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Sample records for vsor cl currents

  1. Activation of H2O2-induced VSOR Cl- currents in HTC cells require phospholipase Cgamma1 phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe; Olivero, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channels participate in several physiological processes such as regulatory volume decrease, cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis. Recent evidence points to a significant role of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in VSOR Cl(-) channel act...

  2. Methadone but not morphine inhibits lubiprostone-stimulated Cl- currents in T84 intestinal cells and recombinant human ClC-2, but not CFTR Cl- currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppoletti, John; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Tewari, Kirti; Malinowska, Danuta H

    2013-05-01

    In clinical trials, methadone, but not morphine, appeared to prevent beneficial effects of lubiprostone, a ClC-2 Cl(-) channel activator, on opioid-induced constipation. Effects of methadone and morphine on lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents were measured by short circuit current (Isc) across T84 cells. Whole cell patch clamp of human ClC-2 (hClC-2) stably expressed in HEK293 cells and in a high expression cell line (HEK293EBNA) as well as human CFTR (hCFTR) stably expressed in HEK293 cells was used to study methadone and morphine effects on recombinant hClC-2 and hCFTR Cl(-) currents. Methadone but not morphine inhibited lubiprostone-stimulated Isc in T84 cells with half-maximal inhibition at 100 nM. Naloxone did not affect lubiprostone stimulation or methadone inhibition of Isc. Lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hClC-2/HEK293 cells, but not forskolin/IBMX-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hCFTR/HEK293 cells, were inhibited by methadone, but not morphine. HEK293EBNA cells expressing hClC-2 showed time-dependent, voltage-activated, CdCl2-inhibited Cl(-) currents in the absence (control) and the presence of lubiprostone. Methadone, but not morphine, inhibited control and lubiprostone-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents with half-maximal inhibition at 100 and 200-230 nM, respectively. Forskolin/IBMX-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents were also inhibited by methadone. Myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor (a specific PKA inhibitor) inhibited forskolin/IBMX- but not lubiprostone-stimulated hClC-2 Cl(-) currents. Methadone caused greater inhibition of lubiprostone-stimulated currents added before patching (66.1 %) compared with after patching (28.7 %). Methadone caused inhibition of lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in T84 cells and control; lubiprostone- and forskolin/IBMX-stimulated recombinant hClC-2 Cl(-) currents may be the basis for reduced efficacy of lubiprostone in methadone-treated patients.

  3. Novel Cl- currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone and acetylcholine in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Voltage-clamp techniques were used to study the membrane currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed oocytes of Xenopus laevis (follicles). Both agonists caused complex responses that were more evident when the follicles were in hypotonic Ringer solution (HR; 190.4 mosM). In this medium, currents activated by FSH regularly showed three phases whereas currents activated by ACh displayed three to six phases. At a holding potential of -60 mV, FSH, and ACh responses involved combinations of inward and outward currents. Both FSH and ACh responses included a slow smooth inward component that was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, mainly to Cl- (S(in)). This current was strongly dependent on the osmolarity of the external solution: an increase in osmolarity of the HR solution of 18-20 mosM caused a 50% decrease in S(in). In contrast, a fast and transient Cl- current (F(in)) specifically elicited by ACh was not dependent on osmolarity. Both, F(in) and S(in) currents required the presence of follicular cells, since defolliculation using three different methods abolished all the response to FSH and at least four components of the ACh responses. The membrane channels carrying F(in) and oscillatory Cl- currents elicited by stimulation of ACh or serum receptors, were much more permeable to I- and Br- than Cl-, whereas S(in) channels were equally permeable to these anions. Unlike the oscillatory Cl- currents generated in the oocyte itself, S(in) and F(in) currents in follicle-enclosed oocytes were not abolished by chelation of intracellular Ca2+, either with EGTA or BAPTA, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ does not play a critical role in the activation of these currents. Our experiments show that S(in) and F(in) currents are quite distinct from the previously characterized oscillatory Cl- responses of oocytes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that the FSH and ACh receptors, the Cl- channels

  4. A Newly Cloned ClC-3 Isoform, ClC-3d, as well as ClC-3a Mediates Cd2+-Sensitive Outwardly Rectifying Anion Currents

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    Toshiaki Okada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: ClC-3, a member of the ClC family, is predicted to have six isoforms, ClC-3a to -3f, with distinct N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences. There have been conflicting reports on the properties of ClC-3a (also known as the N-terminal short form of ClC-3 and ClC-3b (the N-terminal long form of ClC-3 as plasmalemmal Cl- channels. Meanwhile, little is known about other isoforms. The amino acid sequence of ClC-3d (a C-terminal variant of the short form listed in the NCBI database was derived from the genomic sequence, but there has been no experimental evidence for the mRNA. Methods: PCR-cloning was made to obtain the full coding region of ClC-3d from mouse liver. Its molecular expression on the plasma membrane was microscopically examined in HEK293T cells transfected with GFP-tagged ClC-3d. Its functional plasmalemmal expression and the properties of currents were studies by whole-cell recordings in the cells transfected with ClC-3d. Results: The cloned ClC-3d was found to be the only isoform which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence identical to ClC-3a. When introduced into HEK293T cells, a minor fraction of exogenous ClC-3d proteins was detected at the plasma membrane, and activation of anion currents was observed at neutral pH under normotonic conditions. The properties of ClC-3d currents were found to be shared by ClC-3a-mediated currents. Also, both ClC-3d and -3a currents were found to be sensitive to Cd2+. ClC-3d overexpression never affected the endogenous activity of acid- or swelling-activated anion channels. Conclusion: We thus conclude that plasmalemmal ClC-3d, like ClC-3a, mediates Cd2+-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion currents and that ClC-3d is distinct from the molecular entities of acid- and volume-sensitive anion channels.

  5. The principal conductance in Giardia lamblia trophozoites possesses functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G; Rodríguez-Elías, Julio C; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario A; Sánchez-Chapula, José A; Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a flagellated unicellular protozoan with pronounced medical and biological relevance. However, the basic physiology of Giardia trophozoites has been sparsely studied, especially the electrical and ionic properties of their cellular membrane which are virtually unknown. In this study, we were able to record and characterize the macroscopic ionic currents of Giardia trophozoite membrane by electrophysiological methods of the patch clamp technique. Giardia trophozoites showed a high current density (∼600 pA/pF at -140 mV) that was activated upon hyperpolarization. This current was carried by a chloride-selective channel (I Cl-G) and it was the most important determinant of the membrane potential in Giardia trophozoites. Moreover, this conductance was able to carry other halide anions and the sequence of permeability was Br(-) > Cl(-) ≈ I(-) ≫ F(-). Besides the voltage-dependent inward-rectifying nature of I Cl-G, its activation and deactivation kinetics were comparable to those observed in ClC-2 channels. Extracellular pH modified the voltage-dependent properties of I Cl-G, shifting the activation curve from a V 1/2 = -79 ± 1 mV (pH 7.4) to -93 ± 2 mV (pH 8.4) and -112 ± 2 mV (pH 5.4). Furthermore, the maximal amplitude of I Cl-G measured at -100 mV showed dependence to external pH in a bell-shaped fashion reported only for ClC-2 channels. Therefore, our results suggest that I Cl-G possesses several functional properties similar to the mammalian ClC-2 channels.

  6. Hypotonic shock modulates Na(+ current via a Cl(- and Ca(2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism in alveolar epithelial cells.

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    André Dagenais

    Full Text Available Alveolar epithelial cells are involved in Na(+ absorption via the epithelial Na(+ channel (ENaC, an important process for maintaining an appropriate volume of liquid lining the respiratory epithelium and for lung oedema clearance. Here, we investigated how a 20% hypotonic shock modulates the ionic current in these cells. Polarized alveolar epithelial cells isolated from rat lungs were cultured on permeant filters and their electrophysiological properties recorded. A 20% bilateral hypotonic shock induced an immediate, but transient 52% rise in total transepithelial current and a 67% increase in the amiloride-sensitive current mediated by ENaC. Amiloride pre-treatment decreased the current rise after hypotonic shock, showing that ENaC current is involved in this response. Since Cl(- transport is modulated by hypotonic shock, its contribution to the basal and hypotonic-induced transepithelial current was also assessed. Apical NPPB, a broad Cl(- channel inhibitor and basolateral DIOA a potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC inhibitor reduced the total and ENaC currents, showing that transcellular Cl(- transport plays a major role in that process. During hypotonic shock, a basolateral Cl(- influx, partly inhibited by NPPB is essential for the hypotonic-induced current rise. Hypotonic shock promoted apical ATP secretion and increased intracellular Ca(2+. While apyrase, an ATP scavenger, did not inhibit the hypotonic shock current response, W7 a calmodulin antagonist completely prevented the hypotonic current rise. These results indicate that a basolateral Cl(- influx as well as Ca(2+/calmodulin, but not ATP, are involved in the acute transepithelial current rise elicited by hypotonic shock.

  7. Determination of Exchange Current Density of U{sup 3+}/U Couple in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Inkyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Serrano, Brenda E.; Li, Selly X.; Hermann, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn [University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, 1776 Science Center Dr. Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    During the spent metallic fuel electrorefining process, uranium is electrochemically dissolved from the anode basket to produce U{sup 3+} ion, which are then selectively reduced at the solid cathode. These anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed to be simple oxidation and reduction reactions of the U{sup 3+}/U couple. Despite numerous studies in this area, the basic electrochemical properties of this redox couple such as the exchange current density and charge transfer coefficient have not been thoroughly investigated, thus providing a motivation for this study. In the reported experiment, the exchange current density of the U{sup 3+}/U couple was measured in LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture at 500 deg. C by applying a linear polarization resistance technique. The UCl{sub 3} concentration was 1.54 x 10{sup -4} mol/cm{sup 3} and 0.51 wt% of Cd was present in the salt. This is due to the reaction of U metal with CdCl{sub 2} used to generate UCl{sub 3} in the salt. Four different metal wires - tungsten, carbon steel, stainless steel, and zirconium - were employed as the working electrode. Since the U{sup 3+}/U couple was assumed to be a one step reaction, obtained exchange current density values were anticipated to be almost identical. However, the results indicated that they were 584, 398, 204, and 202 A/m{sup 2} for tungsten, carbon steel, stainless steel, and zirconium, respectively. Though it is still not clear why these values were different, it may be due to the differences in the interaction between electrode materials and uranium metal. To evaluate the charge transfer coefficient of the U{sup 3+}/U couple, Tafel measurements were also carried out for each electrode material, but there were difficulties encountered with calculating the exact values. By applying the exchange current densities to Tafel results, however, the charge transfer coefficients of this couple for each electrode material could be calculated and were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 0.5. In

  8. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections.

  9. Chiral Symmetry Breaking During Growing Process of NaClO3 Crystal under Direct-Current Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wan-Chun; CHEN Xiao-Long

    2007-01-01

    @@ We investigate the influence of dc electric field on chiral symmetry breaking during the growing process of NaClO3 crystal. Nucleation and growth of NaClO3 are completed from an aqueous solution by a fast cooling temperature technology. A pair of polarization microscopes are used to identify a distribution of chiral crystals. Experimental results indicate that the dc electric field has an effect on distribution of chirality, but the direction of the dc electric field is not sensitive to the chiral autocatalysis and selectivity, i.e. the nature convection driving by the gravity does not play an important role on a thin layer of NaClO3 solution. The experimental phenomena may be elucidated by the ECSN mechanism.

  10. Intracellular accumulation of mercury enhances P450 CYP1A1 expression and Cl- currents in cultured shark rectal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qingen; Yang, Yinke; Ratner, Martha; Zeind, John; Jiang, Canwen; Forrest, John N; Xiao, Yong-Fu

    2002-04-21

    The effects of acute and subchronic exposure to mercury on the Cl- current (ICl) were investigated in cultured shark rectal gland (SRG) cells. The effects of intracellular accumulation of mercury on cytochrome P450 (P450) were also assessed. Bath perfusion of a cocktail solution containing forskolin, 1-isobutyl-3-methylxanthine, and 8-bromoadenosine monophosphate enhanced ICl. Addition of 10 microM HgCl2 significantly inhibited the cAMP-activated ICl (p mercury on ICl. In contrast, incubation of SRG cells with 10 microM HgCl2 for 48 hrs markedly increased ICl (p mercury-incubated increase in ICl. The P450-mediated metabolite of arachidonic acid, 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET), significantly increased ICl. However, application of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-DHT) did not alter ICl. Mercury incubation for 48 hrs did not alter the protein expression of Cl- channels, but caused an induction of CYP1A1 in cultured SRG cells. In addition, co-incubation of SRG cells with mercury and the P450 inhibitor clotrimazole prevented the mercury-incubated increase in ICl. Our results demonstrate that acute and subchronic application of mercury has opposing effects on ICl in cultured SRG cells. The acute effect of mercury on ICl may result from mercury blockade of Cl- channels. The subchronic effect of mercury on ICl may be due to an induction of P450 CYP1A1 and its mediated metabolites, but not due to an over-expression of Cl- channels.

  11. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bechir, M.; Karoui, K.; Tabellout, M.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A.

    2014-05-01

    The [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 single crystal has been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrical impedance spectroscopy. [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic system with P21/C space group. Three phase transitions at T1 = 226 K, T2 = 264 K, and T3 = 297 K have been evidenced by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10-1-107 Hz frequency range and 203-313 K temperature intervals. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law (developed). The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 compound is studied by two processes which can be attributed to a hopping transport mechanism: the correlated barrier hopping model in phases I, II, and III, the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phase IV. The conduction mechanism is interpreted with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are found.

  12. Model Channel Ion Currents in NaCl - SPC/E Solution with Applied-Field Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Crozier, P S; Rowley, R L; Busath, D D; Crozier, Paul S.; Henderson, Douglas; Rowley, Richard L.; Busath, David D.

    2001-01-01

    Using periodic boundary conditions and a constant applied field, we have simulated current flow through an 8.125 Angstrom internal diameter, rigid, atomistic channel with polar walls in a rigid membrane using explicit ions and SPC/E water. Channel and bath currents were computed from ten 10-ns trajectories for each of 10 different conditions of concentration and applied voltage. An electric field was applied uniformly throughout the system to all mobile atoms. On average, the resultant net electric field falls primarily across the membrane channel, as expected for two conductive baths separated by a membrane capacitance. The channel is rarely occupied by more than one ion. Current-voltage relations are concentration-dependent and superlinear at high concentrations.

  13. Sarcolemmal Ca(2+)-entry through L-type Ca(2+) channels controls the profile of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in canine ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Balázs; Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Gönczi, Mónika; Dienes, Beatrix; Kistamás, Kornél; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Baczkó, István; Varró, András; Seprényi, György; Csernoch, László; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (ICl(Ca)) mediated by TMEM16A and/or Bestrophin-3 may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias. The true profile of ICl(Ca) during an actual ventricular action potential (AP), however, is poorly understood. We aimed to study the profile of ICl(Ca) systematically under physiological conditions (normal Ca(2+) cycling and AP voltage-clamp) as well as in conditions designed to change [Ca(2+)]i. The expression of TMEM16A and/or Bestrophin-3 in canine and human left ventricular myocytes was examined. The possible spatial distribution of these proteins and their co-localization with Cav1.2 was also studied. The profile of ICl(Ca), identified as a 9-anthracene carboxylic acid-sensitive current under AP voltage-clamp conditions, contained an early fast outward and a late inward component, overlapping early and terminal repolarizations, respectively. Both components were moderately reduced by ryanodine, while fully abolished by BAPTA, but not EGTA. [Ca(2+)]i was monitored using Fura-2-AM. Setting [Ca(2+)]i to the systolic level measured in the bulk cytoplasm (1.1μM) decreased ICl(Ca), while application of Bay K8644, isoproterenol, and faster stimulation rates increased the amplitude of ICl(Ca). Ca(2+)-entry through L-type Ca(2+) channels was essential for activation of ICl(Ca). TMEM16A and Bestrophin-3 showed strong co-localization with one another and also with Cav1.2 channels, when assessed using immunolabeling and confocal microscopy in both canine myocytes and human ventricular myocardium. Activation of ICl(Ca) in canine ventricular cells requires Ca(2+)-entry through neighboring L-type Ca(2+) channels and is only augmented by SR Ca(2+)-release. Substantial activation of ICl(Ca) requires high Ca(2+) concentration in the dyadic clefts which can be effectively buffered by BAPTA, but not EGTA.

  14. On the Current Debate on the Clinical Method A propósito del debate actual sobre el método clíninico

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    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, a debate has raised on the clinical method as priority policy in health services. Internists are at the forefront of these discussions. The clinical method is a variant of the scientific method applied to the medical assistance of a single individual. It is aimed at the obtention of the most accurate diagnosis, the elaboration of a prognosis and the materialization of action. The conceptualization of the clinical method that prevails among Cuban internists, results from the National School of Clinic, where internists have played a key role during the last 50 years. Their task now is to continue to preserve and transmit this treasure that the essence of clinics is, in an unstable and changing setting. Other clinicians can also join this effort. In this paper, a number of actions are proposed to achieve these purposes.Actualmente ha resurgido un debate en torno al método clínico como política priorizada en el sector de la salud. Los internistas están en la primera fila de estas discusiones. El método clínico es la variante del método científico aplicado a la actividad médica asistencial individual de una persona, con el propósito de llegar al diagnóstico más probable, emitir un pronóstico y tomar la conducta a seguir. La conceptualización del método clínico es fruto de la Escuela Cubana de Clínica, donde los internistas han tenido un papel protagónico en los últimos 50 años y están llamados a continuar con la tarea de mantener y transmitir este tesoro de la esencia misma de la clínica, en un ambiente inestable y cambiante, junto a los demás médicos clínicos que pueden incorporarse a esta labor. En este trabajo se proponen una serie de acciones para lograr estos propósitos.

  15. The effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-induced Cl- current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons: differences between some neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kenjiro; Tatebayashi, Hideharu; Matsuo, Tadashi; Shoge, Takashi; Motomura, Haruhiko; Matsuno, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Akira; Tashiro, Nobutada

    2002-03-01

    1. Several neuroleptics inhibited the 3 microM gamma-aminobutyric acid induced-chloride current (GABA-current) on dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in whole-cell patch-clamp investigations. 2. The IC(50) for clozapine, zotepine, olanzapine, risperidone and chlorpromazine were 6.95, 18.26, 20.30, 106.01 and 114.56 microM, respectively. The values for the inhibitory effects of neuroleptics on the GABA (3 microM)-current, which were calculated by the fitting Hill's equations where the concentrations represent the mean therapeutic blood concentrations, were ranked clozapine>zotepine>chlorpromazine>olanzapine>risperidone. These inhibitory effects, weighted with the therapeutic concentrations of neuroleptics, were correlated with the clinical incidences of seizure during treatment with neuroleptics. 3. Clozapine reduced the picrotoxin-inhibiton, and may compete with a ligand of the t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding site. 4. Haloperidol and quetiapine did not affect the peak amplitude of the GABA (3 microM)-current. However, haloperidol reduced the clozapine-inhibition, and may antagonize ligand binding to TBPS binding site. 5. Neuroleptics including haloperidol and quetiapine enhanced the desensitization of the GABA (3 microM)-current. However, haloperidol and quetiapine at 100 microM inhibited the desensitization at the beginning of application. 6. Blonanserin (AD-5423) at 30 and 50 microM potentiated the GABA (3 microM)-current to 170.1+/-6.9 and 192.0+/-10.6% of the control current, respectively. Blonanserin shifted GABA concentration-response curve leftward. Blonanserin only partly negatively interacted with diazepam. The blonanserin-potentiation was not reversed by flumazenil. Blonanserin is not a benzodiazepine receptor agonist. 7. The various effects of neuroleptics on the GABA-current may be related to the clinical effects including modifying the seizure threshold.

  16. Células-tronco derivadas de tecido adiposo humano: desafios atuais e perspectivas clínicas Human adipose-derived stem cells: current challenges and clinical perspectives

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    Samira Yarak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As células-tronco adultas ou somáticas detêm grande promessa para a reparação e regeneração de tecidos. Atualmente, o interesse dos cientistas é contínuo na investigação da biologia de células-tronco mesenquimais, tanto em aspectos básicos, quanto no potencial de aplicações terapêuticas. As células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo, em comparação com as células-tronco derivadas do estroma da medula óssea, apresentam como vantagem o método fácil de obtenção da fonte tecidual. As células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo apresentam potencial para se diferenciarem em células de tecidos mesodérmicos, como os adipócitos, as cartilagens, os ossos e o músculo esquelético e não mesodérmicos, como os hepatócitos, as células pancreáticas endócrinas, os neurônios, os hepatócitos e as células endoteliais vasculares. Entretanto, os dados disponíveis na literatura científica sobre as características das células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo e os procedimentos para sua obtenção e manipulação no laboratório são inconsistentes. É necessário o desenvolvimento de metodologias e procedimentos eficazes de isolamento dessas células para obtenção de células em quantidade e qualidade suficientes para aplicação terapêutica. Nesta revisão, são discutidos os métodos correntes de coleta de tecido adiposo, isolamento e caracterização de células-tronco adultas derivadas do estroma do tecido adiposo, com ênfase na futura aplicação em medicina regenerativa e nos possíveis desafios nesse recente campo da ciência.Adult or somatic stem cells hold great promise for tissue regeneration. Currently, one major scientific interest is focused on the basic biology and clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells share similar characteristics with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, but have some advantages including

  17. Swelling-Activated Anion Channels Are Essential for Volume Regulation of Mouse Thymocytes

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    Ravshan Z. Sabirov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Channel-mediated trans-membrane chloride movement is a key process in the active cell volume regulation under osmotic stress in most cells. However, thymocytes were hypothesized to regulate their volume by activating a coupled K-Cl cotransport mechanism. Under the patch-clamp, we found that osmotic swelling activates two types of macroscopic anion conductance with different voltage-dependence and pharmacology. At the single-channel level, we identified two types of events: one corresponded to the maxi-anion channel, and the other one had characteristics of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR chloride channel of intermediate conductance. A VSOR inhibitor, phloretin, significantly suppressed both macroscopic VSOR-type conductance and single-channel activity of intermediate amplitude. The maxi-anion channel activity was largely suppressed by Gd3+ ions but not by phloretin. Surprisingly, [(dihydroindenyloxy] alkanoic acid (DIOA, a known antagonist of K-Cl cotransporter, was found to significantly suppress the activity of the VSOR-type single-channel events with no effect on the maxi-anion channels at 10 μM. The regulatory volume decrease (RVD phase of cellular response to hypotonicity was mildly suppressed by Gd3+ ions and was completely abolished by phloretin suggesting a major impact of the VSOR chloride channel and modulatory role of the maxi-anion channel. The inhibitory effect of DIOA was also strong, and, most likely, it occurred via blocking the VSOR Cl− channels.

  18. The research progress of volume-sensitive Cl- channel in tumor%容积敏感性氯离子通道在肿瘤中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵先军; 王军; 李辉

    2010-01-01

    细胞肿胀后可以激活或上调一系列阴离子通道,在这些容积激活或调节的阴离子通道中,容积敏感性外向整流(VSOR)氯离子通道的激活和表达最显著和常见.先前研究表明,VSOR在肿瘤细胞的容积调节、细胞增殖、分化、迁移、凋亡和耐药等病理生理过程中发挥重要作用,研究还发现许多信号分子参与了VSOR氯离子通道活性的调节,但其分子定位和激活机制尚不清楚.因此,明确其分子定位和激活机制可能会使VSOR氯离子通道成为肿瘤治疗的新靶点.%Cell swelling activates or upregulates a number of anion channels. Of the volume-activated or-regulated anion channels, the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOR) is most prominently activated and ubiquitously expressed. Volume regulated chloride channels play significant roles in a variety of physiological processes including volume regulation, proliferation, differentiation, migration,apoptosis and resistance of tumor cells. Molecular identification and activation mechanisms of VSOR are poorly understood. Many signaling molecules have been shown to regulate VSOR activity in research, playing permissive or modulatory roles. Therefore, VSOR may be a new anticancer target by identifying its signaling molecules and activation mechanisms.

  19. O uso da drotrecogina alfa ativada na prática clínica e as atuais evidências Drotrecogin alfa activated in clinical practice and the current evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Soares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O debate sobre a segurança e eficácia da drotrecogina alfa (DrotAA encontra-se na ordem do dia, principalmente, em função dos resultados negativos observados em ensaios clínicos subseqüentes ao PROWESS e do impacto econômico no sistema de saúde relacionado ao custo elevado do fármaco. O objetivo deste estudo foi rever os principais estudos sobre a utilização da DrotAA em pacientes com sepse grave, com ênfase nas questões ligadas a sua eficácia e segurança. CONTEÚDO: Foram selecionados artigos sobre a utilização da DrotAA em pacientes com sepse publicados nos últimos dez anos no MedLine. Os seguintes unitermos foram utilizados: activated protein C; drotrecogin alfa; sepsis; septic shock; Xigris®. Estudos referenciados nos artigos selecionados na busca também foram utilizados. CONCLUSÕES: As taxas de letalidades e as complicações hemorrágicas associadas com o uso do fármaco foram maiores em grandes estudos observacionais do que aquelas descritas previamente nos ensaios clínicos. A luz dos resultados atualmente disponíveis, o uso da DrotAA deve ser reconsiderado até que novos ensaios clínicos possam subsidiar com informações adicionais sobre eficácia, segurança e na identificação dos subgrupos de pacientes com sepse grave que porventura possam ter benefício com o uso deste medicamento. A DrotAA deve servir de exemplo para que haja maior cautela com a rápida transposição de evidências ainda em construção para recomendações e diretrizes de tratamento de pacientes com sepse grave.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The debate on efficacy and patient safety related to the use of drotrecogin alfa (DrotAA is timely, principally due to the negative results observed in clinical studies performed after the PROWESS study, and the economic cost-related impact of the drug on the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to review the main studies on the use of DrotAA in patients with severe

  20. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    temporal resolution in action potential firing muscle fibers. These and other techniques have revealed that ClC-1 function is controlled by multiple cellular signals during muscle activity. Thus, onset of muscle activity triggers ClC-1 inhibition via protein kinase C, intracellular acidosis, and lactate...... permeability for Cl- ions. Thus, in resting human muscle, ClC-1 Cl- ion channels account for ∼80% of the membrane conductance, and because active Cl- transport is limited in muscle fibers, the equilibrium potential for Cl- lies close to the resting membrane potential. These conditions—high membrane conductance...... muscle excitability. Data from ClC-1 expression systems suggest that this ClC-1 activation may arise from loss of regulation by adenosine nucleotides and/or oxidation. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of the physiological factors that control ClC-1 function in active muscle....

  1. Quantum dynamics of the Walden inversion reaction Cl - +CH3Cl --> ClCH3+Cl -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, David C.; Palma, Juliana

    1997-01-01

    Quantum scattering calculations on the SN2 reaction Cl-+CH3Cl→ClCH3+Cl- are reported. The rotating bond approximation (RBA) has been adapted so that three degrees of freedom including the C-Cl stretching vibration and the CH3 umbrella mode are treated explicitly. The calculations have been done with minor modifications of a potential due to Vande Linde and Hase. It is found that initial excitation of the C-Cl vibration has a large effect on the reaction probabilities, while excitation of the CH3 umbrella vibration is less significant. The reaction is dominated by scattering resonances with lifetimes ranging from 0.1 to 10 ps. It is found that the length of the C-Cl bond at the transition state of the reaction has a particularly pronounced effect on the reaction probabilities. The magnitude of the quantum reaction probabilities compares quite well with those calculated using the quasiclassical trajectory method.

  2. Acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis: current prevalence at Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School Parotidite aguda pós-cirúgica: prevalência atual no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Quilici Belczak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical acute suppurative parotitis is a bacterial gland infection that occurs from a few days up to some weeks after abdominal surgical procedures. In this study, the authors analyze the prevalence of this complication in Hospital das Clínicas/São Paulo University Medical School by prospectively reviewing the charts of patients who underwent surgeries performed by the gastroenterological and general surgery staff from 1980 to 2005. Diagnosis of parotitis or sialoadenitis was analyzed. Sialolithiasis and chronic parotitis previous to hospitalization were exclusion criteria. In a total of 100,679 surgeries, 256 patients were diagnosed with parotitis or sialoadenitis. Nevertheless, only three cases of acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis associated with the surgery were identified giving an incidence of 0.0028%. All patients presented with risk factors such as malnutrition, immunosuppression, prolonged immobilization and dehydration. In the past, acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis was a relatively common complication after major abdominal surgeries. Its incidence decreased as a consequence of the improvement of perioperative antibiotic therapy and postoperative support. In spite of the current low incidence, we believe it is important to identify risks and diagnose as quick as possible, in order to introduce prompt and appropriate therapeutic measures and avoid potentially fatal complications with the evolution of the disease.A parotidite supurativa pós-cirúrgica é infecção bacteriana da glândula que ocorre poucos dias até algumas semanas após procedimento cirúrgico. Os autores analisam a prevalência desta complicação cirúrgica nos últimos 25 anos do Hospital das Clínicas de São Paulo. Foram analisados os prontuários das cirurgias realizadas pelos serviços de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e Cirurgia Geral da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo no período de 1980 a 2005, num total de 106790

  3. Failure Mechanism of Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode Due to Current Leakage%银/氯化银参比电极漏电流情况下的失效机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆文萍; 尹鹏飞; 许立坤; 辛永磊

    2013-01-01

    采用热浸涂-电化学还原方法制备了Ag/AgCl参比电极,通过加速极化试验方法研究了电极失效过程及机理.采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDX)和电化学阻抗(EIS)测试手段研究了电极失效过程中表面状态、形貌及性能的变化.结果表明,Ag/AgCl参比电极失效后电极电位出现大幅波动,电极表面呈疏松多孔结构,AgC1完全转化为银,Ag/AgCl参比电极在漏电流情况下失效的主要原因是电极中AgC1被还原为银所致.%A Ag/AgCl reference electrode was prepared by thermal-dip coating followed by electrochemical reduction. The failure mechanism of the electrode was studied by accelerated polarization method. The microstructure and performance of the electrode were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy(EDX), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). After the acceleration test, the potential of the Ag/AgCl reference electrode fluctuated grjeatly, and the electrode surface showed a morphology of porous structure. EDX results indicate that AgCl transformed into Ag completely on the electrode surface. So, the failure of Ag/AgCl reference electrode could be attributed to the complete transformation of AgCl into Ag.

  4. Cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2-CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-CaO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Lan; Wang, Wei; Li, Shi-Chao; Cao, Shan-Hui

    2010-12-01

    The cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2, CaCl2-CaO and equimolar CaCl2-NaCl-CaO was studied by cyclic voltammograms and constant potential polarization at temperatures of 1123 to 1173 K on molybdenum and titanium electrodes. The diffusion coefficient of Ca2+ (CaO) in molten CaCl2-CaO was calculated from the linear relationship between the square root of scan rate and the peak current density. The deposition potentials and the potential temperature coefficient of CaO in molten CaCl2-0.5mol%CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-0.5mol%CaO were also obtained from their cyclic voltammograms. The result shows that CaO is more easily reduced than CaCl2. The addition of NaCl in molten CaCl2-CaO induces the underpotential electrodeposition of CaO.

  5. Basolateral Cl- uptake mechanisms in Xenopus laevis lung epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jens; Hardt, Martin; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2010-07-01

    A thin liquid layer covers the lungs of air-breathing vertebrates. Active ion transport processes via the pulmonary epithelial cells regulate the maintenance of this layer. This study focuses on basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in native lungs of Xenopus laevis and the involvement of the Na(+)/K(+)/2 Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) anion exchanger (AE), in particular. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed the expression of the NKCC protein in the Xenopus lung. Ussing chamber experiments demonstrated that the NKCC inhibitors (bumetanide and furosemide) were ineffective at blocking the cotransporter under basal conditions, as well as under pharmacologically stimulated Cl(-)-secreting conditions (forskolin and chlorzoxazone application). However, functional evidence for the NKCC was detected by generating a transepithelial Cl(-) gradient. Further, we were interested in the involvement of the HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-) anion exchanger to transepithelial ion transport processes. Basolateral application of DIDS, an inhibitor of the AE, resulted in a significantly decreased the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The effect of DIDS was diminished by acetazolamide and reduced by increased external HCO(3)(-) concentrations. Cl(-) secretion induced by forskolin was decreased by DIDS, but this effect was abolished in the presence of HCO(3)(-). These experiments indicate that the AE at least partially contributes to Cl(-) secretion. Taken together, our data show that in Xenopus lung epithelia, the AE, rather than the NKCC, is involved in basolateral Cl(-) uptake, which contrasts with the common model for Cl(-) secretion in pulmonary epithelia.

  6. ZnCl{sub 2}- and NH{sub 4}Cl-hydroponics gel electrolytes for zinc-carbon batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, N.H.; Ismail, Y.M. Baba; Mohamad, A.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2008-01-21

    Absorbency testing is used to determine the percentage of ZnCl{sub 2} or NH{sub 4}Cl solution absorbed by a hydroponics gel (HPG). It is found that the absorbency of ZnCl{sub 2} or NH{sub 4}Cl solution decreases with increasing solution concentration. The conductivity of ZnCl{sub 2}- and NH{sub 4}Cl-HPG electrolytes is dependent on the solution concentration. A mixture of salt solution with HPG yields excellent gel polymer electrolytes with conductivities of 0.026 and 0.104 S cm{sup -1} at 3 M ZnCl{sub 2} and 7 M NH{sub 4}Cl, respectively. These gel electrolytes are then used to produce zinc-carbon cells. The fabricated cells give capacities of 8.8 and 10.0 mAh, have an internal resistance of 25.4 and 19.8 {omega}, a maximum power density of 12.7 and 12.2 mW cm{sup -2}, and a short-circuit current density of 29.1 and 33.9 mA cm{sup -2} for ZnCl{sub 2}- and NH{sub 4}Cl-HPG electrolytes, respectively. (author)

  7. ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-hydroponics gel electrolytes for zinc-carbon batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, N. H.; Ismail, Y. M. Baba; Mohamad, A. A.

    Absorbency testing is used to determine the percentage of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution absorbed by a hydroponics gel (HPG). It is found that the absorbency of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution decreases with increasing solution concentration. The conductivity of ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes is dependent on the solution concentration. A mixture of salt solution with HPG yields excellent gel polymer electrolytes with conductivities of 0.026 and 0.104 S cm -1 at 3 M ZnCl 2 and 7 M NH 4Cl, respectively. These gel electrolytes are then used to produce zinc-carbon cells. The fabricated cells give capacities of 8.8 and 10.0 mAh, have an internal resistance of 25.4 and 19.8 Ω, a maximum power density of 12.7 and 12.2 mW cm -2, and a short-circuit current density of 29.1 and 33.9 mA cm -2 for ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes, respectively.

  8. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    , and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...... by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling....

  9. CL2QCD - Lattice QCD based on OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Philipsen, Owe; Sciarra, Alessandro; Bach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We present the Lattice QCD application CL2QCD, which is based on OpenCL and can be utilized to run on Graphic Processing Units as well as on common CPUs. We focus on implementation details as well as performance results of selected features. CL2QCD has been successfully applied in LQCD studies at finite temperature and density and is available at http://code.compeng.uni-frankfurt.de/projects/clhmc.

  10. Electron attachment to Cl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1984-08-01

    The electron attachment rate constant for Cl 2 as a function of the mean electron energy (0.04-0.78 eV) and temperature (213-323 K) has been measured and is reported; it shows a maximum at near thermal energy and is attributed to dissociative electron attachment via the ground state 2Σ u+ of Cl 2- from the ground state 1Σ g+ of Cl 2.

  11. UV absorption spectrum of the ClO dimer (Cl2O2) between 200 and 420 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Fahey, David W; Burkholder, James B

    2009-12-10

    The UV photolysis of Cl(2)O(2) (dichlorine peroxide) is a key step in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this study, the gas-phase UV absorption spectrum of Cl(2)O(2) was measured using diode array spectroscopy and absolute cross sections, sigma, are reported for the wavelength range 200-420 nm. Pulsed laser photolysis of Cl(2)O at 248 nm or Cl(2)/Cl(2)O mixtures at 351 nm at low temperature (200-228 K) and high pressure (approximately 700 Torr, He) was used to produce ClO radicals and subsequently Cl(2)O(2) via the termolecular ClO self-reaction. The Cl(2)O(2) spectrum was obtained from spectra recorded following the completion of the gas-phase ClO radical chemistry. The spectral analysis used observed isosbestic points at 271, 312.9, and 408.5 nm combined with reaction stoichiometry and chlorine mass balance to determine the Cl(2)O(2) spectrum. The Cl(2)O(2) UV absorption spectrum peaks at 244.5 nm with a cross section of 7.6(-0.5)(+0.8) x 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) where the quoted error limits are 2sigma and include estimated systematic errors. The Cl(2)O(2) absorption cross sections obtained for wavelengths in the range 300-420 nm are in good agreement with the Cl(2)O(2) spectrum reported previously by Burkholder et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 1990, 94, 687) and significantly higher than the values reported by Pope et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 4322). A possible explanation for the discrepancy in the Cl(2)O(2) cross section values with the Pope et al. study is discussed. Representative, atmospheric photolysis rate coefficients are calculated and a range of uncertainty estimated based on the determination of sigma(Cl(2)O(2))(lambda) in this work. Although improvements in our fundamental understanding of the photochemistry of Cl(2)O(2) are still desired, this work indicates that major revisions in current atmospheric chemical mechanisms are not required to simulate observed polar ozone depletion.

  12. Kinetic isotope effects in the gas phase reactions of OH and Cl with CH3Cl, CD3Cl, and 13CH3Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Sellevåg

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CH3Cl, 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH radicals and Cl atoms were studied in relative rate experiments at 298±2K and 1013±10mbar. The reactions were carried out in a smog chamber using long path FTIR detection and the spectroscopic data analyzed employing a non-linear least squares spectral fitting method using measured high-resolution infrared spectra as well as absorption cross sections from the HITRAN database. The reaction rates of 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH and Cl were determined relative to CH3Cl as: kOH + CH3Cl/kOH + 13CH3Cl=1.059±0.008, kOH + CH3Cl/kOH + CD3Cl=3.9±0.4, kCl + CH3Cl/kCl + 13CH3Cl=1.070±0.010 and kCl + CH3Cl/kCl + CD3Cl=4.91±0.07. The uncertainties given are 2σ from the statistical analyses and do not include possible systematic errors. The unusually large 13C kinetic isotope effect in the OH reaction of CH3Cl has important implications for the global emission inventory of CH3Cl.

  13. OpenCL programming guide

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, Aaftab; Mattson, Timothy G; Fung, James; Ginsburg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Using the new OpenCL (Open Computing Language) standard, you can write applications that access all available programming resources: CPUs, GPUs, and other processors such as DSPs and the Cell/B.E. processor. Already implemented by Apple, AMD, Intel, IBM, NVIDIA, and other leaders, OpenCL has outstanding potential for PCs, servers, handheld/embedded devices, high performance computing, and even cloud systems. This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and practical guide to OpenCL 1.1 specifically for working developers and software architects. Written by five leading OpenCL authorities, OpenCL Programming Guide covers the entire specification. It reviews key use cases, shows how OpenCL can express a wide range of parallel algorithms, and offers complete reference material on both the API and OpenCL C programming language. Through complete case studies and downloadable code examples, the authors show how to write complex parallel programs that decompose workloads across many different devices. They...

  14. Negative News: Cl- and HCO3- in the Vascular Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Matchkov, Vladimir V; Boedtkjer, Donna M B; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) are the most prevalent membrane-permeable anions in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the vascular wall. Outwardly directed electrochemical gradients for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) permit anion channel opening to depolarize vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Transporters and channels for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) also modify vascular contractility and structure independently of membrane potential. Transport of HCO3 (-) regulates intracellular pH and thereby modifies the activity of enzymes, ion channels, and receptors. There is also evidence that Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) transport proteins affect gene expression and protein trafficking. Considering the extensive implications of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) in the vascular wall, it is critical to understand how these ions are transported under physiological conditions and how disturbances in their transport can contribute to disease development. Recently, sensing mechanisms for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) have been identified in the vascular wall where they modify ion transport and vasomotor function, for instance, during metabolic disturbances. This review discusses current evidence that transport (e.g., via NKCC1, NBCn1, Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, volume-regulated anion channels, and CFTR) and sensing (e.g., via WNK and RPTPγ) of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) influence cardiovascular health and disease.

  15. Kinetic isotope effects in the gas phase reactions of OH and Cl with CH3Cl, CD3Cl, and 13CH3Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CH3Cl, 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH radicals and Cl atoms were studied in relative rate experiments at 298±2 K and 1013±10 mbar. The reactions were carried out in a smog chamber using long path FTIR detection and the spectroscopic data analyzed employing a non-linear least squares spectral fitting method using measured high-resolution infrared spectra as well as absorption cross sections from the HITRAN database. The reaction rates of 13CH3Cl and CD3Cl with OH and Cl were determined relative to CH3Cl as: kOH+CH3ClkOH+CH3Cl/kOH+13CH3Cl}kOH+13CH3Cl=1.059±0.008, kOH+CH3ClkOH+CH3Cl/kOH+CD3ClkOH+CD3Cl=3.9±0.4, kCl+CH3ClkCl+CH3Cl/kCl+13CH3ClkCl+13CH3Cl =1.070±0.010 and kCl+CH3ClkCl+CH3Cl/kCl+CD3ClkCl+CD3Cl=4.91±0.07. The uncertainties given are 2σ from the statistical analyses and do not include possible systematic errors. The unexpectedly large 13C kinetic isotope effect in the OH reaction of CH3Cl has important implications for the global emission inventory of CH3Cl.

  16. Electrochemical Deposition of Aluminum from NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H. A.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of aluminum from NaAlCl4 melts saturated with NaCl onto a glassy carbon electrode at175°C has been studied by voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and constant current deposition. The deposition of aluminumwas found to proceed via a nucleation/growth mechanism, and the nucle......Electrochemical deposition of aluminum from NaAlCl4 melts saturated with NaCl onto a glassy carbon electrode at175°C has been studied by voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and constant current deposition. The deposition of aluminumwas found to proceed via a nucleation/growth mechanism......, and the nucleation process was found to be progressive.The morphology of aluminum deposits was examined with photomicroscopy. It was shown that depending on the currentdensities (c.d.) applied, three types of aluminum deposits could be obtained, namely, spongy deposits formed at lower c.d.(below 0.7 mA/cm2), smooth...... layers deposited at intermediate c.d. (between 2 and 10 mA/cm2), and dendritic or porous depositsobtained at high c.d. (above 15 mA/cm2). However, the smooth aluminum deposits were about five times more voluminousthan the theoretical value. The spongy deposits were formed due to difficulties...

  17. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton1662 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton1662 PREDICTED: hypothetical protein LOC100740269 [Bombus impatiens] Ci...CTCCTAAGCCAATTAAATAGAAGTTCAATAGCATACTGTAATAAATTAACAACAAAGTG fw20035 1 PREDICTED: hypothetical protein LOC100740269 [Bombus impatiens] XP_003491307 7.11708E-15 ...

  18. ClEST cluster :Cl_contig0243 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_contig0243 barrier-to-autointegration factor Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 428 ...TAATAAATACAGTATGATGTGCG fb29038 fs25084 mb23031 3 barrier to autointegration factor [Rhodnius prolixus] AEL79235 5.9E-56 GO:0003677 ...

  19. Halogen and Cl isotopic systematics in Martian phosphates: Implications for the Cl cycle and surface halogen reservoirs on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, J. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.; John, T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Snape, J. F.; Bland, P. A.; Benedix, G. K.

    2017-01-01

    The Cl isotopic compositions and halogen (Cl, F, Br, and I) abundances in phosphates from eight Martian meteorites, spanning most rock types and ages currently available, have been measured in situ by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Likewise, the distribution of halogens has been documented by x-ray mapping. Halogen concentrations range over several orders of magnitude up to some of the largest concentrations yet measured in Martian samples or on the Martian surface, and the inter-element ratios are highly variable. Similarly, Cl isotope compositions exhibit a larger range than all pristine terrestrial igneous rocks. Phosphates in ancient (>4 Ga) meteorites (orthopyroxenite ALH 84001 and breccia NWA 7533) have positive δ37Cl anomalies (+1.1 to + 2.5 ‰). These samples also exhibit explicit whole rock and grain scale evidence for hydrothermal or aqueous activity. In contrast, the phosphates in the younger basaltic Shergottite meteorites (<600 Ma) have negative δ37Cl anomalies (-0.2 to - 5.6 ‰). Phosphates with the largest negative δ37Cl anomalies display zonation in which the rims of the grains are enriched in all halogens and have significantly more negative δ37Cl anomalies suggestive of interaction with the surface of Mars during the latest stages of basalt crystallization. The phosphates with no textural, major element, or halogen enrichment evidence for mixing with this surface reservoir have an average δ37Cl of - 0.6 ‰, supporting a similar initial Cl isotope composition for Mars, the Earth, and the Moon. Oxidation and reduction of chlorine are the only processes known to strongly fractionate Cl isotopes, both positively and negatively, and perchlorate has been detected in weight percent concentrations on the Martian surface. The age range and obvious mixing history of the phosphates studied here suggest perchlorate formation and halogen cycling via brines, which have been documented on the Martian surface, has been active throughout Martian

  20. Electrochemical Deposition and Dissolution of Aluminum in NaAlCl4 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of the additives MnCl2, sulfide, and their combined influence on aluminum deposition and dissolution inNaAlCl4 saturated with NaCl have been studied by polarization measurements, galvanostatic deposition, and current reversalchronopotentiometry (CRC). The solubility of MnCl2 was found...... to be 0.086 ± 0.006 m/o in the melt at 175°C. Aluminum-manganesealloys can be deposited in NaAlCl4 saturated with both NaCl and MnCl2, resulting in a slight increase incathodic overpotentials. The codeposition of the binary alloys at current densities below 4 mA/cm2 gave rise to formationof deposits so...

  1. Historia clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martínez Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia clínica ha estado regulada hasta la actualidad por diferentes disposiciones legislativas con base en la Ley General de Sanidad 14/1986, de 25 de abril. Con la Ley 41/2002, de 14 de noviembre, básica y reguladora de la autonomía del paciente y de derechos y obligaciones en materia de información y documentaciónclínica, se actualizan los derechos y obligaciones de los pacientes o usuarios y profesionales, entre ellos los relativos a la historia clínica. En el presente artículo, se expone el contenido de la Ley 41/2002 y referencias a otras normas legislativas y fuentes bibliográficas. La Ley define la historia clínica, sus contenidos, funciones y usos, su soporte y conservación, aclara la propiedad de la historia clínica y recoge las características de acceso y custodia, así como la privacidad y confidencialidad de la historia clínica.

  2. Electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys by codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong De; Zhang, Mi Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Cao, Dian Xue; Jing, Xiao Yan; He, Li Yi; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-07

    This work presents electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys via codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca on a molybdenum electrode in KCl-LiCl-MgCl(2)-CaCl(2) melts at 943 K. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of calcium on pre-deposited magnesium leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Ca alloy, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Mg-Ca alloy leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Li-Ca solution. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codepositon of Mg, Li and Ca occurs at current densities more negative than -0.31 A cm(-2) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl(2) (5 wt%) melts containing 1 wt% CaCl(2). Chronoamperograms demonstrated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is -2.200 V, and the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is formed when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.200 V. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Mg-Li-Ca alloys with different phases were formed via galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructures of typical alpha and beta phases of Mg-Li-Ca alloys were characterized by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) showed that the element Ca mainly distributes along grain boundary in Mg-Li-Ca alloys. The results of inductively coupled plasma analysis determined that the chemical compositions of Mg-Li-Ca alloys correspond with the phase structures of XRD patterns, and the lithium and calcium contents of Mg-Li-Ca alloys depend on the concentrations of MgCl(2) and CaCl(2).

  3. CATHODIC BEHAVIORS OF CAO IN MOLTEN SALTS CaCl2 AND EQUIMOLAR CaCl2-X(X=NaCl,BaCl2,LiCl)%CaO在CaCl2和等摩尔CaCl2-X(X=NaCl,BaCl2,LiCl)熔盐中的阴极行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑兰; 王伟; 王川华; 张丽君

    2008-01-01

    采用循环伏安方法研究了1173 K时CaCl2-0.5%CaO(摩尔分数)和等摩尔CaCl2-X-0.5%CaO(X=NaCl,BaCl2,LiCl)熔盐中CaO在Mo电极上的阴极行为.研究结果表明,CaCl2与CaO电离的Ca计具有不同的离子结构和还原电势,在1173 K时其还原峰电势分别为-2.15和-1.51 V.等摩尔混合熔盐CaCl2-x-0.5%CaO(x=NaCl,BaCl2)中,CaO诱发电解质产生低电位沉积,降低了混合熔盐的电化学稳定性.通过阴极扫描电流峰密度与扫描速率的关系,计算出1173 K时CaO电离的Ca2+在CaCl2-0.5%CaO,等摩尔的CaCl2-NaCl-0.5%CaO,CaCl2-BaCl2-0.5%CaO和CaCl2-LiCl-0.5%CaO熔盐中的扩散系数,分别为6.42×10-5,1.56×10-5,1.20×10-5和6.79×10-5 cm2/s.

  4. Almost cl-supercontinuous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kohli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reilly and Vamanamurthy introduced the class of ‘clopen maps’ ( ‘cl-supercontinuous functions’. Subsequently generalizing clopen maps, Ekici defined and studied almost clopen maps( almost cl-supercontinuous functions. Continuing in the spirit of Ekici, here basic properties of almost clopen maps are studied. Behavior of separation axioms under almost clopen maps is elaborated. The interrelations between direct and inverse transfer of topological properties under almost clopen maps are investigated. The results obtained in the process generalize, improve and strengthen several known results in literature including those of Ekici, Singh, and others.

  5. Laser Ceilometer CL51 Demonstration Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winston, Herb A. [Vaisala, Inc., Vantaa (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Improvements in the measurements of clouds and the ability to support observation systems are critically important to advancing our understanding and improving global climate model performance. The purpose of a demonstration of the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer was to evaluate its high-range capabilities as a possible augmentation to data provided by the CL31 ceilometer that currently is deployed at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sites. Vaisala performed a no-cost demonstration of the equipment; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supported the data analysis; and ARM provided logistical support, power, maintenance, etc. The laser ceilometer provided measurements of cloud-base height, vertical visibility, and backscatter profile at a vertical range of 15 km. The ceilometer demonstration was conducted during the Characterization of Cirrus and Aerosol Properties campaign (CCAP) to provide coincident observations of cirrus cloud heights and potential backscatter signals by aerosols. This campaign included deployment of a CL51 ceilometer at the ARM Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, co-located with the current CL31, micropulse lidar, and balloon-borne sounding system. Data collected from these sensors were analyzed to compare and contrast the data from the CL51 ceilometer.

  6. Historia Clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Micó, Lydia; Bretó, Patricia; Soriano, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Uso del video educativo y el podcasting como fortalecimiento en el aprendizaje de la Dietoterapia. La anámnesis e historia clínica es el primer acercamiento del profesional frente a sus pacientes. En este vídeo se explican los principales puntos que se deberían desarrollar para realizar el tratamiento dietoterapéutico como herramienta clave del diagnóstico nutricional.

  7. Research on Cascade Double Г-CL Resonant Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuJianhua; LuoFanglin

    2004-01-01

    A cascade double Г-CL current source resonant inverter (CSRI) is proposed in this paper, which overcomes the limitations of the conventional two or three energy-storage elements resonant inverters. Comparing with the counterparts, the novel inverter has larger current transfer gain with smooth waveforms. The simulation process is manipulated on the basis of the state-space averaging approach. The power transfer efficiency is studied in detail. Finally. the theoretical analysis is verified with the simulative and testing results.

  8. Review on Polymorphic Transformation in CL-20 Recrystallization%CL-20重结晶过程中的晶型转变研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金江; 孙杰; 周克恩; 李洪珍; 舒远杰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了不同晶型六硝基六氮杂异伍兹烷(HNIW,CL-20)(包括α-、β-、γ-、ε-及ζ-)的结构、热稳定性及性能.综述了CL-20的重结晶方法(包括溶剂-非溶剂法和溶剂挥发法)以及在溶液中的晶型转变.认为:ε-CL-20最有应用价值,不能直接合成,它需通过重结晶得到,但结晶时的晶型转变会降低ε-CL-20晶型的纯度,从而影响爆轰性能.讨论了溶剂和温度对CL-20晶型转变的影响.根据Ostwald规则,从热力学和动力学角度解释了CL-20的晶型转变过程.指出了现有研究的不足,提出了通过控制CL-20的晶型转变路径、优化重结晶条件,以获得晶型纯度高的ε-CL-20的新思路.%The crystal structure,thermal stability, and properties of all polymorphs (including α-,β-,γ-ε- and ζ-) of CL-20 were introduced. Recrystallization method of CL-20 including solvent-non-solvent method and solvent evaporation method, and the polymorphic transformation of CL-20 in solution were summarized. Considering that ε-Cl-20 has the most application value and cannot be prepared directly. It is still necessary to be recrystallized but the polymorph of CL-20 would transform to others in this process which could cause the polymorph purity of ε-CL-20 decreasing, and then affecting the explosive performance of CL-20. The factors affecting the polymorphic transformation of CL-20,such as solvent and temperature were discussed. According to the Ostwald's rule, the polymorphic transformation of CL-20 in solvent could be explained from the aspects of kinetics and thermodynamics. The deficiency of current research was depicted and the preparation way of ε-CL-20 with high purity through controlling the polymorphic transformation path and optimizing the recrystallization conditions were proposed.

  9. 76 FR 477 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2A12 (CL-601) and CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...: Ice and Rain Protection and Pneumatic, respectively. Reason (e) The mandatory continuing airworthiness... applicable Time Limits/ Maintenance Checks manual, whichever occurs first. CL-600-2B16 (CL-604 Variants)...

  10. Observation of the intermediate states in the (Xe-Cl 2)*→ XeCl* (B,C) + Cl reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivineau, M.; Le Calvé, J.; Castex, M. C.; Jouvet, C.

    1986-10-01

    The Xe-Cl 2 van der Waals complex formed in a supersonic expansion is excited in a two-photon process. The XeCl(B,C) reaction spectra (excitation of the complex and detection of the XeCl (B→X) and (C→A) fluorescence) are obtained in the region 290-310 nm. In addition to a diffuse band also obtained in the C action spectrum, the B action spectrum presents a vibronic structure similar to the Xe-Cl (B←X) absorption band. Xe-Cl 2 ( 1Π u) resonantly enhanced two-photon process with two chromophores is proposed to account for the results.

  11. ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA AND CL. DIFFICILE-INFECTION IN CHILDREN: RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature presents data on the incidence and characteristics of the current development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD in children. Presented research materials of Russian and foreign scientists on risk factors activation toxigenic strains Cl. difficile, showed the relationship between the depth microecologi-cal metabolomical violations and Cl. difficile-infection in children.

  12. 75 FR 8461 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    .... Table 1--Airplanes Affected by This AD Bombardier, Inc. model Serial Nos. (1) CL-600-1A11 (CL-600...) airplanes 5301 through 5635 inclusive. Subject (d) Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 30: Ice... to drill the holes in the ducts. These ducts were installed on CL-600-2B16 aircraft, serial numbers...

  13. NaCl Potentiates Human Fibrocyte Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nehemiah Cox; Darrell Pilling; Gomer, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can p...

  14. Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Gaster, Benedict; Kaeli, David R; Mistry, Perhaad; Schaa, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL teaches OpenCL and parallel programming for complex systems that may include a variety of device architectures: multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units (APUs) such as AMD Fusion technology. Designed to work on multiple platforms and with wide industry support, OpenCL will help you more effectively program for a heterogeneous future. Written by leaders in the parallel computing and OpenCL communities, this book will give you hands-on OpenCL experience to address a range of fundamental parallel algorithms. The authors explore m

  15. un clúster empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela López Posada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los clústeres empresariales se han constituido en mecanismos para impulsar la competitividad de sectores en regiones y tradicionalmente han sido analizados desde la perspectiva económica (por su aporte en variables macroeconómicas, pero para su consolidación todo conglomerado empresarial requiere la comprensión de relaciones sociales, culturales y políticas. Resulta difícil estudiar estas relaciones desde teorías organizacionales tradicionales como la estructuralista o la contingencial, y se debe recurrir a otras perspectivas como el neoinstitucionalismo sociológico, enfoque que es utilizado en la presente investigación. La investigación fundamento del artículo se hizo en un sector considerado dinámico para el eje cafetero como es el de herramientas, la cual fue abordada desde un enfoque cualitativo mediante la aplicación de dos guías de entrevista semiestructurada (se aplicaron a treinta empresas de la cadena productiva y a nueve entidades de apoyo, diario de campo y análisis de fuentes documentales. Se concluye que en el clúster predominan el individualismo, la descon- fianza y la ausencia de elementos identitarios, simultáneamente con fuertes lazos comerciales y prácticas de gestión que se han institucionalizado por procesos isomórficos.

  16. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Miao Miao; Hong, Sen; Zhou, Hong Yan; Wang, Hong Wei; Wang, Li Na; Zheng, Ya Juan

    2014-01-01

    Chloride channels (ClCs) have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies. PMID:24378849

  17. Chloride Channelopathies of ClC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Miao Bi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channels (ClCs have gained worldwide interest because of their molecular diversity, widespread distribution in mammalian tissues and organs, and their link to various human diseases. Nine different ClCs have been molecularly identified and functionally characterized in mammals. ClC-2 is one of nine mammalian members of the ClC family. It possesses unique biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, and molecular features that distinguish it from other ClC family members. ClC-2 has wide organ/tissue distribution and is ubiquitously expressed. Published studies consistently point to a high degree of conservation of ClC-2 function and regulation across various species from nematodes to humans over vast evolutionary time spans. ClC-2 has been intensively and extensively studied over the past two decades, leading to the accumulation of a plethora of information to advance our understanding of its pathophysiological functions; however, many controversies still exist. It is necessary to analyze the research findings, and integrate different views to have a better understanding of ClC-2. This review focuses on ClC-2 only, providing an analytical overview of the available literature. Nearly every aspect of ClC-2 is discussed in the review: molecular features, biophysical characteristics, pharmacological properties, cellular function, regulation of expression and function, and channelopathies.

  18. LiYbCl4(THF4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Richtera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, di-μ-chlorido-dichlorido-1κ2Cl-tetrakis(tetrahydrofuran-1κ2O,2κ2O-lithiumytterbium(III, [LiYbCl4(C4H8O4], was prepared by the reaction of YbCl3(THF3 with LiCl in THF (THF is tetrahydrofuran. The central motif of the structure is a Yb(μ-Cl2Li ring. The Yb atom is hexacoordinated to four Cl atoms and two THF molecules oriented in a trans fashion. The Li atom has a tetrahedral environment and is coordinated to two Cl atoms and two THF molecules. No intermolecular interactions other than van der Waals forces were observed. Two of the THF molecules are disordered over two positions.

  19. Partial correction of defective Cl(-) secretion in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells by an analog of squalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C; Lee, E R; Lane, M B; Xiao, Y F; Harris, D J; Cheng, S H

    2001-11-01

    Defective cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) transport across the apical membrane of airway epithelial cells is implicated in the pathophysiology of CF lungs. A strategy to compensate for this loss is to augment Cl(-) transport through alternative pathways. We report here that partial correction of this defect could be attained through the incorporation of artificial anion channels into the CF cells. Introduction of GL-172, a synthetic analog of squalamine, into CFT1 cells increased cell membrane halide permeability. Furthermore, when a Cl(-) gradient was generated across polarized monolayers of primary human airway or Fischer rat thyroid cells in an Ussing chamber, addition of GL-172 caused an increase in the equivalent short-circuit current. The magnitude of this change in short-circuit current was ~30% of that attained when CFTR was maximally stimulated with cAMP agonists. Patch-clamp studies showed that addition of GL-172 to CFT1 cells also increased whole cell Cl(-) currents. These currents displayed a linear current-voltage relationship and no time dependence. Additionally, administration of GL-172 to the nasal epithelium of transgenic CF mice induced a hyperpolarization response to perfusion with a low-Cl(-) solution, indicating restoration of Cl(-) secretion. Together, these results demonstrate that in CF airway epithelial cells, administration of GL-172 is capable of partially correcting the defective Cl(-) secretion.

  20. Influence of NaCl-CaCl2 on Decomposing REPO4 with CaO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of NaCl-CaCl2 on thermal decomposition of REPO4 (RE: Ce, La, Nd, Th) with CaO was studied.The heat decomposing process of REPO4 was tested with TG-DTA experiments.The results showed that the decomposition temperature of REPO4 with CaO was reduced because of adding NaCl-CaCl2 mixture (NaCl:CaCl2=1:1).The influence of the addition of NaCl-CaCl2, roasting temperature and roasting time on decomposition ratio of REPO4 with CaO was studied.The results showed that the decomposition ratio of REPO4with CaO was 79% when the addition percentage of NaCl-CaCl2 was 10%, the roasting temperature was 750℃, and the roasting time was 1 h.

  1. Thermodynamic Optimization of DyCl3 -NaCl System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶信宇; 孙益民; 张静; 谈君君

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagram of the DyCl3 -NaCl system is optimized and calculated with CALPHAD ( calculation of phase diagram ) technology. A set of thermodynamic functions of compounds Na3 DyCl6, NaDyCl4, and NaDY2 Cl7 have been optimized and calculated based on an interactive computer-assisted analysis. The optimized thermodynamic parameters, calculated phase diagram and experimental phase diagram are thermodynamically serf-consistent.

  2. (37)Cl/(35)Cl isotope ratio analysis in perchlorate by ion chromatography/multi collector -ICPMS: Analytical performance and implication for biodegradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakon, Yevgeni; Ronen, Zeev; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2017-10-01

    In the present study we propose a new analytical method for (37)Cl/(35)Cl analysis in perchlorate by Ion Chromatography(IC) coupled to Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The accuracy of the analytical method was validated by analysis of international perchlorate standard materials USGS-37 and USGS -38; analytical precision better than ±0.4‰ was achieved. (37)Cl/(35)Cl isotope ratio analysis in perchlorate during laboratory biodegradation experiment with microbial cultures enriched from the contaminated soil in Israel resulted in isotope enrichment factor ε(37)Cl = -13.3 ± 1‰, which falls in the range reported previously for perchlorate biodegradation by pure microbial cultures. The proposed analytical method may significantly simplify the procedure for isotope analysis of perchlorate which is currently applied in environmental studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Stable isotope analyses of oxygen (18O:17O:16O) and chlorine (37Cl:35Cl) in perchlorate: reference materials, calibrations, methods, and interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, John Karl; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Heraty, Linnea J.; Richman, Kent W.; Sullivan, Donald B.; Griffith, Kris N.; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    RationalePerchlorate (ClO4−) is a common trace constituent of water, soils, and plants; it has both natural and synthetic sources and is subject to biodegradation. The stable isotope ratios of Cl and O provide three independent quantities for ClO4− source attribution and natural attenuation studies: δ37Cl, δ18O, and δ17O (or Δ17O or 17Δ) values. Documented reference materials, calibration schemes, methods, and interferences will improve the reliability of such studies.MethodsThree large batches of KClO4 with contrasting isotopic compositions were synthesized and analyzed against VSMOW-SLAP, atmospheric O2, and international nitrate and chloride reference materials. Three analytical methods were tested for O isotopes: conversion of ClO4− to CO for continuous-flow IRMS (CO-CFIRMS), decomposition to O2 for dual-inlet IRMS (O2-DIIRMS), and decomposition to O2 with molecular-sieve trap (O2-DIIRMS+T). For Cl isotopes, KCl produced by thermal decomposition of KClO4 was reprecipitated as AgCl and converted into CH3Cl for DIIRMS.ResultsKClO4 isotopic reference materials (USGS37, USGS38, USGS39) represent a wide range of Cl and O isotopic compositions, including non-mass-dependent O isotopic variation. Isotopic fractionation and exchange can affect O isotope analyses of ClO4− depending on the decomposition method. Routine analyses can be adjusted for such effects by normalization, using reference materials prepared and analyzed as samples. Analytical errors caused by SO42−, NO3−, ReO42−, and C-bearing contaminants include isotope mixing and fractionation effects on CO and O2, plus direct interference from CO2 in the mass spectrometer. The results highlight the importance of effective purification of ClO4− from environmental samples.ConclusionsKClO4 reference materials are available for testing methods and calibrating isotopic data for ClO4− and other substances with widely varying Cl or O isotopic compositions. Current ClO4−extraction, purification

  4. Possible existence and chemistry of ClO.O2 in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the existence and chemistry of the possible atmospheric constituent ClO.O2 on current models of stratospheric photochemistry is discussed. It is suggested that the formation of an asymmetric ClO.O2 complex may explain the observed suppression of the quantum yield in the chlorine-photosensitized decomposition of ozone in the presence of O2, and that the presence of the ClO.O2 formed may account for the current discrepancy between measurements and theoretical predictions of stratospheric ClO mixing ratio profiles. The presence of stratospheric ClO.O2 is also invoked as a possible mitigating influence on present estimates of ozone destruction due to chlorofluoromethane release.

  5. NaCl potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can potentiate, in serum-free culture conditions, the differentiation of freshly-isolated human monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. NaCl affects the monocytes directly during their adhesion. Potassium chloride and sodium nitrate also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP) inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. High levels of extracellular NaCl change the SAP Hill coefficient from 1.7 to 0.8, and cause a four-fold increase in the concentration of SAP needed to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation by 95%. Together, our data suggest that NaCl potentiates fibrocyte differentiation. NaCl-increased fibrocyte differentiation may thus contribute to NaCl-increased renal and cardiac fibrosis.

  6. NaCl potentiates human fibrocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemiah Cox

    Full Text Available Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can potentiate, in serum-free culture conditions, the differentiation of freshly-isolated human monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. NaCl affects the monocytes directly during their adhesion. Potassium chloride and sodium nitrate also potentiate fibrocyte differentiation. The plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. High levels of extracellular NaCl change the SAP Hill coefficient from 1.7 to 0.8, and cause a four-fold increase in the concentration of SAP needed to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation by 95%. Together, our data suggest that NaCl potentiates fibrocyte differentiation. NaCl-increased fibrocyte differentiation may thus contribute to NaCl-increased renal and cardiac fibrosis.

  7. Sexually transmitted papillomavirus infections: epidemiology pathogenesis, clinic, morphology, important differential diagnostic aspects, current diagnostic and treatment options Infecções por papilomavírus sexualmente transmitida: epidemiologia, patogênese, clínica, morfologia, aspectos importantes do diagnóstico diferencial, diagnóstico atual e opções de tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The family of human papilloma viruses (HPV comprises more than 100 genotypes. Approximately 30 of the genotypes are responsible for infections in the human anogenital area. A precisely defined algorithm with the goal of diagnosing and removing HPV for a prolonged or indefinite length of time, as well as to protect the patient from any malignant ransformation, does not currently exist. The identification of HPV strains by PCR or DNA hybridization in lesional tissue provides higher security for the patients. In high-risk patients additional colposcopy, rectoscopy, and rethroscopy/cystoscopy increase the probability of proper diagnosis and the application of a reliable therapeutic strategy. Removal of lesions by means of invasive methods, such as electrodessication, cryosurgery, and/or laser therapy, may be successful and could be combined pre- and postoperatively with the local application of podophyllotoxin, Trichloroacetic acid, 5-fluorouracil epinephrine gel, imiquimod, cidofovir or interferon. The administration of vaccine to young patients prevents to a significant extent the clinical manifestation of the most frequent viral strains, being HPV-6,-11 and -18. The different therapeutic methods must be applied in accordance with the clinical picture, taking into account the patient's general status, the presence of concomitant diseases, as well as the local and systematic compatibility of the side effects of each remedy. The review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment options of sexually transmitted HPV-infections and includes synopsis of the most recent literature regarding new data of epidemiology, pathogenesis, ifferential diagnosis and morphology of HPV infections in humans.A família de papiloma vírus humano (HPV compreende mais de 100 genótipos. Aproximadamente 30 dos genótipos são responsáveis pelas infecções na área anogenital em humanos. Não dispomos no momento de um algoritmo precisamente definido tendo como meta o diagn

  8. Heterogeneous computing with OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL teaches OpenCL and parallel programming for complex systems that may include a variety of device architectures: multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units (APUs) such as AMD Fusion technology. Designed to work on multiple platforms and with wide industry support, OpenCL will help you more effectively program for a heterogeneous future. Written by leaders in the parallel computing and OpenCL communities, this book will give you hands-on OpenCL experience to address a range of fundamental parallel algorithms. The authors explore memory spaces, optimization techniques, graphics interoperability, extensions, and debugging and profiling. Intended to support a parallel programming course, Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL includes detailed examples throughout, plus additional online exercises and other supporting materials.

  9. An OpenCL tracking algorithm for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez Milla, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Tracking is currently performed at LHCb using a sequential algorithm parallelized by event in a cluster of about 1.500 computers. To update this system a parallel version for GPUs has been implemented. The present work presents an OpenCL implementation of a tracking algorithm for the LHCb trigger system. The algorithm is based on a previous work by David Rohr in the ALICE detector.

  10. Characterization of [ bmim]Cl/FeCl3 ionic liquid%[bmim]Cl/FeCl3离子液体的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继华

    2005-01-01

    本文利用1HNMR、FT-IR、FAB(Fast Atom Bombardment)、Raman光谱分析方法表征了[bmim]Cl/FeCl3离子液体,结果表明:酸性离子液体中,阴离子主要形式是FeCl4-、Fe2Cl7-;碱性离子液体中,阴离子主要是Cl-、FeCl4-,并且三者之间存在着平衡.根据分析结果及化学软件的计算,可以推断,阴离子分布在阳离子的两边,即在[bmim]平面的两边,根据能量最低原理,Cl-与FeCl4-或Fe2Cl7-离子只能连接在靠近甲基一侧,此时,分子能量最低,结构最稳定.

  11. Histological changes in kidney and liver of rats due to gold (III compound [Au(enCl(2]Cl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Development of novel metallodrugs with enhanced anti-proliferative potential and reduced toxicity has become the prime focus of the evolving medicinal chemistry. In this regards, gold (III complexes with various ligands are being extensively investigated. In the current study renal and hepatic toxicity of a newly developed gold (III compound [Au(enCl(2]Cl was assessed by histopathological evaluation of liver and kidney specimens of rats exposed to the compound. METHODS: Male rats (n = 42 weighing 200-250 gram were injected single, varying doses of gold (III compound [(dichlorido(ethylenediamineaurate((III]chloride [Au(enCl(2]Cl in the acute toxicity component of the study. In the sub-acute toxicity part, a dose of 32.2 mg/kg (equivalent to 1/10 of LD50 was administered intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days before sacrificing the animals. After autopsy, the renal and hepatic tissues were preserved in buffered formalin. Processing of the samples was followed by histopathological evaluation. The results were compared with the normal controls (n = 11. RESULTS: A dose of 32.2 mg/kg (1/10 of LD(50 revealed no renal tubular necrosis. The predominant histopathological finding was mild pyelitis, a prominence of eosinophils and mild congestion. The hepatic lesions comprised varying extents of ballooning degeneration with accompanying congestion and focal portal inflammation. CONCLUSION: Gold (III compound [Au(enCl(2]Cl causes minimal histological changes in kidney and liver of rats, reflecting its relative safety as compared to other clinically established antineoplastic drugs.

  12. LanCL proteins are not Involved in Lanthionine Synthesis in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chang; Zeng, Min; Dutta, Debapriya; Koh, Tong Hee; Chen, Jie; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2017-01-01

    LanC-like (LanCL) proteins are mammalian homologs of bacterial LanC enzymes, which catalyze the addition of the thiol of Cys to dehydrated Ser residues during the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides, a class of natural products formed by post-translational modification of precursor peptides. The functions of LanCL proteins are currently unclear. A recent proposal suggested that LanCL1 catalyzes the addition of the Cys of glutathione to protein- or peptide-bound dehydroalanine (Dha) to form lanthionine, analogous to the reaction catalyzed by LanC in bacteria. Lanthionine has been detected in human brain as the downstream metabolite lanthionine ketimine (LK), which has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, we tested the proposal that LanCL1 is involved in lanthionine biosynthesis by constructing LanCL1 knock-out mice and measuring LK concentrations in their brains using a mass spectrometric detection method developed for this purpose. To investigate whether other LanCL proteins (LanCL2/3) may confer a compensatory effect, triple knock-out (TKO) mice were also generated and tested. Very similar concentrations of LK (0.5–2.5 nmol/g tissue) were found in LanCL1 knock-out, TKO and wild type (WT) mouse brains, suggesting that LanCL proteins are not involved in lanthionine biosynthesis. PMID:28106097

  13. Chlorine-catalyzed ozone destruction: Cl atom production from ClOOCl photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmouth, David M; Hanisco, Thomas F; Stimpfle, Richard M; Anderson, James G

    2009-12-24

    Recent laboratory measurements of the absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, have called into question the validity of the mechanism that describes the catalytic removal of ozone by chlorine. Here we describe direct measurements of the rate-determining step of that mechanism, the production of Cl atoms from the photolysis of ClOOCl, under laboratory conditions similar to those in the stratosphere. ClOOCl is formed in a cold-temperature flowing system, with production initiated by a microwave discharge of Cl(2) or photolysis of CF(2)Cl(2). Excimer lasers operating at 248, 308, and 352 nm photodissociate ClOOCl, and the Cl atoms produced are detected with time-resolved atomic resonance fluorescence. Cl(2), the primary contaminant, is measured directly for the first time in a ClOOCl cross section experiment. We find the product of the quantum yield of the Cl atom production channel of ClOOCl photolysis and the ClOOCl absorption cross section, (phisigma)(ClOOCl) = 660 +/- 100 at 248 nm, 39.3 +/- 4.9 at 308 nm, and 8.6 +/- 1.2 at 352 nm (units of 10(-20) cm(2) molecule(-1)). The data set includes 468 total cross section measurements over a wide range of experimental conditions, significantly reducing the possibility of a systematic error impacting the results. These new measurements demonstrate that long-wavelength photons (lambda = 352 nm) are absorbed by ClOOCl directly, producing Cl atoms with a probability commensurate with the observed rate of ozone destruction in the atmosphere.

  14. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  15. Atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y.; Hajdas, W.; Baltensperger, U.; Synal, H.A.; Kubik, P.W.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Using experimental cross sections, a new calculation of the atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl was carried out. A mean production rate of 20 atoms m{sup -2}s{sup -1} was obtained, which is lower than mean {sup 36}Cl deposition rates. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  16. Cs3ScCl6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Ward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of tricaesium scandium(III hexachloride were obtained as a side product from the reaction of U, SnCl2, Sc, and S in a CsCl flux at 1073 K. Cs3ScCl6 crystallizes in the Rb3YCl6 structure type. The asymmetric unit comprises three Cs sites, two Sc sites, and six Cl sites, all of which have site symmetry 1, except for the two Sc sites that have site symmetries of 2 and -1, respectively. The structure is composed of isolated [ScCl6]3− octahedra that are surrounded by Cs+ cations. Two Cs+ cations have interactions with eight Cl− anions, while the third has interactions with ten Cl− anions.

  17. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  18. Improved method for efficient imaging of intracellular Cl(-) with Cl-Sensor using conventional fluorescence setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Perrine; Bregestovski, Piotr; Medina, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) homeostasis is known to be fundamental for central nervous system functioning. Alterations in intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) and changes in the efficacy of Cl(-) extrusion are involved in numerous neurological disorders. Therefore, there is a strong need for studies of the dynamics of [Cl(-)]i in different cell types under physiological conditions and during pathology. Several previous works reported having successfully achieved recording of [Cl(-)]i using genetically encoded Cl-Sensor that is composed of the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and Cl(-)-sensitive mutant of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFPCl). However, all reported works were performed using specially designed setups with ultra-sensitive CCD cameras. Our multiple attempts to monitor Cl(-)-dependent fluorescence of Cl-Sensor using conventional epifluorescence microscopes did not yield successful results. In the present work, we have analysed the reason of our failures and found that they were caused by a strong inactivation of the YFPCl component of Cl-Sensor during excitation of the CFP with 430 nm light. Based on the obtained results, we reduced 20-fold the intensity of the 430 nm excitation and modified the recording protocol that allows now stable long-lasting ratiometric measurements of Cl-Sensor fluorescence in different cell types including cultured hippocampal neurons and their tiny dendrites and spines. Simultaneous imaging and patch clamp recording revealed that in mature neurons, the novel protocol allows detection of as little as 2 mM changes of [Cl(-)]i from the resting level of 5-10 mM. We demonstrate also a usefulness of the developed [Cl(-)]i measurement procedure for large scale screening of the activity of exogenously expressed potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, a major neuronal Cl(-) extruder that is implicated in numerous neurological disorders and is a target for novel therapeutical treatments.

  19. Improved method for efficient imaging of intracellular Cl- with Cl-Sensor using conventional fluorescence setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine eFriedel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chloride (Cl- homeostasis is known to be fundamental for central nervous system functioning. Alterations in intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i and changes in the efficacy of Cl- extrusion are involved in numerous neurological disorders. Therefore there is a strong need for studies of the dynamics of [Cl-]i in different cell types under physiological conditions and during pathology. Several previous works reported having successfully achieved recording of [Cl-]i using genetically encoded Cl-Sensor that is composed of the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP and Cl--sensitive mutant of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFPCl. However all reported works were performed using specially designed setups with ultra-sensitive CCD cameras. Our multiple attempts to monitor Cl--dependent fluorescence of Cl-Sensor using conventional epifluorescence microscopes did not yield successful results. In the present work, we have analysed the reason of our failures and found that they were caused by a strong inactivation of the YFPCl component of Cl-Sensor during excitation of the CFP with 430 nm light. Based on the obtained results, we reduced 20-fold the intensity of the 430 nm excitation and modified the recording protocol that allows now stable long-lasting ratiometric measurements of Cl-Sensor fluorescence in different cell types including cultured hippocampal neurons and their tiny dendrites and spines. Simultaneous imaging and patch clamp recording revealed that in mature neurons, the novel protocol allows detection of as little as 2 mM changes of [Cl-]i from the resting level of 5-10 mM. We demonstrate also a usefulness of the developed [Cl-]i measurement procedure for large scale screening of the activity of exogenously expressed potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, a major neuronal Cl- extruder, that is implicated in numerous neurological disorders and is a target for novel therapeutical treatments.

  20. Structure and function of collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Lana; Hansen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    The collectins are a group of innate immune proteins structurally characterized by their content of a carbohydrate recognition domain and a collagen-like region. Collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin 11 (CL-11, alias collectin kidney 1, CL-K1) are the more recently described members of this group...... to deficiencies have recently been identified as causative for 3MC syndrome. The 3MC syndrome is associated with a wide spectrum of developmental features including facial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, hearing loss and vesicorenal anomalies. Similar polymorphic associations were reported for the mannan...

  1. Disrupted Cl(-) homeostasis contributes to reductions in the inhibitory efficacy of diazepam during hyperexcited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Tarek Z; Nakamura, Yasuko; Frost, Greg D; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2013-08-01

    The K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter type 2 is the major Cl(-) extrusion mechanism in most adult neurons. This process in turn leads to Cl(-) influx upon activation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptors and the canonical hyperpolarising inhibitory postsynaptic potential. Several neurological disorders are treated with drugs that target and enhance GABAA receptor signaling, including the commonly used benzodiazepine diazepam and the anesthetic propofol. Some of these disorders are also associated with deficits in GABAA signaling and become less sensitive to therapeutic drugs that target GABAA receptors. To date, it is unknown if alterations in the neuronal Cl(-) gradient affect the efficacies of diazepam and propofol. We therefore used the in vitro model of glutamate-induced hyperexcitability to test if alterations in the Cl(-) gradient affect the efficacy of GABAA modulators. We exclusively utilised the gramicidin perforated-patch-clamp configuration to preserve the endogenous Cl(-) gradient in rat neurons. Brief exposure to glutamate reduced the inhibitory efficacy of diazepam within 5 min, which was caused by the collapse of the Cl(-) gradient, and not due to reductions in GABAA receptor number. Unlike diazepam, propofol retained its efficacy by shunting the membrane conductance despite the glutamate-induced appearance of depolarising GABAA -mediated currents. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter type 2 by furosemide disrupted Cl(-) homeostasis and reduced the efficacy of diazepam but not propofol. Collectively our results suggest that pathological hyperexcitable conditions could cause the rapid accumulation of intracellular Cl(-) and the appearance of depolarising GABAA -mediated currents that would decrease the efficacy of diazepam.

  2. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  3. Deposition of Cl-doped CdTe polycrystalline films by close-spaced sublimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Kohei; Akiba, Sho; Yasuda, Nao [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kisarazu College, 2-11-1 Kiyomidai-higashi, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0041 (Japan); Tokuda, Satoshi; Kishihara, Hiroyuki; Ichioka, Akina; Doki, Takahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki [Technology Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation, 3-9-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    The effects of Cl-doping on the CdTe layers by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) deposition were investigated. Cl-doped CdTe polycrystalline films were deposited on graphite substrates by CSS method using a mixture of CdTe and CdCl{sub 2} powder as a source. In X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the obtained films with various deposition times, many diffraction peaks other than CdTe peaks were observed in the deposition times lower than 10 min. These diffraction peaks were probably due to the formation of chlorides of Cd, Te and C, such as CdCl{sub 2}, TeCl{sub 4}, Te{sub 3}Cl{sub 2} and C{sub 10}Cl{sub 8}. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses revealed that a large amount of chlorine was contained in the films with the deposition times lower than 10 min, and that Cl concentration decreased with increasing the deposition time above 3 min. These results indicate that the films containing the chlorides of Cd, Te and C in addition to CdTe are formed in the initial stage of the CSS deposition using a mixture of CdTe and CdCl{sub 2} powder as a source. Cross-sectional images revealed that the grain size was decreased by the effect of Cl-doping. Furthermore, current-voltage (I -V) characteristics of the CdTe/graphite structures were measured, and it was found that the resistivity of the Cl-doped CdTe layer was much higher than that of the undoped CdTe layer. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A DFT study of the extractive desulfurization mechanism by [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Chang, Yonghui; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Xia, Jiexiang; Yin, Sheng; Li, Huaming

    2015-05-14

    In this work, the interaction nature between [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) ionic liquid (IL) and aromatic sulfur compounds (thiophene, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene) has been studied by means of density functional theory (M06-2X functional) combined with an implicit solvation model. Although [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) is a metal-containing IL, its extractive desulfurization mechanism is different from other metal-containing ILs but similar to non-metal-containing ILs. Important reactions involved in extractive desulfurization (EDS) were systematically studied. Our results have demonstrated that both the cation and the anion play important roles in EDS. On the basis of the structure analysis, reduced density gradient analaysis (RDG), and energy decomposition analysis, [BMIM](+) cation affords a π-π interaction while [AlCl4](-) anion provides a hydrogen bonding interaction. Electrostatic potential analysis implies the dominant π-π interaction and hydrogen bonding interaction are driven by electrostatic interaction between IL and aromatic sulfur compounds. Interaction energy between [BMIM](+)[AlCl4](-) and thiophene (TH), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) follows the order TH < BT < DBT. Moreover, Al-containing IL with a high molar ratio of AlCl3 ([BMIMCl]/2[AlCl3]) has also been studied. Results show that [Al2Cl7](-) species will be formed with excess AlCl3. However, the [Al2Cl7](-)-based IL cannot improve the EDS performance. Improvement of EDS performance with a high molar ratio of AlCl3 is credited to the Lewis acidity of AlCl3. Charge analysis reveals that there is no obvious charge transfer during the reaction, which is different from Fe-containing ILs as well as solid sorbents. In addition, CH-π interaction is not important for the current system.

  5. OpenCL parallel programming development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    OpenCL Parallel Programming Development Cookbook will provide a set of advanced recipes that can be utilized to optimize existing code. This book is therefore ideal for experienced developers with a working knowledge of C/C++ and OpenCL.This book is intended for software developers who have often wondered what to do with that newly bought CPU or GPU they bought other than using it for playing computer games; this book is also for developers who have a working knowledge of C/C++ and who want to learn how to write parallel programs in OpenCL so that life isn't too boring.

  6. Direct block of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel by niflumic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Ward, T S; Li, H; Schmidt, A; Cai, Z; Sheppard, D N

    2004-01-01

    Niflumic acid is widely used to inhibit Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels. However, the chemical structure of niflumic acid resembles that of diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, a drug that inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel. To investigate how niflumic acid inhibits CFTR Cl(-) channel, we studied recombinant wild-type human CFTR in excised inside-out membrane patches. When added to the intracellular solution, niflumic acid caused a concentration- and voltage-dependent decrease of CFTR Cl(-) current with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (K(i)) of 253 microM and Hill co-efficient of approximately 1, at -50 mV. Niflumic acid inhibition of single CFTR Cl(-) channels was characterized by a very fast, flickery block that decreased dramatically current amplitude without altering open-probability. Consistent with these data, spectral analysis of CFTR Cl(-) currents suggested that channel block by niflumic acid was described by the closed open blocked kinetic scheme with blocker on rate (k(on)) = 13.9 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), off rate (k(off))=3348 s(-1) and dissociation constant (K(d)) = 241 microM, at -50 mV. Based on these data, we tested the effects of niflumic acid on transepithelial Cl(-) secretion and cyst growth using type I MDCK epithelial cells. Niflumic acid (200 microM) inhibited cAMP-stimulated, bumetanide-sensitive short-circuit current by 55%. Moreover, the drug potently retarded cyst growth. We conclude that niflumic acid is an open-channel blocker of CFTR that inhibits Cl(-) permeation by plugging the channel pore. It or related agents might be of value in the development of new therapies for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  7. AcEST: CL106Contig2 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL106Contig2 955 6 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL106contig2 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...6Contig2 Contig ID CL106Contig2 Length 955 Number of clones 6 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL10

  8. AcEST: CL1404Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1404Contig1 1301 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1404contig1 sequence. Link... to clone list Show CL1404Contig1 Contig ID CL1404Contig1 Length 1301 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1404contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959777 DK

  9. AcEST: CL2584Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2584Contig1 1164 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2584contig1 sequence. Link... to clone list Show CL2584Contig1 Contig ID CL2584Contig1 Length 1164 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2584contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948731 DK

  10. AcEST: CL1714Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1714Contig1 1002 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1714contig1 sequence. Link... to clone list Show CL1714Contig1 Contig ID CL1714Contig1 Length 1002 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1714contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911909 DK

  11. Observation of functional remodeling of Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in pacing-induced canine failing heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦介麟

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study whether Ca2+-activated Cl-current (Ito2) contributes to the functional remodeling of the failing heart. Methods The cardiac myocytes were isolated enzymatically from rapidly pacing-induced failing canine hearts (HF) at room temperature. Patch-Clamp whole cell recording technique was employed to record the Ito2.The Cl- transport blocker 4,4’-diisothiocyanos-

  12. Tmem16A encodes the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Victor G; Catalán, Marcelo A; Brown, David A; Putzier, Ilva; Hartzell, H Criss; Marmorstein, Alan D; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Rock, Jason R; Harfe, Brian D; Melvin, James E

    2010-04-23

    Activation of an apical Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channel (CaCC) is the rate-limiting step for fluid secretion in many exocrine tissues. Here, we compared the properties of native CaCC in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells to the Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents generated by Tmem16A and Best2, members from two distinct families of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels found in salivary glands. Heterologous expression of Tmem16A and Best2 transcripts in HEK293 cells produced Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents with time and voltage dependence and inhibitor sensitivity that resembled the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current found in native salivary acinar cells. Best2(-/-) and Tmem16A(-/-) mice were used to further characterize the role of these channels in the exocrine salivary gland. The amplitude and the biophysical footprint of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in submandibular gland acinar cells from Best2-deficient mice were the same as in wild type cells. Consistent with this observation, the fluid secretion rate in Best2 null mice was comparable with that in wild type mice. In contrast, submandibular gland acinar cells from Tmem16A(-/-) mice lacked a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current and a Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonist failed to stimulate Cl(-) efflux, requirements for fluid secretion. Furthermore, saliva secretion was abolished by the CaCC inhibitor niflumic acid in wild type and Best2(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that both Tmem16A and Best2 generate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in vitro with similar properties to those expressed in native cells, yet only Tmem16A appears to be a critical component of the acinar Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel complex that is essential for saliva production by the submandibular gland.

  13. NaCl (mM)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... MDA was determined for aerial parts following a published procedure .... MDA, a generic biomarker for membrane damage. (Elkahoui et al. ..... acid and essential oil composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L,) leaves under NaCl ...

  14. LatticeQCD using OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Matthias; Pinke, Christopher; Schäfer, Christian; Zeidlewicz, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We report on our implementation of LatticeQCD applications using OpenCL. We focus on the general concept and on distributing different parts on hybrid systems, consisting of both CPUs (Central Processing Units) and GPUs (Graphic Processing Units).

  15. On Sensitivity of HE CL-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu. V. Sheikov; L. A. Andrievskikh; V. G. Vasipenko; S. A. Vakhmistrov; N. N. Zhbanova; V. B. Kosolapov; L.V.Fomicheva

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recently a series of publications appeared in literature devoted to study of properties of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitan( CL-20), which is considered as an explosive with performance higher than that of HMX, and which has moderate sensitivity[1].

  16. Problems of contamination in 36Cl studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. R.; Shahgholi, N.; Jenkinson, A.; Smith, A.; Fifield, L. K.; Ophel, T.; Allan, G.

    1990-12-01

    The joint ANSTO/ANU 36Cl program has now measured more than 700 samples from many different locations. During the course of this work, a variety of contamination problems have affected a small number of results which have provided valuable information on the effects of ion source cross-talk, sample preparation and storage procedures and sources of high- 36Cl material. A sample of Weeks Island halite is processed along with every batch of field samples and the observed ratio provides a clear distinction between normal batches and those subject to contamination. Over three years, the long-term average ratio of {36Cl}/{Cl} for normal halite samples is (1 ± 1) × 10 -15. The sample handling procedures developed during the course of this work provide a useful guide to the techniques that must be used to achieve the sensitivity limits which are potentially available using AMS.

  17. FeCl3 catalyzed diarylmethanes formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Xian Li; Zheng Duan; Yang Jie Wu

    2009-01-01

    Under mild condition,using FeCl3 as catalyst,a series of functionalized diarylmethanes were prepared efficiently from the reactions of arenes with paraformaldehyde.This catalytic system is not sensitive to air and moisture.

  18. Equations for calculation of NaCl/( NaCl + CaCl2 ) ratios and salinities from hydrohalite-melting and ice-melting temperatures in the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 system%利用H2O-NaCl-CaCl2体系水盐化合物和冰的融化温度计算NaCl/(NaCl+CaCl2)比值和盐度的方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxiang Chi; Pei Ni

    2007-01-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions in the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 system has been generally graphically estimated using the melting temperatures of hydrohalite ( Tm-HH ) and ice ( Tm-ice ). Here we present two equations that can be used to calculate the relative proportion of NaCl ( i. e. , NaCt/[ NaCl + CaCl2 ], or XNaCl) and the total salinity ( i. e. , NaCl + CaCl2, wt% ) for fluid inclusions with ice as the last melting phase. XNaCl can be calculated from Tm-HH using the following equation:y= ( a + bx)-1/c where y is XNaCl, x is Tm-HH, a =0. 33124402, b = -0.031518028, and c =0. 22932736. In the cases where only Tm-ice is measured and Tm-HH is not known, Tm-ice can be used as the maximum possible Tm-HH to calculate the maximum value of XNaCl using the above equation. In these cases, the following equation can be used to calculate the maximum total salinity: y = (a +bx +cx2) -1 where y is salinity, x is Tm-HH, a = 0. 057184817, b = 0. 00078565757, and c = 5. 7262766E-6. Because the isothems in the field of ice are sub-parallel to the NaCl-CaCl2 binary side in the H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 ternary system, the errors in salinity calculation introduced by the above approximation are small ( less than 2 wt% ). A Windows program for calculation of XNacl and salinity is available at: http ://uregina. ca/~ chiguox.

  19. OpenCL programming using Python syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2013-01-01

    We describe ocl, a Python library built on top of p yOpenCL and numpy. It allows programming GPU devices using Python. Python functions which ar e marked up using the provided decorator, are converted into C99/OpenCL and compil ed using the JIT at runtime. This approach lowers the barrier to entry to programming GPU devices since it requires only Python syntax and no external compilation or linkin g steps. The resulting Pyth...

  20. "JCE" Classroom Activity Connections: NaCl or CaCl[subscript 2], Smart Polymer Gel Tells More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; Lin, Jia-Ying; Wang, Yu-Chen; Yaung, Jing-Fun

    2010-01-01

    This classroom activity connection demonstrates the differences between the effects of NaCl (a salt of monovalent metal ions) and CaCl[subscript 2] (a salt of polyvalent metal ions) on swollen superabsorbent polymer gels. Being ionic compounds, NaCl and CaCl[subscript 2] both collapse the swollen polymer gels. The gel contracted by NaCl reswells…

  1. Experimental Study of Codeposition Electrochemistry Using Mixtures of ScCl3 and YCl3 in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt at 500°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltry, Michael R.; Yoo, Tae-Sic; Fredrickson, Guy L.

    2017-09-12

    Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry tests were applied to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 500 °C including amounts of ScCl3 and YCl3. The purpose of the testing was to observe the effect of applied electrical current on the codeposition of scandium and yttrium, which were chosen as surrogate elements for uranium and plutonium, respectively. Features of the work were to vary the concentration of ScCl3 (at relatively low concentrations) as well as varying the applied current, all with a fixed concentration of YCl3. Results of the experiments could provide insight of uranium electrorefining and may provide evidence, which suggests the electrorefiner could be operated at lower UCl3 concentration whereby codeposition (U and Pu) could be more effectively controlled.

  2. Photofragmentation of CF{sub 3}Cl following photoabsorption in the Cl-ls threshold region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, D.W.; Manner, W.L.; Steinbeck, L. [and others

    1993-05-01

    Measurements of photofragmentation of CF{sub 3}Cl near the Cl-ls threshold (hv=2.8 keV) are reported. Because of the dominant decay mode of a Cl-ls hole state, Auger-electron emission, usually occurs sequentially in a vacancy cascade, high degrees of ionization of the parent molecule are induced. As a result, the observed photofragment-ion spectra of CF{sub 3}Cl contain primarily singly and multiply charged atomic fragments. Based on modelling of the spectral peak shapes, these fragments have a wide range of kinetic energies due to the dissociation process. Changes in peak shapes are observed following resonant excitation, as oppossed to ionization, of the Cl-ls electron, and may be due to either sequential fragmentation of CF{sub 3}Cl{sup n+} or to angular-distribution effects due to alignment of the initially excited resonant state.

  3. Reduction behavior of cerium(Ⅲ) ions in NaCl-2CsCl melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xue; ZHU Hongmin

    2005-01-01

    The cathodic process of cerium(Ⅲ) ions in NaCl-2CsCl melt was studied by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry with tungsten and gold electrodes at 873 K. The two electroanalytical methods yield similar results. The cathodic process of cerium(Ⅲ) ions consists of two reversible steps: Ce3+ + e-= Ce2+ and Ce2+ + 2e-= Ce. The half wave potentials of Ce3+/Ce2+ and Ce2+/Ce were determined as -2.525 V vs. Cl2/Cl- and -2.975 V vs. Cl2/Cl-, respectively. The diffusion coefficient of Ce3+ was also determined as 5.5 × 10-5 cm2·s-1.

  4. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  5. Quantum chemical study of chlorine-dissociation of oxalyl chloride (ClCO)2→2Cl + 2CO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Nianzhen; (戴年珍); LI; Zonghe; (李宗和)

    2003-01-01

    The multi-bond dissociation dynamics of oxalyl chloride ((ClCO)2) is investigated by ab initio calculation. Dissociation of C-Cl bond of oxalyl chloride in the ground state is of barrierless. After the absorption of a photon, (ClCO)2 is excited to the first excited state and one of its C-Cl bonds is broken toyield Cl and ClCOCO* free radicals. In addition, ClCOCO* with high energy is prone to release energy (Q), and to turn into ClCOCO in the ground state. The energy (Q) is adequate for ClCOCO to break down into ClCO and CO, and even for ClCO into Cl and CO. The result is consistent with the experimental data that Kong reported.

  6. Dynamics of Ca2+-dependent Cl- channel modulation by niflumic acid in rabbit coronary arterial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Greenwood, Iain A; Leblanc, Normand

    2005-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (Cl(Ca)) are crucial regulators of vascular tone by promoting a depolarizing influence on the resting membrane potential of vascular smooth muscle cells. Niflumic acid (NFA), a potent blocker of Cl(Ca) in vascular myocytes, was shown recently to cause inhibition and paradoxical stimulation of sustained calcium-activated chloride currents [I(Cl(Ca))] in rabbit pulmonary artery myocytes. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether NFA produced a similar dual effect in coronary artery smooth muscle cells and to determine the concentration-dependence and dynamics of such a phenomenon. Sustained I(Cl(Ca)) evoked by intracellular Ca(2+) clamped at 500 nM were dose-dependently inhibited by NFA (IC(50) = 159 microM) and transiently augmented in a concentration-independent manner (10 microM to 1 mM) approximately 2-fold after NFA removal. However, the time to peak and duration of NFA-enhanced I(Cl(Ca)) increased in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, the rate of recovery was reduced by membrane depolarization, suggesting the involvement of a voltage-dependent step in the interaction of NFA, leading to stimulation of I(Cl(Ca)). Computer simulations derived from a kinetic model involving low (K(i) = 1.25 mM) and high (K(i) < 30 microM) affinity sites could reproduce the properties of the NFA-modulated I(Cl(Ca)) fairly well.

  7. The Production and Characterization of Ceramic Carbon Electrode Materials for CuCl-HCl Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Patrick

    Current H2 gas supplies are primarily produced through steam methane reforming and other fossil fuel based processes. This lack of viable large scale and environmentally friendly H2 gas production has hindered the wide spread adoption of H2 fuel cells. A potential solution to this problem is the Cu-Cl hybrid thermochemical cycle. The cycle captures waste heat to drive two thermochemical steps creating CuCl as well as O2 gas and HCl from CuCl2 and water. The CuCl is oxidized in HCl to produce H2 gas and regenerate CuCl2, this process occurs at potentials well below those required for water electrolysis. The electrolysis process occurs in a traditional PEM fuel-cell. In the aqueous anolyte media Cu(I) will form anionic complexes such as CuCl 2 - or CuCl32-. The slow transport of these species to the anode surface limits the overall electrolysis process. To improve this transport process we have produced ceramic carbon electrode (CCE) materials through a sol-gel method incorporating a selection of amine containing silanes with increasing numbers of primary and secondary amines. When protonated these amines allow for improved transport of anionic copper complexes. The electrochemical and physical characterization of these CCE materials in a half and full-cell electrolysis environment will be presented. Electrochemical analysis was performed using cell polarization, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  8. Situación actual de la nutrición clínica en la red de hospitales públicos de Castilla y León Current status of clinical nutrition at the network of public hospitals from Castilla y León

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. de Luis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La nutrición clínica se ha ido implantando paulatinamente en los diferentes Centros de Atención Sanitaria a nivel nacional siguiendo la experiencia de otros países como Francia, Canadá, Gran Bretaña, y Estados Unidos. Por tanto nos planteamos en nuestro trabajo determinar la situación funcional y recursos de las Unidades de Nutrición de los Hospitales de la red pública(SACYL de la Comunidad de Castilla y León. Material y métodos: Se realizó una encuesta (fig. 1, remitida a todos los Hospitales de la red pública de la Comunidad de Castilla y León (SACYL. La encuesta fue remitida a los Hospitales de nuestra Comunidad; Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Hospital Comarcal de Medina del Campo, Hospital General Yagüe-Divino Vallés (Burgos, Complejo Hospitalario de León, Hospital General de Segovia, Hospital Virgen de Sonsoles de Ávila, Hospital Virgen de la Concha de Zamora, Hospital Comarcal de Aranda de Duero, Hospital Comarcal de Miranda, Hospital General de Soria, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca. Resultados: Del total de 12 Hospitales encuestados contestaron nueve, realizándose el estudio con estos Centros y considerando representativa la muestra al suponer un 75% de los encuestados. Un total de 5 Hospitales reconocía disponer de una Unidad de Nutrición clínica estructurada(55,6%. Los resultados muestran una media de 0,37± 0,55 especialista por cada 400 camas, 0,87 ± 0,63 enfermera por cada 400 camas y 1,91 ± 2,3 auxiliar por cada 400 camas, con una media de 0,21 ± 0,41 especialista por 100.000 habitantes, 0,49 ± 0,36 enfermera por 100.000 habitantes y 1,09 ± 1,2 auxiliares por 100.000 habitantes La actividad asistencial de estas Unidades se ve reflejada a modo de interconsulta desde otras Unidades o Servicios, recibiendo una media de 3,2 ± 3,4 interconsultas/día. La principal patología que motiva la realización de una interconsulta a una Unidad de

  9. Clérambault: o gozo feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Haddad Marques Massara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta casos clínicos atendidos na Enfermaria de Alienados de Paris pelo psiquiatra Gaëtan de Clérambault. As pacientes eram detidas pela polícia quando furtavam pedaços de seda em grandes lojas da cidade. No decorrer do acompanhamento clínico descobriu-se uma atração doentia das mesmas pela seda, e uma compulsão cleptomaníaca por furtá-las. O estudo sistemático desses casos levou a formulação de uma hipótese diagnóstica: as pacientes apresentavam uma doença histérica cujo sintoma prevalente consistia em uma paixão arrebatadora por tecidos, utilizados para atingir o gozo sexual. O esforço de sistematização desses casos clínicos levou o médico a escrever o livro, Paixão erótica pelos tecidos na mulher. A discussão romanceada das histórias das pacientes cleptomaníacas tornou-se um dos textos mais curiosos da literatura psiquiátrica. Esse artigo pretende, a partir dos casos das pacientes de Clérambault, apresentar reflexões a respeito do gozo feminino em Jacques Lacan.

  10. Electrochemical deposition of La-Mg alloys in LaCl3-MgCl2-KCl system with molten salt electrolysis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Kumar D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La-Mg alloys of different compositions were prepared by electrolysis of LaCl3-MgCl2-KCl melts. Different phases of La-Mg alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES analyses showed that chemical compositions of La-Mg alloys were consistent with phase structures of XRD pattern, and magnesium content in the alloy could be controlled by electrolysis parameters. The effects of various process parameters such as concentration of magnesium chloride in the bath, temperature of electrolysis and cathode current density on the current efficiency have been investigated. A maximum current efficiency of 85% and yield of 80% was obtained from the bath at 12.5A/cm2 current density at an operating temp 850°C.

  11. Performance of the modified DREAMS ion source for {sup 36}Cl applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Ziegenruecker, Rene [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    First analyses of real {sup 36}Cl-AMS samples were performed with the newly developed low memory-effect ion source at the DREsden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (DREAMS) facility. Considerable improvements have been reached with respect to the overall ion source performance. Especially, parameters like current output, ion source fractionation effects, normalization factors, blank values and sulphur suppression factors have been investigated to enhance accuracy of {sup 36}Cl-data. Applications cover a wide spectrum, which implies also highly variable {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35+37}Cl-ratios ranging from nearly background level of ∝10{sup -15} up to 10{sup -10}. Samples from aquifers in arid regions for groundwater dating and modelling were analysed. Meteorite samples were measured to investigate the constancy of the galactic cosmic radiation, production rates from sulphur, and reconstruction of exposure histories of individual meteorites.

  12. Electrochemistry study on PEO-LiClO4-ZSM5 composite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jingyu; MA Xiaomei; CUI Mengzhong; HUANG Xiaobin; ZHENG Zhen; TANG Xiaozhen

    2004-01-01

    A novel all solid-state composite polymer electrolyte, PEO-LiClO4-LiZSM5, by using "shape-selective" molecular sieves ZSM-5 as filler was obtained by the solvent casting method. The experimental results showed that the addition of LiZSM5 could enhance the ionic conductivity of the pristine PEO-LiClO4 electrolyte, the ionic conductivity of PEO10-LiClO4-10%LiZSM5 achieved 1.4×10-5 S cm-1 at 25℃. Lithium ion transference number was tested by AC impedance combined with the steady-state current method, the results showed that LiZSM5 could improve the Li+ transference number of the CPE effectively. The broad electrochemical stability window ensured the use of PEO-Li- ClO4-LiZSM5 as electrolyte materials for all solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  13. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimakura, H. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Ohara, K. [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, T. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  14. Critical Electron-Paramagnetic-Resonance Spin Dynamics in NiCl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Rupp, L.W.; Guggenheim, H.J.;

    1973-01-01

    We have studied the critical behavior of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance linewidth in the planar XY antiferromagnet NiCl2; it is found that the linewidth diverges like ξ∼(T-TN)-0.7 rather than ξ5/2 predicted by the current random-phase-approximation theory.......We have studied the critical behavior of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance linewidth in the planar XY antiferromagnet NiCl2; it is found that the linewidth diverges like ξ∼(T-TN)-0.7 rather than ξ5/2 predicted by the current random-phase-approximation theory....

  15. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  16. OpenCL programming by example

    CERN Document Server

    Banger, Ravishekhar

    2013-01-01

    This book follows an example-driven, simplified, and practical approach to using OpenCL for general purpose GPU programming.If you are a beginner in parallel programming and would like to quickly accelerate your algorithms using OpenCL, this book is perfect for you! You will find the diverse topics and case studies in this book interesting and informative. You will only require a good knowledge of C programming for this book, and an understanding of parallel implementations will be useful, but not necessary.

  17. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  18. The kinetics of the ClOOCl catalytic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Timothy P.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wilmouth, David M.

    2016-11-01

    We use simultaneous in situ observations of [ClO] and [ClOOCl] obtained in the Arctic polar vortex to evaluate the kinetics of the ClOOCl catalytic cycle. Available laboratory measurements of the ClOOCl absorption cross sections, the ClO + ClO + M reaction rate constant, and the ClO/ClOOCl equilibrium constant are considered, along with compendium evaluations of these kinetic parameters. We show that the most recent (year 2015) recommendations for the kinetics that govern the partitioning of ClO and ClOOCl put forth by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) panel are in extremely good agreement with the atmospheric observations of [ClO] and [ClOOCl]. Hence, we suggest that studies of polar ozone loss adopt these most recent recommendations. The most important difference with respect to calculations that rely on older recommendations is the temperature at which loss of O3 by the ClOOCl catalytic cycle terminates. The latest JPL recommendation for the equilibrium constant suggests that ClOOCl is less stable than previously assumed, resulting in an approximate 2°C downward shift in the termination temperature of polar ozone loss due to the ClOOCl catalytic cycle. Remaining uncertainties in our knowledge of the kinetics that govern the partitioning of ClO and ClOOCl within the activated vortex, and hence the efficiency of O3 loss by the ClOOCl cycle, will be best addressed by future laboratory determinations of the absolute cross section of ClOOCl at the peak (i.e., close to a wavelength of 245 nm) as well as reduced uncertainty in the rate constant of the ClO + ClO + M reaction.

  19. AcEST: CL105Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL105Contig1 747 18 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL105contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...5Contig1 Contig ID CL105Contig1 Length 747 Number of clones 18 Definition Adiantum cap

  20. AcEST: CL434Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL434Contig1 697 6 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL434contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL434C...ontig1 Contig ID CL434Contig1 Length 697 Number of clones 6 Definition Adiantum capil

  1. AcEST: CL674Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL674Contig1 641 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL674contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL674C...ontig1 Contig ID CL674Contig1 Length 641 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  2. AcEST: CL814Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL814Contig1 558 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL814contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL814C...ontig1 Contig ID CL814Contig1 Length 558 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  3. AcEST: CL994Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL994Contig1 682 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL994contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL994C...ontig1 Contig ID CL994Contig1 Length 682 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum capil

  4. AcEST: CL894Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL894Contig1 555 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL894contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL894C...ontig1 Contig ID CL894Contig1 Length 555 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  5. AcEST: CL744Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL744Contig1 831 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL744contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL744C...ontig1 Contig ID CL744Contig1 Length 831 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  6. AcEST: CL324Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL324Contig1 723 7 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL324contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL324C...ontig1 Contig ID CL324Contig1 Length 723 Number of clones 7 Definition Adiantum capil

  7. AcEST: CL474Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL474Contig1 551 6 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL474contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL474C...ontig1 Contig ID CL474Contig1 Length 551 Number of clones 6 Definition Adiantum capil

  8. AcEST: CL984Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL984Contig1 627 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL984C...ontig1 Contig ID CL984Contig1 Length 627 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum capil

  9. AcEST: CL94Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL94Contig1 1752 20 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL94contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL94C...ontig1 Contig ID CL94Contig1 Length 1752 Number of clones 20 Definition Adiantum capil

  10. AcEST: CL504Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL504Contig1 794 5 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL504contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL504C...ontig1 Contig ID CL504Contig1 Length 794 Number of clones 5 Definition Adiantum capil

  11. AcEST: CL854Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL854Contig1 560 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL854contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL854C...ontig1 Contig ID CL854Contig1 Length 560 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  12. AcEST: CL924Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL924Contig1 673 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL924contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL924C...ontig1 Contig ID CL924Contig1 Length 673 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  13. AcEST: CL254Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL254Contig1 968 9 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL254contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL254C...ontig1 Contig ID CL254Contig1 Length 968 Number of clones 9 Definition Adiantum capil

  14. AcEST: CL64Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL64Contig1 1228 25 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL64contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL64C...ontig1 Contig ID CL64Contig1 Length 1228 Number of clones 25 Definition Adiantum capil

  15. Time and Spectrally Resolved Fluorescence of Cl*2 and ArCl* in Cl2 Doped Ar Under State Selective Pulsed Photoexcitation with Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T.; Jordan, B.; Zimmerer, G.; Haaks, D.; Le Calvé, J.; Castex, M.-C.

    1986-03-01

    Synchrotron Radiation is used to selectively excite chlorine and Cl2 doped argon in the VUV region. Stationary fluorescence and excitation spectra of the 11Σ{/u +}, 21Σ{/u +} and 23Π g Cl{2/*} states and of the ArCl*( B-X) transition are obtained. The excitation threshold of ArCl*( B) in Ar/Cl2 system is found to be 1,285±5 Å and that of ArCl( C) at ˜1,260 Å. The formation of ArCl* and Cl*2(23Π g) is discussed in terms of recent potential curves data. A detailed time resolved study is reported which allows us to determine precisely the radiative lifetime of ArCl*( B) state (5.2 ns) and numerous kinetic parameters of this system, to estimate the C state energy and to discuss the relaxation and mixing process of the ArCl*( B) and ( C) states. A two ladder multilevel kinetic model is described which accounts for the experimental results and shows the difficulty of studying this particular ArCl* system as compared to the closely related XeCl* and KrCl* ones.

  16. 离子液体[ bmim] Cl/AlCl3催化5-氰基吲哚酰化反应%Acylation of 5-cyanoindole catalyzed by ionic liquid[ bmim] Cl/AlCl3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云霞

    2015-01-01

    5-氰基吲哚与4-氯丁酰氯之间的傅-克酰化反应使用路易斯酸之类的催化剂(如AlCl3、FeCl3),反应产物复杂,无法分离出期望的产物5-氰基-3-(4-氯丁酰基)吲哚。在离子液体[bmim]Cl/AlCl3中,进行5-氰基吲哚与4-氯丁酰氯间的傅-克酰化反应,则反应的主产物是5-氰基-3-(4-氯丁酰基)吲哚,产物结构通过质谱与核磁共振氢谱表征。考察了[ bmim] Cl/AlCl3中AlCl3与[ bmim] Cl间的摩尔比以及[ bmim] Cl/AlCl3与5-氰基吲哚的摩尔比对该酰化反应的影响。结果表明,当n(AlCl3)∶n([bmim]Cl)=2.5∶1,n([bmim]Cl/AlCl3)∶n (5-氰基吲哚)=2∶1,室温下反应24 h,最大产率71.7%。%The product of Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction between 5-cyanoindole and 4-chlorobutyryl chloride used AlCl3 as catalyst was complicated,so that no 5-cyano-3-(4-chlorobutanoyl)indole could be isolated. The same reaction was conducted in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroaluminate([bmim] Cl/AlCl3 ),the major product was 5-cyano-3-(4-chlorobutanoyl) indole. Its structure was characterized by Mass and 1 H NMR. The effects of the molar rations of AlCl3 to[ bmim] Cl in[ bmim] Cl/AlCl3 and the molar ra-tio of[ bmim] Cl/AlCl3 to 5-cyanoindole on the acylation reaction were investigated. The results showed that suitable molar ratios of AlCl3 to[bmim]Cl in[bmim]Cl/AlCl3 were between 2. 5∶1,the molar ratio of[bmim]Cl/AlCl3 to 5-cyanoindole was 2∶1,reacting at room temperature for 24h,a good yield was obtained 71. 7%.

  17. Studies of ClO and BrO reactions important in the polar stratosphere: Kinetics and mechanism of the ClO+BrO and ClO+ClO reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Randall R.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    The reactions, BrO + ClO yields Br + ClOO (1a) yields Br + OClO (1b) yields BrCl + O2 (1c) and ClO + ClO yields Cl + CiOO (2a) yields Cl + OClO (2b) yields Cl2 + O2 (2c) yields (ClO)2 (2d) have assumed new importance in explaining the unusual springtime depletion of ozone observed in the Antarctic stratosphere. The mechanisms of these reactions involve the formation of metastable intermediates which subsequently decompose through several energetically allowed products providing the motivation to study these reactions using both the discharge flow-mass spectrometric and flash photolysis - ultraviolet absorption techniques. These methods have also been used to explore aspects of the kinetics and spectroscopy of the ClO dimer.

  18. [bmim]Cl/FeCl3离子液体的光谱表征%Characterization of [bmim]Cl/FeCl3 Ionic Liquid with Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学文; 赵锁奇; 张民

    2005-01-01

    [bmim]Cl/FeCl3 ionic liquids (where bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) were characterized by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), Raman and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra. The results show that Fe2Cl7- and FeClf ions are the principal anions in acidic ionic liquids, whose concentrations change with the content of FeCl3 and an equilibrium exists between them. An isosbestic point existing in FT-IR spectra indicates that an interaction involving at least two species occurs and their concentrations vary with acidity.Chemical shifts of the hydrogen located in the cations of ionic liquids are sensitive to the composition of ionic liquids.The change in chemical shifts may be explained in terms of anion-cation interactions. The chemical shifts of 2-H are affected by metal halides, which shift downfield and the 2-H is more deshielded with the increase in metal halides.

  19. Determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste from reactor decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Frøsig, Lars; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Cl-36 in nuclear waste such as graphite, heavy concrete, steel, aluminum, and lead was developed. Several methods were investigated for decomposing the samples. AgCl precipitation was used to separate Cl-36 from the matrix elements, followed by ion...... of this analytical method for Cl-36 is 14 mBq. The method has been used to determine Cl-36 in heavy concrete, aluminum, and graphite from the Danish DR-2 research reactor....

  20. AcEST: CL2030Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2030Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2030contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2030...Contig1 Contig ID CL2030Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2030contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913053 BP91

  1. AcEST: CL1707Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1707Contig1 774 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1707contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1707...Contig1 Contig ID CL1707Contig1 Length 774 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1707contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950158 DK95

  2. AcEST: CL2000Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2000Contig1 573 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2000...Contig1 Contig ID CL2000Contig1 Length 573 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK961207 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL2016Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2016Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2016...Contig1 Contig ID CL2016Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957912 DK95

  4. AcEST: CL1915Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1915Contig1 488 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1915contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1915...Contig1 Contig ID CL1915Contig1 Length 488 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1915contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914725 BP92

  5. AcEST: CL1069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1069Contig1 591 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...69Contig1 Contig ID CL1069Contig1 Length 591 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917473 BP92

  6. AcEST: CL1026Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1026Contig1 673 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1026contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...26Contig1 Contig ID CL1026Contig1 Length 673 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1026contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957514 DK96

  7. AcEST: CL1013Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1013Contig1 734 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1013contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...13Contig1 Contig ID CL1013Contig1 Length 734 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1013contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948774 DK94

  8. AcEST: CL1048Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1048Contig1 770 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1048contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...48Contig1 Contig ID CL1048Contig1 Length 770 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1048contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917101 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL1072Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1072Contig1 777 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1072contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...72Contig1 Contig ID CL1072Contig1 Length 777 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1072contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951675 DK96

  10. AcEST: CL1005Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1005Contig1 900 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1005contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...05Contig1 Contig ID CL1005Contig1 Length 900 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1005contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK944233 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL1064Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1064Contig1 652 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1064contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...64Contig1 Contig ID CL1064Contig1 Length 652 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1064contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957247 DK96

  12. AcEST: CL1043Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1043Contig1 878 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1043contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...43Contig1 Contig ID CL1043Contig1 Length 878 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1043contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959077 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL1081Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1081Contig1 708 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1081contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...81Contig1 Contig ID CL1081Contig1 Length 708 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1081contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947974 DK96

  14. AcEST: CL1034Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1034Contig1 1474 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1034contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...34Contig1 Contig ID CL1034Contig1 Length 1474 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1034contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK958212 DK

  15. AcEST: CL1086Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1086Contig1 736 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1086contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...86Contig1 Contig ID CL1086Contig1 Length 736 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1086contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916608 DK96

  16. AcEST: CL1078Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1078Contig1 774 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1078contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL10...78Contig1 Contig ID CL1078Contig1 Length 774 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1078contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949412 DK96

  17. AcEST: CL1938Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1938Contig1 1158 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1938contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL193...8Contig1 Contig ID CL1938Contig1 Length 1158 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1938contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947527 DK

  18. AcEST: CL3333Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3333Contig1 668 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3333contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL333...3Contig1 Contig ID CL3333Contig1 Length 668 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3333contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK944202 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL2015Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2015Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2015...Contig1 Contig ID CL2015Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945591 DK94

  20. AcEST: CL407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL407Contig1 1401 6 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL407contig1 sequence. Link t...illus-veneris contig: CL407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949437 DK95228...o clone list Show CL407Contig1 Contig ID CL407Contig1 Length 1401 Number of clones 6 Definition Adiantum cap

  1. AcEST: CL1011Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1011Contig1 773 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1011contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1011...Contig1 Contig ID CL1011Contig1 Length 773 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1011contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911446 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL1984Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1984Contig1 553 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1984...Contig1 Contig ID CL1984Contig1 Length 553 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919579 DK94

  3. AcEST: CL2904Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2904Contig1 681 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2904contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2904Contig1 Contig ID CL2904Contig1 Length 681 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2904contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912040 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2344Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2344Contig1 739 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2344contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2344Contig1 Contig ID CL2344Contig1 Length 739 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2344contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952121 DK96

  5. AcEST: CL3014Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3014Contig1 702 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3014contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3014Contig1 Contig ID CL3014Contig1 Length 702 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3014contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949230 DK96

  6. AcEST: CL3884Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3884Contig1 500 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3884contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3884Contig1 Contig ID CL3884Contig1 Length 500 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3884contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915289 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL3804Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3804Contig1 479 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3804contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3804Contig1 Contig ID CL3804Contig1 Length 479 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3804contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920197 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL3144Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3144Contig1 915 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3144contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3144Contig1 Contig ID CL3144Contig1 Length 915 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3144contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918197 DK94

  9. AcEST: CL3824Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3824Contig1 502 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3824contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3824Contig1 Contig ID CL3824Contig1 Length 502 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3824contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914362 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL1824Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1824Contig1 517 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1824contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1824Contig1 Contig ID CL1824Contig1 Length 517 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1824contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917421 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL3914Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3914Contig1 551 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3914contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3914Contig1 Contig ID CL3914Contig1 Length 551 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3914contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945967 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL4114Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4114Contig1 565 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4114contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4114Contig1 Contig ID CL4114Contig1 Length 565 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4114contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913130 BP92

  13. AcEST: CL3284Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3284Contig1 713 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3284contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3284Contig1 Contig ID CL3284Contig1 Length 713 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3284contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949414 DK95

  14. AcEST: CL884Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL884Contig1 1163 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL884contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL884C...ontig1 Contig ID CL884Contig1 Length 1163 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL884contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914973 BP91531

  15. AcEST: CL1394Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1394Contig1 558 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1394contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1394Contig1 Contig ID CL1394Contig1 Length 558 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1394contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920453 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL4014Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4014Contig1 714 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4014contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4014Contig1 Contig ID CL4014Contig1 Length 714 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4014contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947404 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL3114Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3114Contig1 525 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3114contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3114Contig1 Contig ID CL3114Contig1 Length 525 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3114contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912968 BP92

  18. AcEST: CL1574Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1574Contig1 763 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1574contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1574Contig1 Contig ID CL1574Contig1 Length 763 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1574contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950051 DK96

  19. AcEST: CL4054Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4054Contig1 560 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4054contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4054Contig1 Contig ID CL4054Contig1 Length 560 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4054contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912674 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2544Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2544Contig1 560 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2544contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2544Contig1 Contig ID CL2544Contig1 Length 560 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2544contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916245 DK94

  1. AcEST: CL1084Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1084Contig1 520 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1084contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1084Contig1 Contig ID CL1084Contig1 Length 520 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1084contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945364 DK94

  2. AcEST: CL2024Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2024Contig1 637 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2024contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2024Contig1 Contig ID CL2024Contig1 Length 637 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2024contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913935 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL1464Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1464Contig1 685 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1464contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1464Contig1 Contig ID CL1464Contig1 Length 685 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1464contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949355 DK95

  4. AcEST: CL1934Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1934Contig1 519 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1934contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1934Contig1 Contig ID CL1934Contig1 Length 519 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1934contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920422 BP92

  5. AcEST: CL2764Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2764Contig1 603 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2764contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2764Contig1 Contig ID CL2764Contig1 Length 603 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2764contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913002 BP92

  6. AcEST: CL3424Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3424Contig1 648 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3424contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3424Contig1 Contig ID CL3424Contig1 Length 648 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3424contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954761 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL1974Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1974Contig1 518 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1974contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1974Contig1 Contig ID CL1974Contig1 Length 518 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1974contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP921289 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL2234Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2234Contig1 492 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2234contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2234Contig1 Contig ID CL2234Contig1 Length 492 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2234contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915336 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL3034Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3034Contig1 636 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3034contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3034Contig1 Contig ID CL3034Contig1 Length 636 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3034contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954689 DK95

  10. AcEST: CL1284Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1284Contig1 438 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1284contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1284Contig1 Contig ID CL1284Contig1 Length 438 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1284contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914601 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL4224Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4224Contig1 552 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4224contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4224Contig1 Contig ID CL4224Contig1 Length 552 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4224contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914201 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL3174Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3174Contig1 676 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3174contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3174Contig1 Contig ID CL3174Contig1 Length 676 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3174contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953976 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL1964Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1964Contig1 560 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1964contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1964Contig1 Contig ID CL1964Contig1 Length 560 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1964contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918751 BP92

  14. AcEST: CL1334Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1334Contig1 575 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1334contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1334Contig1 Contig ID CL1334Contig1 Length 575 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1334contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947672 DK94

  15. AcEST: CL1044Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1044Contig1 597 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1044contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1044Contig1 Contig ID CL1044Contig1 Length 597 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1044contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915321 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL3774Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3774Contig1 541 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3774contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3774Contig1 Contig ID CL3774Contig1 Length 541 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3774contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918618 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL2694Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2694Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2694contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2694Contig1 Contig ID CL2694Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2694contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913050 BP91

  18. AcEST: CL494Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL494Contig1 1020 5 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL494contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL494C...ontig1 Contig ID CL494Contig1 Length 1020 Number of clones 5 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL494contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917437 DK95122

  19. AcEST: CL3844Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3844Contig1 539 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3844contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3844Contig1 Contig ID CL3844Contig1 Length 539 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3844contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919996 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2654Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2654Contig1 401 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2654contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2654Contig1 Contig ID CL2654Contig1 Length 401 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2654contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914911 BP92

  1. AcEST: CL1894Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1894Contig1 513 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1894contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1894Contig1 Contig ID CL1894Contig1 Length 513 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1894contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912406 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL3004Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3004Contig1 575 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3004contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3004Contig1 Contig ID CL3004Contig1 Length 575 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3004contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957195 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL4144Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4144Contig1 522 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4144contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4144Contig1 Contig ID CL4144Contig1 Length 522 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4144contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911500 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL3754Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3754Contig1 502 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3754contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3754Contig1 Contig ID CL3754Contig1 Length 502 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3754contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911704 BP91

  5. AcEST: CL3734Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3734Contig1 435 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3734contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3734Contig1 Contig ID CL3734Contig1 Length 435 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3734contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915370 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL2794Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2794Contig1 875 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2794contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2794Contig1 Contig ID CL2794Contig1 Length 875 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2794contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912545 DK94

  7. AcEST: CL2364Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2364Contig1 544 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2364contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2364Contig1 Contig ID CL2364Contig1 Length 544 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2364contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK958446 DK94

  8. AcEST: CL4234Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4234Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4234contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4234Contig1 Contig ID CL4234Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4234contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916636 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL3594Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3594Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3594contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3594Contig1 Contig ID CL3594Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3594contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954618 DK96

  10. AcEST: CL4124Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4124Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4124contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4124Contig1 Contig ID CL4124Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4124contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912126 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL114Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL114Contig1 1085 16 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL114contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL114Contig1 Contig ID CL114Contig1 Length 1085 Number of clones 16 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL114contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952446 DK951

  12. AcEST: CL2414Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2414Contig1 676 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2414contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2414Contig1 Contig ID CL2414Contig1 Length 676 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2414contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918455 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL1534Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1534Contig1 749 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1534contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1534Contig1 Contig ID CL1534Contig1 Length 749 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1534contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946474 DK95

  14. AcEST: CL3954Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3954Contig1 638 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3954contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3954Contig1 Contig ID CL3954Contig1 Length 638 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3954contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955379 DK95

  15. AcEST: CL3604Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3604Contig1 661 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3604contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3604Contig1 Contig ID CL3604Contig1 Length 661 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3604contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959814 DK96

  16. AcEST: CL3464Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3464Contig1 356 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3464contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3464Contig1 Contig ID CL3464Contig1 Length 356 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3464contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917276 BP91

  17. AcEST: CL4154Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4154Contig1 568 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4154contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4154Contig1 Contig ID CL4154Contig1 Length 568 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4154contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919307 DK95

  18. AcEST: CL1954Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1954Contig1 556 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1954contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1954Contig1 Contig ID CL1954Contig1 Length 556 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1954contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917469 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2634Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2634Contig1 518 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2634contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2634Contig1 Contig ID CL2634Contig1 Length 518 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2634contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920343 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL3354Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3354Contig1 666 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3354contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3354Contig1 Contig ID CL3354Contig1 Length 666 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3354contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959005 DK94

  1. AcEST: CL3244Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3244Contig1 517 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3244contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3244Contig1 Contig ID CL3244Contig1 Length 517 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3244contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916391 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL2834Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2834Contig1 590 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2834contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2834Contig1 Contig ID CL2834Contig1 Length 590 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2834contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917112 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL1854Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1854Contig1 957 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1854contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1854Contig1 Contig ID CL1854Contig1 Length 957 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1854contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950878 DK95

  4. AcEST: CL1644Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1644Contig1 704 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1644contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1644Contig1 Contig ID CL1644Contig1 Length 704 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1644contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953903 DK95

  5. AcEST: CL2974Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2974Contig1 795 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2974contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2974Contig1 Contig ID CL2974Contig1 Length 795 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2974contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK956785 DK95

  6. AcEST: CL1994Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1994Contig1 423 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1994contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1994Contig1 Contig ID CL1994Contig1 Length 423 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1994contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914351 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL3534Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3534Contig1 649 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3534contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3534Contig1 Contig ID CL3534Contig1 Length 649 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3534contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK961062 DK96

  8. AcEST: CL2164Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2164Contig1 578 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2164contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2164Contig1 Contig ID CL2164Contig1 Length 578 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2164contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913905 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL4184Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4184Contig1 497 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4184contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4184Contig1 Contig ID CL4184Contig1 Length 497 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4184contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP921440 BP92

  10. AcEST: CL1784Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1784Contig1 751 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1784contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1784Contig1 Contig ID CL1784Contig1 Length 751 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1784contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK963428 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL4044Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4044Contig1 720 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4044contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4044Contig1 Contig ID CL4044Contig1 Length 720 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4044contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949249 DK96

  12. AcEST: CL2094Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2094Contig1 919 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2094contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2094Contig1 Contig ID CL2094Contig1 Length 919 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2094contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950845 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL4134Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4134Contig1 750 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4134contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4134Contig1 Contig ID CL4134Contig1 Length 750 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4134contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955452 DK95

  14. AcEST: CL3104Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3104Contig1 570 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3104contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3104Contig1 Contig ID CL3104Contig1 Length 570 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3104contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919102 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL1154Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1154Contig1 540 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1154contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1154Contig1 Contig ID CL1154Contig1 Length 540 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1154contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912509 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL1884Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1884Contig1 844 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1884contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1884Contig1 Contig ID CL1884Contig1 Length 844 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1884contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950217 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL4084Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4084Contig1 645 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4084contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4084Contig1 Contig ID CL4084Contig1 Length 645 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4084contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954011 DK95

  18. AcEST: CL1224Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1224Contig1 575 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1224contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1224Contig1 Contig ID CL1224Contig1 Length 575 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1224contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914718 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL1864Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1864Contig1 575 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1864contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1864Contig1 Contig ID CL1864Contig1 Length 575 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1864contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK961644 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL3214Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3214Contig1 888 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3214contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3214Contig1 Contig ID CL3214Contig1 Length 888 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3214contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950230 DK96

  1. AcEST: CL184Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL184Contig1 600 12 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL184contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL184C...ontig1 Contig ID CL184Contig1 Length 600 Number of clones 12 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL184contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947517 DK94434

  2. AcEST: CL4074Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4074Contig1 512 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4074contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4074Contig1 Contig ID CL4074Contig1 Length 512 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4074contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915482 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL2704Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2704Contig1 551 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2704contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2704Contig1 Contig ID CL2704Contig1 Length 551 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2704contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917117 BP92

  4. AcEST: CL1873Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1873Contig1 641 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1873contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1873...Contig1 Contig ID CL1873Contig1 Length 641 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1873contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912694 BP92

  5. AcEST: CL1941Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1941Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1941...Contig1 Contig ID CL1941Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952552 DK95

  6. A re-evaluation of the ClO/Cl2O2 equilibrium constant based on stratospheric in-situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stroh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ClO and its dimer carried out during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL-EUPLEX and ENVISAT Validation campaigns in the Arctic winter 2003 suggest that the thermal equilibrium between the dimer formation and dissociation is shifted significantly towards the monomer compared to the current JPL 2002 recommendation. Detailed analysis of observations made in thermal equilibrium was used to re-evaluate the magnitude and temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. A fit of the JPL format for equilibrium constants yields KEQ=4.06×10−23exp(6201/T, but to reconcile the observations made at low temperatures with the existing laboratory studies at room temperature, a modified equation, KEQ=2.31×10−13(T/300−34.9exp( −1118/T, is required. This format can be rationalised by a strong temperature dependence of the reaction enthalpy possibly induced by Cl2O2 isomerism effects. At stratospheric temperatures, both equations are practically equivalent. Using the equilibrium constant reported here rather than the JPL 2002 recommendation in atmospheric models does not have a large impact on simulated ozone loss. Solely at large zenith angles after sunrise, a small decrease of the ozone loss rate due to the ClO dimer cycle and an increase due to the ClO-BrO cycle (attributed to the enhanced equilibrium ClO concentrations is observed, the net effect being a slightly stronger ozone loss rate. The effects of Cl2O2 isomerism are not studied in detail, but the presence of isomers other than ClOOCl would be expected to lead to reduced ozone loss.

  7. Study on Roasting Decomposition of Mixed Rare Earth Concentrate in CaO-NaCl-CaCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The decomposed process of bastnaesite, monazite and mixed rare earth concentrate in CaO-CaCl-CaCl2 was studied by means of TG-DTA method. The relationship among decomposition ratio, roasting temperature, and CaO-NaCl addition was studied by the quadratic regression orthogonal analysis, and then the regression equation was obtained. Through analysis, the optimum process conditions of mixed rare earth concentrate decomposed by CaO-CaCl-CaCl2 were obtained as follows: roasting temperature: 700 ℃, CaO addition: 15%, NaCl-CaCl2 addition: 10%, roasting time: 60 min, the decomposition ratio: 91.3%.

  8. Electrochemistry of Europium(III) Chloride in 3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl, and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl Eutectics at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report the effect of changing the eutectic melt composition on the electrochemical properties of europium(III) chloride under pyroprocessing conditions. The number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients were determined using various electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques in four different eutectic mixtures (3 LiCl - NaCl, 3 LiCl - 2 KCl, 3 LiCl - RbCl, and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl) while varying the temperature of the melt. It was determined that Eu3+ undergoes a one electron reduction to Eu2+ in each melt at all temperatures evaluated. Within all the melts a positive shift in the redox potential as well as an increase in the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ was observed as the temperature increased. Also observed was a positive shift in the redox potential and increase in the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ as the weighted average of the cationic radii for the melt decreased.

  9. Whole-cell chloride currents in rat astrocytes accompany changes in cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, C D; Kraig, R P

    1996-04-15

    Astrocytes can change shape dramatically in response to increased physiological and pathological demands, yet the functional consequences of morphological change are unknown. We report the expression of Cl- currents after manipulations that alter astrocyte morphology. Whole-cell Cl- currents were elicited after (1) rounding up cells by brief exposure to trypsin; (2) converting cells from a flat polygonal to a process-bearing (stellate) morphology by exposure to serum-free Ringer's solution; and (3) swelling cells by exposure to hypo-osmotic solution. Zero-current potentials approximated the Nernst for Cl-, and rectification usually followed that predicted by the constant-field equation. We observed heterogeneity in the activation and inactivation kinetics, as well as in the relative degree of outward versus inward rectification. Cl- conductances were inhibited by 4, 4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (200 microM) and by Zn2+ (1 mM). Whole-cell Cl- currents were not expressed in cells without structural change. We investigated whether changes in cytoskeletal actin accompanying changes in astrocytic morphology play a role in the induction of shape-dependent Cl- currents. Cytochalasins, which disrupt actin polymers by enhancing actin-ATP hydrolysis, elicited whole-cell Cl- conductances in flat, polygonal astrocytes. In stellate cells, elevated intracellular Ca2+ (2 microM), which can depolymerize actin, enhanced Cl- currents, and high intracellular ATP (5 mM), required for repolymerization, reduced Cl- currents. Modulation of Cl- current by Ca2+ and ATP was blocked by concurrent whole-cell dialysis with phalloidin and DNase, respectively. Phalloidin stabilizes actin polymers and DNase inhibits actin polymerization. Dialysis with phalloidin also prevented hypo-osmotically activated Cl- currents. These results demonstrate how the expression of astrocyte Cl- currents can be dependent on cell morphology, the structure of actin, Ca2+ homeostasis, and metabolism.

  10. A re-evaluation of the ClO/Cl2O2 equilibrium constant based on stratospheric in-situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. von Hobe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ measurements of ClO and its dimer carried out during the SOLVE II/VINTERSOL-EUPLEX and ENVISAT Validation campaigns in the Arctic winter 2003 suggest that the thermal equilibrium between the dimer formation and dissociation is shifted significantly towards the monomer compared to the current JPL 2002 recommendation. Detailed analysis of observations made in thermal equilibrium allowed to re-evaluate the magnitude and temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. A fit of the JPL format for equilibrium constants yields KEQ=3.61x10-27exp(8167/T, but to reconcile the observations made at low temperatures with the existing laboratory studies at room temperature, a modified equation, KEQ=5.47x10-25(T/300-2.29exp(6969/T, is required. This format can be rationalised by a strong temperature dependence of the reaction enthalpy possibly induced by Cl2O2 isomerism effects. At stratospheric temperatures, both equations are practically equivalent. Using the equilibrium constant reported here rather than the JPL 2002 recommendation in atmospheric models does not have a large impact on simulated ozone loss. Solely at large zenith angles after sunrise, a small decrease of the ozone loss rate due to the ClO dimer cycle and an increase due to the ClO-BrO cycle (attributed to the enhanced equilibrium ClO concentrations is observed, the net effect being a slightly stronger ozone loss rate.

  11. Role of the entrance channel on the product internal energy distribution in the reaction: (Xe-Cl 2) * → XeCl * + Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivineau, M.; Le Calvé, J.; Castex, M. C.; Jouvet, C.

    1986-08-01

    The Xe-Cl 2 van der Waals complex formed in a supersonic expansion is excited by a two-photon process at 297.5 nm. The XeCl ∗ fragment obtained is vibrationally cold. This result is discussed and compared with those of the Xe ∗ + Cl 2 reaction and laser-assisted collision.

  12. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  13. Tl10Hg3Cl16: Single crystal growth, electronic structure and piezoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Piasecki, M.; Kityk, I. V.; Luzhnyi, I.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Fochuk, P. M.; Levkovets, S. I.; Karpets, M. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystal of the ternary halide Tl10Hg3Cl16 was grown using Bridgman-Stockbarger method. For the Tl10Hg3Cl16 crystal, we have measured X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces and additionally investigated photoinduced piezoelectricity. Our data indicate that the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface is very sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, Ar+ ion-bombardment with energy of 3.0 keV over 5 min at an ion current density of 14 μA/cm2 causes significant changes of the elemental stoichiometry of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 surface resulting in an abrupt decrease of the mercury content in the top surface layers of the studied single crystal. As a result of the treatment, the mercury content becomes nil in the top surface layers. In addition, the present XPS measurements allow for concluding about very low hygroscopicity of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface. The property is extremely important for the crystal handling in optoelectronic or nano-electronic devices working at ambient conditions. The photoinduced piezoelectricity has been explored for Tl10Hg3Cl16 depending on nitrogen (λ=371 nm) laser power density and temperature.

  14. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  15. Emergence of Bulk CsCl Structure in $(CsCl)_{n}Cs^{+}$ Cluster Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of CsCl bulk structure in (CsCl)nCs+ cluster ions is investigated using a mixed quantum-mechanical/semiempirical theoretical approach. We find that rhombic dodecahedral fragments (with bulk CsCl symmetry) are more stable than rock-salt fragments after the completion of the fifth rhombic dodecahedral atomic shell. From this size (n=184) on, a new set of magic numbers should appear in the experimental mass spectra. We also propose another experimental test for this transition, which explicitely involves the electronic structure of the cluster. Finally, we perform more detailed calculations in the size range n=31--33, where recent experimental investigations have found indications of the presence of rhombic dodecahedral (CsCl)32Cs+ isomers in the cluster beams.

  16. High glucose inhibits ClC-2 chloride channels and attenuates cell migration of rat keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fuqiang; Guo, Rui; Cheng, Wenguang; Chai, Linlin; Wang, Wenping; Cao, Chuan; Li, Shirong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that migration of keratinocytes is critical to wound epithelialization, and defects of this function result in chronic delayed-healing wounds in diabetes mellitus patients, and the migration has been proved to be associated with volume-activated chloride channels. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of high glucose (HG, 25 mM) on ClC-2 chloride channels and cell migration of keratinocytes. Newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used to isolate and culture the keratinocyte in this study. Immunofluorescence assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot assay were used to examine the expression of ClC-2 protein or mRNA. Scratch wound assay was used to measure the migratory ability of keratinocytes. Transwell cell migration assay was used to measure the invasion and migration of keratinocytes. Recombinant lentivirus vectors were established and transducted to keratinocytes. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to perform the electrophysiological studies. We found that the expression of ClC-2 was significantly inhibited when keratinocytes were exposed to a HG (25 mM) medium, accompanied by the decline of volume-activated Cl(-) current (I Cl,vol), migration potential, and phosphorylated PI3K as compared to control group. When knockdown of ClC-2 by RNAi or pretreatment with wortmannin, similar results were observed, including I Cl,vol and migration keratinocytes were inhibited. Our study proved that HG inhibited ClC-2 chloride channels and attenuated cell migration of rat keratinocytes via inhibiting PI3K signaling.

  17. Redetermination of [EuCl2(H2O6]Cl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Tambornino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, hexaaquadichloridoeuropium(III chloride, was redetermined with modern crystallographic methods. In comparison with the previous study [Lepert et al. (1983. Aust. J. Chem. 36, 477–482], it could be shown that the atomic coordinates of some O atoms had been confused and now were corrected. Moreover, it was possible to freely refine the positions of the H atoms and thus to improve the accurracy of the crystal structure. [EuCl2(H2O6]Cl crystallizes with the GdCl3·6H2O structure-type, exhibiting discrete [EuCl2(H2O6]+ cations as the main building blocks. The main blocks are linked with isolated chloride anions via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional framework. The Eu3+ cation is located on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated in the form of a Cl2O6 square antiprism. One chloride anion coordinates directly to Eu3+, whereas the other chloride anion, situated on a twofold rotation axis, is hydrogen bonded to six octahedrally arranged water molecules.

  18. High spin spectroscopy in 34Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoi, Abhijit; Sarkar, M. Saha; Sarkar, S.; Ray, S.; Pramanik, D.; Kshetri, R.; Nag, Somnath; Selvakumar, K.; Singh, P.; Goswami, A.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Naidu, B. S.; Donthi, R.; Nanal, V.; Palit, R.

    2014-02-01

    High spin states of 34Cl populated through 27Al(12C,αn)34Cl reaction at E(12C)=40 MeV, have been studied using the Indian National Gamma Array facility. The level scheme has been extended up to 10.6 MeV utilizing the results of intensity, directional correlation, and linear polarization measurements. Lifetimes of a few excited states have been estimated for the first time using the Doppler shift attenuation method. Large-basis shell-model calculations within the sd-pf space have been done to understand the microscopic origin of the excited states. Involvement of pf orbitals have been found to be essential to reproduce the negative-parity as well as high spin positive-parity states. Onset of collectivity manifested through short half-lives and large B (E2) values have been reproduced well in the calculations.

  19. Canadair CL-227 Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew S.

    1983-08-01

    The Canadair CL-227 is a rotary winged Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) intended initially as the air-vehicle for a medium range battlefield surveillance and target acquisition system. The concept on which this vehicle is based brings together in-house expertise as a designer and manufacturer of surveillance drones (AN-USD-50l -MIDGE-) with experience in rigid rotor technology from the CL-84 tilt wing VTOL program. The vehicle is essentially modular in design with a power module containing the engine, fuel and related systems, a rotor module containing the two counter-rotating rotors and control actuators, and a control module containing the autopilot, data link and sensor system. The vehicle is a true RPV (as opposed to a drone) as it is flown in real time by an operator on the ground and requires relatively little skill to pilot.

  20. Frenectomia : um caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Bercini, Francesca; Azambuja, Tais Weber Furlanetto de; Moschen, Adriana Zanon; Franco, Karla Dii; Reinhardt, Luciana; Diogo, Marcia Silveira

    1996-01-01

    O trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve revisão da literatura sobre frenectomia, bem como a apresentação de um caso clínico realizado na disciplina de Estágio Supervisionado I em cirurgia na FO-UFRGS. This paper aims at giving a brief review of the literature on frenectomy, as well as showing a clinical case carried out in the Supervising Training I surgery course at FO-UFRGS.

  1. Frenectomia : um caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Bercini, Francesca; Azambuja, Tais Weber Furlanetto de; Moschen, Adriana Zanon; Franco, Karla Dii; Reinhardt, Luciana; Diogo, Marcia Silveira

    1996-01-01

    O trabalho tem por objetivo realizar uma breve revisão da literatura sobre frenectomia, bem como a apresentação de um caso clínico realizado na disciplina de Estágio Supervisionado I em cirurgia na FO-UFRGS. This paper aims at giving a brief review of the literature on frenectomy, as well as showing a clinical case carried out in the Supervising Training I surgery course at FO-UFRGS.

  2. Preparation of [bmin]Cl/FeCl3 Ionic Liquid and its Characterization%离子液体[bmim]Cl/FeCl3的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋少青

    2006-01-01

    本文运用一步环合法合成N-甲基咪唑,再用两步合成法合成离子液体[bmim]Cl/FeCl3.[bmim]Cl/FeCl3离子液体用FT-IR,NMR,Raman来进行表征.发现溶液的酸性是由离子液体的负离子引起的,而且负离子主要是Fe2Cl7和FeCl4.

  3. Stress of Cl- is Stronger than That of Na+ on Glycine max Seedlings Under NaCl Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Qing-yun; YU Bing-jun; LIU You-liang

    2002-01-01

    Seedlings of six Glycine max cultivars were used to compare Cl- with Na+ in stress effects onsoybean seedlings under NaCl stress. Results showed that stress of NaCl on G. max seedlings was mainlycaused by Cl- and not by Na+. After treatment with isoosmotic solutions of Cl- (without Na+ ) and Na+ (with-out Cl-) respectively, fresh weight and height of G. max seedlings growing in solution of Cl- were much morestressed than those in solution of Na+. And the roots and leaves electrolyte leakage were much more increasedunder stress of Cl- than those under stress of Na+. Salt tolerance of G. max seedlings was mainly contributedto Cl- withheld in roots of seedlings to decrease its content in leaves.

  4. An MCM modeling study of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) impacts on oxidation, ozone production and nitrogen oxide partitioning in polluted continental outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, T. P.; Wolfe, G. M.; Danas, K. T.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Bon, D. M.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S.-M.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B.; Brown, S. S.; Thornton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is produced at night by reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on chloride containing surfaces. ClNO2 is photolyzed during the morning hours after sunrise to liberate highly reactive chlorine atoms (Cl·). This chemistry takes place primarily in polluted environments where the concentrations of N2O5 precursors (nitrogen oxide radicals and ozone) are high, though it likely occurs in remote regions at lower intensities. Recent field measurements have illustrated the potential importance of ClNO2 as a daytime Cl· source and a nighttime NOx reservoir. However, the fate of the Cl· and the overall impact of ClNO2 on regional photochemistry remain poorly constrained by measurements and models. To this end, we have incorporated ClNO2 production, photolysis, and subsequent Cl· reactions into an existing master chemical mechanism (MCM version 3.2) box model framework using observational constraints from the CalNex 2010 field study. Cl· reactions with a set of alkenes and alcohols, and the simplified multiphase chemistry of N2O5, ClNO2, HOCl, ClONO2, and Cl2, none of which are currently part of the MCM, have been added to the mechanism. The presence of ClNO2 produces significant changes to oxidants, ozone, and nitrogen oxide partitioning, relative to model runs excluding ClNO2 formation. From a nighttime maximum of 1.5 ppbv ClNO2, the daytime maximum Cl· concentration reaches 1 × 105 atoms cm-3 at 07:00 model time, reacting mostly with a large suite of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to produce 2.2 times more organic peroxy radicals in the morning than in the absence of ClNO2. In the presence of several ppbv of nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2), these perturbations lead to similar enhancements in hydrogen oxide radicals (HOx = OH + HO2). Neglecting contributions from HONO, the total integrated daytime radical source is 17% larger when including ClNO2, which leads to a similar enhancement in integrated ozone production of 15%. Detectable

  5. Oxalyl chloride, ClC(O)C(O)Cl: UV/vis spectrum and Cl atom photolysis quantum yields at 193, 248, and 351 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Buddhadeb; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Burkholder, James B

    2012-10-28

    Oxalyl chloride, (ClCO)(2), has been used as a Cl atom photolytic precursor in numerous laboratory kinetic and photochemical studies. In this study, the UV/vis absorption spectrum of (ClCO)(2) and the Cl atom quantum yields in its photolysis at 193, 248, and 351 nm are reported. The UV∕vis spectrum was measured between 200 and 450 nm at 296 K using diode array spectroscopy in conjunction with an absolute cross section obtained at 213.9 nm. Our results are in agreement with the spectrum reported by Baklanov and Krasnoperov [J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 97-103 (2001)], which was obtained at 11 discrete wavelengths between 193.3 and 390 nm. Cl atom quantum yields, Φ(λ), were measured using pulsed laser photolysis coupled with time resolved atomic resonance fluorescence detection of Cl. The UV photolysis of (ClCO)(2) has been shown in previous studies to occur via an impulsive three-body dissociation mechanism, (COCl)(2) + hv → ClCO* + Cl + CO (2), where the excited ClCO radical, ClCO*, either dissociates or stabilizes ClCO* → Cl + CO (3a), → ClCO (3b). ClCO is thermally unstable at the temperatures (253-298 K) and total pressures (13-128 Torr) used in our experiments ClCO + M → Cl + CO + M (4) leading to the formation of a secondary Cl atom that was resolvable in the Cl atom temporal profiles obtained in the 248 and 351 nm photolysis of (ClCO)(2). Φ(193 nm) was found to be 2.07 ± 0.37 independent of bath gas pressure (25.8-105.7 Torr, N(2)), i.e., the branching ratio for channel 2a or the direct formation of 2Cl + 2CO in the photolysis of (ClCO)(2) is >0.95. At 248 nm, the branching ratio for channel 2a was determined to be 0.79 ± 0.15, while the total Cl atom yield, i.e., following the completion of reaction (4), was found to be 1.98 ± 0.26 independent of bath gas pressure (15-70 Torr, N(2)). Φ(351 nm) was found to be pressure dependent between 7.8 and 122.4 Torr (He, N(2)). The low-pressure limit of the total Cl atom quantum yield, Φ(0)(351 nm), was 2

  6. Carbonate and silicate rock standards for cosmogenic 36Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechernich, Silke; Dunai, Tibor J.; Binnie, Steven A.; Goral, Tomasz; Heinze, Stefan; Dewald, Alfred; Benedetti, Lucilla; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Phillips, Fred; Marrero, Shasta; Akif Sarıkaya, Mehmet; Gregory, Laura C.; Phillips, Richard J.; Wilcken, Klaus; Simon, Krista; Fink, David

    2017-04-01

    The number of studies using cosmogenic nuclides has increased multi-fold during the last two decades and several new dedicated target preparation laboratories and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facilities have been established. Each facility uses sample preparation and AMS measurement techniques particular to their needs. It is thus desirable to have community-accepted and well characterized rock standards available for routine processing using identical target preparation procedures and AMS measurement methods as carried out for samples of unknown cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. The usefulness of such natural standards is that they allow more rigorous quality control, for example, the long-term reproducibility of results and hence measurement precision, or the testing of new target preparation techniques or newly established laboratories. This is particularly pertinent for in-situ 36Cl studies due to the multiplicity of 36Cl production pathways that requires a variety of elemental and isotopic determinations in addition to AMS 36Cl assay. We have prepared two natural rock samples (denoted CoCal-N and CoFsp-N) to serve as standard material for in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl analysis. The sample CoCal-N is a pure limestone prepared from pebbles in a Namibian lag deposit, while the alkali-feldspar CoFsp-N is derived from a single crystal in a Namibian pegmatite. The sample preparation took place at the University of Cologne, where first any impurities were removed manually from both standards. CoCal-N was leached in 10 % HNO3 to remove the outer rim, and afterwards crushed and sieved to 250-500 μm size fractions. CoFsp-N was crushed, sieved to 250-500 μm size fractions and then leached in 1% HNO3 / 1% HF until 20% of the sample were removed. Both standards were thoroughly mixed using a rotating sample splitter before being distributed to other laboratories. To date, a total of 28 CoCal-N aliquots (between 2 and 16 aliquots per facility) and 31 Co

  7. Synthesis and unexpected reactivity of [Ru(6 -cymene)Cl2 (PPh2 Cl)], leading to [Ru(6 -cymene)Cl2 (PPh2H)] and [Ru(6-cymene)Cl2 (PPh2OH)] complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pandiakumar; Ashoka G Samuelson

    2015-08-01

    The reaction of [Ru(6-cymene)Cl2]2 and PPh2Cl in the ratio 1:2 gives a stable [Ru(6-cymene) Cl2(PPh2Cl)] complex. Attempts to make the cationic [Ru(6-cymene)Cl(PPh2Cl)2]Cl with excess PPh2Cl and higher temperatures led to adventitious hydrolysis and formation of [Ru(6-cymene)Cl2 (PPh2OH)]. Attempts to make a phosphinite complex by reacting [Ru(6-cymene)Cl2]2 with PPh2Cl in the presence of an alcohol results in the reduction of PPh2Cl to give [Ru(6-cymene)Cl2(PPh2H)] and the expected phosphinite. The yield of the hydride complex is highest when the alcohol is 1-phenyl-ethane-1,2-diol. All three half-sandwich complexes are characterized by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the conversion of chlorodiphenylphosphine to diphenylphosphine is mediated by 1-phenyl-ethane-1,2-diol even in the absence of the ruthenium half-sandwich precursor.

  8. Separation of CsCl and SrCl2 from a ternary CsCl-SrCl2-LiCl via a zone refining process for waste salt minimization of pyroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Moonsoo; Choi, Ho Gil; Yi, Kyung Woo; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Jong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    The purification of LiCl salt mixture has traditionally been carried out by a melt crystallization process. To improve the throughput of zone refining, three heaters were installed in the zone refiner. The zone refining method was used to grow pure LiCl salt ingots from LiCl-CsCl-SrCl2 salt mixture. The main investigated parameters were the heater speed and the number of passes. A change in the LiCl crystal grain size was observed according to the horizontal direction. From each zone refined salt ingot, samples were collected horizontally. To analyze the concentrations of Sr and Cs, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer were used, respectively. The experimental results show that Sr and Cs concentrations at the initial region of the ingot were low and reached their peak at the final freezing region of the salt ingot. Concentration results of zone refined salt were compared with theoretical results yielded by the proposed model to validate its predictions. The keff of Sr and Cs were 0.13 and 0.11, respectively. The decontamination factors of Sr and Cs were 450 and 1650, respectively.

  9. Analysis of Cl…Cl and C-H…Cl intermolecular interactions involving chlorine in substituted 2-chloroquinoline derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Venkatesha R Hathwar; S Mohana Roopan; R Subashini; F Nawaz Khan; T N Guru Row

    2010-09-01

    Six crystal structures of substituted 2-chloroquinoline derivatives have been analysed to evaluate the role of Cl atom as a self recognizing unit resulting in the formation of Cl…Cl and C-H…Cl interactions to generate supramolecular assembly in the solid state. The features of Type I and Type II geometries associated with Cl…Cl interactions have been analysed to show directional preferences leading to differences in the packing motifs in these crystal structures. C-H…Cl interactions are generated exclusively in structures depicting Type II Cl…Cl interaction have been observed in these structures.

  10. Deposition, Accumulation, and Alteration of Cl(-), NO3(-), ClO4(-) and ClO3(-) Salts in a Hyper-Arid Polar Environment: Mass Balance and Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Boehlke, J. K.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrette, Megan; Lacell, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20160009066'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160009066_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20160009066_hide'); "> hide

    2016-01-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl(-), NO3(-, ClO4(-)and ClO3(-)in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl(-) and NO3(-) isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4(-)/NO3(-) ratios and NO3(-) isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3(-)/ClO4(-) in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3(-), possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from approximately 10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively

  11. Deposition, accumulation, and alteration of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- salts in a hyper-arid polar environment: Mass balance and isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Davila, Alfonso F.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sturchio, Neil C.; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Estrada, Nubia; Brundrett, Maeghan; Lacelle, Denis; McKay, Christopher P.; Poghosyan, Armen; Pollard, Wayne; Zacny, Kris

    2016-06-01

    The salt fraction in permafrost soils/sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica can be used as a proxy for cold desert geochemical processes and paleoclimate reconstruction. Previous analyses of the salt fraction in MDV permafrost soils have largely been conducted in coastal regions where permafrost soils are variably affected by aqueous processes and mixed inputs from marine and stratospheric sources. We expand upon this work by evaluating permafrost soil/sediments in University Valley, located in the ultraxerous zone where both liquid water transport and marine influences are minimal. We determined the abundances of Cl-, NO3-, ClO4- and ClO3- in dry and ice-cemented soil/sediments, snow and glacier ice, and also characterized Cl- and NO3- isotopically. The data are not consistent with salt deposition in a sublimation till, nor with nuclear weapon testing fall-out, and instead point to a dominantly stratospheric source and to varying degrees of post depositional transformation depending on the substrate, from minimal alteration in bare soils to significant alteration (photodegradation and/or volatilization) in snow and glacier ice. Ionic abundances in the dry permafrost layer indicate limited vertical transport under the current climate conditions, likely due to percolation of snowmelt. Subtle changes in ClO4-/NO3- ratios and NO3- isotopic composition with depth and location may reflect both transport related fractionation and depositional history. Low molar ratios of ClO3-/ClO4- in surface soils compared to deposition and other arid systems suggest significant post depositional loss of ClO3-, possibly due to reduction by iron minerals, which may have important implications for oxy-chlorine species on Mars. Salt accumulation varies with distance along the valley and apparent accumulation times based on multiple methods range from ∼10 to 30 kyr near the glacier to 70-200 kyr near the valley mouth. The relatively young age of the salts and

  12. Origin of halides (Cl- and Br-) and of their stable isotopes (d37Cl and d81Br) at the Tournemire URL (France) - Experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir-Bey, Nassim; Matray, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    cubic diffusion produced the pore diffusion coefficients for Cl and Br as well as their concentration in the porewater. Cubic diffusion also allowed to estimate a Cl to Br pore diffusion coefficient ratio, necessary to calculate the profiles of Cl/Br. These estimates have required the use of the transport code Hytec i) for dimensioning and implementing the experiment in a time frame compatible with the work period, ii) for analysing the sensitiveness of the model to the accessible porosity and to the diffusion coefficient which act respectively to the steady phase and transient phase of the experiments, and finally, iii ) for adjusting the pore diffusion coefficients of Cl and Br to an accessible porosity of 3-4%. The Hytec code was then used to check the consistency of the current profiles of chlorides, bromides, 35Cl , 37Cl , d37Cl, Cl/Br in 1D, a fake drilling assumed crossing the entire clayrock. The assumption is that halides have undergone a diffusive transport between seawater trapped during sedimentation and meteoric waters infiltrated at different times to domain boundaries. Four scenarios were tested according to the paleohydrogeological history of the massif. All tracers and scenarios are consistent with a unique marine source of halides more or less diluted by meteoric waters. The duration of the diffusive exchange initially suggested 85 ± 10 Ma (Bensenouci, 2010) is never contradicted despite uncertainties related to changes in boundary conditions. This body of evidence would suggest that molecular diffusion is the transport process which has affected and still affect the Tournemire clayrock, outside fault zones. The d37Cl results expected on the surrounding carbonated aquifers, leachates and fracture waters (including d81Br values) should help to refine the models and the results.

  13. Electrochemical noise transient analysis for 316 and Duplex 2205 stainless steels in NaCl and FeCl; Analisis de los transitorios de ruido electroquimico para aceros inoxidables 316 Y - DUPLEX 2205 en NaCl Y FeCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeraya-Calderaon, F.; Estupinan, F.; Zambrano, P.; Martinez-Villafane, A.; Borunda, A.; Colas, R.; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.

    2012-11-01

    This work shows the results obtained from electrochemical noise measurements for different materials exhibiting pitting corrosion. The transients presented in the potential and current time, correlates with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface analysis. Electrochemical measurements were made at different exposure times to obtain the correlation. The materials used were stainless steel austenitic 316 and duplex 2205, immersed in ferric chloride (FeCl3) and sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolytes. SEM analysis shows that the transients observed in the time series, really correspond to the activity of pit nucleation developed over the surface of the electrodes. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Fmoc-Cl fluorescent determination for amino groups of nanomaterial science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Chen, Y

    2012-06-01

    With the wide application of nanomaterials, the quantification of functional groups on nanomaterial surface becomes more and more necessary. A heterogeneous 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) fluorescent method using an aqueous solution was established to determinate amino groups on nanomaterial surface. The effect factors of determination were investigated and the assay was optimised. The Fmoc fluorescent method is 200-fold more sensitive than the current UV assay using an organic solvent, and compared with chemical ninhydrin method and physical elemental analysis. Heterogeneous Fmoc-Cl fluorescent method can be used to determine amino groups on nanomaterials with big size, which is difficult to undergo a direct detection.

  15. Electrochemical Codeposition of Al-Li-Mg Alloys at Solid Aluminum Electrode from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 Molten Salt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ke; Zhang, Mi Lin; Chen, Ye; Han, Wei; de Yan, Yong; Cao, Peng

    2010-06-01

    The electrochemical codeposition of Mg and Li at an aluminium electrode in LiCl-KCl (50:50 wt pct) melts containing different concentrations of MgCl2 at 893 K (620 °C) to form Al-Li-Mg alloys was investigated. Cyclic voltammograms showed that the potential of Li metal deposition at an Al electrode, before the addition of MgCl2, is more positive than that of Li metal deposition at an Mo electrode, which indicated the formation of an Al-Li alloy. The underpotential deposition of magnesium at an aluminium electrode leads to the formation of Al-Mg alloys, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on predeposited Al-Mg alloys leads to the formation of Al-Li-Mg alloys. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codeposition of Mg and Li occurs at current densities lower than -0.668 A cm-2 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2 (8 wt pct) melts at an aluminium electrode. The chronoamperometric studies indicated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg and Li is -2.000 V, and the codeposition of Mg and Li at an aluminium electrode is formed into Al-Li-Mg alloys when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.000 V. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis indicated that Al-Li-Mg alloys with different lithium and magnesium contents were prepared via potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructure of typical dual phases of the Al-Li-Mg alloy was characterized by an optical microscope and by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry showed that the elements of Al and Mg distribute homogeneously in the Al-Li-Mg alloy. The lithium and magnesium contents of Al-Li-Mg alloys can be controlled by MgCl2 concentrations and by electrolytic parameters.

  16. CeCl3-CaCl2-MgCl2三元体系相图的研究%Investigation on Phase Diagram of CeCl3-CaCl2-MgCl2 Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝贵; 叶于浦; 张晓励; 乔芝郁

    1992-01-01

    @@至今只见到某些稀土氯化物二元相图的报道,而含稀土的三元熔盐体系相图则研究甚少。据报道,CeCl3-CaCl2-MgCl2体系中相关的三个二元体系均属简单低共熔型。曾重新考察并测定其低共熔点的组成与温度为:CeCl3-MgCl2,54.0wt.%CeCl3(660℃)[1];CeCl3-CaCl2,57.0wt.%CeCl 3(622℃)[2];CaCl2-MgCl2,45.2wt.%MgCl2(609℃)[3]。作为系列研究含稀土氯化物三元相图与探讨其规律[4]的工作之一,本文测定了CeCl 3-CaCl2-MgCl2三元相图。 一、实验方法 MgCl2、CeCl 3和CaCl2分别由MgCl2·6H2O、CeCl3·6H2O和CaCl2·nH2O在干燥的HCl气氛中,逐级充分脱水制得[5]。除CeCl3纯度>99.5%外,其他试剂均为分析纯o CaCl2、MgCl2和CeCl3的熔点分别为:775、713和810℃。 准确配制约150mg样品,在充分干燥气氛中装入石英安瓿,抽空封口后,熔化样品并仔细摇匀,在400℃保温4h,留待差热分析。

  17. Unbiased pseudo-Cl power spectrum estimation with mode projection

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, Franz; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2016-01-01

    With the steadily improving sensitivity afforded by current and future galaxy surveys, a robust extraction of two-point correlation function measurements may become increasingly hampered by the presence of astrophysical foregrounds or observational systematics. The concept of mode projection has been introduced as a means to remove contaminants for which it is possible to construct a spatial map reflecting the expected signal contribution. Owing to its computational efficiency compared to minimum-variance methods, the sub-optimal pseudo-Cl (PCL) power spectrum estimator is a popular tool for the analysis of high-resolution data sets. Here, we integrate mode projection into the framework of PCL power spectrum estimation. In contrast to results obtained with optimal estimators, we show that the uncorrected projection of template maps leads to biased power spectra. Based on analytical calculations, we find exact closed-form expressions for the expectation value of the bias and demonstrate that they can be recast...

  18. Activation of CFTR-mediated Cl- Transport by Magnolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ling-ling; LIU Xin; SUN Yan; LIN Sen; ZHOU Na; XU Li-na; YU BO; HOU Shu-guang; YANG Hong

    2008-01-01

    Magnolin is a herbal compound from Magnolia biondii Pamp.It possesses numerous biological activities.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator(CFTR)is all epithelial chloride channel that plays a key role in the fluid secretion of various exocrine organs.In the present study,the activation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport by magnolin is indentified and characterized.In CFTR stably trailsfected FRT cells.magnolin increases CFTR Cl- currents in a concentration-dependent manner.The activation of magnolin on CFTR is rapid,reversible,and cAMP-dependent.Magnolin does not elevate cellular cAMP level.indicating that it activates CFTR by direct binding and interaction with CFTR protein.Magnolin selectively activates wildtype CFTR rather than mutant CFTIL Magnolin may present a novel class of therapeutic lead compound for the treatment of diseases associated with reduced CFTR function such as keratoconjunctivitis sicca,idiopathic chronic pancreatiti,and chromc constipation.

  19. NaCl-CaCl2对氧化钙分解独居石的影响%Influence of NaCl-CaCl2 on Decomposing Monazite with CaO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树臣; 吴志颖; 边雪; 高波; 吴文远; 涂赣峰

    2007-01-01

    研究了NaCl-CaCl2对氧化钙分解独居石的热分解过程的影响,表明,NaCl-CaCl2的加入,使氧化钙分解独居石的分解温度降低.在此基础上研究了NaCl-CaCl2的加入量、焙烧温度和焙烧时间对氧化钙分解独居石分解率的影响,结果表明,NaCl-CaCl2的加入量为10%、焙烧温度750℃、焙烧时间1h的条件下,氧化钙分解独居石的分解率可达到79%.

  20. Influence of water on active ion in [Bmim]Cl/AlCl3 ionic liquid%水对[Bmim]Cl/AlCl3离子液体中活性离子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐超; 杨林; 康艳红

    2016-01-01

    以[Bmim]Cl/AlCl3电解液为研究对象,采用激光拉曼分析、X射线衍射(XRD)、差热-热重同时分析等方法研究了水对[Bmim]Cl/AlCl3 (MR1.0∶2.0)体系中AlCl4-和Al2Cl7-活性离子的影响,阐述了水在[Bmim]Cl/AlCl3体系中的反应过程,测定了生成物的具体成分.实验结果表明,当水的物质的量小于[Bmim]Cl时,可以配成[Bmim]Cl/AlCl3 (MR1∶2),但溶液粘度增加;当水的物质的量大于[Bmim]Cl时,随着水含量的增加,溶液由浑浊逐渐生成白色絮状固体.通过激光拉曼分析,加水后对[Bmim]Cl离子液体没有影响.当[Bmim]Cl/AlCl3体系中有水的存在时,水会与体系中的AlCl4和Al2Cl7等活性离子发生反应,完全破坏了离子的活性.反应后生成的产物符合聚氯化铝的分子式Aln(OH)mCl3n-m,为[Al(OH)2Cl]n.

  1. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, James; Kockara, Sinan; Halic, Tansel; Mete, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In addition, we tested

  2. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Methods Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Results Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In

  3. Regulation of paracellular Na+ and Cl(-) conductances by hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Niisato, Naomi; Nagai, Toshiki; Taruno, Akiyuki; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Toshiki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Ohta, Mariko; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-09-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the paracellular ion conductance (Gp) composed of the Na(+) conductance (G(Na)) and the Cl(-) conductance (G(Cl)) has been Investigated. Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) were time-dependently increased after applying an osmotic gradient generated by NaCl with basolateral hypotonicity. Hydrostatic pressure (1-4cm H2O) applied from the basolateral side enhanced the osmotic gradient-induced increase in Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) in a magnitude-dependent manner, while the hydrostatic pressure applied from the apical side diminished the osmotic gradient-induced increase in Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl). How the hydrostatic pressure influences Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) under an isosmotic condition was also investigated. Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl) were stably constant under a condition with basolateral application of sucrose canceling the NaCl-generated osmotic gradient (an isotonic condition). Even under this stable condition, the basolaterally applied hydrostatic pressure drastically elevated Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl), while apically applied hydrostatic pressure had little effect on Gp, G(Na) or G(Cl). Taken together, these observations suggest that certain factors controlled by the basolateral osmolality and the basolaterally applied hydrostatic pressure mainly regulate the Gp, G(Na) and G(Cl).

  4. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  5. AcEST: CL1407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1407Contig1 711 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1407contig1 sequence. Link ...apillus-veneris contig: CL1407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945957 DK94

  6. AcEST: CL2407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2407Contig1 855 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2407contig1 sequence. Link ...apillus-veneris contig: CL2407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917544 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL3407Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3407Contig1 615 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3407contig1 sequence. Link ...apillus-veneris contig: CL3407contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK943946 DK95

  8. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  9. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  10. Accelerating mono-domain cardiac electrophysiology simulations using OpenCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wülfers Eike M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using OpenCL, we developed a cross-platform software to compute electrical excitation conduction in cardiac tissue. OpenCL allowed the software to run parallelized and on different computing devices (e.g., CPUs and GPUs. We used the macroscopic mono-domain model for excitation conduction and an atrial myocyte model by Courtemanche et al. for ionic currents. On a CPU with 12 HyperThreading-enabled Intel Xeon 2.7 GHz cores, we achieved a speed-up of simulations by a factor of 1.6 against existing software that uses OpenMPI. On two high-end AMD FirePro D700 GPUs the OpenCL software ran 2.4 times faster than the OpenMPI implementation. The more nodes the discretized simulation domain contained, the higher speed-ups were achieved.

  11. Preparation and polymerization mechanism of dihydroxy-capped PCL, poly(CL-b-PEG-b-CL) and poly(DTC-b-CL-b-DTC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LING Jun; SHEN Zhiquan

    2005-01-01

    The ring opening polymerization of (-caprolactone (CL) was initiated by glycol and yttrium tri(2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenolate)s (Y(OAr)3), preparing dihydroxy-capped poly ((-caprolactone) (PCL) with controllable molecular weight.1H NMR and SEC analyses indicate that two kinds of active species and corresponding PCL with different structures exist in the system.Increasing the ratio of glycol to Y(OAr)3 benefits the formation of monofunctional active species.However, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/Y(OAr)3 system only contains sole bifunctional active species to synthesize copolymer of CL with PEG (poly(CL-b-PEG-b-CL)).Dihydroxy- capped PCL as macroinitiator can further initiate the polymerization of 2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate (DTC).Thus, triblock copolymer of CL with DTC (poly(DTC-b-CL-b-DTC)) has been prepared.

  12. A clínica, a epidemiologia e a epidemiologia clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Filho,Naomar de

    1993-01-01

    O presente estudo discute as múltiplas articulações conceituais e metodológicas entre a prática clínica e a epidemiologia, afirmando que o modo de produção do saber epidemiológico é inadequado para a formação do discurso clínico. Posteriormente ele avalia o grau de legitimidade episte-mológica da proposta de hibridação consolidada na chamada "epidemiologia clínica", especialmente no que diz respeito à tentativa de tornar técnica a decisão corrente em abos os campos do diagnóstico e da terapêu...

  13. Lattice QCD based on OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Matthias; Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present an OpenCL-based Lattice QCD application using a heatbath algorithm for the pure gauge case and Wilson fermions in the twisted mass formulation. The implementation is platform independent and can be used on AMD or NVIDIA GPUs, as well as on classical CPUs. On the AMD Radeon HD 5870 our double precision dslash implementation performs at 60 GFLOPS over a wide range of lattice sizes. The hybrid Monte-Carlo presented reaches a speedup of four over the reference code running on a server CPU.

  14. El paludismo. estudio clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo-Gutiérrez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Clínica médica de la Facultad de Medicina de Bogotá. Lección dictada por el profesor Carlos Trujillo-Gutiérrez el 7 de mayo de 1943.El paludismo o malaria, es una enfermedad bien definida: tiene una causa conocida y un tratamiento eficaz. Según estas ideas, nadie - o casi nadie- debiera morir de paludismo. Las estadísticas muestran lo contrario: muchos pacientes mueren de paludismo; muchas gentes llevan una vida de enfermos, de inválidos, durante años, a causa del paludismo; los estados, las ...

  15. ClINHAB: Docencia y compromiso social

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo i Amayuelas, Esther; Viola Demestre, Isabel; Anderson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    [spa] ClinHab es el acrónimo con el que se conoce a la Clínica Jurídica en Derecho inmobiliario y Mediación residencial (www.clinhab.com), que es el resultado de un proyecto docente surgido para dar respuesta, desde la Universidad, a las consultas sobre vivienda formuladas por los particulares, las entidades sociales y las Administraciones públicas. Los estudiantes de los últimos cursos del Grado de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Barcelona proporcionan información jurídica y fina...

  16. Entrevista clínica y sexualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas Llebot, Helena

    2001-01-01

    El abordaje de la sexualidad en la realización de la historia clínica plantea en ocasiones dudas e incertidumbres sobre cómo llevarla a cabo. Para solventar dichas dificultades es necesario, en primer lugar, estructurar la entrevista mediante la formulación de objetivos, la definición de los contenidos a tratar, la utilización de una metodología facilitadora y la valoración continuada sobre el transcurso de la misma. En segundo lugar, es importante destacar la influencia que los valores y act...

  17. Dermamiositis autoinmune: caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, María Belén; Ferrín, G; Frontini, N.; Ramírez, M.; Caíno, Hector; Lupi, Gabriel Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Interés del caso clínico: presentación de una entidad emergente y rara con una forma atípica de presentación. Actualización miopatía necrotizante autoinmunitaria (NAM): es una entidad emergente dentro del espectro de las miopatías inflamatorias. Se caracteriza por presentar pocos infiltrados inflamatorios (macrófagos mas que CD8) o ausentes Existe notable degeneración y necrosis de miocitos, con células musculares de regeneración, la isquemia muscular contribuye en el daño. Se caracterizan...

  18. Ejercicio clínico y espiritualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Ledesma, Armando; Montero-López Lena, María

    2007-01-01

    ¿Quién debe hacerse cargo de las necesidades espirituales de un paciente, y cómo? Se ha reportado evidencia sobre la importante asociación entre la vida espiritual y la salud física y mental de las personas (e.g. Meisenhelder y Chandler, 2002; Silberfarb, Anderson, y Rundle, 1991; Koenig, George y Siegler, 1988). Atender las necesidades espirituales de los pacientes bajo cuidado médico es una realidad clínica cotidiana (Mueller, Plevak, y Rummans, 2001) en las unidades de traumatología, oncol...

  19. Aspetos clínicos da sarcoidose

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Sara Fernanda Madureira

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina, apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Objetivo: Analisar as características clínicas da sarcoidose, numa amostra de doentes seguidos no Serviço de Pneumologia A do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra. Materiais e métodos: Estudo descritivo retrospetivo, envolvendo uma amostra consecutiva de 79 doentes, com diagnóstico de Sarcoidose seguidos no Serviço de Pneumologia A do Centro Hospitalar e Universitári...

  20. Regulation of ClC-1 and KATP channels in action potential-firing fast-twitch muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; de Paoli, Frank Vinzenco; Flatman, John A; Nielsen, Ole Baekgaard

    2009-10-01

    Action potential (AP) excitation requires a transient dominance of depolarizing membrane currents over the repolarizing membrane currents that stabilize the resting membrane potential. Such stabilizing currents, in turn, depend on passive membrane conductance (G(m)), which in skeletal muscle fibers covers membrane conductances for K(+) (G(K)) and Cl(-) (G(Cl)). Myotonic disorders and studies with metabolically poisoned muscle have revealed capacities of G(K) and G(Cl) to inversely interfere with muscle excitability. However, whether regulation of G(K) and G(Cl) occur in AP-firing muscle under normal physiological conditions is unknown. This study establishes a technique that allows the determination of G(Cl) and G(K) with a temporal resolution of seconds in AP-firing muscle fibers. With this approach, we have identified and quantified a biphasic regulation of G(m) in active fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus fibers of the rat. Thus, at the onset of AP firing, a reduction in G(Cl) of approximately 70% caused G(m) to decline by approximately 55% in a manner that is well described by a single exponential function characterized by a time constant of approximately 200 APs (phase 1). When stimulation was continued beyond approximately 1,800 APs, synchronized elevations in G(K) ( approximately 14-fold) and G(Cl) ( approximately 3-fold) caused G(m) to rise sigmoidally to approximately 400% of its level before AP firing (phase 2). Phase 2 was often associated with a failure to excite APs. When AP firing was ceased during phase 2, G(m) recovered to its level before AP firing in approximately 1 min. Experiments with glibenclamide (K(ATP) channel inhibitor) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (ClC-1 Cl(-) channel inhibitor) revealed that the decreased G(m) during phase 1 reflected ClC-1 channel inhibition, whereas the massively elevated G(m) during phase 2 reflected synchronized openings of ClC-1 and K(ATP) channels. In conclusion, G(Cl) and G(K) are acutely regulated in AP

  1. An electrochemical study of uranium behaviour in LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in the low melting ternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic at 573-1073 K employing potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Uranium electrode potentials were measured directly and U(III)/U(IV) red-ox potentials were determined from the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements. Formal standard electrode and red-ox potentials of uranium, and thermodynamic properties of uranium chlorides in the studied melt were calculated. Diffusion coefficients of U(III) and U(IV) ions were determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.

  2. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of aqueous NaCl and LiCl solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of the full dielectric function of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and lithium chloride at concentrations approaching their solubility limits at room temperature. We find that the dielectric properties of the two salts are rather different at THz frequen...... frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration,we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption)decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior...

  3. Quantum dynamics calculation of reaction probability for H+Cl2→HCl+Cl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We present in this paper a time-dependent quantum wave packet calculation of the initial state selected reaction probability for H + Cl2 based on the GHNS potential energy surface with total angular momentum J = 0. The effects of the translational, vibrational and rotational excitation of Cl2 on the reaction probability have been investigated. In a broad region of the translational energy, the rotational excitation enhances the reaction probability while the vibrational excitation depresses the reaction probability. The theoretical results agree well with the fact that it is an early down-hill reaction.

  4. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  5. Magnetic Properties of Restacked 2D Spin 1/2 honeycomb RuCl3 Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel; Schoop, Leslie M; Duppel, Viola; Lippmann, Judith M; Nuss, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-06-01

    Spin 1/2 honeycomb materials have gained substantial interest due to their exotic magnetism and possible application in quantum computing. However, in all current materials out-of-plane interactions are interfering with the in-plane order, hence a true 2D magnetic honeycomb system is still in demand. Here, we report the exfoliation of the magnetic semiconductor α-RuCl3 into the first halide monolayers and the magnetic characterization of the spin 1/2 honeycomb arrangement of turbostratically stacked RuCl3 monolayers. The exfoliation is based on a reductive lithiation/hydration approach, which gives rise to a loss of cooperative magnetism due to the disruption of the spin 1/2 state by electron injection into the layers. The restacked, macroscopic pellets of RuCl3 layers lack symmetry along the stacking direction. After an oxidative treatment, cooperative magnetism similar to the bulk is restored. The oxidized pellets of restacked single layers feature a magnetic transition at TN = 7 K if the field is aligned parallel to the ab-plane, while the magnetic properties differ from bulk α-RuCl3 if the field is aligned perpendicular to the ab-plane. The deliberate introduction of turbostratic disorder to manipulate the magnetic properties of RuCl3 is of interest for research in frustrated magnetism and complex magnetic order as predicted by the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

  6. Multisite ion model in concentrated solutions of divalent cations (MgCl2 and CaCl2): osmotic pressure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Akansha; García, Angel E

    2015-01-08

    Accurate force field parameters for ions are essential for meaningful simulation studies of proteins and nucleic acids. Currently accepted models of ions, especially for divalent ions, do not necessarily reproduce the right physiological behavior of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Saxena and Sept (J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 2013, 9, 3538-3542) described a model, called the multisite-ion model, where instead of treating the ions as an isolated sphere, the charge was split into multiple sites with partial charge. This model provided accurate inner shell coordination of the ion with biomolecules and predicted better free energies for proteins and nucleic acids. Here, we expand and refine the multisite model to describe the behavior of divalent ions in concentrated MgCl2 and CaCl2 electrolyte solutions, eliminating the unusual ion-ion pairing and clustering of ions which occurred in the original model. We calibrate and improve the parameters of the multisite model by matching the osmotic pressure of concentrated solutions of MgCl2 to the experimental values and then use these parameters to test the behavior of CaCl2 solutions. We find that the concentrated solutions of both divalent ions exhibit the experimentally observed behavior with correct osmotic pressure, the presence of solvent separated ion pairs instead of direct ion pairs, and no aggregation of ions. The improved multisite model for (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) can be used in classical simulations of biomolecules at physiologically relevant salt concentrations.

  7. Dynamic Reaction Mechanisms of ClO(-) with CH3Cl: Comparison Between Direct Dynamics Trajectory Simulations and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng

    2016-03-24

    We have investigated the dynamic reaction mechanisms of *ClO¯ with CH3Cl (the asterisk is utilized to label a different Cl atom). Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at the MP2/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory have been employed to compute the dynamic trajectories. On the basis of our simulations, the dynamic reaction pathways for the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction channel and SN2-induced elimination reaction channel are clearly illustrated. For the SN2 reaction channel, some trajectories directly dissociate to the final products of CH3O*Cl and Cl¯, whereas the others involve the dynamic Cl¯···CH3O*Cl intermediate complex. As to the SN2-induced elimination reaction channel, the trajectories lead to the final products of CH2O, HCl, and *Cl¯ through the dynamic Cl¯···CH3O*Cl intermediate complex. More significantly, the product branching ratios of Cl¯ and *Cl¯ predicted by our simulations are basically consistent with previous experimental results (Villano et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 8227-8233).

  8. SYNTHESIS OF FUNCTIONAL MACROMOLECULE INTERMEDIATE THROUGH ACYLATION CATALYZED BY [Emim]Cl-AlCl3 IONIC LIQUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; JIANG Deli; ZHANG Chunyan; YU Long; YAN Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    Acylation reaction of anthracene with oxalyl chloride in the presence of [Emim]Cl-AlCl3 ionic liquid has been investigated. Pure 1,2-aceanthryenedione, which is used as intermediate of functional aromatic polymer material, was obtained by recrystalling the reaction mixture with aether and was determined by GC/MS, 1HNMR and FTIR analysis. The influences of various parameters,such as the contents of AlCl3 in [Emim]Cl-AlCl3, the amount of acylation agent, amount of [Emim]Cl-AlCl3, reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated. The optimum conditions were as follows: the molar fraction of AlCl3 in ionic liquid [x(AlCl3)] being 0.67, molar ratio of ionic liquid to anthracene being 2:1, molar ratio of oxalyl chloride to anthracene being 2:1,reaction temperature being 40 ℃ and reaction time being 6h. Under above conditions, the yield and selectivity of 1,2-aceanthrylenedione can reach 91.5% and 98.3% respectively. Further more,[Emim]Cl-AlCl3 ionic liquid, compared with metal halides such as AlCl3, was found to catalyze the reaction as a novel environmental friendly catalyst and solvent and can be reused.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-CL-20 Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Yadollah; Zeynali, Vida

    2011-10-01

    Nano-CL-20 was prepared via precipitative crystallization by spraying a solution of CL-20 in a solvent (ethyl acetate) into a nonsolvent (isooctane). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the appearance and the size of the particles. The results revealed that nano-CL-20 particles have the shape of spheres or ellipsoids with an average size of 95 nm. Due to their small diameter and high surface energy, the particles tended to agglomerate. Impact sensitivity of nanosize CL-20 was decreased in comparison to micrometer-size CL-20.

  10. Partial displacement of ZnCl2 by CaCl2 in the Zn/MnO2 battery%CaCl2部分代替锌锰电池中的ZnCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊根良; 刘煦; 杨瑞浓

    2007-01-01

    用CaCL2部分代替锌锰电池中的ZnCl2.随着CaCl2含量的增加,电解液的电导率、pH值小幅度增加,冰点降低;用3.0%CaCl2代替相当量的ZnCl2时,在0℃下电池的放电性能有较好的提高,在20℃下的贮存性能无明显变化.

  11. Catalytic polarographic currents of oxidizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajtsev, P.M.; Zhdanov, S.I.; Nikolaeva, T.D. (Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Khimicheskikh Reaktivov i Osobo Chistykh Veshchestv, Moscow (USSR))

    1982-06-01

    The state of theory and practice of an important direction in polarography, i.e. catalytic currents of oxidizers-substrates that have found a wide application in the development of highly sensitive methods of determination of a large number of substrates, catalysts and polarographically nonactive ligands, is considered. Transition and some non-transition elements serve as catalysts of reactions that cause catalytic polarographic currents of substrates. Catalytic activity of an inorganic catalyst increases with the increase in the number of its d-orbit. Complex formation in most cases leads to the increase of catalyst activity, however, sometimes a reverse phenomenon takes place. For many catalysts the maximum activity is observed at pH values close to pK value of their hydrolysis. The properties of oxidizers-substrates is revealed by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, BrO/sub 3//sup -/, IO/sub 3//sup -/, ClO/sub 4//sup -/, IO/sub 4//sup -/, NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, NH/sub 2/OH, V(5), V(4), S/sub 2/O/sub 8//sup 2 -/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/, COHCOOH, alkenes compounds, organic halogen , sulfur- and amine-containing compounds.

  12. en los ensayos clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medardo Ávila Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el modo en que se manifiesta la relación entre los investigadores clínicos y los pacientes incorporados a protocolos; cuáles son las percepciones que tienen los médicos en la "relación médico-paciente" transfigurada en "relación investigadorobjeto de ensayo"; para ello se analizan dos casos de amplia difusión pública. El primero está referido a ensayos destinado a disminuir la transmisión perinatal del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV en países en desarrollo. En estos se estableció un doble standard de tratamiento para las poblaciones de embarazadas africanas y latinoamericanas reconociéndolas como "diferentes". Se marcó un límite étnico, para utilizarlas como grupo control. El segundo caso se refiere al análisis del proceso de ensayos clínicos comerciales llevados a cabo en el Hospital Municipal Infantil de Córdoba, éstos se sustentaron ideológicamente en las identidades y valores neoliberales que promueve la globalización, rompiendo de esta manera con identidades generadas históricamente.

  13. Herschel observations of interstellar chloronium. II - Detections toward G29.96-0.02, W49N, W51, and W3(OH), and determinations of the ortho-to-para and $^{35}$Cl/$^{37}$Cl isotopic ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, David A; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier R; Goldsmith, Paul F; Gry, Cecile; Gupta, Harshal; Herbst, Eric; Indriolo, Nick; Lis, Dariusz; Menten, Karl M; Monje, Raquel; Mookerjea, Bhaswati; Persson, Carina; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Wolfire, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    We report additional detections of the chloronium molecular ion, H$_2$Cl$^+$, toward four bright submillimeter continuum sources: G29.96, W49N, W51, and W3(OH). With the use of the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, we observed the $2_{12}-1_{01}$ transition of ortho-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ at 781.627 GHz in absorption toward all four sources. Much of the detected absorption arises in diffuse foreground clouds that are unassociated with the background continuum sources and in which our best estimates of the $N({\\rm H_2Cl^+})/N({\\rm H})$ ratio lie in the range $(0.9 - 4.8) \\times 10^{-9}$. These chloronium abundances relative to atomic hydrogen can exceed the predictions of current astrochemical models by up to a factor of 5. Toward W49N, we have also detected the $2_{12}-1_{01}$ transition of ortho-H$_2^{37}$Cl$^+$ at 780.053 GHz and the $1_{11}-0_{00}$ transition of para-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ at 485.418 GHz. These observations imply $\\rm H_2^{35}Cl^+/H_2^{37}Cl^+$ column density ratios that are consisten...

  14. Characterization of the interaction between collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1) and nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maiken Lumby; Brandt, Jette; Iyer, Sinduja S C;

    2013-01-01

    to changes in ionic strength and pH. Competition studies show that CL-11 binds to nucleic acids and carbohydrates via separate binding-sites and oligomericity appears crucial for binding activity. Combined interaction with DNA and mannan strongly increases binding avidity. By surface plasmon resonance we...

  15. EPDM对CL-20的包覆及表征%Coating of CL-20 by EPDM and Its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊龙; 王晶禹; 安崇伟; 李小东

    2012-01-01

    CL-20为主体炸药、EPDM为黏结剂,采用水悬浮法制备了CL-20基PBX炸药,用SEM、XRD和FT-IR对产物进行了表征,并测试了其撞击感度和热安定性.结果表明,该包覆工艺可使EPDM成功地包覆在CL-20表面,在包覆过程中CL-20晶型没有发生变化.与原料CL-20相比,包覆样品的撞击感度明显降低,特性落高由15.9cm提高到40.7 cm,热安定性更好.%CL-20 based PBX explosive was prepared by water slurry method using CL-20 as filler, and EPDM as binder. The coated samples were characterized by SEM,XRD and FT-IR,and its impact sensitivity and thermal stability were measured. The results showed that EPDM can coat on the CL-20 crystal surface successfully, and the crystalline polymorph of CL-20 didn't change during the coating process. Compared with raw CL-20,the impact sensitivity of coated sample was reduced significantly. The characteristic drop height was increased from 15. 9 cm to 40. 7 cm. The thermal stability was better than raw CL-20.

  16. Phase equilibria in system LiCl-NaCl-H2O at 308 and 348 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-qiang; Guo, Ya-fei; Liu, Dong-fang; Deng, Tian-long

    2016-12-01

    The solubilities and densities of the solutions in the ternary system LiCl-NaCl-H2O at 308 and 348 K were determined by the method of isothermal dissolution equilibrium. There are one invariant point, two univariant isotherm dissolution curves, and two crystallization regions corresponding to monohydrate (LiCl · H2O) and NaCl, respectively. This system at both temperatures belongs to hydrate type I, and neither double salt nor solid solution was found. A comparison of the phase diagram for the ternary system at 273-348 K shows that the area of crystallization region of LiCl · H2O is decreased with the increasing of temperature, while that of NaCl is increased obviously. The solution density of the ternary system at two temperatures changes regularly with the increasing of LiCl concentration.

  17. A further study of crystallization of lithium perchlorate from LiClO₄-NaCl-H₂O system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Tadic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define feasible process pathways of fractional crystallization of NaCl and LiClO₄·3H₂0 from LiClO₄-NaCl-H₂O system using the information on the equilibrium of the LiClO₄-NaCl-H₂O system at different temperatures, as well as the information on the composition of the starting solution obtained by electrolysis and double exchange with LiCl. The paper also synthesizes a feasible process structure that can be applied for the process of fractional crystallization, and gives a simulation of the process by calculating the material balance of the process. The parameters of relevant process paths that were obtained prove that the process presented in this paper is feasible in practice and applicable in industry.

  18. Effects of Cl Addition to Sb-Doped Perovskite-Type CH3NH3PbI3 Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Oku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of SbI3, PbCl2, and NH4Cl addition to perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 precursor solutions on photovoltaic properties were investigated. TiO2/CH3NH3Pb(SbI3(Cl-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating technique, and the microstructures of the devices were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies were improved by a small amount of Sb- and Cl-doping, which resulted in improvement of the efficiencies of the devices. The structure analysis indicated formation of a homogeneous microstructure by NH4Cl addition with SbI3.

  19. Ensaio clínico com sulpiride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Barbosa Bruscky

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento com sulpiride foi efetuado por via oral ou intramuscular num grupo de 39 pacientes com variadas condições psiquiátricas. A duração do tratamento variou entre 20 e 90 dias de hospitalização, sendo ministrada 1200 mg/dia do medicamento. As reações secundárias foram mínimas, não sendo observados efeitos sobre a crase sangüínea. Os resultados clínicos demonstram efeito satisfatório deste medicamento na ansiedade, depressão reativa e certos tipos de atividade delirante e alucinatória.

  20. Aumento de coroa clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joaquim Pedro Neves Rodrigues da

    2013-01-01

    O sorriso não se baseia apenas em factores dentários relacionados com a cor, a forma ou o alinhamento dos dentes na arcada, mas implica também a presença de tecidos periodontais saudáveis e com um contorno gengival harmónico. Este trabalho tem como objectivo abordar as diversas técnicas de aumento de coroa clínica, enunciar as vantagens e indicações das mesmas, bem como comparar as técnicas cirúrgicas com as ortodônticas. Para tal foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica recorrendo aos ...

  1. The C-Cl bonds in trichloroethylidene trichlorolactic ester, Cl3CCHOCOCHOCCl3. A 35Cl-NQR single crystal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Nagarajan, V.; Weiden, Norbert; Weiss, Alarich

    1983-01-01

    By single crystal 35Cl-NQR with a 4π Zeeman spectrometer, the six independent 35Cl-nuclear quadrupole coupling tensors in trichloroethylidene trichlorolactic ester (chloralide) Cl3CCHOCOCHOCC13 have been studied at T=21 °C. The directions of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components have been determined. The main axes φzz are within ±0.5° parallel to the C-Cl bound directions. Very small asymmetry parameters in the range 0.005≤η≤0.053 are characteristic for the EFG tensors of Cl bond to carbon in aliphatic systems, and the six nuclear quadrupole coupling constants are found in the range 76.053≤e2qQh-1/MHz≤78.790. The orientations of the principal axes φxx and φyy is explained as due to intramolecular interactions likely of through space origin.

  2. Formation of KrCl * and ArCl * molecules and radiative lifetimes of their B states investigated with selective synchrotron radiation excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, M. C.; Le Calvé, J.; Haaks, D.; Jordan, B.; Zimmerer, G.

    1980-02-01

    Monochromatic pulsed VUV excitation of Cl 2 or inert gas atoms in Cl 2 doped Kr and Ar leads to formation of KrCl * and ArCl *. The radiative lifetimes of the B states (KrCl * 19 ns, ArCl * 9 ns) and rate constants for excimer formation, quenching and collisional mixing of B and C states are given. The radiative lifetime and the quenching rate increase with vibrational excitation of the B state (KrCl *).

  3. La clé de Salomon

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, José Rodrigues dos

    2014-01-01

    Alors qu’une équipe de chercheurs du CERN est sur le point de réussir à observer le Bosson de Higgs, plus connu sous le nom de particule de Dieu, le corps de Franck Bellamy, chef de la CIA, est retrouvé dans les locaux du célèbre laboratoire Genevois. Dans les mains de la victime, les enquêteurs retrouvent un mystérieux message : « La clé : Tomás Noronha ». Désigné coupable, le cryptologue devient en quelques heures la principale cible de la CIA, bien décidée à venger Bellamy. Pour prouver son innocence, Tomás n’a qu’une solution : résoudre le crime au péril de sa vie. Ainsi débute une enquête à couper le souffle qui amènera notre héros à révéler des découvertes scientifiques des plus troublantes. L'âme existe-t-elle ? Y a-t-il une vie après la mort ? Dans cette suite de La Formule de Dieu, José Rodrigues dos Santos prouve une nouvelle fois qu’il est un des grands maîtres du thriller. La Clé de Salomon est un roman qui, au-delà de l’action, utilise la science pour ...

  4. HOCl and Cl2 observations in marine air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cl atoms in the marine atmosphere may significantly impact the lifetimes of methane and other hydrocarbons. However, the existing estimates of Cl atom levels in marine air are based on indirect evidence. Here we present measurements of the Cl precursors HOCl and Cl2 in the marine boundary layer during June of 2009 at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory in the eastern tropical Atlantic. These are the first measurements of tropospheric HOCl. HOCl and Cl2 levels were low in air with open ocean back trajectories, with maximum levels always below 60 and 10 ppt (pmol/mol, respectively. In air with trajectories originating over Europe, HOCl and Cl2 levels were higher, with HOCl maxima exceeding 100 ppt each day and Cl2 reaching up to 35 ppt. The increased Cl cycling associated with long distance pollutant transport over the oceans likely impacts a wide geographic area and represents a mechanism by which human activities have increased the reactivity of the marine atmosphere. Data-constrained model simulations indicate that Cl atoms account for approximately 15 % of methane destruction on days when aged polluted air arrives at the site. A photochemical model does not adequately simulate the observed abundances of HOCl and Cl2, raising the possibility of an unknown HOCl source.

  5. Disilicon complexes with two hexacoordinate Si atoms: paddlewheel-shaped isomers with (ClN4 )Si-Si(S4 Cl) and (ClN2 S2 )Si-Si(S2 N2 Cl) skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Jörg; Brendler, Erica; Heine, Thomas; Zhechkov, Lyuben

    2013-10-11

    The reaction of 1-methyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazoline-2-thione with hexachlorodisilane proceeds toward substitution of four of the disilane Cl atoms during the formation of disilicon complexes with two neighboring hexacoordinate Si atoms. The N,S-bidentate methimazolide moieties adopt a buttressing role, thus forming paddlewheel-shaped complexes of the type ClSi(μ-mt)4 SiCl (mt=methimazolyl). Most interestingly, three isomers (i.e., with (ClN4 )SiSi(S4 Cl), (ClN3 S)SiSi(S3 NCl), and (ClN2 S2 )SiSi(S2 N2 Cl) skeletons as so-called (4,0), (3,1), and cis-(2,2) paddlewheels) were detected in solution by using (29) Si NMR spectroscopic analysis. Two of these isomers could be isolated as crystalline solids, thus allowing their molecular structures to be analyzed by using X-ray diffraction studies. In accord with time-dependent NMR spectroscopy, computational analyses proved the cis-(2,2) isomer with a (ClN2 S2 )SiSi(S2 N2 Cl) skeleton to be the most stable. The compounds presented herein are the first examples of crystallographically evidenced disilicon complexes with two SiSi-bonded octahedrally coordinated Si atoms and representatives of the still scarcely explored class of Si coordination compounds with sulfur donor atoms.

  6. Morphology and conductivity of in-situ PEO-LiClO4-TiO2 composite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chun-yue; FENG Qing; WANG Li-jun; ZHANG Qian; CHAO Meng

    2007-01-01

    PEO-LiClO4-TiO2 composite polymer electrolyte films were prepared. TiO2 was formed directly in matrix by hydrolysis and condensation reaction of tetrabutyl titanate. The crystallinity, morphology and ionic conductivity of composite polymer electrolyte films were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, atom force microscopy and alternating current impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The glass transition temperature and the crystallinity of composite polymer electrolytes are decreased compared with those of PEO-LiClO4 polymer electrolyte film. The results show that TiO2 particles are uniformly dispersed in PEO-LiClO4-5%TiO2 composite polymer electrolyte film. The maximal conductivity of 5.5×10-5 S/cm at 20 ℃ of PEO-LiClO4-TiO2 film is obtained at 5% mass fraction of TiO2.

  7. Thermodynamic behaviors of SiCl2 in silicon deposition by gas phase zinc reduction of silicon tetrachloride☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing Hou; Zhifeng Nie; Gang Xie; Rongxing Li; Xiaohua Yu; Plant A Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    The modified Siemens process, which is the major process of producing polycrystal ine silicon through current technologies, is a high temperature, slow, semi-batch process and the product is expensive primarily due to the large energy consumption. Therefore, the zinc reduction process, which can produce solar-grade silicon in a cost effective manner, should be redeveloped for these conditions. The SiCl2 generation ratio, which stands for the degree of the side reactions, can be decomposed to SiCl4 and ZnCl2 in gas phase zinc atmosphere in the exit where the temperature is very low. Therefore, the lower SiCl2 generation ratio is profitable with lower power consumption. Based on the thermodynamic data for the related pure substances, the relations of the SiCl2 generation ratio and pressure, temperature and the feed molar ratio nZn=nSiCl4 ? ? are investigated and the graphs thereof are plotted. And the diagrams of KpΘ–T at standard atmosphere pressure have been plotted to account for the influence of temperature on the SiCl2 generation ratio. Furthermore, the diagram of KpΘ–T at dif-ferent pressures have also been plotted to give an interpretation of the influence of pressure on the SiCl2 gener-ation ratio. The results show that SiCl2 generation ratio increases with increasing temperature, and the higher pressure and excess gas phase zinc can restrict SiCl2 generation ratio. Finally, suitable operational conditions in the practical process of polycrystalline silicon manufacture by gas phase zinc reduction of SiCl4 have been established with 1200 K, 0.2 MPa and the feed molar ratio nZn=nSiCl4 ? ? of 4 at the entrance. Under these conditions, SiCl2 generation ratio is very low, which indicates that the side reactions can be restricted and the energy consumption is reasonable.

  8. Spectral intensities for the Cs{sub 2}NaDyCl{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}NaHoCl{sub 6} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Roberto; Navarro, Gustavo [Universidad Mayor, Manuel Montt 367, Santiago (Chile); Soto-Bubert, Andres [Universidad San Sebastian, Ernesto Pinto Lagarrigue 47, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: roberto.acevedo@umayor.cl

    2008-11-01

    The main goal of this research work is to rationalize the rich vibronic structure of two lanthanide type crystals, such as Cs{sub 2}NaDyCl{sub 6} and Cs{sub 2}NaHoCl{sub 6}, which belongs to the space group Fm3m(O{sub h}{sup 5}). These systems are known to be highly relativistic and as a consequence, major corrections to previous calculation models, are due to be taken into account so as to rationalize the observed spectral intensities. Our emphasis has been placed upon both the origin and Nature of the physical model to be employed as well as on the strategy to be followed in order to improve our current understanding of the intensity mechanism with reference to general radiative transitions for complex systems, in the solid state physics.

  9. Corrosion of alloys in a chloride molten salt (NaCl-LiCl) for solar thermal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vidal, Judith C.; Tirawat, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation solar power conversion systems in concentrating solar power (CSP) applications require high-temperature advanced fluids in the range of 600-800 degrees C. Current commercial CSP plants use molten nitrate salt mixtures as the heat transfer fluid and the thermal energy storage (TES) media while operating with multiple hours of energy capacity and at temperatures lower than 565 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the nitrates cannot be used because they decompose. Molten chloride salts are candidates for CSP applications because of their high decomposition temperatures and good thermal properties; but they can be corrosive to common alloys used in vessels, heat exchangers, and piping at these elevated temperatures. In this article, we present the results of the corrosion evaluations of several alloys in eutectic 34.42 wt% NaCl - 65.58 wt% LiCl at 650-700 degrees C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical evaluations were performed using open-circuit potential followed by a potentiodynamic polarization sweep. Corrosion rates were determined using Tafel slopes and Faraday's law. A temperature increase of as little as 50 degrees C more than doubled the corrosion rate of AISI stainless steel 310 and Incoloy 800H compared to the initial 650 degrees C test. These alloys exhibited localized corrosion. Inconel 625 was the most corrosion-resistant alloy with a corrosion rate of 2.80+/-0.38 mm/year. For TES applications, corrosion rates with magnitudes of a few millimeters per year are not acceptable because of economic considerations. Additionally, localized corrosion (intergranular or pitting) can be catastrophic. Thus, corrosion-mitigation approaches are required for advanced CSP plants to be commercially viable.

  10. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  11. ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng [Environmental Science Research Center, College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361110 (China); Zheng, Yanmei [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Qingbiao [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Environmental Science Research Center, College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361110 (China); Wang, Yuanpeng, E-mail: wypp@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and The Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • The ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar from the biogas residue of pig manure showed an excellent ability to remove As(III). • ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar had a large BET surface area and well-distributed pore structure. • Zinc played a dominant role in the removal of As(III) by forming Zn-O-As(III). - Abstract: Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm{sup 2}/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL{sup −1} solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R{sup 2} > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R{sup 2} > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl{sub 2}-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  12. A Performance Comparison of CUDA and OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Kamran; Hamze, Firas

    2010-01-01

    CUDA and OpenCL offer two different interfaces for programming GPUs. OpenCL is an open standard that can be used to program CPUs, GPUs, and other devices from different vendors, while CUDA is specific to NVIDIA GPUs. Although OpenCL promises a portable language for GPU programming, its generality may entail a performance penalty. In this paper, we compare the performance of CUDA and OpenCL using complex, near-identical kernels. We show that when using NVIDIA compiler tools, converting a CUDA kernel to an OpenCL kernel involves minimal modifications. Making such a kernel compile with ATI's build tools involves more modifications. Our performance tests measure and compare data transfer times to and from the GPU, kernel execution times, and end-to-end application execution times for both CUDA and OpenCL.

  13. Determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste from reactor decommissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Ostergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Sven P

    2007-04-15

    An analytical method for the determination of 36Cl in nuclear waste such as graphite, heavy concrete, steel, aluminum, and lead was developed. Several methods were investigated for decomposing the samples. AgCl precipitation was used to separate 36Cl from the matrix elements, followed by ion-exchange chromatography to remove interfering radionuclides. The purified 36Cl was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. The chemical yield of chlorine, as measured by ICPMS, is above 70% and the decontamination factors for all interfering radionuclides are greater than 10(6). The detection limit of this analytical method for 36Cl is 14 mBq. The method has been used to determine 36Cl in heavy concrete, aluminum, and graphite from the Danish DR-2 research reactor.

  14. Experimental study of CdCl(2):CuCl photochromic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, H; Rincon, J M; Celaya, L E

    1990-09-01

    We present measurements of the spectral transmittance and photochromic response of CdCl(2):CuCl coatings. The coatings are also examined with the aid of electron micrographs. We explain the features observed in the spectral transmittance of darkened photochromic films, using a colloidal model obtained from the generalized Maxwell-Garnett theory. The colloidal model indicates the presence of ellipsoidal copper particles with a shape factor (minor axis/major axis) between 0.39 and 0.42 and mean ratios between 2.03 and 1.73 nm. The optical transmittance curve obtained in the faded state shows a peak near 280 nm attributed to Cu(+), and the curve in the darkened state shows two bands, a band located at 375 nm attributed to Cu(2+) and another at 600-610 nm assigned to colloidal copper particles.

  15. A hybrid programming model for compressible gas dynamics using openCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniels, Marcus G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weber, Paul M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The current trend towards multicore/manycore and accelerated architectures presents challenges, both in portability, and also in the choices that developers must make on how to use the resources that these architectures provide. This paper explores some of the possibilities that are enabled by the Open Computing Language (OpenCL), and proposes a programming model that allows developers and scientists to more fully subscribe hybrid compute nodes, while, at the same time, reducing the impact of system failure.

  16. First far-infrared high resolution analysis of the ν6 band of phosgene 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaud, J.-M.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Lafferty, W. J.; Manceron, L.; Ndao, M.

    2016-08-01

    A Fourier transform spectrum of phosgene (Cl2CO) has been recorded in the 22.5 μm spectral region at a resolution of 0.00102 cm-1 using a Bruker IFS125HR spectrometer coupled to synchrotron radiation leading to the observation of the ν6 vibrational bands of the two isotopologues 35Cl2CO and 35Cl37ClCO. The corresponding upper state ro-vibrational levels were fit using Watson-type Hamiltonians. In this way it was possible to reproduce the upper state ro-vibrational levels to within the experimental uncertainty i.e. ∼0.30 × 10-3 cm-1. Very accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were derived from the fit together with the following band centers: ν0(ν6,35Cl2CO) = 443.172062(15) cm-1, ν0(ν6,35Cl37ClCO) = 440.534956(17) cm-1.

  17. Collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1) is a MASP-1/3-associated plasma collectin with microbial-binding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Soren; Selman, Lana; Palaniyar, Nades

    2010-01-01

    and showed that CL-11 has preference for l-fucose and d-mannose. We finally show that CL-11 binds to intact bacteria, fungi, and viruses and that CL-11 decreases influenza A virus infectivity and forms complexes with DNA. On the basis of the significant concentration of CL-11 in circulation and CL-11's...

  18. An ab initio study on the chemical reactions in the Cl-ClO catalytic cycle%Cl-ClO催化循环圈的从头算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛连港; 邴单; 赵永芳; 李根全; 李新营; 蒿凤有; 刘凤丽

    2006-01-01

    One of processes of the ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere is investigated by using an ab initio calculation at the B3LYP/6-311+G (3df) and the G2 levels. The calculated result obviously supported the theory on destroying ozone mechanism of the Cl-ClO catalytic cycle, and explained basic reason of the destroying ozone from the energy point of view. The reactional energy, the enthalpy of formation, and relative Gibbs free energy of the reactions in the ClClO catalytic cycle are calculated exactly, and provided thermodynamics quantities for the reactions in the Cl-ClO catalytic cycle.%采用分子轨道从头算方法,在B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)和G2水平上研究了极地平流层臭氧损耗的一个基本过程.计算结果明显支持Cl-ClO催化循环圈机理,并且从能量角度解释了了臭氧破坏的基本原因.还对循环圈中各个反应的反应能,生成焓,相对吉布斯自由能做了计算,计算结果相互协调都说明了Cl-ClO催化循环圈破坏臭氧机理的正确性.

  19. Reformatsky Reaction Promoted by[bmim]Cl-CrCl2 Ionic Liquid%离子液体[bmim]Cl-CrCl2促进的Reformatsky反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长春; 袁加程; 谭佩毅; 金德宽

    2009-01-01

    用无水氯化铬(CrCl2)和氯化1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑([bmim]Cl)制备了离子液体[bmim]Cl-CrCl2,考察了CrCl2与[bmim]Cl物质的量比以及离子液体与底物物质的量比对Reformatsky反应的影响,研究了[bmim]Cl-CrCl2促进不同底物发生的Reformatsky反应.结果表明,离子液体[bmim]Cl-CrCl2不仅能促进醛、酮与α-溴代酸酯的反应,以极好的产率得到β-羟基酸酯;而且能较好地诱导α-溴代苯乙酮与醛、酮的反应,以较高的产率得到β-羟基酮.该离子液体经处理后可以重复使用,是一种Reformatsky反应的绿色化学方法.

  20. A Performance Comparison of CUDA and OpenCL

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Kamran; Dickson, Neil G.; Hamze, Firas

    2010-01-01

    CUDA and OpenCL are two different frameworks for GPU programming. OpenCL is an open standard that can be used to program CPUs, GPUs, and other devices from different vendors, while CUDA is specific to NVIDIA GPUs. Although OpenCL promises a portable language for GPU programming, its generality may entail a performance penalty. In this paper, we use complex, near-identical kernels from a Quantum Monte Carlo application to compare the performance of CUDA and OpenCL. We show that when using NVID...

  1. Preparing different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys by molten salt electrolysis in LiCl-KCl-MgCl_2-SmCl_3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟; 田阳; 张密林; 叶克; 赵全友; 魏树权

    2010-01-01

    Different phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-SmCl3 melts at 670 °C.The electrolysis process and phase control of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were studied.The microstructures of α,α+β,β phases of Mg-Li-Sm alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and optical microscope(OM).Analysis of scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and EDS mapping analysis showed that Mg distributed homogeneously in Mg-Li-Sm alloys.EDS result showed that the distribution of Sm was more at...

  2. Research at channel level on the effect of LaCl3 on Radish (Raphanus satirus L.) vacuolar membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We recorded slow vacuolar (SV-type) channel currents of Radish vacuoles successfully for the first time by using the whole-vacuolar patch-clamp recording mode. SVtrye currents would increase and threshold potentials of activation would shift towards more negative values with the increase of concentrations of cytosolic Ca2+. When 2.5 mmol/L LaCl3 and 4 mmol/L EGTA were added to bath solutions,SV-type currents were suppressed remarkably. Then adding LaCl3 with different concentrations to pipette solutions, we found that LaCl3 with higher concentrations (> 4 × 10-7 mol/L)had a strong inhibitory effect on SV-type currents, while LaCl3 with lower concentrations (≤4 × 10-7 mol/L) promoted channel currents. This promoting effect provides an important basis at channel level for researching further the effects of rare earth on physiological activities of plants and the production-increase effects of rare earth fertilizers on crops.``

  3. (CH3)3SiCl/TiCl4 INITIATING SYSTEM FOR CATIONIC POLYMERIZATION OF 1,3-PENTADIENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-guo Deng; Wen-chuan Zhang; Yu-xing Peng

    1999-01-01

    Cationic polymerizations of 1,3-pentadiene (PD) initiated by trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl) in combination with TiCl4 were carried out in n-hexane at 30℃. The yield of polymer was greatly increased by the addition of TMSCl, indicating that the TMSCl/TiCl4 combination is an efficient initiating system for PD cationic polymerization. However, the introduction of TMSCl gave rise to a drop in the molecular weight of the polymer. Kinetic results demonstrated that the polymerization initiated by TMSCl/TiCl4 is 4.5 times faster than that induced by TiCl4 alone. Various ethers were used to mediate the TMSCl/TiCl4 initiating system.Adding diphenyl ether could increase both the yield and molecular weight of the polymer. Structural evidence illustrates that the polymerization is indeed initiated by TiCl4 in combination with HCl resulting from hydrolysis by adventitious water.

  4. High temporal resolution Br2, BrCl and BrO observations in coastal Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are few observations of speciated inorganic bromine in polar regions against which to test current theory. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made at Halley during spring 2007 using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS. We find indications for an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for observations of Br2 made using a similar CIMS method. Using the MISTRA model, we estimate that the artefact represents a conversion of HOBr to Br2 of the order of several tens of percent, while that for HOBr to BrCl is less but non-negligible. If the artefact is indeed due to HOBr conversion, then nighttime observations were unaffected. It also appears that all daytime BrO observations were artefact-free. Mixing ratios of BrO, Br2 and BrCl ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv (daytime, 45 pptv (nighttime, and 6 pptv (nighttime, respectively. We see considerable variability in the Br2 and BrCl observations over the measurement period which is strongly linked to the prevailing meteorology, and thus air mass origin. Higher mixing ratios of these species were generally observed when air had passed over the sea-ice zone prior to arrival at Halley, than from over the continent. Variation in the diurnal structure of BrO is linked to previous model work where differences in the photolysis spectra of Br2 and O3 is suggested to lead to a BrO maximum at sunrise and sunset, rather than a noon-time maxima. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic, and of note is that our maximum measured BrCl (nighttime is less than half of the maximum measured during a similar period (spring-time in the Arctic (also nighttime. This difference in maximum measured BrCl may also be the cause of a difference in the Br2 : BrCl ratio between the Arctic and Antarctic. An

  5. Synthesis and Structure of Mixed Distannoxane Dimers [ClR2SnOSnR'2Cl]2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mixed distannoxane dimers [ClR2SnOSnR'2Cl]2 were synthesized by the reaction of R2SnO (R = Bu, Pr) and R2SnCl2 (R = Me, Ph, Cy, Oct). The crystal structures of compound 1 and 5 show they are ladder-type dimers that contain a central planar Sn2O2 four-membered ring. Both endo- and exo-Sn atoms are five-coordinate.

  6. Optimized Data Transfers Based on the OpenCL Event Management Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Takizawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In standard OpenCL programming, hosts are supposed to control their compute devices. Since compute devices are dedicated to kernel computation, only hosts can execute several kinds of data transfers such as internode communication and file access. These data transfers require one host to simultaneously play two or more roles due to the need for collaboration between the host and devices. The codes for such data transfers are likely to be system-specific, resulting in low portability. This paper proposes an OpenCL extension that incorporates such data transfers into the OpenCL event management mechanism. Unlike the current OpenCL standard, the main thread running on the host is not blocked to serialize dependent operations. Hence, an application can easily use the opportunities to overlap parallel activities of hosts and compute devices. In addition, the implementation details of data transfers are hidden behind the extension, and application programmers can use the optimized data transfers without any tricky programming techniques. The evaluation results show that the proposed extension can use the optimized data transfer implementation and thereby increase the sustained data transfer performance by about 18% for a real application accessing a big data file.

  7. ZnCl2-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan; Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2016-07-01

    Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl2-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm2/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL-1 solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl2-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R2 > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl2-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R2 > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl2-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  8. CoCl2 reinforced polymeric nanocomposites of conjugated polymer (polyaniline) and its conductive properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Majhi; R B Choudhary; P Maji

    2015-09-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in acidic aqueous medium. Cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2⋅6H2O)-doped PANI composite was synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization process by using various concentrations of CoCl2. Its chemical, structural and morphological properties were examined by X-ray diffraction, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. These results confirmed the successful formation of PANI and CoCl2-doped PANI nanocomposites. The morphology of CoCl2-doped PANI nanocomposite was found to be spherical in nature. The dielectric properties were examined using LCR-HITESTER in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz. The optical properties were examined by UV–visible spectroscopic techniques in the wavelength range of 200–800 nm. The high dielectric properties and alternating current conductivity of the composite was studied in the temperature range 313–373 K. It was found that the synthesized polymeric nanocomposite owned fairly suitable dielectric and optical properties for its application in actuators, conductive paints and for many other purposes.

  9. Constraining nova observables: direct measurements of resonance strengths in 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl

    CERN Document Server

    Fallis, J; Bertone, P F; Bishop, S; Buchmann, L; Chen, A A; Christian, G; Clark, J A; D'Auria, J M; Davids, B; Deibel, C M; Fulton, B R; Greife, U; Guo, B; Hager, U; Herlitzius, C; Hutcheon, D A; José, J; Laird, A M; Li, E T; Li, Z H; Lian, G; Liu, W P; Martin, L; Nelson, K; Ottewell, D; Parker, P D; Reeve, S; Rojas, A; Ruiz, C; Setoodehnia, K; Sjue, S; Vockenhuber, C; Wang, Y B; Wrede, C

    2013-01-01

    The 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl reaction is important for constraining predictions of certain isotopic abundances in oxygen-neon novae. Models currently predict as much as 150 times the solar abundance of 33S in oxygen-neon nova ejecta. This overproduction factor may, however, vary by orders of magnitude due to uncertainties in the 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl reaction rate at nova peak temperatures. Depending on this rate, 33S could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for classifying certain types of presolar grains. Better knowledge of the 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl rate would also aid in interpreting nova observations over the S-Ca mass region and contribute to the firm establishment of the maximum endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis. Additionally, the total S elemental abundance which is affected by this reaction has been proposed as a thermometer to study the peak temperatures of novae. Previously, the 33S(p,\\gamma)34Cl reaction rate had only been studied directly down to resonance energies of 432 keV. However, for nova peak temper...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF FUNCTIONAL MACROMOLECULE INTERMEDIATE THROUGH COUPLING REACTION CATALYZED BY [bmim]Cl/FeCl3 IONIC LIQUID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; CHEN Xiaonong; YUAN Xinhua; ZHANG Yan; ZHANG Chunyan; LIU Hua; DAI Qixun

    2006-01-01

    To obtain new functional aromatic polymer material. 3.3'-biacenophthene. which is used as macrotnolecule intermediate of function aromatic polymer material. was synthesized through the coupling reaction of acenaphthene catalyzing by ionic liquid (/bmim/Cl/FeCl3) at mild reaction condition. Pure 3,3' -biacenaphthene was obtained by recrystalling and column chromatography from the reaction mixture, and was determined by GC/MS. 1HNMR and FTIR analysis. The influence of various reaction conditions on the yield of 3,3'-biacenaphthene were studied by GC analysis. The result shows that the optimun synthesis conditions of the coupling reaction are as following: the molar ratio of FeCl3 to [Bmim]Cl being 3. the mole ratio of FeCl3 in [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 to acenaphthene being 4. the reaction temperature being 20 ℃, the reaction time being 4h and the solvent of the reaction system being PhNO2. Under those conditions, the yield of the 3,3'-biacenaphthene will be 48.71% and selectivity of that will be 78.56 %. Further more.[bmim ]Cl/FeCl3 has no pollution to environments and can be reused.

  11. The centrifugal sudden distorted wave method for calculating cross sections for chemical reactions: Angular distributions for Cl + HCl --> ClH + Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, George C.; Amaee, B.; Connor, J. N. L.

    1987-10-01

    We describe a method for calculating cross sections for atom plus diatom reactive collisions based on the centrifugal sudden distorted wave (CSDW) approximation. This method is nearly exact at low energies where reactive cross sections are small. Representative CPU times are given for applications of the CSDW method to the Cl + HCl → ClH + Cl reaction using CDC 7600, Cyber 176, Cyber 205, Cray X-MP and Cray-2 computers. We also present differential cross sections for the Cl + HCl reaction and apply a simple semiclassical model which relates these cross sections to the partial wave reaction probabilities, and to the energy dependence of the reaction probabilities for zero total angular momentum. This model explains why the differential cross sections are backward peaked, and why the oscillatory cross sections seen in earlier, more approximate infinite order sudden calculations are not found in the present results at low energy.

  12. Study on the Phase Diagram of CsCl-CeCl3-HCl(11%)-H2O System and the Properties of the Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The equilibrium solubility of CsCl-CeCl3-HCl(11%)-H2O qua-ternary system at 25℃ has been determined by the physicchemical analysis method ,and the phase diagram was plotted, Two new double salts 3CsCl.CeCl3.3H2O and CsCl.CeCl3.4H2O obtained from the complicated system were identified and characterized by XRD,TG-DTA ,DSC,UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, Studies on the fluorescence excitation and emission show that 3CsCl.CeCl3.3H2O and CsCl.CeCl3.4H2O have upconversion luminescence of infrared-visible range,and the upconversion emission intensity increases with the increase of ratio of CeCl3 in CsCl.

  13. TiCl4 Pretreatment and Electrodeposition Time Investigations of ZnO Photoelectrodes Preparation for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiCl4 pretreatment is used in the fabrication of high performance photoanodes for dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this paper, TiCl4 pretreatment was used on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO before fabricating ZnO films by electrochemical method. The effects of TiCl4 pretreatment on some important parameters of solar cells, such as short-circuit current (Jsc and filling factor, were investigated. The morphology of ZnO films was changed after TiCl4 pretreatment, which can offer large surface area to absorb much more dyes. When the time of electrodeposition was 3 min, the dyes-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiCl4 pretreatment ZnO films showed more superior photoelectrochemical performance. The parameters of DSSCs are greatly improved. The DSSC based on ZnO films after TiCl4 pretreatment has a very promising value for fabricating high performance solar cells.

  14. Influence of Substrates on the Electrochemical Deposition and Dissolution of Aluminum in NaAlCl4 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Berg, Rolf W.

    1991-01-01

    The deposition and dissolution of aluminum in NaAlCl4 melts saturated with NaCl have been investigated by voltammetryand potentiometry for different electrode materials at 175°C. The tungsten and glassy carbon electrodes are shownto be electrochemically inert in the melts, whereas copper is elect......The deposition and dissolution of aluminum in NaAlCl4 melts saturated with NaCl have been investigated by voltammetryand potentiometry for different electrode materials at 175°C. The tungsten and glassy carbon electrodes are shownto be electrochemically inert in the melts, whereas copper...... and the coulombic charges used for glassy carbon electrodes, mainly because of poor adhesion of the deposits tothe substrate. The reversibility is noticeably affected by the magnitude of deposition current density for the tungsten electrodes,while it remains high on the nickel electrode under all conditions...... investigated. Nickel and, to some extent,tungsten electrodes proved to be appropriate as working anodes in the Al/NaCl-AlCl3/Ni battery system....

  15. Galvanostatic response of AA2024 aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U DONATUS; G E THOMPSON

    2016-10-01

    Galvanostatic responses of AA2024T3 alloy in de-aerated and naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution have been investigated. In the de-aerated condition, two distinct stages of polarization were revealed. From the first stage, the relationships between the pitting incubation time, pitting potential and applied current density for AA2024T3 alloy in the de-aerated condition were established. The curves in the aerated condition showed no particular incubation time-applied current density relationship.

  16. Electroreduction of Ho3+ on Nickel Cathode in Molten KCl-HoCl3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetry, open current potential-time curve after potentiostatic electrolysis, the current-time curve at potential step, XRD, EDAX and EPMA were used to study the electrode process of Ho3+ reduction on nickel electrode in molten KCl-HoCl3 and the phases of surface alloy layer. The Ho-Ni alloys were deposited when Ho3+ was reduced on the nickel electrode. The free energies of formation for the intermetallic compounds between Ho and Ni, the diffusion coefficients and diffusion activation energy of Ho atom in the alloy phase were determined.

  17. Electrochemical study of Np in the molten eutectic LiCl-KCl; Etude electrochimique de Np dans l'eutectique fondu LiCl-KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoba, G. de; Laplace, A.; Blairat, L

    2003-07-01

    This collaborative work CEA-CIEMAT deals with the electrochemical behaviour of neptunium, and in particular the Np(III)/Np redox system, in the LiCl-KCl molten eutectic and in the temperature range of 450 to 600 deg C. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of its separation from the rest of actinides and fission products. Neptunium solutions were obtained by two ways: - the first one consisted in converting the oxide NpO{sub 2} into its chloride form. Dissolution was performed either with HCl{sub (g)} or by carbo-chlorination (Cl{sub 2(g)}+C{sub (s))} at 5500 C. A mixture of mostly Np(IV) together with the soluble oxychloride NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(V) in the melt was obtained, which complicates the study of the Np(III)/Np(0) reduction reaction. - in order to obtain Np(III) solutions, an Al-Cu-Np alloy was used and oxidation of Np metal to the salt phase was performed. A Np(III) solution was obtained, which has been shown by cyclic voltammetry. The study of the redox system Np(Ill)/Np(0) was performed by different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chrono-potentiometry. The results for both solutions were compared and found to be similar. Reduction of Np(Ill) ions to metal Np proceeds in a single step with the exchange of three electrons and the electrode reaction shows a quasi-reversible behaviour being controlled by the diffusion of the electro-active species. Apparent standard potential was determined by chrono-potentiometry at zero current technique, from the measurement of the equilibrium potential between a Np electrode, electrodeposited in situ, and a LiCl-KCl-NpCl{sub 3} solution at different temperatures. Also, from those values of potential, standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of formation of NpCl{sub 3} in LiCl-KCl were determined. A very brief description about the electrochemical behaviour of the redox system Np(IV)/Np(III) was made. Finally, the molten salt bath decontamination

  18. Experimental verification of a zero-dimensional model of the kinetics of XeCl* discharges by Xe*-, Cl*-, Ne*-, and H*-density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabedissen, A. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)); Loffhagen, D. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)); Boetticher, W. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Univ. Hannover (Germany)); Hammer, T. (Siemens AG, Corp. Research and Development, Plasma and Switching Technology, Erlangen (Germany))

    1994-06-01

    Absorption spectroscopic measurements of effective particle number densities of excited Xe, Ne, Cl, and H performed on a small scale discharge with well-defined current and voltage pulses are compared with the results of model calculations over a wide range of discharge parameters. The reaction kinetic pathways determining the ionization and dissociative attachment rates have been verified by the good agreement obtained during the quasi-steady-state phase of the discharge for Xe and H. To reproduce the rise times of the excited Xe particle number densities during the ignition phase, the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Xe published by Puech and Mizzi had to be enhanced by about 25%. From the Ne measurements it is concluded that the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Ne published by Puech and Mizzi may be too large near the theshold. Measurements of excited Cl particle number densities re unsuitable to check the attachment kinetics of HCl, because these densities are mainly determined by reactions not involving the formation of Cl[sup -] ions. (orig.)

  19. Experimental verification of a zero-dimensional model of the kinetics of XeCl* discharges by Xe*-, Cl*-, Ne*-, and H*-density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedissen, A.; Loffhagen, D.; Hammer, Th.; Bötticher, W.

    1994-06-01

    Absorption spectroscopic measurements of effective particle number densities of excited Xe, Ne, Cl, and H performed on a small scale discharge with well-defined current and voltage pulses are compared with the results of model calculations over a wide range of discharge parameters. The reaction kinetic pathways determining the ionization and dissociative attachment rates have been verified by the good agreement obtained during the quasi-steady-state phase of the discharge for Xe and H. To reproduce the rise times of the excited Xe particle number densities during the ignition phase, the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Xe published by Puech and Mizzi [1] had to be enhanced by about 25%. From the Ne measurements it is concluded that the electron collision excitation cross sections of ground state Ne published by Puech and Mizzi [1] may be too large near the threshold. Measurements of excited Cl particle number densities are unsuitable to check the attachment kinetics of HCl, because these densities are mainly determined by reactions not involving the formation of Cl- ions.

  20. Infrared properties of doped and irradiated NaCl crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izvekov, V.P.; Pungor, E. (Budapesti Mueszaki Egyetem (Hungary). Altalanos es Analitikai Tanszek); Gyoergyi, T.; Pungor, E. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-06-01

    Infrared spectra of X-ray irradiated NaCl crystals doped with Ca/sup 2 +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ ions are presented. The localized modes of the hydrogen impurities in doped NaCl crystals and their changes induced by radiation have been studied.

  1. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  2. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  3. Conduction Band of the Photographic Compound AgCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1999-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations on the photographic compound AgCl are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has a large Cl-4s character, contrary to the common picture of the conduction band being derived from Ag-5s states. Possible consequences for the photographic process are discussed.

  4. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  5. Conduction Band of the Photographic Compound AgCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1999-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations on the photographic compound AgCl are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has a large Cl-4s character, contrary to the common picture of the conduction band being derived from Ag-5s states. Possible consequences for the photographic process are discussed.

  6. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutela, Suvi; Hahl, Terhi; Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Ylioja, Tiina; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula) Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1) were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins.

  7. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Sutela

    Full Text Available A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1 to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S and guaiacyl (G lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1 were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins.

  8. Initial atmospheric corrosion of Zinc sprayed with NaCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈庆; 严川伟; 张蕾; 刘光恒; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    Regularities of the initial atmospheric corrosion of zinc sprayed with different amount of NaCl exposed to air at 80% relative humidity and 25 ℃ were investigated via quartz crystal microbalance in laboratory. The results show that NaCl can accelerate the corrosion of zinc. Mass gain of zinc increases with the exposure time increasing, which can be correlated by using exponential decay function. The relationship between mass gain and amount of NaCl sprayed at a certain exposure time follows a quadratic function. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersion X-ray analysis were used to characterize the corrosion surface and products. Zn5(OH)8Cl2*H2O and ZnO are the dominant corrosion products, which unevenly distribute on the surface of zinc in the presence of NaCl. A probable mechanism is simply presented to explain the experimental results.

  9. High Coulombic efficiency aluminum-ion battery using an AlCl3-urea ionic liquid analog electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Michael; Pan, Chun-Jern; Rong, Youmin; Yuan, Chunze; Lin, Meng-Chang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2017-01-31

    In recent years, impressive advances in harvesting renewable energy have led to a pressing demand for the complimentary energy storage technology. Here, a high Coulombic efficiency (∼99.7%) Al battery is developed using earth-abundant aluminum as the anode, graphite as the cathode, and a cheap ionic liquid analog electrolyte made from a mixture of AlCl3 and urea in a 1.3:1 molar ratio. The battery displays discharge voltage plateaus around 1.9 and 1.5 V (average discharge = 1.73 V) and yielded a specific cathode capacity of ∼73 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) (∼1.4 C). High Coulombic efficiency over a range of charge-discharge rates and stability over ∼150-200 cycles was easily demonstrated. In situ Raman spectroscopy clearly showed chloroaluminate anion intercalation/deintercalation of graphite (positive electrode) during charge-discharge and suggested the formation of a stage 2 graphite intercalation compound when fully charged. Raman spectroscopy and NMR suggested the existence of AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-) anions and [AlCl2·(urea)n](+) cations in the AlCl3/urea electrolyte when an excess of AlCl3 was present. Aluminum deposition therefore proceeded through two pathways, one involving Al2Cl7(-) anions and the other involving [AlCl2·(urea)n](+) cations. This battery is a promising prospect for a future high-performance, low-cost energy storage device.

  10. Electroless Growth of Aluminum Dendrites in NaCl-AlCl3 Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, H.A.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1989-01-01

    The spontaneous growth of aluminum dendrites after deposition was observed and examined in sodium chloride-aluminumchloride melts. The concentration gradient of AlCl3 in the vicinity of the cathode surface resulting from electrolysisconstitutes a type of concentration cell with aluminum dendrites...... as electrodes. The short-circuit discharge of thecell is found to be the driving force for the growth of aluminum dendrites. Such a concentration gradient is proposed to beone of the causes for dendrite formation in the case of metal deposition....

  11. Current limiting remote power control module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    The power source for the Space Station Freedom will be fully utilized nearly all of the time. As such, any loads on the system will need to operate within expected limits. Should any load draw an inordinate amount of power, the bus voltage for the system may sag and disrupt the operation of other loads. To protect the bus and loads some type of power interface between the bus and each load must be provided. This interface is most crucial when load faults occur. A possible system configuration is presented. The proposed interface is the Current Limiting Remote Power Controller (CL-RPC). Such an interface should provide the following power functions: limit overloading and resulting undervoltage; prevent catastrophic failure and still provide for redundancy management within the load; minimize cable heating; and provide accurate current measurement. A functional block diagram of the power processing stage of a CL-RPC is included. There are four functions that drive the circuit design: rate control of current; current sensing; the variable conductance switch (VCS) technology; and the algorithm used for current limiting. Each function is discussed separately.

  12. Analysis of P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-LiClO4-EC triblock copolymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Inbavalli; S Selvasekarapandian; C Sanjeeviraja; R Baskaran; S Nithya; Junichi Kawamura; Yoshitake Masuda

    2015-02-01

    The lithium ion conducting copolymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrileco- methyl methacrylate) P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-lithium per chlorate (LiClO4) (P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA): LiClO4) and poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate)P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-lithium per chlorate (LiClO4)-ethylene carbonate (EC) (P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA):LiClO4:EC) of different compositions were prepared by solution-casting technique. Structural and surface morphological characterizations were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy measurements, respectively. Thermal and conductivity behaviour of copolymer–salt and copolymer–salt–plasticizer complexes were studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry and AC impedance measurements, respectively. The highest bulk conductivity was found to be 1.94 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 303 K for the plasticized sample. The dielectric behaviour and relaxation parameters of the samples have been presented and discussed.

  13. CL-L1 and CL-K1 and other complement associated pattern recognition molecules in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Anne; Thiel, Steffen; Jensen, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the involvement of collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and other pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) of the lectin pathway of the complement system in a cross-sectional cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients...

  14. The Cl-35/Cl-37 isotopic ratio in dense molecular clouds : HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride towards W3 A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Daniel, F.; Agundez, M.; Caux, E.; de Graauw, T.; De Jonge, A.; Kester, D.; Leduc, H. G.; Steinmetz, E.; Stutzki, J.; Ward, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detection with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel satellite of the two hydrogen chloride isotopologues, (HCl)-Cl-35 and (HCl)-Cl-37, towards the massive star-forming region W3 A. The J = 1-0 line of both species was observed with receiver 1b of the HIFI instrument at similar

  15. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes families in Citrullus lanatus under various abiotic stresses and grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenliang; Dong, Wenqi; Zhan, Yihua; Huang, Zong-An; Li, Zhimiao; Kim, Il Seop; Zhang, Chenghao

    2017-04-07

    Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Auxin is transported by three kinds of major protein families, including the AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX) influx carriers, the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers and the ATP binding cassette B/P-glycoprotein/Multidrug-resistance (ABCB/MDR/PGP) efflux/condition carriers. The biological function of several auxin transporter genes has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their function in response to exogenous auxin and abiotic stresses in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. L) remained unknown. Here, the latest updated watermelon genome was used to characterise the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes from watermelon. The genome-wide analysis of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes, including chromosome localisation, gene structure, and phylogenic relationships, was carried out. Seven ClLAXs, 11 ClPINs and 15 ClABCBs were mapped on 10 watermelon chromosomes. The expression profiles of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, and cold stresses) treatments were performed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcriptional level of majority ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes were changed by abiotic stresses in both shoots and roots. We also analysed the expression levels of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes in graft response. Analysis of the expression patterns of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under salt, drought, cold treatment and grafting response helps us to understand the possible roles of auxin transporter genes in watermelon adaptation to environmental stresses.

  16. Spectral-element Seismic Wave Propagation on CUDA/OpenCL Hardware Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, D. B.; Videau, B.; Pouget, K.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation codes are essential tools to investigate a variety of wave phenomena in the Earth. Furthermore, they can now be used for seismic full-waveform inversions in regional- and global-scale adjoint tomography. Although these seismic wave propagation solvers are crucial ingredients to improve the resolution of tomographic images to answer important questions about the nature of Earth's internal processes and subsurface structure, their practical application is often limited due to high computational costs. They thus need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities to improving the current state of knowledge. At present, numerous large HPC systems embed many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) to enhance numerical performance. Such hardware accelerators can be programmed using either the CUDA programming environment or the OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted by additional hardware accelerators, like e.g. AMD graphic cards, ARM-based processors as well as Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. For seismic wave propagation simulations using the open-source spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, we incorporated an automatic source-to-source code generation tool (BOAST) which allows us to use meta-programming of all computational kernels for forward and adjoint runs. Using our BOAST kernels, we generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages within the source code package. Thus, seismic wave simulations are able now to fully utilize CUDA and OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show benchmarks of forward seismic wave propagation simulations using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  17. Glutamate and GABA activate different receptors and Cl(-) conductances in crab peptide-secretory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S; Cooke, I M

    2000-01-01

    Responses to rapid application of glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 0.01-3 mM, were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp of cultured crab (Cardisoma carnifex) X-organ neurons. Responses peaked within 200 ms. Both Glu and GABA currents had reversal potentials that followed the Nernst Cl(-) potential when [Cl(-)](i) was varied. A Boltzmann fit to the normalized, averaged dose-response curve for Glu indicated an EC(50) of 0.15 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.05. Rapid (t(1/2) approximately 1 s) desensitization occurred during Glu but not GABA application that required >2 min for recovery. Desensitization was unaffected by concanavalin A or cyclothiazide. N-methyl-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, quisqualate, and kainate (to 1 mM) were ineffective, nor were Glu responses influenced by glycine (1 microM) or Mg(2+) (0-26 mM). Glu effects were imitated by ibotenic acid (0.1 mM). The following support the conclusion that Glu and GABA act on different receptors: 1) responses sum; 2) desensitization to Glu or ibotenic acid did not diminish GABA responses; 3) the Cl(-)-channel blockers picrotoxin and niflumic acid (0.5 mM) inhibited Glu responses by approximately 90 and 80% but GABA responses by approximately 50 and 20%; and 4) polyvinylpyrrolydone-25 (2 mM in normal crab saline) eliminated Glu responses but left GABA responses unaltered. Thus crab secretory neurons have separate receptors responsive to Glu and to GABA, both probably ionotropic, and mediating Cl(-) conductance increases. In its responses and pharmacology, this crustacean Glu receptor resembles Cl(-)-permeable Glu receptors previously described in invertebrates and differs from cation-permeable Glu receptors of vertebrates and invertebrates.

  18. Rules on intrapair and interpair correlation energy for Cl,Cl~- and MCl(M=H,Li,Na,K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦吉崇; 禚淑苹; 居冠之

    2001-01-01

    According to the calculation results of the intrapair and interpair correlation energy for the title systems, it has been found that the intrapair correlation energy of K shell of Cl is almost a constant and both the intrashell and intershell correlation energy of K and L shell changes little. It has also been found that in MCI series compounds the value of Cl correlation energy contribution depends on the ionicity of MCI compounds, i.e., the Cl correlation energy contribution increases with the increase of the ionic bond strength of the compound and this value is always less than the correlation energy of Cl" anion but always larger than that of Cl atom. These rules are helpful for the estimation of the correlation energy of ionic compounds and the energy changes of chemical reactions.

  19. Rules on intrapair and interpair correlation energy for Cl, Cl- and MCl (M=H, Li, Na, K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the calculation results of the intrapair and interpair correlation energy for the title systems, it has been found that the intrapair correlation energy of K shell of Cl is almost a constant and both the intrashell and intershell correlation energy of K and L shell changes little. It has also been found that in MCl series compounds the value of Cl correlation energy contribution depends on the ionicity of MCl compounds, i.e., the Cl correlation energy contribution increases with the increase of the ionic bond strength of the compound and this value is always less than the correlation energy of Cl- anion but always larger than that of Cl atom. These rules are helpful for the estimation of the correlation energy of ionic compounds and the energy changes of chemical reactions.

  20. Halogenation effects on electron collisions with CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, T. C.; Lopes, A. R.; Azeredo, A. D.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2016-04-01

    We report differential and integral elastic cross sections for low-energy electron collisions with CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 molecules for energies ranging from 0.1 eV to 30 eV. The calculations were performed using the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations. The influence of the permanent electric dipole moment on the cross sections was included using the Born closure scheme. A very good agreement between our calculations and the experimental results of Jones [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 813 (1986)], Mann and Linder [J. Phys. B 25, 1621 (1992); 25, 1633 (1992)] and Hoshino et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 214305 (2013)] was found. We also compare our results with the calculations of Beyer et al. [Chem. Phys. 255, 1 (2000)] using the R-matrix method, where we find good agreement with respect to the location of the resonances, and with the calculations of Hoshino et al. using the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule, where we find qualitative agreement at energies above 20 eV. Additional electronic structure calculations were carried out in order to help in the interpretation of the scattering results. The stabilization the lowest σ∗ resonance due to the exchange of fluorine by chlorine atoms (halogenation effect) follows a simple linear relation with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and can be considered as a signature of the halogenation effect.

  1. FeCl3-Assisted Niobium-Catalyzed Cycloaddition of Nitriles and Alkynes: Synthesis of Alkyl- and Arylpyrimidines Based on Independent Functions of NbCl5 and FeCl3 Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Maito; Obora, Yasushi

    2017-10-02

    NbCl5-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of nitriles with alkynes was used to synthesize pyrimidine derivatives. In this reaction, the use of individual Lewis acids, namely NbCl5 and FeCl3, is a key strategy for achieving the reaction using a catalytic amount of NbCl5. The roles of the two Lewis acids were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that NbCl5 served as an efficient Lewis acid catalyst for nitrile activation, whereas FeCl3 showed stronger Lewis acidity toward pyrimidines, releasing NbCl5 into the catalytic cycle.

  2. Cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, M; Horie, M; Kato, H; Blanco, F; García, G; Limão-Vieira, P; Sullivan, J P; Brunger, M J; Tanaka, H

    2013-06-07

    Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections have been determined for the elastic scattering of electrons from the molecules CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3.With the help of a crossed electron beam-molecular beam apparatus using the relative flow technique, the ratios of the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) of CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 to those of He were measured in the energy region from 1.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles in the range 15° to 130°. From those ratios, the absolute DCSs were determined by utilizing the known DCS of He. For CF3Cl and CF2Cl2, at the common energies of measurement, we find generally good agreement with the results from the independent experiments of Mann and Linder [J. Phys. B 25, 1621 (1992); and ibid. 25, 1633 (1992)]. In addition, as a result of progressively substituting a Cl-atom, undulations in the angular distributions have been found to vary in a largely systematic manner in going from CF4 to CF3Cl to CF2Cl2 to CFCl3 and to CCl4. These observed features suggest that the elastic scattering process is, in an independently additive manner, dominated by the atomic-Cl atoms of the molecules. The present independent atom method calculation typically supports the experimental evidence, within the screened additivity rule formulation, for each species and for energies greater than about 10-20 eV. Integral elastic and momentum transfer cross sections were also derived from the measured DCSs, and are compared to the other available theoretical and experimental results. The elastic integral cross sections are also evaluated as a part of their contribution to the total cross section.

  3. In situ observations of midlatitude stratospheric ClO and BrO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, William H.; Anderson, James C.

    1986-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment to measure midlatitude stratospheric BrO and ClO concentrations by NO chemical conversion/atomic resonance fluorescence was flown from Palestine, Texas, on May 20 1986. In this first study of BrO, no signal attributable to BrO was detected, and upper limits (2 sigma uncertainty) between 35 and 24 km altitude give BrO mixing ratios less than 15 pptv. Current models predict mixing ratios that are 1.7 times larger. Measurements of ClO were obtained at less than 0.2-km altitude resolution from 41 to 22 km. The smoothly varying altitude profile lies within the range of two-dimensional model calculations.

  4. OpenCL Performance Evaluation on Modern Multicore CPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hwan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing heterogeneous platforms for computation has become a general trend, making the portability issue important. OpenCL (Open Computing Language serves this purpose by enabling portable execution on heterogeneous architectures. However, unpredictable performance variation on different platforms has become a burden for programmers who write OpenCL applications. This is especially true for conventional multicore CPUs, since the performance of general OpenCL applications on CPUs lags behind the performance of their counterparts written in the conventional parallel programming model for CPUs. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of OpenCL applications on out-of-order multicore CPUs from the architectural perspective. We evaluate OpenCL applications on various aspects, including API overhead, scheduling overhead, instruction-level parallelism, address space, data location, data locality, and vectorization, comparing OpenCL to conventional parallel programming models for CPUs. Our evaluation indicates unique performance characteristics of OpenCL applications and also provides insight into the optimization metrics for better performance on CPUs.

  5. Herschel/HIFI discovery of interstellar chloronium (H$_2$Cl$^+$)

    CERN Document Server

    Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Schilke, P; Müller, H S P; Gupta, H; Bell, T A; Comito, C; Phillips, T G; Bergin, E A; Ceccarelli, C; Goldsmith, P F; Blake, G A; Bacmann, A; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Benz, A; Black, J; Boogert, A; Bottinelli, S; Cabrit, S; Caselli, P; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Coutens, A; Crimier, N; Crockett, N R; Daniel, F; Demyk, K; Dominic, C; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Helmich, F; Hennebelle, P; Henning, Th; Herbst, E; Hily-Blant, P; Hjalmarson, Å; Hollenbach, D; Jack, T; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Kahane, C; Kama, M; Kaufman, M; Klotz, A; Langer, W D; Larsson, B; Bourlot, J Le; Lefloch, B; Petit, F Le; Li, D; Liseau, R; Lord, S D; Lorenzani, A; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Murphy, J A; Nagy, Z; Nisini, B; Ossenkopf, V; Pacheco, S; Pagani, L; Parise, B; Pérault, M; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Roueff, E; Salez, M; Sandqvist, A; Saraceno, P; Schlemmer, S; Schuster, K; Snell, R; Stutzki, J; Tielens, A; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; van der Wiel, M H D; van Dishoeck, E; Vastel, C; Viti, S; Wakelam, V; Walters, A; Wang, S; Wyrowski, F; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Zmuidzinas, J; Delorme, Y; Desbat, J -P; Güsten, R; Krieg, J -M; Delforge, B

    2010-01-01

    We report the first detection of chloronium, H$_2$Cl$^+$, in the interstellar medium, using the HIFI instrument aboard the \\emph{Herschel} Space Observatory. The $2_{12}-1_{01}$ lines of ortho-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ and ortho-H$_2^{37}$Cl$^+$ are detected in absorption towards NGC~6334I, and the $1_{11}-0_{00}$ transition of para-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ is detected in absorption towards NGC~6334I and Sgr~B2(S). The H$_2$Cl$^+$ column densities are compared to those of the chemically-related species HCl. The derived HCl/H$_2$Cl$^+$ column density ratios, $\\sim$1--10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). However, the observed H$_2$Cl$^+$ column densities, in excess of $10^{13}$~cm$^{-2}$, are significantly higher than the model predictions. Our observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.

  6. Template-free synthesis of cube-like Ag/AgCl nanostructures via a direct-precipitation protocol: highly efficient sunlight-driven plasmonic photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Chen, Penglei; Ma, Wanhong; Lei, Bin; Liu, Minghua

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report that cube-like Ag/AgCl nanostructures could be facilely fabricated in a one-pot manner through a direct-precipitation protocol under ambient conditions, wherein no additional issues such as external energy (e.g., high temperature or high pressure), surfactants, or reducing agents are required. In terms of using sodium chloride (NaCl) as chlorine source and silver acetate (CH₃COOAg) as silver source, it is disclosed that simply by adding an aqueous solution of NaCl into an aqueous solution of CH₃COOAg, Ag/AgCl nanostructures with a cube-like geometry, could be successfully formulated. We show that thus-formulated cube-like Ag/AgCl nanospecies could be used as high-performance yet durable visible-light-driven or sunlight-driven plasmonic photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) pollutants. Compared with the commercially available P25-TiO₂, and the Ag/AgCl nanospheres previously fabricated via a surfactant-assisted method, our current cube-like Ag/AgCl nanostructures could exhibit much higher photocatalytic performance. Our template free protocol might open up new and varied opportunities for an easy synthesis of cube-like Ag/AgCl-based high-performance sunlight-driven plasmonic photocatalysts for organic pollutant elimination.

  7. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN FeCl3 TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Laila Oktaviana Putri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Besi termasuk unsur yang esensial bagi makhluk hidup. Pada tumbuhan termasuk algae, besi berperan sebagai penyusun sitokrom dan klorofil. Selain itu, besi juga berperan dalam sistem enzim dan transfer elektron pada proses fotosintesis. Namun, belum diketahui konsentrasi yang tepat untuk pengunaannya oleh algae sehingga diperlukan penelitian yang dapat mengetahui konsentrasi pemakaian FeCl3 untuk perkembangan algae terutama untuk C. calcitrans. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian FeCl3 terhadap kepadatan C. calcitran sehingga dapat mengetahui konsentrasi FeCl3 yang paling baik terhadap kepadatan C. calcitran. Serta untuk Mengetahui kepadatan C. calcitran berdasarkan hari. Penelitian ini diawali dengan menyetock C. calcitran hingga kepadatan 400 ribu sel/ml kemudian dilanjutkan dengan mengkultur C. calcitran pada toples yang telah dibuat sama parameternya kecuali pemberian FeCl3 sesuai dengan perlakuan. Untuk menganalisa pengaruh pemberian FeCl3 pada konsentrasi yang bebeda terhadap kepadatan C. calcitrans digunakan analisa sidik ragam (ANOVA dua langkah dengan bantuan software SPSS 12 dan dilakukan uji lanjut Tukey (Multiple Comparisons untuk melihat perlakuan yang berbeda dengan membandingkan berbagai hasil perlakuan. Pada konsentrasi FeCl3 0 mg/l berbeda nyata (P<0,05 sedangkan konsentrai FeCl3 0,02 mg/l, 0,2  mg/l, 2 mg/l berbeda signifikan terhadap kepadatan C. calcitrans sehingga hanya konsentrasi FeCl3 0 mg/l yang mempengaruhi kepadatan C. calcitrans. Ini disebabkan karena pemberian konsentrasi terlalu sedikit dan selisih konsentrasi yang kecil sehingga tidak mempengaruhi kepadatan C. calcitrans. Sedangkan untuk hari  diperoleh hari ke-1 dan ke-7 merupakan hari yang signifikan terhadap kepadatan C. calcitrans.  Kata Kunci : Chaetoceros calcitrans, FeCl3 dan kepadatan

  8. Synthesis and discharge performances of NiCl2 by surface modification of carbon coating as cathode material of thermal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi

    2017-04-01

    The high solubility in molten salt and low conductivity of NiCl2, compared with traditional FeS2 and CoS2, have become the restrictions for its extensive application in cathode materials of thermal batteries. In this study, carbon coated NiCl2 cathode is successfully fabricated by the carbonization of stearic acid. The high specific energy of 641 Wh kg-1 at current densities of 0.5 A cm-2 are observed for the carbon coated NiCl2 thermal batteries, which is higher than the pure NiCl2 with 475 Wh kg-1. The high specific energies and high-current discharge ability are attribute to the graphite and amorphous carbon layers on the surface of NiCl2 crystalline, which were detected by TEM after carbonization. The graphite layers can improve the conductivity of NiCl2. Meanwhile the coated carbon structure could reduce the solubility of NiCl2 in molten salt.

  9. Dosage selection of HgCl2 in measuring TFe in iron ore by SnCl2 - HgCl2-K2Cr2O7 volumetry%SnCl2-HgCl2-K2Cr2O7容量法测定铁矿石中TFe时HgCl2用量的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祖忠

    2001-01-01

    To retain many advantages of traditional meth od of measuring TFewith the existence of HgCl2 and reduce the pollution of the environment caused by HgCl2, theory about dosage selection of HgCl2 reduced from 5 ml to 2 ml has been studied and results of experiments have been satisfied.%为了保持应用已久的有汞测铁经典方法中的许多优点而减轻HgCl2对环境的污染的缺点,对方法中HgCl2的用量由5ml[1]减少为2ml进行理论上的探讨,并以试验结果加以论证.

  10. Cláusulas abusivas en las Ejecuciones Hipotecarias

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Marcote, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es hacer un estudio sobre las cláusulas abusivas en las Ejecuciones Hipotecarias. En especial tras la entrada en vigor de la Ley 1/2013, de 14 de mayo, que ha supuesto una auténtica revolución, es especial, en los procedimientos hipotecarios. Se enfocará el trabajo con una función eminentemente práctica, tratando temas como: la apreciación de oficio por el Juez de las cláusulas abusivas de un préstamo hipotecario, que cláusulas abusivas se pueden oponer en una ejec...

  11. Maestro: Data Orchestation and Tuning for OpenCL Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spafford, Kyle L [ORNL; Meredith, Jeremy S [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. As heterogeneous computing platforms become more prevalent, the programmer must account for complex memory hierarchies in addition to the diculties of parallel programming. OpenCL is an open standard for parallel computing that helps alleviate this diculty by providing a portable set of abstractions for device memory hierarchies. However, OpenCL requires that the programmer explicitly controls data transfer and device synchronization, two tedious and error-prone tasks. This paper introduces Maestro, an open source library for data orchestration on OpenCL devices. Maestro provides automatic data transfer, task decomposition across multiple devices, and autotuning of dynamic execution parameters for some types of problems.

  12. Heterogeneous computing with OpenCL 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Kaeli, David R; Schaa, Dana; Zhang, Dong Ping

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL 2.0 teaches OpenCL and parallel programming for complex systems that may include a variety of device architectures: multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units (APUs). This fully-revised edition includes the latest enhancements in OpenCL 2.0 including: Shared virtual memory to increase programming flexibility and reduce data transfers that consume resources Dynamic parallelism which reduces processor load and avoids bottlenecks Improved imaging support and integration with OpenGL  Designed to work on multiple platfor

  13. Relatório de atividade clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Joel Bastos de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    O presente relatório de Atividade Clínica tem como base os atos clínicos efetuados durante o último ano do curso de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Dentária da Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Numa primeira parte, descreve-se a atividade clínica realizada nas diferentes áreas disciplinares (Medicina oral, Cirurgia Oral, Dentisteria Operatória, Endodontia, Periodontologia, Prostodontia Fixa, Prostodontia Removível, Oclusão, Odontopediatria e Ortodontia), desde o estabelecimento de um corret...

  14. High-temperature chemistry of HCl and Cl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelucchi, Matteo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Faravelli, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature chlorine chemistry was updated and the inhibition mechanisms involving HCl and Cl2 were re-examined. The thermochemistry was obtained using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, resulting in improved data for chlorine-containing species of interest. The HCl/Cl2...... chemistry discussed in the paper was based on reference and experimental measurements of rate constants available in the literature. By coupling the new HCl/Cl2 subset with the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) syngas mechanism a kinetic mechanism consisting of 25 species and 102 reactions was obtained...

  15. From Contracts in Structured English to CL Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Montazeri, Seyed M; Schneider, Gerardo; 10.4204/EPTCS.68.6

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework to analyze conflicts of contracts written in structured English. A contract that has manually been rewritten in a structured English is automatically translated into a formal language using the Grammatical Framework (GF). In particular we use the contract language CL as a target formal language for this translation. In our framework CL specifications could then be input into the tool CLAN to detect the presence of conflicts (whether there are contradictory obligations, permissions, and prohibitions. We also use GF to get a version in (restricted) English of CL formulae. We discuss the implementation of such a framework.

  16. Teatro clásico e iniciativa pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Lorenzo, Luciano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la puesta en escena del teatro clásico español en los últimos veinticinco años se ha debido a diferentes causas y de diverso carácter. En este trabajo se estudia una de ellas: la labor de la iniciativa pública estatal y, especialmente, con dos magníficas realidades: el Festival Internacional de Teatro Clásico de Almagro y la Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico.…

  17. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  18. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  19. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculation of the reaction probability for the Cl-+PH2Cl→ClPH2+Cl- reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Pooria; Lundberg, Marcus; Karlsson, Hans O.

    2013-11-01

    The SN2 substitution reactions at phosphorus play a key role in organic and biological processes. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the prototype reaction Cl-+PH2Cl→ClPH2+Cl-, using one and two-dimensional models. A potential energy surface, showing an energy well for a transition complex, was generated using ab initio electronic structure calculations. The one-dimensional model is essentially reflection free, whereas the more realistic two-dimensional model displays involved resonance structures in the reaction probability. The reaction rate is almost two orders of magnitude smaller for the two-dimensional compared to the one-dimensional model. Energetic errors in the potential energy surface is estimated to affect the rate by only a factor of two. This shows that for these types of reactions it is more important to increase the dimensionality of the modeling than to increase the accuracy of the electronic structure calculation.

  20. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl{sub 2}) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn{sup 2+} was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from {sup 60}Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  1. Interaction of different poisons with MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 4} based Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh, E-mail: n.bahri@ippi.ac.ir

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • The interactions between different classes of poison molecules and TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} type Ziegler-Natta catalyst is considered. • Poisons strongly stabilize MgCl{sub 2} crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. • Poison molecules decrease catalyst activity by increasing E{sub TS} in olefin polymerization. • Poison molecules do not have significant effect in stereospecifity of ZN catalysts in propylene polymerization. - Abstract: Adsorption of different poison molecules on activated MgCl{sub 2} is investigated within DFT using a cluster model of the MgCl{sub 2} surface with (MgCl{sub 2}){sub 16} formula containing four 4-coordinated and eight 5-coordinated Mg atoms as (110) and (104) surfaces, respectively. Studied poison molecules are chosen as possible impurities in hydrocarbon solvents and monomer feeds and contain water, hydrogensulfide, carbondioxide, molecular oxygen and methanol. First, adsorption of 1–4 molecules of different poisons to the (104) and (110) lateral cuts of MgCl{sub 2}, as well as their adsorption on [MgCl{sub 2}]/TiCl{sub 2}Et active center and AlEt{sub 3} cocatalyst is considered. Results reveal that poisons strongly stabilize both crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. Second, energy barrier (E{sub TS}) for ethylene insertion in the presence of different poisons located on the first and second Mg atom relative to the active Ti is calculated. While poison molecule located on the second Mg does not change E{sub TS}, coordination of it into the first Mg atom increases E{sub TS} by 0.9–1.2 kcal mol{sup −1}. In the last part of this manuscript, the stereoselective behavior of active Ti species, with and without poison molecules and external electron donor, is fully explored.

  2. Local Effects in the X-ray Absorption Spectrum of CaCl2, MgCl2, and NaCl Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulik, H J; Correa Tedesco, A A; Schwegler, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G

    2010-04-12

    Both first principles molecular dynamics and theoretical X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the aqueous solvation of cations in 0.5 M MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions. We focus here on the species-specific effects that Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +}, have on the X-ray absorption spectrum of the respective solutions. For the divalent cations, we find that the hydrogen bonding characteristics of the more rigid magnesium first shell water molecules differ from those in the more flexible solvation shell surrounding calcium. In particular, the first solvation shell water molecules of calcium are accessible to forming acceptor hydrogen bonds, and this results in an enhancement of a post-edge peak near 540 eV. The absence of acceptor hydrogen bonds for magnesium first shell water molecules provides an explanation for the experimental and theoretical observation of a lack of enhancement at the post-main-edge peak. For the sodium monovalent cation we find that the broad tilt angle distribution results in a broadening of post-edge features, despite populations in donor-and-acceptor configurations consistent with calcium. We also present the re-averaged spectra of the MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, and NaCl solutions and show that trends apparent with increasing concentration (0.5 M, 2.0 M, 4.0 M) are consistent with experiment. Finally, we examine more closely both the effect that cation coordination number has on the hydrogen bonding network and the relative perturbation strength of the cations on lone pair oxygen orbitals.

  3. Understanding groundwater fracture-flow and near surface soil throughflow mixing within a mountain catchment using 36Cl/Cl, Yosemite National Park, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. D.; Conklin, M. H.; Nimz, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    In high elevation montane basins, there are typically limited observations to characterize watersheds. In this study we successfully use 36Cl and Cl- to characterize groundwater and near-surface water contributions to the upper Merced River and it's tributaries from Happy Isles to El Portal. Water fluxes typically consist of a variety of surface, near-surface and groundwater flow paths, which are complicated by faulted, folded, and fractured terrain. Surface water, snow, groundwater, and springs were sampled seasonally from July 2004 to October 2007. Snow 36Cl/Cl ratios are 3-30 times lower than in the Merced River water, but 36Cl/Cl ratios in the river increase 3-7 times from baseflow to the snowmelt season. This observation can be explained by characterizing endmembers in the watershed, and by determining how these endmembers vary temporally. Three endmembers mix in the catchment, and they include near-surface water with Cl- concentrations of 0.09 mg/L and 36Cl/Cl of 9976x10-15, groundwater primarily in contact with granitic rock with Cl- of 0.39 mg/L and 36Cl/Cl of 10711x10-15, and groundwater primarily in contact with metasedimentary rock with Cl- of 32.7 mg/L and 36Cl/Cl of 71x10-15. Metamorphic- dominated groundwater and granitic-dominated groundwater are further characterized by Ca2+/Cl- ratios (granitic-dominated groundwater is greater than 5, and metamorphic-dominated groundwater is less than 1). As the season transitions from snowmelt to baseflow, Cl- and 36Cl/Cl in surface water becomes more characteristic of both granitic and metamorphic-dominated groundwater depending on location. Plotting 1/Cl- verses 36Cl/Cl elucidates mixing lines which indicate that both groundwater endmembers have undergone evapotranspiration, but only the metamorphic-dominated groundwater shows evidence of incorporating significant amounts of rock chloride. The near-surface water is the dominant endmember during the snowmelt season and has similar Cl- concentrations as snow (~0

  4. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of human collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, L; Henriksen, M L; Brandt, J;

    2012-01-01

    Collectin 11 (CL-11), also referred to as collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1), is a pattern recognition molecule that belongs to the collectin group of proteins involved in innate immunity. It interacts with glycoconjugates on pathogen surfaces and has been found in complex with mannose-binding lectin-ass...... and thawing to a certain extent did not influence the ELISA. This ELISA offers a convenient and reliable method for studying CL-11 levels in relation to a variety of human diseases and syndromes....

  5. SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY OF POLYNUCLEAR DABCO ADDUCTS WITH NiCl2 AND CuCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMADOU NDIAYE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed structures for the studied adducts - DABCO.3[NiCl2·2H2O].EtOH and 2DABCO.3CuCl2.4EtOH or 3DABCO. 4CuCl2.5EtOH are discrete with two or three metallic components, the environments around the Nickel centres being octahedral or square planar, while being octahedral , linear or a square based prism around the Copper centres, the DABCO behaving as a monodentate or bridging bidentate ligand or being lattice. Extra intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonds when considered, may lead to supramolecular architectures.

  6. Distrofia muscular progressiva: conceito clínico-patológico e formas clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor faz referência a 150 cases de distrofia muscular progressiva registrados no ambulatório da Clínica Neurológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em um total de 33.662 pacientes atendidos até junho 1959. A seguir são feitas considerações ao quadro histopatológico, à etiologia, ao quadro clínico e às várias formas da moléstia, sendo apresentadas 5 observações.

  7. Synthesis of Photochromic AgCl-Urethane Resin Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Miyazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AgCl-resin photochromic composite films were prepared using AgNO3, HCl-EtOH, CuCl2 solution, and a liquid-state urethane resin as starting materials. The obtained composite films showed a photochromic property. The rate of darkening of the composite film increased after mixing with CuCl2. The AgCl particle size in the film without heat treatment was 6–20 nm, and that of the heat-treated film was 25–80 nm; these results were confirmed using TEM observations. The fading rate of the film without heat treatment was higher than that of the heat-treated films.

  8. "Clásicos" para todos y para pocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Torres Duque

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Sor Francisca Josefa del Castillo. Elisa Mújica. Colección Clásicos Colombianos, núm. 18, Procultura, Bogotá, 1991, 126 págs. Tomás Rueda Vargas. Alfonso López Michelsen. Colección Clásicos Colombianos, núm. 19, Procultura, Bogotá, 1991, 100 págs. José María Vargas Vila. Consuelo Triviño Anzola. Colección Clásicos Colombianos, núm. 20, Procultura, Bogotá, 1991, 107 págs. Gabriel García Márquez. Martha Canfield. Colección Clásicos Colombianos, núm. 21, Procultura, Bogotá, 1991, 129 págs.

  9. Patologia e clínica de equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Serrão, Mariana Rafael Pedro

    2015-01-01

    O presente relatório de conclusão do curso de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Évora, refere-se ao período de estágio curricular obrigatório que decorreu na Clínica Equifort, em Fortaleza, Brasil, na área Patologia e Clínica de Equinos. Numa primeira fase é feita uma descrição das atividades desenvolvidas onde se apresenta a casuística acompanhada durante o estágio, que inclui atividades em diversas áreas como medicina desportiva, clínica médica, clínica reproduti...

  10. Electrochemistry Study on PVC-LiClO4 Polymer Electrolyte Supported by Bengkulu Natural Bentonite for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghufira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research bentonite was used as filler to produce polymer electrolyte (PVCLiClO4. Some weight variation of bentonite have been made by addition, such as 0% wt/wt; 5% wt/wt ; 10% wt/wt ; 15% wt/wt ; 20% wt/wt ; and 25% wt/wt of bentonite to the mixture of 0,5 gramof PVC and 0,125 gram of LiClO4. Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was tested using impedance spectroscopy. The result of the research was showed that a mixture of PVCBentonite(10% wt/wt-LiClO4 gives the highest ionic conductivity (4,86 x 10-3 S.Cm-1. This result indicated that the presence of natural bentonite can be used as a filler in the current composite polymer electrolyte and can increase the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

  11. Cardiac dysfunction in HgCl2-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Moura, Cláudia; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-03-01

    The experimental model of HgCl(2) injection is characterized by a systemic autoimmune disease which leads to the development of nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS seems to be accompanied by cardiovascular alterations, since patients with NS present an increased incidence in cardiac disease. The aim of our work was to study the effects of HgCl(2)-induced NS on myocardial function and morphometry. Normotensive Brown-Norway rats were injected with HgCl(2) (1 mg/kg, HgCl(2) group; n = 6, subcutaneous) or the vehicle (control group; n = 6, subcutaneous) on days 0, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for evaluation of urinary excretion of noradrenaline, sodium, total proteins, albumin and creatinine. Fourteen and 21 days after the first HgCl(2) injection, left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics was evaluated through pressure micromanometers in basal and isovolumetric heartbeats. The heart and gastrocnemius muscle weights and tibial length were also examined. In an additional group of animals cardiac dimensions and ejection fraction were assessed by echocardiography and LV apoptosis and fibrosis were studied. HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, sodium retention and ascites at day 14. These alterations were accompanied by LV hemodynamic changes only in isovolumetric heartbeats. Similarly, on day 21, HgCl(2)-injected rats presented proteinuria, albuminuria, hyperlipidemia, anemia, but no sodium retention or ascites. These animals presented LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in both basal and isovolumetric heartbeats, as well as cardiac atrophy, LV fibrosis and an increase in myocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, HgCl(2)-induced NS is accompanied by LV dysfunction and can be a promising model for studying the link between NS and cardiac disease.

  12. Cytoskeletal actin gates a Cl- channel in neocortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, C D; Nelson, D J; Kraig, R P

    1998-03-01

    Increases in astroglial Cl- conductance accompany changes in cell morphology and disassembly of cytoskeletal actin, but Cl- channels underlying these conductance increases have not been described. We characterize an outwardly rectifying Cl- channel in rodent neocortical cultured astrocytes and describe how cell shape and cytoskeletal actin modulate channel gating. In inside-out patch-clamp recordings from cultured astrocytes, outwardly rectifying Cl- channels either were spontaneously active or inducible in quiescent patches by depolarizing voltage steps. Average single-channel conductance was 36 pS between -60 and -80 mV and was 75 pS between 60 and 80 mV in symmetrical (150 mM NaCl) solutions. The permeability ratio (PNa/PCl) was 0.14 at lower ionic strength but increased at higher salt concentrations. Both ATP and 4, 4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid produced a flicker block, whereas Zn2+ produced complete inhibition of channel activity. The frequency of observing both spontaneous and inducible Cl- channel activity was markedly higher in stellate than in flat, polygonally shaped astrocytes. In addition, cytoskeletal actin modulated channel open-state probability (PO) and conductance at negative membrane potentials, controlling the degree of outward rectification. Direct application of phalloidin, which stabilizes actin, preserved low PO and promoted lower conductance levels at negative potentials. Lower PO also was induced by direct application of polymerized actin. The actions of phalloidin and actin were reversed by coapplication of gelsolin and cytochalasin D, respectively. These results provide the first report of an outwardly rectifying Cl- channel in neocortical astrocytes and demonstrate how changes in cell shape and cytoskeletal actin may control Cl- conductance in these cells.

  13. High glucose inhibits ClC-2 chloride channels and attenuates cell migration of rat keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan F

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fuqiang Pan, Rui Guo, Wenguang Cheng, Linlin Chai, Wenping Wang, Chuan Cao, Shirong LiDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Southwestern Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that migration of keratinocytes is critical to wound epithelialization, and defects of this function result in chronic delayed-healing wounds in diabetes mellitus patients, and the migration has been proved to be associated with volume-activated chloride channels. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of high glucose (HG, 25 mM on ClC-2 chloride channels and cell migration of keratinocytes.Methods: Newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used to isolate and culture the keratinocyte in this study. Immunofluorescence assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot assay were used to examine the expression of ClC-2 protein or mRNA. Scratch wound assay was used to measure the migratory ability of keratinocytes. Transwell cell migration assay was used to measure the invasion and migration of keratinocytes. Recombinant lentivirus vectors were established and transducted to keratinocytes. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to perform the electrophysiological studies.Results: We found that the expression of ClC-2 was significantly inhibited when keratinocytes were exposed to a HG (25 mM medium, accompanied by the decline of volume-activated Cl- current (ICl,vol, migration potential, and phosphorylated PI3K as compared to control group. When knockdown of ClC-2 by RNAi or pretreatment with wortmannin, similar results were observed, including ICl,vol and migration keratinocytes were inhibited.Conclusion: Our study proved that HG inhibited ClC-2 chloride channels and attenuated cell migration of rat keratinocytes via inhibiting PI3K signaling.Keywords: high glucose, keratinocytes, ClC-2, cell migration, PI3K

  14. Time-domain seismic modeling in viscoelastic media for full waveform inversion on heterogeneous computing platforms with OpenCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien-Ouellet, Gabriel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Giroux, Bernard

    2017-03-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) aims at recovering the elastic parameters of the Earth by matching recordings of the ground motion with the direct solution of the wave equation. Modeling the wave propagation for realistic scenarios is computationally intensive, which limits the applicability of FWI. The current hardware evolution brings increasing parallel computing power that can speed up the computations in FWI. However, to take advantage of the diversity of parallel architectures presently available, new programming approaches are required. In this work, we explore the use of OpenCL to develop a portable code that can take advantage of the many parallel processor architectures now available. We present a program called SeisCL for 2D and 3D viscoelastic FWI in the time domain. The code computes the forward and adjoint wavefields using finite-difference and outputs the gradient of the misfit function given by the adjoint state method. To demonstrate the code portability on different architectures, the performance of SeisCL is tested on three different devices: Intel CPUs, NVidia GPUs and Intel Xeon PHI. Results show that the use of GPUs with OpenCL can speed up the computations by nearly two orders of magnitudes over a single threaded application on the CPU. Although OpenCL allows code portability, we show that some device-specific optimization is still required to get the best performance out of a specific architecture. Using OpenCL in conjunction with MPI allows the domain decomposition of large models on several devices located on different nodes of a cluster. For large enough models, the speedup of the domain decomposition varies quasi-linearly with the number of devices. Finally, we investigate two different approaches to compute the gradient by the adjoint state method and show the significant advantages of using OpenCL for FWI.

  15. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy of the ClO radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Valerie; Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randy

    1988-01-01

    The chlorine monoxide radical, ClO, plays a significant role in the catalytic destruction of ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. Because of its atmospheric importance, ClO has been the subject of numerous observational attempts. In order to deduce ClO concentrations from stratospheric infrared measurements, the infrared spectroscopy of ClO must be well characterized. Approximately 830 individual lines were measured form ClO imfrared spectra with the ClO concentration between 1 x 10 to the 13th power and 6 x 10 to the 13th power molecules per cu cu. The lines were then averaged and fit to a function of m (where m = O, -J or J+1 for the Q,P and R branches respectively) to obtain the band strength, S sub v and the first Herman-Wallis coefficient, alpha. The total S sub v for the two main isotopmers was 13.11 plus or minus 1 cm(-2) atm(-1) while alpha was 0.00412 plus or minus .00062.

  16. Ion source memory in {sup 36}Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Arnold, Maurice; Aumaitre, Georges; Bourles, Didier; Martschini, Martin [ASTER, Aix-en-Provence (France); Buchriegler, Josef; Golser, Robin; Keddadouche, Karim; Steier, Peter [VERA, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Since the DREAMS (Dresden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) facility went operational in 2011, constant effort was put into enabling routine measurements of long-lived radionuclides as {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca. For precise AMS-measurements of the volatile element Cl the key issue is the minimization of the long term memory effect. For this purpose one of the two original HVE sources was mechanically modified, allowing the usage of bigger cathodes with individual target apertures. Additionally a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, a small inter-laboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect in the Cs sputter ion sources of the AMS facilities VERA, ASTER and DREAMS had been investigated by running samples of natural {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl-ratio and samples containing highly enriched {sup 35}Cl({sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl > 500). Primary goals of the research are the time constants of the recovery from the contaminated sample ratio to the initial ratio of the sample and the level of the long-term memory effect in the sources.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of Pb(Ⅱ) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-PbCl2 melts on Mo electrode%Pb(Ⅱ)在LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-PbCl2熔盐体系中的电化学行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张密林; 陈丽军; 韩伟; 颜永得; 曹鹏

    2012-01-01

    在LiCl-KCl-PbCl2-MgCl2熔盐体系中借助循环伏安和计时电位技术对Pb(Ⅱ)的电化学行为以及Pb、Mg、Li的共沉积过程进行探讨,用不同的方法测算得到铅离子在熔盐中的扩散系数.循环伏安和计时电位的研究结果均表明,Li在先析出的Pb上发生欠电位沉积,生成液态的Li-Pb合金,而在熔盐中加入MgCl2后,会有相应的Mg-Li-Pb合金生成.用恒电流密度(6.2l A/cm2)电解2h制备Mg-Li-Pb合金,并运用XRD对所得合金进行分析测试.结果表明,在Mg-Li-Pb合金中存在β-Li、PbLi3、Mg2Pb等合金相,并可以通过控制熔盐中PbCl2和MgCl2的浓度来改变合金相的组成.%Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were used to study the reaction mechanism of Pb(Ⅱ) and the co-deposition of Pb,Mg and Li on molybdenum electrodes in LiCl-KCl-PbCl2-MgCl2 melts.The diffusion coefficient of lead ions in the melts was determined by different electrochemical techniques.The results obtained by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry indicated that the underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Pb leads to the formation of a liquid Li-Pb alloy,and the Mg-Li-Pb alloys are formed after the addition of MgCl2.X-ray diffraction confirmed that in the Mg-Li-Pb alloy,PbLi3,Mg2Pb and Li7Pb2 phases exist by galvanostatic electrolysis at 6.21 A/cm2 for 2 h at 873 K and the phases can be controlled by changing the concentration of PbCl2 and MgCl2.

  18. Light and variable 37Cl/35Cl ratios in rocks from Gale Crater, Mars: Possible signature of perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, K. A.; Martin, P.; Archer, P. D.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fairén, A. G.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malespin, C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Sutter, B.

    2016-03-01

    Cl isotope ratios measured on HCl thermally evolved from as-yet-unknown phases in sedimentary rocks and sand in Gale Crater provide unexpected insights to the Martian surficial Cl cycle. The seven samples yield δ37Cl values ranging from - 1 ± 25 ‰ to - 51 ± 5 ‰. Five analyses from two samples of the Sheepbed mudstone (Yellowknife Bay study area) are analytically indistinguishable with a mean δ37Cl of - 11 ± 7 ‰ (1 σ). In contrast, four mudstones/sandstones from the Kimberley and Pahrump study areas also yielded indistinguishable ratios, but with a mean δ37Cl of - 43 ± 6 ‰. The Rocknest sand deposit gave a highly uncertain δ37Cl value of - 7 ± 44 ‰. These light and highly variable δ37Cl values are unique among known solar system materials. Two endmember models are offered to account for these observations, and in both, perchlorate, with its extreme ability to fractionate Cl isotopes, is critical. In the first model, SAM is detecting HCl from an oxychlorine compound (e.g., perchlorate) produced from volcanic gas emissions by atmospheric chemical reactions. Similar reactions in Earth's atmosphere may be responsible for the isotopically lightest known Cl outside of this study, in perchlorate from the Atacama Desert. Some of the Gale Crater δ37Cl values are more negative than those in Atacama perchlorate, but because reaction mechanisms and associated fractionation factors are unknown, it is impossible to assess whether this difference is prohibitive. If the negative δ37Cl signal is produced in this fashion, the isotopic variability among samples could arise either from variations in the relative size of the reactant chloride and product perchlorate reservoirs, or from variations in the fraction of perchlorate reduced back to chloride after deposition. Such reduction strongly enriches 37Cl in the residual perchlorate. Perchlorate reduction alone offers an alternative endmember model that can explain the observed data if SAM measured HCl derived

  19. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  20. Identification of Clostridium beijerinckii, Cl. butyricum, Cl. sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum isolated from silage, raw milk and hard cheese by a multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Vanoni, Laura; Silvetti, Tiziana; Morandi, Stefano; Brasca, Milena

    2012-08-01

    Late blowing, caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores present in raw milk and originating from silage, can create considerable product loss, especially in the production of hard and semi-hard cheeses. The conventional method for the isolation of Clostridium spp. from cheeses with late-blowing symptoms is very complicated and the identification of isolates is problematic. The aim of this work was the development of a multiplex PCR method for the detection of the main dairy-related clostridia such as: Cl. beijerinckii, Cl. butyricum, Cl. sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum. Samples derived from silage, raw milk and hard cheese were analysed by the most probable number (MPN) enumeration. Forty-four bacterial strains isolated from gas positive tubes were used to check the reliability of the multiplex PCR assay. The specificity of the primers was tested by individually analysing each primer pair and the primer pair combined in the multiplex PCR. It was interesting to note that the samples not identified by the multiplex PCR assay were amplified by V2-V3 16S rRNA primer pair and the sequencing revealed the aligned 16S rRNA sequences to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus spp. This new molecular assay provides a simple promising alternative to traditional microbiological methods for a rapid, sensitive detection of clostridia in dairy products.

  1. 双端羟基PCL,poly(CL-b-PEG-b-CL)和poly(DTC-b-CL-b-DTC)的制备及聚合机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 凌君; 沈之荃

    2005-01-01

    采用二醇/三(2, 6-二叔丁基-4-甲基苯酚)钇(Y(Oar)3)体系引发己内酯(CL)开环聚合, 得到分子量可控、双端羟基聚己内酯(PCL). 经过1H NMR和SEC分析表明聚合体系中有两种活性中心, 形成两种链结构, 二醇/Y(Oar)3比值的增大有利于单钇活性中心的形成. 聚乙二醇(PEG)/Y(Oar)3引发体系中只有一种活性中心, 可以制备CL和PEG的三嵌段共聚物(poly(CL-b-PEG-b-CL)). 以双端羟基PCL作为大分子引发剂引发2,2-二甲基三亚甲基环碳酸酯(DTC)聚合, 获得CL和DTC的三嵌段共聚物(poly(DTC-b-CL-b-DTC)).

  2. GluCl a target of indole alkaloid okaramines: a 25 year enigma solved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Shogo; Nakatani, Yuri; Miura, Yuka; Ihara, Makoto; Kai, Kenji; Hayashi, Hideo; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    In 1989, indole alkaloid okaramines isolated from the fermentation products of Penicillium simplicissimum were shown to be insecticidal, yet the mechanism of their toxicity to insects remains unknown. We therefore examined the action of okaramine B on silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Okaramine B induced inward currents which reversed close to the chloride equilibrium potential and were blocked by fipronil. Thus it was tested on the silkworm RDL (resistant-to-dieldrin) γ-aminobutyric-acid-gated chloride channel (GABACl) and a silkworm L-glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Okaramine B activated GluCl, but not RDL. GluCl activation by okaramines correlated with their insecticidal activity, offering a solution to a long-standing enigma concerning their insecticidal actions. Also, unlike ivermectin, okaramine B was inactive at 10 μM on human α1β2γ2 GABACl and α1β glycine-gated chloride channels and provides a new lead for the development of safe insect control chemicals.

  3. Some possible evolutionary scenarios suggested by {sup 36}Cl measurements in Guarani aquifer groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R.G. [CSIRO Land and Water, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)], E-mail: richard.cresswell@csiro.au; Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br

    2008-08-15

    The Guarani aquifer underlies 1.2 M km{sup 2} in the Parana sedimentary basin of South America and is an important source of water for industry, agriculture, and domestic supplies. To determine the sustainability of this aquifer we need to understand the dynamics of the groundwater system. This paper describes the first {sup 36}Cl measurements on aquifer groundwaters and some measurements on South American rainwaters, thought to be indicative of the recharge water. The results are compared to previous work in the region, including other radioisotope analyses. A simple model is developed, incorporating radioactive decay, allowing scenarios to be developed for mixing different waters at different mixing rates. Thus, mixing scenarios consistent with other hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data could be assessed. A model that mixes fresh recharging waters with formational waters, that contain elevated chloride levels, but low (in situ) {sup 36}Cl levels, can explain most of the results presented here. The expectation that rainwater samples would provide a good end-member for modelling recharge proved problematic, however. As a consequence, it is suggested that either: the recharge waters are not sourced from the same locations as the rains; that the current rainfall and fallout conditions were significantly different in the past; or that the low levels of chloride in rainfall may have allowed some contamination of the samples by old ({sup 36}Cl-free) chloride during the recharge process.

  4. Elucidating water dynamics in MgCl2 hydrates from molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huinink, Hendrik Pieter; Zahn, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    The water mobility in single crystals of MgCl2 hydrates has been investigated with molecular dynamics. Standard force fields have been benchmarked for molecular dynamics simulations of MgCl2 hydrates. To provide a reliable molecular mechanics model, force fields are selected on their ability to reproduce the structure of MgCl2·6H2O at 300 K. The selected force fields are then tested on their ability to also reproduce the structures of the different hydrates (n = 12, 8, 6, 4, 2, 1) and available thermodynamic data. For the currently best force-field available, constant-temperature, constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations are preformed to elucidate the mechanisms of hydrate water mobility in perfect single crystals of the tetra- and hexahydrate. Long range water diffusion was not observed; each water molecule remained in the coordination sphere of its original Mg2+ host. However, collective ring-like motions of four water molecules at once within the coordination shell of a Magnesium ion were observed.

  5. 第一性原理研究TiCl3在β-MgCl2(110)表面相互作用机理%First principles studies on the interaction mechanism of TiCl3 with the surface of β-MgCl2(110)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢克锋; 黄安平; 贾军纪; 王霞; 宋赛楠; 李艳芹; 高琳

    2013-01-01

    TiCl3是以MgCl2为载体的Ziegler-Natta催化剂的活性组分,TiCl3在载体MgCl2表面的存在形式是复杂的.本文利用基于密度泛函理论的的量子力学从头计算方法对TiCl3和其失去部分Cl原子后的离子[TiCl2]+,[TiCl]2+在β-MgCl2(110)面上的吸附作用进行了研究.通过模拟计算其吸附能,键长和电子云分布,发现TiCl3和β-MgCl2(110)面上作用力很弱,为范德华力,而只有TiCl3失去部分Cl原子后带上正电荷,才能与-MgCl2(110)面形成强的化学键.%TiCl3 is active components of Ziegler-Natta catalyst supported by MgCl2,the state of TiCl3 on MgCl2 surface.Density functional theory base on ab initio quantum methods was used to study the interaction between TiCl3 and the surface ofββ-MgCl2(110).Absorption energy,bond length and electron cloud have been attain by molecular simulation.It has been found that TiCl3 can be most weakly absorbed by the surface ofβ-MgCl2(ll 0),on the contrary,[TiCl2]+ and [TiCl]2+ that TiCl3 lost Cl atom had strongly absorbed.

  6. Computational study of the double C-Cl bond activation of dichloromethane and phosphine alkylation at [CoCl(PR3)3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, Andrés G; Braunstein, Pierre; Macgregor, Stuart A

    2013-03-28

    Density functional theory calculations have been employed to model the double C-Cl bond activation of CH(2)Cl(2) at [CoCl(PR(3))(3)] to give [CoCl(3)(CH(2)PR(3))(PR(3))(2)]. Calculations incorporating dichloromethane solution (PCM approach) on a [CoCl(PMe(3))(3)] model system showed the two C-Cl cleavage steps to involve different mechanisms. The first C-Cl cleavage step occurs on the triplet surface and proceeds via Cl abstraction with a barrier of 19.1 kcal mol(-1). Radical recombination would then give singlet mer,trans-[CoCl(2)(CH(2)Cl)(PMe(3))(3)] with an overall free energy change of +1.8 kcal mol(-1). Alternative C-Cl activation processes based on nucleophilic attack by the Co centre at dichloromethane with loss of Cl(-) have significantly higher barriers. The second C-Cl cleavage occurs via nucleophilic attack of PMe(3) at the CH(2)Cl ligand with formation of a new P-C bond and displacement of Cl(-). This may either occur in an intermolecular fashion (after prior PMe(3) dissociation) or intramolecularly. Both processes have similar barriers of ca. 12 kcal mol(-1). The comproportionation of [CoCl(3)(CH(2)PMe(3))(PMe(3))(2)] with [CoCl(PMe(3))(3)] to give [CoCl(2)(CH(2)PMe(3))(PMe(3))], [CoCl(2)(PMe(3))(2)] and 2 PMe(3) is computed to be strongly exergonic, consistent with the observation of this process in analogous experimental systems.

  7. Interaction of different poisons with MgCl2/TiCl4 based Ziegler-Natta catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh

    2016-08-01

    Adsorption of different poison molecules on activated MgCl2 is investigated within DFT using a cluster model of the MgCl2 surface with (MgCl2)16 formula containing four 4-coordinated and eight 5-coordinated Mg atoms as (110) and (104) surfaces, respectively. Studied poison molecules are chosen as possible impurities in hydrocarbon solvents and monomer feeds and contain water, hydrogensulfide, carbondioxide, molecular oxygen and methanol. First, adsorption of 1-4 molecules of different poisons to the (104) and (110) lateral cuts of MgCl2, as well as their adsorption on [MgCl2]/TiCl2Et active center and AlEt3 cocatalyst is considered. Results reveal that poisons strongly stabilize both crystal surfaces, mostly Ti active center relative to the unpoisoned solid. Second, energy barrier (ETS) for ethylene insertion in the presence of different poisons located on the first and second Mg atom relative to the active Ti is calculated. While poison molecule located on the second Mg does not change ETS, coordination of it into the first Mg atom increases ETS by 0.9-1.2 kcal mol-1. In the last part of this manuscript, the stereoselective behavior of active Ti species, with and without poison molecules and external electron donor, is fully explored.

  8. Experimental observations on electrorefining spent nuclear fuel in molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T. A.; Laug, D. V.; Li, S. X.; Sofu, T.

    1999-07-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently performing a demonstration program for the Department of Energy (DOE) which processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). One of the key steps in this demonstration program is electrorefining of the spent fuel in a molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system using a pilot scale electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER). This article summarizes experimental observations and engineering aspects for electrorefining spent fuel in the molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system. It was found that the liquid cadmium pool acted as an intermediate electrode during the electrorefining process in the ER. The cadmium level was gradually decreased due to its high vapor pressure and vaporization rate at the ER operational temperature. The low cadmium level caused the anode assembly momentarily to touch the ER vessel hardware, which generated a periodic current change at the salt/cathode interface and improved uranium recovery efficiency for the process. The primary current distributions calculated by numerical simulations were used in interpreting the experimental results.

  9. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting.In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and

  10. Spectroscopic investigations of Np(V/VI) redox speciation in hyperalkaline TMA-(OH, Cl) solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, X.; Dardenne, K.; Liu, X.; Rothe, J.; Denecke, M.A.; Altmaier, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; Tits, J.; Wieland, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management

    2012-07-01

    The redox chemistry of Np(V/VI) was investigated in {proportional_to} 0.6 M tetramethylammonium hydroxide/chloride (TMA-(OH, Cl)) solutions with 9 {<=} -log [H{sup +}] {<=} 13.5. Redox conditions were defined by the absence or presence of ClO{sup -} as oxidizing agent (Na-salt, 5 x 10{sup -3} M and 5 x 10{sup -2} M). The high total Np concentration ([Np]{sub tot} {proportional_to} 2 x 10{sup -3} M) led to the precipitation of solid phases in some of the samples. The carbonate concentration (as impurity of TMA-OH) was 2-3 x 10{sup -3} M. UV-vis/NIR spectra obtained from the supernatant in TMA-(OH, Cl) solutions and absence of ClO{sup -} showed clear Np(V) features, identified as NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, NpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup -} and (NpO{sub 2}){sub x}(CO{sub 3}){sub y}(OH){sub z}{sup x-2y-z}. No NIR features were observed within 800 nm {<=} {lambda} {<=} 1300 nm for samples with ClO{sup -}. XANES edge energies and features of these samples confirmed the predominance of Np(V) in the absence of ClO{sup -} and Np(VI) in the presence of ClO{sup -}, by comparison to XANES reference spectra of Np(III/IV/V/VI) prepared within the present work by in-situ electrolysis. A similar Np redox distribution was observed for the solid phases based on XANES and EXAFS measurements. EXAFS spectra indicative of Np{sup V}O{sub 2}OH(s) and Np{sup VI}O{sub 3} . xH{sub 2}O(s) were obtained for samples in absence and presence of ClO{sup -}, respectively. The formation of a Na-Np(VI) phase in 5 x 10{sup -2} M ClO{sup -} and -log [H{sup +}] {proportional_to} 12 was also indicated from the EXAFS, chemical analysis and SEM-EDS. These results indicate that Np(VI) aqueous species and solid compounds prevail far below the oxidation border of water in alkaline solutions and also far below the E{sub H} border calculated with the current NEA data selection [1]. These observations are further supported by correlations of literature thermodynamic data for actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am), which predict the

  11. High Pressure Strength Study on NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Z.; Shieh, S. R.; High Pressure Mineral Physics Group

    2010-12-01

    Yield strength is regarded as one important property related to rheological characteristics of minerals in the Earth’s interior. The strength study of NaCl, a popular pressure medium in static high pressure experiments, has been carried out under non-hydrostatic conditions in a diamond anvil cell up to 43 GPa at room temperature using radial energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique. Phase transformation from B1 (rock salt structure) to B2 (CsCl structure) starts at 29.4 GPa, and is complete at 32.1 GPa. Bulk modulus obtained by third order Birch-Manurgham equation of state is 25.5 GPa with pressure derivative 4.6 for B1 phase, and 30.78 GPa with pressure derivative 4.32 GPa for B2 phase, which are in a good agreement with previous studies. The differential stress of NaCl B1 phase shows very gentle increase with pressure, which indicates that NaCl is a very good pressure-transmitting medium at pressure below 30 GPa. However, the differential stress increases more abruptly for B2 phase and this may imply that NaCl can no longer be regarded as a “soft” pressure medium at very high pressures. For B1 phase, (111) is the strongest plane and (200) is the weakest plane, while (200) becomes the strongest plane in B2 phase. Pure NaCl is weaker than mixture MgO and NaCl, which indicates that soft material become stronger when mixed with hard material. The yield strength of B2 obtained through energy dispersive X-ray diffraction technique increase linearly, while the value derived by pressure gradient method shows jagged trend.

  12. Calculation of interaction of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 on Al4C3 (001) Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段少飞; 陈秀敏; 杨斌; 郁青春; 徐宝强; 刘大春

    2015-01-01

    To make sure the intermediate products of the carbothermic reduction of Al2O3 process, such as Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, and the interaction of AlCl, AlCl2, AlCl3 with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3, respectively, thermodynamic analyses were used to study the chloride reaction production of them under the vacuum situation. The stable structures and electronic properties of AlCl, AlCl2 and AlCl3 adsorbed on Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 were calculated by first-principles calculations by the CASTEP module in the Materials Studio program. The results show that the AlCl3 and AlCl2 molecules have decomposed on the plane of Al4C3 (001), while there are no obvious decomposition of AlCl3 and AlCl2 on Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes. The adsorption of AlCl on the Al4CO4 (001) and Al2CO (001) planes is stronger than that on the Al4C3(001) plane. The interaction strength of AlCl3, as well as AlCl2, with Al4CO4, Al2CO and Al4C3 is in the sequence of Al4CO4Al2CO>Al4C3.

  13. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  14. A study of vapor CdCl{sub 2} treatment by CSS in CdS/CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Flores, A.; Pena, J.L.; Castro-Pena, V.; Ares, O.; Castro-Rodriguez, R. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Merida, C.P. 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Bosio, A. [University of Parma, Department of Physics, v.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    We report the effect of CdCl{sub 2} vapor treatment on the photovoltaic parameters of CdS/CdTe solar cells. Vapor treatment allows combining CdCl{sub 2} exposure time and annealing in one step. In this alternative treatment, the CdS/CdTe substrates were treated with CdCl{sub 2} vapor in a close spaced sublimation (CSS) configuration. The substrate temperature and CdCl{sub 2} powder source temperature were 400 C. The treatment was done by varying the treatment time (t) from 15 to 90 min. Such solar cells are examined by measuring their current density versus voltage (J-V) characteristics. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and fill factor (FF) of our best cell, fabricated and normalized to the area of 1 cm{sup 2}, were V{sub oc} = 663 mV, J{sub sc} = 18.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF = 40%, respectively, corresponding to a total area conversion efficiency of {eta} = 5%. In cells of minor area (0.1 cm{sup 2}) efficiencies of 8% have been obtained. (author)

  15. Generation and functional characterization of epithelial cells with stable expression of SLC26A9 Cl- channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Johanna J; Spahn, Stephan; Wang, Xiaohui; Füllekrug, Joachim; Bertrand, Carol A; Mall, Marcus A

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies identified the SLC26A9 Cl(-) channel as a modifier and potential therapeutic target in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, understanding of the regulation of SLC26A9 in epithelia remains limited and cellular models with stable expression for biochemical and functional studies are missing. We, therefore, generated Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) epithelial cells with stable expression of HA-tagged SLC26A9 via retroviral transfection and characterized SLC26A9 expression and function using Western blotting, immunolocalization, whole cell patch-clamp, and transepithelial bioelectric studies in Ussing chambers. We demonstrate stable expression of SLC26A9 in transfected FRT (SLC26A9-FRT) cells on the mRNA and protein level. Immunolocalization and Western blotting detected SLC26A9 in different intracellular compartments and to a lesser extent at the cell surface. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated significantly increased constitutive Cl(-) currents in SLC26A9-FRT compared with control-transduced FRT (Control-FRT) cells (P < 0.01). Similar, transepithelial measurements showed that the basal short circuit current was significantly increased in SLC26A9-FRT vs. Control-FRT cell monolayers (P < 0.01). SLC26A9-mediated Cl(-) currents were increased by cAMP-dependent stimulation (IBMX and forskolin) and inhibited by GlyH-101, niflumic acid, DIDS, and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), as well as RNAi knockdown of WNK1 implicated in epithelial osmoregulation. Our results support that these novel epithelial cells with stable expression of SLC26A9 will be a useful model for studies of pharmacological regulation including the identification of activators of SLC26A9 Cl(-) channels that may compensate deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) secretion and serve as an alternative therapeutic target in patients with CF and potentially other muco-obstructive lung diseases.

  16. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  17. Alkylation of Benzene and 1-Dodecene Catalyzed by [BMIM]Cl-xAlCl3 Ionic Liquids%[Bmim]Cl-xAlCl3催化合成十二烷基苯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新月; 周明东; 臧树良

    2014-01-01

    Different ionic liquids were prepared from A1C13 and [Bmim]Cl ,and effects of the different reaction conditions on the alkylation of benzene and 1-dodecene were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were obtained. The experimental resu1ts show that when [BMIM]Cl-xAlCl3 ionic liquid prepared when the molar ratio of A1C13 to [Bmim] Cl is 2.0 is used as catalyst, reaction temperature is 25 ℃ and reaction time is 30 min and the molar ratio of benzene to 1-dodecene to catalyst is 5:1:0.03, conversion of 1-dodecene can reach to 98.32%,and selectivity of 2-LAB can reach to 36.76 %.The reaction system can form two phases, so the ionic liquid catalyst is easy to be separated from the product.%采用 AlCl3和[Bmim]Cl 不同摩尔比的[Bmim]C1-xA1C13离子液体为催化剂,研究了不同条件下1-十二烯与苯的烷基化反应。实验结果表明,以 A1Cl3和[Bmim]Cl 的摩尔比为2.0([Bmim]Cl-2A1C13)的离子液体为催化剂,在反应温度25℃、反应时间30 min,苯、烯及离子液体的摩尔比为5︰1︰0.03的条件下,正十二烯的转化率可达98.32%,2-LAB的选择性可达36.76%。离子液体和产物可形成易于分离的双液相,简化了催化剂与产物的分离操作。

  18. Analytical investigation of AlCl[3]/SO[2]Cl[2] catholyte materials for secondary fuze reserve batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Paul Charles; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Segall, Judith M.; Malizia, Louis A., Jr.; Cherry, Brian Ray; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Clark, Nancy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Simpson, Regina Lynn; Boyle, Timothy J.; Garcia, Manuel Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Exploration of the fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system for the ARDEC Self-Destruct Fuze Reserve Battery Project under accelerated aging conditions was completed using a variety of analytical tools. Four different molecular species were identified in this solution, three of which are major. The relative concentrations of the molecular species formed were found to depend on aging time, initial concentrations, and storage temperature, with each variable affecting the kinetics and thermodynamics of this complex reaction system. We also evaluated the effect of water on the system, and determined that it does not play a role in dictating the observed molecular species present in solution. The first Al-containing species formed was identified as the dimer [Al({mu}-Cl)Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2}, and was found to be in equilibrium with the monomer, AlCl{sub 3}. The second species formed in the reaction scheme was identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (I), a scrambled AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot}SO{sub 2} adduct. The SO{sub 2}(g) present, as well as CL{sub 2}(g), was formed through decomposition of SO{sub 2}CL{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2}(g) generated was readily consumed by AlCl{sub 3} to form the adduct 1 which was experimentally verified when 1 was also isolated from the reaction of SO{sub 2}(g) and AlCl {sub 3}. The third species found was tentatively identified as a compound having the general formula {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}. This was based on {sup 27}Al NMR data that revealed a species with tetrahedrally coordinated Al metal centers with increased oxygen coordination and the fact that the precipitate, or gel, that forms over time was shown by Raman spectroscopic studies to possess a component that is consistent with SOCl{sub 2}. The precursor to the precipitate should have similar constituents, thus the assignment of {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2

  19. Characteristics of K2TiCl6 synthesis from KCl and TiCl4; KCl to TiCl4 kara no K2TiCl6 no gosei hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, T.; Konda, S.; Sasaki, T.; Ishikawa, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1997-07-10

    Reaction characteristics were examined for synthesis of K2TiCl6 from KCl particles and TiCl4 gas. The reaction experiments were carried out exposing different sizes of KCI particles to a TiCl4 gas stream at 683 K. The mass gain due to formation of K2TiCl6 was measured as a function of time and morphology of the product was observed by SEM and EPMA. The apparent reaction rate decreases rapidly with the progress of the reaction, and the reaction is virtually terminated before its completion EPMA analysis on the particle cross-section reveals that the products are distributed around an unreacted KCl core within the particle, and the termination of the reaction takes place when the thickness of the outer product layer grows up to about 6{mu}m. The reaction kinetics are explained well on the basis of an unreacted-core model which assumes that the rate determining step is the intra-particle TiCl4 gas diffusion. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Measuring astrophysically relevant 36Cl production cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tyler; Skulski, Michael; Ostdiek, Karen; Lu, Wenting; Clark, Adam; Nelson, Austin; Beard, Mary; Collon, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 36Cl (t1 / 2 = 0 . 301 Ma) is known to have existed in the Early Solar System (ESS), and evaluating its production sources can lead to better understanding of the processes taking place in ESS formation and their timescales. The X-wind model is used to explain 36Cl production via solar energetic particles from the young Sun, but is lacking empirical data for many relevant reactions. Bowers et al. (2013) measured the 33S(α,p)36Cl cross section at various energies in the range of 0.70-2.42 MeV/A, and found them to be systematically under predicted by Hauser-Feshbach statistical model codes TALYS and NON-SMOKER, highlighting the need for more empirical data for these cross sections. Recent results of the re-measurement of the 33S(α,p)36Cl reaction, providing greater coverage of the same energy range as Bowers et al., will be presented. Future plans for measurement of other 36Cl producing reactions will also be discussed.

  1. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To test the following three hypotheses: ①plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm; ②the circadian rhyt hm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet; ③high NaCl diet elevates plasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arteria l pressure (MAP) of SHR. Methods After having been instrumen ted with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age, all rats (Spontaneously Hypertensi ve Rat, SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat, WKY) experienced two experimental protocols, th e mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples als o been analysed for sodium contents. Results On basal NaCl diet, plasma sodium concentrations in SHR w ere significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured a nd the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phase s; on high NaCl diet, the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposit e in WKY. In SHR, the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhyt hm. Conclusion Plasma sodium displays a significant circadian rhythm in rats. The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  2. PLASMA SODIUM AND NaCl-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To test the following three hypotheses:(1)plasma sodium concentration displays a 24-hour rhythm;(2)the circadian rhythm of plasma sodium is disrupted in SHR fed a basal NaCl diet;(3)high NaCl diet elevates lpasma sodium concentration and may lead to an increase in mean arterial pressure(MAP)of SHR.Methods:After having been instrumented with arterial catheter at 9 weeks of age,all rats(Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat,SHR; Wistar-Kyoto Rat,WKY) experienced two experimental protocols,the mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored and the blood samples also been analysed for sodium contents.Results:On basal NaCl diet,plasma sodium concentrations in SHR were significantly higher than those of WKY at almost every time point measured and the plasma sodium concentration and MAP rhythms were in nearly opposite phases;on high NaCl diet,the MAP and plasma sodium rhythms were essentially opposite in WKY,In SHR,the plasma sodium rhythm was inversely related to the MAP rhythm.Conclusion:Plasma sodium displays a significant ciradian rhythm in rats.The high NaCl diet disrupts the normal plasma sodium circadian rhythm only in SHR.

  3. Historia de la historia clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Fombella Posada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La historia clínica es el documento esencial del aprendizaje y la práctica clínica. Las primeras historias clínicas completas están contenidas en los libros Las Epidemias I y III del Corpus Hipocraticum. Su elaboración se recupera en la Edad Media con Los Consilea y se mantiene a lo largo del renacimiento denominándose Observatio. Sydenham perfecciona su con-tenido completándose a lo largo del s. XVIII con el método anatomoclínico y del XIX con el desarrollo de técnicas fisiopatológicas. El s. XX representa un rápido crecimiento de pruebas complementarias con aumento de la complejidad de la historia clínica que se convierte en multidisciplinar y de obligado cumplimiento. La informatización de la historia clínica conllevará cambios radicales en el s. XXI.

  4. Evaluation of CHO Benchmarks on the Arria 10 FPGA using Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-23

    The OpenCL standard is an open programming model for accelerating algorithms on heterogeneous computing system. OpenCL extends the C-based programming language for developing portable codes on different platforms such as CPU, Graphics processing units (GPUs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL is a suite of tools that allows developers to abstract away the complex FPGA-based development flow for a high-level software development flow. Users can focus on the design of hardware-accelerated kernel functions in OpenCL and then direct the tools to generate the low-level FPGA implementations. The approach makes the FPGA-based development more accessible to software users as the needs for hybrid computing using CPUs and FPGAs are increasing. It can also significantly reduce the hardware development time as users can evaluate different ideas with high-level language without deep FPGA domain knowledge. Benchmarking of OpenCL-based framework is an effective way for analyzing the performance of system by studying the execution of the benchmark applications. CHO is a suite of benchmark applications that provides support for OpenCL [1]. The authors presented CHO as an OpenCL port of the CHStone benchmark. Using Altera OpenCL (AOCL) compiler to synthesize the benchmark applications, they listed the resource usage and performance of each kernel that can be successfully synthesized by the compiler. In this report, we evaluate the resource usage and performance of the CHO benchmark applications using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL and Nallatech 385A FPGA board that features an Arria 10 FPGA device. The focus of the report is to have a better understanding of the resource usage and performance of the kernel implementations using Arria-10 FPGA devices compared to Stratix-5 FPGA devices. In addition, we also gain knowledge about the limitations of the current compiler when it fails to synthesize a benchmark

  5. Cyclic-AMP regulates postnatal development of neural and behavioral responses to NaCl in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Heck, Gerard L.; DeSimone, John A.; West, David; Mahavadi, Sunila; Hojati, Deanna; Murthy, Karnam S.; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Spielman, Andrew I.; Özdener, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-01-01

    During postnatal development rats demonstrate an age-dependent increase in NaCl chorda tympani (CT) responses and the number of functional apical amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in salt sensing fungiform (FF) taste receptor cells (TRCs). Currently, the intracellular signals that regulate the postnatal development of salt taste have not been identified. We investigated the effect of cAMP, a downstream signal for arginine vasopressin (AVP) action, on the postnatal development of NaCl responses in 19–23 day old rats. ENaC-dependent NaCl CT responses were monitored after lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP) under open-circuit conditions and under ±60 mV lingual voltage clamp. Behavioral responses were tested using 2 bottle/24h NaCl preference tests. The effect of [deamino-Cys1, D-Arg8]-vasopressin (dDAVP, a specific V2R agonist) was investigated on ENaC subunit trafficking in rat FF TRCs and on cAMP generation in cultured adult human FF taste cells (HBO cells). Our results show that in 19–23 day old rats, the ENaC-dependent maximum NaCl CT response was a saturating sigmoidal function of 8-CPT-cAMP concentration. 8-CPT-cAMP increased the voltage-sensitivity of the NaCl CT response and the apical Na+ response conductance. Intravenous injections of dDAVP increased ENaC expression and γ-ENaC trafficking from cytosolic compartment to the apical compartment in rat FF TRCs. In HBO cells dDAVP increased intracellular cAMP and cAMP increased trafficking of γ- and δ-ENaC from cytosolic compartment to the apical compartment 10 min post-cAMP treatment. Control 19–23 day old rats were indifferent to NaCl, but showed clear preference for appetitive NaCl concentrations after 8-CPT-cAMP treatment. Relative to adult rats, 14 day old rats demonstrated significantly less V2R antibody binding in circumvallate TRCs. We conclude that an age-dependent increase in V2R expression produces an AVP-induced incremental increase in cAMP that

  6. Numerical study of capacitive coupled HBr/Cl2 plasma discharge for dry etch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Banat; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Zia, Gulfam; Aman-ur-Rehman

    2016-09-01

    HBr/Cl2 plasma discharge is investigated to study the etchant chemistry of this discharge by using the self-consistent fluid model. A comprehensive set of gas phase reactions (83 reactions) including primary processes such as excitation, dissociation, and ionization are considered in the model along with 24 species. Our findings illustrate that the densities of neutral species (i.e., Br, HCl, Cl, H, and H2) produced in the reactor are higher than charged species (i.e., Cl2+, Cl-, HBr+, and Cl+). Density profile of neutral and charged species followed bell shaped and double humped distributions, respectively. Increasing Cl2 fraction in the feedback gases (HBr/Cl2 from 90/10 to 10/90) promoted the production of Cl, Cl+, and Cl2+ in the plasma, indicating that chemical etching pathway may be preferred at high Cl-environment. These findings pave the way towards controlling/optimizing the Si-etching process.

  7. Genetic Ablation of the ClC-2 Cl- Channel Disrupts Mouse Gastric Parietal Cell Acid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghali P Nighot

    Full Text Available The present studies were designed to examine the effects of ClC-2 ablation on cellular morphology, parietal cell abundance, H/K ATPase expression, parietal cell ultrastructure and acid secretion using WT and ClC-2-/- mouse stomachs. Cellular histology, morphology and proteins were examined using imaging techniques, electron microscopy and western blot. The effect of histamine on the pH of gastric contents was measured. Acid secretion was also measured using methods and secretagogues previously established to give maximal acid secretion and morphological change. Compared to WT, ClC-2-/- gastric mucosal histological organization appeared disrupted, including dilation of gastric glands, shortening of the gastric gland region and disorganization of all cell layers. Parietal cell numbers and H/K ATPase expression were significantly reduced by 34% (P<0.05 and 53% (P<0.001 respectively and cytoplasmic tubulovesicles appeared markedly reduced on electron microscopic evaluation without evidence of canalicular expansion. In WT parietal cells, ClC-2 was apparent in a similar cellular location as the H/K ATPase by immunofluorescence and appeared associated with tubulovesicles by immunogold electron microscopy. Histamine-stimulated [H+] of the gastric contents was significantly (P<0.025 lower by 9.4 fold (89% in the ClC-2-/- mouse compared to WT. Histamine/carbachol stimulated gastric acid secretion was significantly reduced (range 84-95%, P<0.005 in ClC-2-/- compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion.

  8. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K;

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  9. DyCl3-NaCl体系相图的热力学优化计算%Thermodynamic Optimization of DyCl3 -NaCl System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶信宇; 孙益民; 张静; 谈君君

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagram of the DyCl3-NaC1 system is optimized and calculated with CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagram) technology. A set of thermodynamic functions of compounds Na3 DyCl6, NaDyCl4, and NaDy2 Cl7 have been optimized and calculated based on an interactive computer-assisted analysis. The optimized thermodynamic parameters, calculated phase diagram and experimental phase diagram are thermodynamically self-consistent.

  10. Transcriptome sequencing revealed differences in the response of renal cancer cells to hypoxia and CoCl2 treatment [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Zhigalova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cancer cells are subjected to hypoxic conditions in many tumours. Hypoxia causes alterations in the glycolytic pathway activation through stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Currently, two approaches are commonly used to model hypoxia: an alternative to generating low-oxygen conditions in an incubator, cells can be treated with CoCl2. We performed RNA-seq experiments to study transcriptomes of human Caki-1 cells under real hypoxia and after CoCl2 treatment. Despite causing transcriptional changes of a much higher order of magnitude for the genes in the hypoxia regulation pathway, CoCl2 treatment fails to induce alterations in the glycolysis / gluconeogenesis pathway. Moreover, CoCl2 caused aberrant activation of other oxidoreductases in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathways.

  11. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  12. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Drexlin, G; Mertens, S; Weinheimer, C

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments. These experiments investigate the kinematics of $\\beta$-decays of specific isotopes ($^3$H, $^{187}$Re, $^{163}$Ho) to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (anti-) neutrino mass, which is formed by the incoherent sum of the neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. We first review the kinematics of $\\beta$-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, before giving a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for $^3$H, cryo-bolometers for $^{187}$Re). We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment which is currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The large-scale setup will use the MAC-E-Filter principle pioneered earlier to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV(90% C.L.). KATRIN faces many technological challenges that have to be resolved with regar...

  13. Two Na+ and Cl- Hyperaccumulators of the Chenopodiaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Fu ZHAO; Hai FAN; Jie SONG; Ming-Xia SUN; Bao-Zeng WANG; Sheng-Qiang ZHANG; I. A. UNGAR

    2005-01-01

    The authors found five sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) hyperaccumulating halophytes in the Temperate Desert of Xinjiang, China and studied two of them (Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and Kalidium folium (Pall.) Moq.). K. folium and S. salsa had a NaCl content of 32.1% and 29.8%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. X-ray microanalysis of the Na+ in the vacuole, apoplasts and cytoplasm of the two plants indicated a ratio of 7.3:5.6:1.0 in K. folium and 7.3:6.6:1.0 in S. salsa. These data show that K. folium and S. salsa both have a high Na+ and Cl-accumulating capacity, which is related to high activity oftonoplast H+-ATPase and H+-PPase.

  14. Generative and discriminative learning by CL-Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanmin; Wong, Andrew K C; Wang, Yang

    2007-08-01

    This correspondence presents a two-stage classification learning algorithm. The first stage approximates the class-conditional distribution of a discrete space using a separate mixture model, and the second stage investigates the class posterior probabilities by training a network. The first stage explores the generative information that is inherent in each class by using the Chow-Liu (CL) method, which approximates high-dimensional probability with a tree structure, namely, a dependence tree, whereas the second stage concentrates on discriminative learning to distinguish between classes. The resulting learning algorithm integrates the advantages of both generative learning and discriminative learning. Because it uses CL dependence-tree estimation, we call our algorithm CL-Net. Empirical tests indicate that the proposed learning algorithm makes significant improvements when compared with the related classifiers that are constructed by either generative learning or discriminative learning.

  15. Regulating effect of TongXie-YaoFang on colonic epithelial secretion via Cl- and HCO3- channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; An, Fang-Mei; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zhan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacological effect of TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) formula, a Chinese herbal formula, on Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) rats. METHODS In a neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress (NMS + RS) model of D-IBS, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (NMS + RS group and TXYF-formula group) with no handlings were used as controls (NH group). Starting from postnatal day 60, rats in TXYF-formula group were administered TXYF-formula (4.92 g/100 g bodyweight) orally twice a day for 14 consecutive days while NH group and NMS + RS group were given distilled water. Using short-circuit current technology, we observed 5-HT-induced changes of current across ion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel, epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), Ca2+-dependent Cl- channel (CACC), Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC), and Na+-HCO3- co-transporter (NBC), in the colonic epithelium of three groups after exposure to drugs and specific blockers with a Power Lab System (AD Instruments International). RESULTS Under basal conditions, the changes of short-circuit current (∆Isc, µA/cm2) induced by 5-HT were similar in NH group and TXYF-formula group, and both higher than NMS + RS group (70.86 µA/cm2 ± 12.32 µA/cm2, 67.67 µA/cm2 ± 11.68 µA/cm2 vs 38.8 µA/cm2 ± 7.25 µA/cm2, P CFTR Cl- channel was blocked by 1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride (DPC), 5-HT-induced ∆Isc did not significantly differ in three groups (42.28 µA/cm2 ± 10.61 µA/cm2 vs 51.48 µA/cm2 ± 6.56 µA/cm2 vs 47.75 µA/cm2 ± 7.99 µA/cm2, P > 0.05, respectively). The similar results could also be obtained in three groups when NBC and NKCC were respectively blocked by their blockers. CONCLUSION TXYF-formula can regulate the Cl- and HCO3- secretion of colonic mucosa via CFTR Cl- channel, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NBC and NKCC co-transporters. PMID:28082810

  16. Preparation of γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3/FeCl3(FeCl2 Composite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Process Useful for Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a hydrothermal process in FeCl2 solution, γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3/FeCl3(FeCl2 composite nanoparticles were obtained from the FeOOH/Ni(OH2 precursor prepared by coprecipitation. The precursor and the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experimental results showed that the paramagnetic amorphous precursor, in which Ni(OH2 is formed outside FeOOH, is transformed to ferrimagnetic γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3 composite when it is processed in FeCl2 solution (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 M in an autoclave at 100°C for 1 hr. In addition, the dismutation reaction of FeCl2 produces FeCl3 and Fe. Some FeCl3 and little FeCl2 can be absorbed to form γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3/FeCl3(FeCl2 composite nanoparticles in which Ni2O3 forms outside the γ-Fe2O3 core and the outermost layer is FeCl3 (FeCl2. The content of FeCl3 (FeCl2 in the particles increased, and the magnetization of the particles decreased with the concentration of FeCl2 solution increasing in the hydrothermal process. The FeCl3 (FeCl2 surface is chemically passive and nonmagnetic (paramagnetic. Accordingly, the composite nanoparticles are chemically stable, and their aggregation is prevented. The specific saturation magnetization of such composite nanoparticles can get to 57.4–62.2 emu/g and could be very suitable for synthesizing ferrofluids.

  17. Application of annexation principle to the study of thermodynamic properties of ternary molten salts CaCl2-MgCl2-NaCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2004-01-01

    Based on the practical basis of measured activities and phase diagrams as well as in the light of the mass action law, the model of inseparable cations and anions of molten salts and mattes, and the annexation principle of two kinds of solutions in binary melts, the calculating model of mass action concentrations of molten salts CaC12-MgCl2-NaCl was formulated. The results of calculation not only agree with experimental values, but also obey the mass action law, testifying that the model formulated can embody the sauctural characteristics of these temary salts, and that the model of inseparable cations and anions as well as the annexation principle of two kinds of solutions in binary melts are also applicable to these ternary salts.

  18. Aspects of calcium-activated chloride currents: a neuronal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R H; Sutton, K G; Griffin, A; Stapleton, S R; Currie, K P

    1995-06-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels are expressed in a variety of cell types, including central and peripheral neurones. These channels are activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ close to the cell membrane. This can be evoked by cellular events such as Ca2+ entry through voltage- and ligandgated channels or release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Additionally, these Ca(2+)-activated Cl currents (ICl(Ca)) can be activated by raising intracellular Ca2+ through artificial experimental procedures such as intracellular photorelease of Ca2+ from "caged" photolabile compounds (e.g. DM-nitrophen) or by treating cells with Ca2+ ionophores. The potential changes that result from activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels are dependent on resting membrane potential and the equilibrium potential for Cl-. Ca2+ entry during a single action potential is sufficient to produce substantial after potentials, suggesting that the activity of these Cl- channels can have profound effects on cell excitability. The whole cell ICl(Ca) can be identified by sensitivity to increased Ca2+ buffering capacity of the cell, anion substitution studies and reversal potential measurements, as well as by the actions of Cl- channel blockers. In cultured sensory neurones, there is evidence that the ICl(Ca) deactivates as Ca2+ is buffered or removed from the intracellular environment. To date, there is no evidence in mammalian neurones to suggest these Ca(2+)-sensitive Cl- channels undergo a process of inactivation. Therefore, ICl(Ca) can be used as a physiological index of intracellular Ca2+ close to the cell membrane. The ICl(Ca) has been shown to be activated or prolonged as a result of metabolic stress, as well as by drugs that disturb intracellular Ca2+ homeostatic mechanisms or release Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In addition to sensitivity to classic Cl- channel blockers such as niflumic acid, derivatives of stilbene (4,4'diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 4-acetamido-4

  19. Optimization techniques for OpenCL-based linear algebra routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Fox, Paul; Humphrey, John; Kuller, Aryeh; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2014-06-01

    The OpenCL standard for general-purpose parallel programming allows a developer to target highly parallel computations towards graphics processing units (GPUs), CPUs, co-processing devices, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The computationally intense domains of linear algebra and image processing have shown significant speedups when implemented in the OpenCL environment. A major benefit of OpenCL is that a routine written for one device can be run across many different devices and architectures; however, a kernel optimized for one device may not exhibit high performance when executed on a different device. For this reason kernels must typically be hand-optimized for every target device family. Due to the large number of parameters that can affect performance, hand tuning for every possible device is impractical and often produces suboptimal results. For this work, we focused on optimizing the general matrix multiplication routine. General matrix multiplication is used as a building block for many linear algebra routines and often comprises a large portion of the run-time. Prior work has shown this routine to be a good candidate for high-performance implementation in OpenCL. We selected several candidate algorithms from the literature that are suitable for parameterization. We then developed parameterized kernels implementing these algorithms using only portable OpenCL features. Our implementation queries device information supplied by the OpenCL runtime and utilizes this as well as user input to generate a search space that satisfies device and algorithmic constraints. Preliminary results from our work confirm that optimizations are not portable from one device to the next, and show the benefits of automatic tuning. Using a standard set of tuning parameters seen in the literature for the NVIDIA Fermi architecture achieves a performance of 1.6 TFLOPS on an AMD 7970 device, while automatically tuning achieves a peak of 2.7 TFLOPS

  20. Targeting multiple heterogeneous hardware platforms with OpenCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Paul A.; Kozacik, Stephen T.; Humphrey, John R.; Paolini, Aaron; Kuller, Aryeh; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2014-06-01

    The OpenCL API allows for the abstract expression of parallel, heterogeneous computing, but hardware implementations have substantial implementation differences. The abstractions provided by the OpenCL API are often insufficiently high-level to conceal differences in hardware architecture. Additionally, implementations often do not take advantage of potential performance gains from certain features due to hardware limitations and other factors. These factors make it challenging to produce code that is portable in practice, resulting in much OpenCL code being duplicated for each hardware platform being targeted. This duplication of effort offsets the principal advantage of OpenCL: portability. The use of certain coding practices can mitigate this problem, allowing a common code base to be adapted to perform well across a wide range of hardware platforms. To this end, we explore some general practices for producing performant code that are effective across platforms. Additionally, we explore some ways of modularizing code to enable optional optimizations that take advantage of hardware-specific characteristics. The minimum requirement for portability implies avoiding the use of OpenCL features that are optional, not widely implemented, poorly implemented, or missing in major implementations. Exposing multiple levels of parallelism allows hardware to take advantage of the types of parallelism it supports, from the task level down to explicit vector operations. Static optimizations and branch elimination in device code help the platform compiler to effectively optimize programs. Modularization of some code is important to allow operations to be chosen for performance on target hardware. Optional subroutines exploiting explicit memory locality allow for different memory hierarchies to be exploited for maximum performance. The C preprocessor and JIT compilation using the OpenCL runtime can be used to enable some of these techniques, as well as to factor in hardware

  1. A clínica do corpo sem boca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Soares Fonsêca

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo buscou analisar a abordagem do território bucal feita por profissionais e estudantes da área médica durante consultas clínicas em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde, do município de São Paulo, e pode ser classificado como uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, em que os dados foram derivados da observação participante das atividades clínicas de médicos e estudantes de medicina em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados por duas pesquisadoras, ao longo de quatro meses de imersão, e analisados por hermenêutica-dialética. Foi possível compreender a propedêutica clínica na área médica e perceber a centralidade de tecnologias-duras e ‘prescrições’ na abordagem clínica, em detrimento da centralidade do sujeito. Além disso, estudantes de medicina demonstraram desconhecimento da organização do serviço, revelando um descompasso entre formação e trabalho. Nas diferentes clínicas, mesmo quando havia inspeção da cavidade bucal, não houve o estabelecimento de conexões entre achados e sintomas apresentados pelos pacientes. A ‘experienciação’ das clínicas na Unidade Básica revelou a visão centrada no que “sobra do corpo” ao retirar a boca. Ou seja, a desconexão corpo-boca é reforçada também na área médica.

  2. Stability field diagrams for Ln–O–Cl systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T JACOB; APOORVA DIXIT; ARNEET RAJPUT

    2016-06-01

    Isothermal stability field diagrams for Ln−O−Cl systems (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) are developed by taking partial pressures of volatile components oxygen and chlorine as variables. Thermodynamic properties of all the oxides and trichlorides (LnCl$_3$) are available in the literature. However, data for oxychlorides (LnOCl) and dichlorides (LnCl$_2$) are limited. Based on systematic trends in stability of these compounds across the lanthanide series, missing data are estimated to construct the diagrams for 13 Ln−O−Cl systems at 1000 K. All the lanthanide elements form stable LnCl$_3$ and LnOCl. Dichlorides of Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tm and Yb are stable. For systems in which dichlorides are unstable (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er), the LnOCl is in equilibrium with the metal (Ln) and the stability field of LnOCl is sandwiched between those of oxides and trichlorides. Stability field diagrams of lanthanide systems forming stable LnCl$_2$ are of two kinds: in the first kind (Ln = Nd,Dy) the stability fields of Ln and LnOCl are in contact and the stability field of LnOCl separates the fields of chlorides and oxides. In diagrams of the second kind (Ln = Sm, Eu, Tm, Yb) there is a direct equilibrium between the oxides and dichlorides at low partial pressures of oxygen and chlorine. There is no contact between the stability fields of Ln and LnOCl; the stability field of LnOCl intervenes between the oxide and chloride phases only at higher partial pressures.

  3. Evaluation of the OpenCL AES Kernel using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zheming [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoshii, Kazutomo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-04-20

    The OpenCL standard is an open programming model for accelerating algorithms on heterogeneous computing system. OpenCL extends the C-based programming language for developing portable codes on different platforms such as CPU, Graphics processing units (GPUs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL is a suite of tools that allows developers to abstract away the complex FPGA-based development flow for a high-level software development flow. Users can focus on the design of hardware-accelerated kernel functions in OpenCL and then direct the tools to generate the low-level FPGA implementations. The approach makes the FPGA-based development more accessible to software users as the needs for hybrid computing using CPUs and FPGAs are increasing. It can also significantly reduce the hardware development time as users can evaluate different ideas with high-level language without deep FPGA domain knowledge. In this report, we evaluate the performance of the kernel using the Intel FPGA SDK for OpenCL and Nallatech 385A FPGA board. Compared to the M506 module, the board provides more hardware resources for a larger design exploration space. The kernel performance is measured with the compute kernel throughput, an upper bound to the FPGA throughput. The report presents the experimental results in details. The Appendix lists the kernel source code.

  4. The 35Cl/37Cl isotopic ratio in dense molecular clouds: HIFI observations of hydrogen chloride towards W3A

    CERN Document Server

    Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Agundez, M; Caux, E; de Graauw, T; De Jonge, A; Kester, D; Leduc, H G; Steinmetz, E; Stutzki, J; Ward, J S

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detection with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel satellite of the two hydrogen chloride isotopologues, H35Cl and H37Cl, towards the massive star-forming region W3A. The J=1-0 line of both species was observed with receiver 1b of the HIFI instrument at 625.9 and 624.9 GHz. The different hyperfine components were resolved. The observations were modeled with a non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer model that includes hyperfine line overlap and radiative pumping by dust. Both effects are found to play an important role in the emerging intensity from the different hyperfine components. The inferred H35Cl column density (a few times 1e14 cm^-2), and fractional abundance relative to H nuclei (~7.5e^-10), supports an upper limit to the gas phase chlorine depletion of ~200. Our best-fit model estimate of the H35Cl/H37Cl abundance ratio is ~2.1+/-0.5, slightly lower, but still compatible with the solar isotopic abundance ratio (~3.1). Since both species were observed simultaneously, this is the...

  5. Electro-Plating and Characterisation of CdTe Thin Films Using CdCl2 as the Cadmium Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A. Abdul-Manaf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride (CdTe thin films have been successfully prepared from an aqueous electrolyte bath containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2·H2O and tellurium dioxide (TeO2 using an electrodeposition technique. The structural, electrical, morphological and optical properties of these thin films have been characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry, DC current-voltage (I-V measurements, photoelectrochemical (PEC cell measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It is observed that the best cathodic potential is 698 mV with respect to standard calomel electrode (SCE in a three electrode system. Structural analysis using XRD shows polycrystalline crystal structure in the as-deposited CdTe thin films and the peaks intensity increase after CdCl2 treatment. PEC cell measurements show the possibility of growing p-, i- and n-type CdTe layers by varying the growth potential during electrodeposition. The electrical resistivity of the as-deposited layers are in the order of 104 Ω·cm. SEM and AFM show that the CdCl2 treated samples are more roughness and have larger grain size when compared to CdTe grown by CdSO4 precursor. Results obtained from the optical absorption reveal that the bandgap of as-deposited CdTe (1.48–1.52 eV reduce to (1.45–1.49 eV after CdCl2 treatment. Full characterisation of this material is providing new information on crucial CdCl2 treatment of CdTe thin films due to its built-in CdCl2 treatment during the material growth. The work is progressing to fabricate solar cells with this material and compare with CdTe thin films grown by conventional sulphate precursors.

  6. Remifentanil na prática clínica Remifentanil en la práctica clínica Remifentanil in the clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Luiz da Rocha Videira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O remifentanil é o opióide mais recentemente introduzido na prática anestésica. O objetivo desse estudo foi rever a literatura, com ênfase na informação de interesse clínico publicada no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. CONTEÚDO: Os principais estudos sobre remifentanil são descritos e agrupados por áreas de interesse para a anestesia clínica. Aspectos como dose recomendada, equipamento e forma de uso, analgesia de transição e áreas em que o uso ainda é controverso, como para sedação, cirurgia pediátrica, obstétrica e terapia intensiva, são discutidos. CONCLUSÕES: O remifentanil é atualmente o opióide mais adequado para administração por infusão venosa contínua e pode tornar mais eficiente a prática clínica do anestesiologista ao serem seguidas as recomendações para o seu uso.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El remifentanil es el opioide más recientemente introducido en la práctica anestésica. El objetivo de ese estudio fue rever la literatura, con énfasis en la información de interés clínico publicada en el período de enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2002. CONTENIDO: Los principales estudios sobre remifentanil son descritos y agrupados por áreas de interés para la anestesia clínica. Aspectos como dosis recomendada, equipamiento y forma de uso, analgesia de transición y áreas en que el uso aún es controvertido, como para sedación, cirugía pediátrica, obstétrica y terapia intensiva, son discutidos. CONCLUSIONES: El remifentanil es actualmente el opioide más adecuado para la administración por infusión venosa continua y puede hacer más eficiente la práctica clínica del anestesista a partir del momento en que sean seguidas las recomendaciones para su uso.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Remifentanil is the newest opioid for anesthetic procedures. This study aimed at reviewing the literature, with emphasis on information of clinical interest published from January 2000

  7. Caos en sistemas clásico-cuánticos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, L. D.; Núñez, J. A.

    Una de las formas de estudiar la existencia de caos en el comportamiento de un sistema clásico-cuántico, es truncando el espacio de Hilbert del sistema cuántico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar como afecta dicho truncamiento en la dinámica del sistema. Para tal fin se propone un Hamiltoniano integrable, cuyos valores de expectación asociados a coordenadas y momentos cuánticos responden, por el teorema de Ehrenfest, a un sistema de dos osciladores clásicos con acoplamiento lineal.

  8. Espectro clínico de la Enfermedad de Castleman

    OpenAIRE

    María Rebeca Guzmán-Fernández; Fiz Campoy-García; María Pereiro-Sánchez; José Luis Jímenez-Martínez; José Luis Sastre-Moral

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN La enfermedad de Castleman(EC) es una enfermedad hematológica rara caracterizada por hiperplasia de nódulos linfoides con dos patrones histológicos y clínicos bien diferenciados: hialino-vascular que suele ser unicéntrico, de comportamiento poco agresivo y cuya exeresis consigue la curación en la mayor parte de los casos. La variante plasmocelular es más agresiva, su presentación clínica remeda los linfomas de alto grado y requiere quimioterapia para su erradicación. Juegan un pap...

  9. Síndrome PFAPA - Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, F.; Pereira, G; Marçal, N.; Guimarães,J; Miranda, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introdução - A Síndrome PFAPA (periodic fever, aphtous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) caracteriza-se por episódios recorrentes de febre elevada, estomatite aftosa, adenite cervical e faringite que ocorre maioritariamente em crianças com idade inferior a cinco anos. A etiopatogenia é desconhecida e o diagnóstico é clínico e de exclusão. Com este trabalho pretendemos realizar uma revisão de literatura - clínica, diagnóstico e tratamento - complementada com a...

  10. Laboratorio Clínico de Microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Muñoz Criado, Santiago; Arce Arce, José Javier

    2010-01-01

    I. Materiales de clase: Tema 1. La Microbiología Clínica. Historia y situación actual; Tema 2. Organización del Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica; Tema 3. El diagnóstico microbiológico e ITU; Tema 4. Infecciones gastrointestinales (Primera parte, Segunda parte); Tema 5. Sepsis y bacteriemia; Tema 6. Infecciones osteoartículares y cutáneas e infecciones del sistema nervioso central; Tema 7. Infecciones respiratoria (Primera parte, Segunda parte); Tema 8. Infecciones por micobacteria (Prime...

  11. Relatório de atividade clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José Miguel Palricas

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho destina-se a caracterizar e descrever as atividades clínicas realizadas pelo autor no seu último ano de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Dentária, na Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Centro de Viseu. Também oferece uma visão histórica e evolutiva da Medicina Dentária, conciliada com os tratamentos mais atuais em diversas áreas. Todas as atividades mencionadas pelo autor, desempenhando a função de operador ou assistente, foram realizadas em cada vertente da área clínica d...

  12. Relatório de atividade clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Marta Raquel São Bento

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho destina-se a relatar as experiências obtidas no contexto de atividade clínica na Universidade Católica Portuguesa – Centro Regional das Beiras, durante o ano lectivo 2014/2015. As situações aqui expostas descrevem, por área disciplinar, todo o processo de aprendizagem envolvido na abordagem feita em cada paciente, os procedimentos efetuados nas diferentes variantes de patologias clínicas, os conhecimentos adquiridos assim como as vivências experienciadas ao longo deste processo....

  13. Esplacnología clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Hernández, Fernando; Santos del Rey, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Materiales de clase: 1.Tema 1.Asistencia 1; 2.Tema 2: Asistencia 2; 3. Tema 3: Reanimación cardiopulmonar; 4. Tema 4: Manejo C. RCP. Cohibir-fluidos-shock. Lesiones con riesgo inminente de muerte; 5. Tema 5: Manejo D. Exploración neurológica. Escala de Glasgow; 6. Tema 6: Ejercicio de Triage; 7. Tema 7: Casos clínicos reales; 8. Tema 8: Material de emergencias en atención primaria. Esta asignatura tiene como objetivo aplicar, mediante casos clínicos enfocados hacia Enfermería, criterios y ...

  14. Cl-37 in the Dead Sea system - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, M.; Nissenbaum, A. [Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kaufmann, R.S. [Department of Geology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Long, A. [Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AR (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This study presents the first set of {delta}{sup 37}Cl measurements in the Dead Sea environment. {delta}{sup 37}Cl values for the meromictic (long term stratified) Dead Sea water column prior to its complete overturn in 1979 were -0.47per thousand SMOC for the UWM (Upper Water Mass) and +0.55per thousand SMOC for the LWM (Lower Water Mass). The {delta}{sup 37}Cl values for the pre-overturn Dead Sea cannot be explained by the prevailing model on the evolution of the Dead Sea during the last few centuries and require corroboration by more measurements. The 1979 overturn wiped out almost completely the isotopic differences between the UWM and LWM. Even so, Cl isotope data could be used to decipher physical processes related to the overturn such as incomplete homogenization of the deep water mass. Inputs into the lake, comprising freshwaters (springs and the Jordan River) and saline springs gave a range of -0.37per thousand to +1.0per thousand with the freshwater sources being more enriched in {delta}{sup 37}Cl. Based on the {delta}{sup 37}Cl measurements of the End-Brine (the effluent from Dead Sea evaporation ponds) and of recent Dead Sea halite, the Cl isotopic composition of the originating brines have been estimated. They gave a narrow isotopic spread, +0.01per thousand and +0.07per thousand and fall within the same range with Dead Sea pore water (+0.13per thousand) and with the post-overturn Dead Sea (-0.03per thousand and +0.16per thousand). Rock salt from Mount Sdom gave a value of -0.59per thousand indicating its formation at the last stages of halite deposition from evaporating sea water. The hypersaline En Ashlag spring gave a depleted {delta}{sup 37}Cl value of -0.32per thousand, corresponding to a residual brine formed in the very latest stages (including bishofite deposition) of seawater evaporation. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Magneto-chiral dichroism of CsCuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, N.; Abe, N.; Toyoda, S.; Kimura, S.; Zaccaro, J.; Gautier-Luneau, I.; Luneau, D.; Kousaka, Y.; Sera, A.; Sera, M.; Inoue, K.; Akimitsu, J.; Tokunaga, Y.; Arima, T.

    2017-09-01

    In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the magneto-chiral dichroism (MChD) of right- and left-handed CsCuCl3 crystals in a strong magnetic field up to 14.5 T. We perform near-infrared optical measurements, and the results show a change in the absorption coefficient of an intra-atomic d -d transition in a Cu2 + ion at approximately 1.5 eV. The magnitude of MChD was found to be proportional to the magnetization, which depends on the magnetic field and temperature. We verify this relation by developing a simple CuCl6 cluster model.

  16. Excitons and biexcitons in CuCl nanocrystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenerlage, B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, Strasbourg (France). Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique; Levy, R. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, Strasbourg (France). Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique; Grun, J.B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux, Strasbourg (France). Groupe d`Optique Nonlineaire et d`Optoelectronique

    1995-06-01

    Because of the important binding energies of excitons and biexcitons in CuCl, these elementary excitations can be treated in the weak confinement regime if excited in semiconductor nanocrystallites. Their optical properties and dynamics are similar to those of CuCl bulk material. Besides the well-known blue shift of resonances due to the confinement and their inhomogeneous broadening due to the size distribution of the nanocrystallites, the main difference between both systems results from surface effects and the lack of translational invariance in nanocrystallites. The latter affects the selection rules of optical transitions and the exchange interaction of the quasiparticules. (orig.).

  17. OpenCL-library-based implementation of SCLSU algorithm for remotely sensed hyperspectral data exploitation: clMAGMA versus viennaCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Sergio; Botella, Guillermo; Orueta, Carlos; Navarro, José M. R.; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Plaza, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, hyperspectral spectral unmixing (HSU) analysis have been applied in many remote sensing applications. For this process, the linear mixture model (LMM) has been the most popular tool used to find pure spectral constituents or endmembers and their fractional abundance in each pixel of the data set. The unmixing process consists of three stages: (i) estimation of the number of pure spectral signatures or endmembers, (ii) automatic identification of the estimated endmembers, and (iii) estimation of the fractional abundance of each endmember in each pixel of the scene. However, unmixing algorithms can be very expensive computationally, a fact that compromises their use in applications under real-time constraints. This is, mainly, due to the last two stages in the unmixing process, which are the most consuming ones. In this work, we propose parallel opencl-library- based implementations of the sum-to-one constrained least squares unmixing (P-SCLSU) algorithm to estimate the per-pixel fractional abundances by using mathematical libraries such as clMAGMA or ViennaCL. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of analysis using OpenCL libraries have not been previously conducted in the hyperspectral imaging processing literature, and in our opinion it is very important in order to achieve efficient implementations using parallel routines. The efficacy of our proposed implementations is demonstrated through Monte Carlo simulations for real data experiments and using high performance computing (HPC) platforms such as commodity graphics processing units (GPUs).

  18. Electrochemical characterisation of CaCl2 deficient LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 eutectic melt and electro-deoxidation of solid UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Maha Vishnu, D.; Sanil, N.; Mohandas, K. S.; Nagarajan, K.

    2016-03-01

    The CaCl2 deficient ternary eutectic melt LiCl-KCl-CaCl2 (50.5: 44.2: 5.3 mol %) was electrochemically characterised by cyclic voltammetry and polarization techniques in the context of its probable use as the electrolyte in the electrochemical reduction of solid UO2 to uranium metal. Tungsten (cathodic polarization) and graphite (anodic polarization) working electrodes were used in these studies carried out in the temperature range 623 K-923 K. The cathodic limit of the melt was observed to be set by the deposition of Ca2+ ions followed by Li+ ions on the tungsten electrode and the anodic limit by oxidation of chloride ions on the graphite electrode (chlorine evolution). The difference between the onset potential of deposition of Ca2+ and Li+ was found to be 0.241 V at a scan rate of 20 mV/s at 623 K and the difference decreased with increase in temperature and vanished at 923 K. Polarization measurements with stainless steel (SS) cathode and graphite anode at 673 K showed the possibility of low-energy reactions occurring on the UO2 electrode in the melt. UO2 pellets were cathodically polarized at 3.9 V for 25 h to test the feasibility of electro-reduction to uranium in the melt. The surface of the pellets was found reduced to U metal.

  19. Currents for Arbitrary Helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Dragon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Using Mackey's classification of unitary representations of the Poincar\\'e group on massles states of arbitrary helicity we disprove the claim that states with helicity |h|>=1 cannot couple to a conserved current by constructing such a current.

  20. Magnetic current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jr., William C. (Inventor); Hermann, Theodore M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A current determiner having an output at which representations of input currents are provided having an input conductor for the input current and a current sensor supported on a substrate electrically isolated from one another but with the sensor positioned in the magnetic fields arising about the input conductor due to any input currents. The sensor extends along the substrate in a direction primarily perpendicular to the extent of the input conductor and is formed of at least a pair of thin-film ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic conductive layer. The sensor can be electrically connected to a electronic circuitry formed in the substrate including a nonlinearity adaptation circuit to provide representations of the input currents of increased accuracy despite nonlinearities in the current sensor, and can include further current sensors in bridge circuits.

  1. Spectroelectrochemistry of EuCl 3 in Four Molten Salt Eutectics; 3 LiCl−NaCl, 3 LiCl−2 KCl, LiCl−RbCl, and 3 LiCl−2 CsCl; at 873 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, Cynthia A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221-0172; Chatterjee, Sayandev [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Heineman, William R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221-0172; Bryan, Samuel A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352

    2016-05-17

    Key electrochemical properties affecting pyroprocessing of nuclear fuel were examined in four eutectic melts using using Eu3+/2+ as a representative probe. We report the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of EuCl3 in four molten salt eutectics (3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl) at 873 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox potential for Eu3+/2+ and the applied potentials for spectroelectrochemistry. Single step chronoabsorptometry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were used to obtain the number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients for Eu3+ in each eutectic melt. The redox potentials determined by thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were extremely close to those obtained using cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential for Eu3+/2+ was most positive in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt, showed a negative shift in the 3 LiCl - 2 KCl melt, and was the most negative in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl eutectics. The diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ followed this same trend; it was the largest in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt and the smallest in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl melts. The basic one-electron reversible electron transfer for Eu3+/2+ was not changed by melt composition.

  2. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...

  3. Solubility relations in the ternary system NaCl-CsCl-H2O at 1 atm. 1. Solubilities of halite from 20 to 100 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lee, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Solubilities of halite in the ternary system NaCl-CsCl-H2O have been determined by the visual polythermal method at 1 atm from 20 to 100??C along five constant CsCl/(CsCl + H2O) weight ratio lines. These five constant weight ratios are 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5. The maximum uncertainties in these measurements are ??0.02 wt % NaCl and ??0.15??C. The data along each constant CsCl/(CsCl + H2O) weight ratio line were regressed to a smooth curve. The maximum deviation of the measured solubilities from the smooth curves is 0.06 wt % NaCl. Isothermal solubilities of halite were calculated from smoothed curves at 25, 50, and 75??C.

  4. The preparation of terephthalic acid by solvent-free oxidation of p-xylene with air over T(p-Cl)PPMnCl and Co(OAc)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiao; Xiao Yan Zhang; Qin Bo Wang; Ze Tan; Can Cheng Guo; Wei Deng; Zhi Gang Liu; He Fei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    An attempt has been made to prepare terephthalic acid (TPA) by solvent-free oxidation of p-xylene (PX) with air over tetra(p-chlorophenylporphinato)manganese chloride (T(p-Cl)PPMnCl) and cobalt acetate. The co-catalysis between T(p-Cl)PPMnCl and Co(OAc)2 has been discovered under solvent-free conditions. TPA yield could be increased significantly when T(p-Cl)PPMnCl and Co(OAc)2 were used together. The addition of T(p-Cl)PPMnCl into the reaction mixture over Co(OAc)2 significantly accelerated the rate-determining step of the oxidation process of PX to TPA. The effect of temperature on reaction was also investigated.

  5. Luminescence and scintillation properties of Tl- and In-doped CsCl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takumi; Koshimizu, Masanori; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-06-01

    Optical and scintillation properties of CsCl:Tl and CsCl:In single crystals were investigated. Ions Tl+ and In+ were selected as dopants to enhance the light yield of CsCl crystals. Luminescence and scintillation spectra of CsCl:Tl and CsCl:In could be attributed to the relaxed excited state (RES) originating from each dopant ion. The decay-time constants of the fast component had values of 5.4 ns for CsCl:Tl and 2.2 ns for CsCl:In, and can be ascribed to the overlapping of on-center STE and auger-free luminescence (AFL) for CsCl:Tl and only AFL for CsCl:In, respectively. Decay-time constants of the slow component were relatively long (220 ns for CsCl:Tl and 240 ns for CsCl:In), possibly owing to their low energy transfer rate from host to each dopant ion. The light yields of CsCl:1%Tl and CsCl:0.5%Tl were estimated to be 2800 and 2200 photons/MeV, respectively. The light yield of CsCl:0.5%In crystals was estimated to be 2200 photons/MeV. In conclusion, the light yield of pure CsCl (several ten photons/MeV) can be enhanced by doping Tl+ and In+ while maintaining the fast component of the CsCl crystal.

  6. Characterization of Niobium Platings Obtained from NaCl-KCl Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg, Bo; Barner, Jens H. Von; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    oxidation of metallic niobium with NiCl2. The initial valency of niobium was found to 3 when a NaCl-KCl melt was applied as solvent. The deposits were characterised by X-ray analy-sis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDX analysis. From both NaCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl melts dense and coherent...

  7. Electro-Plating and Characterisation of CdTe Thin Films Using CdCl2 as the Cadmium Source

    OpenAIRE

    Nor A. Abdul-Manaf; Hussein I. Salim; Mohammad L. Madugu; Olajide I. Olusola; Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films have been successfully prepared from an aqueous electrolyte bath containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2)·H2O and tellurium dioxide (TeO2) using an electrodeposition technique. The structural, electrical, morphological and optical properties of these thin films have been characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, optical profilometry, DC current-voltage (I-V) measurements, photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell measurement, scanning electron micr...

  8. Spectroscopic study of the charge-transfer complexes TiCl4/styrene and TiCl4/polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Norberto S.; Noda, Lúcia. K.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, solutions of TiCl4/styrene and TiCl4/polystyrene charge-transfer complexes in CHCl3 or CDCl3 were investigated by UV-vis, resonance Raman and 1H NMR spectroscopies in order to study their molecular and electronic structures. Both show a yellow colour due to absorption in the 400 nm region, related to a charge-transfer transition. In Raman spectra, as the excitation approaches the resonance region, the primary enhancement of aromatic ring modes was mainly observed, rather than intensification of the vinylic double-bond stretch. Under the experimental conditions it was observed that formation of polystyrene takes place, as showed by 1H NMR spectra, and the most significant interaction occurs at the aromatic ring, as supported by the results from interaction of TiCl4 with polystyrene, as indicated by the charge-transfer band and resonant intensification of the aromatic ring modes.

  9. Anion coordination complex [Cl Pt(bpt)4]Cl (bpt=N,N'- bis(3-pyridylmethyl)-2-thiourea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; LI Hui; YU ShuYan; LI YiZhi

    2009-01-01

    The anion coordination complex, [Cl Pt(bpt)4]Cl (bpt=N,N'-bis(3-pyridylmethyl)-2-thiourea), was synthesized and studied by X-ray crystal structure analysis, NMR and FAB mass spectre. In the solid state, the Pt(bpt)4 anion receptor adopts a cone conformation to bind the chloride anion through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction in which the four branches of the thiourea ligands bind the chloride anion to form N-H...Cl- hydrogen bonds (3.49--3.81 A). The entraped chloride anion is situated above the Pt(Ⅱ) center at 3.52 A. Further second-sphere coordination assemby from the Pt(bpt)4 core with 8 zinc(Ⅱ) tetraphenylporphyrins (ZnPr) is discussed.

  10. Controlled current inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, S.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic permeability and shape of special core inserts are varied to produce desired changes in saturation characteristics of current dependent inductor, thus improving its inductance-to-current properties. Materials and saturation levels of the core pieces are selected to permit a wide variety of relationships between inductance and current.

  11. Effect of RuCl{sub 3} Concentration on the Lifespan of Insoluble Anode for Cathodic Protection on PCCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H. W.; Kim, Y. S. [Materials Research Center for Energy and Clean Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Prestressed Concrete steel Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) is extensively used as seawater pipes for cooling in nuclear power plants. The internal surface of PCCP is exposed to seawater, while the external surface is in direct contact with underground soil. Therefore, materials and strategies that would reduce the corrosion of its cylindrical steel body and external steel wiring need to be employed. To prevent against the failure of PCCP, operators provided a cathodic protection to the pre-stressing wires. The efficiency of cathodic protection is governed by the anodic performance of the system. A mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrode was developed to meet criteria of low over potential and high corrosion resistance. Increasing coating cycles improved the performance of the anode, but cycling should be minimized due to high materials cost. In this work, the effects of RuCl{sub 3} concentration on the electrochemical properties and lifespan of MMO anode were evaluated. With increasing concentration of RuCl{sub 3}, the oxygen evolution potential lowered and polarization resistance were also reduced but demonstrated an increase in passive current density and oxygen evolution current density. To improve the electrochemical properties of the MMO anode, RuCl{sub 3} concentration was increased. As a result, the number of required coating cycles were reduced substantially and the MMO anode achieved an excellent lifespan of over 80 years. Thus, we concluded that the relationship between RuCl{sub 3} concentration and coating cycles can be summarized as follows: No. of coating cycle = 0.48{sup *}[RuCl{sub 3} concentration, M]{sup -0.97}.

  12. Electrochemical behavior of CoCl2 in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhou; HE De-liang; CUI Zheng-dan; ZHONG Jian-fang; LI Guo-xi

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of CoCl2 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF6) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms were obtained from electrochemical measurement under different temperatures, and the reversible behavior for Co2+/Co3+ redox couple on glassy carbon electrode in [bmim]PF6 was confirmed by the characteristic of the peak currents. The diffusion coefficients (about 10-11m2/s) of Co2+ in [bmim]PF6 under different temperatures were evaluated from the dependence of the peak current density on the potential scan rates in cyclic voltammograms. It is found that the diffusion coefficient increases with increasing temperature. Diffusion activation energy of Co2+ in [bmim]PF6 is also calculated to be 23.4kJ/mol according to the relationship between diffusion coefficient and temperature.

  13. Electrocrystallizations of copper on glassy carbon in CuCl2 silica sol and aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yan Feng; Min Gu; Yun Gui Du

    2012-01-01

    Electrocrystallizations of copper from both CuCl2 silica sol and aqueous solutions were studied by the chronoamperometry technique.It was found that current density contributions of the double-layer charging (iDL) in current-time transients (CTTs) from both of the solutions were large.An adsorption-nucleation based model was proposed to analyze quantitatively the CTTs,by which copper electrocrystallization mechanism was characterized as progressive nucleation with 3D growth (3DP) under diffusion control.The diffusion coefficient of copper ions and the AN∞ products in aqueous solutions were larger than that in silica sols,which indicated that copper nucleation was inhibited in sol solution.The large iDL may be resulted from the adsorption of chloride ions on the electrode surface.

  14. Ternary Isothermal Diffusion Coefficients of NaCl-MgCl2-H2O at 25 C. 7. Seawater Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D G; Lee, C M; Rard, J A

    2007-02-12

    The four diffusion coefficients D{sub ij} of the ternary system NaCl-MgCl{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at the simplified seawater composition 0.48877 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} NaCl and 0.05110 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} MgCl{sub 2} have been remeasured at 25 C. The diffusion coefficients were obtained using both Gouy and Rayleigh interferometry with the highly precise Gosting diffusiometer. The results, which should be identical in principle, are essentially the same within or very close to their combined 'realistic' errors. This system has a cross-term D{sub 12} that is larger than the D{sub 22} main-term, where subscript 1 denotes NaCl and 2 denotes MgCl{sub 2}. The results are compared with earlier, less-precise measurements. Recommended values for this system are (D{sub 11}){sub V} = 1.432 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2} {center_dot} sec{sup -1}, (D{sub 12}){sub V} = 0.750 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2} {center_dot} sec{sup -1}, (D{sub 21}){sub V} = 0.0185 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2} {center_dot} sec{sup -1}, and (D{sub 22}){sub V} = 0.728 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2} {center_dot} sec{sup -1}.

  15. Synthesis of photoactive AgCl/SBA-15 by conversion of silver nanoparticles into stable AgCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zienkiewicz-Strzalka, M., E-mail: gosiazienkiewicz@wp.pl [Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, sq. Maria Curie-Sklodowska 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Pikus, S. [Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, sq. Maria Curie-Sklodowska 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new material AgCl/SBA-15 was synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New simple and effective approach of preparation was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgCl/SBA-15 material was tested as an active agent during photodegradation of phenol and its photoactivity was confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoactive properties depend on AgCl nanoparticles present in the composite. - Abstract: In this work the results of synthesis the ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of stable silver nanoparticles were presented. It has been proven that the proposed method leads to the synthesis of SBA-15 nanocomposite containing silver chloride nanoparticles, formed by the transformation of silver nanoparticles in the acidic conditions. Proposed one-pot procedure is simple and the one requirement is to prepare a stable solution of silver nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles were obtained during chemical reduction of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} ions by formaldehyde. Silver nanoparticles solution can be used as a silver chloride source due to the application of the same polymer as a stabilizer of nanocrystals and structure directing agent of SBA-15. The final AgCl/SBA-15 materials show excellent structural ordering characteristic for this type of materials confirmed by diffraction measurements in range of small angles 2{theta}, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. AgCl nanoparticles were identified by diffraction measurements as chlorargyrite phase. The presence of silver nanoparticles in initial solution and their absence after synthesis were confirmed by UV-vis measurements. The photoactivity of obtained AgCl/SBA-15 composite was tested in reaction of organic impurities photodegradation.

  16. Electrochemical Study of FeCl3 and FeCl4- in BMImTf2N-dimethylformamide Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Shu-bao; HE; Hui; ZHANG; Qiu-yue; HUANG; Xiao-hong; WU; Ji-zong

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids(ILs)as the solvent for electrochemical reaction are different from traditional molecular solvents such as dimethylformamide(DMF).Here we focus on the electrochemistry of FeCl3 and FeCl4-in BMImTf2N-DMF mixtures at different compositions.Firstly,we studied the electrochemistry of FeCl3in pure IL by ultramicroelectrode and observed two waves corresponding to the reduction of FeCl3,which

  17. Salinity tolerance of halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. grown under increasing NaCl levels Tolerância à salinidade da halófita Atriplex nummularia L. cultivada em níveis crescentes de NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro A.M. de Araújo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports effects of salt stress on growth, K+ nutrition and organic composition of Atriplex nummularia. The upper limit of the NaCl gradient imposed on the plants was close to seawater salinity (600 mM. An external NaCl of 150 mM improved the growth of this species, which corroborates its halophytic nature. Evidence show that Atriplex nummularia was responsive to NaCl, but the mechanisms of this response are still not known. In such stress condition, Na+ and Cl- accumulation in leaves was far greater than that in roots; therefore salinity tolerance of Atriplex nummularia is not due to ion exclusion mechanism. In spite of a reduction of K+ content of tissues under salinity conditions, no corresponding physiological relevance of this in terms of growth was found. The high affinity of root cells for Na+ during uptake and, probably, its subsequent sequestration into cell vacuoles and structures of protection seems to contribute to osmotic adjustment as an increase in relative water content (RWC of leaves was observed. NaCl caused a decrease in total soluble proteins and chlorophylls; the relevance of this is discussed in terms of mechanisms of salinity tolerance. The ability of Atriplex nummularia plants to keep Na+ and Cl- away from enzymes and cytosolic structures, together with an effective osmotic adjustment, is suggested as having a role in its tolerance to high salinity.O presente estudo relata os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, na nutrição de K+ e na composição orgânica de Atriplex nummularia. A maior concentração de NaCl imposta às plantas foi similar a da salinidade da água do mar (600 mM. Uma concentração externa de 150 mM de NaCl estimulou o crescimento da espécie o que, em parte, explica seu caráter halofítico. As evidências mostram que a Atriplex nummularia foi receptiva ao NaCl, porém os mecanismos envolvidos são ainda esperados. Em tais condições de estresse a acumulação de Na+ e Cl

  18. Improved process for generating ClF/sub 3/ from ClF and F/sub 2/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, R.H.; Pashley, J.H.; Barber, E.J.

    The invention is an improvement in the process for producing gaseous ClF/sub 3/ by reacting ClF and F/sub 2/ at elevated temperature. The improved process comprises conducting the reaction in the presence of NiF/sub 2/, which preferably is in the form of particles or in the form of a film or layer on a particulate substrate. The nickel fluoride acts as a reaction catalyst, significantly increasing the reaction rate and thus permitting valuable reductions in process temperature, pressure, and/or reactor volume.

  19. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  20. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.