G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences; Brandt, F. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Henneaux, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences

    1994-12-31

    It is shown that in the absence of free abelian gauge fields, the conserved currents of (classical) Yang-Mills gauge models coupled to matter fields can be always redefined so as to be gauge invariant. This is a direct consequence of the general analysis of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition for Yang-Mills theory that we have provided recently. (orig.).

  8. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces...

  10. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  11. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  12. Development of a Staggered PCD End Mill for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a PCD (polycrystalline diamond end mill with a new staggered structure for the milling of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic. The magnitude and direction of cutting force is decreased and changed by side-edge re-configuration of the structure. The flute and insert pocket of the staggered PCD end mill are designed considering the tool’s stiffness and welding process. The milling process and machining defects of the staggered PCD end mill are analyzed, and the structural parameters of the staggered PCD end mill are determined. The staggered PCD end mill is fabricated by the process of wire cutting, NC (Numerical Control machining, high-frequency induction brazing, welding, grinding and passivation. Milling tests of multidirectional CFRP with the staggered PCD end mill is conducted on CNC (Computerized Numerical Control milling machine. The milling force is measured by a dynamometer. A range analysis of the numerical results of milling force is conducted after milling test, and the influence of milling parameters on milling force is analyzed. A regression model of the milling force is built and verified by experiment. The effects of fiber cutting angle on milling force are obtained through milling CFRP with different fiber orientation angles.

  13. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    , as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  14. Solid-state vitrification of crystalline griseofulvin by mechanical milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willart, Jean-François; Carpentier, Laurent; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc

    2012-04-01

    The thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural changes of crystalline griseofulvin upon high-energy ball milling at room temperature have been studied. The investigations have been performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that this compound undergoes a direct crystal-to-glass transformation upon milling, whereas no glass transition can be clearly detected upon heating because of the exceptional sub-glass transition temperature (T(g) ) recrystallization of the milled sample. This intrinsic difficulty for characterizing the glassy state has been overcome using three independent strategies: (i) comparison of the evolutions upon milling of both the crystalline powder and the quenched liquid, (ii) use of fast DSC to delay the recrystallization event, and (iii) search for dielectric β relaxations typical of glasses in the milled compound. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fluidized Bed Opposed Jet Mill System for Processing Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuzal, S. M. D.; Mohammed, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    A jet mill system was built aiming to give values for processing inorganic materials, to be used for different industry. The milling housing of the system is composed of; milling chamber, compressed air nozzles which deliver compressed air in the milling chamber to accelerate sample particles. The classifier wheel is composed of two concentric pieces welded together under argon and coupled to a AC Motor, 0 - 9000 rpm, 2 kW, with AC frequencies convertor. The performances of this jet mill system were tried on five cheap locally available materials, viz. white sand, glass, iron oxide, black carbon and alum. It is possible to get particle sizes of less than 1 μm with narrow distribution of particle sizes.

  16. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; Oliva, M de Las M

    2017-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was used for determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were pheno- and genotypically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity against P. syringae, with MIC values from 1.43 to 11.5 mg·ml -1 for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg·ml -1 for oregano. Biofilm formation, production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oil in most strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and reduction of virulence factor production after treatment with thyme and oregano oil, providing insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of diseases caused by P. syringae. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC EFFECT OF MARRUBIUM VULGARE AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA EXTRACTS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Harraz, Fathalla M.; Ghareib, Salah A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Gabr, Salah A.; Suliaman, Mansour I.; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2010-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare and Withania somnifera are used in folk medicine of several countries. Many researches showed that they are used for the treatment of variety of diseases due to their antioxidant effects. The present aim of this study was to evaluate the antihepatotoxic and antioxidant activities of the both extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Both extracts were given orally in a dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks along with CCl4 started at the 7th week of induction of hepatotoxicity. The antihepatotoxic activity was assessed by measuring aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), tissue content and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as histopathological examination. Both extracts showed a significant antihepatotoxic effect by reducing significantly the levels of AST, ALT and LDH. However, ALP levels were decreased non-significantly. Regarding the antioxidant activity, they exhibited significant effects by increasing the GPx, GR and GST activities with increased GSH tissue contents and decreased production of MDA level. Furthermore, both extracts alleviated histopathological changes in rats’ liver treated with CCl4. M. vulgare and W. somnifera protect the rats’ liver against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. This effect may be attributed, at least in part, to the antioxidant activities of these extracts. PMID:24825994

  18. Antinociceptive Effect of Aqueous Extract of Origanum vulgare L. in Male Rats: Possible Involvement of the GABAergic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarineshe Khaki, Mohammad Reza; Pahlavan, Yasamin; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Pahlavan, Bahare

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to assess the possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Origanum Vulgare (ORG) in a rat model of acute pain test. Sixty-three anaesthetized male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were cannulated into the left ventricle. Five to seven days after the recovery from surgery, ORG extract was intraventricularly injected at dose of 3 μg/rat i.c.v. Then, baclofen (10 mg/Kg, IP), CGP35348 (100 nmol/Kg, i.c.v), muscimol (1 mg/Kg IP) and bicuculline (5 mg/Kg IP) were separately injected 20 min before the injection of ORG. The experimental groups were compared with intact (control) group (n = 7). The response latency of rats to thermal stimulation was recorded using Tail-Flick test. Injection of ORG extract resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in the response latency. There was also a significant increase in the response latency after co-administration of ORG extract with baclofen when compared with control group. However, following co-administration of ORG extract/bicuculline, a significant decrease in the response latency was observed compared to control group. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viridis possesses antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner and ORG-induced antinociception might be mediated, at least in part, by both GABA receptors. PMID:24250616

  19. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  1. Correlations between genetic, morphological, and chemical diversities in a germplasm collection of the medicinal plant Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Hadian, Javad; Gholami, Mansour; Friedt, Wolfgang; Honermeier, Bernd

    2012-12-01

    In total, 42 accessions of Origanum vulgare L., mostly originating from Europe, were evaluated, to detect molecular, quantitative morphological, and chemotype polymorphisms and to discover possible correlations between them. Twelve traits related to morphological characteristics were measured. The components in the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis, and the oil contents of 18 major compounds were determined. A total of 477 molecular polymorphisms including 214 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and 263 SAMPL (selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci) were used for genotyping. Euclidean distances of morphological and chemotypic data and genetic distances (1 - Dice's similarity) of molecular markers were compared by applying Mantel tests to ascertain the congruencies between them. A relatively high correlation between chemotypic patterns and genetic markers was identified, while a lower correlation was found between the morphological and genetic matrices. Pairwise analyses of correlation among all traits showed that the stem diameter was correlated to the essential-oil yield and the carvacrol content. Cluster analysis, population inference, and principal component analysis revealed a broad genetic and chemical variation among the accessions. The knowledge of these diversities, found in this study, will allow a plant improvement of Origanum vulgare related to pharmaceutical and spice uses. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED A. BAKHETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bakheta MA, Hussein MM. 2014. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 39-44. Pot experiments were carried out during two growth seasons 2010 / 2011 under greenhouse conditions of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to investigate the response of barley plants (Hordium vulgare L grown under salinity stress (2500 or 5000 ppm to spraying with solutions of uniconazole at 150 or 200 ppm. The obtained results showed that irrigation with saline solutions caused increases in the amounts of abscisic acid (ABA, crude protein, total soluble-protein and proline contents. The results showed that spraying barley plants grown under saline solutions with uniconazole increased endogenous hormone contents of ABA, cytokinins, crude protein, total soluble protein and proline but caused decreases in the amounts of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. High protection of abscisic acid in treating plants with uniconazole and under salt stress (interaction effect increases proline, proteins and soluble protein which has been proposed to act as compatible solutes that adjust the osmotic potential in the cytoplasm. Thus, these biochemical characters can be used as a metabolic marker in relation to salinity stress.

  3. Potential of grain hardness of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as a selection trait in breeding programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Vejražka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of research on the use of barley caryopses hardness for prediction of the malting quality. Grain hardness was determined by three methods: Particle size index (PSI, hardness according to Brabender (BRA and grain milling energy (GME. The correlations among methods for determining the kernel hardness were estimated as well among selected technological traits of barley and malt and kernel hardness. Significant correlations were found among PSI values and Final attenuation of laboratory wort from malt (0.73* a Glycidic extract (0.70*. Values of kernel hardness measured by BRA significantly correlated with Final attenuation of laboratory wort from malt (–0.80* and Soluble nitrogen of malt (0.64*. Grain milling energy values were statistically significant correlated with Nitrogen content in malt (0.64*. The preliminary results confirmed the possibility to use kernel hardness for prediction of some malting quality traits. Further studies will be done on larger number of samples.

  4. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  5. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  6. Red : far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegge, W; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in

  7. Evidence for lack of acquisition of tolerance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 after exposure to subinhibitory amounts of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Nunes, Pollyana Campos; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-07-01

    Overnight exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare essential oil (OV) and carvacrol (CAR) did not result in direct and cross-bacterial protection. Cells subcultured with increasing amounts of OV or CAR survived up to the MIC of either compound, revealing few significant changes in bacterial susceptibility.

  8. Patterns of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in a highly structured Hordeum vulgare association-mapping population for the Mediterranean basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comodran, J.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Stanca, A.M.; Pecchioni, N.; Akar, T.; Al-Yassin, A.; Benbelkacem, A.; Ouabbou, H.; Bort, J.; Romagosa, I.; Hackett, C.A.; Russel, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Population structure and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated in 192 Hordeum vulgare accessions providing a comprehensive coverage of past and present barley breeding in the Mediterranean basin, using 50 nuclear microsatellite and 1,130 DArT® markers. Both clustering and

  9. Genome analysis methods: Hordeum vulgare [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hordeum vulgare ... 2n=14 5,000 Mb 2012 Sanger (Clone-based), Illumina GA IIx ... 4,990 Mb ... MIRA v3.2.0, CLC Asse...mbly Cell v3.2.2 ... 9,265 GenomeThreader, CuffLinks 26,159 IBSC; http://www.public.ia

  10. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of olive mill wastewaters from a continuous olive mill in Northeastern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carla; Lucas, Marco S; Coutinho, João; Crespí, Antonio L; do Rosário Anjos, Maria; Pais, Célia

    2008-10-01

    The microbiological and physicochemical characterization of samples from the different wastewaters generated during oil extraction in a continuous olive mill was performed. The main aim was to determine which of the physicochemical parameters were the best fitted to correctly characterize these residual waters. High correlations were obtained for COD, DOC, K, P and N contents with the sampling points, allowing the distinction of olive washing waters (OWW) from olive centrifuge waters (OCW) and olive mill wastewaters (OMW). These parameters were sufficient for a rapid and less costly chemical characterization of these waters. Phenols and oil and grease contents, together with low pH and dissolved oxygen contents, and high organic loads, were the most toxic for microbial populations. Microbial characterization showed that fungi were well adapted to these stressing environmental characteristics and the reuse of OMW after aerobic treatment with microbial species isolated from the effluent is considered.

  11. Recidivemeting Glen Mills: De uitstroomresultaten van de Glen Mills School in termen van strafrechtelijke recidive

    OpenAIRE

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Wartna, B.S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Deze Fact sheet beschrijft de strafrechtelijke recidive van ex-pupillen van de Glen Mills School. Na een korte beschrijving van de groep wordt de recidive van de jongeren die de school in de periode 1999-2004 verlieten, in kaart gebracht. Om reliëf te geven aan de resultaten, worden de cijfers vergeleken met die van de ex-pupillen uit alle justitiële jeugdbehandelinrichtingen.

  12. Influence of the charge properties on the milling tools wear during intensive milling in liquid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Števulová Nadežda

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Grinding belongs to the basic technological operations in the treatment and processing of minerals. The method of the intensive grinding in a liquid environment has become attractive for the preparation of technologically advanced materials of the high fineness. Its choice was motivated by the intensification of dispersion and by the protection of ground powder against oxidation. The result of energy and material interactions among the grinding media and grinding environment is the wear of the grinding media and contamination of the ground material. The hardness of the particles has an important influence on the rate of wear. Particles with hardness lower than that of the surface of milling tools cause much less wear than harder particles. The wear rate becomes much more sensitive to the ratio of the abrasive hardness Ha to the surface hardness Hs when Ha/Hs <¡­1.The paper deals with the influence of four minerals with various microhardness (corundum, quartz, silicon and magnesite on the steel milling tools wear during intensive milling.. Experiments were performed in a vibration mill in methanol under same conditions. The grinding time was changed in a geometric sequence from 0,125 to 4 hours. The newly created surface area providesa basic information on grinding. The specific surface area was determined by the standard Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method using the appratus Gemini 2360 (Sylab, Austria. The concentration of iron was determined by AAS (SpectrAA-30, Varian, Australia. It was confirmed that the rate of ball wear depends on the hardness of feed materials. It was found that the relation between the contamination of the ground powders by wear and the specific surface area increment is linear and the slope depends on the microhardness of the ground material.

  13. Thread milling on N/C and CNC milling machines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    A unique thread-cutting tool design has been developed which permits threading of internal or external features; right- or left-hand threads; and standard, metric, or special pitches within a given size range without changing tools. One of the major advantages of the technique is the ability to produce small threads on N/C and CNC milling manchines. This study presents results showing fabrication of quality threads as small as number 0-80 in selected materials.

  14. Steel mill products analysis using qualities methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the subject matter of steel mill product analysis using quality tools. The subject of quality control were bolts and a ball bushing. The Pareto chart and fault mode and effect analysis (FMEA were used to assess faultiness of the products. The faultiness analysis in case of the bolt enabled us to detect the following defects: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper roughness, lack of pre-machining, non-compatibility of the electroplating and faults on the surface. Analysis of the ball bushing has also revealed defects such as: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper surface roughness, lack of surface premachining as well as sharp edges and splitting of the material.

  15. Quantum Yang-Mills field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We show that the Dyson-Schwinger set of equations for the Yang-Mills theory can be exactly solved till the two-point function. This is obtained given a set of nonlinear waves solving the classical equations of motion. Translation invariance is maintained by the proper choice of the solution of the equation for the two-point function as devised by Coleman. The computation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is performed in the same way as devised by Bender, Milton and Savage providing a set of partial differential equations whose proof of existence of the solutions is standard. So, the correlation functions of the theory could be proved to exist and the two-point function manifests a mass gap.

  16. Estimatation of talc properties after milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sublania Harish, E-mail: hitu.sublania4@gmail.com [Govt.College, Nohar(Hanumangarh) Rajasthan (India); Singh, K.J. [Govt College, Suratgarh(Sriganganagar) Rajasthan (India); Somani, A.K. [Govt. Polytechnic College, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    As we know Talc is a natural mineral which is used in different areas for different purposes. The principle of this paper is analysis of structural properties of the natural talc therefore the different types of structural treatments were used. Talc powder was dry milled by vibration. Then the samples were alkalized by hydrochloric acid. To study its structural property the specific surface area and cumulative pore volume values of the starting material were 10.1 m{sup 2}/g and 0.09 cm{sup 3}/g. It was observed that the acid treatments were main reason to increase of the specific surface area. A small increment in the V{sub cp} was observed for all prepared samples. The treated samples were examined by using X-ray diffraction techniques.

  17. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Casimir scaling and Yang-Mills glueballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Deog Ki; Lee, Jong-Wan; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio; Vadacchino, Davide

    2017-12-01

    We conjecture that in Yang-Mills theories the ratio between the ground-state glueball mass squared and the string tension is proportional to the ratio of the eigenvalues of quadratic Casimir operators in the adjoint and the fundamental representations. The proportionality constant depends on the dimension of the space-time only, and is henceforth universal. We argue that this universality, which is supported by available lattice results, is a direct consequence of area-law confinement. In order to explain this universal behavior, we provide three analytical arguments, based respectively on a Bethe-Salpeter analysis, on the saturation of the scale anomaly by the lightest scalar glueball and on QCD sum rules, commenting on the underlying assumptions that they entail and on their physical implications.

  19. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    % oxygen with those under inert atmosphere revealed two distinct pathways, pyrolysis and exothermic heterogeneous oxidation. At low temperatures and sufficient oxygen availability, heterogeneous oxidation of the solid seems to be favored over pyrolysis for wood, but not for coal. Current ignition models do......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  20. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  1. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits.

  2. Detection of QTLs for seedling characteristics in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under hydroponic culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qifei; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Du, Binbin; Li, Chengdao; Sun, Dongfa

    2017-11-07

    Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions. Of them, leaf age (LAG), shoot height (SH), maximum root length (MRL), main root number (MRN) and seedling fresh weight (SFW) were investigated at the 13th, 20th, 27th, and 34th day after germination. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying these seedling characteristics using a high-density linkage map and to reveal the QTL expression pattern by comparing the QTLs among four different seedling growth stages. A total of 70 QTLs were distributed over all chromosomes except 4H, and, individually, accounted for 5.01%-77.78% of phenotypic variation. Out of the 70 detected QTLs, 23 showed a major effect on 14 seedling-related characteristics. Ten co-localized chromosomal regions on 2H (five regions), 3H (two regions) and 7H (three regions) involved 39 QTLs (55.71%), each simultaneously influenced more than one trait. Meanwhile, 9 co-localized genomic regions involving 22 QTLs for five seedling characteristics (LAG, SH, MRL, MRN and SFW) at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-old seedling were common for two or more growth stages of seedling. QTL in the vicinity of Vrs1 locus on chromosome 2H with the favorable alleles from Huadamai 6 was found to have the largest main effects on multiple seedling-related traits. Six QTL cluster regions associated with 16 seedling-related characteristics were observed on chromosome 2H, 3H and 7H. The majority of the 29 regions identified for five seedling characteristics were

  3. Acometimento oral no pênfigo vulgar Oral involvement in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O Pênfigo Vulgar (PV é uma doença vesicobolhosa caracterizada pela presença de auto-anticorpos contra moléculas de adesão intraepidérmicas. OBJETIVO: Identificar as características do PV em cada sexo, formas de apresentação, idade de acometimento, métodos de diagnóstico e tratamento utilizado. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte histórica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Pacientes com PV acompanhados no Ambulatório de Otorrinolaringologia do HC-FMUSP entre 1990 e 2001. RESULTADOS: Dos 23 pacientes, 91,3% foram mulheres e 8,7% homens (pPemphigus vulgaris (PV is a bullous disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against intra-epidermal adhesion molecules. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of PV in each gender, forms of clinical presentation, age, diagnosis methods and management. STUDY DESIGN: historical cohort. METHOD: Patients with PV treated in Otolaryngology Department from HC-FMUSP between 1990 and 2001. RESULTS: From 23 patients, 91,3% were women and 8,7% men (p <0,01, proportion of 9:1. The age of diagnosis varied between 26 and 80 years, with average of 53 ± 18,4 years. In males, PV begun 24,6 ± 5,9 years earlier than in females (p=0,026. The most frequently sign in physical examination were bullous lesions in oral mucosa. Biopsy was used in 95% of the cases, direct immunofluorescence in 17,4% and indirect 8,7%. Prednisona was the therapeutic option in 78% of the patients, while deflazacort was used in 22%. Dapsona was associated in 4 cases. We obtained control of the disease in 74% of the cases and loss of the continuation after partial improvement in more 13% of the patients. We observed larger difficulty in disease control in males (p=0,04. CONCLUSIONS: The females prevailed over males. The age of diagnosis was higher in women. The treatment of choice was prednisona. PV was more easily controlled in females.

  4. Selected secondary metabolites in Echium vulgare L. populations from nonmetalliferous and metalliferous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Sławomir; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Bednarek, Wiesław; Stanisławski, Grzegorz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of severe environmental conditions prevailing on metalliferous waste heaps and heavy metal-contaminated growth substrates on accumulation of selected secondary metabolites, antioxidant capacity, and heavy metal concentration in two metallicolous (MC, MZ) and one nonmetallicolous (NM) populations of Echium vulgare L. The shoots and the roots of the three studied populations were collected from their natural habitats. Additionally, the plants were cultivated on different growth substrates, i.e. a contaminated substrate obtained from the areas of growth of the MZ and MC populations and an uncontaminated one from the NM population site. Several compounds, i.e. allantoin, rutin, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified in the shoots. Moreover, rosmarinic acid, allantoin, and shikonin were measured in the roots. The adverse environmental conditions contributed to a ca. 10- and 4-fold increase in the concentration of allantoin in the roots and shoots, respectively, as well as a ca. 4-fold and ca. 3-fold increase in the level of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and shikonin, respectively, in comparison with the plants from the uncontaminated site. Similarly, a great impact of the contaminated substrate on the compounds was demonstrated in the soil experiment. Regardless of the populations, even ca. 20-fold higher levels of allantoin and shikonin were observed in plants grown on the MC and MZ substrates. In contrast, the chlorogenic acid concentration was lower in plants collected from the metalliferous areas and in all populations cultivated on the contaminated substrates in comparison with plants from the uncontaminated soil. Unambiguous results were obtained in the case of rutin, i.e. decreased accumulation in both metallicolous populations from the natural environment and increased accumulation in plants grown on the contaminated substrates. The high concentrations of heavy metals in the

  5. Effect of the dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) on Cu and Zn balance in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untea, Arabela; Criste, Rodica; Panaite, Tatiana; Costache, Iulian

    2011-01-01

    A 4-week study conducted on 20 weaned piglets (average initial weight 15 kg) evaluated the effects of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) used in the presence/absence of phytase on the Cu and Zn balance, while reducing/eliminating their inclusion in the diet as inorganic salts. Oregano was harvested from the wild flora. The Cu and Zn concentrations that were taken into consideration (9.85 ppm and 53.31 pmm, respectively) were the consensus values obtained in an interlaboratory study. The piglets were assigned to 4 groups (C, E1, E2, E3), housed in individual metabolic cages and fed on corn-soybean meal-based diets. The diet of the control group (C) with addition of 1% inorganic mineral premix (MP), contained: 40.92 ppm Cu, 144.96 ppm Zn. The experimental diets differed from the C diet as follows: E1--3% oregano, 0% phytase (5000 PU/g), 0% MP; E2--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0% MP; E3--3% oregano, 0% phytase, 0.5% MP, E4--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0,5% premix. For groups E1, E2, E3 and E4, 0.5% Zn of the MP were included in the diet, because the dietary oregano amount did not meet the requirements (NRC) for piglets. The mineral balance was determined during 3 periods of 5 days each. The levels of Cu and Zn were measured by FAAS in the samples (weekly samples/piglet) of ingesta, faeces and urine. It was noticed that although the dietary Cu ingested by the groups without MP was 75% (10.08 ppm) lower than C, the absorption coefficients were only 47% (28.83) lower than for group C (54.22%), while in the groups with 0.5% MP, the absorption was just 10% (48.86%) lower than for group C. For Zn, where the amount ingested by the experimental groups was 33% (97.62 ppm) lower than for group C, the absorption coefficients were just 20% (46.3%) lower than for group C (57.64%). No significant differences were noticed for Cu and Zn in terms of apparent absorption, between the groups with/without phytase. The deposits of Cu and Zn in the main organs and serum (from slaughtered

  6. Physiological and biochemical reactions of Hordeum vulgare seedlings to the action of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Khromykh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrical indexes, and spectrophotometrically measured protein and glutathione (GSH, GSSG contents and activity of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, glutathione-reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EС 2.5.1.18 were examined in Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings after 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l AgNPs treatment during 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that the action of nanoparticles has a stressful effect on the physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings. Growth of roots was inhibited and fresh weight decreased by 29% and 21% under low and high concentrations respectively. Conversely, leaf growth was intensified, and leaf length (16% and 18% and fresh weight (35% and 44% increased at low and high concentrations respectively. POD activity in roots increased by 26% and 7%, and decreased in leaves to 57% and 81% of control at low and high concentrations respectively. GSH content changed insignificantly, but GSSG content increased in roots (2 and 2.5-fold and in leaves (13% and 30% at both AgNPs concentrations. GSH/GSSG-ratio decreased in roots (1.9 and 2.6-fold and in leaves (1.1 and 1.3-fold at low and high concentrations respectively. GR activity decreased at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (7% in roots and 17% in leaves respectively and increased at 0.1 mg/l (52% in roots and 6% in leaves. GST activity increased in leaves (52% and 78% at low and high concentrations but decreased by 17% in roots under high concentration of nanosilver. Thus, the action of AgNPs on barley seedlings had a dose-dependent and organ-specific character. The various directions of changes in growth, metabolic processes and activity of antioxidant defense systems appear to be a stress response of barley seedlings to the impact of AgNPs, which underlines the necessity of detailed study of plant intracellular processes exposed to the action of nanomaterial.

  7. The effect of pre-nutrition of hydroalcoholic extractof Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficits in a rat stroke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Foroozandeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stroke is one of the most important factors of mortality and disability in the world. Free radicals are produced following ischemic stroke and they play a central role in breaking the blood-brain barrier and  causing brain edema formation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare on brain edema and neurologic deficit in a rat stroke model. Materials and Methods: In thisexperimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups.  The first  two groups (control and Sham received distilled water, while three treatment groups received oral Origanum vulgare extract for 30days (50,75and 100 mg/kgdaily, respectively.  Two hours after the last dose of Origanum vulgare extract,each main group underwent  a 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion.  Then, the assessment of blood brain edema, and neurologic deficits analysis were done . Brain edema (brain water content was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA using LSD method and neurologic deficits analysis by means of Mann-Whitney U, and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results: Origanum vulgare extract reduced brain edema in the experimental groups of 50 (82.49±0.47, 75 (80.89±0.63 and 100 mg/kg/day (80.80±0.66 compared to the control group (84.46±0.67. The neurologic deficit scores in the experimental groups of 75and 100mg/kg/day, compared with control group, but neurologic deficit scores did not affect the group receiving the dose 50 mg/kg. Conclusion:  The obtained data indicate that Origanum vulgar extract via reduction of brain edema and neurologic deficits scorescan have a protective effect on the stroke model.

  8. The implementation of HPGR mills in existing grinding circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, N.; Knecht, J.; Longhurst, D. [Krupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    High pressure grinding mills have been successfully introduced in the industry. They offer the possibilities for capacity increase of existing plants and reduction of operating costs. The plants in operation are running in different applications and modes of operation. They can be installed in a combination with SAG and ball mills or in a stand-alone mode. In combination with other grinding mills, it has to be investigated how the HPGR can be installed to reach the full efficiency. This paper describes the possibilities of implementing high pressure grinding rolls and shows by case studies the potential of savings which could be reached.

  9. RANCANG BANGUN CNC MILLING MACHINEHOME MADE UNTUK MEMBUAT PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dityo Pradana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

  10. Effect of milling time on the formation of carbon nanotube by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... In this method, graphite powders in the elemental form were firstly exposed to milling process in high-energy ball milling and then the milled powders were ... As a result of milling of the graphite, ultra-active disordered carbon structures were obtained.

  11. Jet milling from a particle perspective : predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a

  12. 75 FR 30844 - General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0454) General Mills, Inc... food additive petition (FAP 7M4770) had been filed by General Mills, Inc., One General Mills Blvd... potable water intended for use in food production. General Mills, Inc., has now withdrawn the petition...

  13. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  14. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  15. Genetic structure of Tribolium castaneum (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) populations in mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is primarily found associated with human structures such as wheat and rice mills, which are spatially isolated resource patches with apparently limited immigration that could produce genetically structured populations. We investigated genetic diversity and...

  16. WDVV equations for pure Super-Yang-Mills theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, L.K.; Martini, Ruud

    2000-01-01

    In the literature, there are two proofs that the prepotential of $N=2$ pure Super-Yang-Mills theory satisfies the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde (WDVV) equations. We show that these two methods are in fact equivalent.

  17. The Voisey's Bay mine/mill project: project description report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). The project referred to is the proposed development of a nickel-copper-cobalt mine and mill complex, including associated infrastructure, in the area of the Voisey's Bay discovery on the north coast of Labrador...

  18. The Analysis of Design Parameters of Thread Milling Cutters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Malkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the mechanical engineering industry produces a great variety of part mix having a male and female thread. In this regard a relevant task is to choose the most effective way of threading. Introduction of multi-coordinate CNC machines considerably extended the use of thread mills, instead of taps, roll burnishers, dies and thread turning tools.The article reviews manufacturer’s production programs of thread mills (Carmex, Emuge, Jel, Sandvik, Vargus to show that, presently, there is a significant diversity of thread mill designs for processing. The analysis allowed to reveal the main nomenclature and standard sizes of thread mills, including combined tools on their base, as well as to reveal classification signs and to develop classification of thread mills. Classification comprises also combined tools based on design of thread mill, which allow us to reduce the nomenclature of the tools used in threading.The paper considers working schemes of the main types of thread mills and areas of their rational application.To analyse design data of thread mills two types of tools have been selected, namely the integral trailer edge thread mills with the spiral chip flutes and drill thread mills made from hard alloy. The analysis of design data was made in the closed "system of the tool", i.e. in advance assuming that there is a connection between diameter of the tapping part of the tool and diameter of the cut thread. The parameter analysis of the chosen designs allowed us to develop the sketches of tools with the specified parameters to be calculated.The paper presents graphic dependences of the total length, length of a working part, diameter of a tail part and number of tool teeth on the diameter of the working part of the tool. Approximation of the specified parameters is carried out and mathematical dependences, which can be further used to calculate and choose the starting values of design data in designing the abovementioned constructions of

  19. Pioneering Biotechnological Works on Hordeum vulgare L. cvs Performed in Collaboration with the İstanbul University Biology Department and the TÜBİTAK Research Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    GÖZÜKIRMIZI, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) is an important cereal crop and is also an excellent model organism for biochemists, physiologists, geneticists and molecular biologists. H. vulgare cvs. have been used as a model system for almost 30 years at the Biology Department of İstanbul University, İstanbul-Turkey. The first studies on experimental mutagenesis were followed by tissue culture, gene transfers, DNA marker applications and finally DNA arrays which, progressed further after the 1990 when collabo...

  20. Super-Yang-Mills and M5-branes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harvendra

    2011-01-01

    We uplift 5-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory to a 6-dimensional gauge theory with the help of a space-like constant vector $\\eta^M$, whose norm determines the Yang-Mills coupling constant. After the localization of $\\eta^M$ the 6D gauge theory acquires Lorentzian invariance as well as scale invariance. We discuss KK states, instantons and the flux quantization. The 6D theory admits extended solutions like 1/2 BPS `strings' and monopoles.

  1. Production Recesses for Replaceable Cutting Inserts of Milling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, Lukáš; Sadílek, Marek

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the production of recesses for replaceable cutting inserts of milling tools. The recess manufacture is exemplified on a D20 shanktype milling cutter with three replaceable cutting inserts. A new production technology and its operating cycle are demonstrated. A com-parison of the old and the new technologies shows the percentage saving of change cycles and used tools, including overall evaluation of the tech-nology.

  2. Evaluation of aldose reductase inhibition and docking studies of some secondary metabolites, isolated from Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulitsa, Catherine; Zika, Chariklia; Geromichalos, George D; Demopoulos, Vassilis J; Skaltsa, Helen

    2006-03-01

    Five polar constituents of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum were investigated for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase (ALR2), the first enzyme of the polyol pathway implicated in the secondary complications of diabetes. The most active compound was found to be lithospermic acid B. Caffeic acid was inactive as it showed no inhibitory activity against the enzyme. The order of the inhibitory activity of the remaining compounds was: rosmarinic acid >12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-beta-glucopyranoside > p-menth-3-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-beta-glucopyranoside. Docking studies have been undertaken to gain insight into the binding mode of the investigated compounds at the active site of ALR2. The predicted hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions may explain the observed inhibitory activity.

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of supercritical extract and essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare growing wild in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Bagdonaite, Edita; Maxia, Andrea; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Porcedda, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results concerning the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile oil obtained from the aerial parts of Tanacetum vulgare, collected in Lithuania, by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 at 90 bar and 40 °C and by hydrodistillation (HD). GC-MS and GC-FID analysis revealed that the oils mainly consisted of 1,8-cineole, trans-thujone, cis-chrysanthenol, borneol and myrtenol. Oils obtained by HD displayed, with respect to the SFE volatile oil, a higher amount of hydrocarbon monoterpenes. The hydrodistilled oil was particularly active against dermatophyte strains and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.16-0.64 μL/mL. The oil revealed a significant inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in Candida albicans at sub-inhibitory concentrations. At the concentration of 1/16 MIC, the inhibition of filamentation was more than 80% in comparison to untreated control cells.

  4. Species reassignment of Geotrichum bryndzae, Geotrichum phurueaensis, Geotrichum silvicola and Geotrichum vulgare based on phylogenetic analyses and mating compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Coutinho, Teresa; Smith, Maudy Th; van der Walt, J P

    2012-12-01

    The present classification of Galactomyces and its anamorph, Geotrichum, is based on various studies that used morphology, ecology, biochemistry, DNA-DNA reassociation comparisons and gene sequencing. In this study, the identities of strains of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures yeast culture collection, as well as seven strains from South Africa, were examined by analyses of the nucleotide divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions of the nuclear rRNA gene (nrRNA) operon, the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene and partial actin gene sequences as well as compatibility studies. The South African strains were assigned to species in the genus Galactomyces. The phylogenetic analyses and mating studies revealed that Geotrichum silvicola and Geotrichum bryndzae are synonyms of Galactomyces candidus and that Geotrichum vulgare is a synonym of Galactomyces pseudocandidus.

  5. Possible role for abscisic acid in regulation of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism in barley leaves. [Hordeum vulgare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L.P.; Tsonev, T.D.; Vaklinova, S.G.

    1987-04-01

    The influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on carbon metabolism, rate of photorespiration, and the activity of the photorespiratory enzymes ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase and glycolate oxidase in 7-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Alfa) was investigated. Plants treated with ABA had enhanced incorporation of labeled carbon from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ into glycolic acid, glycine, and serine, while /sup 14/C incorporation into 3-phosphoglyceric acid and sugarphosphate esters was depressed. Parallel with this effect, treated plants showed a rise in activity of RuBP oxygenase and glycolic acid oxidase. The rate of photorespiration was increased twofold by ABA treatment at IO/sup -6/ molar while the CO/sub 2/-compensation point increased 46% and stomatal resistance increased more than twofold over control plants.

  6. Studies on gamma irradiated medicinal plants and spices (1): Myristica argentea, Myristica fragrans, Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R.; Sudiro, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakartc (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre); Syuib, F. (Bandung Inst. of Tech. (Indonesia). Pharmacy Dept.)

    1981-10-01

    Medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of myristica argentea, myristica fragrans, coriandrum sativum and foeniculum vulgare were stored for 0 and 6 months, with and without gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. No detectable changes were seen in infrared and UV spectra, GLC chromatograms and refraction indices of steam distilled, essential oils from the irradiated medicinal plants. The same results were also obtained from irradiated samples stored for 6 months at ambient conditions. Storage for 6 months caused significant changes in the gas liquid chromatograms and UV spectra of all samples compared to non-stored samples. The moisture content of all samples packed in polyethylene bags seems to be constant after 6 months of storage. No measurable changes were found in the amount of essential oil content caused by irradiation.

  7. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  8. HPLC-HRMS method for fast phytochelatins determination in plants. Application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardarov, Krum; Naydenov, Mladen; Djingova, Rumyana

    2015-09-01

    An optimized analytical method based on C8 core-shell reverse phase chromatographic separation and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) detection is developed for a fast analysis of unbound phytochelatins (PCs) in plants. Its application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L. is demonstrated where proper PCs liberating and preservation conditions were employed using dithiotreitol in the extraction step. A baseline separation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins from 2 to 5 (PC2-PC5) for 3 min was achieved at conventional HPLC backpressure, with detection limits from 3 ppt (for GSH) to 2.5 ppb (for PC5). It is shown, that the use of HRMS with tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) capabilities permits additional wide range screening ability for iso-phytochelatins and PC similar compounds, based on exact mass and fragment spectra in a post acquisition manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex reversal by implantations of ethanol-treated androgenic glands of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1998-09-01

    The androgenic glands (AGs) of malacostracan crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characteristics, and sex reversal is readily obtained by implantation of AGs in female crustaceans. In order to induce sex reversal, we implanted inactive AGs (dead cells) into young females of Armadillidium vulgare. Before implantation fresh AGs (living cells) were treated twice with 80% ethanol for 3 min and kept in crustacean physiological saline for 30 s. We refer to these AGs as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Stage 6 females were used as recipients of t-AG implantation. They received an implant of three t-AGs (3 t-AGs) three times, once each week. Testis formation in recipients was used as an indicator of the masculinized levels of female gonads. Female sexual characteristics were masculinized in proportion to the number of 3 t-AG implantations. Three implantations (total number of t-AGs, nine glands) induced development of testes, penes, and male copulatory organs in the recipient females. Furthermore, they could produce progeny. These results show that t-AG implantations are capable of inducing masculinization of female sexual characteristics. The procedure of three implantations with 3 t-AGs at stage 6 is enough to transform the sex from a genetic female into a functional male. If t-AGs are used to implant instead of fresh AGs, we can detect the effects induced by newly formed AGs of recipient females, not by implanted donor's AGs. The present method may be useful for examining the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation of female A. vulgare. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negero Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species.

  11. Estudio lingüístico de la fitonimia vulgar de las orquídeas en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Trabanco, Pedro Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest efforts of modern science has been the symbolic identity and the economy of concepts in the language use at the time of classifying objects. If so, on the one hand, the common names are refused to fulfill the classification objectives. But, on the other hand, the symbolic meanings and functions which are rooted to the popular speech will be thrown over. Names are keys of a sign system or of a determined cosmovision. Thus the study object of this paper is the common orchid names taking into account mainly the naming sources and motivation in order to verify and establish criteria that solve the problem of this part of the Spanish in Cuba.

    Uno de los grandes esfuerzos de la ciencia moderna ha sido la identidad simbólica y la economía de conceptos en el uso del lenguaje a la hora de clasificar los objetos. Si bien, por un lado, el desechar los nombres vulgares cumple el objetivo de clasificación, por el otro, se tiran por la borda los contenidos simbólicos y funciones que estos nombres tienen enraizados en el habla popular. Los nombres son claves de un sistema simbólico o de una cosmovisión determinada. Este trabajo tiene como objeto de estudio los nombres vulgares de las orquídeas fundamentalmente a partir de las fuentes de nominación y la motivación para verificar y establecer criterios que resuelvan la problemática de esta parcela del español en Cuba.

  12. A study on rheological characteristics of roller milled fenugreek fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-01-01

    Fenugreek seeds were fractionated by roller milling to get various fractions. The roller milled fractions and whole fenugreek flour (WFF) were evaluated for the flow behavior and time-dependent flow properties using a rotational viscometer at the temperatures of 10-60 (0)C. The samples subjected to a programmed shear rate increase linearly from 0 to 300 s(-1) in 3 min and successive decrease linearly shear rate from 300 s(-1) to 0 in 3 min. The roller milled fractions and WFF paste exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Difference in hysteresis loop area was observed among the roller milled fractions and WFF, being more noticeable at lower temperatures. Power law and Casson models were used to predict flow properties of samples. The power law model described well the flow behavior of the roller milled fractions and WFF at temperatures tested. Except flour (FL) fraction, consistency coefficient, m, increased with the temperature both in the forward and backward measurements. The roller milled fractions and WFF exhibited rheopectic behavior that increased viscosity with increasing the shear speed and the temperature. For all the sample tested, initial shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and temperature.

  13. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  14. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  15. Interface Yang-Mills, supersymmetry, and Janus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hoker, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Estes, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gutperle, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: gutperle@physics.ucla.edu

    2006-10-02

    We consider theories consisting of a planar interface with N=4 super-Yang-Mills on either side and varying gauge coupling across the interface. The interface does not carry any independent degrees of freedom, but is allowed to support local gauge invariant operators, included with independent interface couplings. In general, both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry will be broken, but for special arrangements of the interface couplings, these symmetries may be restored. We provide a systematic classification of all allowed interface supersymmetries. We find new theories preserving eight and four Poincare supersymmetries, which get extended to sixteen and eight supersymmetries in the conformal limit, respectively with SU(2)xSU(2), SO(2)xSU(2) internal symmetry. The Lagrangians for these theories are explicitly constructed. We also recover the theory with two Poincare supersymmetries and SU(3) internal symmetry proposed earlier as a candidate CFT dual to super-Janus. Since our new interface theories have only operators from the supergravity multiplet turned on, dual supergravity solutions are expected to exist. We speculate on the possible relation between the interface theory with maximal supersymmetry and the near-horizon limit of the D3-D5 system.

  16. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  17. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  18. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; hide

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  20. Tree-Ring Dating Of Old-Growth Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Logs From An Exposed Timber Crib Dam, Hope Mills, North Carolina, U.S.A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saskia L. Van De Gevel; Justin L. Hart; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Kenneth W. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    Abstract On 26 May 2003, intense rainfall from a series of thunderstorms in eastern North Carolina caused flooding that eventually destroyed the concrete dam in Hope Mills, draining Hope Mills Lake...

  1. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli , Acinetoba c ter baumanii , Pseudomona sp y Staphyloc o ccus aureus . Método . Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación simple empleando alcohol etílico como solvente, la composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases. La actividad antimicrobia na de cada uno de los extractos de plantas se realizó por los métodos difusión en pozo y difusión en disco. Resultados . Las bacterias mostraron diferentes grados de sensibilidad a los extractos, prese n tando inhibición de crecimiento S. aureus con el extra cto de O. vulgare y R. graveolens , mientras que la bacteria Pseudomona sp. , con los extracto s de A. ludoviciana, L. tridentata y O. vulgare . Discusión . La mayor concentración de timol y carvacrol se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y L. tridentata . El compuesto linalol se encontró en una proporción mayor en O. vulgare y en menor proporción en A. ludoviciana . Limoneno se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y R. graveolens . De las cuatro plantas evaluadas, el extracto de L. tridentata fue mejor , de bido a que presenta la mayor inhibición en comparación con los otros extractos; y con un efecto similar a los aceites empleados como control. La técnica de dif u sión en disco, permitió observar mejor los efectos inhibitorios de los extra c tos y los aceites s obre cada una de las bacterias empleadas en comparación con el método de difusión en pozo.

  2. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomastown Mills, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  3. Making Robots Mill Bone More Like Human Surgeons: Using Bone Density and Anatomic Information to Mill Safely and Efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Wellborn, Patrick S; Labadie, Robert F; Webster, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Surgeons and robots typically use different approaches for bone milling. Surgeons adjust their speed and tool incidence angle constantly, which enables them to efficiently mill porous bone. Surgeons also adjust milling parameters such as speed and depth of cut throughout the procedure based on proximity to sensitive structures like nerves and blood vessels. In this paper we use image-based bone density estimates and segmentations of vital anatomy to make a robot mill more like a surgeon and less like an industrial computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling machine. We produce patient-specific plans optimizing velocity and incidence angles for spherical cutting burrs. These plans are particularly useful in bones of variable density and porosity like the human temporal bone. They result in fast milling in non-critical areas, reducing overall procedure time, and lower forces near vital anatomy. We experimentally demonstrate the algorithm on temporal bone phantoms and show that it reduces mean forces near vital anatomy by 63% and peak forces by 50% in comparison to a CNC-type path, without adding time to the procedure.

  4. Effect of ball milling on the physicochemical properties of atorvastatin calcium sesquihydrate: the dissolution kinetic behaviours of milled amorphous solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Hattori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Otsuka, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to clarify the amorphization by ball milling of atorvastatin calcium sesquihydrate (AT) and to analyse the change in dissolution kinetics. The amorphous AT was prepared from crystal AT by ball milling and analysed in terms of the changes of its physicochemical properties by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Moreover, to evaluate the usefulness of the amorphous form for pharmaceutical development, intrinsic solubility of the ground product was evaluated using a dissolution kinetic method. The XRD results indicated that crystalline AT was transformed into amorphous solids by more than 30-min milling. The thermal analysis result suggested that chemical potential of the ground AT are changed significantly by milling. The IR spectra of the AT showed the band shift from the amide group at 3406 cm-1 with an intermolecular hydrogen bond to a free amide group at 3365 cm-1 by milling. The dissolution of amorphous AT follows a dissolution kinetic model involving phase transformation. The initial dissolution rate of the ground product increased with the increase in milling time to reflect the increase in the intrinsic solubility based on the amorphous state. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Tool Wear Analysis on Five-Axis Flank Milling for Curved Shape Part – Full Flute and Ground Shank End Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Azwan Sundi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study on full flute (extra-long tool and ground shank end mill wear analysis by utilizing five-axis CNC to implement flank milling strategy on curved shape part. Five-axis machining eases the user to implement variations of strategy such as flank milling. Flank milling is different from point milling. Point milling cuts materials by using the tip of the tool whereas the flank milling uses the cutting tool body to cut material. The type of cutting tool used was end mill 10 mm diameter with High Speed Steel (HSS material. One factor at a time was utilized to analyze the overall data. Feed rate and spindle speed were the two main factors that been set up equally for both full flute and ground shank end mill. At the end of this research, the qualitative analysis based on tool wear between full flute and ground shank end mill is observed. Generally, both types of cutting tools showed almost the same failure indication such as broken edge or chipped off edge, formation of pinned hole on the surface and serration formation or built-up edge (BUE on the primary flute. However, the results obtained from the enlarged images which were captured by Optical Microscope indicated that, the ground shank end mill is better than the full flute end mill.

  6. Formulaciones con combinación de ingredientes activos para el control de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda, plaga en el cultivo de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ, A.N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa colza (Brassica napus, B. campestris en siembra directa (SD representa una alternativa en los sistemas de rotación actuales. Armadillidium vulgare es una de las plagas principales de los cultivos en SD. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar cebos de acción combinada como estrategia alternativa de control de dicha especie.Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio y de campo con los siguientes tratamientos: testigo sin tratamiento químico; testigo químico (4 kg/ha de Carbaryl 8%, MataBiBos Acay; 3, 4 y 5 kg/ha de cebo de acción combinada (Carbaryl 8% + Metaldehído 4%, Dual Acay. Se evaluó el número de individuos de A. vulgare muertos, de plantas dañadas y de plantas sanas. En el laboratorio, a los 2, 3, 7 y 9 días después de la aplicación de los cebos, los tratamientos químicos se diferenciaron del testigo y no mostraron diferencias significativas entre ellos. Los tratamientos con aplicaciones de cebos presentaron un número de plantas sanas y totales mayorcon respecto al testigo. En el campo, se detectaron diferencias en el número de individuos muertos entre los tratamientos químicos y el testigo. No se observaron diferencias en la proporción de individuos muertos ni de plantas dañadas entre los tratamiento químicos, sí respecto al testigo. La presencia del molusquicida en el cebo de acción combinada no interfirió en el control de A. vulgare. Se concluye que el cebo de acción combinada representa una alternativa de control de A. vulgare eficaz, que permite la protección del cultivo de colza. AbstractOilseed rape (Brassica napus, B. campestris under No-Tillage (NT represents an alternative in the current crop rotation systems. Armadillidium vulgare is a principal pest in crops under NT. The aim of this study was to evaluate combined action baits as alternative strategy in the control of that species. Laboratory and fields traits were carried out with five treatments: control treatment without chemicals, positive

  7. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Hossein Kari; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Jaimand, Kamkar; Rohani, Neda; Varma, Ajit

    2011-02-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz; Rómulo Bañuelos Valenzuela; Olivia Delgadillo Ruíz; Mónica Silva Vega; Perla Gallegos Flores

    2017-01-01

    Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli ,...

  9. Biological effects of pollution and problems of the environment in the region of Birsesti (Town of Jiu), Romania. [Triticum vulgare; Zea mays; Brassica oleracea; Vitis vinifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, A.; Neamu, G.

    1973-01-01

    The vegetation around Birsesti showed diminished chlorophyll pigment by as much as 20% below control plants. In Triticum vulgare, Zea mays and Brassica oleracea there was a reduction in functioning stomata. The mechanical blockage by cement dust induced changes in the leaf veins. Plant productivity and dry weight were reduced. A reduction of 250% in Vitis vinifera cultivation was reduced to about 1/3 that of unaffected areas. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  10. Effect of salinity stress on chlorophyll content, proline, water soluble carbohydrate, germination, growth and dry weight of three seedling barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Movafegh, Somayeh; Razeghi, Jadid; Kiabi, Shadi

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a serious environmental constraint to crop production in many parts of the world and the development of crops with improved salt tolerance is proposed as part of solution to this problem. This research was performed out in order to study the effects of different salinity levels on germination, growth, dry weight, proline, water soluble carbohydrate and chlorophyll content of three barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars named Jonoob (INC-54), Reyhan (INC-45) & Nosrat (INC -47).The e...

  11. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Motamed, Saeed Mohammadi; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Chamanara, Mohsen; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Rashidian, Amir

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on intestinal inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2 mL of diluted acetic acid (4%) solution. Two hours after the induction of colitis, 0.2% tween 80 in normal saline, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and F. vulgare essential oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) were administered to the animals by oral gavage and continued for 5 consecutive days. Assessment of macroscopic and microscopic lesions was done. MPO activity was evaluated by biochemical method. Furthermore, TNF-α activity was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the expression level of p-NF-kB p65 protein was measured by western blot analysis. Dexamethasone and F. vulgare essential oil (200, 400 mg/kg) reduced the macroscopic and microscopic lesions compared to the acetic acid group (p acetic acid group. Furthermore, they inhibited acetic acid-induced expression of p-NF-kB p65 protein (p acetic acid-induced colitis in rats may involve the inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

  12. A biomimetic synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles derived from aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds and evaluation of their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-10-01

    A facile biomimetic approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) seeds have been reported in this article. The seeds of F. vulgare are rich in various plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) such as polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and saponins. The phytochemicals of F. vulgare seeds play dual role of reducing and stabilizing agents. The formation of gold nanoparticles was evidenced from the appearance of intense purple color at room temperature with λ max around 550 nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. The stable AuNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles were observed to be polydispersed, spherical and ranged from 10 to 30 nm with an average size of 20 ± 2 nm, as obtained from TEM images. The catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles was investigated by studying the reduction of anthropogenic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B) with sodium borohydride. Results showed the possible applications of biogenic AuNPs in environment related problems.

  13. Biorremediation of soil polluted by 75000 ppm of waste motor oil applying biostimulation and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare and Bacillus cereus or Burkholderia cepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderas-León Iván

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO pollutes soil and causing lost soil fertility. An alternative to solve this problem its bioremediation (BR by double and following biostimulation (BS with mineral solution (MS and a legume as green manure (GM then using phytoremediation (PR with growth promoting vegetal bacteria (GPVB like Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia to minimize remaining WMO. The aims of this research were: a bioremediation of polluted soil by 75000 ppm of WMO by biostimulation and then b Its phytoremediation for remaining WMO by Sorghum vulgare inoculated with B. cereus and B. cepacia. Soil polluted by high concentration WMO was biostimulated with MS, and then Phaseolus vulgaris treated by GPVB was incorporated as GM, finally to apply PR to eliminate WMO with S. vulgare with GPVB. Results indicate that soil bioremediated by biostimulation with MS, WMO decreased at 32500 ppm/30 days, and then with GM, WMO was reduced at 10100 ppm after/90 days. Finally, to apply phytoremediation using S. vulgare and GPVB at flowering, WMO was reduced from 2500 ppm to 800 ppm. For recovering soil impacted by high concentration WMO to apply both techniques double and following BS and PR are the best option than each technique separately.

  14. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourston, James E; Ignatz, Michael; Reith, Martin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Steinbrecher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different 'hardness'. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  16. Nanostructuring of Undoped ZnSb by Cryo-Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Valset, K.; Graff, J. S.; Thøgersen, A.; Gunnæs, A. E.; Luxsacumar, S.; Løvvik, O. M.; Snyder, G. J.; Finstad, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    We report the preparation of nanosized ZnSb powder by cryo-milling. The effect of cryo-milling then hot-pressing of undoped ZnSb was investigated and compared with that of room temperature ball-milling and hot-pressing under different temperature conditions. ZnSb is a semiconductor with favorable thermoelectric properties when doped. We used undoped ZnSb to study the effect of nanostructuring on lattice thermal conductivity, and with little contribution at room temperature from electronic thermal conductivity. Grain growth was observed to occur during hot-pressing, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The thermal conductivity was lower for cryo-milled samples than for room-temperature ball-milled samples. The thermal conductivity also depended on hot-pressing conditions. The thermal conductivity could be varied by a factor of two by adjusting the process conditions and could be less than a third that of single-crystal ZnSb.

  17. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Busatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Sensory analysis were conducted, and results showed that the addition of oregano essential oil to sausage may be a promising route as bacteriostatic effect was verified for oil concentrations lower than the MIC.O presente trabalho reporta resultados referentes à testes de atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare contra várias bactérias em lingüiça. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para 9 bactérias aeróbicas heterotróficas. Com base no maior valor encontrado da CIM, testou-se a atividade antimicrobiana para distintas concentrações do óleo essencial in lingüiça fresca. Amostras do sistema alimentar escolhido foram inoculadas com Escherichia coli numa determinada concentração e a evolução temporal do produto concernente ao crescimento microbiano foi monitorada avaliando-se o efeito das diferentes concentrações de óleos essencial aplicadas ao produto inoculado. Os resultados das análises microbiológica e sensorial mostraram que a adição do óleo essencial de orégano a linguiça fresca coloca-se como promissora tendo em vista os efeitos bacteriostáticos observados em baixas concentrações do óleo essencial, inferiores a CIM.

  18. Surface integrity analysis when milling ultrafine-grained steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roger Rodrigues

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the effects of milling conditions on surface integrity of ultrafine-grained steels. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were related to microhardness and microstructure of the workpiece beneath machined surface. Low-carbon alloyed steel with 10.8 µm (as-received and 1.7 µm (ultrafine grain sizes were end milled using the down-milling and dry condition in a CNC machining center. The results show ultrafine-grained workpiece preserves its surface integrity against cutting parameters more than the as-received material. Cutting speed increases the microhardness while depth of cut deepens the hardened layer of the as-received material. Also, deformations of microstructure following feed rate direction were observed in workpiece subsurface.

  19. ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN THE SUGAR MILL “14 OF JULIO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto González Santana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to propose the implementation of a management for efficient use of the energy resources with smaller emission of gases to the atmosphere in the Sugar Mill "14 de Julio". The bibliographic search, the energy characterization and the ISO Norms helped to define the basic indicators of the process and the consumption rates: (kwh / t milled cane and (t bagasse / t milled cane. The energy performance of the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 was compared; as a reference of better level of energy efficiency it was taken the year 2015 and it was set the goal of reducing in 8% the consumption of bagasse and electrical power in relation to that year. In the 2016 harvest, the procedure proposed was validated; and in less than a year, the investment grant for the implementation was recovered and a reduction in the emission of the polluting gases: CO2 and SOx was achieved.

  20. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.